Science.gov

Sample records for multiple-depot heterogeneous vehicle

  1. Algorithms for Heterogeneous, Multiple Depot, Multiple Unmanned Vehicle Path Planning Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Sundar, Kaarthik; Rathinam, Sivakumar

    2016-12-26

    Unmanned vehicles, both aerial and ground, are being used in several monitoring applications to collect data from a set of targets. This article addresses a problem where a group of heterogeneous aerial or ground vehicles with different motion constraints located at distinct depots visit a set of targets. The vehicles also may be equipped with different sensors, and therefore, a target may not be visited by any vehicle. The objective is to find an optimal path for each vehicle starting and ending at its respective depot such that each target is visited at least once by some vehicle, the vehicle–target constraints are satisfied, and the sum of the length of the paths for all the vehicles is minimized. Two variants of this problem are formulated (one for ground vehicles and another for aerial vehicles) as mixed-integer linear programs and a branchand- cut algorithm is developed to compute an optimal solution to each of the variants. Computational results show that optimal solutions for problems involving 100 targets and 5 vehicles can be obtained within 300 seconds on average, further corroborating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Algorithms for Heterogeneous, Multiple Depot, Multiple Unmanned Vehicle Path Planning Problems

    DOE PAGES

    Sundar, Kaarthik; Rathinam, Sivakumar

    2016-12-26

    Unmanned vehicles, both aerial and ground, are being used in several monitoring applications to collect data from a set of targets. This article addresses a problem where a group of heterogeneous aerial or ground vehicles with different motion constraints located at distinct depots visit a set of targets. The vehicles also may be equipped with different sensors, and therefore, a target may not be visited by any vehicle. The objective is to find an optimal path for each vehicle starting and ending at its respective depot such that each target is visited at least once by some vehicle, the vehicle–targetmore » constraints are satisfied, and the sum of the length of the paths for all the vehicles is minimized. Two variants of this problem are formulated (one for ground vehicles and another for aerial vehicles) as mixed-integer linear programs and a branchand- cut algorithm is developed to compute an optimal solution to each of the variants. Computational results show that optimal solutions for problems involving 100 targets and 5 vehicles can be obtained within 300 seconds on average, further corroborating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.« less

  3. Heterogeneous Participant Recruitment for Comprehensive Vehicle Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yazhi; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Widely distributed mobile vehicles wherein various sensing devices and wireless communication interfaces are installed bring vehicular participatory sensing into practice. However, the heterogeneity of vehicles in terms of sensing capability and mobility, and the participants’ expectations on the incentives blackmake the collection of comprehensive sensing data a challenging task. A sensing data quality-oriented optimal heterogeneous participant recruitment strategy is proposed in this paper for vehicular participatory sensing. In the proposed strategy, the differences between the sensing data requirements and the collected sensing data are modeled. An optimization formula is established to model the optimal participant recruitment problem, and a participant utility analysis scheme is built based on the sensing and mobility features of vehicles. Besides, a greedy algorithm is then designed according to the utility of vehicles to recruit the most efficient vehicles with a limited total incentive budget. Real trace-driven simulations show that the proposed strategy can collect 85.4% of available sensing data with 34% incentive budget. PMID:26407102

  4. Heterogeneous Participant Recruitment for Comprehensive Vehicle Sensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yazhi; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Widely distributed mobile vehicles wherein various sensing devices and wireless communication interfaces are installed bring vehicular participatory sensing into practice. However, the heterogeneity of vehicles in terms of sensing capability and mobility, and the participants' expectations on the incentives blackmake the collection of comprehensive sensing data a challenging task. A sensing data quality-oriented optimal heterogeneous participant recruitment strategy is proposed in this paper for vehicular participatory sensing. In the proposed strategy, the differences between the sensing data requirements and the collected sensing data are modeled. An optimization formula is established to model the optimal participant recruitment problem, and a participant utility analysis scheme is built based on the sensing and mobility features of vehicles. Besides, a greedy algorithm is then designed according to the utility of vehicles to recruit the most efficient vehicles with a limited total incentive budget. Real trace-driven simulations show that the proposed strategy can collect 85.4% of available sensing data with 34% incentive budget.

  5. Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-29

    operate as a generator to convert mechanical energy from the diesel t~nginc 01 from regenerative braking to electrical energy. A vehicle control module...Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation of a Hybrid- Electric Vehicle Ning Wu’, Curtis Rands t , Charles E. Lucas!, Eric A. Walters§, and Maher A...Masrurit US Army RDECOM-TARDEC, Warren, MI, 48397 Hybrid- electric military vehicles provide many advantages over conventional military vehicles powered

  6. Analysis of Vehicle-Following Heterogeneity Using Self-Organizing Feature Maps

    PubMed Central

    Cheu, Ruey Long; Guo, Xiucheng; Romo, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    A self-organizing feature map (SOM) was used to represent vehicle-following and to analyze the heterogeneities in vehicle-following behavior. The SOM was constructed in such a way that the prototype vectors represented vehicle-following stimuli (the follower's velocity, relative velocity, and gap) while the output signals represented the response (the follower's acceleration). Vehicle trajectories collected at a northbound segment of Interstate 80 Freeway at Emeryville, CA, were used to train the SOM. The trajectory information of two selected pairs of passenger cars was then fed into the trained SOM to identify similar stimuli experienced by the followers. The observed responses, when the stimuli were classified by the SOM into the same category, were compared to discover the interdriver heterogeneity. The acceleration profile of another passenger car was analyzed in the same fashion to observe the interdriver heterogeneity. The distribution of responses derived from data sets of car-following-car and car-following-truck, respectively, was compared to ascertain inter-vehicle-type heterogeneity. PMID:25538767

  7. Urban signalised intersections: Impact of vehicle heterogeneity and driver type on cross-traffic manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Puspita; Ruskin, Heather J.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a model for heterogeneous traffic at simple X and T-intersections of a single lane and two lane urban roads. Traffic at the intersections is controlled by a set of lights, operated to one of several fixed-time schemes. The heterogeneous traffic consists of both short (e.g. cars) and long (buses/trucks or equivalent) vehicles and is modelled, using a one-dimensional two-component cellular automaton. For intersections, we consider the implications for both homogeneous and heterogeneous traffic flows, based on a minimum space rule. For longer vehicles, this implies occupation of multiple road cells. The distributions of traffic mix and driver type are shown to have significant effect on intersection performance and patterns of flow. Example findings are presented and simple validation of the model basis is given, using available, but limited, local Dublin field data.

  8. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onut, S.; Kamber, M. R.; Altay, G.

    2014-03-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time.

  9. A heterogeneous traffic flow model consisting of two types of vehicles with different sensitivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhipeng; Xu, Xun; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing

    2017-01-01

    A heterogeneous car following model is constructed for traffic flow consisting of low- and high-sensitivity vehicles. The stability criterion of new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. We derive the neutral stability diagram for the proposed model with five distinct regions. We conclude the effect of the percentage of low-sensitivity vehicle on the traffic stability in each region. In addition, we further consider a special case that the number of the low-sensitivity vehicles is equal to that of the high-sensitivity ones. We explore the dependence of traffic stability on the average value and the standard deviation of two sensitivities characterizing two vehicle types. The direct numerical simulation results verify the conclusion of theoretical analysis.

  10. Heterogeneous impacts of gender-interpreted contributing factors on driver injury severities in single-vehicle rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Chen, Cong; Tarefder, Rafiqul; Wang, Haizhong; Wei, Heng

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a mixed logit model is developed to identify the heterogeneous impacts of gender-interpreted contributing factors on driver injury severities in single-vehicle rollover crashes. The random parameter of the variables in the mixed logit model, the heterogeneous mean, is elaborated by driver gender-based linear regression models. The model is estimated using crash data in New Mexico from 2010 to 2012. The percentage changes of factors' predicted probabilities are calculated in order to better understand the model specifications. Female drivers are found more likely to experience severe or fatal injuries in rollover crashes than male drivers. However, the probability of male drivers being severely injured is higher than female drivers when the road surface is unpaved. Two other factors with fixed parameters are also found to significantly increase driver injury severities, including Wet and Alcohol Influenced. This study provides a better understanding of contributing factors influencing driver injury severities in rollover crashes as well as their heterogeneous impacts in terms of driver gender. Those results are also helpful to develop appropriate countermeasures and policies to reduce driver injury severities in single-vehicle rollover crashes.

  11. Implementing Cooperative Behavior & Control Using Open Source Technology Across Heterogeneous Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    vehicle to string. 40. lng = str(cs.lng) #Converts current state (cs) longitude of leader 41. #vehicle to string. 42...lat + ’ ’ + lng + ’ ’ + heading + ’ ’ + alt 133 54. 55. #prints lat, lng , heading, and alt in command window 56. print lat...57. print lng 58. print heading 59. print alt 60. Script.Sleep(500) #Socket read waiting (set delay) in

  12. The Impact of Heterogeneity on Operator Performance in Futuristic Unmanned Vehicle Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    is instead meant to highlight the role of resource allocation strategies in influencing the effectiveness of human-vehicle/task interaction. Starting...attention allocation is presented. 3.1 Attention Allocation Strategy In supervising a UV mission, the operator’s role is that of a mission manager...the congruity of the vehicles, it can be assumed that operators exhibited a FIFO switching strategy in the two homogeneous cases. Figure 8(a) shows

  13. High Bandwidth Communications Links Between Heterogeneous Autonomous Vehicles Using Sensor Network Modeling and Extremum Control Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    two- fold. First, a communication propagation model was developed to predict the signal-to-noise ( SNR ) ratio of the communication link, which is used...as a reference SNR signal for the UAVs. Second, the communication model was then integrated into a feedback control loop to formulate a new real-time...loitering path using SNR as the cost function. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 75 14. SUBJECT TERMS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, UAV, Extremum Seeking

  14. Modeling single-vehicle run-off-road crash severity in rural areas: Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity and age difference.

    PubMed

    Gong, Linfeng; Fan, Wei David

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates factors that significantly contribute to the severity of driver injuries resulting from single-vehicle run-off-road (SV ROR) crashes. A mixed logit model approach is employed to explore the potential unobserved heterogeneous effects associated with each age group: young (ages 16-24), middle-aged (ages 25-65), and older drivers (ages over 65). Likelihood ratio tests indicated that the development of separate injury severity models for each age group is statistically superior to estimating a single model using all data. Based on the crash data collected from 2009 to 2013 in North Carolina, a series of driver, vehicle, roadway, and environmental characteristics are examined. Both parameter estimates and their elasticities are developed and used to interpret the models. The estimation results show that contributing factors which significantly affect the injury severity of an SV ROR crash differ across three age groups. Use of restraint device and horizontal curves are found to affect crash injuries and fatalities in all age groups. Reckless driving, speeding, distraction, inexperience, drug or alcohol involvement, presence of passengers, and driving an SUV or a van are found to have a more pronounced influence in young and middle-aged drivers than older drivers. Compared to the passenger cars, older drivers are less likely to experience possible injuries in a large-size vehicle (e.g., truck or bus). The average annual daily traffic volume and lighting conditions are also found to influence the resulting injury severity of an SV ROR crash specific to young drivers.

  15. Introducing heterogeneous users and vehicles into models and algorithms for the dial-a-ride problem

    PubMed Central

    Parragh, Sophie N.

    2011-01-01

    Dial-a-ride problems deal with the transportation of people between pickup and delivery locations. Given the fact that people are subject to transportation, constraints related to quality of service are usually present, such as time windows and maximum user ride time limits. In many real world applications, different types of users exist. In the field of patient and disabled people transportation, up to four different transportation modes can be distinguished. In this article we consider staff seats, patient seats, stretchers and wheelchair places. Furthermore, most companies involved in the transportation of the disabled or ill dispose of different types of vehicles. We introduce both aspects into state-of-the-art formulations and branch-and-cut algorithms for the standard dial-a-ride problem. Also a recent metaheuristic method is adapted to this new problem. In addition, a further service quality related issue is analyzed: vehicle waiting time with passengers aboard. Instances with up to 40 requests are solved to optimality. High quality solutions are obtained with the heuristic method. PMID:24511211

  16. Fuzzy distributed cooperative tracking for a swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles with heterogeneous goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kladis, Georgios P.; Menon, Prathyush P.; Edwards, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    This article proposes a systematic analysis for a tracking problem which ensures cooperation amongst a swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), modelled as nonlinear systems with linear and angular velocity constraints, in order to achieve different goals. A distributed Takagi-Sugeno (TS) framework design is adopted for the representation of the nonlinear model of the dynamics of the UAVs. The distributed control law which is introduced is composed of both node and network level information. Firstly, feedback gains are synthesised using a parallel distributed compensation (PDC) control law structure, for a collection of isolated UAVs; ignoring communications among the swarm. Then secondly, based on an alternation-like procedure, the resulting feedback gains are used to determine Lyapunov matrices which are utilised at network level to incorporate into the control law, the relative differences in the states of the vehicles, and to induce cooperative behaviour. Eventually stability is guaranteed for the entire swarm. The control synthesis is performed using tools from linear control theory: in particular the design criteria are posed as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). An example based on a UAV tracking scenario is included to outline the efficacy of the approach.

  17. Cooperative vehicle routing problem: an opportunity for cost saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibaei, Sedighe; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Ghashami, Seyed Sajad

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel methodology is proposed to solve a cooperative multi-depot vehicle routing problem. We establish a mathematical model for multi-owner VRP in which each owner (i.e. player) manages single or multiple depots. The basic idea consists of offering an option that owners cooperatively manage the VRP to save their costs. We present cooperative game theory techniques for cost saving allocations which are obtained from various coalitions of owners. The methodology is illustrated with a numerical example in which different coalitions of the players are evaluated along with the results of cooperation and cost saving allocation methods.

  18. Introducing the MCHF/OVRP/SDMP: multicapacitated/heterogeneous fleet/open vehicle routing problems with split deliveries and multiproducts.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Duygu Yilmaz; Gencosman, Burcu Caglar; Cavdur, Fatih; Ozmutlu, H Cenk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a real-world OVRP problem for a production company. Considering real-world constrains, we classify our problem as multicapacitated/heterogeneous fleet/open vehicle routing problem with split deliveries and multiproduct (MCHF/OVRP/SDMP) which is a novel classification of an OVRP. We have developed a mixed integer programming (MIP) model for the problem and generated test problems in different size (10-90 customers) considering real-world parameters. Although MIP is able to find optimal solutions of small size (10 customers) problems, when the number of customers increases, the problem gets harder to solve, and thus MIP could not find optimal solutions for problems that contain more than 10 customers. Moreover, MIP fails to find any feasible solution of large-scale problems (50-90 customers) within time limits (7200 seconds). Therefore, we have developed a genetic algorithm (GA) based solution approach for large-scale problems. The experimental results show that the GA based approach reaches successful solutions with 9.66% gap in 392.8 s on average instead of 7200 s for the problems that contain 10-50 customers. For large-scale problems (50-90 customers), GA reaches feasible solutions of problems within time limits. In conclusion, for the real-world applications, GA is preferable rather than MIP to reach feasible solutions in short time periods.

  19. Laboratory measurements of the heterogeneous oxidation of condensed-phase organic molecular makers for motor vehicle exhaust.

    PubMed

    Weitkamp, Emily A; Lambe, Andrew T; Donahue, Neil M; Robinson, Allen L

    2008-11-01

    Triterpanoid hopanes and steranes are petroleum biomarkers used to apportion fine particulate matter to motor vehicle emissions. To investigate the chemical stability of these compounds, aerosolized motor oil was exposed to the hydroxyl radical (OH) in a smog chamber and the reaction rate constants of hopanes, steranes, and n-alkanes were measured. The experiments were conducted across a range of atmospheric conditions including low and high relative humidity (RH) and with mixtures of lubricating oil and secondary organic aerosol. Hopanes and steranes were found to react at atmospherically significant rates across the entire range of experimental conditions; they are estimated to have lifetimes on the order of several days at average summertime OH levels. The one experimental parameter that strongly influenced the effective rate constants was RH; oxidization of hopanes and steranes was about a factor of 4 slower at 75% RH than at 10% RH. Chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis was performed to illustrate the effects of oxidation on source apportionment estimates. As the extent of oxidation increases, traditional CMB analysis increasingly underestimates the contribution of gasoline vehicles butthe diesel estimates are largely unaffected. The results demonstrate that even modest levels of oxidation can alter policy-relevant conclusions about the total and relative contribution of gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions to ambient fine particle concentrations.

  20. Approximability of the d-dimensional Euclidean capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Michael; Dubinin, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP) is the well known intractable combinatorial optimization problem, which remains NP-hard even in the Euclidean plane. Since the introduction of this problem in the middle of the 20th century, many researchers were involved into the study of its approximability. Most of the results obtained in this field are based on the well known Iterated Tour Partition heuristic proposed by M. Haimovich and A. Rinnoy Kan in their celebrated paper, where they construct the first Polynomial Time Approximation Scheme (PTAS) for the single depot CVRP in ℝ2. For decades, this result was extended by many authors to numerous useful modifications of the problem taking into account multiple depots, pick up and delivery options, time window restrictions, etc. But, to the best of our knowledge, almost none of these results go beyond the Euclidean plane. In this paper, we try to bridge this gap and propose a EPTAS for the Euclidean CVRP for any fixed dimension.

  1. Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, R.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a heterogeneous catalysis course which has elements of materials processing embedded in the classical format of catalytic mechanisms and surface chemistry. A course outline and list of examples of recent review papers written by students are provided. (MVL)

  2. Heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Schlögl, Robert

    2015-03-09

    A heterogeneous catalyst is a functional material that continually creates active sites with its reactants under reaction conditions. These sites change the rates of chemical reactions of the reactants localized on them without changing the thermodynamic equilibrium between the materials.

  3. Vehicle Rustproofing,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Corrosion Areas - G.M.) 11. Vehicle Rustproofing Guide for Vehicle Maintenance Managers 12. Chart - Vehicle Buy Program FY 83-87 13. Vehicle ...on the Vehicle Buy Program. k. The impact of a total fleet rustproofing policy on industry. I. Potential problems in Quality Control and Warranty...FY83-87, the Air Force intends to buy $2.5 billion worth of vehicles (Atch 12); thus, a total fleet treatment program for that period could cost as

  4. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

  5. Electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  6. Vehicle Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-14

    Dimensions. Pertinent physical dimensions are determined using standard mensurative instrumentation such as steel tape measures, plumb bobs...vehicles use ITOP 2-2- 801(1)5. 4.2.3 Center of Gravity (CG). Determine the center of gravity of the test vehicle in accordance with TOP 2-2...8006. For tracked vehicles use ITOP 2-2-800(1)7. 4.2.4 Ground Pressure. Determine ground pressure in accordance with TOP 2-2-801. For tracked

  7. Launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, William S.

    1994-06-01

    Concentrated efforts by NASA and the DOD to begin development of a new large launch vehicle have been under way for over a decade. Options include the National Launch System, Advanced Launch System, a heavy lift vehicle, a Shuttle-derived vehicle, a Titan-derived vehicle, Single stage To Orbit, NASP and Spacelifter, to name a few. All initially promised low operations costs achieved at development costs in the $5 billion - $10 billion range. However, none has obtained approval for development, primarily because it became apparent that these cost goals could not realistically be met.

  8. Vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Perspectives of the subpanel on expendable launch vehicle structures and cryotanks are: (1) new materials which provide the primary weight savings effect on vehicle mass/size; (2) today's investment; (3) typically 10-20 years to mature and fully characterize new materials.

  9. Descent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Y. I.

    1985-01-01

    The creation of descent vehicles marked a new stage in the development of cosmonautics, involving the beginning of manned space flight and substantial progress in space research on the distant bodies of the Solar System. This booklet describes these vehicles and their structures, systems, and purposes. It is intended for the general public interested in modern problems of space technology.

  10. Space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A space vehicle having an improved ascent configuration for use in traveling in space is presented. Components of the vehicle are: (1) a winged orbiter having an elongater fuselage and rearwardly directed main engines fixed to the fuselage; (2) an elongated tank assembly of an improved configuration disposed forwardly of the fuselage and connected with the main engines of the vehicle for supplying liquid propellants; and (3) a booster stage comprising a pair of integrated solid rocket boosters connected with the orbiter immediately beneath the fuselage and extended in substantial parallelism.

  11. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  12. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  13. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  14. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  15. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  16. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  17. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  18. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  19. Green Vehicle Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Green Vehicle Guide Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... your needs. Search for a SmartWay Vehicle Green Vehicle Guide ​What is a green vehicle? Alternative fuels ...

  20. Vehicle Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  1. Hermes vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretenet, J.-C.

    1984-10-01

    Projected mission profiles and computational models of the Hermes winged manned reentry vehicle are discussed. Launched into a low orbit with a crew of at most four by the Ariane 5 vehicle, Hermes will serve transportation, crew relief, safety, and freight carriage functions. It will have a nominal 300-500 km circular or 600-900 km heliosynchronous orbit, weigh from 13,500-16,700 kg, and return in hypersonic glide to a wheeled landing. The vehicle dimensions will be 15-18 m length, 6 m height at the tail fin, and a 10 m span. The L/D ratio will be 1.5-1.6, thereby furnishing a cross range of 2500 km. Hermes will have a Shuttle-type fuselage, carbon-carbon nose, and insulation on the extrados designed to keep the structure at 175 C or lower. The avionics will have 3-4 levels of redundance, each mission phase-dependent. Power will be supplied by three fuel cells and a bank of four Ag-Zn batteries. Hardware development is scheduled to begin in 1988.

  2. Phenotypically heterogeneous populations in spatially heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    The spatial expansion of a population in a nonuniform environment may benefit from phenotypic heterogeneity with interconverting subpopulations using different survival strategies. We analyze the crossing of an antibiotic-containing environment by a bacterial population consisting of rapidly growing normal cells and slow-growing, but antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. The dynamics of crossing is characterized by mean first arrival times and is found to be surprisingly complex. It displays three distinct regimes with different scaling behavior that can be understood based on an analytical approximation. Our results suggest that a phenotypically heterogeneous population has a fitness advantage in nonuniform environments and can spread more rapidly than a homogeneous population.

  3. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  4. Impacts of SOC on car-following behavior and travel time in the heterogeneous traffic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Xu, Ke-Wei; Yang, Shi-Chun; Ding, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Since the SOC (state of charge) of the battery of each electric vehicle directly determines whether the battery should be charged/swapped, the SOC may affect the electric vehicle's driving behavior. In this paper, we introduce the SOC of battery into the electric vehicle's driving behavior model and propose a car-following model for electric vehicles, and then use the proposed model to study the effects of the SOC of battery and battery swap on each vehicle's driving behavior in the heterogeneous traffic system consisting of traditional vehicles and electric vehicles. The numerical results show that the proposed model can reproduce some complex traffic phenomena resulted by the SOC of battery and battery swap and that the influences on each vehicle's driving behavior are directly related to the initial traffic state, the electric vehicle's proportion, and the SOC of battery.

  5. Patterns of Emphysema Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Valipour, Arschang; Shah, Pallav L.; Gesierich, Wolfgang; Eberhardt, Ralf; Snell, Greg; Strange, Charlie; Barry, Robert; Gupta, Avina; Henne, Erik; Bandyopadhyay, Sourish; Raffy, Philippe; Yin, Youbing; Tschirren, Juerg; Herth, Felix J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although lobar patterns of emphysema heterogeneity are indicative of optimal target sites for lung volume reduction (LVR) strategies, the presence of segmental, or sublobar, heterogeneity is often underappreciated. Objective The aim of this study was to understand lobar and segmental patterns of emphysema heterogeneity, which may more precisely indicate optimal target sites for LVR procedures. Methods Patterns of emphysema heterogeneity were evaluated in a representative cohort of 150 severe (GOLD stage III/IV) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients from the COPDGene study. High-resolution computerized tomography analysis software was used to measure tissue destruction throughout the lungs to compute heterogeneity (≥ 15% difference in tissue destruction) between (inter-) and within (intra-) lobes for each patient. Emphysema tissue destruction was characterized segmentally to define patterns of heterogeneity. Results Segmental tissue destruction revealed interlobar heterogeneity in the left lung (57%) and right lung (52%). Intralobar heterogeneity was observed in at least one lobe of all patients. No patient presented true homogeneity at a segmental level. There was true homogeneity across both lungs in 3% of the cohort when defining heterogeneity as ≥ 30% difference in tissue destruction. Conclusion Many LVR technologies for treatment of emphysema have focused on interlobar heterogeneity and target an entire lobe per procedure. Our observations suggest that a high proportion of patients with emphysema are affected by interlobar as well as intralobar heterogeneity. These findings prompt the need for a segmental approach to LVR in the majority of patients to treat only the most diseased segments and preserve healthier ones. PMID:26430783

  6. Tumour Cell Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Laura; Baker, Ann-Marie; Graham, Trevor A.

    2016-01-01

    The population of cells that make up a cancer are manifestly heterogeneous at the genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic levels. In this mini-review, we summarise the extent of intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) across human malignancies, review the mechanisms that are responsible for generating and maintaining ITH, and discuss the ramifications and opportunities that ITH presents for cancer prognostication and treatment. PMID:26973786

  7. Distributed Task Offloading in Heterogeneous Vehicular Crowd Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yazhi; Wang, Wendong; Ma, Yuekun; Yang, Zhigang; Yu, Fuxing

    2016-01-01

    The ability of road vehicles to efficiently execute different sensing tasks varies because of the heterogeneity in their sensing ability and trajectories. Therefore, the data collection sensing task, which requires tempo-spatial sensing data, becomes a serious problem in vehicular sensing systems, particularly those with limited sensing capabilities. A utility-based sensing task decomposition and offloading algorithm is proposed in this paper. The utility function for a task executed by a certain vehicle is built according to the mobility traces and sensing interfaces of the vehicle, as well as the sensing data type and tempo-spatial coverage requirements of the sensing task. Then, the sensing tasks are decomposed and offloaded to neighboring vehicles according to the utilities of the neighboring vehicles to the decomposed sensing tasks. Real trace-driven simulation shows that the proposed task offloading is able to collect much more comprehensive and uniformly distributed sensing data than other algorithms. PMID:27428967

  8. Forestry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

  9. Vehicle suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Mikina, S.J.

    1986-08-05

    This patent describes a vehicle consisting of sprung and unsprung masses, the combination of struts and support springs for the weight of the sprung mass, an axis defined by pivots between sprung and unsprung masses, with a front pivot approximately midway between the wheels and near the vertical and horizontal planes through the front axles, with a rear pivot lying in an axis through the front pivot and in a plane through the center-of-gravity of the sprung mass, with the plane parallel to the centrifugal force vector through the center-of-gravity of the sprung mass, and with the rear pivot positioned approximately midway between the rear wheels, means for transmitting the centrifugal force component on the front pivot to the front wheels and ground, and means for transmitting the centrifugal force component on the rear pivot to the rear wheels and ground.

  10. Launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, J. B.

    The basic principles which determine launcher design and hence constrain the spacecraft payload are determined. Some key features of the principal launcher alternatives in Europe and the U.S., namely, the unmanned, expendable Ariane and the manned, substantially reusable, Space Shuttle, are outlined. The equations of motion of the rocket are specialized to the vertical plane, parallel and normal to the flight direction, and to the motion of the center of mass and the pitch rotation. A typical Ariane 2 flight profile for transfer into GTO is illustrated. Some representative mission requirements for spacecraft launches are reviewed. Launch vehicle burnout velocities for spacecraft emplacement are given. Geostationary orbit emplacement, orbital mission performance, and configuration interactions are discussed.

  11. Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schryer, David R.

    In the past few years it has become increasingly clear that heterogeneous, or multiphase, processes play an important role in the atmosphere. Unfortunately the literature on the subject, although now fairly extensive, is still rather dispersed. Furthermore, much of the expertise regarding heterogeneous processes lies in fields not directly related to atmospheric science. Therefore, it seemed desirable to bring together for an exchange of ideas, information, and methodologies the various atmospheric scientists who are actively studying heterogeneous processes as well as other researchers studying similar processes in the context of other fields.

  12. Towards heterogeneous distributed debugging

    SciTech Connect

    Damodaran-Kamal, S.K.

