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Sample records for multiplex human syndrome

  1. Steroid Responsive Mononeuritis Multiplex in the Cronkhite–Canada Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Y. L.; Lim, K. H.; Cheng, X. M.; Mesenas, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Cronkhite–Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare disorder of unknown origin characterized by generalized gastrointestinal polyposis, alopecia, hyperpigmentation, and onychodystrophy. We report a case of CCS with concomitant presentation of mononeuritis multiplex. The electrophysiological findings and steroid responsiveness suggests presence of an autoimmune mechanism. PMID:27899913

  2. ANCA Associated Mononeuritis Multiplex with Overlap in Vasculitic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Coimbatore; Varadraj, Govindraj; Nandeesh, Bevinahalli

    2017-01-01

    Mononeuritis multiplex is a common manifestation of many illnesses which includes Hansen’s disease and certain types of systemic vasculitis. The Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis (AAV) is a group of rare diseases which show typical characteristic inflammatory cell infiltration and blood vessel wall necrosis. AAV syndromes include Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) and Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA). We describe a patient who presented with mononeuritis multiplex and had features of overlap between EGPA and MPA. The patient was treated with standard regimen of steroids and pulsed cyclophosphamide and she achieved excellent clinical remission. PMID:28273992

  3. (Multiplex mapping of human cDNAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    J. Craig Venter, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, has begun to identify genes expressed in the human brain by partially sequences cDNA clones. We are collaborating with the Venter group and using their sequence data to develop methods for rapid localization of newly identified cDNAs to human chromosomes. We are applying the ABI automated DNA sequencer to the analysis of fluorescently-tagged PCR products for assigning sequences to individual human chromosomes. The steps in our mapping protocol are (1) to design PCR primers from the Venter laboratory-generated sequence data, (2) to test the primers for specific amplification from human genomic DNA, (3) to use the primers for PCR amplification from a somatic cell hybrid cell mapping panel, (4) to determine the presence or absence of the specific amplification products from each cell line DNA by electrophoretic analysis using the ABI sequencer, and (5) to analyze the pattern of amplification results from the hybrid panel to identify the chromosomal origin of the cDNA sequence. We have demonstrated the principle by mapping 12 sequences or Expressed Sequence Tags'' (ESTs), providing primer sequence data for subsequent subchromosomal localizations. We will now concentrate on developing methodology to allow multiplexing the amplification reactions and analysis of the reaction products, to achieve a high throughput with a minimum allocation of resources. This project will generate a data set from which to evaluate strategies to identify functional primer sequences from cDNA sequence data.

  4. Multiplex cytokine analysis of Werner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Makoto; Hayata, Koichiro; Chiba, Junji; Matsuura, Masaaki; Iwaki-Egawa, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Summary We reported a minor inflammation-driven ageing (inflammageing) assessed by highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP) in normal individuals and patients with Werner syndrome (WS), followed by an ageing associated Th2-biased cytokine change in normal ageing in the previous papers. To further study the association of hsCRP and 26 cytokines/chemokines in 35 WS patients, a multiple cytokine array system was used in the same serum samples as were examined for hsCRP. The serum levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and GM-CSF), Th1 products (IL-2, TNFα, IL-12, and IFNγ) and monocyte/macrophage products (MCP-1, basic FGF and G-CSF) in WS were significantly elevated compared with normal ageing. Elevated hsCRP level in WS was significantly correlated with IL-6, IL-12 and VEGF levels, if age and sex were taken into account. A pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine circuit-stimulated immunological shift to Th2 in WS was similar to normal ageing. These cytokine/chemokine changes may induce a systemic chronic inflammation monitored by hsCRP, though these immunological changes in WS were more complicated than normal ageing, possibly due to the WS-specific chronic inflammation such as skin ulcer, diabetes mellitus and central obesity with visceral fat deposition. Further study may warrant the pathophysiology of Th2 shift and Th2-biased inflammageing in normal ageing and WS. PMID:26668779

  5. [Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita--a rare congenital stiff joints syndrome].

    PubMed

    Velisavljev-Filipović, Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is not a disease but a term describing multiple congenital contractures. Etiological factors include neurological and primary myogenic diseases. This rare syndrome is present at birth and is characterized by reduced mobility of many joints. The contractures involve two or more joints with ankylosis. The accompanying musculature is hypoplastic, but multiple pterygia are also present. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a heterogeneous group of disorders with the incidence rate of 6.2/100000 liveborn infants. The true incidence cannot be established, because many cases result in spontaneous miscarriages or stillbirth. More than 90% of cases are associated with birth defects. The cause of this syndrome is unknown. Many forms are not hereditary, though there are hereditary forms as well. This paper presents a case with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. The pregnancy was not controlled regularly. During the pregnancy, oligohydramnion was detected. Due to contractures, labor ended is cesarean section. The child was born in the 34th week of gestation. Flexion and extension joint contractures were observed. Active and passive mobility of the afflicted joints was reduced. There was a limited motor function in the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints with a slight internal rotation of the shoulder joint and lower arm joints during pronation. The hips were subluxated; the feet were in equinovarus position and the fingers in ulnar deviation with partial syndactyly of the 4th and 5th fingers on the left hand. The infant had abnormal dermatoglyphics. The neck was short, and the 2nd and 3rd cervical vertebrae were fused. There was also a slight left-sided thoracic scoliosis. Trismus was present due to the existing ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint. The karyotype was normal. The serum creatinine phosphokinase was slightly elevated The electromyographic picture indicate non-specific signs of myopathy. This is a case report of a "stiff joint

  6. Multiplexed coding in the human basal ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, D. S.; Cerquetti, D.; Merello, M.

    2016-04-01

    A classic controversy in neuroscience is whether information carried by spike trains is encoded by a time averaged measure (e.g. a rate code), or by complex time patterns (i.e. a time code). Here we apply a tool to quantitatively analyze the neural code. We make use of an algorithm based on the calculation of the temporal structure function, which permits to distinguish what scales of a signal are dominated by a complex temporal organization or a randomly generated process. In terms of the neural code, this kind of analysis makes it possible to detect temporal scales at which a time patterns coding scheme or alternatively a rate code are present. Additionally, finding the temporal scale at which the correlation between interspike intervals fades, the length of the basic information unit of the code can be established, and hence the word length of the code can be found. We apply this algorithm to neuronal recordings obtained from the Globus Pallidus pars interna from a human patient with Parkinson’s disease, and show that a time pattern coding and a rate coding scheme co-exist at different temporal scales, offering a new example of multiplexed neuronal coding.

  7. A family with autosomal dominant distal arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and brown syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lobefalo, L T; Mancini, A T; Petitti, M T; Verrotti, A E; Della Loggia, G E; Di Muzio, A E; Chiarelli, F E; Gallenga, P E

    1999-12-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a heterogeneous condition found in a number of different disorders and characterized by congenital joint contractures. We describe typical signs of congenital Brown syndrome (inability to elevate the affected eye actively or passively in full adduction) in three relatives with distal arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. We found a thickening of the superior oblique muscles in these patients with pain and increased intraocular pressure in upgaze. The pathogenesis of clinical and morphological findings is discussed. The association of Brown syndrome with distal arthrogryposis multiplex congenita has not been previously reported and provides us with an important point of reference in the understanding of both syndromes.

  8. Multiplexed ion beam imaging of human breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Michael; Bendall, Sean C; Finck, Rachel; Hale, Matthew B; Hitzman, Chuck; Borowsky, Alexander D; Levenson, Richard M; Lowe, John B; Liu, Scot D; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Nolan, Garry P

    2014-04-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a tool for visualizing protein expression that is employed as part of the diagnostic workup for the majority of solid tissue malignancies. Existing IHC methods use antibodies tagged with fluorophores or enzyme reporters that generate colored pigments. Because these reporters exhibit spectral and spatial overlap when used simultaneously, multiplexed IHC is not routinely used in clinical settings. We have developed a method that uses secondary ion mass spectrometry to image antibodies tagged with isotopically pure elemental metal reporters. Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) is capable of analyzing up to 100 targets simultaneously over a five-log dynamic range. Here, we used MIBI to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human breast tumor tissue sections stained with ten labels simultaneously. The resulting data suggest that MIBI can provide new insights into disease pathogenesis that will be valuable for basic research, drug discovery and clinical diagnostics.

  9. Phylogeographic analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome patients using multiplex PCR-based next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Keun; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Song, Dong Hyun; Lee, Daesang; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sook-Young; Lee, Seung-Ho; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Ji Hye; Kho, Jeong Hoon; Gu, Se Hun; Jeong, Seong Tae; Wiley, Michael; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Palacios, Gustavo; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases caused by RNA viruses pose a critical public health threat. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful technology to define genomic sequences of the viruses. Of particular interest is the use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to perform phylogeographic analysis, that allows the detection and tracking of the emergence of viral infections. Hantaviruses, Bunyaviridae, cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans. We propose to use WGS for the phylogeographic analysis of human hantavirus infections. A novel multiplex PCR-based NGS was developed to gather whole genome sequences of Hantaan virus (HTNV) from HFRS patients and rodent hosts in endemic areas. The obtained genomes were described for the spatial and temporal links between cases and their sources. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated geographic clustering of HTNV strains from clinical specimens with the HTNV strains circulating in rodents, suggesting the most likely site and time of infection. Recombination analysis demonstrated a genome organization compatible with recombination of the HTNV S segment. The multiplex PCR-based NGS is useful and robust to acquire viral genomic sequences and may provide important ways to define the phylogeographical association and molecular evolution of hantaviruses. PMID:27221218

  10. [Multiplex mapping of human cDNAs]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, W.C.