    1995-04-01

    Several years of research and development in parallel debugger design have given up several techniques, though implemented in a wide range of tools for an equally wide range of systems. This paper is an evaluation of these myriad techniques as applied to the design of a heterogeneous distributed debugger. The evaluation is based on what features users perceive as useful, as well as the ease of implementation of the features using the available technology. A preliminary architecture for such a heterogeneous tool is proposed. Our effort in this paper is significantly different from the other efforts at creating portable and heterogeneous distributed debuggers in that we concentrate on support for all the important issues in parallel debugging, instead of simply concentrating on portability and heterogeneity.

  13. Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present conference on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry considers such topics concerning clusters, particles and microparticles as common problems in nucleation and growth, chemical kinetics, and catalysis, chemical reactions with aerosols, electron beam studies of natural and anthropogenic microparticles, and structural studies employing molecular beam techniques, as well as such gas-solid interaction topics as photoassisted reactions, catalyzed photolysis, and heterogeneous catalysis. Also discussed are sulfur dioxide absorption, oxidation, and oxidation inhibition in falling drops, sulfur dioxide/water equilibria, the evidence for heterogeneous catalysis in the atmosphere, the importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry, soot-catalyzed atmospheric reactions, and the concentrations and mechanisms of formation of sulfate in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  14. Modeling Human Supervisory Control in Heterogeneous Unmanned Vehicle Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    wildlife and supporting police squads are ideal applications for UAVs (Ollero & Maza, 2007). Similarly, in the under- sea domain, discovering hydrothermal ... vents , under-sea exploration, oil-rig repairs, and subsurface wellhead maintenance are suitable applications for non-military UUVs. Figure 1.1

  15. Heterogeneous basic catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Hideshi

    1995-05-01

    Heterogeneous acid catalysis attracted much attention primarily because heterogeneous acidic catalysts act as catalysts in petroleum refinery and are known as a main catalyst in the cracking process which is the largest process among the industrial chemical processes. In contrast to these extensive studies of heterogeneous acidic catalysts, fewer efforts have been given to the study of heterogeneous basic catalysts. The types of heterogeneous basic catalysts are listed in Table 1. Except for non-oxide catalysts, the basic sites are believed to be surface O atoms. The studies of heterogeneous catalysis have been continuous and progressed steadily. They have never been reviewed in the chemical Reviews before. It is more useful and informative to describe the studies of heterogeneous basic catalysis performed for a long period. In the present article, therefore, the cited papers are not restricted to those published recently, but include those published for the last 25 years. The paper first describes the generation of basic sites before describing methods used in the characterization of basic surfaces. These are indicator methods, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of CO{sub 2}, UV absorption and luminescence spectroscopies, TPD of H{sub 2}, XPS, IR of CO{sub 2}, IR of pyrrole, and oxygen exchange between CO{sub 2} and the surface. The paper then discusses studies on the catalysis by heterogeneous basic catalysts. Some of these reactions are dehydration, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, amination, alkylation, ring transformation, and reactions of organosilanes. Catalysts discussed are single component metal oxides, zeolites, non-oxide types, and superbasic catalysts. 141 refs.

  16. Vehicle/engine integration. [orbit transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

  17. Characterization of Paper Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Considine, John M.

    Paper and paperboard are the most widely-used green materials in the world because they are renewable, recyclable, reusable, and compostable. Continued and expanded use of these materials and their potential use in new products requires a comprehensive understanding of the variability of their mechanical properties. This work develops new methods to characterize the mechanical properties of heterogeneous materials through a combination of techniques in experimental mechanics, materials science and numerical analysis. Current methods to analyze heterogeneous materials focus on crystalline materials or polymer-crystalline composites, where material boundaries are usually distinct. This work creates a methodology to analyze small, continuously-varying stiffness gradients in 100% polymer systems and is especially relevant to paper materials where factors influencing heterogeneity include local mass, fiber orientation, individual pulp fiber properties, local density, and drying restraint. A unique approach was used to understand the effect of heterogeneity on paper tensile strength. Additional variation was intentionally introduced, in the form of different size holes, and their effect on strength was measured. By modifying two strength criteria, an estimate of strength in the absence of heterogeneity was determined. In order to characterize stiffness heterogeneity, a novel load fixture was developed to excite full-field normal and shear strains for anisotropic stiffness determination. Surface strains were measured with digital image correlation and were analyzed with the VFM (Virtual Fields Method). This approach led to VFM-identified stiffnesses that were similar to values determined by conventional tests. The load fixture and VFM analyses were used to measure local stiffness and local stiffness variation on heterogeneous anisotropic materials. The approach was validated on simulated heterogeneous materials and was applied experimentally to three different paperboards

  18. ADOPT: A Historically Validated Light Duty Vehicle Consumer Choice Model

    SciTech Connect

    Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Ward, J.

    2015-05-04

    The Automotive Deployment Option Projection Tool (ADOPT) is a light-duty vehicle consumer choice and stock model supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office. It estimates technology improvement impacts on U.S. light-duty vehicles sales, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas emissions. ADOPT uses techniques from the multinomial logit method and the mixed logit method estimate sales. Specifically, it estimates sales based on the weighted value of key attributes including vehicle price, fuel cost, acceleration, range and usable volume. The average importance of several attributes changes nonlinearly across its range and changes with income. For several attributes, a distribution of importance around the average value is used to represent consumer heterogeneity. The majority of existing vehicle makes, models, and trims are included to fully represent the market. The Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations are enforced. The sales feed into the ADOPT stock model. It captures key aspects for summing petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions This includes capturing the change in vehicle miles traveled by vehicle age, the creation of new model options based on the success of existing vehicles, new vehicle option introduction rate limits, and survival rates by vehicle age. ADOPT has been extensively validated with historical sales data. It matches in key dimensions including sales by fuel economy, acceleration, price, vehicle size class, and powertrain across multiple years. A graphical user interface provides easy and efficient use. It manages the inputs, simulation, and results.

  19. Spatial heterogeneity in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Morrissy, A Sorana; Cavalli, Florence M G; Remke, Marc; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Shih, David J H; Holgado, Borja L; Farooq, Hamza; Donovan, Laura K; Garzia, Livia; Agnihotri, Sameer; Kiehna, Erin N; Mercier, Eloi; Mayoh, Chelsea; Papillon-Cavanagh, Simon; Nikbakht, Hamid; Gayden, Tenzin; Torchia, Jonathon; Picard, Daniel; Merino, Diana M; Vladoiu, Maria; Luu, Betty; Wu, Xiaochong; Daniels, Craig; Horswell, Stuart; Thompson, Yuan Yao; Hovestadt, Volker; Northcott, Paul A; Jones, David T W; Peacock, John; Wang, Xin; Mack, Stephen C; Reimand, Jüri; Albrecht, Steffen; Fontebasso, Adam M; Thiessen, Nina; Li, Yisu; Schein, Jacqueline E; Lee, Darlene; Carlsen, Rebecca; Mayo, Michael; Tse, Kane; Tam, Angela; Dhalla, Noreen; Ally, Adrian; Chuah, Eric; Cheng, Young; Plettner, Patrick; Li, Haiyan I; Corbett, Richard D; Wong, Tina; Long, William; Loukides, James; Buczkowicz, Pawel; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Tabori, Uri; Rood, Brian R; Myseros, John S; Packer, Roger J; Korshunov, Andrey; Lichter, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Pfister, Stefan M; Schüller, Ulrich; Dirks, Peter; Huang, Annie; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T; Bader, Gary D; Swanton, Charles; Ma, Yusanne; Moore, Richard A; Mungall, Andrew J; Majewski, Jacek; Jones, Steven J M; Das, Sunit; Malkin, David; Jabado, Nada; Marra, Marco A; Taylor, Michael D

    2017-04-10

    Spatial heterogeneity of transcriptional and genetic markers between physically isolated biopsies of a single tumor poses major barriers to the identification of biomarkers and the development of targeted therapies that will be effective against the entire tumor. We analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of multiregional biopsies from 35 patients, using a combination of transcriptomic and genomic profiles. Medulloblastomas (MBs), but not high-grade gliomas (HGGs), demonstrated spatially homogeneous transcriptomes, which allowed for accurate subgrouping of tumors from a single biopsy. Conversely, somatic mutations that affect genes suitable for targeted therapeutics demonstrated high levels of spatial heterogeneity in MB, malignant glioma, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Actionable targets found in a single MB biopsy were seldom clonal across the entire tumor, which brings the efficacy of monotherapies against a single target into question. Clinical trials of targeted therapies for MB should first ensure the spatially ubiquitous nature of the target mutation.

  20. Cancer heterogeneity and imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, James P B

    2016-10-04

    There is interest in identifying and quantifying tumor heterogeneity at the genomic, tissue pathology and clinical imaging scales, as this may help better understand tumor biology and may yield useful biomarkers for guiding therapy-based decision making. This review focuses on the role and value of using x-ray, CT, MRI and PET based imaging methods that identify, measure and map tumor heterogeneity. In particular we highlight the potential value of these techniques and the key challenges required to validate and qualify these biomarkers for clinical use.

  1. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2003-11-01

    The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

  2. Heterogeneous Uncertainty Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-08

    probabilistic ( HTP ) agents, the concept of probabilistic version of XML and RDF, and probabilistic methods to reason about collections of moving objects. S...heterogeneous temporal probabilistic ( HTP ) agents, the concept of probabilistic version of XML and RDF, and probabilistic methods to reason about...temporal probabilistic ( HTP ) agent. HTP agents can build temporal probabilistic reasoning capabilities on top of multiple databases and software

  3. Heterogeneous waste processing

    DOEpatents

    Vanderberg, Laura A.; Sauer, Nancy N.; Brainard, James R.; Foreman, Trudi M.; Hanners, John L.

    2000-01-01

    A combination of treatment methods are provided for treatment of heterogeneous waste including: (1) treatment for any organic compounds present; (2) removal of metals from the waste; and, (3) bulk volume reduction, with at least two of the three treatment methods employed and all three treatment methods emplyed where suitable.

  4. Scales of mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; Akber-Knutson, S.; Konter, J.; Kellogg, J.; Hart, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Romanowicz, B.

    2004-12-01

    A long-standing question in mantle dynamics concerns the scale of heterogeneity in the mantle. Mantle convection tends to both destroy (through stirring) and create (through melt extraction and subduction) heterogeneity in bulk and trace element composition. Over time, these competing processes create variations in geochemical composition along mid-oceanic ridges and among oceanic islands, spanning a range of scales from extremely long wavelength (for example, the DUPAL anomaly) to very small scale (for example, variations amongst melt inclusions). While geochemical data and seismic observations can be used to constrain the length scales of mantle heterogeneity, dynamical mixing calculations can illustrate the processes and timescales involved in stirring and mixing. At the Summer 2004 CIDER workshop on Relating Geochemical and Seismological Heterogeneity in the Earth's Mantle, an interdisciplinary group evaluated scales of heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using a combined analysis of geochemical data, seismological data and results of numerical models of mixing. We mined the PetDB database for isotopic data from glass and whole rock analyses for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR), projecting them along the ridge length. We examined Sr isotope variability along the East Pacific rise by looking at the difference in Sr ratio between adjacent samples as a function of distance between the samples. The East Pacific Rise exhibits an overall bowl shape of normal MORB characteristics, with higher values in the higher latitudes (there is, however, an unfortunate gap in sampling, roughly 2000 km long). These background characteristics are punctuated with spikes in values at various locations, some, but not all of which are associated with off-axis volcanism. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly spaced data was utilized to construct a power spectrum of the scale lengths of heterogeneity along both ridges. Using the same isotopic systems (Sr, Nd

  5. Analytical studies on the instabilities of heterogeneous intelligent traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoduy, D.

    2013-10-01

    It has been widely reported in literature that a small perturbation in traffic flow such as a sudden deceleration of a vehicle could lead to the formation of traffic jams without a clear bottleneck. These traffic jams are usually related to instabilities in traffic flow. The applications of intelligent traffic systems are a potential solution to reduce the amplitude or to eliminate the formation of such traffic instabilities. A lot of research has been conducted to theoretically study the effect of intelligent vehicles, for example adaptive cruise control vehicles, using either computer simulation or analytical method. However, most current analytical research has only applied to single class traffic flow. To this end, the main topic of this paper is to perform a linear stability analysis to find the stability threshold of heterogeneous traffic flow using microscopic models, particularly the effect of intelligent vehicles on heterogeneous (or multi-class) traffic flow instabilities. The analytical results will show how intelligent vehicle percentages affect the stability of multi-class traffic flow.

  6. Adaptable formations utilizing heterogeneous unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Laura E.; Garcia, Richard; Fields, MaryAnne; Valavanis, Kimon

    2009-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling and coordinating heterogeneous unmanned systems required to move as a group while maintaining formation. We propose a strategy to coordinate groups of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) with one or more unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs can be utilized in one of two ways: (1) as alpha robots to guide the UGVs; and (2) as beta robots to surround the UGVs and adapt accordingly. In the first approach, the UAV guides a swarm of UGVs controlling their overall formation. In the second approach, the UGVs guide the UAVs controlling their formation. The unmanned systems are brought into a formation utilizing artificial potential fields generated from normal and sigmoid functions. These functions control the overall swarm geometry. Nonlinear limiting functions are defined to provide tighter swarm control by modifying and adjusting a set of control variables forcing the swarm to behave according to set constraints. Formations derived are subsets of elliptical curves but can be generalized to any curvilinear shape. Both approaches are demonstrated in simulation and experimentally. To demonstrate the second approach in simulation, a swarm of forty UAVs is utilized in a convoy protection mission. As a convoy of UGVs travels, UAVs dynamically and intelligently adapt their formation in order to protect the convoy of vehicles as it moves. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the approach using a fully autonomous group of three UGVs and a single UAV helicopter for coordination.

  7. Heterogeneous traffic flow modelling using second-order macroscopic continuum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Ranju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Modelling heterogeneous traffic flow lacking in lane discipline is one of the emerging research areas in the past few years. The two main challenges in modelling are: capturing the effect of varying size of vehicles, and the lack in lane discipline, both of which together lead to the 'gap filling' behaviour of vehicles. The same section length of the road can be occupied by different types of vehicles at the same time, and the conventional measure of traffic concentration, density (vehicles per lane per unit length), is not a good measure for heterogeneous traffic modelling. First aim of this paper is to have a parsimonious model of heterogeneous traffic that can capture the unique phenomena of gap filling. Second aim is to emphasize the suitability of higher-order models for modelling heterogeneous traffic. Third, the paper aims to suggest area occupancy as concentration measure of heterogeneous traffic lacking in lane discipline. The above mentioned two main challenges of heterogeneous traffic flow are addressed by extending an existing second-order continuum model of traffic flow, using area occupancy for traffic concentration instead of density. The extended model is calibrated and validated with field data from an arterial road in Chennai city, and the results are compared with those from few existing generalized multi-class models.

  8. Robust object matching for persistent tracking with heterogeneous features.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanlin; Hsu, Steve; Sawhney, Harpreet S; Kumar, Rakesh; Shan, Ying

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of matching vehicles across multiple sightings under variations in illumination and camera poses. Since multiple observations of a vehicle are separated in large temporal and/or spatial gaps, thus prohibiting the use of standard frame-to-frame data association, we employ features extracted over a sequence during one time interval as a vehicle fingerprint that is used to compute the likelihood that two or more sequence observations are from the same or different vehicles. Furthermore, since our domain is aerial video tracking, in order to deal with poor image quality and large resolution and quality variations, our approach employs robust alignment and match measures for different stages of vehicle matching. Most notably, we employ a heterogeneous collection of features such as lines, points, and regions in an integrated matching framework. Heterogeneous features are shown to be important. Line and point features provide accurate localization and are employed for robust alignment across disparate views. The challenges of change in pose, aspect, and appearances across two disparate observations are handled by combining a novel feature-based quasi-rigid alignment with flexible matching between two or more sequences. However, since lines and points are relatively sparse, they are not adequate to delineate the object and provide a comprehensive matching set that covers the complete object. Region features provide a high degree of coverage and are employed for continuous frames to provide a delineation of the vehicle region for subsequent generation of a match measure. Our approach reliably delineates objects by representing regions as robust blob features and matching multiple regions to multiple regions using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD). Extensive experimentation under a variety of real-world scenarios and over hundreds of thousands of Confirmatory Identification (CID) trails has demonstrated about 95 percent accuracy in vehicle

  9. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  10. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  11. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  12. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  13. Electric Vehicle Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  14. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  15. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  16. Transformable descent vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichkhadze, K. M.; Finchenko, V. S.; Aleksashkin, S. N.; Ostreshko, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    This article presents some types of planetary descent vehicles, the shape of which varies in different flight phases. The advantages of such vehicles over those with unchangeable form (from launch to landing) are discussed. It is shown that the use of transformable descent vehicles widens the scope of possible tasks to solve.

  17. Concepts in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    OxIdlaing Species In Heterogeneous Catalytic Oxidation. In the history of the study of heterogeneioum oxidation catalysis, reaction mechanisms have’ been...for sonti timie but recent workŔ’ onl the lplatitnum-rtothe~idina alloy systemn semi- s quite promising 10) lvad ito at bettr understanding. 1t wait...chemical nature of the catalyst, its previous history , and on the courac of the catalytic reaction itself. The energy spectrum of the active surface

  18. Heterogeneities in granular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, A.; Barker, G. C.; Luck, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The absence of Brownian motion in granular media is a source of much complexity, including the prevalence of heterogeneity, whether static or dynamic, within a given system. Such strong heterogeneities can exist as a function of depth in a box of grains; this is the system we study here. First, we present results from three-dimensional, cooperative and stochastic Monte Carlo shaking simulations of spheres on heterogeneous density fluctuations. Next, we juxtapose these with results obtained from a theoretical model of a column of grains under gravity; frustration via competing local fields is included in our model, whereas the effect of gravity is to slow down the dynamics of successively deeper layers. The combined conclusions suggest that the dynamics of a real granular column can be divided into different phases—ballistic, logarithmic, activated, and glassy—as a function of depth. The nature of the ground states and their retrieval (under zero-temperature dynamics) is analyzed; the glassy phase shows clear evidence of its intrinsic (“crystalline”) states, which lie below a band of approximately degenerate ground states. In the other three phases, by contrast, the system jams into a state chosen randomly from this upper band of metastable states. PMID:18541918

  19. Vehicle/engine integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

    1984-04-01

    VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

  20. VEHICLE FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Lindberg, J.F.

    1962-01-30

    A reeling device is designed for an electrical cable supplying power to the slave slde of a remote control manipulator mounted on a movable vehicle. As the vehicle carries the slave side about in a closed room, the device reels the cable in and out to maintain a variable length of the cable between the vehicle and a cable inlet in the wall of the room. The device also handles a fixed length of cable between the slave side and the vehicle, in spite of angular movement of the slave side with respect to the vehicle. (AEC)

  1. Vehicle capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacke, Kenneth L.

    1998-12-01

    Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

  2. Operator Informational Needs for Multiple Autonomous Small Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Fan, Henry; Cross, Charles D.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Cichella, Venanzio; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, Syed Bilal

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated explosion of small unmanned aerial vehicles, it is highly likely that operators will be controlling fleets of autonomous vehicles. To fulfill the promise of autonomy, vehicle operators will not be concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead, they will deal with the overall mission. Furthermore, the one operator to many vehicles is becoming a constant meme with various industries including package delivery, search and rescue, and utility companies. In order for an operator to concurrently control several vehicles, his station must look and behave very differently than the current ground control station instantiations. Furthermore, the vehicle will have to be much more autonomous, especially during non-normal operations, in order to accommodate the knowledge deficit or the information overload of the operator in charge of several vehicles. The expected usage increase of small drones requires presenting the operational information generated by a fleet of heterogeneous autonomous agents to an operator. NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator has brought together researchers in various disciplines including controls, trajectory planning, systems engineering, and human factors to develop an integrated system to study autonomy issues. The initial human factors effort is focusing on mission displays that would give an operator the overall status of all autonomous agents involved in the current mission. This paper will discuss the specifics of the mission displays for operators controlling several vehicles.

  3. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels, respectively, and co-chaired the Vehicle Systems Panel. The following four papers are discussed in this section: (1) Net Section components for Weldalite Cryogenic Tanks, by Don Bolstad; (2) Build-up Structures for Cryogenic Tanks and Dry Bay Structural Applications, by Barry Lisagor; (3) Composite Materials Program, by Robert Van Siclen; (4) Shuttle Technology (and M&S Lessons Learned), by Stan Greenberg.

  4. Unravelling mononuclear phagocyte heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Geissmann, Frédéric; Gordon, Siamon; Hume, David A.; Mowat, Allan M.; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.

    2011-01-01

    When Ralph Steinman and Zanvil Cohn first described dendritic cells (DCs) in 1973 it took many years to convince the immunology community that these cells were truly distinct from macrophages. Almost four decades later, the DC is regarded as the key initiator of adaptive immune responses; however, distinguishing DCs from macrophages still leads to confusion and debate in the field. Here, Nature Reviews Immunology asks five experts to discuss the issue of heterogeneity in the mononuclear phagocyte system and to give their opinion on the importance of defining these cells for future research. PMID:20467425

  5. Automatic vehicle location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

  6. Vehicle underbody fairing

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  7. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-30

    TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics Mr. Jim Parker, Associate Director Dr. Greg Hudas, Chief Engineer UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A (OPSEC...TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jim Parker; Greg Hudas 5d. PROJECT...Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned Ground Vehicles

  8. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  9. Railway vehicle body structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The strength and durability of railway vehicle structures is a major topic of engineering research and design. To reflect this importance the Railway Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers organised a conference to discuss all matters relating to railway vehicle design. This book presents the papers discussed in that conference. The contents include: Vehicle body design and the UIC's international contribution; LUL prototype 1986 stock - body structure; vehicle structure for the intermediate capacity transmit system vehicles; car body technology of advanced light rapid transit vehicles; concepts, techniques and experience in the idealization of car body structures for finite element analysis; Calcutta metropolitan railway; design for a lightweight diesel multiple unit body; the design of lightweight inter-city coal structures; the BREL international coach body shell structure; new concepts and design techniques versus material standards; structures of BR diesel electric freight locomotives; structural design philosophy for electric locomotives; suspension design for a locomotive with low structural frequencies; freight wagon structures; a finite element study of coal bodyside panels including the effects of joint flexibility; a fresh approach to the problem of car body design strength; energy absorption in automatic couplings and draw gear; passenger vehicle design loads and structural crashworthiness; design of the front part of railway vehicles (in case of frontal impact); the development of a theoretical technique for rail vehicle structural crashworthiness.

  10. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  11. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  12. Disordered hyperuniform heterogeneous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2016-10-01

    Disordered hyperuniform many-body systems are distinguishable states of matter that lie between a crystal and liquid: they are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These systems play a vital role in a number of fundamental and applied problems: glass formation, jamming, rigidity, photonic and electronic band structure, localization of waves and excitations, self-organization, fluid dynamics, quantum systems, and pure mathematics. Much of what we know theoretically about disordered hyperuniform states of matter involves many-particle systems. In this paper, we derive new rigorous criteria that disordered hyperuniform two-phase heterogeneous materials must obey and explore their consequences. Two-phase heterogeneous media are ubiquitous; examples include composites and porous media, biological media, foams, polymer blends, granular media, cellular solids, and colloids. We begin by obtaining some results that apply to hyperuniform two-phase media in which one phase is a sphere packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space {{{R}}d} . Among other results, we rigorously establish the requirements for packings of spheres of different sizes to be ‘multihyperuniform’. We then consider hyperuniformity for general two-phase media in {{{R}}d} . Here we apply realizability conditions for an autocovariance function and its associated spectral density of a two-phase medium, and then incorporate hyperuniformity as a constraint in order to derive new conditions. We show that some functional forms can immediately be eliminated from consideration and identify other forms that are allowable. Specific examples and counterexamples are described. Contact is made with well-known microstructural models (e.g. overlapping spheres and checkerboards) as well as irregular phase-separation and Turing-type patterns. We also ascertain a family of

  13. Disordered hyperuniform heterogeneous materials.

    PubMed

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2016-10-19

    Disordered hyperuniform many-body systems are distinguishable states of matter that lie between a crystal and liquid: they are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These systems play a vital role in a number of fundamental and applied problems: glass formation, jamming, rigidity, photonic and electronic band structure, localization of waves and excitations, self-organization, fluid dynamics, quantum systems, and pure mathematics. Much of what we know theoretically about disordered hyperuniform states of matter involves many-particle systems. In this paper, we derive new rigorous criteria that disordered hyperuniform two-phase heterogeneous materials must obey and explore their consequences. Two-phase heterogeneous media are ubiquitous; examples include composites and porous media, biological media, foams, polymer blends, granular media, cellular solids, and colloids. We begin by obtaining some results that apply to hyperuniform two-phase media in which one phase is a sphere packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space [Formula: see text]. Among other results, we rigorously establish the requirements for packings of spheres of different sizes to be 'multihyperuniform'. We then consider hyperuniformity for general two-phase media in [Formula: see text]. Here we apply realizability conditions for an autocovariance function and its associated spectral density of a two-phase medium, and then incorporate hyperuniformity as a constraint in order to derive new conditions. We show that some functional forms can immediately be eliminated from consideration and identify other forms that are allowable. Specific examples and counterexamples are described. Contact is made with well-known microstructural models (e.g. overlapping spheres and checkerboards) as well as irregular phase-separation and Turing-type patterns. We also ascertain a family

  14. Heterogeneity in Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, M J; Delleman, J W

    1977-01-01

    Heterogeneity of Waardenburg syndrome is demonstrated in a review of 1,285 patients from the literature and 34 previously unreported patients in five families in the Netherlands. The syndrome seems to consist of two genetically distinct entities that can be differentiated clinically: type I, Waardenburg syndrome with dystopia canthorum; and type II, Waardenburg syndrome without dystopia canthorum. Both types have an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The incidence of bilateral deafness in the two types of the syndrome was found in one-fourth with type I and about half of the patients with type II. This difference has important consequences for genetic counseling. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:331943

  15. Interconnecting heterogeneous database management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gligor, V. D.; Luckenbaugh, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that there is still a great need for the development of improved communication between remote, heterogeneous database management systems (DBMS). Problems regarding the effective communication between distributed DBMSs are primarily related to significant differences between local data managers, local data models and representations, and local transaction managers. A system of interconnected DBMSs which exhibit such differences is called a network of distributed, heterogeneous DBMSs. In order to achieve effective interconnection of remote, heterogeneous DBMSs, the users must have uniform, integrated access to the different DBMs. The present investigation is mainly concerned with an analysis of the existing approaches to interconnecting heterogeneous DBMSs, taking into account four experimental DBMS projects.

  16. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  17. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  18. Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

  19. Saturn IB Vehicle Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This 1968 chart depicts the various mission configurations for the Saturn IB launch vehicle. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the marned lunar missions.

  20. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  1. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

  2. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  3. Vehicle barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

  4. Steering Performance, Tactical Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-29

    the path of the vehicle is difficult to conu·ol which may lead to more aborted test u·ials than using driver-conu·olled steer inputs. Using a driver...reduces both the time required to prepare the vehicle and the probability of aborted u·ials. This allows more attempts to be made, but test results

  5. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  6. Automatic vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravman, J. S.; Durrani, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic vehicle monitoring systems are discussed. In a baseline system for highway applications, each vehicle obtains position information through a Loran-C receiver in rural areas and through a 'signpost' or 'proximity' type sensor in urban areas; the vehicle transmits this information to a central station via a communication link. In an advance system, the vehicle carries a receiver for signals emitted by satellites in the Global Positioning System and uses a satellite-aided communication link to the central station. An advanced railroad car monitoring system uses car-mounted labels and sensors for car identification and cargo status; the information is collected by electronic interrogators mounted along the track and transmitted to a central station. It is concluded that automatic vehicle monitoring systems are technically feasible but not economically feasible unless a large market develops.