    1991-12-31

    J. Craig Venter, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, has begun to identify genes expressed in the human brain by partially sequences cDNA clones. We are collaborating with the Venter group and using their sequence data to develop methods for rapid localization of newly identified cDNAs to human chromosomes. We are applying the ABI automated DNA sequencer to the analysis of fluorescently-tagged PCR products for assigning sequences to individual human chromosomes. The steps in our mapping protocol are (1) to design PCR primers from the Venter laboratory-generated sequence data, (2) to test the primers for specific amplification from human genomic DNA, (3) to use the primers for PCR amplification from a somatic cell hybrid cell mapping panel, (4) to determine the presence or absence of the specific amplification products from each cell line DNA by electrophoretic analysis using the ABI sequencer, and (5) to analyze the pattern of amplification results from the hybrid panel to identify the chromosomal origin of the cDNA sequence. We have demonstrated the principle by mapping 12 sequences or ``Expressed Sequence Tags`` (ESTs), providing primer sequence data for subsequent subchromosomal localizations. We will now concentrate on developing methodology to allow multiplexing the amplification reactions and analysis of the reaction products, to achieve a high throughput with a minimum allocation of resources. This project will generate a data set from which to evaluate strategies to identify functional primer sequences from cDNA sequence data.

  11. Monogenic human obesity syndromes.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, I S; O'Rahilly, S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, we have witnessed a major increase in the scale of scientific activity devoted to the study of energy balance and obesity. This explosion of interest has, to a large extent, been driven by the identification of genes responsible for murine obesity syndromes and the novel physiological pathways revealed by those genetic discoveries. We and others recently have identified several single-gene defects causing severe human obesity. Many of these defects have occurred in molecules identical or similar to those identified as a cause of obesity in rodents. This chapter will consider the human monogenic obesity syndromes that have been characterized to date and discuss how far such observations support the physiological role of these molecules in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.

  12. Monogenic human obesity syndromes.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, I S

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade we have witnessed a major increase in the scale of scientific activity devoted to the study of energy balance and obesity. This explosion of interest has, to a large extent, been driven by the identification of genes responsible for murine obesity syndromes, and the novel physiological pathways revealed by those genetic discoveries. Others and we have also recently identified several single gene defects causing severe human obesity. Many of these defects have been in molecules identical or similar to those identified as a cause of obesity in rodents. I will review the human monogenic obesity syndromes that have been characterised to date and discuss how far such observations support the physiological role of these molecules in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.

  13. [Detection of microdeletion in Williams syndrome by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification].

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuan-yuan; Meng, Yan; Qiu, Zheng-qing; Wang, Ou; Huang, Shang-zhi

    2009-08-01

    To establish a method of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for clinical screening of Williams syndrome (WS) and for routine use in WS diagnosis. Probes for MLPA were designed according to the frequent deletion regions, and used to screen the two patients suspected with Williams syndrome, and the density of the bands were analyzed with software. Linkage analysis using polymorphic markers was performed to confirm the positive result of MLPA. The MLPA data indicated that the two children had possible microdeletions in the WS critical region. The deletions were confirmed and both were maternal origin by polymorphism analysis. MLPA is a quick and convenient method for detecting deletion or duplication mutations. It can provide reliable and helpful information for clinical diagnose of Williams syndrome.

  14. Multiplexed Serologic Assay for Nine Anogenital Human Papillomavirus Types▿

    PubMed Central

    Opalka, David; Matys, Katie; Bojczuk, Paul; Green, Tina; Gesser, Richard; Saah, Alfred; Haupt, Richard; Dutko, Frank; Esser, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    A multiplexed human papillomavirus (HPV) immunoassay has been developed for the detection of human IgG antibodies to HPV type 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 virus-like particle (VLP) types in serum following natural infection or immunization with VLP-based vaccines. The VLP antigens were covalently conjugated to carboxyl Luminex microspheres (MS) using a carbodiimide chemistry. Antibody (Ab) titers were determined in a direct binding format, in which an IgG1- to -4-specific, phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) (HP6043) binds to human serum IgG antibodies. Pooled serum samples from rhesus macaques immunized with a 9-valent VLP-based vaccine served as the reference standard. The overall specificity of the assay was >99%, and the linearity (parallelism) of the assay was <7% per 10-fold dilution. Total assay precision was <19% across 3 different VLP-microsphere lots, 2 secondary antibody lots, and 2 different operators over a period of 3 weeks. Three different methods were used to evaluate serostatus cutoffs (SCO): (i) a clinical sensitivity/specificity analysis based on “likely negative” and “likely positive” samples from nonvaccinees, (ii) stringent upper tolerance limits on samples from “likely negatives,” and (iii) stringent upper tolerance limits from the same “likely negative” sample set after VLP adsorption. Depending on the method to set the serostatus cutoff, the percentage of seropositive samples at the month 48 time point following vaccination with the HPV 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent vaccine ranged from 70% to 100%. This assay has proven useful for measuring the levels of serum antibody to the nine HPV VLPs following natural infection or administration of VLP-based vaccines. PMID:20237197

  15. Multiplexed serologic assay for nine anogenital human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Opalka, David; Matys, Katie; Bojczuk, Paul; Green, Tina; Gesser, Richard; Saah, Alfred; Haupt, Richard; Dutko, Frank; Esser, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    A multiplexed human papillomavirus (HPV) immunoassay has been developed for the detection of human IgG antibodies to HPV type 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 virus-like particle (VLP) types in serum following natural infection or immunization with VLP-based vaccines. The VLP antigens were covalently conjugated to carboxyl Luminex microspheres (MS) using a carbodiimide chemistry. Antibody (Ab) titers were determined in a direct binding format, in which an IgG1- to -4-specific, phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) (HP6043) binds to human serum IgG antibodies. Pooled serum samples from rhesus macaques immunized with a 9-valent VLP-based vaccine served as the reference standard. The overall specificity of the assay was >99%, and the linearity (parallelism) of the assay was <7% per 10-fold dilution. Total assay precision was <19% across 3 different VLP-microsphere lots, 2 secondary antibody lots, and 2 different operators over a period of 3 weeks. Three different methods were used to evaluate serostatus cutoffs (SCO): (i) a clinical sensitivity/specificity analysis based on "likely negative" and "likely positive" samples from nonvaccinees, (ii) stringent upper tolerance limits on samples from "likely negatives," and (iii) stringent upper tolerance limits from the same "likely negative" sample set after VLP adsorption. Depending on the method to set the serostatus cutoff, the percentage of seropositive samples at the month 48 time point following vaccination with the HPV 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent vaccine ranged from 70% to 100%. This assay has proven useful for measuring the levels of serum antibody to the nine HPV VLPs following natural infection or administration of VLP-based vaccines.

  16. Noncardiac DiGeorge syndrome diagnosed with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification: A case report.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chih-Hsuan; Leung, Cheung; Kao, Chuan-Hong; Yeh, Shu-Jen

    2015-08-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is not really a rare disease. A microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2 is found in most patients. Sharing the same genetic cause, a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations such as conotruncal anomaly face syndrome, Cayler cardiofacial syndrome, and velocardiofacial syndrome have been reported. Classic characteristics are cardiac defects, abnormal facial features, thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and hypocalcemia. We report a 6-year-old female child presenting with generalized seizure resulting from hypocalcemia. She had no cardiac defects and no hypocalcemia episode in neonatal stage, and had been said to be normal before by her parents until the diagnosis was made. This highlights the importance of extracardiac manifestations in the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome, and many affected patients may be underestimated with minor facial dysmorphism. As health practitioners, it is our duty to identify the victims undermined in the population, and start thorough investigations and the following rehabilitation as soon as possible. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification is a rapid, reliable, and economical alternative for the diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion.

  17. Compound heterozygous GFM2 mutations with Leigh syndrome complicated by arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

    PubMed

    Fukumura, Shinobu; Ohba, Chihiro; Watanabe, Toshihide; Minagawa, Kimio; Shimura, Masaru; Murayama, Kei; Ohtake, Akira; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Defects in the mitochondrial translation apparatus can impair energy production in affected tissues and organs. Most components of this apparatus are encoded by nuclear genes, including GFM2, which encodes a mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor. A few patients with mutations in some of these genes have been reported to date. Here, we present two female siblings with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, optic atrophy and severe mental retardation. The younger sister had a progressive cerebellar atrophy and bilateral neuropathological findings in the brainstem. Although her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of lactate and pyruvate were not increased, brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a lactate peak. Additionally, her CSF lactate/pyruvate and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratios were high, and levels of oxidative phosphorylation in skin fibroblasts were reduced. We therefore diagnosed Leigh syndrome. Genomic investigation confirmed the presence of compound heterozygous GFM2 mutations (c.206+4A>G and c.2029-1G>A) in both siblings, causing aberrant splicing with premature stop codons (p.Gly50Glufs*4 and p.Ala677Leufs*2, respectively). These findings suggest that GFM2 mutations could be causative of a phenotype of Leigh syndrome with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

  18. Multiplex holograms from Eadweard Muybridge's studies of the human figure in motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzanelli, David J.

    1995-02-01

    Examination of Eadweard Muybridge's photographic sequences of human and animal locomotion reveal them to have latent stereoscopic and temporal parallax. In effect, Muybridge shot the first photographic images suitable for making into multiplex holograms. Analysis of Muybridge's photographic setup shows the inherent stereoscopic parallax, and an examination of a succession of frames used to produce a multiplex hologram illustrates different ways in which temporal and stereoscopic parallax can be perceptually combined.

  19. Acetylcholine receptor δ subunit mutations underlie a fast-channel myasthenic syndrome and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita

    PubMed Central

    Brownlow, Sharon; Webster, Richard; Croxen, Rebecca; Brydson, Martin; Neville, Brian; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Vincent, Angela; Newsom-Davis, John; Beeson, David

    2001-01-01

    Limitation of movement during fetal development may lead to multiple joint contractures in the neonate, termed arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Neuromuscular disorders are among the many different causes of reduced fetal movement. Many congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) are due to mutations of the adult-specific ε subunit of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), and, thus, functional deficits do not arise until late in gestation. However, an earlier effect on the fetus might be predicted with some defects of other AChR subunits. We studied a child who presented at birth with joint contractures and was subsequently found to have a CMS. Mutational screening revealed heteroallelic mutation within the AChR δ subunit gene, δ756ins2 and δE59K. Expression studies demonstrate that δ756ins2 is a null mutation. By contrast, both fetal and adult AChR containing δE59K have shorter than normal channel activations that predict fast decay of endplate currents. Thus, δE59K causes dysfunction of fetal as well as the adult AChR and would explain the presence of joint contractures on the basis of reduced fetal movement. This is the first report of the association of AChR gene mutations with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. It is probable that mutations that severely disrupt function of fetal AChR will underlie additional cases. PMID:11435464

  20. Mapping Multiplex Hubs in Human Functional Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    De Domenico, Manlio; Sasai, Shuntaro; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly central ones, i.e., hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studies have shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components of brain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However, the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneously is still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify each frequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploiting the recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that each frequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately model brain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in general different from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signals as usual, provide a more accurate map of brain's most important functional regions, allowing to distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventional network approaches. PMID:27471443

  1. Clinical Application of an Innovative Multiplex-Fluorescent-Labeled STRs Assay for Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaihui; Liu, Shu; Feng, Bing; Yang, Yali; Zhang, Haiyan; Dong, Rui; Liu, Yi; Gai, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are two clinically distinct neurodevelopmental disorders caused by absence of paternally or maternally expressed imprinted genes on chr15q11.2-q13.3. Three mechanisms are known to be involved in the pathogenesis: microdeletions, uniparental disomy (UPD) and imprinting defects. Both disorders are difficult to be definitely diagnosed at early age if no available molecular cytogenetic tests. In this study, we identified 5 AS patients with the maternal deletion and 26 PWS patients with paternal deletion on chr15q11-q13 by using an innovative multiplex-fluorescent-labeled short tandem repeats (STRs) assay based on linkage analysis, and validated by the methylation-specific PCR and array comparative genomic hybridization techniques. More interesting, one of these PWS patients was confirmed as maternal uniparental isodisomy by the STR linkage analysis. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these individuals were also presented. Our results indicate that the new linkage analysis is much faster and easier for large-scale screening deletion and uniparental disomy, thus providing a valuable method for early diagnosis of PWS/AS patients, which is critical for genetic diagnosis, management and improvement of prognosis.

  2. [Mononeuritis multiplex due to thrombotic ischemia of primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome without vasculitis: an autopsy case report].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masatoshi; Katada, Fumiaki; Sato, Susumu; Shibayama, Hidehiro; Fukutake, Toshio; Murayama, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    The patient was a 78-year-old man. Three years before admission, he developed transient peripheral neuropathy and purpura, and at admission, he presented with livedo reticularis of both his lower extremities and with mononeuritis multiplex. Vasculitis was not observed, and antiphospholipid antibodies were detected. The nerve and skin biopsies revealed no inflammation; axonal degeneration accompanied by thrombi was found in his arterioles and venules. Based on these findings, he was diagnosed with ischemic peripheral neuropathy due to primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Administration of anticoagulant therapy resulted in an improvement in symptoms; however, two months later, a relapse occurred, and the patient contracted an infection while undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. The infection became fulminant, and the patient succumbed to multiple organ failure. The autopsy revealed a systemic arterial and venous embolism; however, no vasculitis was observed. Antiphospholipid syndrome, which is responsive to antithrombotic treatment, should be considered as a differential diagnosis of mononeuritis multiplex.

  3. Increased Performances of the Biological Diagnosis of the Antiphospholipid Syndrome by the Use of a Multiplex Assay.

    PubMed

    Sénant, M; Rostane, H; Fernani-Oukil, F; Hosking, F; Bellery, F; Courchinoux, A; Tartour, E; Darnige, L; Dragon-Durey, M-A

    2015-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by development of venous and/or arterial thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity. Biological criteria are the persistent presence of lupus anticoagulant (LA) and/or anti-cardiolipin (aCL) and/or anti-B2GP1 autoantibodies' positivity. The assays' performances are of crucial importance. We evaluated a multiplex assay allowing simultaneous detection of IgG anti-cardiolipin, anti-B2GP1, and anti-factor II. 300 samples were tested. Patients were categorized according to clinical scores of APS from 0 to 3 based on presence or not of arterial or venous thrombosis, fetal loss, and autoimmunity. We used a multiplex assay for APS for simultaneous detection of aCL, anti-B2GP1, and factor II and compared its performances to ELISA assays. Presence of LA was also assessed. We performed a correlation study of the tested assays and compared their clinical efficacy by ROC curve analysis. We obtained significantly higher performances with the multiplex assay than ELISA with higher area under the curve (AUC). The disease rate increased with the number of positive markers from 9% for 1 marker to 100% for 4 markers positive for patients with high risk scores. The multiplex APS assay exhibited higher performances particularly in case of primary APS and is useful for rapid diagnosis of APS.

  4. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with human herpesvirus-6 reactivation.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Najeeba; Sarita, S; Arunkumar, G; Sabeena, S; Manikoth, Neeraj; Sivakumar, C P

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old man, on carbamazepine for the past 3 months, was referred as a case of atypical measles. On examination, he had high-grade fever, generalized itchy rash, cough, vomiting and jaundice. A provisional diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity syndrome to carbamazepine was made with a differential diagnosis of viral exanthema with systemic complications. Laboratory investigations revealed leukocytosis with eosnophilia and elevated liver enzymes. Real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on throat swab and blood was suggestive of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). Measles was ruled out by PCR and serology. The diagnosis of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) was confirmed, which could explain all the features manifested by the patient. HHV-6 infects almost all humans by age 2 years. It infects and replicates in CD4 T lymphocytes and establishes latency in human peripheral blood monocytes or macrophages and early bone marrow progenitors. In DIHS, allergic reaction to the causative drug stimulates T cells, which leads to reactivation of the herpesvirus genome. DIHS is treated by withdrawal of the culprit drug and administration of systemic steroids. Our patient responded well to steroids and HHV-6 was negative on repeat real-time multiplex PCR at the end of treatment.

  5. Quantifying the Role of Homophily in Human Cooperation Using Multiplex Evolutionary Game Theory

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nature shows as human beings live and grow inside social structures. This assumption allows us to explain and explore how it may shape most of our behaviours and choices, and why we are not just blindly driven by instincts: our decisions are based on more complex cognitive reasons, based on our connectedness on different spaces. Thus, human cooperation emerges from this complex nature of social network. Our paper, focusing on the evolutionary dynamics, is intended to explore how and why it happens, and what kind of impact is caused by homophily among people. We investigate the evolution of human cooperation using evolutionary game theory on multiplex. Multiplexity, as an extra dimension of analysis, allows us to unveil the hidden dynamics and observe non-trivial patterns within a population across network layers. More importantly, we find a striking role of homophily, as the higher the homophily between individuals, the quicker is the convergence towards cooperation in the social dilemma. The simulation results, conducted both macroscopically and microscopically across the network layers in the multiplex, show quantitatively the role of homophily in human cooperation. PMID:26496351

  6. Quantifying the Role of Homophily in Human Cooperation Using Multiplex Evolutionary Game Theory.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Alessandro; Scatà, Marialisa; La Corte, Aurelio; Liò, Pietro; Catania, Emanuele; Guardo, Ermanno; Pagano, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Nature shows as human beings live and grow inside social structures. This assumption allows us to explain and explore how it may shape most of our behaviours and choices, and why we are not just blindly driven by instincts: our decisions are based on more complex cognitive reasons, based on our connectedness on different spaces. Thus, human cooperation emerges from this complex nature of social network. Our paper, focusing on the evolutionary dynamics, is intended to explore how and why it happens, and what kind of impact is caused by homophily among people. We investigate the evolution of human cooperation using evolutionary game theory on multiplex. Multiplexity, as an extra dimension of analysis, allows us to unveil the hidden dynamics and observe non-trivial patterns within a population across network layers. More importantly, we find a striking role of homophily, as the higher the homophily between individuals, the quicker is the convergence towards cooperation in the social dilemma. The simulation results, conducted both macroscopically and microscopically across the network layers in the multiplex, show quantitatively the role of homophily in human cooperation.