  7. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  8. Vehicle body cover

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, T.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes a vehicle body covered with a vehicle body cover which comprises: a front cover part, a rear cover part, a pair of side cover parts, and a roof cover part: the front cover part having portions adapted to cover only a hood, an area around a windshield and tops of front fenders of a vehicle body. The portion covering the hood is separated from the portions covering the tops of the fenders by cuts in the front cover part, the front cover part having an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the hood is hinged to the car body. The front cover part has a cut-out at a position corresponding to the windshield of the vehicle body and the front cover part has at least one cut-out at a position corresponding to where a rear view mirror is attached to the vehicle body; and the rear cover part having portions adapted to cover an area around a rear window, a trunk lid and a rear end of the vehicle body, the portion covering the trunk lid separated from the rest of the rear cover part by cuts corresponding to three sides of the trunk lid and an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the trunk lid is hinged to the vehicle body. The rear cover part has a hole at position corresponding to a trunk lid lock, a cut-out portion at a position corresponding to the rear window of the vehicle body, a cut-out at a position corresponding to a license plate of the vehicle body and cut-outs at positions corresponding to rear taillights of the vehicle body.

  9. Etiologic heterogeneity in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R

    1987-01-01

    Etiologic heterogeneity in alcohol abuse was evaluated in 195 extended pedigrees, comprising 288 nuclear families of 140 male and 55 female Caucasian American hospitalized alcoholics. Previous adoption studies in Sweden demonstrated differential heritability of two patterns of alcohol abuse in men: type-2 alcoholism exhibited early onset of abuse associated with criminal behavior, while type-1 abuse began at a later age, uncomplicated by antisocial traits. Alcohol abuse in female Swedish adoptees was relatively homogeneous and similar to the late-onset, type-1 abuse. The notion of etiologic heterogeneity, as suggested by the Stockholm Adoption Studies, was examined in the American pedigrees by contrasting the models of familial transmission of susceptibility to alcoholism obtained via segregation analyses of families of male versus female probands. Families of male probands demonstrated significant familial resemblance, accounted for by a multifactorial-polygenic background in addition to a major (gene) effect. In contrast, familial resemblance in the pedigrees of female probands was attributed solely to a multifactorial-polygenic effect. We considered whether some families of male alcoholics were similar to families of female probands, who expressed type-1 abuse predominantly. Pedigrees of male probands were separated in two groups: (1) "female-like" families had a better likelihood for the model obtained for families of female probands than the one for families of all male probands, (2) "male-like" families had a better likelihood for the model of familial transmission describing families of all male probands. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of familial transmission was observed between the "male-like" and "female-like" groups. Discriminant function analysis of alcohol-related symptoms showed that the familial subtypes differed in clinical features as well. Alcohol abuse by male relatives in "male-like" families was characterized by the

  10. Data manipulation in heterogeneous databases

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Segev, A.

    1991-10-01

    Many important information systems applications require access to data stored in multiple heterogeneous databases. This paper examines a problem in inter-database data manipulation within a heterogeneous environment, where conventional techniques are no longer useful. To solve the problem, a broader definition for join operator is proposed. Also, a method to probabilistically estimate the accuracy of the join is discussed.

  11. Interference Management in Heterogeneous Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    INTERFERENCE MANAGEMENT IN HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND JUNE 2013 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2011 – FEB 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTERFERENCE MANAGEMENT IN HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...However, such deployments require efficient frequency allocation schemes for managing interference from the pico- and macro base stations that are

  12. Theory of heterogeneous viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmacher, Walter; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Mazzone, Valerio

    2016-03-01

    We review a new theory of viscoelasticity of a glass-forming viscous liquid near and below the glass transition. In our model, we assume that each point in the material has a specific viscosity, which varies randomly in space according to a fluctuating activation free energy. We include a Maxwellian elastic term, and assume that the corresponding shear modulus fluctuates as well with the same distribution as that of the activation barriers. The model is solved in coherent potential approximation, for which a derivation is given. The theory predicts an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the viscosity in the vanishing frequency limit, independent of the distribution of the activation barriers. The theory implies that this activation energy is generally different from that of a diffusing particle with the same barrier height distribution. If the distribution of activation barriers is assumed to have the Gaussian form, the finite-frequency version of the theory describes well the typical low-temperature alpha relaxation peak of glasses. Beta relaxation can be included by adding another Gaussian with centre at much lower energies than that is responsible for the alpha relaxation. At high frequencies, our theory reduces to the description of an elastic medium with spatially fluctuating elastic moduli (heterogeneous elasticity theory), which explains the occurrence of the boson peak-related vibrational anomalies of glasses.

  13. Angiotensin II receptor heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Herblin, W.F.; Chiu, A.T.; McCall, D.E.; Ardecky, R.J.; Carini, D.J.; Duncia, J.V.; Pease, L.J.; Wong, P.C.; Wexler, R.R.; Johnson, A.L. )

    1991-04-01

    The possibility of receptor heterogeneity in the angiotensin II (AII) system has been suggested previously, based on differences in Kd values or sensitivity to thiol reagents. One of the authors earliest indications was the frequent observation of incomplete inhibition of the binding of AII to adrenal cortical membranes. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that all of the labeling of the rat adrenal was blocked by unlabeled AII or saralasin, but not by DuP 753. The predominant receptor in the rat adrenal cortex (80%) is sensitive to dithiothreitol (DTT) and DuP 753, and is designated AII-1. The residual sites in the adrenal cortex and almost all of the sites in the rat adrenal medulla are insensitive to both DTT and DuP 753, but were blocked by EXP655. These sites have been confirmed by ligand binding studies and are designated AII-2. The rabbit adrenal cortex is unique in yielding a nonuniform distribution of AII-2 sites around the outer layer of glomerulosa cells. In the rabbit kidney, the sites on the glomeruli are AII-1, but the sites on the kidney capsule are AII-2. Angiotensin III appears to have a higher affinity for AII-2 sites since it inhibits the binding to the rabbit kidney capsule but not the glomeruli. Elucidation of the distribution and function of these diverse sites should permit the development of more selective and specific therapeutic strategies.

  14. Heterogeneous recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanov, Vitaly I.

    1991-02-01

    The paper summarizes the results of investigations performed to obtain deep 3-D holograms with 102 i0 mkm physical thickness allowing the postexposure amplification and the a posteriori changing of the grating parameters. This aim has been achieved by developing heterogeneous systems on the basis of porous glass with light-sensitive compositions introduced into it. 1. INTRODUCTION. LIGHT-SENSITIVE MEDIA FOR 3-D HOLOGRAMS RECORDING. The 3-D holograms have many useful properties: very high diffraction efficiency angular and spectral selectivity but low level of noise. It shoud be noted that in this case deep 3-D holograms are dealt with whose physical thickness is as high as 102 -i mkm. Such hologram recording is usually done using homogeneous light-sensitive media for example dyed acid-halide and electrooptical crystals photochrome glass photostructurized polimer compositions and so on. The nature of photophisical and photochemical processes responsible for the light sensitivity of these materials exclude the possibility of post-exposure treatment. This does not allow to enhance the recorded holograms and considerably hampers their fixing or makes it practically impossible. The object of our work is to create the media which are quite suitable for two-stage processes of the deep hologram formation with post-exposure processing. Such material must satisfy the following requirements: a)they must have high permeability for the developing substances in order to make the development duration suitable for practical applications b)they must be shrinkproof to prevent deformation of the

  15. Reference Point Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N.; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income. PMID:27672374

  16. Reference Point Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income.

  17. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Faymon, Karl A.

    1987-01-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  18. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Faymon, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  19. Log-Gabor filters for image-based vehicle verification.

    PubMed

    Arróspide, Jon; Salgado, Luis

    2013-06-01

    Vehicle detection based on image analysis has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to its low cost, flexibility, and potential toward collision avoidance. In particular, vehicle verification is especially challenging on account of the heterogeneity of vehicles in color, size, pose, etc. Image-based vehicle verification is usually addressed as a supervised classification problem. Specifically, descriptors using Gabor filters have been reported to show good performance in this task. However, Gabor functions have a number of drawbacks relating to their frequency response. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal and evaluation of a new descriptor based on the alternative family of log-Gabor functions for vehicle verification, as opposed to existing Gabor filter-based descriptors. These filters are theoretically superior to Gabor filters as they can better represent the frequency properties of natural images. As a second contribution, and in contrast to existing approaches, which transfer the standard configuration of filters used for other applications to the vehicle classification task, an in-depth analysis of the required filter configuration by both Gabor and log-Gabor descriptors for this particular application is performed for fair comparison. The extensive experiments conducted in this paper confirm that the proposed log-Gabor descriptor significantly outperforms the standard Gabor filter for image-based vehicle verification.

  20. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  1. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  2. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  3. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  4. Space Vehicle Valve System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  5. Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; Loch, John L.; Slack, Marc G.

    1993-01-01

    Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

  6. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Eric Y.

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  7. Vehicle speed control device

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Trump, W.E.

    1987-03-10

    An apparatus is described for automatically limiting the speed of a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine having a spark ignition system with an ignition coil, comprising: sensor means for generating a speed signal directly representative of the speed of the vehicle comprising a series of speed signal pulses having a pulse repetition frequency proportional to the speed of the vehicle; control means for converting speed signal pulses into a DC voltage proportional to the vehicle speed; means for comparing the DC voltage to a predetermined DC voltage having substantially zero AC components representative of a predetermined maximum speed and for generating a difference signal in response thereto; and means for generating a pulse-width modulated control signal responsive to the difference signal; power means responsive to the control signal for intermittently interrupting the ignition system.

  8. New Mars vehicle concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1993-02-01

    The paper briefly reviews the evolution of the Mars vehicle design concepts from 1952 to 1990, and the currently understood requirements, constraints, and options for manned Mars missions in the early decades of the 21st century. The most up-to-date integrated Mars vehicle concepts for crew-carrying transfer and excursion vehicles are presented together with the Mars descent-ascent mission phases. Particular attention is given to a reusable transfer ship, which is a modular vehicle launched to earth orbit on six 185 t-class boosters and assembled there robotically; it uses dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines and liquid hydrogen propellant. The lander concept is capable of supporting many kinds of surface missions anywhere on Mars.

  9. Light Duty Vehicle Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View a fact sheet on how the Final Endangerment Finding will allow EPA to finalize the first greenhouse gas standards for new light-duty vehicles as part of the joint rulemaking with the Department of Transportation.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program takes a systematic approach to Program implementation. Elements of this approach include the evaluation of new technologies, competitive selection of projects and partners, review of Program and project improvement, project tracking, and portfolio management and adjustment.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Program Planning

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program’s strategic goal is to develop sustainable, cost-competitive technologies to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, increase fuel efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the Nation's energy security.

  13. Hybrid vehicle control

    DOEpatents

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  14. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  15. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    roll , pitch , and yaw information. We assume the vehicle dynamics are slow, and as such, the coupling between the inclinometers and platform...the vehicle has a nonzero roll or pitch angle, Σu has dimension 3. For this condition, the unobservable subspace is similar to a single beam failure...position is defined in local tangent plane coordinates, where x aligns with north, y aligns with east, and z is down. Euler attitude angles are roll (φ

  16. Analyzing Vehicle Operator Deviations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    related to vehicle operator deviations ( VODs ). VODs occur when a vehicle enters the airport movement area without ATC approval. We developed a VOD ...prediction model to help understand the human factors causes associated with different types of VODs . We then examined the validity of the model, using...the data that we needed was missing due to incomplete reporting of the human factors associated with a given VOD . To aid in the development of a

  17. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  18. Army Ground Vehicle Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-25

    IV (> 75 bhp ) compliant COTS engines and directly integrate into current and new heavy-duty vehicles. • Combat vehicle: permanent armor...propulsion system volume [ bhp /ft3] — Air filtration requirements, thermal management system, transmission, engine, ducting requirements, final drives...transmission 40 ft3;  engine 31 ft3;  air filtration 31 ft3 o Bradley FIV: Cummins VTA903 has SHRR of 0.6 BHP / BHP vs. today’s COTS > 0.85

  19. Launch Vehicle Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) planning for updated launch vehicle operations progresses, there is a need to consider improved methods. This study considers the use of phased array antennas mounted on launch vehicles and transmitting data to either NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites or to the commercial Iridium, Intelsat, or Inmarsat communications satellites. Different data rate requirements are analyzed to determine size and weight of resulting antennas.

  20. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  1. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment... impacts. 523 Vehicle classification. 525 Exemptions from average fuel economy standards. 526 Petitions...

  2. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  3. Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

  4. Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, and Enzymatic Catalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyama, S. Ted; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses three areas of catalysis: homegeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic. Explains fundamentals and economic impact of catalysis. Lists and discusses common industrial catalysts. Provides a list of 107 references. (MVL)

  5. Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

  6. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  7. Heterogeneity in motor driven transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabei, Ali

    2015-03-01

    I will discuss quantitative analysis of particle tracking data for motor driven vesicles inside an insulin secreting cell. We use this method to study the dynamical and structural heterogeneity inside the cell. I will discuss our effort to explain the origin of observed heterogeneity in intracellular transport. Finally, I will explain how analyzing directional correlations in transport trajectories reveals self-similarity in the diffusion media.

  8. Orchestrated management of heterogeneous sensors incorporating feedback from intelligence assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkale, Yugandhar; Chong, Edwin K. P.

    2015-05-01

    We develop a method for autonomous management of multiple heterogeneous sensors mounted on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for multitarget tracking. The main contribution of the paper is incorporation of feedback received from intelligence assets (humans) on priorities assigned to specific targets. We formulate the problem as a partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDP) where information received from assets is captured as a penalty on the cost function. The resulting constrained optimization problem is solved using an augmented Lagrangian method. Information obtained from sensors and assets is fused centrally for guiding the UAVs to track these targets.

  9. Heterogeneous Traffic Flow Model for a Two-Lane Roundabout and Controlled Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Liu, Y.; Deo, P.; Ruskin, H. J.

    Modern urban traffic management depends heavily on the efficiency of road features, such as controlled intersections and multi-lane roundabouts. Vehicle throughput at any such configuration is modified by traffic mix, by rules governing manoeuvrability and by driver observance, as well as by traffic density. Here, we study heterogeneous traffic flow on two-lane roads through a cellular automata model for a binary mix of long and short vehicles. Throughput is investigated for a range of arrival rates and for fixed turning rate at an intersection: manoeuvres, while described in terms of left-lane driving, are completely generalisable. For a given heterogeneous distribution of vehicle type, there is a significant impact on queue length, delay times experienced and throughput at a fixed-cycle traffic light controlled two-way intersection and two-lane roundabout, when compared to the homogeneous case. As the proportion of long vehicles increases, average throughput for both configurations declines for increasing arrival rate, with average queue length and waiting time correspondingly increased. The effect is less-marked for the two-lane roundabout, due to absence of cross-traffic delays. Nevertheless, average waiting times and queue lengths remain uniformly high for arrival rates >0.25 vehicle per second (900 vph) on entry roads and for long vehicle proportion above 0.30-0.35.

  10. 77 FR 12355 - Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Transactions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle- to-Infrastructure Transactions Workshop... Environment for Vehicle- to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Transactions on April 19-20... presented in August 2012 during the annual Connected Vehicle Safety public meeting and via other...

  11. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  12. Space vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Michael; Meredith, Oliver; Brothers, Bobby

    1986-01-01

    Several concepts of chemical-propulsion Space Vehicles (SVs) for manned Mars landing missions are presented. For vehicle sizing purposes, several specific missions were chosen from opportunities in the late 1990's and early 2000's, and a vehicle system concept is then described which is applicable to the full range of missions and opportunities available. In general, missions utilizing planetary opposition alignments can be done with smaller vehicles than those utilizing planetary opposition alignments. The conjunction missions have a total mission time of about 3 years, including a required stay-time of about 60 days. Both types of missions might be desirable during a Mars program, the opposition type for early low-risk missions and/or for later unmanned cargo missions, and the conjunction type for more extensive science/exploration missions and/or for Mars base activities. Since the opposition missions appeared to drive the SV size more severely, there were probably more cases examined for them. Some of the concepts presented utilize all-propulsive braking, some utilize and all aerobraking approach, and some are hybrids. Weight statements are provided for various cases. Most of the work was done on 0-g vehicle concepts, but partial-g and 1-g concepts are also provided and discussed. Several options for habitable elements are shown, such as large-diameter modules and space station (SS) types of modules.

  13. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Richard S.; Allen, Larry N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

  14. Dealing with spatial heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsily, Gh.; Delay, F.; Gonçalvès, J.; Renard, Ph.; Teles, V.; Violette, S.

    2005-03-01

    Heterogeneity can be dealt with by defining homogeneous equivalent properties, known as averaging, or by trying to describe the spatial variability of the rock properties from geologic observations and local measurements. The techniques available for these descriptions are mostly continuous Geostatistical models, or discontinuous facies models such as the Boolean, Indicator or Gaussian-Threshold models and the Markov chain model. These facies models are better suited to treating issues of rock strata connectivity, e.g. buried high permeability channels or low permeability barriers, which greatly affect flow and, above all, transport in aquifers. Genetic models provide new ways to incorporate more geology into the facies description, an approach that has been well developed in the oil industry, but not enough in hydrogeology. The conclusion is that future work should be focused on improving the facies models, comparing them, and designing new in situ testing procedures (including geophysics) that would help identify the facies geometry and properties. A world-wide catalog of aquifer facies geometry and properties, which could combine site genesis and description with methods used to assess the system, would be of great value for practical applications. On peut aborder le problème de l'hétérogénéité en s'efforçant de définir une perméabilité équivalente homogène, par prise de moyenne, ou au contraire en décrivant la variation dans l'espace des propriétés des roches à partir des observations géologiques et des mesures locales. Les techniques disponibles pour une telle description sont soit continues, comme l'approche Géostatistique, soit discontinues, comme les modèles de faciès, Booléens, ou bien par Indicatrices ou Gaussiennes Seuillées, ou enfin Markoviens. Ces modèles de faciès sont mieux capables de prendre en compte la connectivité des strates géologiques, telles que les chenaux enfouis à forte perméabilité, ou au contraire les faci

  15. Apparatus for stopping a vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wattenburg, Willard H.; McCallen, David B.

    2007-03-20

    An apparatus for externally controlling one or more brakes on a vehicle having a pressurized fluid braking system. The apparatus can include a pressurizable vessel that is adapted for fluid-tight coupling to the braking system. Impact to the rear of the vehicle by a pursuit vehicle, shooting a target mounted on the vehicle or sending a signal from a remote control can all result in the fluid pressures in the braking system of the vehicle being modified so that the vehicle is stopped and rendered temporarily inoperable. A control device can also be provided in the driver's compartment of the vehicle for similarly rendering the vehicle inoperable. A driver or hijacker of the vehicle preferably cannot overcome the stopping action from the driver's compartment.

  16. Assured Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

  17. Personnel emergency carrier vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lester J. (Inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

  18. Smart Vehicle System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahadiya, Pallavi; Gupta, Rajni

    2010-11-01

    An approach to overcome the accidental problem happens in the night, while the driver is drunk or feels sleepy. This system controls the speed of the vehicle at steep turns. It is designed, to provide the information to the driver, whether the next turn is right/left, is there any traffic jam or land sliding in the coming way. It also assists during heavy rains and mist conditions. It may be implemented by using computer or by using a dedicated microcontroller. If we have a group of vehicles connected with the system then we can locate them by using the cameras, at different places. Information regarding any vehicle can be transmitted anywhere using Internet provided at the monitoring system, so as to prevent accidents or provide information during any calamity.

  19. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  20. Heterogeneity of vertebrate brain tubulins.

    PubMed Central

    Field, D J; Collins, R A; Lee, J C

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the extent of brain tubulin heterogeneity in six vertebrate species commonly used in tubulin research (rat, calf, pig, chicken, human, and lamb) using isoelectric focusing, two-dimensional electrophoresis, and peptide mapping procedures that provide higher resolution than previously available. The extent of heterogeneity is extremely similar in all of these organisms, as judged by number, range of isoelectric points, and distribution of the isotubulins. A minimum of 6 alpha and 12 beta tubulins was resolved from all sources. Even the pattern of spots on two-dimensional peptide maps is remarkably similar. These similarities suggest that the populations of tubulin in all of these brains should have similar overall physical properties. It is particularly interesting that chicken, which has only four or five beta-tubulin genes, contains approximately 12 beta tubulins. Thus, post-translational modification must generate at least some of the tubulin heterogeneity. Mammalian species, which contain 15-20 tubulin DNA sequences, do not show any more tubulin protein heterogeneity than does chicken. This suggests that expression of only a small number of the mammalian genes may be required to generate the observed tubulin heterogeneity. Images PMID:6588378

  1. Reaction Selectivity in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2009-02-02

    The understanding of selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis is of paramount importance to our society today. In this review we outline the current state of the art in research on selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis. Current in-situ surface science techniques have revealed several important features of catalytic selectivity. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy has shown us the importance of understanding the reaction intermediates and mechanism of a heterogeneous reaction, and can readily yield information as to the effect of temperature, pressure, catalyst geometry, surface promoters, and catalyst composition on the reaction mechanism. DFT calculations are quickly approaching the ability to assist in the interpretation of observed surface spectra, thereby making surface spectroscopy an even more powerful tool. HP-STM has revealed three vitally important parameters in heterogeneous selectivity: adsorbate mobility, catalyst mobility, and selective site-blocking. The development of size controlled nanoparticles from 0.8 to 10 nm, of controlled shape, and of controlled bimetallic composition has revealed several important variables for catalytic selectivity. Lastly, DFT calculations may be paving the way to guiding the composition choice for multi-metallic heterogeneous catalysis for the intelligent design of catalysts incorporating the many factors of selectivity we have learned.

  2. Aeroacoustics of Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    While for airplanes the subject of aeroacoustics is associated with community noise, for space vehicles it is associated with vibro-acoustics and structural dynamics. Surface pressure fluctuations encountered during launch and travel through lower part of the atmosphere create intense vibro-acoustics environment for the payload, electronics, navigational equipment, and a large number of subsystems. All of these components have to be designed and tested for flight-certification. This presentation will cover all three major sources encountered in manned and unmanned space vehicles: launch acoustics, ascent acoustics and abort acoustics. Launch pads employ elaborate acoustic suppression systems to mitigate the ignition pressure waves and rocket plume generated noise during the early part of the liftoff. Recently we have used large microphone arrays to identify the noise sources during liftoff and found that the standard model by Eldred and Jones (NASA SP-8072) to be grossly inadequate. As the vehicle speeds up and reaches transonic speed in relatively denser part of the atmosphere, various shock waves and flow separation events create unsteady pressure fluctuations that can lead to high vibration environment, and occasional coupling with the structural modes, which may lead to buffet. Examples of wind tunnel tests and computational simulations to optimize the outer mold line to quantify and reduce the surface pressure fluctuations will be presented. Finally, a manned space vehicle needs to be designed for crew safety during malfunctioning of the primary rocket vehicle. This brings the subject of acoustic environment during abort. For NASAs Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), abort will be performed by lighting rocket motors atop the crew module. The severe aeroacoustics environments during various abort scenarios were measured for the first time by using hot helium to simulate rocket plumes in the Ames unitary plan wind tunnels. Various considerations used for the

  3. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction estimation. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics.

  4. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  5. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters.

  6. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  7. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  8. Vehicle brake testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Samuel S; Hodgson, Jeffrey W

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  9. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    SciTech Connect

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  10. Mini-trucks: Importing Used Motor Vehicles as Nonroad Vehicles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet addresses EPA's revised regulations that affect the importation of vehicles that have been converted to nonroad use but were originally built and used as motor vehicles. (EPA Publication # EPA-420-F-09-014)

  11. Simulator for heterogeneous dataflow architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    1993-01-01

    A new simulator is developed to simulate the execution of an algorithm graph in accordance with the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) rules. ATAMM is a Petri Net model which describes the periodic execution of large-grained, data-independent dataflow graphs and which provides predictable steady state time-optimized performance. This simulator extends the ATAMM simulation capability from a heterogenous set of resources, or functional units, to a more general heterogenous architecture. Simulation test cases show that the simulator accurately executes the ATAMM rules for both a heterogenous architecture and a homogenous architecture, which is the special case for only one processor type. The simulator forms one tool in an ATAMM Integrated Environment which contains other tools for graph entry, graph modification for performance optimization, and playback of simulations for analysis.

  12. Simulator for heterogeneous dataflow architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    1993-09-01

    A new simulator is developed to simulate the execution of an algorithm graph in accordance with the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) rules. ATAMM is a Petri Net model which describes the periodic execution of large-grained, data-independent dataflow graphs and which provides predictable steady state time-optimized performance. This simulator extends the ATAMM simulation capability from a heterogenous set of resources, or functional units, to a more general heterogenous architecture. Simulation test cases show that the simulator accurately executes the ATAMM rules for both a heterogenous architecture and a homogenous architecture, which is the special case for only one processor type. The simulator forms one tool in an ATAMM Integrated Environment which contains other tools for graph entry, graph modification for performance optimization, and playback of simulations for analysis.

  13. Static heterogeneities in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of water seems to be closely related to static heterogeneities. These static heterogeneities are related to the local structure of water molecules, and when properly characterized, may offer an economical explanation of thermodynamic data. The key feature of liquid water is not so much that the existence of hydrogen bonds, first pointed out by Linus Pauling, but rather the local geometry of the liquid molecules is not spherical or oblong but tetrahedral. In the consideration of static heterogeneities, this local geometry is critical. Recent experiments suggested more than one phase of amorphous solid water, while simulations suggest that one of these phases is metastable with respect to another, so that in fact there are only two stable phases.

  14. Dynamic fracture of heterogeneous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, M.G.; Liu, C.; Addessio, F.L.; Williams, T.O.; Bennett, J.G.; Haberman, K.S.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to investigate the fundamental aspects of the process of dynamic fracture propagation in heterogeneous materials. The work focused on three important, but poorly understood, aspects of dynamic fracture for materials with a heterogeneous microstructure. These were: the appropriateness of using a single-parameter asymptotic analysis to describe dynamic crack-tip deformation fields, the temperature rises at the tip and on the flanks of a running crack, and the constitutive modeling of damage initiation and accumulation.

  15. Verification of heterogeneous multi-agent system using MCMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Kim, Seungkeun; Tsourdos, Antonios

    2015-03-01

    The focus of the paper is how to model autonomous behaviours of heterogeneous multi-agent systems such that it can be verified that they will always operate within predefined mission requirements and constraints. This is done by using formal methods with an abstraction of the behaviours modelling and model checking for their verification. Three case studies are presented to verify the decision-making behaviours of heterogeneous multi-agent system using a convoy mission scenario. The multi-agent system in a case study has been extended by increasing the number of agents and function complexity gradually. For automatic verification, model checker for multi-agent systems (MCMAS) is adopted due to its novel capability to accommodate the multi-agent system and successfully verifies the targeting behaviours of the team-level autonomous systems. The verification results help retrospectively the design of decision-making algorithms improved by considering additional agents and behaviours during three steps of scenario modification. Consequently, the last scenario deals with the system composed of a ground control system, two unmanned aerial vehicles, and four unmanned ground vehicles with fault-tolerant and communication relay capabilities.

  16. Engine & Vehicle Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum includes all competencies a student will acquire in an engine and vehicle mechanics educational program. It follows guidelines established for automobile technician training programs leading toward certification and addresses requirements of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE). The…

  17. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  18. Recreational Vehicle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Michael

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

  19. Mars Exploratory Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress…

  20. Vehicle tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Several systems have been developed to accomplish vehicle location. The systems consist of three types: Dead Reckoning, Satellite, and LORAN C. If the information is to be sent back to a central location, some type of radiocommunication system is needed. One can use the existing voice radio or add a radio system just for transmitting the data.

  1. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  2. Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-31

    obtain the new estimate of vehicle position and position uncertainty. 13. Matti Pietikainen and David Harwood, "Edge Information in Color Images Based on...of correspondence. 10. Matti Pietik:inen and David Harwood, "Multiple-Camera Contour Stereo." CAR-TR-151. CS-TR-1559. September 1985. ABSTRACT: A

  3. Multiple environment unmanned vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hobart, Clinton G.; Morse, William D.; Bickerstaff, Robert James

    2017-02-28

    A MEUV that is able to navigate aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial environments through the use of different mission mobility attachments is disclosed. The attachments allow the MEUV to be deployed from the air or through the water prior to any terrestrial navigation. The mobility attachments can be removed or detached by and from the vehicle during a mission.