  7. Statistical approaches to developing a multiplex immunoassay for determining human exposure to environmental pathogens.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Swinburne A J; Simmons, Kaneatra J; Eason, Tarsha N; Griffin, Shannon M; Curioso, Clarissa L; Wymer, Larry J; Fout, G Shay; Grimm, Ann C; Oshima, Kevin H; Dufour, Al

    2015-10-01

    There are numerous pathogens that can be transmitted through water. Identifying and understanding the routes and magnitude of exposure or infection to these microbial contaminants are critical to assessing and mitigating risk. Conventional approaches of studying immunological responses to exposure or infection such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) and other monoplex antibody-based immunoassays can be very costly, laborious, and consume large quantities of patient sample. A major limitation of these approaches is that they can only be used to measure one analyte at a time. Multiplex immunoassays provide the ability to study multiple pathogens simultaneously in microliter volumes of samples. However, there are several challenges that must be addressed when developing these multiplex immunoassays such as selection of specific antigens and antibodies, cross-reactivity, calibration, protein-reagent interferences, and the need for rigorous optimization of protein concentrations. In this study, a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was used to optimize reagent concentrations for coupling selected antigens to Luminex™ xMAP microspheres for use in an indirect capture, multiplex immunoassay to detect human exposure or infection from pathogens that are potentially transmitted through water. Results from Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium singleplexes were used to determine the mean concentrations that would be applied to the multiplex assay. Cut-offs to differentiate between exposed and non-exposed individuals were determined using finite mixed modeling (FMM). The statistical approaches developed facilitated the detection of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori, C. jejuni, Toxoplasma gondii, hepatitis A virus, rotavirus and noroviruses (VA387 and Norwalk strains) in fifty-four diagnostically characterized plasma samples. Of the characterized samples, the detection rate was 87.5% for H

  8. Development of Multiplexed Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay for Detecting Human Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Meei-Li; Nguy, Long; Ferrenberg, James; Boeckh, Michael; Cent, Anne; Corey, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdV) have been associated with a wide variety of human disease and are increasingly recognized as viral pathogens that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Early detection of AdV DNA in plasma and sterile fluids has been shown to be useful for identifying patients at risk for invasive AdV disease. Due to the large number of existing Adv types, few real-time quantitative AdV PCR assays published effectively cover all AdV types. We designed a series of AdV PCR primers and probes and empirically multiplexed them into two separate real-time PCR assays to quantitatively detect all 49 serotypes of human AdV (Types 1-49) available from ATCC. We then subsequently multiplexed all the primers and probes into one reaction. The sensitivity of these assays was determined to be less than 10 copies per reaction (500 copies/ml plasma). In a retrospective evaluation we detected all 84 clinical AdV isolates isolated in cell culture from patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) between 1981 and 1987. Prospective analysis of 46 consecutive clinical samples submitted for adenovirus testing showed greater sensitivity and equal specificity of the AdV PCR than viral culture. This real time PCR assay allows rapid, sensitive and specific quantification of all currently defined adenoviruses into either two or one multiplex assay for clinical samples. PMID:18707838

  9. Photosensitive Human Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, Graciela; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitivity in humans can result from defects in repair of light-induced DNA lesions, from photoactivation of chemicals (including certain medications) with sunlight to produce toxic mediators, and by immune reactions to sunlight exposures. Deficiencies in DNA repair and the processing of damaged DNA during replication and transcription may result in mutations and genomic instability. We will review current understanding of photosensitivity to short wavelength ultraviolet light (UV) due to genetic defects in particular DNA repair pathways; deficiencies in some are characterized by an extremely high incidence of cancer in sun-exposed tissues, while in others no cancers have been reported. PMID:26255937

  10. Photosensitive human syndromes.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Graciela; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2015-06-01

    Photosensitivity in humans can result from defects in repair of light-induced DNA lesions, from photoactivation of chemicals (including certain medications) with sunlight to produce toxic mediators, and by immune reactions to sunlight exposures. Deficiencies in DNA repair and the processing of damaged DNA during replication and transcription may result in mutations and genomic instability. We will review current understanding of photosensitivity to short wavelength ultraviolet light (UV) due to genetic defects in particular DNA repair pathways; deficiencies in some are characterized by an extremely high incidence of cancer in sun-exposed tissues, while in others no cancers have been reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing a Salivary Antibody Multiplex Immunoassay to Measure Human Exposure to Environmental Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Swinburne A J; Eason, Tarsha N; Simmons, Kaneatra J; Curioso, Clarissa L; Griffin, Shannon M; Ramudit, Malini K D; Plunkett, Trevor R

    2016-09-12

    The etiology and impacts of human exposure to environmental pathogens are of major concern worldwide and, thus, the ability to assess exposure and infections using cost effective, high-throughput approaches would be indispensable. This manuscript describes the development and analysis of a bead-based multiplex immunoassay capable of measuring the presence of antibodies in human saliva to multiple pathogens simultaneously. Saliva is particularly attractive in this application because it is noninvasive, cheaper and easier to collect than serum. Antigens from environmental pathogens were coupled to carboxylated microspheres (beads) and used to measure antibodies in very small volumes of human saliva samples using a bead-based, solution-phase assay. Beads were coupled with antigens from Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, noroviruses (G I.1 and G II.4) and hepatitis A virus. To ensure that the antigens were sufficiently coupled to the beads, coupling was confirmed using species-specific, animal-derived primary capture antibodies, followed by incubation with biotinylated anti-species secondary detection antibodies and streptavidin-R-phycoerythrin reporter (SAPE). As a control to measure non-specific binding, one bead set was treated identically to the others except it was not coupled to any antigen. The antigen-coupled and control beads were then incubated with prospectively-collected human saliva samples, measured on a high throughput analyzer based on the principles of flow cytometry, and the presence of antibodies to each antigen was measured in Median Fluorescence Intensity units (MFI). This multiplex immunoassay has a number of advantages, including more data with less sample; reduced costs and labor; and the ability to customize the assay to many targets of interest. Results indicate that the salivary multiplex immunoassay may be capable of identifying previous exposures and infections, which can be especially useful in surveillance

  12. [new multiplex PCR for species-specific diagnosis of human candidiasis].

    PubMed

    García, Liliana Torcoroma; Luna, Liany Johanna; Velasco, Tania Katherine; Guerra, Beatriz Elena

    2017-06-01

    Candidiases is a group of opportunistic infections caused by yeasts belonging to the genus Candida. Candida albicans is the most prevalent species in both superficial and deep infections, however, the clinical importance of non-albicans Candida has increased during the last decade, driving an urgent need for diagnostic tests that allow for species-level resolution and selection of the optimum therapeutic approach. To design and to optimize a new multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of the five most relevant species of Candida involved in human candidiasis etiology. For primers design, the physical and thermodynamic restrictions that affect multiplex PCR performance were analyzed using Gene Runner and Mult-PSOS. As templates, the internal transcribed region 2 (ITR2) was selected for C. albicans (AJ249486.1), and topoisomerase II (TOPII) for C. parasilopsis (AB049144.1), C. krusei (AB049139.1), C. tropicalis (AB049141.1), and C. guillermondii (AB049145.1). We used ATCC strains of all these five species and clinical isolates as templates. We designed ten oligonucleotides for the simultaneous amplification of the Candida species. The electrophoresis band profile was: C. albicans (206 bp), C. guillermondii (244 bp), C. tropicalis (474 bp), C. parasilopsis (558 bp), and C. krusei (419 bp). The new multiplex PCR assay designed in this study allowed a simultaneous and efficient amplification of the amplicons corresponding to the five species of Candida under study, with an adequate resolution in standard agarose gel.

  13. Development of multiplex serological assay for the detection of human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Nzou, Samson Muuo; Fujii, Yoshito; Miura, Masashi; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Itoh, Makoto; Salam, Md Abdus; Hamano, Shinjiro; Hirayama, Kenji; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a disease caused by Kinetoplastid infection. Serological tests are useful for epidemiological surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex serological assay for HAT to assess the diagnostic value of selected HAT antigens for sero-epidemiological surveillance. We cloned loci encoding eight antigens from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, expressed the genes in bacterial systems, and purified the resulting proteins. Antigens were subjected to Luminex multiplex assays using sera from HAT and VL patients to assess the antigens' immunodiagnostic potential. Among T. b. gambiense antigens, the 64-kDa and 65-kDa invariant surface glycoproteins (ISGs) and flagellar calcium binding protein (FCaBP) had high sensitivity for sera from T. b. gambiense patients, yielding AUC values of 0.871, 0.737 and 0.858 respectively in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The ISG64, ISG65, and FCaBP antigens were partially cross-reactive to sera from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense patients. The GM6 antigen was cross-reactive to sera from T. b. rhodesiense patients as well as to sera from VL patients. Furthermore, heterogeneous antibody responses to each individual HAT antigen were observed. Testing for multiple HAT antigens in the same panel allowed specific and sensitive detection. Our results demonstrate the utility of applying multiplex assays for development and evaluation of HAT antigens for use in sero-epidemiological surveillance.

  14. Application of multiplex PCR for Rapid and sensitive detection of human papillomaviruses in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zandnia, Fateme; Doosti, Abbas; Mokhtari-Farsani, Abbas; Kardi, Mohammad Taghi; Movafagh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Reffering to an increase in cervical cancer in the recent years, rapid, sensitive and economical detection of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) as causative agents of cervical cancer is important. The traditional methods for the detection of HPVs in cervical cancer, such as pap smear, suffer from limitation and PCR has a potential to overcome the limitaitons. The purpose of present research work was to identify the five important strains of HPV (16, 18, 31, 33 and 45) simultaneously by Multiplex PCR application. Study was done on 100 cervical lesions of women. DNA was extracted from specimens by a genomic DNA purification kit. A 5-plex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of major HPV. Five pair of new primers was designed for detection of HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 by Multiplex PCR. Among the 100 evaluated samples, 82 were found positive to HPVs. In the meantime the highest rate of infection was for HPV 16. Also 30 of HPV positive samples had infections with two or more HPV types. Multiplex PCR assay used in present study can provide a rapid, sensitive and economical method for detection of viral infections and is applicable to small volumes of vaginal samples.