  4. Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

  5. Vehicle fuel system

    DOEpatents

    Risse, John T.; Taggart, James C.

    1976-01-01

    A vehicle fuel system comprising a plurality of tanks, each tank having a feed and a return conduit extending into a lower portion thereof, the several feed conduits joined to form one supply conduit feeding fuel to a supply pump and using means, unused fuel being returned via a return conduit which branches off to the several return conduits.

  6. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  7. Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

    2000-04-11

    Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

  8. Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Robert; And Others

    Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

  9. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  10. Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Testing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory's primary responsibilities include: evaluating emission control technology; testing vehicles, engines and fuels; and determining compliance with federal emissions and fuel economy standards.

  11. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  12. Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Hunter, Gary W.; Simon, Don; Meredith, Roger; Wrbanek, John; Woike, Mark; Tokars, Roger; Guffanti, Marianne; Lyall, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests in the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies project. This overview covers highlights of the completed VIPR I and VIPR II tests and also covers plans for the VIPR III test.

  13. Locating the Vehicle Emissions Label

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA vehicle emissions label is entitled Vehicle Emission Control Information and contains the name and trademark of the manufacturer and an unconditional statement of compliance with EPA emission regulations.

  14. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  15. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  16. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described.

  17. Teaching about Heterogeneous Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals vary in their responses to incentives and opportunities. For example, additional education will affect one person differently than another. In recent years, econometricians have given increased attention to such heterogeneous responses and to the consequences of such responses for interpreting regression estimates, especially…

  18. Floodplain heterogeneity and meander migration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of horizontal heterogeneity of floodplain soils on rates and patterns of meander migration is analyzed with a Ikeda et al. (1981)-type model for hydrodynamics and bed morphodynamics, coupled with a physically-based bank erosion model according to the approach developed by Motta et al. (20...

  19. Heterogeneous porous media in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababou, Rachid

    In natural geologic formations, flow and transport-related processes are perturbed by multidimensional and anisotropic material heterogeneities of diverse sizes, shapes, and origins (bedding, layering, inclusions, fractures, grains, for example). Heterogeneity tends to disperse and mix transported quantities and may initiate new transfer mechanisms not seen in ideally homogeneous porous media. Effective properties such as conductivity and dispersivity may not be simple averages of locally measured quantities.The special session, “Effective Constitutive Laws for Heterogeneous Porous Media,” convened at AGU's 1992 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, addressed these issue. Over forty-five contributions, both oral and poster, covering a broad range of physical phenomena were presented. The common theme was the macroscale characterization and modeling of flow and flow-related processes in geologic media that are heterogeneous at various scales (from grain size or fracture aperture, up to regional scales). The processes analyzed in the session included coupled hydro-mechanical processes; Darcy-type flow in the saturated, unsaturated, or two-phase regimes; tracer transport, dilution, and dispersion. These processes were studied for either continuous (porous) or discontinuous (fractured) media.

  20. Social Capital and Community Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the number of parties in the local party system as a more…

  1. Surface science of heterogeneous reactions.

    PubMed

    White, J M

    1982-10-29

    Some of the present and future directions for surface science as a growing and naturally interdisciplinary subject are reviewed. Particular attention is given to surface reaction chemistry as it is related to heterogenous catalysis, a subject area where there are abundant opportunities for detailed measurements of structure and dynamics at the molecular level.

  2. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  3. Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Julian E.

    2004-01-01

    A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

  4. Emergency-vehicle VHF antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Carlson, A. W.; Lewis, J.

    1977-01-01

    Helical VHF antenna mounts on roof of moving vehicle to communicate with distant stations via earth satellites. Antenna requires no pointing and can provide two-way communication while vehicle moves at high speed. Device has proved extremely successful in electrocardiogram transmission tests between medical services vehicle and hospital emergency room.

  5. Flammability of Heterogeneously Combusting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Most engineering materials, including some metals, most notably aluminum, burn in homogeneous combustion. 'Homogeneous' refers to both the fuel and the oxidizer being in the same phase, which is usually gaseous. The fuel and oxidizer are well mixed in the combustion reaction zone, and heat is released according to some relation like q(sub c) = delta H(sub c)c[((rho/rho(sub 0))]exp a)(exp -E(sub c)/RT), Eq. (1) where the pressure exponent a is usually close to unity. As long as there is enough heat released, combustion is sustained. It is useful to conceive of a threshold pressure beyond which there is sufficient heat to keep the temperature high enough to sustain combustion, and beneath which the heat is so low that temperature drains away and the combustion is extinguished. Some materials burn in heterogeneous combustion, in which the fuel and oxidizer are in different phases. These include iron and nickel based alloys, which burn in the liquid phase with gaseous oxygen. Heterogeneous combustion takes place on the surface of the material (fuel). Products of combustion may appear as a solid slag (oxide) which progressively covers the fuel. Propagation of the combustion melts and exposes fresh fuel. Heterogeneous combustion heat release also follows the general form of Eq.(1), except that the pressure exponent a tends to be much less than 1. Therefore, the increase in heat release with increasing pressure is not as dramatic as it is in homogeneous combustion. Although the concept of a threshold pressure still holds in heterogeneous combustion, the threshold is more difficult to identify experimentally, and pressure itself becomes less important relative to the heat transfer paths extant in any specific application. However, the constants C, a, and E(sub c) may still be identified by suitable data reduction from heterogeneous combustion experiments, and may be applied in a heat transfer model to judge the flammability of a material in any particular actual

  6. Appendix J - GPRA06 vehicle technologies program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The target market for the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program include light vehicles (cars and light trucks) and heavy vehicles (trucks more than 10,000 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight).

  7. Surface heterogeneity of small asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Sho

    A rubble pile model of asteroid origin would predict averaged rather homogeneous surface of an asteroid. Previous spacecraft observations (mostly S-type asteroids) did not show large color/albedo variation on the surface. Vesta would be exceptional since HST observation suggested that its surface should be heterogeneous due to the impact excavation of the interior. As for a young asteroid (832) Karin (age being 5Ma), Sasaki et al. (2004) detected variation of infrared spectra which could be explained by the difference of the space weathering degree. They discussed the possibility of the survival of the old surface. However, the variation was not confirmed by later observation (Chapman et al., 2007; Vernazza et al., 2007). Recent observation of a small (550m) asteroid Itokawa by Hayabusa spacecraft revealed that Itokawa is heterogeneous in color and albedo although the overall rocky structure is considered as a rubble pile (Saito et al., 2006). The color difference can be explained by the difference of weathering degree (Ishiguro et al., 2008). The heterogeneity could be explained by mass movement caused by rapid rotation from YORP effect (Scheeres et al., 2007) or seismic shaking (Sasaki, 2006). Probably small silicate asteroids without significant regolith could have heterogeneous in color and albedo. On large asteroids (˜ a few 10km), regolith reaccumulation should have covered the underlying heterogeneity. References: Chapman, C. R. et al (2007) Icarus, 191, 323-329 Ishiguro, M. et al. (2008) MAPS, in press. Saito, J. et al. (2006) Science, 312, 1341-1344 Sasaki, S. (2006) in Spacecraft Reconnaissance of Asteroid and Comet Interiors Sasaki, T. et al (2004) Astrophys. J. 615, L161-L164 Scheeres, D. J. (2007) Icarus 188, 425-429 Vernazza, P. et al. (2007) Icarus 191, 330-336.

  8. Emerging Needs for Pervasive Passive Wireless Sensor Networks on Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating passive wireless sensor technology to reduce instrumentation mass and volume in ground testing, air flight, and space exploration applications. Vehicle health monitoring systems (VHMS) are desired on all aerospace programs to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Pervasive passive wireless sensor networks facilitate VHMS on aerospace vehicles. Future wireless sensor networks on board aerospace vehicles will be heterogeneous and will require active and passive network systems. Since much has been published on active wireless sensor networks, this work will focus on the need for passive wireless sensor networks on aerospace vehicles. Several passive wireless technologies such as microelectromechanical systems MEMS, SAW, backscatter, and chipless RFID techniques, have all shown potential to meet the pervasive sensing needs for aerospace VHMS applications. A SAW VHMS application will be presented. In addition, application areas including ground testing, hypersonic aircraft and spacecraft will be explored along with some of the harsh environments found in aerospace applications.

  9. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  10. Stabilizing Wheels For Rover Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed articulated, normally-four-wheeled vehicle holds extra pair of wheels in reserve. Deployed to lengthen wheelbase on slopes, thereby making vehicle more stable, and to aid vehicle in negotiating ledge or to right vehicle if turned upside down. Extra wheels are drive wheels mounted on arms so they pivot on axis of forward drive wheels. Both extra wheels and arms driven by chains, hydraulic motors, or electric motors. Concept promises to make remotely controlled vehicles more stable and maneuverable in such applications as firefighting, handling hazardous materials, and carrying out operations in dangerous locations.

  11. Payload vehicle aerodynamic reentry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Donald

    An approach for analyzing the dynamic behavior of a cone-cylinder payload vehicle during reentry to insure proper deployment of the parachute system and recovery of the payload is presented. This analysis includes the study of an aerodynamic device that is useful in extending vehicle axial rotation through the maximum dynamic pressure region. Attention is given to vehicle configuration and reentry trajectory, the derivation of pitch static aerodynamics, the derivation of the pitch damping coefficient, pitching moment modeling, aerodynamic roll device modeling, and payload vehicle reentry dynamics. It is shown that the vehicle dynamics at parachute deployment are well within the design limit of the recovery system, thus ensuring successful payload recovery.

  12. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  13. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  14. 40 CFR 1066.415 - Vehicle operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle operation. 1066.415 Section... VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Preparing Vehicles and Running an Exhaust Emission Test § 1066.415 Vehicle operation. This section describes how to test a conventionally configured vehicle (vehicles...

  15. Methane-Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid methane is beginning to become an energy alternative to expensive oil as a power source for automotive vehicles. Methane is the principal component of natural gas, costs less than half as much as gasoline, and its emissions are a lot cleaner than from gasoline or diesel engines. Beech Aircraft Corporation's Boulder Division has designed and is producing a system for converting cars and trucks to liquid methane operation. Liquid methane (LM) is a cryogenic fuel which must be stored at a temperature of 260 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The LM system includes an 18 gallon fuel tank in the trunk and simple "under the hood" carburetor conversion equipment. Optional twin-fuel system allows operator to use either LM or gasoline fuel. Boulder Division has started deliveries for 25 vehicle conversions and is furnishing a liquid methane refueling station. Beech is providing instruction for Northwest Natural Gas, for conversion of methane to liquid state.

  16. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  17. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  18. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  19. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-10

    herein as winglets , are supported by a strut attached to the vehicle. The angle of attack of each winglet is controlled by a winglet actuator. The... winglet assembly may be extended into or retracted from the water by means of a spring-loaded actuated mount, which pivots the strut supporting the... winglet . When fully retracted, the winglet assembly is contained completely within the cavity. [0014] The segmented ring wing is controlled by one or more

  20. Vehicle Tracking and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorer, A. G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper covers the wide area and short range locational technologies that are available for vehicle tracking in particular and mobile user security in general. It also summarises the radio communications services that can deliver information to the user. It considers the use that can be made of these technologies, when combined with procedures for delivering a response, in the security field, notably in relation to personal security, high-value load protection and the after-theft tracking markets.

  1. Expendable launch vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstration are most needed are identified. These propulsion technology recommendations are based on the work performed by the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC), an industry panel established by the Dept. of Transportation.

  2. Experiences with Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation "NASA Experience with Launch Vehicles" is a compilation of Mr. Dumbacher's career experiences with the Space Shuttle Program, the Delta - Clipper Experimental flight test project, the X-33 demonstrator project, and recent experiences with the Orbital Spaceplane Program agd the current NASA effort on Exploration Launch Systems. Mr. Dumbacher will discuss his personal experiences and provide lessons learned from each program. The accounts provided by Mr. Dumbacher are his own and do not necessarily represent the official NASA position.

  3. The Cargo Transfer Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rourke, K. H.

    1992-03-01

    NASA's Cargo Transfer Vehicle is a key element of the National Launch System currently under definition by a joint USAF and NASA development program. The CTV reference mission and configuration are described. Key mission and system requirements are analyzed and summarized including CTV electrical power and energy, main engine thrust, RCS configurations. Methods of control system validation using full 6DoF simulations are presented.

  4. Electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  5. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  6. Lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

  7. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Surbhi; Arora, Ajay K; Badoni, Rajendra P; Tuli, Deepak K

    2011-02-01

    The production and use of biodiesel has seen a quantum jump in the recent past due to benefits associated with its ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG). There are large number of commercial plants producing biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats based on base catalyzed (caustic) homogeneous transesterification of oils. However, homogeneous process needs steps of glycerol separation, washings, very stringent and extremely low limits of Na, K, glycerides and moisture limits in biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The present report is review of the progress made in development of heterogeneous catalysts suitable for biodiesel production. This review shall help in selection of suitable catalysts and the optimum conditions for biodiesel production.

  8. Traffic behavior of mixed traffic flow with two kinds of different self-stabilizing control vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhipeng; Li, Wenzhong; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing; Sun, Jian

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a heterogeneous car following model in terms of an extension to the original optimal velocity model characterizing two classes of different self-stabilizing control vehicles. Linear stability analysis method is utilized to the extended model, for purpose to explore how the varying percentages of the vehicles with short-duration self-stabilizing control influence the stability of the heterogeneous traffic flow. We obtain the neutral stability lines for different percentages of two classes of vehicles, with finding that the traffic flow trends to stable with the decrease of the percentage for short-duration self-stabilizing control vehicles. Moreover, we explore a special case that the same numbers of two different classes of vehicles with self-stabilizing control. We theoretically derive the stability condition of the special case, and conclude the effect of the average value and the standard deviation of two time gaps, on the heterogeneous traffic stability. At last, direct simulations are conducted to verify the conclusion of theoretical analysis.

  9. Launch vehicle selection model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  10. NASA GSFC Perspective on Heterogeneous Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Wesley A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of NASA GSFC, our onboard processing applications, the applicability heterogeneous processing to these applications, and necessary developments to enable heterogeneous processing to be infused into our missions.

  11. Temperature chaos and quenched heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucca, Paolo; Parisi, Giorgio; Rizzo, Tommaso

    2014-03-01

    We present a treatable generalization of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model which introduces correlations in the elements of the coupling matrix through multiplicative disorder on the single variables and investigate the consequences on the phase diagram. We define a generalized qEA parameter and test the structural stability of the SK results in this correlated case evaluating the de Almeida-Thouless line of the model. As a main result we demonstrate the increase of temperature chaos effects due to heterogeneities.

  12. On comparing heterogeneity across biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Steininger, Robert J; Rajaram, Satwik; Girard, Luc; Minna, John D; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    Microscopy reveals complex patterns of cellular heterogeneity that can be biologically informative. However, a limitation of microscopy is that only a small number of biomarkers can typically be monitored simultaneously. Thus, a natural question is whether additional biomarkers provide a deeper characterization of the distribution of cellular states in a population. How much information about a cell's phenotypic state in one biomarker is gained by knowing its state in another biomarker? Here, we describe a framework for comparing phenotypic states across biomarkers. Our approach overcomes the current limitation of microscopy by not requiring costaining biomarkers on the same cells; instead, we require staining of biomarkers (possibly separately) on a common collection of phenotypically diverse cell lines. We evaluate our approach on two image datasets: 33 oncogenically diverse lung cancer cell lines stained with 7 biomarkers, and 49 less diverse subclones of one lung cancer cell line stained with 12 biomarkers. We first validate our method by comparing it to the "gold standard" of costaining. We then apply our approach to all pairs of biomarkers and use it to identify biomarkers that yield similar patterns of heterogeneity. The results presented in this work suggest that many biomarkers provide redundant information about heterogeneity. Thus, our approach provides a practical guide for selecting independently informative biomarkers and, more generally, will yield insights into both the connectivity of biological networks and the complexity of the state space of biological systems.

  13. Soft Dielectrics: Heterogeneity and Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudykh, Stephan; Debotton, Gal; Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    2012-02-01

    Dielectric Elastomers are capable of large deformations in response to electrical stimuli. Heterogeneous soft dielectrics with proper microstructures demonstrate much stronger electromechanical coupling than their homogeneous constituents. In turn, the heterogeneity is an origin for instability developments leading to drastic change in the composite microstructure. In this talk, the electromechanical instabilities are considered. Stability of anisotropic soft dielectrics is analyzed. Ways to achieve giant deformations and manipulating extreme material properties are discussed. 1. S. Rudykh and G. deBotton, ``Instabilities of Hyperelastic Fiber Composites: Micromechanical Versus Numerical Analyses.'' Journal of Elasticity, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/2010.1007/s10659-011-9313-x 2. S. Rudykh, K. Bhattacharya and G. deBotton, ``Snap-through actuation of thick-wall electroactive balloons.'' International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2011.05.006 3. S. Rudykh and G. deBotton, ``Stability of Anisotropic Electroactive Polymers with Application to Layered Media.'' Zeitschrift f"ur angewandte Mathematik und Physik, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00033-011-0136-1 4. S. Rudykh, A. Lewinstein, G. Uner and G. deBotton, ``Giant Enhancement of the Electromechanical Coupling in Soft Heterogeneous Dielectrics.'' 2011 http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.4217v1

  14. Measuring heterogeneous remanence in paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, Graham J.; Geneviciene, Ieva

    2007-06-01

    Remanence directions of from the same block-sample may be inconsistent or unrepresentative due to orientation and location heterogeneity of their remanence-bearing minerals (RBM). Magnetization-heterogeneity is usually undetectable at the specimen-level but we replicated its effects by measuring 8 small specimens with stable magnetizations (8 or 5.2 cm3). These were assembled into a single large multi-specimen inside 125 cm3 containers that were measured in a Molspin ``BigSpin'' magnetometer. Large-specimen remanence directions deflect towards the direction of any strongly magnetized sub-specimen. Differences between the large-specimen remanence and that for the group of individually measured sub-specimens worsened when one sub-specimen was mis-oriented. These discrepancies were cancelled or reduced using larger numbers of specimen orientations in the magnetometer. Conventional schemes with 4 or 6 different measurement-orientations may fail to suppress heterogeneity-effects whereas our 12-orientation protocol may succeed. For most specimens, acceptable remanence-homogeneity is present where similar remanence-directions are recorded from 4, 6, and 12 different spin-orientations.

  15. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  16. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  17. Sensor Technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Management of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.

  18. Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers.

  19. Laser powered interorbital vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. T.; Cooper, J. J.; Eggleston, G. P.; Farkas, M. A.; Hunt, D. C.; King, J.; Nguyen, H.; Rahal, G.; Saw, K.; Tipton, R.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary design of a low-thrust Laser Powered Interorbital Vehicle (LPIV) intended for cargo transportation between an Earth space station and a lunar base is presented. The selected mission utilizes a spiral trajectory, characteristic of a low-thrust spacecraft, requiring eight days for a lunar rendezvous and an additional nine days for return. The ship's configuration consists primarily of an optical train, two hydrogen plasma engines, a 37.1 m box-beam truss, a payload module, and propellant tanks. The total mass of the vehicle, fully loaded, is 63,300 kg. A single plasma, regeneratively cooled engine design is incorporated into the two 500 N engines. These are connected to the spacecraft by turntables that allow the vehicle to thrust tangential to the flight path. Proper collection and transmission of the laser beam to the thrust chambers is provided through the optical train. This system consists of a 23-m-diameter primary mirror, a convex parabolic secondary mirror, a beam splitter, and two concave parabolic tertiary mirrors. The payload bay is capable of carrying 18,000 kg of cargo and is located opposite the primary mirror on the main truss. Fuel tanks carrying a maximum of 35,000 kg of liquid hydrogen are fastened to tracks that allow the tanks to be moved perpendicular to the main truss. This capability is required to prevent the center of mass from moving out of the thrust vector line. The laser beam is located and tracked by means of an acquisition, pointing, and tracking system that can be locked onto the space-based laser station. Correct orientation of the spacecraft with the laser beam is maintained by control moment gyros and reaction control rockets. In addition, an aerobrake configuration was designed to provide the option of using the atmospheric drag in place of propulsion for a return trajectory.

  20. Hedonic Price Indices for Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    following: • M4 Command and Control Vehicle (C2V) • Stryker family (8 variants) • M992A2 FAASV • Armored Security Vehicle (ASV) • Family of Heavy...M9 ACE) 22 Wheeled combat vehicle (WCV, e.g., Stryker Mobile Gun System) 36 Wheeled support vehicle (WSV, e.g. Stryker Medevac vehicle) 41 TOTAL...data points. Some family assignments, such as those for the Stryker reconnaissance vehicles (which were classified as support vehicles), may be open

  1. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  2. Remote control for motor vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  3. Energy management and vehicle synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1995-01-01

    The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

  4. Mack LNG vehicle development

    SciTech Connect

    Southwest Research Institute

    2000-01-05

    The goal of this project was to install a production-ready, state-of-the-art engine control system on the Mack E7G natural gas engine to improve efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. In addition, the power rating was increased from 300 brake horsepower (bhp) to 325 bhp. The emissions targets were oxides of nitrogen plus nonmethane hydrocarbons of less than 2.5 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter of less than 0.05 g/bhp-hr on 99% methane. Vehicle durability and field testing were also conducted. Further development of this engine should include efficiency improvements and oxides of nitrogen reductions.

  5. Electric Vehicle Power Controller.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    combustion engine are coupled in parallel to the drive train, as shown in Figure 2. In this configuration the speed of a series DC motor is governed by the...internal Hyrine Drive Train Fig. 2. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Block Diagram (Ref. 2) 12 combustion engine is coupled to the drive shaft of the DC motor by a...V- belt and electric clutch assembly. The engine is manually engaged during high speed cruising to reduce the current demand of the DC motor (Ref. 3

  6. The Electric Vehicle Alternative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Lieutenant, USAF LS§R 35-81 DIS I uTIc’x Appgoved fU V isftnbutor. The contents of the document are technically accurate, andno sensitive Items...largely dis - appeared /9,27. Though ICE vehicles also came to dominate vehicular trans- portation in Europe, EVs found a comfortable niche in the...sonnel report satisfaction in using EVs for specialist dis - patch. Their 4 EVs are kept either indoors or under cover when not in use. Battery

  7. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  8. Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

  9. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-07

    Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

  10. Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamm, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Visiting Vehicle Group needed a targeting tool for vehicles that rendezvous with the ISS. The Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory targeting tool provides the ability to perform both realtime and planning operations for the Visiting Vehicle Group. This tool provides a highly reconfigurable base, which allows the Visiting Vehicle Group to perform their work. The application is composed of a telemetry processing function, a relative motion function, a targeting function, a vector view, and 2D/3D world map type graphics. The software tool provides the ability to plan a rendezvous trajectory for vehicles that visit the ISS. It models these relative trajectories using planned and realtime data from the vehicle. The tool monitors ongoing rendezvous trajectory relative motion, and ensures visiting vehicles stay within agreed corridors. The software provides the ability to update or re-plan a rendezvous to support contingency operations. Adding new parameters and incorporating them into the system was previously not available on-the-fly. If an unanticipated capability wasn't discovered until the vehicle was flying, there was no way to update things.

  11. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  12. A Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of a potential test vehicle for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that is designed to evaluate the dynamics, human factors, and safety aspects of advanced technologies in passenger class automobiles expected to be introduced as a result of the Intelligent Vehicle/Highway System (IVHS) Program. The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) requirements were determined from the inputs of anticipated users and possible research needs of NHTSA. Design and implementation approaches are described, the benefits of the vehicle are discussed and costs for several options presented.

  13. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The optimum vehicle configuration and component locations are determined for an electric drive vehicle based on using the basic structure of a current production subcompact vehicle. The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current internal combustion engine vehicles. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages, one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area, in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  14. A cellular automata traffic flow model considering the heterogeneity of acceleration and delay probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi-Lang; Wong, S. C.; Min, Jie; Tian, Shuo; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the cellular automata traffic flow model, which considers the heterogeneity of vehicle acceleration and the delay probability of vehicles. Computer simulations are used to identify three typical phases in the model: free-flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving traffic jam. In the synchronized flow region of the fundamental diagram, the low and high velocity vehicles compete with each other and play an important role in the evolution of the system. The analysis shows that there are two types of bistable phases. However, in the original Nagel and Schreckenberg cellular automata traffic model, there are only two kinds of traffic conditions, namely, free-flow and traffic jams. The synchronized flow phase and bistable phase have not been found.

  15. Stress relaxation in heterogeneous polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witten, T. A.

    1992-05-01

    When heterogeneous polymers such as diblock copolymers form a microdomain phase, an imposed strain gives rise to stress from two sources, and several mechanisms of stress relaxation. The release of stress by disentanglement is strongly influenced by the effective confinement of the junction points to the domain boundaries and by the stretching of the chains. Using accepted notions of entangled chain kinetics, it is argued that the relaxation time for sliding stress is exponential in the chainlength to the 7/9 power. A method for calculating the frequency-dependent dynamic modulus is sketched. Despite the slow relaxation implied by these mechanisms, it appears possible to create domains of high energy.

  16. A Heterogeneous Medium Analytical Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapol, B.D.

    1999-09-27

    A benchmark, called benchmark BLUE, has been developed for one-group neutral particle (neutron or photon) transport in a one-dimensional sub-critical heterogeneous plane parallel medium with surface illumination. General anisotropic scattering is accommodated through the Green's Function Method (GFM). Numerical Fourier transform inversion is used to generate the required Green's functions which are kernels to coupled integral equations that give the exiting angular fluxes. The interior scalar flux is then obtained through quadrature. A compound iterative procedure for quadrature order and slab surface source convergence provides highly accurate benchmark qualities (4- to 5- places of accuracy) results.

  17. Interregional equilibrium with heterogeneous labor.

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Perrot, A; Thisse J-f

    1996-02-01

    "The impact of labor migration on interregional equilibrium is studied when workers are heterogeneous in productivity and regional mobility. The skilled respond to market disequilibrium by moving into the most attractive region. The unskilled are immobile in the short-run and move with the skilled in the long-run. Both regions have a neoclassical production function affected by an externality depending on the number of skilled. Workers move according to the utility differential when regional amenities vary with population or according to the wage differential. The equilibrium pattern depends on the unskilled's mobility and on migration incentives. Typically, regional imbalance characterizes the equilibrium which is often suboptimal."

  18. Heterogeneous photocatalysts in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherevatskaya, M.; König, B.

    2014-03-01

    The review deals with the application of inorganic semiconductors in organic synthesis. Although the majority of reported reactions still aim at the photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds, the number of examples in synthetic applications is growing. The principal mechanisms of heterogeneous semiconductor photocatalysis are considered and examples illustrating the use of inorganic semiconductors in organic synthesis are given. The discussion is arranged according to the required excitation wavelength (UV or visible light) and to the new bond that is formed (carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom bond). The bibliography includes 47 references.

  19. Gearbox assembly for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Imaizumi, M.; Masumura, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Hosoya, E.

    1987-01-13

    A gearbox assembly is described for a vehicle for transmitting an output of an engine to driving wheels of the vehicle, comprising: a main gearbox receiving the output and having plural forward gear-shift steps; a shift lever; a sub gearbox coupled to an output of the main gearbox having at least two relatively high and low speed gearshift steps (GH,GL) and a reverse transmission system (GR), the two steps and the reverse transmission system being selectively established through switching operation of the shift lever; wherein the sub gearbox further comprises: a rotary member connected to the shift lever for selecting one of the steps and the reverse transmission system according to its rotation; a stopper mechanism engaging the rotary member for preventing the rotary member from rotating to a position where the reverse transmission system is established; and interlinking means between the stopper mechanism and the main gearbox for releasing the stopper mechanism only when the main gearbox is in neutral or in a low speed gear-shift step; wherein the stopper mechanism comprises: a cam rotatable in response to the gear-shift operation of the main gearbox; a stopper lever one end of which faces the periphery of the cam and the other end facing the rotary member, the stopper lever being pivotally supported at its middle portion; and a spring urging the stopper level to abut against the periphery of the cam.

  20. Transatmospheric vehicle research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Henry G.; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1990-01-01

    Research was conducted into the alternatives to the supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engine for hypersonic flight. A new engine concept, the Oblique Detonation Wave Engine (ODWE) was proposed and explored analytically and experimentally. Codes were developed which can couple the fluid dynamics of supersonic flow with strong shock waves, with the finite rate chemistry necessary to model the detonation process. An additional study was conducted which compared the performance of a hypersonic vehicle powered by a scramjet or an ODWE. Engineering models of the overall performances of the two engines are included. This information was fed into a trajectory program which optimized the flight path to orbit. A third code calculated the vehicle size, weight, and aerodynamic characteristics. The experimental work was carried out in the Ames 20MW arc-jet wind tunnel, focusing on mixing and combustion of fuel injected into a supersonic airstream. Several injector designs were evaluated by sampling the stream behind the injectors and analyzing the mixture with an on-line mass spectrometer. In addition, an attempt was made to create a standing oblique detonation wave in the wind tunnel using hydrogen fuel. It appeared that the conditions in the test chamber were marginal for the generation of oblique detonation waves.

  1. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  2. Superpressure stratospheric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Chocol, C.; Robinson, W.; Epley, L.

    1990-09-15

    Our need for wide-band global communications, earth imaging and sensing, atmospheric measurements and military reconnaissance is extensive, but growing dependence on space-based systems raises concerns about vulnerability. Military commanders require space assets that are more accessible and under local control. As a result, a robust and low cost access to space-like capability has become a national priority. Free floating buoyant vehicles in the middle stratosphere can provide the kind of cost effective access to space-like capability needed for a variety of missions. These vehicles are inexpensive, invisible, and easily launched. Developments in payload electronics, atmospheric modeling, and materials combined with improving communications and navigation infrastructure are making balloon-borne concepts more attractive. The important milestone accomplished by this project was the planned test flight over the continental United States. This document is specifically intended to review the technology development and preparations leading up to the test flight. Although the test flight experienced a payload failure just before entering its assent altitude, significant data were gathered. The results of the test flight are presented here. Important factors included in this report include quality assurance testing of the balloon, payload definition and characteristics, systems integration, preflight testing procedures, range operations, data collection, and post-flight analysis. 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  4. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics: Vehicle Dynamic Characterization and Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    PROPULSE ( Hybrid Diesel- Electric System with Export Power), Command Zone (integrated vehicle control and diagnostic system), and TerraMax (Unmanned...subassemblies that would be common on ground vehicles. Powertrain Systems: Gas Powered, Diesel, Turbo Diesel, Gas Turbine, Hybrid : Gas- Electric ...Diesel- Electric , Series, Parallel. Power Distribution: RWD, FWD, AWD, open diff, LSD, Torsen diff, differential braking (traction control), drive by

  5. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  6. 78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National... is rules that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit comments early enough...

  7. Simulating Heterogeneous Tumor Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Mishra, Bud

    2016-01-01

    Certain tumor phenomena, like metabolic heterogeneity and local stable regions of chronic hypoxia, signify a tumor’s resistance to therapy. Although recent research has shed light on the intracellular mechanisms of cancer metabolic reprogramming, little is known about how tumors become metabolically heterogeneous or chronically hypoxic, namely the initial conditions and spatiotemporal dynamics that drive these cell population conditions. To study these aspects, we developed a minimal, spatially-resolved simulation framework for modeling tissue-scale mixed populations of cells based on diffusible particles the cells consume and release, the concentrations of which determine their behavior in arbitrarily complex ways, and on stochastic reproduction. We simulate cell populations that self-sort to facilitate metabolic symbiosis, that grow according to tumor-stroma signaling patterns, and that give rise to stable local regions of chronic hypoxia near blood vessels. We raise two novel questions in the context of these results: (1) How will two metabolically symbiotic cell subpopulations self-sort in the presence of glucose, oxygen, and lactate gradients? We observe a robust pattern of alternating striations. (2) What is the proper time scale to observe stable local regions of chronic hypoxia? We observe the stability is a function of the balance of three factors related to O2—diffusion rate, local vessel release rate, and viable and hypoxic tumor cell consumption rate. We anticipate our simulation framework will help researchers design better experiments and generate novel hypotheses to better understand dynamic, emergent whole-tumor behavior. PMID:28030620

  8. Shock Initiation of Heterogeneous Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2004-05-10

    The fundamental picture that shock initiation in heterogeneous explosives is caused by the linking of hot spots formed at inhomogeneities was put forward by several researchers in the 1950's and 1960's, and more recently. Our work uses the computer hardware and software developed in the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the U.S. Department of Energy to explicitly include heterogeneities at the scale of the explosive grains and to calculate the consequences of realistic although approximate models of explosive behavior. Our simulations are performed with ALE-3D, a three-dimensional, elastic-plastic-hydrodynamic Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler finite-difference program, which includes chemical kinetics and heat transfer, and which is under development at this laboratory. We developed the parameter values for a reactive-flow model to describe the non-ideal detonation behavior of an HMX-based explosive from the results of grain-scale simulations. In doing so, we reduced the number of free parameters that are inferred from comparison with experiment to a single one - the characteristic defect dimension. We also performed simulations of the run to detonation in small volumes of explosive. These simulations illustrate the development of the reaction zone and the acceleration of the shock front as the flame fronts start from hot spots, grow, and interact behind the shock front. In this way, our grain-scale simulations can also connect to continuum experiments directly.

  9. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  10. Heterogeneous Integration of Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutanabbir, Oussama; Gösele, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    The ability to tailor compound semiconductors and to integrate them onto foreign substrates can lead to superior or novel functionalities with a potential impact on various areas in electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, biosensing, and photovoltaics. This review provides a brief description of different approaches to achieve this heterogeneous integration, with an emphasis on the ion-cut process, also known commercially as the Smart-Cut™ process. This process combines semiconductor wafer bonding and undercutting using defect engineering by light ion implantation. Bulk-quality heterostructures frequently unattainable by direct epitaxial growth can be produced, provided that a list of technical criteria is fulfilled, thus offering an additional degree of freedom in the design and fabrication of heterogeneous and flexible devices. Ion cutting is a generic process that can be employed to split and transfer fine monocrystalline layers from various crystals. Materials and engineering issues as well as our current understanding of the underlying physics involved in its application to cleaving thin layers from freestanding GaN, InP, and GaAs wafers are presented.

  11. Dispersivity in heterogeneous permeable media

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnut, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    When one fluid displaces another through a one-dimensional porous medium, the composition changes from pure displacing fluid at the inlet to pure displaced fluid some distance downstream. The distance over which an arbitrary percentage of this change occurs is defined as the mixing zone length, which increases with increasing average distance traveled by the displacement front. For continuous injection, the mixing zone size can be determined from a breakthrough curve as the time required for the effluent displacing fluid concentration to change from, say, 10% to 90%. In classical dispersion theory, the mixing zone grows in proportion to the square root of the mean distance traveled, or, equivalently, to the square root of the mean breakthrough time. In a multi-dimensional heterogeneous medium, especially at field scales, the size of the mixing zone grows almost linearly with mean distance or travel time. If an observed breakthrough curve is forced to fit the, clinical theory, the resulting effective dispersivity, instead of being constant, also increases almost linearly with the spatial or temporal scale of the problem. This occurs because the heterogeneity in flow properties creates a corresponding velocity distribution along the different flow pathways from the inlet to the outlet of the system. Mixing occurs mostly at the outlet, or wherever the fluid is sampled, rather than within the medium. In this paper, we consider the effects. of this behavior on radionuclide or other contaminant migration.

  12. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  13. Solar powered model vehicle races

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Nazmi; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Koç University SPIE student chapter has been organizing the solar powered model vehicle race and outreaching K-12 students. The solar powered model vehicle race for car, boat, blimp, all solar panel boat, submarine, underwater rower, amphibian, and glider have been successfully organized.

  14. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  15. Basic Utility Vehicle Design Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    What would you describe as a "car for humanity?" The Institute for Affordable Transportation (IAT) sees it as a simple vehicle that can be assembled almost anywhere by almost anyone to meet everyday needs and is a vehicle that can change lives for the working poor in Third World countries.

  16. Vehicle Safety. Managing Liability Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Deborah, Ed.

    This monograph discusses the safety of vehicles owned, leased, maintained, and operated by colleges and universities. First, the risks by colleges and universities is discussed. First, the risks associated with college vehicles are outlined, including the liability that comes with staff/faculty and student drivers and such special concerns as…

  17. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  18. Launch Vehicle Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1999-01-01

    This report summaries the key accomplishments of Georgia Tech's Space Systems Design Laboratory (SSDL) under NASA Grant NAG8-1302 from NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center. The report consists of this summary white paper, copies of technical papers written under this grant, and several viewgraph-style presentations. During the course of this grant four main tasks were completed: (1)Simulated Combined-Cycle Rocket Engine Analysis Module (SCCREAM), a computer analysis tool for predicting the performance of various RBCC engine configurations; (2) Hyperion, a single stage to orbit vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 pound payloads to the International Space Station Orbit; (3) Bantam-X Support - a small payload mission; (4) International Trajectory Support for interplanetary human Mars missions.

  19. Aerodynamically landing reentry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, I.

    This article represents a continuation of a paper in the preceding edition of this journal. The longitudinal stability of the reentry vehicle configuration 24B is discussed, taking into account an evaluation of the possibilities for lateral control, aileron effectiveness, and rudder effectiveness. It is pointed out that regarding the selection of the characteristics of the descent trajectory, there are apparently no constraints related to stability or controllability limits. In the hypersonic range, large reciprocal lift drag ratios can also be obtained without positive flap displacement. Attention is given to angle of sideslip relations, a cylindrical body with flat nose and trim tabs, the flow characteristics in the case of a cylinder with a flat nose, graphical relations describing longitudinal stability and controllability in the hypersonic range, and relations involving lift, drag, and the lift drag ratio.

  20. Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles February 2004 Office...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT...the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles I am pleased to forward the final report of

  1. Emission impacts of electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Quanlu Wang; DeLuchi, M.A.; Sperling, D. )

    1990-09-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, the authors analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in California for two target years, 1995 and 2010. They consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. They find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electric vehicles would dramatically and unequivocally reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Under most conditions, nitrogen oxide emissions would decrease moderately. Sulfur oxide and particulate emissions would increase or slightly decrease. Because other areas of the United States tend to use more coal in electricity generation and have less stringent emission controls on power plants, electric vehicles may have less emission reduction benefits outside California.

  2. Emission impacts of electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; DeLuchi, M.A.; Sperling, D. )

    1990-08-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, we analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in Califormia for two target years, 1995 and 2010. We consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. We find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electric vehicles would dramatically and unequivocally reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Under most conditions, nitrogen oxide emissions would decrease moderately. Sulfur oxide and particulate emissions would increase or slightly decrease. Because other areas of the US tend to use more coal in electricity generation and have less stringent emission controls on power plants, electric vehicles may have less emission reduction benefits outside California.

  3. Large engines and vehicles, 1958

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During the mid-1950s, the Air Force sponsored work on the feasibility of building large, single-chamber engines, presumably for boost-glide aircraft or spacecraft. In 1956, the Army missile development group began studies of large launch vehicles. The possibilities opened up by Sputnik accelerated this work and gave the Army an opportunity to bid for the leading role in launch vehicles. The Air Force had the responsibility for the largest ballistic missiles and hence a ready-made base for extending their capability for spaceflight. During 1958, actions taken to establish a civilian space agency, and the launch vehicle needs seen by its planners, added a third contender to the space vehicle competition. These activities during 1958 are examined as to how they resulted in the initiation of a large rocket engine and the first large launch vehicle.

  4. Aggregate vehicle travel forecasting model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Chin, Shih-Miao; Gibson, R.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a model for forecasting total US highway travel by all vehicle types, and its implementation in the form of a personal computer program. The model comprises a short-run, econometrically-based module for forecasting through the year 2000, as well as a structural, scenario-based longer term module for forecasting through 2030. The short-term module is driven primarily by economic variables. It includes a detailed vehicle stock model and permits the estimation of fuel use as well as vehicle travel. The longer-tenn module depends on demographic factors to a greater extent, but also on trends in key parameters such as vehicle load factors, and the dematerialization of GNP. Both passenger and freight vehicle movements are accounted for in both modules. The model has been implemented as a compiled program in the Fox-Pro database management system operating in the Windows environment.

  5. Advanced small launch vehicle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reins, G. E.; Alvis, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to determine the most economical (lowest cost/launch) approach for the development of an advanced small launch vehicle (ASLV) for use over the next decade. The ASLV design objective was to place a 340 kg (750 lb) payload into a 556 km (300 n.mi.) circular orbit when launched due east from Wallops Island, Virginia. The investigation encompassed improvements to the current Scout launch vehicle; use of existing military and NASA launch vehicle stages; and new, optionally staged vehicles. Staging analyses included use of liquid, solid, and hybrid propellants. Improvements in guidance, controls, interstages, telemetry, and payload shroud were also considered. It was concluded that the most economical approach is to progressively improve the Scout launch vehicle in three phased steps which are discussed.

  6. The aerobraking space transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Glen; Carpenter, Brian; Corns, Steve; Harris, Robert; Jun, Brian; Munro, Bruce; Pulling, Eric; Sekhon, Amrit; Welton, Walt; Jakubowski, A.

    1990-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Station and the proposed Geosynchronous Operation Support Center (GeoShack) in the early 21st century, the need for a cost effective, reusable orbital transport vehicle has arisen. This transport vehicle will be used in conjunction with the Space Shuttle, the Space Station, and GeoShack. The vehicle will transfer mission crew and payloads between low earth and geosynchronous orbits with minimal cost. Recent technological advances in thermal protection systems such as those employed in the Space Shuttle have made it possible to incorporate and aerobrake on the transfer vehicle to further reduce transport costs. The research and final design configuration of the aerospace senior design team from VPISU, working in conjunction with NASA, are presented. The topic of aerobraking and focuses on the evolution of an Aerobraking Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV), is addressed.

  7. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  8. 2012 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2013-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market Report in 2008. Three editions of the report have been published since that time. This 2012 report details the major trends in U.S. light vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national scale. The following section examines light-duty vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of medium and heavy trucks offers information on truck sales and fuel use. The technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards.

  9. 77 FR 40921 - Communication With Transport Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... COMMISSION Communication With Transport Vehicles AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory... withdrawing Regulatory Guide 5.32, Revision 1, ``Communication with Transport Vehicles,'' published in May..., ``Communication with Transport Vehicles,'' published in May 1975. This RG describes radiotelephone...

  10. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-08-20

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains.

  11. Vehicle Surveillance with a Generic, Adaptive, 3D Vehicle Model.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Matthew J; Mundy, Joseph L

    2011-07-01

    In automated surveillance, one is often interested in tracking road vehicles, measuring their shape in 3D world space, and determining vehicle classification. To address these tasks simultaneously, an effective approach is the constrained alignment of a prior model of 3D vehicle shape to images. Previous 3D vehicle models are either generic but overly simple or rigid and overly complex. Rigid models represent exactly one vehicle design, so a large collection is needed. A single generic model can deform to a wide variety of shapes, but those shapes have been far too primitive. This paper uses a generic 3D vehicle model that deforms to match a wide variety of passenger vehicles. It is adjustable in complexity between the two extremes. The model is aligned to images by predicting and matching image intensity edges. Novel algorithms are presented for fitting models to multiple still images and simultaneous tracking while estimating shape in video. Experiments compare the proposed model to simple generic models in accuracy and reliability of 3D shape recovery from images and tracking in video. Standard techniques for classification are also used to compare the models. The proposed model outperforms the existing simple models at each task.

  12. Heterogeneous sensor networks: a bio-inspired overlay architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Klein, Daniel; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2010-04-01

    Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Army Research Lab are developing technologies for automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous sensor networks through the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies (ICB). Unmanned air vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous data-driven collection routes. Bio-inspired techniques for search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data across heterogeneous sensors. A fast and accurate method has been developed for routing UAVs and localizing an event by fusing data from a sparse number of UGSs; it leverages a bio-inspired technique based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. The system was implemented and successfully tested using a high level simulation environment using a flight simulator to emulate a UAV. A field test was also conducted in November 2009 at Camp Roberts, CA using a UAV provided by AeroMech Engineering. The field test results showed that the system can detect and locate the source of an acoustic event with an accuracy of about 3 meters average circular error.

  13. HETEROGENEOUS REBURNING BY MIXED FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Yin Chen; Benson B. Gathitu

    2005-01-14

    Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

  14. Surface science and heterogeneous catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1980-05-01

    The catalytic reactions studied include hydrocarbon conversion over platinum, the transition metal-catalyzed hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and the photocatalyzed dissociation of water over oxide surfaces. The method of combined surface science and catalytic studies is similar to those used in synthetic organic chemistry. The single-crystal models for the working catalyst are compared with real catalysts by comparing the rates of cyclopropane ring opening on platinum and the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide on rhodium single crystal surface with those on practical commercial catalyst systems. Excellent agreement was obtained for these reactions. This document reviews what was learned about heterogeneous catalysis from these surface science approaches over the past 15 years and present models of the active catalyst surface.

  15. The heterogeneity of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Meinhold-Heerlein, I; Hauptmann, S

    2014-02-01

    Ovarian cancer carries the worst prognosis of all gynecological malignancies. This is mainly due to its resistance against commonly used cytostatic drugs as well as the lack of a screening method for its detection at an early stage. Both basic and translational research have shown over the past decades that ovarian cancer as a medical term includes several types of tumors with different phenotypes, molecular biology, etiology, tumor progression, and even different prognosis. In this issue of Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, J. Dietel presents a review article about novel findings of the etiopathogenesis of ovarian cancer and the role that fallopian tubes may play. He also outlines the implied clinical consequences. Here, we give a brief overview of the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer to introduce the topic.

  16. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. ); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. ); Kew, M. ); Volkmann, M. ); Zentgraf, H. )

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  17. Data Integration for Heterogenous Datasets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract More and more, the needs of data analysts are requiring the use of data outside the control of their own organizations. The increasing amount of data available on the Web, the new technologies for linking data across datasets, and the increasing need to integrate structured and unstructured data are all driving this trend. In this article, we provide a technical overview of the emerging “broad data” area, in which the variety of heterogeneous data being used, rather than the scale of the data being analyzed, is the limiting factor in data analysis efforts. The article explores some of the emerging themes in data discovery, data integration, linked data, and the combination of structured and unstructured data. PMID:25553272

  18. Heterogeneous Reburning By Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson Hall

    2009-03-31

    Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

  19. Optimizing Safe Motion for Autonomous Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    k of the vehicle motion (dk/ds) as the only control variable for the vehicle where s is the length along the vehicle trajectory. Previous motion...function for vehicle motion control is demonstrated by algorithmic simulation and by usc on the autonomous mobile robot Yamabico 11I at the Naval...only control variable for the vehicle, where s is the length along the vehicle trajectory. Previous motion planning of the autonomous mobile robot

  20. (90377) Sedna: Heterogeneous Surface Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Barucci, M.; Alvarez-Candal, A.; de Bergh, C.; Merlin, F.; Dumas, C.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2010-10-01

    The peculiar TNO (90377) Sedna is one of the most remote solar system objects accessible to investigations (current heliocentric distance 88AU). This dwarf planet is one of the reddest objects following the taxonomic group RR. To better constrain its surface composition and to investigate the possible heterogeneity of the surface of Sedna, several observations have been carried out at ESO-VLT with the powerful spectrometer SINFONI, which observes the H and K bands simultaneously. Even if Sedna, given its faintness, was at the limit of observations, the new analyzed spectra (obtained in 2005, 2007, and 2008) show a different behavior, particularly in the K band. Spectral modeling using the Shkuratov radiative transfer method has been performed using the various sets of data, including visible and Spitzer data, for a large wavelength range 0.4-4.5 microns, and the albedo value (0.21) estimated by Stansberry et al. (2008). We find that the surface of Sedna is not completely homogeneous. The visible and near-IR spectra can be modeled with organic materials (triton and titan tholin), serpentine, and H2O ice in fairly significant amounts, and CH4, N2 and C2H6 in varying trace amounts. One of the spectra, showing a different signature in the K-band, observed as part of the October 2005 group of data, is best modeled with CH3OH in place of CH4, with reduced amounts of serpentine and with the addition of olivine. The compositional surface heterogeneity can give clues to the origin and past history of this peculiar distant object.

  1. Mobile remote manipulator vehicle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Wallsom, Richard E. (Inventor); Jensen, J. Kermit (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A mobile remote manipulator system is disclosed for assembly, repair and logistics transport on, around and about a space station square bay truss structure. The vehicle is supported by a square track arrangement supported by guide pins integral with the space station truss structure and located at each truss node. Propulsion is provided by a central push-pull drive mechanism that extends out from the vehicle one full structural bay over the truss and locks drive rods into the guide pins. The draw bar is now retracted and the mobile remote manipulator system is pulled onto the next adjacent structural bay. Thus, translation of the vehicle is inchworm style. The drive bar can be locked onto two guide pins while the extendable draw bar is within the vehicle and then push the vehicle away one bay providing bidirectional push-pull drive. The track switches allow the vehicle to travel in two orthogonal directions over the truss structure which coupled with the bidirectional drive, allow movement in four directions on one plane. The top layer of this trilayered vehicle is a logistics platform. This platform is capable of 369 degees of rotation and will have two astronaut foot restraint platforms and a space crane integral.

  2. 2015 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy C.; Williams, Susan E.; Boundy, Robert G.; Moore, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    This is the seventh edition of the Vehicle Technologies Market Report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 22 and 23 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 63 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 70 through 81 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 90 through 94) and fuel use (Figures 97 through 100). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 105 through 118), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 130 through 137). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  3. A Framework for Integration of IVHM Technologies for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Mike

    2005-01-01

    objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for IIVH includes: 1) robust controllers for use in re-usable launch vehicles, 2) scaleable/flexible computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project. The integration of these IVHM technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

  4. Habitat heterogeneity, disturbance, and productivity work in concert to regulate biodiversity in deep submarine canyons.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R; Barry, James P

    2010-04-01

    Habitat heterogeneity is a major structuring agent of ecological assemblages promoting beta diversity and ultimately contributing to overall higher global diversity. The exact processes by which heterogeneity increases diversity are scale dependent and encompass variation in other well-known processes, e.g., productivity, disturbance, and temperature. Thus, habitat heterogeneity likely triggers multiple and cascading diversity effects through ecological assemblages. Submarine canyons, a pervasive feature of the world's oceans, likely increase habitat heterogeneity at multiple spatial scales similar to their terrestrial analogues. However, our understanding of how processes regulating diversity, and the potential for cascading effects within these important topographic features, remains incomplete. Utilizing remote-operated vehicles (ROVs) for coring and video transects, we quantified faunal turnover in the deep-sea benthos at a rarely examined scale (1 m-1 km). Macrofaunal community structure, megafaunal density, carbon flux, and sediment characteristics were analyzed for the soft-bottom benthos at the base of cliff faces in Monterey Canyon (northeast Pacific Ocean) at three depths. We documented a remarkable degree of faunal turnover and changes in overall community structure at scales < 100 m, and often < 10 m, related to geographic features of a canyon complex. Ultimately, our findings indicated that multiple linked processes related to habitat heterogeneity, ecosystem engineering, and bottom-up dynamics are important to deep-sea biodiversity.

  5. The automation of remote vehicle control. [in Mars roving vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, G.

    1977-01-01

    The automation of remote vehicles is becoming necessary to overcome the requirement of having man present as a controller. By removing man, remote vehicles can be operated in areas where the environment is too hostile for man, his reaction times are too slow, time delays are too long, and where his presence is too costly, or where system performance can be improved. This paper addresses the development of automated remote vehicle control for nonspace and space tasks from warehouse vehicles to proposed Mars rovers. The state-of-the-art and the availability of new technology for implementing automated control are reviewed and the major problem areas are outlined. The control strategies are divided into those where the path is planned in advance or constrained, or where the system is a teleoperator, or where automation or robotics have been introduced.

  6. Vehicle health management technology needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Jones, W. G.

    1992-01-01

    Background material on vehicle health management (VHM) and health monitoring/control is presented. VHM benefits are described and a list of VHM technology needs that should be pursued is presented. The NASA funding process as it impacts VHM technology funding is touched upon, and the VHM architecture guidelines for generic launch vehicles are described. An example of a good VHM architecture, design, and operational philosophy as it was conceptualized for the National Launch System program is presented. Consideration is given to the Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group's role in VHM, earth-to-orbit, and space vehicle avionics technology development considerations, and some actual examples of VHM benefits for checkout are given.

  7. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  8. Space Shuttle Vehicle Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  9. Fuel meter for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Harde, B.

    1987-10-13

    A fuel level meter for vehicles is described including an electrical measuring device comprising: a voltage source and a potentiometer resistor. The resistor comprises two ends connected between the voltage source and a movable contact, connected to a float disposed in a fuel tank, such that the position of the float is dependent on the level of fuel in the tank; a shuntable series resistance with a first side connected to the movable contact and to a first relay switch of a relay and a second side connected both to a first resistor and to the relay switch. The other side of the first resistor is connected to a first side of a rheostat and to an overvoltage protector means; a damping capacitor having one side connected between the relay switch and a second relay switch of the relay operable jointly with the first. The measuring device is connected between a second side of the rheostat and ground; wherein the relay switches are jointly movable between a position wherein a first side of the capacitor and the second side of the shuntable series resistance are both electrically connected to an input terminal of the measuring device such that a current flowing from the movable contact flows through the series resistor and the other side of the capacitor is coupled to a constant voltage, and a second position wherein the series resistance is shunted off, the overvoltage protector means is engaged in parallel with the measuring device, and the capacitor maintains the constant voltage.

  10. Mars transfer vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    Earth-to-Mars distances vary from 60 to 400 million kilometers over a 14-year cycle. This complicates Mars mission design as a function of calendar time. Stay times at Mars are also strongly driven by opportunities for a return flight path which are within the limits of delta-V associated with practical space vehicles. The biggest difference between Mars and lunar transfer missions is mission time, which grows from a few days for the moon, to as much as a few hundred days for Mars missions. As a result, modules for similarly sized crews must be much larger for Mars missions that for transfer to lunar orbit. Technology challenges for one Mars mission scenario analyzed by Boeing include aerobrakes, propulsion, and life support systems. Mission performance is very sensitive to aerobrake weight fraction and, as a result, there is an incentive to use high performance materials such as advanced composites and thermal protection systems. Lander aerobrake would be used twice (for both planetary capture and descent to the Mars surface), and it would need to survive temperatures up to 3500 degrees.

  11. GPS Moving Vehicle Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oaks, O. J.; Reid, Wilson; Wright, James; Duffey, Christopher; Williams, Charles; Warren, Hugh; Zeh, Tom; Buisson, James

    1996-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the development of timing systems for remote locations, had a technical requirement for a Y code (SA/AS) Global Positioning System (GPS) precise time transfer receiver (TTR) which could be used both in a stationary mode or mobile mode. A contract was awarded to the Stanford Telecommunication Corporation (STEL) to build such a device. The Eastern Range (ER) als had a requirement for such a receiver and entered into the contract with NRL for the procurement of additional receivers. The Moving Vehicle Experiment (MVE) described in this paper is the first in situ test of the STEL Model 5401C Time Transfer System in both stationary and mobile operations. The primary objective of the MVE was to test the timing accuracy of the newly developed GPS TTR aboard a moving vessel. To accomplish this objective, a joint experiment was performed with personnel from NRL and the er at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) test range at Andros Island. Results and discussion of the test are presented in this paper.