  15. Development of a polymorphic short tandem repeat locus multiplex system for efficient human identification.

    PubMed

    Rodovalho, R G; Rodrigues, E L; Santos, G S; Cavalcanti, L M; Lima, P R; Rodovalho, A G; Vital, R G; Gigonzac, M A D; da Cruz, A D

    2017-04-05

    This study aimed to develop a short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, made up of 22 highly informative STR loci, for application in forensic genetics. The system comprised 21 polymorphic autosomal loci (D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, Penta E, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, FGA, D2S441, D17S1301, D19S433, D18S853, D20S482, and D14S1434) and the amelogenin gene locus. Strategies were developed to overcome the challenges involved in creating a multiplex system. Based on the literature and available databases, the STR loci were selected with the aim to obtain discriminatory markers, and followed specific criteria for this purpose. Primers were projected using the Primer3 software, and AutoDimer was used to evaluate possible interactions between them. The 22 selected STR loci were validated individually and jointly, both to assess their sensitivity and to test the efficiency of the multiplex system. Statistical analyses were based on the genetic data of 450 unrelated individuals living in the State of Goiás, thus allowing the establishment of the parameters necessary to use this system. A total of 239 alleles were detected for the 22 loci in the set, allowing for a probability of identity of 4.23 x 10(-25) to be obtained. The combined power of discrimination was 0.999999999999999999999999 and the combined power of exclusion was 0.99999. Upon complete validation of the entire system, this multiplex assay was considered to be a powerful tool for application in human identification by DNA analysis.

  16. Development of multiplex PCRs for evolutionary and forensic applications of 37 human Y chromosome SNPs.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Valerio; Alessandrini, Federica; Turchi, Chiara; Pesaresi, Mauro; Buscemi, Loredana; Tagliabracci, Adriano

    2006-02-10

    This work describes an efficient and rapid test for typing 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the non-recombining region of Y chromosome (NRY) from a minimal amount of DNA using six PCR multiplexes. Markers were drawn following a hierarchical strategy based on the phylogenetic tree of Y chromosome proposed by the Y Chromosome Consortium [The Y Chromosome Consortium, A nomenclature system for the tree of human Y-chromosomal binary haplogroups, Genome Res. 12 (2002) 339-348]. Two multiplexes--arbitrarily named MY1 and MY2--were developed to explore the basal branches of the tree encompassing all the major clades A-R: MY1 for markers M35, M89, M172, M170, M9, M173, M45 and MY2 for markers M52, M216, M174, M181, M201, M91, M96, M214. Four multiplexes able of typing the more superficial branches typical of most frequent European haplogroups E3b, J2, R1 and I, were also developed and named MY-E3b (M78, M107, M224, M165, M148, M81), MY-J2 (M158, M68, M47, M102, M137, M67), MY-R1 (M17, M269, M18, P25, SRY10831.2) and MY-I (M72, M223, M26, M21, M161). SNP genotyping was carried out by hot-start PCR amplification with primers yielding fragments between 63 and 210 nucleotides, followed by minisequencing reaction based on dideoxy single-base extension and capillary electrophoresis of extension products. The sequential application of these multiplexes is a robust and effective resource for typing the most frequent European Y-SNP haplogroups, and appears to be suitable for forensic purposes and evolutionary studies.

  17. An Ultrasensitive, Selective, Multiplexed Superbioelectronic Nose That Mimics the Human Sense of Smell.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Seok; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Seon Joo; Lee, Seung Hwan; An, Ji Hyun; Park, Jin Wook; Yang, Heehong; Yoon, Hyeonseok; Bae, Joonwon; Park, Tai Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-10-14

    Human sensory-mimicking systems, such as electronic brains, tongues, skin, and ears, have been promoted for use in improving social welfare. However, no significant achievements have been made in mimicking the human nose due to the complexity of olfactory sensory neurons. Combinational coding of human olfactory receptors (hORs) is essential for odorant discrimination in mixtures, and the development of hOR-combined multiplexed systems has progressed slowly. Here, we report the first demonstration of an artificial multiplexed superbioelectronic nose (MSB-nose) that mimics the human olfactory sensory system, leading to high-performance odorant discriminatory ability in mixtures. Specifically, portable MSB-noses were constructed using highly uniform graphene micropatterns (GMs) that were conjugated with two different hORs, which were employed as transducers in a liquid-ion gated field-effect transistor (FET). Field-induced signals from the MSB-nose were monitored and provided high sensitivity and selectivity toward target odorants (minimum detectable level: 0.1 fM). More importantly, the potential of the MSB-nose as a tool to encode hOR combinations was demonstrated using principal component analysis.

  18. Validation of a multiplex electrochemiluminescent immunoassay platform in human and mouse samples

    PubMed Central

    Bastarache, J.A.; Koyama, T.; Wickersham, N.E; Ware, L.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of multiplex immunoassays, there are very few scientific reports that test the accuracy and reliability of a platform prior to publication of experimental data. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the need for new assay platform validation prior to use of biologic samples from large studies in order to optimize sample handling and assay performance. In this study, our goal was to test the accuracy and reproducibility of an electrochemiluminescent multiplex immunoassay platform (Meso Scale Discovery, MSD®) and compare this platform to validated, singleplex immunoassays (R&D Systems®) using actual study subject (human plasma and mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma) samples. We found that the MSD platform performed well on intra- and inter-assay comparisons, spike and recovery and cross-platform comparisons. The mean intra-assay CV% and range for MSD was 3.49 (0.0-10.4) for IL-6 and 2.04 (0.1-7.9) for IL-8. The correlation between values for identical samples measured on both MSD and R&D was R=0.97 for both analytes. The mouse MSD assay had a broader range of CV% with means ranging from 9.5-28.5 depending on the analyte. The range of mean CV% was similar for single plex ELISAs at 4.3-23.7 depending on the analyte. Regardless of species or sample type, CV% was more variable at lower protein concentrations. In conclusion, we validated a multiplex electrochemiluminscent assay system and found that it has superior test characteristics in human plasma compared to mouse BALF and plasma. Both human and MSD assays compared favorably to well-validated singleplex ELISA's PMID:24768796

  19. Multiplex PCR for differential identification of broad tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium) infecting humans.

    PubMed

    Wicht, Barbara; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Scholz, Tomás; Ito, Akira; Jiménez, Juan A; Brabec, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The specific identification of broad tapeworms (genus Diphyllobothrium) infecting humans is very difficult to perform by morphological observation. Molecular analysis by PCR and sequencing represents the only reliable tool to date to identify these parasites to the species level. Due to the recent spread of human diphyllobothriosis in several countries, a correct diagnosis has become crucial to better understand the distribution and the life cycle of human-infecting species as well as to prevent the introduction of parasites to disease-free water systems. Nevertheless, PCR and sequencing, although highly precise, are too complicated, long, and expensive to be employed in medical laboratories for routine diagnostics. In the present study we optimized a cheap and rapid molecular test for the differential identification of the most common Diphyllobothrium species infecting humans (D. latum, D. dendriticum, D. nihonkaiense, and D. pacificum), based on a multiplex PCR with the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of mitochondrial DNA.

  20. Simultaneous detection, typing and quantitation of oncogenic human papillomavirus by multiplex consensus real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Andrew; Allum, Anne-Gry; Strand, Linda; Aakre, Randi Kersten

    2013-02-01

    A consensus multiplex real-time PCR test (PT13-RT) for the oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 66 is described. The test targets the L1 gene. Analytical sensitivity is between 4 and 400 GU (genomic units) in the presence of 500 ng of human DNA, corresponding to 75,000 human cells. HPV types are grouped into multiplex groups of 3 or 4 resulting in the use of 4 wells per sample and permitting up to 24 samples per run (including controls) in a standard 96-well real-time PCR instrument. False negative results are avoided by (a) measuring sample DNA concentration to control that sufficient cellular material is present and (b) including HPV type 6 as a homologous internal control in order to detect PCR inhibition or competition from other (non-oncogenic) HPV types. Analysis time from refrigerator to report is 8 h, including 2.5 h hands-on time. Relative to the HC2 test, the sensitivity and specificity were respectively 98% and 83%, the lower specificity being attributable to the higher analytical sensitivity of PT13-RT. To assess type determination comparison was made with a reversed line-blot test. Type concordance was high (κ=0.79) with discrepancies occurring mostly in multiple-positive samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrated capillary electrophoresis microsystem for multiplex analysis of human respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Thaitrong, Numrin; Liu, Peng; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian; Chiesl, Thomas N; Higa, Yukiko; Mathies, Richard A