  12. Chemical and seismological constraints on mantle heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Helffrich, George

    2002-11-15

    Recent seismological studies that use scattered waves to detect heterogeneities in the mantle reveal the presence of a small, distributed elastic heterogeneity in the lower mantle which does not appear to be thermal in nature. The characteristic size of these heterogeneities appears to be ca. 8 km, suggesting that they represent subducted recycled oceanic crust. With this stimulus, old ideas that the mantle is heterogeneous in structure, rather than stratified, are reinterpreted and a simple, end-member model for the heterogeneity structure is proposed. The volumetrically largest components in the model are recycled oceanic crust, which contains the heat-producing elements, and mantle depleted of these and other incompatible trace elements. About 10% of the mantle's mass is made up of recycled oceanic crust, which is associated with the observed small-scale seismic heterogeneity. The way this heterogeneity is distributed is in convectively stretched and thinned bodies ranging downwards in size from 8 km. With the present techniques to detect small bodies through scattering, only ca. 55% of the mantle's small-scale heterogeneities are detectable seismically.

  13. Functional Heterogeneity and Senior Management Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There has been an increasing trend toward the creation of senior management teams (SMTs) which are characterized by a high degree of functional heterogeneity. Although such teams may create better linkages to information, along with the benefits of functional heterogeneity comes the potential for conflicts that stem from the value…

  14. The composition of heterogeneous control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin; Astrom, Karl

    1991-01-01

    The fuzzy control literature and industrial practice provide certain nonlinear methods for combining heterogeneous control laws, but these methods have been very difficult to analyze theoretically. An alternate formulation and extension of this approach is presented that has several practical and theoretical benefits. An example of heterogeneous control is given and two alternate analysis methods are presented.

  15. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  16. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  17. Heterogeneity assessment of functional T cell avidity

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidou, Kalliopi; Baumgaertner, Petra; Gannon, Philippe O.; Speiser, Michel F.; Allard, Mathilde; Hebeisen, Michael; Rufer, Nathalie; Speiser, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    The potency of cellular immune responses strongly depends on T cell avidity to antigen. Yet, functional avidity measurements are rarely performed in patients, mainly due to the technical challenges of characterizing heterogeneous T cells. The mean functional T cell avidity can be determined by the IFN-γ Elispot assay, with titrated amounts of peptide. Using this assay, we developed a method revealing the heterogeneity of functional avidity, represented by the steepness/hillslope of the peptide titration curve, documented by proof of principle experiments and mathematical modeling. Our data show that not only natural polyclonal CD8 T cell populations from cancer patients, but also monoclonal T cells differ strongly in their heterogeneity of functional avidity. Interestingly, clones and polyclonal cells displayed comparable ranges of heterogeneity. We conclude that besides the mean functional avidity, it is feasible and useful to determine its heterogeneity (hillslope) for characterizing T cell responses in basic research and patient investigation. PMID:28287160

  18. Operating a heterogeneous telescope network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Alasdair; Bischoff, Karsten; Burgdorf, Martin; Cavanagh, Brad; Christian, Damien; Clay, Neil; Dickens, Rob; Economou, Frossie; Fadavi, Mehri; Frazer, Stephen; Granzer, Thomas; Grosvenor, Sandy; Hessman, Frederic V.; Jenness, Tim; Koratkar, Anuradha; Lehner, Matthew; Mottram, Chris; Naylor, Tim; Saunders, Eric S.; Solomos, Nikolaos; Steele, Iain A.; Tuparev, Georg; Vestrand, W. Thomas; White, Robert R.; Yost, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    In the last few years the ubiquitous availability of high bandwidth networks has changed the way both robotic and non-robotic telescopes operate, with single isolated telescopes being integrated into expanding "smart" telescope networks that can span continents and respond to transient events in seconds. The Heterogeneous Telescope Networks (HTN)* Consortium represents a number of major research groups in the field of robotic telescopes, and together we are proposing a standards based approach to providing interoperability between the existing proprietary telescope networks. We further propose standards for interoperability, and integration with, the emerging Virtual Observatory. We present the results of the first interoperability meeting held last year and discuss the protocol and transport standards agreed at the meeting, which deals with the complex issue of how to optimally schedule observations on geographically distributed resources. We discuss a free market approach to this scheduling problem, which must initially be based on ad-hoc agreements between the participants in the network, but which may eventually expand into a electronic market for the exchange of telescope time.

  19. Distributional Scaling in Heterogeneous Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsinelli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    An investigation is undertaken into the fractal scaling properties of the piezometric head in a heterogeneous unconfined aquifer. The governing equations for the unconfined flow are derived from conservation of mass and the Darcy law. The Dupuit approximation will be used to model the dynamics. The spatially varying nature of the tendency to conduct flow (e.g. the hydraulic conductivity) is represented as a stochastic process. Experimental studies in the literature have indicated that the conductivity belongs to a class of non-stationary stochastic fields, called H-ss fields. The uncertainty in the soil parameters is imparted onto the flow variables; in groundwater investigations the potentiometric head will be a random function. The structure of the head field will be analyzed with an emphasis on the scaling properties. The scaling scheme for the modeling equations and the simulation procedure for the saturated hydraulic conductivity process will be explained, then the method will be validated through numerical experimentation using the USGS Modflow-2005 software. The results of the numerical simulations demonstrate that the head will exhibit multi-fractal scaling if the hydraulic conductivity exhibits multi-fractal scaling and the differential equations for the groundwater equation satisfy a particular set of scale invariance conditions.

  20. Aggregation of Heterogeneously Charged Colloids.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Joshua M; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2016-06-28

    Patchy colloids are attractive as programmable building blocks for metamaterials. Inverse patchy colloids, in which a charged surface is decorated with patches of the opposite charge, are additionally noteworthy as models for heterogeneously charged biological materials such as proteins. We study the phases and aggregation behavior of a single charged patch in an oppositely charged colloid with a single-site model. This single-patch inverse patchy colloid model shows a large number of phases when varying patch size. For large patch sizes we find ferroelectric crystals, while small patch sizes produce cross-linked gels. Intermediate values produce monodisperse clusters and unusual worm structures that preserve finite ratios of area to volume. The polarization observed at large patch sizes is robust under extreme disorder in patch size and shape. We examine phase-temperature dependence and coexistence curves and find that large patch sizes produce polarized liquids, in contrast to mean-field predictions. Finally, we introduce small numbers of unpatched charged colloids. These can either suppress or encourage aggregation depending on their concentration and the size of the patches on the patched colloids. These effects can be exploited to control aggregation and to measure effective patch size.

  1. Genetic heterogeneity in juvenile NCL

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Y.M.; Andermann, E.; Mitchison, H.M.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are a group of related lysosomal storage diseases classified according to the age of onset, clinical syndrome, and pathology. The clinical syndromes include myoclonus, visual failure, progressive dementia, ataxia and generalized tonic clonic seizures in varying combinations depending on the age of onset and pathology. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive in most cases, except for several families with the adult form (Kufs` disease) which have autosomal dominant inheritance. Linkage for the infantile (Halatia-Santavuori) form (CLN1), characterized ultrastructurally by lysosomal granular osmiophilic deposits (GROD), has been demonstrated with markers on chromosome lp, while the gene for the typical juvenile (Spielmeyer-Vogt) form (CLN3), characterized by fingerprint-profile inclusions, has been linked to chromosome 16p. The gene locations of the late infantile (Jansky-Bielschowsky) and adult (Kufs` disease) forms are unknown, although it has recently been shown that the late infantile form does not link to chromosome 16p. We describe three siblings, including a pair of monozygotic twins, with juvenile onset NCL with GROD in whom linkage to the CLN3 region of chromsome 16p has been excluded. This would suggest that there is genetic heterogeneity not only among the different clinical syndromes, but also among identical clinical syndromes with different ultrastructural characteristics. Preliminary studies of linkage to chromosome 1p employing the microsatellite marker HY-TM1 have been uninformative. Further studies with other chromosome 1 markers are underway.

  2. Saturn IB Launch Vehicle - Cutaway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This 1968 cutaway drawing illustrates the Saturn IB launch vehicle with its two booster stages, the S-IB and S-IVB. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the marned lunar mission.

  3. Saturn IB Launch Vehicle Cutaway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This undated cutaway drawing illustrates the Saturn IB launch vehicle with its two booster stages, the S-IB and S-IVB. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the marned lunar missions.

  4. 2013 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Williams, Susan E; Boundy, Robert Gary; Moore, Sheila A

    2014-03-01

    This is the fifth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 24 through 51 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 56 through 64 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 73 through 75) and fuel use (Figures 78 through 81). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 84 through 95), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 106 through 110). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets.

  5. 2014 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary; Moore, Sheila A

    2015-03-01

    This is the sixth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales and technologies specific to heavy trucks. The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards. In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible tables and figures.

  6. Explosion proof vehicle for tank inspection

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Bauer, Scott G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-02-28

    An Explosion Proof Vehicle (EPV) having an interior substantially filled with an inert fluid creating an interior pressure greater than the exterior pressure. One or more flexible tubes provide the inert fluid and one or more electrical conductors from a control system to the vehicle. The vehicle is preferably used in subsurface tank inspection, whereby the vehicle is submerged in a volatile fluid.

  7. Orbital-Transfer Vehicle With Aerodynamic Braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, C. D.; Nagy, K.; Roberts, B. B.; Ried, R. C.; Kroll, K.; Gamble, J.

    1986-01-01

    Vehicle includes airbrake for deceleration into lower orbit. Report describes vehicle for carrying payloads between low and high orbits around Earth. Vehicle uses thin, upper atmosphere for braking when returning to low orbit. Since less propellant needed than required for full retrorocket braking, vehicle carries larger payload and therefore reduces cost of space transportation.

  8. FY2015 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-01-31

    The Vehicle Systems research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  9. Optical guidance system for industrial vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Robert D.; Eschbach, Eugene A.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Lind, Michael A.; Buck, Erville C.; Buck, Roger L.

    1990-01-01

    An automatically guided vehicle system for steering a vehicle. Optical sensing detects an image of a segment of track mounted above the path of the vehicle. Electrical signals corresponding to the position of the track are generated. A control circuit then converts these signals into movements for the steering of the vehicle.

  10. Method and system for vehicle refueling

    DOEpatents

    Surnilla, Gopichandra; Leone, Thomas G; Prasad, Krishnaswamy Venkatesh; Agarwal, Apoorv; Hinds, Brett Stanley

    2014-06-10

    Methods and systems are provided for facilitating refueling operations in vehicles operating with multiple fuels. A vehicle operator may be assisted in refueling the multiple fuel tanks of the vehicle by being provided one or more refueling profiles that take into account the vehicle's future trip plans, the predicted environmental conditions along a planned route, and the operator's preferences.

  11. Method and system for vehicle refueling

    DOEpatents

    Surnilla, Gopichandra; Leone, Thomas G; Prasad, Krishnaswamy Venkatesh; Argarwal, Apoorv; Hinds, Brett Stanley

    2012-11-20

    Methods and systems are provided for facilitating refueling operations in vehicles operating with multiple fuels. A vehicle operator may be assisted in refueling the multiple fuel tanks of the vehicle by being provided one or more refueling profiles that take into account the vehicle's future trip plans, the predicted environmental conditions along a planned route, and the operator's preferences.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 1926.601 Section 1926.601 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.601 Motor vehicles. (a) Coverage. Motor vehicles as covered by this part are those...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 1926.601 Section 1926.601 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.601 Motor vehicles. (a) Coverage. Motor vehicles as covered by this part are those...

  14. 15 CFR 265.19 - Unattended vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unattended vehicles. 265.19 Section... Unattended vehicles. No person shall leave a motor vehicle unattended on the site with the engine running or a key in the ignition switch or the vehicle not effectively braked....

  15. 32 CFR 263.7 - Emergency vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency vehicles. 263.7 Section 263.7 National... TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.7 Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle when operating with siren...

  16. 43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vehicles. 423.40 Section 423.40 Public... Vehicles. (a) When operating a vehicle on Reclamation lands and Reclamation projects, you must comply with... vehicle through, around, or beyond a restrictive sign, recognizable barricade, fence, or traffic...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6202 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicles. 57.6202 Section 57.6202 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6202 Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1... operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1) No sparking material exposed in the...

  18. 32 CFR 263.7 - Emergency vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency vehicles. 263.7 Section 263.7 National... TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.7 Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle when operating with siren...

  19. 49 CFR 575.7 - Special vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special vehicles. 575.7 Section 575.7... 112(d) of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act; General § 575.7 Special vehicles. A manufacturer who produces vehicles having a configuration not available for purchase by the general public...

  20. 15 CFR 265.19 - Unattended vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unattended vehicles. 265.19 Section... Unattended vehicles. No person shall leave a motor vehicle unattended on the site with the engine running or a key in the ignition switch or the vehicle not effectively braked....

  1. 30 CFR 56.6202 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicles. 56.6202 Section 56.6202 Mineral... Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1) Maintained in good condition and shall... device being used in the loading operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1)...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6202 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicles. 57.6202 Section 57.6202 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6202 Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1... operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1) No sparking material exposed in the...

  3. 49 CFR 575.7 - Special vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special vehicles. 575.7 Section 575.7... 112(d) of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act; General § 575.7 Special vehicles. A manufacturer who produces vehicles having a configuration not available for purchase by the general public...

  4. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6202 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicles. 56.6202 Section 56.6202 Mineral... Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1) Maintained in good condition and shall... device being used in the loading operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1)...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6202 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicles. 57.6202 Section 57.6202 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6202 Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1... operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1) No sparking material exposed in the...

  7. 49 CFR 176.134 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicles. 176.134 Section 176.134 Transportation... Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.134 Vehicles. Closed vehicles may be used to transport Class... requirements relating to the transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicles....

  8. 15 CFR 265.19 - Unattended vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unattended vehicles. 265.19 Section... Unattended vehicles. No person shall leave a motor vehicle unattended on the site with the engine running or a key in the ignition switch or the vehicle not effectively braked....

  9. 32 CFR 263.7 - Emergency vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency vehicles. 263.7 Section 263.7 National... TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.7 Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle when operating with siren...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6202 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicles. 57.6202 Section 57.6202 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6202 Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1... operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1) No sparking material exposed in the...

  11. 49 CFR 575.7 - Special vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special vehicles. 575.7 Section 575.7... 112(d) of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act; General § 575.7 Special vehicles. A manufacturer who produces vehicles having a configuration not available for purchase by the general public...

  12. 49 CFR 575.7 - Special vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special vehicles. 575.7 Section 575.7... 112(d) of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act; General § 575.7 Special vehicles. A manufacturer who produces vehicles having a configuration not available for purchase by the general public...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6202 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicles. 56.6202 Section 56.6202 Mineral... Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1) Maintained in good condition and shall... device being used in the loading operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1)...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6202 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 56.6202 Section 56.6202 Mineral... Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1) Maintained in good condition and shall... device being used in the loading operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1)...

  15. 15 CFR 265.19 - Unattended vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unattended vehicles. 265.19 Section... Unattended vehicles. No person shall leave a motor vehicle unattended on the site with the engine running or a key in the ignition switch or the vehicle not effectively braked....

  16. 32 CFR 263.7 - Emergency vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency vehicles. 263.7 Section 263.7 National... TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.7 Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle when operating with siren...

  17. 43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicles. 423.40 Section 423.40 Public... Vehicles. (a) When operating a vehicle on Reclamation lands and Reclamation projects, you must comply with... vehicle through, around, or beyond a restrictive sign, recognizable barricade, fence, or traffic...

  18. 43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Vehicles. 423.40 Section 423.40 Public... Vehicles. (a) When operating a vehicle on Reclamation lands and Reclamation projects, you must comply with... vehicle through, around, or beyond a restrictive sign, recognizable barricade, fence, or traffic...

  19. 15 CFR 265.19 - Unattended vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unattended vehicles. 265.19 Section... Unattended vehicles. No person shall leave a motor vehicle unattended on the site with the engine running or a key in the ignition switch or the vehicle not effectively braked....

  20. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The operator... vehicle in a space that is not designated a parking space; or (2) Refuel any motor vehicle....

  1. 43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vehicles. 423.40 Section 423.40 Public... Vehicles. (a) When operating a vehicle on Reclamation lands and Reclamation projects, you must comply with... vehicle through, around, or beyond a restrictive sign, recognizable barricade, fence, or traffic...

  2. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6202 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicles. 56.6202 Section 56.6202 Mineral... Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1) Maintained in good condition and shall... device being used in the loading operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1)...

  4. 49 CFR 176.134 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vehicles. 176.134 Section 176.134 Transportation... Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.134 Vehicles. Closed vehicles may be used to transport Class... requirements relating to the transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicles....

  5. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  6. 36 CFR 327.2 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicles. 327.2 Section 327.2... Vehicles. (a) This section pertains to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, mini-bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all-terrain vehicles, and trailers, campers, bicycles,...

  7. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  8. 43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vehicles. 423.40 Section 423.40 Public... Vehicles. (a) When operating a vehicle on Reclamation lands and Reclamation projects, you must comply with... vehicle through, around, or beyond a restrictive sign, recognizable barricade, fence, or traffic...

  9. 49 CFR 575.7 - Special vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special vehicles. 575.7 Section 575.7... 112(d) of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act; General § 575.7 Special vehicles. A manufacturer who produces vehicles having a configuration not available for purchase by the general public...

  10. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  11. 49 CFR 176.134 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vehicles. 176.134 Section 176.134 Transportation... Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.134 Vehicles. Closed vehicles may be used to transport Class... requirements relating to the transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicles....

  12. 32 CFR 263.7 - Emergency vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency vehicles. 263.7 Section 263.7 National... TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.7 Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle when operating with siren...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6202 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 57.6202 Section 57.6202 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6202 Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1... operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1) No sparking material exposed in the...

  14. Self-propelled vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.D.

    1986-03-04

    A self-propelled vehicle is described which includes a body and a set of four internal-force generating devices, each device having a central axis about which internal portions thereof rotate, the four devices being configured as two opposed pairs, the two devices of one pair having parallel axes, but turning in opposite directions, the two devices of the other pair also having parallel axes but turning in opposite directions the axes of the one pair being at right angles to the axes of the other pair. Each device consists of: stationary frame means, a stationary sun gear on the frame means, the sun gear being coaxial with the central axis of its respective device, a rotor pivoted about the axis of the sun gear, three crankshafts carried by the rotor at substantially 120/sup 0/ intervals, each having an eccentric portion, for each crankshaft a cylinder in the rotor, a piston mounted for riciprocation in each cylinder, and a connecting rod from the piston to the eccentric portion of the crankshaft, each crankshaft being fixed to rotate with a respective planetary gear, all planetary gears meshing with the sun gear and having the same pitch diameter as the sun gear, whereby any point on the pitch circle of a planetary gear describes a cardioid as the planetary gear rotates around the sun gear once, the crankshaft eccentricity being substantially 1/3 of the pitch radius of a planetary gear, fuel metering means for providing a combustible mixture for the cylinder, ignition means to ignite the combustible mixture in each cylinder, and valve means for admitting the combustible mixture to, and exhausting combustion gases from, each cylinder.

  15. Electric vehicle performance in 1994 DOE competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Quong, S.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.; LeBlanc, N.; Gonzales, R.; Buitrago, C.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through Argonne National Laboratory sponsored and recorded energy data of electric vehicles (EVs) at five competitions in 1994. Each competition provided different test conditions (closed-track, on-road, and dynamometer). The data gathered at these competitions includes energy efficiency, range, acceleration, and vehicle characteristics. The results of the analysis show that the vehicles performed as expected. Some of the EVs were also tested on dynamometers and compared to gasoline vehicles, including production vehicles with advanced battery systems. Although the EVs performed well at these competitions, the results show that only the vehicles with advanced technologies perform as well or better than conventional gasoline vehicles.

  16. Combinatorial Motion Planning Algorithms for a Heterogeneous Collection of Unmanned Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-15

    to the dropoff nodes is within an acceptable value while the total fuel consumed is minimized. Fuel capacity of a UV may be parameterized by the non...Programming (ADP) via Linear Programming (LP) as it provides a way to approximate the value function and provide bounds on its sub- optimality. The novel...exceeds the lower bound. Specifically, we obtained the following results: 1. We developed upper and lower bounds to the value function as component-wise

  17. Operational Planning for Multiple Heterogeneous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Three Dimensions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    2.1.3 The Role of the UAV Planner 24 2.1.4 Human Collaboration 24 2.2 Operational Scenarios 25 2.2.1 Current Studies and Operations 25 2.2.2 Projected...Balakrishnan Assistant Professor, Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems Thesis Advisor Accepted by: / Cynthia Barnhart Professor, Civil and...Environmental Engineering Co-Director, Operations Research Center Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  18. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Nebuda, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity.

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  20. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  4. Molecular modeling of heterogeneous catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gislason, Jason Joseph

    A novel method for modeling heterogeneous catalysis was developed to further facilitate the understanding of catalytic reactor mechanisms. The method employs molecular dynamics simulations, statistical mechanical, and Unity Bond Index - Quadratic Exponential Potential (UBI-QEP) calculations to calculate the rate constants for reactions on metal surfaces. The primary difficulty of molecular dynamics simulations on metal surfaces has been the lack of reliable reactive potential energy surfaces. We have overcome this through the development of the Normalized Bond Index - Reactive Potential Function (NBI-RPF), which can accurately describe the reaction of adsorbates on metal surfaces. The first calculations of rate constants for a reaction on a metal surface using molecular dynamics simulations are presented. This method is applied to the determination of the mechanism for selective hydrogenation of acetylene in an ethylene rich flow. It was determined that the selectivity for acetylene hydrogenation is attributable to the higher reactivity of acetylene versus ethylene with respect to hydrogenation by molecular hydrogen. It was shown that hydrogen transfer from the carbonaceous layer to acetylene or ethylene is insignificant in the hydrogenation process. Molecular dynamics simulations and molecular mechanics calculations were used to determine the diffusion rate constants for dimethylnaphthalene isomers is mordenite. 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene were found to have similar diffusion rate constants. Grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations were performed on the competitive adsorption of 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene in type X zeolites exchanged individually with barium, calcium, potassium, and rubidium ions, calcium exchanged MCM-22, and hydrogen form mordenite (MOR), X zeolite, Y zeolite, hypBEB, ZSM- 12, and MCM-22. These calculations showed that barium exchanged X zeolite was the most selective toward 2

  5. Isotopic heterogeneity in volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Ramos, F. C.; Tollstrup, D. L.

    2003-04-01

    The growing microsample database on volcanic rocks is showing that isotopic disequilibrium between and among phenocryst phases, their melt inclusions, and groundmass is the rule rather than the exception. This applies even in cases of little or no petrographic evidence for disequilibrium. Erupted magmas must therefore be regarded, to some extent, as mechanical mixtures of isotopically distinct components assembled from different sources. The preservation of isotopic disequilibrium requires that the assembly takes place before diffusion can eradicate evidence of disequilibrium. For a wide range of magmas (mafic, intermediate and felsic, silica under- and oversaturated) from different volcano types (flood basalts, monogenetic cones, stratocones, silicic calderas) this timescale ranges from thousands of years down to one year or less, with no consistent pattern of mixing-to-eruption time vs. volcano or magma type. Among many issues arising from these findings, we note that estimation of magmatic temperatures from application of equilibrium thermodynamics to phenocryst assemblages in volcanic rocks should be approached with extreme caution. The isotope ratio variations observed among the components of a single volcanic rock sample, in most cases, indicate interaction between magma and the local wall-rock. This is consistent with the view that the vast majority of magmas undergo modification during transport through and residence within the crust. Three physical origins of heterogeneity have been proposed: melting of wallrock, magmatic recharge, and mixing of components within a magma chamber initially segregated into melt-rich and crystal-rich portions. Time constraints on preservation of disequilibrium imply either a causal link with eruption, or that these processes occur through the lifetime of a chamber.

  6. Mechanical heterogeneities and lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, Thibault; Petri, Benoit; Mohn, Geoffroy; Schenker, Filippo L.; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Detailed geological and geophysical studies of passive margins have highlighted the multi-stage and depth-dependent aspect of lithospheric thinning. Lithospheric thinning involves a variety of structures (normal faults, low angle detachments, extensional shear zones, extraction faults) and leads to a complex architecture of passive margins (with e.g. necking zone, mantle exhumation, continental allochthons). The processes controlling the generation and evolution of these structures as well as the impact of pre-rift inheritance are so far incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the impact of pre-rift inheritance on the development of rifted margins using two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models of lithospheric thinning. To first order, we represent the pre-rift mechanical heterogeneities with lithological layering. The rheologies are kept simple (visco-plastic) and do not involve any strain softening mechanism. Our models show that mechanical layering causes multi-stage and depth-dependent extension. In the initial rifting phase, lithospheric extension is decoupled: as the crust undergoes thinning by brittle (frictional-plastic) faults, the lithospheric mantle accommodates extension by symmetric ductile necking. In a second rifting phase, deformation in the crust and lithospheric mantle is coupled and marks the beginning of an asymmetric extension stage. Low angle extensional shear zones develop across the lithosphere and exhume subcontinental mantle. Furthemore, crustal allochthons and adjacent basins develop coevally. We describe as well the thermal evolution predicted by the numerical models and discuss the first-order implications of our results in the context of the Alpine geological history.

  7. Interoperability of heterogeneous distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaschke, C.; Essendorfer, B.; Kerth, C.

    2016-05-01

    To achieve knowledge superiority in today's operations interoperability is the key. Budget restrictions as well as the complexity and multiplicity of threats combined with the fact that not single nations but whole areas are subject to attacks force nations to collaborate and share information as appropriate. Multiple data and information sources produce different kinds of data, real time and non-real time, in different formats that are disseminated to the respective command and control level for further distribution. The data is most of the time highly sensitive and restricted in terms of sharing. The question is how to make this data available to the right people at the right time with the right granularity. The Coalition Shared Data concept aims to provide a solution to these questions. It has been developed within several multinational projects and evolved over time. A continuous improvement process was established and resulted in the adaptation of the architecture as well as the technical solution and the processes it supports. Coming from the idea of making use of existing standards and basing the concept on sharing of data through standardized interfaces and formats and enabling metadata based query the concept merged with a more sophisticated service based approach. The paper addresses concepts for information sharing to facilitate interoperability between heterogeneous distributed systems. It introduces the methods that were used and the challenges that had to be overcome. Furthermore, the paper gives a perspective how the concept could be used in the future and what measures have to be taken to successfully bring it into operations.

  8. Frictional Heterogeneities Along Carbonate Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, C.; Carpenter, B. M.; Scuderi, M.; Tesei, T.

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of fault-slip behaviour in carbonates has an important societal impact as a) a significant number of earthquakes nucleate within or propagate through these rocks, and b) half of the known petroleum reserves occur within carbonate reservoirs, which likely contain faults that experience fluid pressure fluctuations. Field studies on carbonate-bearing faults that are exhumed analogues of currently active structures of the seismogenic crust, show that fault rock types are systematically controlled by the lithology of the faulted protolith: localization associated with cataclasis, thermal decomposition and plastic deformation commonly affect fault rocks in massive limestone, whereas distributed deformation, pressure-solution and frictional sliding along phyllosilicates are observed in marly rocks. In addition, hydraulic fractures, indicating cyclic fluid pressure build-ups during the fault activity, are widespread. Standard double direct friction experiments on fault rocks from massive limestones show high friction, velocity neutral/weakening behaviour and significant re-strengthening during hold periods, on the contrary, phyllosilicate-rich shear zones are characterized by low friction, significant velocity strengthening behavior and no healing. We are currently running friction experiments on large rock samples (20x20 cm) in order to reproduce and characterize the interaction of fault rock frictional heterogeneities observed in the field. In addition we have been performing experiments at near lithostatic fluid pressure in the double direct shear configuration within a pressure vessel to test the Rate and State friction stability under these conditions. Our combination of structural observations and mechanical data have been revealing the processes and structures that are at the base of the broad spectrum of fault slip behaviors recently documented by high-resolution geodetic and seismological data.