    2010-12-15

    We developed a two-layer, four-channel polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-capillary electrophoresis microdevice that integrates nucleic acid amplification, sample cleanup and concentration, capillary electrophoretic separation, and detection for multiplex analysis of four human respiratory viral pathogens, influenza A, influenza B, coronavirus OC43, and human metapneumovirus. Biotinylated and fluorescently labeled double-stranded (ds) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) amplification products are generated in a 100 nL PCR reactor incorporating an integrated heater and a temperature sensor. After amplification, the products are captured and concentrated in a cross-linked acrylamide gel capture matrix copolymerized with acrydite-functionalized streptavidin-capture agents. Thermal dehybridization releases the fluorescently labeled DNA strand for capillary electrophoresis injection, separation, and detection. Using plasmid standards containing the viral genes of interest, each target can be detected starting from as few as 10 copies/reactor. When a two-step reverse transcription PCR amplification is employed, the device can detect ribonucleic acid (RNA) analogues of all four viral targets with detection limits in the range of 25-100 copies/reactor. The utility of the microdevice for analyzing samples from nasopharyngeal swabs is demonstrated. When size-based separation is combined with four-color detection, this platform provides excellent product discrimination, making it readily extendable to higher-order multiplex assays. This portable microsystem is also suitable for performing automated assays in point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  2. Integrated Capillary Electrophoresis Microsystem for Multiplex Analysis of Human Respiratory Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Thaitrong, Numrin; Liu, Peng; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, Ian; Chiesl, Thomas N.; Higa, Yukiko; Mathies, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a two-layer, four-channel PCR-capillary electrophoresis microdevice that integrates nucleic acid amplification, sample cleanup and concentration, capillary electrophoretic separation and detection for multiplex analysis of four human respiratory viral pathogens influenza A, influenza B, coronavirus OC43, and human metapneumovirus. Biotinylated and fluorescently labeled double-stranded (ds) DNA amplification products are generated in a 100-nL PCR reactor incorporating an integrated heater and a temperature sensor. After amplification, the products are captured and concentrated in a crosslinked acrylamide gel capture matrix copolymerized with acrydite-functionalized streptavidin-capture agents. Thermal dehybridization releases the fluorescently labeled DNA strand for capillary electrophoresis injection, separation and detection. Using plasmid standards containing the viral genes of interest, each target can be detected starting from as few as 10 copies/reactor. By employing one-step reverse transcription PCR amplification, the device can detect RNA analogues of all four viral targets with detection limits in the range of 25–100 copies/reactor. The utility of the microdevice for analyzing samples from nasopharyngeal swabs is demonstrated. Combining size-based separation with four-color detection, this platform provides excellent product discrimination, making it readily extendable to higher-order multiplex assays. This portable microsystem is also suitable for performing automated assays in point-of-care diagnostic applications. PMID:21114282

  3. Comparison of real-time multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays with INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping extra assay.

    PubMed

    Else, Elizabeth A; Swoyer, Ryan; Zhang, Yuhua; Taddeo, Frank J; Bryan, Janine T; Lawson, John; Van Hyfte, Inez; Roberts, Christine C

    2011-05-01

    Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59. Here, we evaluated clinical specimen concordance and compared the limits of detection (LODs) between multiplex HPV PCR assays and the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay, which detects 28 types, for the 14 HPV types common to both of these methods. Overall HPV detection agreement rates were >90% for swabs and >95% for thin sections. Statistically significant differences in detection were observed for HPV6, HPV16, HPV18, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59 in swabs and for HPV45, HPV58, and HPV59 in thin sections. Where P was <0.05, discordance was due to detection of more HPV-positive samples by the multiplex HPV PCR assays. LODs were similar for eight HPV types, significantly lower in multiplex assays for five HPV types, and lower in INNO-LiPA for HPV6 only. LODs were under 50 copies for all HPV types, with the exception of HPV39, HPV58, and HPV59 in the INNO-LiPA assay. The overall percent agreement for detection of 14 HPV types between the type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and INNO-LiPA genotyping assays was good. The differences in positive sample detection favored multiplex HPV PCR, suggesting increased sensitivity of HPV DNA detection by type-specific multiplex HPV PCR assays.

  4. Evaluation of a novel multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assay for HPV types in skin warts.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Markus; de Koning, Maurits N C; Eekhof, Just A H; Quint, Wim G V; Pawlita, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the genera alpha, mu, and nu induce benign tumors of the cutaneous epithelia that constitute a significant burden for immunocompromised adults. Currently, no gold standard for genotyping of these HPV types exists. In this study, we describe the prevalence of genus alpha, mu, and nu HPV types in cutaneous warts. We developed a novel multiplex HPV genotyping assay, BSwart-PCR/MPG (BSwart), to type sensitively and specifically 19 cutaneous HPV types frequently found in warts. BSwart-PCR/MPG is based on a multiplex PCR using broad-spectrum primers and subsequent multiplex hybridization to type-specific probes coupled to Luminex beads. In a first application comprising 100 cutaneous warts, the assay was compared to another, recently described genotyping assay, the HSL-PCR/MPG. When a 10-fold dilution series was used, the detection limit was between 10 and 100 HPV genomes per PCR. When comparing the two assays, there was an excellent agreement in detecting dominant HPV types; however, we also obtained evidence for a higher sensitivity of the BSwart assay for multiple infections in these cutaneous warts. Using BSwart, HPV was found in 95% of wart preparations, with HPV1 being most prevalent, followed by types 27, 57, and 2. Both novel BSwart and HSL-PCR/MPG HPV genotyping assays are powerful high-throughput tools that could be used to learn more about the natural history of cutaneous HPV. They would be advantageous to monitor the efficacy of future skin HPV vaccines and to identify novel HPV vaccine candidates.

  5. Evaluation of a Novel Multiplex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping Assay for HPV Types in Skin Warts▿

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Markus; de Koning, Maurits N. C.; Eekhof, Just A. H.; Quint, Wim G. V.; Pawlita, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the genera alpha, mu, and nu induce benign tumors of the cutaneous epithelia that constitute a significant burden for immunocompromised adults. Currently, no gold standard for genotyping of these HPV types exists. In this study, we describe the prevalence of genus alpha, mu, and nu HPV types in cutaneous warts. We developed a novel multiplex HPV genotyping assay, BSwart-PCR/MPG (BSwart), to type sensitively and specifically 19 cutaneous HPV types frequently found in warts. BSwart-PCR/MPG is based on a multiplex PCR using broad-spectrum primers and subsequent multiplex hybridization to type-specific probes coupled to Luminex beads. In a first application comprising 100 cutaneous warts, the assay was compared to another, recently described genotyping assay, the HSL-PCR/MPG. When a 10-fold dilution series was used, the detection limit was between 10 and 100 HPV genomes per PCR. When comparing the two assays, there was an excellent agreement in detecting dominant HPV types; however, we also obtained evidence for a higher sensitivity of the BSwart assay for multiple infections in these cutaneous warts. Using BSwart, HPV was found in 95% of wart preparations, with HPV1 being most prevalent, followed by types 27, 57, and 2. Both novel BSwart and HSL-PCR/MPG HPV genotyping assays are powerful high-throughput tools that could be used to learn more about the natural history of cutaneous HPV. They would be advantageous to monitor the efficacy of future skin HPV vaccines and to identify novel HPV vaccine candidates. PMID:21813725

  6. Detection and Typing of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus by Multiplex Real-Time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Dauber, Malte; Lange, Elke; Schirrmeier, Horst; Beer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes economic losses in the pig industry worldwide, and PRRS viruses (PRRSV) are classified into the two distinct genotypes “North American (NA, type 2)” and “European (EU, type 1)”. In 2006, a highly pathogenic NA strain of PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), characterized by high fever as well as high morbidity and mortality, emerged in swine farms in China. Therefore, a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay specific for HP-PRRSV was developed and combined with type 1- and type 2-specific RT-qPCR systems. Furthermore, an internal control, based on a heterologous RNA, was successfully introduced. This final multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR, detecting and typing PRRSV, had an analytical sensitivity of less than 200 copies per µl for the type 1-assay and 20 copies per µl for the type 2- and HP assays and a high diagnostic sensitivity. A panel of reference strains and field isolates was reliably detected and samples from an animal trial with a Chinese HP-PRRS strain were used for test validation. The new multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR system allows for the first time the highly sensitive detection and rapid differentiation of PRRSV of both genotypes as well as the direct detection of HP-PRRSV. PMID:22768042

  7. Lethal congenital muscular dystrophy in two sibs with arthrogryposis multiplex: new entity or variant of cobblestone lissencephaly syndrome?

    PubMed

    Seidahmed, M Z; Sunada, Y; Ozo, C O; Hamid, F; Campbell, K P; Salih, M A

    1996-12-01

    We report on two sisters of first degree cousin parents who were born with severe hypotonia, arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) and dysmorphic features consistent with the fetal akinesia/hypokinesia sequence. They needed assisted ventilation and each died at the age of 5 months. Both had type II lissencephaly (cobblestone lissencephaly) which was visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the proband. Ophthalmic evaluation revealed no ocular malformations in either of them. Brain auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) revealed bilateral severe sensorineural hearing loss in the proband, whereas an MRI-guided open muscle biopsy of the sartorius muscle (the only remaining thigh muscle) showed features of muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemistry revealed normal dystrophin, dystrophin-associated glycoproteins (DAG) and merosin. Certain clinical and pathological features distinguish the disease seen in these sisters from reported isolated cases where lethal AMC was associated with brain dysplasia and from the main syndromes of congenital muscular dystrophy/cobblestone lissencephaly. Differences from the Walker-Warburg syndrome, which simulates it in severity, included the absence of severe hydrocephalus, normal creatine kinase (for age) and minimal (mainly periventricular) white matter abnormalities. The findings suggest either an independent entity, in the studied family, or an allelic variation of the cobblestone lissencephaly (type II lissencephaly) syndrome.

  8. Microarray multiplex assay for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency type-1 viruses in human blood samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, Chu Chieh . E-mail: chuchieh.hsia@fda.hhs.gov; Chizhikov, Vladimir E.; Yang, Amy X.; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Hewlett, Indira; Duncan, Robert; Puri, Raj K.; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Kaplan, Gerardo G.

    2007-05-18

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) are transfusion-transmitted human pathogens that have a major impact on blood safety and public health worldwide. We developed a microarray multiplex assay for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of these three viruses. The microarray consists of 16 oligonucleotide probes, immobilized on a silylated glass slide. Amplicons from multiplex PCR were labeled with Cy-5 and hybridized to the microarray. The assay detected 1 International Unit (IU), 10 IU, 20 IU of HBV, HCV, and HIV-1, respectively, in a single multiplex reaction. The assay also detected and discriminated the presence of two or three of these viruses in a single sample. Our data represent a proof-of-concept for the possible use of highly sensitive multiplex microarray assay to screen and confirm the presence of these viruses in blood donors and patients.