  9. Prevention of motor‐vehicle deaths by changing vehicle factors

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Leon S

    2007-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of changing vehicle factors to reduce mortality in a comprehensive study. Design/methods Odds of death in the United States during 2000–2005 were analyzed, involving specific makes and models of 1999–2005 model year cars, minivans, and sport utility vehicles using logistic regression after selection of factors to be included by examination of least‐squares correlations of vehicle factors to maximize independence of predictors. Based on the regression coefficients, percentages of deaths preventable by changes in selected factors were calculated. Correlations of vehicle characteristics to environmental and behavioral risk factors were also examined to assess any potential confounding. Results Deaths in the studied vehicles would have been 42% lower had all had electronic stability control (ESC) systems. Improved crashworthiness as measured by offset frontal and side crash tests would have produced an additional 28% reduction, and static stability improvement would have reduced the deaths 11%. Although weight–power that reduces fuel economy is associated with lower risk to drivers, it increases risk of deaths to pedestrians and bicyclists but has an overall minor effect compared to the other factors. Conclusion A large majority of motor‐vehicle‐related fatalities could be avoided by universal adoption of the most effective technologies. PMID:17916886

  10. A green vehicle routing problem with customer satisfaction criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar-Bakeshloo, M.; Mehrabi, A.; Safari, H.; Maleki, M.; Jolai, F.

    2016-08-01

    This paper develops an MILP model, named Satisfactory-Green Vehicle Routing Problem. It consists of routing a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in order to serve a set of customers within predefined time windows. In this model in addition to the traditional objective of the VRP, both the pollution and customers' satisfaction have been taken into account. Meanwhile, the introduced model prepares an effective dashboard for decision-makers that determines appropriate routes, the best mixed fleet, speed and idle time of vehicles. Additionally, some new factors evaluate the greening of each decision based on three criteria. This model applies piecewise linear functions (PLFs) to linearize a nonlinear fuzzy interval for incorporating customers' satisfaction into other linear objectives. We have presented a mixed integer linear programming formulation for the S-GVRP. This model enriches managerial insights by providing trade-offs between customers' satisfaction, total costs and emission levels. Finally, we have provided a numerical study for showing the applicability of the model.

  11. Heterogeneous Chemistry Involving Methanol in Tropospheric Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Yokelson, R. J.; Singh, H. B.; Hobbs, P. V.; Crawford, J. H.; Iraci, L. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this report we analyze airborne measurements to suggest that methanol in biomass burning smoke is lost heterogeneously in clouds. When a smoke plume intersected a cumulus cloud during the SAFARI 2000 field project, the observed methanol gas phase concentration rapidly declined. Current understanding of gas and aqueous phase chemistry cannot explain the loss of methanol documented by these measurements. Two plausible heterogeneous reactions are proposed to explain the observed simultaneous loss and production of methanol and formaldehyde, respectively. If the rapid heterogeneous processing of methanol, seen in a cloud impacted by smoke, occurs in more pristine clouds, it could affect the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere on a global scale.

  12. A heterogeneous graph-based recommendation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yeonchan, Ahn; Sungchan, Park; Lee, Matt Sangkeun; Sang-goo, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous graph-based recommendation frameworks have flexibility in that they can incorporate various recommendation algorithms and various kinds of information to produce better results. In this demonstration, we present a heterogeneous graph-based recommendation simulator which enables participants to experience the flexibility of a heterogeneous graph-based recommendation method. With our system, participants can simulate various recommendation semantics by expressing the semantics via meaningful paths like User Movie User Movie. The simulator then returns the recommendation results on the fly based on the user-customized semantics using a fast Monte Carlo algorithm.

  13. U32: Vehicle Stability and Dynamics: Longer Combination Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Petrolino, Joseph; Spezia, Tony; Arant, Michael; Broshears, Eric; Chitwood, Caleb; Colbert, Jameson; Hathaway, Richard; Keil, Mitch; LaClair, Tim J; Pape, Doug; Patterson, Jim; Pittro, Collin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the safety and stability of longer combination vehicles (LCVs), in particular a triple trailer combination behind a commercial tractor, which has more complicated dynamics than the more common tractor in combination with a single semitrailer. The goal was to measure and model the behavior of LCVs in simple maneuvers. Example maneuvers tested and modeled were single and double lane changes, a gradual lane change, and a constant radius curve. In addition to test track data collection and a brief highway test, two computer models of LCVs were developed. One model is based on TruckSim , a lumped parameter model widely used for single semitrailer combinations. The other model was built in Adams software, which more explicitly models the geometry of the components of the vehicle, in terms of compliant structural members. Among other results, the models were able to duplicate the experimentally measured rearward amplification behavior that is characteristic of multi-unit combination vehicles.

  14. Increasing selection response by Bayesian modeling of heterogeneous environmental variances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterogeneity of environmental variance among genotypes reduces selection response because genotypes with higher variance are more likely to be selected than low-variance genotypes. Modeling heterogeneous variances to obtain weighted means corrected for heterogeneous variances is difficult in likel...

  15. 2011 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Boundy, Robert Gary; Diegel, Susan W

    2012-02-01

    This report details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. This third edition since this report was started in 2008 offers several marked improvements relative to its predecessors. Most significantly, where earlier editions of this report focused on supplying information through an examination of market drivers, new vehicle trends, and supplier data, this edition uses a different structure. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. In addition to making this sectional re-alignment, this year s edition of the report also takes a different approach to communicating information. While previous editions relied heavily on text accompanied by auxiliary figures, this third edition relies primarily on charts and graphs to communicate trends. Any accompanying text serves to introduce the trends communication by the graphic and highlight any particularly salient observations. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 11 through 13 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 20 and 21 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 26 through 33 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 38 through 43 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and

  16. An Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph J.; Kinney, David J.; Kaneshige, John T.; Agabon, Shane

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment for estimating aircraft geometric, inertial, and aerodynamic characteristics, and for interfacing with a high fidelity, workstation based flight simulation architecture. The goals in developing this environment are to aid in the design of next generation intelligent fight control technologies, conduct research in advanced vehicle interface concepts for autonomous and semi-autonomous applications, and provide a value-added capability to the conceptual design and aircraft synthesis process. Results are presented for three aircraft by comparing estimates generated by the Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment with known characteristics of each vehicle under consideration. The three aircraft are a modified F-15 with moveable canards attached to the airframe, a mid-sized, twin-engine commercial transport concept, and a small, single-engine, uninhabited aerial vehicle. Estimated physical properties and dynamic characteristics are correlated with those known for each aircraft over a large portion of the flight envelope of interest. These results represent the completion of a critical step toward meeting the stated goals for developing this modeling environment.

  17. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  18. Vehicle security apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1996-02-13

    A vehicle security apparatus for use in a motor vehicle, the apparatus comprising an optical key, a receptacle, a receiver and at least one optical fiber. The optical key has a transmitter having at least one first preprogrammed coded signal stored in a first electric circuit. The receptacle receives the optical key and at least one transmittable coded optical signal from the transmitter corresponding to the at least one preprogrammed coded signal stored in the first electric circuit. The receiver compares the at least one transmittable coded optical signal to at least one second preprogrammed coded signal stored in a second electric circuit and the receiver is adapted to trigger switching effects for at least one of enabling starting the motor vehicle and starting the motor vehicle upon determination that the at least one transmittable coded optical signal corresponds to the at least one second preprogrammed signal in the second electric circuit. The at least one optical fiber is operatively connected between the receptacle and the receiver for carrying the optical signal from the receptacle to the receiver. Also disclosed is a method for permitting only authorized use of a motor vehicle.

  19. Vehicle security apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1996-02-13

    A vehicle security apparatus for use in a motor vehicle is disclosed, the apparatus comprising an optical key, a receptacle, a receiver and at least one optical fiber. The optical key has a transmitter having at least one first preprogrammed coded signal stored in a first electric circuit. The receptacle receives the optical key and at least one transmittable coded optical signal from the transmitter corresponding to the at least one preprogrammed coded signal stored in the first electric circuit. The receiver compares the at least one transmittable coded optical signal to at least one second preprogrammed coded signal stored in a second electric circuit and the receiver is adapted to trigger switching effects for at least one of enabling starting the motor vehicle and starting the motor vehicle upon determination that the at least one transmittable coded optical signal corresponds to the at least one second preprogrammed signal in the second electric circuit. The at least one optical fiber is operatively connected between the receptacle and the receiver for carrying the optical signal from the receptacle to the receiver. Also disclosed is a method for permitting only authorized use of a motor vehicle. 7 figs.

  20. X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

  1. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  2. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  3. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers,...

  4. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

  5. Device for coupling a first vehicle to a second vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudmann, A. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A device is disclosed, carried by a first vehicle such as an orbiting space shuttle, having a plurality of contact members for engaging and holding an annular ring on a second vehicle such as an orbiting payload. The contact members are connected to manipulator arms which are mounted at a fulcrum point and which are moved by an iris type mechanism. Movement of the manipulator arms causes the contact members to grasp or release the annular ring. Bumper devices are provided to axially align the annular ring and draw the contact members into engagement therewith.

  6. Computational Mechanics for Heterogeneous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lechman, Jeremy B.; Baczewski, Andrew David; Stephen Bond; Erikson, William W.; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Noble, David R.; Pierce, Flint; Roberts, Christine; van Swol, Frank B.; Yarrington, Cole

    2013-11-01

    The subject of this work is the development of models for the numerical simulation of matter, momentum, and energy balance in heterogeneous materials. These are materials that consist of multiple phases or species or that are structured on some (perhaps many) scale(s). By computational mechanics we mean to refer generally to the standard type of modeling that is done at the level of macroscopic balance laws (mass, momentum, energy). We will refer to the flow or flux of these quantities in a generalized sense as transport. At issue here are the forms of the governing equations in these complex materials which are potentially strongly inhomogeneous below some correlation length scale and are yet homogeneous on larger length scales. The question then becomes one of how to model this behavior and what are the proper multi-scale equations to capture the transport mechanisms across scales. To address this we look to the area of generalized stochastic process that underlie the transport processes in homogeneous materials. The archetypal example being the relationship between a random walk or Brownian motion stochastic processes and the associated Fokker-Planck or diffusion equation. Here we are interested in how this classical setting changes when inhomogeneities or correlations in structure are introduced into the problem. Aspects of non-classical behavior need to be addressed, such as non-Fickian behavior of the mean-squared-displacement (MSD) and non-Gaussian behavior of the underlying probability distribution of jumps. We present an experimental technique and apparatus built to investigate some of these issues. We also discuss diffusive processes in inhomogeneous systems, and the role of the chemical potential in diffusion of hard spheres is considered. Also, the relevance to liquid metal solutions is considered. Finally we present an example of how inhomogeneities in material microstructure introduce fluctuations at the meso-scale for a thermal conduction problem

  7. Lipid rafts: heterogeneity on the high seas.

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Linda J

    2004-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains that are enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. They have been implicated in processes as diverse as signal transduction, endocytosis and cholesterol trafficking. Recent evidence suggests that this diversity of function is accompanied by a diversity in the composition of lipid rafts. The rafts in cells appear to be heterogeneous both in terms of their protein and their lipid content, and can be localized to different regions of the cell. This review summarizes the data supporting the concept of heterogeneity among lipid rafts and outlines the evidence for cross-talk between raft components. Based on differences in the ways in which proteins interact with rafts, the Induced-Fit Model of Raft Heterogeneity is proposed to explain the establishment and maintenance of heterogeneity within raft populations. PMID:14662007

  8. Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

  9. Heterogeneous Clustering: Operational and User Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salm, Saita Wood

    1999-01-01

    Heterogeneous clustering can improve overall utilization of multiple hosts and can provide better turnaround to users by balancing workloads across hosts. Building a cluster requires both operational changes and revisions in user scripts.

  10. Exploring heterogeneous market hypothesis using realized volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Wen Cheong; Isa, Zaidi; Mohd Nor, Abu Hassan Shaari

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the heterogeneous market hypothesis using high frequency data. The cascaded heterogeneous trading activities with different time durations are modelled by the heterogeneous autoregressive framework. The empirical study indicated the presence of long memory behaviour and predictability elements in the financial time series which supported heterogeneous market hypothesis. Besides the common sum-of-square intraday realized volatility, we also advocated two power variation realized volatilities in forecast evaluation and risk measurement in order to overcome the possible abrupt jumps during the credit crisis. Finally, the empirical results are used in determining the market risk using the value-at-risk approach. The findings of this study have implications for informationally market efficiency analysis, portfolio strategies and risk managements.

  11. Heterogeneous treatment in the variational nodal method

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T.H.; Palmiotti, G.

    1995-06-01

    The variational nodal transport method is reduced to its diffusion form and generalized for the treatment of heterogeneous nodes while maintaining nodal balances. Adapting variational methods to heterogeneous nodes requires the ability to integrate over a node with discontinuous cross sections. In this work, integrals are evaluated using composite gaussian quadrature rules, which permit accurate integration while minimizing computing time. Allowing structure within a nodal solution scheme avoids some of the necessity of cross section homogenization, and more accurately defines the intra-nodal flux shape. Ideally, any desired heterogeneity can be constructed within the node; but in reality, the finite set of basis functions limits the practical resolution to which fine detail can be defined within the node. Preliminary comparison tests show that the heterogeneous variational nodal method provides satisfactory results even if some improvements are needed for very difficult, configurations.

  12. Heterogeneity and Risk Sharing in Village Economies.

    PubMed

    Chiappori, Pierre-André; Samphantharak, Krislert; Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam; Townsend, Robert M

    2014-03-01

    We show how to use panel data on household consumption to directly estimate households' risk preferences. Specifically, we measure heterogeneity in risk aversion among households in Thai villages using a full risk-sharing model, which we then test allowing for this heterogeneity. There is substantial, statistically significant heterogeneity in estimated risk preferences. Full insurance cannot be rejected. As the risk sharing, as-if-complete-markets theory might predict, estimated risk preferences are unrelated to wealth or other characteristics. The heterogeneity matters for policy: Although the average household would benefit from eliminating village-level risk, less-risk-averse households who are paid to absorb that risk would be worse off by several percent of household consumption.

  13. Heterogeneity and Risk Sharing in Village Economies*

    PubMed Central

    Chiappori, Pierre-André; Samphantharak, Krislert; Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam; Townsend, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    We show how to use panel data on household consumption to directly estimate households’ risk preferences. Specifically, we measure heterogeneity in risk aversion among households in Thai villages using a full risk-sharing model, which we then test allowing for this heterogeneity. There is substantial, statistically significant heterogeneity in estimated risk preferences. Full insurance cannot be rejected. As the risk sharing, as-if-complete-markets theory might predict, estimated risk preferences are unrelated to wealth or other characteristics. The heterogeneity matters for policy: Although the average household would benefit from eliminating village-level risk, less-risk-averse households who are paid to absorb that risk would be worse off by several percent of household consumption. PMID:24932226

  14. Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of atmospheric trace contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollis, David F.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed during the period 1 May - 31 Oct. 1992 on heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of atmospheric trace contaminants is presented. Topics discussed include photoreactor monolith fundamental studies and monolith reactor operation: batch recirculation system.

  15. Using Natural Language to Enable Mission Managers to Control Multiple Heterogeneous UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, S. Bilal; Mcquarry, A. Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The availability of highly capable, yet relatively cheap, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is opening up new areas of use for hobbyists and for commercial activities. This research is developing methods beyond classical control-stick pilot inputs, to allow operators to manage complex missions without in-depth vehicle expertise. These missions may entail several heterogeneous UAVs flying coordinated patterns or flying multiple trajectories deconflicted in time or space to predefined locations. This paper describes the functionality and preliminary usability measures of an interface that allows an operator to define a mission using speech inputs. With a defined and simple vocabulary, operators can input the vast majority of mission parameters using simple, intuitive voice commands. Although the operator interface is simple, it is based upon autonomous algorithms that allow the mission to proceed with minimal input from the operator. This paper also describes these underlying algorithms that allow an operator to manage several UAVs.

  16. Booster propulsion/vehicle impact study, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P.; Satterthwaite, S.; Carson, C.; Schnackel, J.

    1988-01-01

    This is the final report in a study examining the impact of launch vehicles for various boost propulsion design options. These options included: differing boost phase engines using different combinations of fuels and coolants to include RP-1, methane, propane (subcooled and normal boiling point), and hydrogen; variable and high mixture ratio hydrogen engines; translating nozzles on boost phase engines; and cross feeding propellants from the booster to second stage. Vehicles examined included a fully reusable two stage cargo vehicle and a single stage to orbit vehicle. The use of subcooled propane as a fuel generated vehicles with the lowest total vehicle dry mass. Engines with hydrogen cooling generated only slight mass reductions from the reference, all-hydrogen vehicle. Cross feeding propellants generated the most significant mass reductions from the reference two stage vehicle. The use of high mixture ratio or variable mixture ratio hydrogen engines in the boost phase of flight resulted in vehicles with total dry mass 20 percent greater than the reference hydrogen vehicle. Translating nozzles for boost phase engines generated a heavier vehicle. Also examined were the design impacts on the vehicle and ground support subsystems when subcooled propane is used as a fuel. The most significant cost difference between facilities to handle normal boiling point versus subcooled propane is 5 million dollars. Vehicle cost differences were negligible. A significant technical challenge exists for properly conditioning the vehicle propellant on the ground and in flight when subcooled propane is used as fuel.

  17. Intelligent Classification in Huge Heterogeneous Data Sets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    signals and through data dimension reduction, and to develop and tailor algorithms for the extraction of intelligence from several huge heterogeneous...dimension reduction and feature extraction . These techniques are employed when no training set is available, and therefore also no target output...algorithms for application to huge, heterogeneous data sets enabling the extraction of intelligence from information. The approach uses two-scale supervised

  18. Effect of heterogeneous catalyst during combustion of diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefeen, Quamrul

    1999-11-01

    With the increase in number of vehicles using diesel engines, the contributions to environmental pollution made by diesel engines is also on the rise. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, hydrocarbons, and particulates are currently regulated as harmful emissions from diesel engines. Recent technologies to control harmful engine emissions have been almost exclusively directed towards gasoline engines. It is generally held that fuel quality will have to play an important role with all IC engines to meet future stringent regulations. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of heterogeneous catalyst on combustion. Micron sized solid catalyst, suspended in a specific organic peroxide, has been found to promote better combustion by modifying kinetics and changing the thermodynamics of the reactions. The catalyst reduces emissions without dramatically changing the properties of the fuel. The characteristic parameters of a baseline fuel, and the same fuel with the additive, were analyzed. The dosage of additive used was found to be compatible with commercial diesel. Diesel vehicles were driven unloaded at normal road conditions during the experiments. Exhaust emissions were measured when the trucks were at static conditions and the engine running on idle and at 2000 rpm. The gaseous components in the exhaust, O2, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and CxH y were monitored. Particulates were trapped on a pre-weighed glass filter. Some of the filters were sent to an independent laboratory for microscopic and elemental analysis of the collected debris. Zinc oxide/peroxide suspended in tert-butyl hydro peroxide were used as the heterogeneous fuel catalyst. This combination increased the cetane rating of a commercial diesel fuel from 45 to a level of 70 depending on treatment ratio. A treatment ratio of one ounce additive per 5 gallons of diesel increased cetane number by an average of 5 points. Road mileage with the additive increased by an average

  19. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  20. Battery powererd electric motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlbacker, K.

    1984-02-28

    A battery powered vehicle is provided with a vehicle frame and an electric motor whose main shaft is connected to a differential gear by means of a gear train with a variable transmission ratio, the motor shaft and all gear shafts being parallel to the axle of the driving wheels. In order to achieve a compact design and to avoid power-consuming drive elements the electric motor and the variable transmission gear as well as a potential reducing gear mounted between the latter and the differential gear, are positioned on a subframe which is connected to the housing of the driving wheel axle on the one side whereas the other side carrying the electric motor is attached to the vehicle frame by means of a cardanic suspension.

  1. Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka

    2010-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

  2. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  3. 2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Jacob; Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W

    2011-06-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop "leap frog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  4. 2008 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.; Davis, S.

    2009-07-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop 'leap frog' technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  5. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  6. Genomic and epigenomic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, De-Chen; Mayakonda, Anand; Dinh, Huy Q; Huang, Pinbo; Lin, Lehang; Liu, Xiaoping; Ding, Ling-Wen; Wang, Jie; Berman, Benjamin; Song, Erwei; Yin, Dong; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2017-02-20

    Understanding the intratumoral heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is instructive for developing personalized therapy and identifying molecular biomarkers. Here we applied whole-exome sequencing to 69 samples from 11 patients to resolve the genetic architecture of subclonal diversification. Spatial genomic diversity was found in all 11 HCC cases, with 29% of driver mutations being heterogeneous, including TERT, ARID1A, NOTCH2, and STAG2. Similar with other cancer types, TP53 mutations were always shared between all tumor regions i.e. located on the "trunk" of the evolutionary tree. In addition, we found that variants within several drug targets such as KIT, SYK and PIK3CA were mutated in a fully clonal manner, indicating their therapeutic potentials for HCC. Temporal dissection of mutational signatures suggested that mutagenic processes associated with exposure to aristolochic acid and aflatoxin might play a more important role in early, as opposed to late, stages of HCC development. Moreover, we observed extensive intratumoral epigenetic heterogeneity in HCC based on multiple independent analytical methods and showed that intratumoral methylation heterogeneity might play important roles in the biology of HCC cells. Our results also demonstrated prominent heterogeneity of intratumoral methylation even in a stable HCC genome. Together, these findings highlight widespread intratumoral heterogeneity at both the genomic and epigenomic levels in HCC and provide an important molecular foundation for better understanding the pathogenesis of this malignancy.

  7. Materials properties: heterogeneity and appropriate sampling modes.

    PubMed

    Esbensen, Kim H

    2015-01-01

    The target audience for this Special Section comprises parties related to the food and feed sectors, e.g., field samplers, academic and industrial scientists, laboratory personnel, companies, organizations, regulatory bodies, and agencies who are responsible for sampling, as well as project leaders, project managers, quality managers, supervisors, and directors. All these entities face heterogeneous materials, and the characteristics of heterogeneous materials needs to be competently understood by all of them. Before delivering analytical results for decision-making, one form or other of primary sampling is always necessary, which must counteract the effects of the sampling target heterogeneity. Up to five types of sampling error may arise as a specific sampling process interacts with a heterogeneous material; two sampling errors arise because of the heterogeneity of the sampling target, and three additional sampling errors are produced by the sampling process itself-if not properly understood, reduced, and/or eliminated, which is the role of Theory of Sampling. This paper discusses the phenomenon and concepts involved in understanding, describing, and managing the adverse effects of heterogeneity in sampling.

  8. Emergency vehicle alert system (EVAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Bill; Crump, Roger; Harper, Warren; Myneni, Krishna

    1995-01-01

    The Emergency Vehicle Alert System (EVAS) program is sponsored by the NASA/MSFC Technology Utilization (TU) office. The program was conceived to support the needs of hearing impaired drivers. The objective of the program is to develop a low-cost, small device which can be located in a personal vehicle and warn the driver, via a visual means, of the approach of an emergency vehicle. Many different technologies might be developed for this purpose and each has its own advantages and drawbacks. The requirements for an acoustic detection system, appear to be pretty stringent and may not allow the development of a reliable, low-cost device in the near future. The problems include variations in the sirens between various types of emergency vehicles, distortions due to wind and surrounding objects, competing background noise, sophisticated signal processing requirements, and omni-directional coverage requirements. Another approach is to use a Radio Frequency (RF) signal between the Emergency Vehicle (EV) and the Personal Vehicle (PV). This approach requires a transmitter on each EV and a receiver in each PV, however it is virtually assured that a system can be developed which works. With this approach, the real technology issue is how to make a system work as inexpensively as possible. This report gives a brief summary of the EVAS program from its inception and concentrates on describing the activities that occurred during Phase 4. References 1-3 describe activities under Phases 1-3. In the fourth phase of the program, the major effort to be expended was in development of the microcontroller system for the PV, refinement of some system elements and packaging for demonstration purposes. An EVAS system was developed and demonstrated which used standard spread spectrum modems with minor modifications.

  9. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  10. Low floor mass transit vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Emmons, J. Bruce; Blessing, Leonard J.

    2004-02-03

    A mass transit vehicle includes a frame structure that provides an efficient and economical approach to providing a low floor bus. The inventive frame includes a stiff roof panel and a stiff floor panel. A plurality of generally vertical pillars extend between the roof and floor panels. A unique bracket arrangement is disclosed for connecting the pillars to the panels. Side panels are secured to the pillars and carry the shear stresses on the frame. A unique seating assembly that can be advantageously incorporated into the vehicle taking advantage of the load distributing features of the inventive frame is also disclosed.

  11. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Program Funding Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) provides funding opportunities for advanced vehicle technology projects that are aimed at removing technical and cost barriers. Much of the funding available to the Vehicle Technologies Program is distributed to private firms, educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, state and local governments, Native American organizations, and individuals, through competitive solicitations. DOE is strongly committed to partnerships to help ensure the eventual market acceptance of the technologies being developed. New solicitations are announced regularly.

  13. Aerodynamics for Revolutionary Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, William L., III; Singer, Bart A.; Leavitt, Laurence D.

    2003-01-01

    Aeronautics research has seriously declined partly because of the perception that it is a mature science and only incremental improvements are possible. Recent aeronautics roadmapping activities at NASA Langley paint a different picture of the future. Breakthroughs are still felt to be possible if we expand the current design space of today's vehicles and optimize the airspace and vehicles as a system. The paper describes some of the challenges that the aircraft and airline industry face. These challenges include political, technical and environmental issues. Examples of the opportunities and technologies that could provide a different vision for the future are discussed.

  14. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  15. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and four electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  16. Micro-unmanned aerodynamic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Reuel, Nigel; Lionberger, Troy A.; Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat; Baker, Michael S.

    2008-03-11

    A MEMS-based micro-unmanned vehicle includes at least a pair of wings having leading wing beams and trailing wing beams, at least two actuators, a leading actuator beam coupled to the leading wing beams, a trailing actuator beam coupled to the trailing wing beams, a vehicle body having a plurality of fulcrums pivotally securing the leading wing beams, the trailing wing beams, the leading actuator beam and the trailing actuator beam and having at least one anisotropically etched recess to accommodate a lever-fulcrum motion of the coupled beams, and a power source.

  17. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  18. Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Bass, John C.

    1997-04-29

    A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

  19. The acoustic design of outside broadcast vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, E. W.

    1984-05-01

    A review is given of the acoustic design of outside broadcast vehicles in terms of the constraints implicit in the use of road vehicles. A new design of vehicle wall construction is described, the provision of sound absorbing material suitable for use in small enclosures is discussed, and particular factors involved in utilizing large (articulated) vehicles are mentioned. As an illustration, an account is given of the acoustic design of the BBC's Digital Control Vehicle: priority was given, in this vehicle, to the provision of the best possible environment for sound monitoring and control.

  20. Vehicle identification by capacitance and infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Yang, W.; Yang, Y.

    2007-07-01

    Currently, large inductance coils buried underground are commonly used to detect passing vehicles at road toll stations. The inductance-based systems are vulnerable to environmental magnetic interference and hence are inaccurate in counting passing vehicles. Also they cannot categorise the vehicles. This paper presents a capacitance sensor array, which has been developed not only for detection of passing vehicles but also for identification of types of the vehicles. Together with infrared sensors, the new system can be used to control a road barrier and to keep a record of passed vehicles through a driveway accurately. Tests have demonstrated that it is more reliable than the inductance-based systems.

  1. Launch Vehicle Debris Models and Crew Vehicle Ascent Abort Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott

    2013-01-01

    For manned space launch systems, a reliable abort system is required to reduce the risks associated with a launch vehicle failure during ascent. Understanding the risks associated with failure environments can be achieved through the use of physics-based models of these environments. Debris fields due to destruction of the launch vehicle is one such environment. To better analyze the risk posed by debris, a physics-based model for generating launch vehicle debris catalogs has been developed. The model predicts the mass distribution of the debris field based on formulae developed from analysis of explosions. Imparted velocity distributions are computed using a shock-physics code to model the explosions within the launch vehicle. A comparison of the debris catalog with an existing catalog for the Shuttle external tank show good comparison in the debris characteristics and the predicted debris strike probability. The model is used to analyze the effects of number of debris pieces and velocity distributions on the strike probability and risk.

  2. Software architecture of biomimetic underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praczyk, Tomasz; Szymak, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles are vehicles that are entirely or partly independent of human decisions. In order to obtain operational independence, the vehicles have to be equipped with a specialized software. The main task of the software is to move the vehicle along a trajectory with collision avoidance. Moreover, the software has also to manage different devices installed on the vehicle board, e.g. to start and stop cameras, sonars etc. In addition to the software embedded on the vehicle board, the software responsible for managing the vehicle by the operator is also necessary. Its task is to define mission of the vehicle, to start, to stop the mission, to send emergency commands, to monitor vehicle parameters, and to control the vehicle in remotely operated mode. An important objective of the software is also to support development and tests of other software components. To this end, a simulation environment is necessary, i.e. simulation model of the vehicle and all its key devices, the model of the sea environment, and the software to visualize behavior of the vehicle. The paper presents architecture of the software designed for biomimetic autonomous underwater vehicle (BAUV) that is being constructed within the framework of the scientific project financed by Polish National Center of Research and Development.

  3. Molecular-Level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco Zaera

    2012-03-21

    The following is a proposal to continue our multi-institutional research on heterogeneous chiral catalysis. Our team combines the use of surface-sensitive analytical techniques for the characterization of model systems with quantum and statistical mechanical calculations to interpret experimental data and guide the design of future research. Our investigation focuses on the interrelation among the three main mechanisms by which enantioselectivity can be bestowed to heterogeneous catalysts, namely: (1) by templating chirality via the adsorption of chiral supramolecular assemblies, (2) by using chiral modifiers capable of forming chiral complexes with the reactant and force enantioselective surface reactions, and (3) by forming naturally chiral surfaces using imprinting chiral agents. Individually, the members of our team are leaders in these various aspects of chiral catalysis, but the present program provides the vehicle to generate and exploit the synergies necessary to address the problem in a comprehensive manner. Our initial work has advanced the methodology needed for these studies, including an enantioselective titration procedure to identify surface chiral sites, infrared spectroscopy in situ at the interface between gases or liquids and solids to mimic realistic catalytic conditions, and DFT and Monte Carlo algorithms to simulate and understand chirality on surfaces. The next step, to be funded by the monies requested in this proposal, is to apply those methods to specific problems in chiral catalysis, including the identification of the requirements for the formation of supramolecular surface structures with enantioselective behavior, the search for better molecules to probe the chiral nature of the modified surfaces, the exploration of the transition from supramolecular to one-to-one chiral modification, the correlation of the adsorption characteristics of one-to-one chiral modifiers with their physical properties, in particular with their configuration

  4. Colloid straining within saturated heterogeneous porous media.

    PubMed

    Porubcan, Alexis A; Xu, Shangping

    2011-02-01

    The transport of 0.46 μm, 2.94 μm, 5.1 μm and 6.06 μm latex particles in heterogeneous porous media prepared from the mixing of 0.78 mm, 0.46 mm and 0.23 mm quartz sands was investigated through column transport experiments. It was observed that the 0.46 μm particles traveled conservatively within the heterogeneous porous media, suggesting that under the experimental conditions employed in this research the strong repulsive interactions between the negatively charged latex particles and the clean quartz sands led to minimal colloid immobilization due to physicochemical filtration. The immobilization of the 2.94 μm, 5.1 μm and 6.06 μm latex particles was thus attributed to colloid straining. Experimental results showed that the straining of colloidal particles within heterogeneous sand mixtures increased when the fraction of finer sands increased. The mathematical model that was developed and tested based on results obtained using uniform sands (Xu et al., 2006) was found to be able to describe colloid straining within heterogeneous porous media. Examination of the relationship between the best-fit values of the clean-bed straining rate coefficients (k(0)) and the ratio of colloid diameter (d(p)) and sand grain size (d(g)) indicated that when number-average sizes were used to represent the size of the heterogeneous porous media, there existed a consistent relationship for both uniform sands and heterogeneous sand mixtures. Similarly, the use of the number-averaged sizes for the heterogeneous porous media produced a uniform relationship between the colloid straining capacity term (λ) and the ratio of d(p)/d(g) for all the sand treatments.

  5. CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL SIMULATION VEHICLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COGSWELL, JOHN F.; AND OTHERS

    A COMPUTER PROGRAMED GENERAL SCHOOL SIMULATOR IS DESCRIBED AND RULES ARE GIVEN FOR A COMPUTER TRYOUT OF THE PILOT VERSION. ALTHOUGH THE MODEL WAS DESIGNED AS A GENERAL VEHICLE THAT WOULD PERMIT COMPUTER MODELING OF ANY SCHOOL CONFIGURATION, THE FIRST PILOT VERSION REPRESENTS A HYPOTHETICAL SCHOOL OPERATING UNDER THE "CONTINUOUS PROGRESS…

  6. The ground vehicle manager's associate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Gary R.; Burnard, Robert H.; Bewley, William L.; Bullock, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of MAX, a software framework for manager's associate systems, is presented. MAX is used to develop and execute a problem-solving strategy for the task planning of semi-autonomous agents with the assistance of human performance. This paper describes the use of MAX in the supervisory management of robotic vehicles as they explore a planetary surface.

  7. Tactical Vehicle Engine Emissions Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    diesel fuel (DF-2) were examined and tabulated (2). 3. Groupings for Army wheeled and tracked vehicles were made to which a single emission...Investigation of Possible Test Cycles for Determining Army Diesel Engine Emission Factors...4 2. High Density Army Diesel Equipment .................................................................... 6 3. Information on on the Steady

  8. Online boosting for vehicle detection.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chung; Cho, Chih-Wei

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a real-time vision-based vehicle detection system employing an online boosting algorithm. It is an online AdaBoost approach for a cascade of strong classifiers instead of a single strong classifier. Most existing cascades of classifiers must be trained offline and cannot effectively be updated when online tuning is required. The idea is to develop a cascade of strong classifiers for vehicle detection that is capable of being online trained in response to changing traffic environments. To make the online algorithm tractable, the proposed system must efficiently tune parameters based on incoming images and up-to-date performance of each weak classifier. The proposed online boosting method can improve system adaptability and accuracy to deal with novel types of vehicles and unfamiliar environments, whereas existing offline methods rely much more on extensive training processes to reach comparable results and cannot further be updated online. Our approach has been successfully validated in real traffic environments by performing experiments with an onboard charge-coupled-device camera in a roadway vehicle.

  9. Vehicle assisted harpoon breaching tool

    DOEpatents

    Pacheco, James E [Albuquerque, NM; Highland, Steven E [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-02-15

    A harpoon breaching tool that allows security officers, SWAT teams, police, firemen, soldiers, or others to forcibly breach metal doors or walls very quickly (in a few seconds), without explosives. The harpoon breaching tool can be mounted to a vehicle's standard receiver hitch.

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicles program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (EHV) Program is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to encourage the use of electricity and alternative fuels for transportation. This program supports the expanded DOE involvement as recommended in the National Energy Strategy. The transportation sector is the single largest user of petroleum; it consumed 63 percent of all petroleum used in the United States last year. Only a small fraction (5 percent) of electricity is generated from petroleum. Electric vehicles, which are themselves virtually pollution-free, could play a key role in helping to reduce both urban pollution and our dependence on petroleum imports. The program's goals are to develop, in cooperation with industry, the technology that will lead to the production and introduction of pollution-free electric vehicles into the Nation's transportation fleet and substitute domestic sources of energy for petroleum-based fuels. This report describes progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY-91. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY-91 in the areas of battery, fuel-cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. In accordance with the reporting requirements of the Act, this annual report contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components and concludes with a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

  11. Vehicle Certification and Compliance Testing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) tests a portion of all new cars and trucks to confirm compliance with EPA’s exhaust emissions standards, and to verify the accuracy of fuel economy test results submitted by each manufacturer.

  12. 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

  13. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Levesque, Marl; Williams, Randall; Mclaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Launch vehicles within the international community vary greatly in their configuration and processing. Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific launch vehicle configuration. Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site. Each launch site has a control center for launch operations; however flight operations support varies from being co-located with the launch site to being shared with the space vehicle control center. There is also a nuance of some having an engineering support center which may be co-located with either the launch or flight control center, or in a separate geographical location altogether. A survey of control center architectures is presented for various launch vehicles including the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures shares some similarities in basic structure while differences in functional distribution also exist. The driving functions which lead to these factors are considered and a model of control center architectures is proposed which supports these commonalities and variations.

  14. Intelligence Applied to Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Robert; Gross, Anthony R.; Fletcher, L. Skip; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The exponential growth in information technology has provided the potential for air vehicle capabilities that were previously unavailable to mission and vehicle designers. The increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including new developments such as neural networks, provide a new balance of work between humans and machines. This paper will describe several NASA projects, and review results and conclusions from ground and flight investigations where vehicle intelligence was developed and applied to aeronautical and space systems. In the first example, flight results from a neural network flight control demonstration will be reviewed. Using, a highly-modified F-15 aircraft, a NASA/Dryden experimental flight test program has demonstrated how the neural network software can correctly identify and respond to changes in aircraft stability and control characteristics. Using its on-line learning capability, the neural net software would identify that something in the vehicle has changed, then reconfigure the flight control computer system to adapt to those changes. The results of the Remote Agent software project will be presented. This capability will reduce the cost of future spacecraft operations as computers become "thinking" partners along with humans. In addition, the paper will describe the objectives and plans for the autonomous airplane program and the autonomous rotorcraft project. Technologies will also be developed.

  15. Air-Conditioning for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popinski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Combination of ammonia-absorption refrigerator, roof-mounted solar collectors, and 200 degrees C service electric-vehicle motor provides evaporative space-heating/space cooling system for electric-powered and hybrid fuel/electric vehicles.

  16. Electric Vehicles at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesson, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The story of how the transportation office began by introducing low speed electric cars (LSEV) to the fleet managers and employees. This sparked and interest in purchasing some of these LSEV and the usage on KSC. Transportation was approached by a vender of High Speed Electric Vehicle (HSEV) we decided to test the HSEV to see if they would meet our fleet vehicle needs. Transportation wrote a Space Act Agreement (SAA) for the loan of three Lithium Powered Electric vehicles for a one year test. The vehicles have worked very well and we have extended the test for another year. The use of HSEV has pushed for an independent Electric Vehicle Study to be performed to consider ways to effectively optimize the use of electric vehicles in replacement of gasoline vehicles in the KSC vehicle fleet. This will help the center to move closer to meeting the Executive Order 13423.

  17. Next Generation Spacecraft, Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes research on reusable launch vehicles, aerospace planes, shuttle replacement, crew/cargo transfer vehicle, related X-craft, orbital space plane, and next generation launch technology.

  18. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 5: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    An appendix to the systems assessment for the electric hybrid vehicle project is presented. Included are battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs and battery discharge models.

  19. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) All vehicles with cabs shall be equipped with windshields and powered wipers. Cracked and broken glass... controls; and safety devices. All defects shall be corrected before the vehicle is placed in service....

  20. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) All vehicles with cabs shall be equipped with windshields and powered wipers. Cracked and broken glass... controls; and safety devices. All defects shall be corrected before the vehicle is placed in service....

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths How is the US doing? Language: ... Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Problem Motor vehicle crash deaths in the US are still too ...

  2. General outlook of pavement and vehicle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mamlouk, M.S.

    1997-11-01

    The interaction between vehicle and pavement is complex since pavement roughness excites the dynamic forces generated by vehicles, while these dynamic forces simultaneously increase the pavement roughness. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the results of recent research related to pavement and vehicle dynamics and their interaction and to evaluate their potential use in the design and management of pavements. Pavement dynamic models are capable of determining stresses, strains, and deflections in various directions when harmonic, pulse, or transient loads are applied. Vehicle dynamic models simulate the effect of pavement roughness on the inertia of various vehicle components. These models can predict the dynamic forces produced by different axles and wheels of traveling vehicles at different locations along the pavement. Pavement response computed using dynamic models matches field measurements closer than those computed using static models. The concept of vehicle-pavement interaction can be applied to weigh-in-motion, pavement design and performance, and vehicle regulations.

  3. Delta launch vehicle inertial guidance system (DIGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, K. I.

    1973-01-01

    The Delta inertial guidance system, part of the Delta launch vehicle improvement effort, has been flown on three launches and was found to perform as expected for a variety of mission profiles and vehicle configurations.

  4. Technical analysis of alternative fueled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The current status of alternative fueled vehicles, such as methanol fueled, compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, and electric vehicles, that have feasibility to take the place of oil fueled ones is analyzed from the viewpoints of environmental pollution control, energy resources conservation, and economic performances. As for environmental pollution control, these three vehicles are compared by such items as nitrogen oxides, photochemical reactivity, adaptability to future regulations, earth warming substances, and toxicity. As for practical applicability, the following items are compared: power density (torque, power, acceleration performance), energy density, range, energy consumption, vehicle initial costs, energy costs, freight transportation energy costs (yen/ton/km), and energy supply suitability. Conclusions include: methanol vehicles have the problem of fueling stations to be arranged; since CNG vehicles are considered to be loaded with CNG fuel tanks on the top of vehicles, safety must be ensured; electric vehicles still have many problems in spite of their many advantages.

  5. Aortic injuries in newer vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ryb, Gabriel E; Dischinger, Patricia C; Kleinberger, Michael; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L

    2013-10-01

    The occurrence of AI was studied in relation to vehicle model year (MY) among front seat vehicular occupants, age≥16 in vehicles MY≥1994, entered in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System between 1997 and 2010 to determine whether newer vehicles, due to their crashworthiness improvements, are linked to a lower risk of aortic injuries (AI). MY was categorized as 1994-1997, 1998-2004, or 2005-2010 reflecting the introduction of newer occupant protection technology. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between AI and MY independent of possible confounders. Analysis was repeated, stratified by frontal and near lateral impacts. AI occurred in 19,187 (0.06%) of the 31,221,007 (weighted) cases, and contributed to 11% of all deaths. AIs were associated with advanced age, male gender, high BMI, near-side impact, rollover, ejection, collision against a fixed object, high ΔV, vehicle mismatch, unrestrained status, and forward track position. Among frontal crashes, MY 98-04 and MY 05-10 showed increased adjusted odds of AI when compared to MY 94-97 [OR 1.84 (1.02-3.32) and 1.99 (0.93-4.26), respectively]. In contrast, among near-side impact crashes, MY 98-04 and MY 05-10 showed decreased adjusted odds of AI [OR 0.50 (0.25-0.99) and 0.27 (0.06-1.31), respectively]. While occupants of newer vehicles experience lower odds of AI in near side impact crashes, a higher AI risk is present in frontal crashes.

  6. Vehicle for use in planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hryniewiecki, E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A self-propelled vehicle particularly suited for use in traversing hostile terrain is described. The vehicle is characterized by a plurality of mutually independently operable propulsion units, each including an extended leg coupled with the frame of the vehicle. The vehicle is propelled through a selectively operable power train functioning to drive the leg in rotation about its axis and/or activating the pedestal in a wheel-driven and/or track-laying mode of operation.

  7. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  8. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  9. Development of the Electric Vehicle Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    DTI ;. 0oPY- I AL-TR-90-006 AD: AD-A224 201 Final Report DEVELOPMENT THE for the period OF August 1986 to December 1988 ELECTRIC VEHICLE ANALYZER...Incude Security Clasikcaton) Development of the Electric Vehicle Analyzer (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dickey, Lt Michael R. ; Klucz, Raymond S. ; Ennix...FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Electric Orbital Transfer Vehicles (EOTVs); Electric 21 03 Insertion Transfer Experiment (ELITE); Electric Vehicle :.22 03 Analyzer

  10. Energy Storage for Hybrid Miiltary Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-11

    Energy Storage for Hybrid Military Vehicles Ghassan Y. Khalil Abstract The benefits of hybrid electric vehicles have been recognized by the US Army...and safe energy storage in future All Electric Combat Vehicles (AECV). Keywords: battery, HEV, energy storage, battery management Introduction The...potential benefits of hybrid electric vehicles for military applications have been recognized by the US Army as well as other military services. Hybrid

  11. Launch of a Vehicle from a Ramp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2011-01-01

    A vehicle proceeding up an inclined ramp will become airborne if the ramp comes to a sudden end and if the vehicle fails to stop before it reaches the end of the ramp. A vehicle may also become airborne if it passes over the top of a hill at sufficient speed. In both cases, the vehicle becomes airborne if the point of support underneath the…

  12. Computational model of heterogeneous heating in melanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellicker, Jason; DiMarzio, Charles A.; Kowalski, Gregory J.

    2015-03-01

    Melanin particles often present as an aggregate of smaller melanin pigment granules and have a heterogeneous surface morphology. When irradiated with light within the absorption spectrum of melanin, these heterogeneities produce measurable concentrations of the electric field that result in temperature gradients from thermal effects that are not seen with spherical or ellipsoidal modeling of melanin. Modeling melanin without taking into consideration the heterogeneous surface morphology yields results that underestimate the strongest signals or over{estimate their spatial extent. We present a new technique to image phase changes induced by heating using a computational model of melanin that exhibits these surface heterogeneities. From this analysis, we demonstrate the heterogeneous energy absorption and resulting heating that occurs at the surface of the melanin granule that is consistent with three{photon absorption. Using the three{photon dluorescence as a beacon, we propose a method for detecting the extents of the melanin granule using photothermal microscopy to measure the phase changes resulting from the heating of the melanin.

  13. Emergence of Persistent Infection due to Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vidit; Moitra, Promit; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2017-02-01

    We explore the emergence of persistent infection in a closed region where the disease progression of the individuals is given by the SIRS model, with an individual becoming infected on contact with another infected individual. We investigate the persistence of contagion qualitatively and quantitatively, under increasing heterogeneity in the partitioning of the population into different disease compartments, as well as increasing heterogeneity in the phases of the disease among individuals within a compartment. We observe that when the initial population is uniform, consisting of individuals at the same stage of disease progression, infection arising from a contagious seed does not persist. However when the initial population consists of randomly distributed refractory and susceptible individuals, a single source of infection can lead to sustained infection in the population, as heterogeneity facilitates the de-synchronization of the phases in the disease cycle of the individuals. We also show how the average size of the window of persistence of infection depends on the degree of heterogeneity in the initial composition of the population. In particular, we show that the infection eventually dies out when the entire initial population is susceptible, while even a few susceptibles among an heterogeneous refractory population gives rise to a large persistent infected set.

  14. Heterogeneity of liver cancer and personalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Wang, Hongyang

    2016-09-01

    Liver cancer is an extraordinarily heterogeneous malignant disease among the tumors that have so far been identified. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises most frequently in the setting of chronic liver inflammation and fibrosis, and takes a variety of course in individual patients to process to tumor. The risk factors such as HBV and/or HCV infections, aflatoxin infection, abuse alcohol intake, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are closely related to the environmental and genetic susceptibilities to HCC. The consequent resulting genomic instability, molecular and signal transduction network disorders and microenvironmental discrepancies are characterized by the extraordinary heterogeneity of liver cancer. The histology-based definition of the morphological heterogeneity of liver cancer has been modified and refined to treat patients with targeted therapies, but this still cannot solve all the problems. Lack of consistent outcome for anticancer agents and conventional therapies in liver cancer treatment calls for assessing the benefits of new molecularly targeted drugs and combined therapy, under the heterogeneity condition of tumor. The present review article will provide the complex mechanism and phenotype of liver cancer heterogeneity, and help us to execute precision medicine in a really personalized manner.

  15. Emergence of Persistent Infection due to Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vidit; Moitra, Promit; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2017-01-01

    We explore the emergence of persistent infection in a closed region where the disease progression of the individuals is given by the SIRS model, with an individual becoming infected on contact with another infected individual. We investigate the persistence of contagion qualitatively and quantitatively, under increasing heterogeneity in the partitioning of the population into different disease compartments, as well as increasing heterogeneity in the phases of the disease among individuals within a compartment. We observe that when the initial population is uniform, consisting of individuals at the same stage of disease progression, infection arising from a contagious seed does not persist. However when the initial population consists of randomly distributed refractory and susceptible individuals, a single source of infection can lead to sustained infection in the population, as heterogeneity facilitates the de-synchronization of the phases in the disease cycle of the individuals. We also show how the average size of the window of persistence of infection depends on the degree of heterogeneity in the initial composition of the population. In particular, we show that the infection eventually dies out when the entire initial population is susceptible, while even a few susceptibles among an heterogeneous refractory population gives rise to a large persistent infected set. PMID:28145522

  16. Estimating flow heterogeneity in natural fracture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckenby, Robert J.; Sanderson, David J.; Lonergan, Lidia

    2005-10-01

    Examples of small to medium scale fault systems have been mapped in Jurassic sedimentary rocks in north Somerset, England. These examples include contractional and dilational strike-slip oversteps as well as normal faults. These maps form the basis of calculations performed to investigate heterogeneity in natural fracture systems with the aim of predicting fluid flow localisation in different fault styles. As there is no way to measure fracture aperture directly, we use vein thickness to represent an integrated flow path or 'palaeo-aperture' from which we derive a representation of the flow distribution. Three different methods are used to estimate flow heterogeneity based on: (1) fracture density (the ratio of fracture length to area), (2) fracture aperture (fracture porosity) and (3) hydraulic conductance (fracture permeability normalised to the pressure gradient and fluid properties). Our results show that fracture density and hydraulic conductance are poorly correlated and that fracture density does not fully represent the natural heterogeneity of fracture systems. Fracture aperture and hydraulic conductance indicate stronger degrees of flow localisation. Different types of structures also seem to display characteristic and predictable patterns of heterogeneity. Normal fault systems show the highest magnitude of localisation along the faults rather than in the relay ramps, while contractional and dilational strike-slip systems show very strong localisation in the faults and oversteps, respectively. In all cases the amount of damage in the oversteps can modify such patterns of heterogeneity.

  17. Phylogenetic Quantification of Intra-tumour Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Roland F.; Trinh, Anne; Sipos, Botond; Brenton, James D.; Goldman, Nick; Markowetz, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity is the result of ongoing evolutionary change within each cancer. The expansion of genetically distinct sub-clonal populations may explain the emergence of drug resistance, and if so, would have prognostic and predictive utility. However, methods for objectively quantifying tumour heterogeneity have been missing and are particularly difficult to establish in cancers where predominant copy number variation prevents accurate phylogenetic reconstruction owing to horizontal dependencies caused by long and cascading genomic rearrangements. To address these challenges, we present MEDICC, a method for phylogenetic reconstruction and heterogeneity quantification based on a Minimum Event Distance for Intra-tumour Copy-number Comparisons. Using a transducer-based pairwise comparison function, we determine optimal phasing of major and minor alleles, as well as evolutionary distances between samples, and are able to reconstruct ancestral genomes. Rigorous simulations and an extensive clinical study show the power of our method, which outperforms state-of-the-art competitors in reconstruction accuracy, and additionally allows unbiased numerical quantification of tumour heterogeneity. Accurate quantification and evolutionary inference are essential to understand the functional consequences of tumour heterogeneity. The MEDICC algorithms are independent of the experimental techniques used and are applicable to both next-generation sequencing and array CGH data. PMID:24743184

  18. Design and implementation of a mechanically heterogeneous robot group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.; Montgomery, James F.; Mataric, Maja J.

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of a cooperative, heterogeneous robot group comprised of one semi-autonomous aerial robot and two autonomous ground robots. The robots are designed to perform automated surveillance and reconnaissance of an urban outdoor area using onboard sensing. The ground vehicles have GPS, sonar for obstacle detection and avoidance, and a simple color- based vision system. Navigation is performed using an optimal mixture of odometry and GPS. The helicopter is equipped with a GPS/INS system, a camera, and a framegrabber. Each robot has an embedded 486 PC/104 processor running the QNX real-time operating system. Individual robot controllers are behavior-based and decentralized. We describe a control strategy and architecture that coordinates the robots with minimal top- down planning. The overall system is controlled at high level by a single human operator using a specially designed control unit. The operator is able to task the group with a mission using a minimal amount of training. The group can re-task itself based on sensor inputs and can also be re- tasked by the operator. We describe a particular reconnaissance mission that the robots have been tested with, and lessons learned during the design and implementation. Our initial results with these experiments are encouraging given the challenging mechanics of the aerial robot. We conclude the paper with a discussion of ongoing and future work.

  19. Vehicle misalignment prediction and vehicle/experiment pointing compatibility assessment. [as used in Skylab Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoverkamp, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A technique for predicting vehicle misalignment, the relationship of vehicle misalignment to the total vehicle/experiment integration effort, and the methodology used in performing a vehicle/experiment pointing compatibility assessment, are presented. The technique is demonstrated in detail by describing how it was used on the Skylab Program.

  20. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  1. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  2. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  3. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  4. 49 CFR 391.67 - Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial... SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Limited Exemptions § 391.67 Farm vehicle drivers of articulated commercial motor vehicles. The...

  5. 76 FR 11418 - Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... vehicle safety standard on rearview mirrors to improve the ability of a driver of a vehicle to detect... weight. Specifically, NHTSA proposed to specify an area immediately behind each vehicle that the driver... driver to detect pedestrians in the area immediately behind his or her vehicle and thereby minimize...

  6. DEPENDENCE OF NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS ON VEHICLE LOAD: RESULTS FROM THE GTRP INSTRUMENTED VEHICLE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation discussed the dependence of nitric oxide (NO) emissions on vehicle load, bases on results from an instrumented-vehicle program. The accuracy and feasibility of modal emissions models depend on algorithms to allocate vehicle emissions based on a vehicle operation...

  7. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... the vehicle's starting system is activated but the vehicle is stationary, and when the vehicle is... light vehicles based on sales. Scaled costs include both installation costs for the system and fuel... cost of adding a speaker system in order to comply with the requirements of this proposal to be...

  8. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoun, Mousa A.; Reinhart, Debra R.; Gammoh, Fatina T.; McCauley Bush, Pamela

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ► Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ► Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ► Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

  9. 40 CFR 600.007 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a different maximum value for electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell... 600.007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Administrator will judge the acceptability of a fuel economy data vehicle on the basis of the...

  10. Recreation Vehicle Mechanic. Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ann; Embree, Rick

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a recreation vehicle mechanic, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as recreation vehicle technician and recreation vehicle service technician. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and…

  11. Clean Cities 2011 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Clean Cities Light-Duty Vehicle Buyer's Guide is a consumer publication that provides a comprehensive list of commercially available alternative fuel and advanced vehicles in model year 2011. The guide allows for side-by-side comparisons of fuel economy, price, emissions, and vehicle specifications.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1432 Vehicle preparation. (a) The test conditions to be... substituted for the vehicle preparation steps described in paragraph (b)(1), (c), and (d) of this section....

  13. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1432 Vehicle preparation. (a) The test conditions to be... substituted for the vehicle preparation steps described in paragraph (b)(1), (c), and (d) of this section....

  14. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  15. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a motor... MP or DOD police officer who, under the provisions of this section, causes any motor vehicle to be... motor vehicle by any MP or DOD police officer should not be within the scope of either that...

  16. Tracked-vehicle fuel consumption. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-06

    This document describes test procedures for evaluating the fuel efficiency of tracked vehicles under controlled operating conditions. The test data are a major source for comparisons with similar vehicles, and can also serve to predict the operational range of these vehicles during tactical missions.

  17. Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.

  18. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3 Excluded vehicles. When counting light duty motor vehicles to determine under this part whether a...

  19. 75 FR 27934 - Qualified Nonpersonal Use Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... driver and all passengers of a qualified nonpersonal use vehicle. However, a working condition fringe... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BH65 Qualified Nonpersonal Use Vehicles AGENCY: Internal... regulations relating to qualified nonpersonal use vehicles as defined in section 274(i). Qualified...

  20. How Small Can a Launch Vehicle Be?

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C

    2005-06-23

    Trajectory simulations from Earth to orbit indicate comparative velocity requirements depending on vehicle size, for several propellant options. Smaller vehicles are more affected by drag, resulting in steeper trajectories that require more total velocity. Although they are technically challenging, launch vehicles smaller than 1 ton are not ruled out by the nature of ascent trajectories.