  9. Rapid and Accurate Identification of Human-Associated Staphylococci by Use of Multiplex PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirotaki, Shintaro; Sasaki, Takashi; Kuwahara-Arai, Kyoko; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Although staphylococci are identified by phenotypic analysis in many clinical laboratories, these results are often incorrect because of phenotypic variation. Genetic analysis is necessary for definitive species identification. In the present study, we developed a simple multiplex-PCR (M-PCR) for species identification of human-associated staphylococci, which were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus, S. capitis, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lugdunensis, S. saprophyticus, and S. warneri. This method was designed on the basis of nucleotide sequences of the thermonuclease (nuc) genes that were universally conserved in staphylococci except the S. sciuri group and showed moderate sequence diversity. In order to validate this assay, 361 staphylococcal strains were studied, which had been identified at the species levels by sequence analysis of the hsp60 genes. In consequence, M-PCR demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%. By virtue of simplicity and accuracy, this method will be useful in clinical research. PMID:21832022

  10. A portable and multiplexed bioelectronic sensor using human olfactory and taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Son, Manki; Kim, Daesan; Ko, Hwi Jin; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2017-01-15

    A multiplexed bioelectronic sensor was developed for the purpose of rapid, on-site, and simultaneous detection of various target molecules. Olfactory and taste receptors were produced in Escherichia coli, and the reconstituted receptors were immobilized onto a multi-channel type carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. This device mimicked the human olfactory/taste system and simultaneously measured the conductance changes with high sensitivity and selectivity following treatment with various odor and taste molecules commonly known to be indicators of food contamination. Various pattern recognition of odorants and tastants was available with a customized platform for the simultaneous measurement of electrical signals. The simple portable bioelectronic device was suitable for efficient monitoring of food freshness and is expected to be used as a rapid on-site sensing platform with various applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Compression of digital color images based on the model of spatiochromatic multiplexing of human vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Uriegas, Eugenio; Peters, John D.; Crane, Hewitt D.

    1994-05-01

    SRI International has developed a new technique for compression of digital color images on the basis of its research of multiplexing processes in human color vision. The technique can be used independently, or in combination with standard JPEG or any other monochrome procedure, to produce color image compression systems that are simpler than conventional implementations. Specific applications are currently being developed within four areas: (1) simplification of processing in systems that compress RGB digital images, (2) economic upgrading of black and white image capturing systems to full color, (3) triplication of spatial resolution of high-end image capturing systems currently designed for 3-plane color capture, and (4) even greater simplification of processing in systems for dynamic images.

  12. Improving preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Fragile X syndrome: two new powerful single-round multiplex indirect and direct tests.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Emmanuelle; Nicod, Jean-Christophe; Gardes, Nathalie; Kastner, Claire; Becker, Nicolas; Celebi, Catherine; Pirrello, Olivier; Rongières, Catherine; Koscinski, Isabelle; Gosset, Philippe; Moutou, Céline

    2016-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG repeat located in the Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) gene. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) can be proposed to couples at risk of transmitting the disease, that is, when the female carries a premutation or a full mutation. We describe two new single-cell, single-round multiplex PCR for indirect and direct diagnosis of FraX on biopsied embryos. These tests include five unpublished, highly heterozygous simple sequence repeats, and the co-amplification of non-expanded CGG repeats for the direct test. Heterozygosity of the new markers ranged from 69 to 81%. The mean rate of non-informative marker included in the tests was low (26% and 23% for the new indirect and direct tests, respectively). This strategy allows offering a PGD for FraX to 96% of couples requesting it in our centre. A conclusive genotype was obtained in all cells with a rate of cells presenting an allele dropout ranging from 17% for the indirect test to 26% for the direct test. The new indirect test was applied for eight PGD cycles: 32 embryos were analysed, 9 were transferred and 3 healthy babies were born. By multiplexing these highly informative markers, robustness of the diagnosis is improved and the loss of potentially healthy embryos (because they are non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed) is limited. This may increase the chances of success of couples requesting a PGD for FraX, in particular, when premature ovarian insufficiency in premutated women leads to a reduced number of embryos available for analysis.

  13. A human neurodevelopmental model for Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chailangkarn, Thanathom; Trujillo, Cleber A; Freitas, Beatriz C; Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Herai, Roberto H; Yu, Diana X; Brown, Timothy T; Marchetto, Maria C; Bardy, Cedric; McHenry, Lauren; Stefanacci, Lisa; Järvinen, Anna; Searcy, Yvonne M; DeWitt, Michelle; Wong, Wenny; Lai, Philip; Ard, M Colin; Hanson, Kari L; Romero, Sarah; Jacobs, Bob; Dale, Anders M; Dai, Li; Korenberg, Julie R; Gage, Fred H; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric; Semendeferi, Katerina; Muotri, Alysson R

    2016-08-18

    Williams syndrome is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an uncommon hypersociability and a mosaic of retained and compromised linguistic and cognitive abilities. Nearly all clinically diagnosed individuals with Williams syndrome lack precisely the same set of genes, with breakpoints in chromosome band 7q11.23 (refs 1-5). The contribution of specific genes to the neuroanatomical and functional alterations, leading to behavioural pathologies in humans, remains largely unexplored. Here we investigate neural progenitor cells and cortical neurons derived from Williams syndrome and typically developing induced pluripotent stem cells. Neural progenitor cells in Williams syndrome have an increased doubling time and apoptosis compared with typically developing neural progenitor cells. Using an individual with atypical Williams syndrome, we narrowed this cellular phenotype to a single gene candidate, frizzled 9 (FZD9). At the neuronal stage, layer V/VI cortical neurons derived from Williams syndrome were characterized by longer total dendrites, increased numbers of spines and synapses, aberrant calcium oscillation and altered network connectivity. Morphometric alterations observed in neurons from Williams syndrome were validated after Golgi staining of post-mortem layer V/VI cortical neurons. This model of human induced pluripotent stem cells fills the current knowledge gap in the cellular biology of Williams syndrome and could lead to further insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the disorder and the human social brain.

  14. [Multiplexing mapping of human cDNAs]. Final report, September 1, 1991--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Using PCR with automated product analysis, 329 human brain cDNA sequences have been assigned to individual human chromosomes. Primers were designed from single-pass cDNA sequences expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Primers were used in PCR reactions with DNA from somatic cell hybrid mapping panels as templates, often with multiplexing. Many ESTs mapped match sequence database records. To evaluate of these matches, the position of the primers relative to the matching region (In), the BLAST scores and the Poisson probability values of the EST/sequence record match were determined. In cases where the gene product was stringently identified by the sequence match had already been mapped, the gene locus determined by EST was consistent with the previous position which strongly supports the validity of assigning unknown genes to human chromosomes based on the EST sequence matches. In the present cases mapping the ESTs to a chromosome can also be considered to have mapped the known gene product: rolipram-sensitive cAMP phosphodiesterase, chromosome 1; protein phosphatase 2A{beta}, chromosome 4; alpha-catenin, chromosome 5; the ELE1 oncogene, chromosome 10q11.2 or q2.1-q23; MXII protein, chromosome l0q24-qter; ribosomal protein L18a homologue, chromosome 14; ribosomal protein L3, chromosome 17; and moesin, Xp11-cen. There were also ESTs mapped that were closely related to non-human sequence records. These matches therefore can be considered to identify human counterparts of known gene products, or members of known gene families. Examples of these include membrane proteins, translation-associated proteins, structural proteins, and enzymes. These data then demonstrate that single pass sequence information is sufficient to design PCR primers useful for assigning cDNA sequences to human chromosomes. When the EST sequence matches previous sequence database records, the chromosome assignments of the EST can be used to make preliminary assignments of the human gene to a chromosome.

  15. Quantitative, multiplexed workflow for deep analysis of human blood plasma and biomarker discovery by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Keshishian, Hasmik; Burgess, Michael W; Specht, Harrison; Wallace, Luke; Clauser, Karl R; Gillette, Michael A; Carr, Steven A

    2017-08-01

    Proteomic characterization of blood plasma is of central importance to clinical proteomics and particularly to biomarker discovery studies. The vast dynamic range and high complexity of the plasma proteome have, however, proven to be serious challenges and have often led to unacceptable tradeoffs between depth of coverage and sample throughput. We present an optimized sample-processing pipeline for analysis of the human plasma proteome that provides greatly increased depth of detection, improved quantitative precision and much higher sample analysis throughput as compared with prior methods. The process includes abundant protein depletion, isobaric labeling at the peptide level for multiplexed relative quantification and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to accurate-mass, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis of peptides fractionated off-line by basic pH reversed-phase (bRP) chromatography. The overall reproducibility of the process, including immunoaffinity depletion, is high, with a process replicate coefficient of variation (CV) of <12%. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) 4-plex, >4,500 proteins are detected and quantified per patient sample on average, with two or more peptides per protein and starting from as little as 200 μl of plasma. The approach can be multiplexed up to 10-plex using tandem mass tags (TMT) reagents, further increasing throughput, albeit with some decrease in the number of proteins quantified. In addition, we provide a rapid protocol for analysis of nonfractionated depleted plasma samples analyzed in 10-plex. This provides ∼600 quantified proteins for each of the ten samples in ∼5 h of instrument time.

  16. Cryptic Translocation Identification in Human and Mouse using Several Telomeric Multiplex FISH (TM-FISH) Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Henegariu, O; Artan, S; Greally, J M; Chen, X-N; Korenberg, J R; Vance, G H; Stubbs, L; Bray-Ward, P; Ward, D C

    2003-08-19

    Experimental data published in recent years showed that up to 10% of all cases with mild to severe idiopathic mental retardation may result from small rearrangements of the subtelomeric regions of human chromosomes. To detect such cryptic translocations, we developed a ''telomeric'' multiplex FISH assay, using a set of previously published and commercially available subtelomeric probes. This set of probes includes 41 cosmid/PAC/P1 clones located from less than 100kb to about 1 Mb from the end of the chromosomes. Similarly, a published mouse probe set, comprised of BACs hybridizing to the closest known marker toward the centromere and telomere of each mouse chromosome, was used to develop a mouse-specific ''telomeric'' M-FISH. Three different combinatorial labeling strategies were used to simultaneously detect all human sub-telomeric regions on one slide. The simplest approach uses only three fluors, and can be performed in laboratories lacking sophisticated imaging equipment or personnel highly trained in cytogenetics. A standard fluorescence microscope equipped with only three filters is sufficient. Fluor-dUTPs and labeled probes can be custom-made, thus dramatically reducing costs. Images can be prepared using generic imaging software (Adobe Photoshop), and analysis performed by simple visual inspection.

  17. Plasma from human mothers of fetuses with severe arthrogryposis multiplex congenita causes deformities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Leslie; Polizzi, Agata; Morriss-Kay, Gillian; Vincent, Angela

    1999-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is characterized by fixed joint contractures and other deformities, sometimes resulting in fetal death. The cause is unknown in most cases, but some women with fetuses affected by severe AMC have serum antibodies that inhibit fetal acetylcholine receptor (AChR) function, and antibodies to fetal antigens might play a pathogenic role in other congenital disorders. To investigate this possibility, we have established a model by injecting pregnant mice with plasma from four anti-AChR antibody–positive women whose fetuses had severe AMC. We found that human antibodies can be transferred efficiently to the mouse fetus during the last few days of fetal life. Many of the fetuses of dams injected with AMC maternal plasmas or Ig were stillborn and showed fixed joints and other deformities. Moreover, similar changes were found in mice after injection of a serum from one anti-AChR antibody–negative mother who had had four AMC fetuses. Thus, we have confirmed the role of maternal antibodies in cases of AMC associated with maternal anti-AChR, and we have demonstrated the existence of pathogenic maternal factors in one other case. Importantly, this approach can be used to look at the effects of other maternal human antibodies on development of the fetus. PMID:10194476

  18. Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous identification of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16

    PubMed Central

    Thao, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Tú, Phan Văn; Thúy, Trần Thi; Cardosa, Mary Jane; McMinn, Peter Charles; Phuektes, Patchara

    2010-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are two major aetiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Recently there have been several large outbreaks of HFMD in Vietnam and the Asia-Pacific region. In this study, a multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed in order to detect simultaneously HEV71, CVA16 and other human enteroviruses. Enterovirus detection was performed with a mixture of three pairs of oligonucleotide primers: one pair of published primers for amplifying all known enterovirus genomes and two new primer pairs specific for detection of the VP1 genes of HEV71 and CVA16. Enterovirus isolates, CVA16 and HEV71 strains identified previously from patients with HFMD were examined to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex RT-PCR assay. The assay was then applied to the direct detection of these viruses in clinical specimens obtained from HFMD cases identified at Children's Hospital Number 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The multiplex RT-PCR assay showed 100% specificity in screening for enteroviruses and in identifying HEV71 and CVA16. Similar results were obtained when using the multiplex RT-PCR assay to screen for enteroviruses and to identify HEV71 and CVA16 in clinical specimens obtained from HFMD cases identified at the hospital. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a rapid, sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of HEV71 or CVA16 infection in cases of HFMD and is also potentially useful for molecular epidemiological investigations. PMID:20863857

  19. DNA testing of Klinefelter's syndrome in a criminal case using XY chromosomal STR multiplex-PCR.

    PubMed

    Honda, K; Tun, Z; Matoba, R

    2001-09-01

    We report genetic typing of Klinefelter's syndrome applied to casework in forensic DNA testing. In this case, by using extracted DNA from body samples (muscle and bones), we could identify two distinct X alleles in two out of three X-STR loci (HPRTB and ARA), in addition to Y alleles (DYS390, DYS393). The extra X was found to have originated from father, and the victim turned out to have 47XXY Klinefelter's syndrome. The victim was a 30-year-old male, born from relatively elderly parents as a second child. His father was a severe alcoholic and had been malnourished for more than 20 years at the moment of his birth. He exhibited slight mental retardation as a child, and belonged to a criminal group as an adult. The method presented here was useful to accurately diagnose sex chromosomal abnormality instead of conventional chromosomal analysis and Xg blood group typing. A subtype of this syndrome, 48 XXXY or mosaic, for example, could be identified if the intensity of the overlapped X bands were calculated.

  20. Multiplex epithelium dysfunction due to CLDN10 mutation: the HELIX syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hadj-Rabia, Smail; Brideau, Gaelle; Al-Sarraj, Yasser; Maroun, Rachid C; Figueres, Marie-Lucile; Leclerc-Mercier, Stéphanie; Olinger, Eric; Baron, Stéphanie; Chaussain, Catherine; Nochy, Dominique; Taha, Rowaida Z; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Joshi, Vandana; Curmi, Patrick A; Kambouris, Marios; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Bodemer, Christine; Devuyst, Olivier; Houillier Md PhD, Pascal; El-Shanti, Hatem

    2017-08-03

    PurposeWe aimed to identify the genetic cause to a clinical syndrome encompassing hypohidrosis, electrolyte imbalance, lacrimal gland dysfunction, ichthyosis, and xerostomia (HELIX syndrome), and to comprehensively delineate the phenotype.MethodsWe performed homozygosity mapping, whole-genome sequencing, gene sequencing, expression studies, functional tests, protein bioinformatics, and histological characterization in two unrelated families with HELIX syndrome.ResultsWe identified biallelic missense mutations (c.386C>T, p.S131L and c.2T>C, p.M1T) in CLDN10B in six patients from two unrelated families. CLDN10B encodes Claudin-10b, an integral tight junction (TJ) membrane-spanning protein expressed in the kidney, skin, and salivary glands. All patients had hypohidrosis, renal loss of NaCl with secondary hyperaldosteronism and hypokalemia, as well as hypolacrymia, ichthyosis, xerostomia, and severe enamel wear. Functional testing revealed that patients had a decreased NaCl absorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and a severely decreased secretion of saliva. Both mutations resulted in reduced or absent Claudin-10 at the plasma membrane of epithelial cells.ConclusionCLDN10 mutations cause a dysfunction in TJs in several tissues and, subsequently, abnormalities in renal ion transport, ectodermal gland homeostasis, and epidermal integrity.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 3 August 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.71.

  1. Multiplex characterization of human pathogens including species and antibiotic-resistance gene identification.

    PubMed

    Barisˇ ić, Ivan; Petzka, Josefine; Schoenthaler, Silvia; Vierlinger, Klemens; Noehammer, Christa; Wiesinger-Mayr, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The efficient medical treatment of infections requires detailed information about the pathogens involved and potential antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. The dramatically increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria especially highlights the importance of sophisticated diagnostic tests enabling a fast patient-customized therapy. However, the current molecular detection methods are limited to either the detection of species or only a few antibiotic-resistance genes.In this work, we present a human pathogen characterization assay using a rRNA gene microarray identifying 75 species comprising bacteria and fungi. A statistical classifier was developed to facilitate the automated species identification. Additionally, the clinically most important β-lactamases were identified simultaneously in a 100-plex reaction using padlock probes and the same microarray. The specificity and sensitivity of the combined assay was determined using clinical isolates. The detection limit was 10(5) c.f.u. ml(-1), recovering 89 % of the detectable β-lactamase-encoding genes specifically. The total assay time was less than 7 hand the modular character of the antibiotic-resistance detection allows the easy integration of further genetic targets. In summary, we present a fast, highly specific and sensitive multiplex pathogen characterization assay.

  2. Multiplexed gene transfer to a human T-cell line by combining Sleeping Beauty transposon system with methotrexate selection.

    PubMed

    Kacherovsky, Nataly; Liu, Gary W; Jensen, Michael C; Pun, Suzie H

    2015-07-01

    Engineered human T-cells are a promising therapeutic modality for cancer immunotherapy. T-cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors combined with additional genes to enhance T-cell proliferation, survival, or tumor targeting may further improve efficacy but require multiple stable gene transfer events. Methods are therefore needed to increase production efficiency for multiplexed engineered cells. In this work, we demonstrate multiplexed, non-viral gene transfer to a human T-cell line with efficient selection (∼ 50%) of cells expressing up to three recombinant open reading frames. The efficient introduction of multiple genes to T-cells was achieved using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system delivered in minicircles by nucleofection. We demonstrate rapid selection for engineered cells using methotrexate (MTX) and a mutant human dihydrofolate reductase resistant to methotrexate-induced metabolic inhibition. Preferential amplification of cells expressing multiple transgenes was achieved by two successive rounds of increasing MTX concentration. This non-viral gene transfer method with MTX step selection can potentially be used in the generation of clinical-grade T-cells housing multiplexed genetic modifications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Diagnosis of Pfiesteria-human illness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, R C

    1997-01-01

    The first case reports of human illness caused by exposure to Pfiesteria piscicida toxin(s) acquired outside of a laboratory are reported. Though Pfiesteria, a toxin-forming dinoflagellate, is responsible for killing billions of fish in estuaries in North Carolina, its role in human illness has remained controversial, in part due to lack of identification of the toxin. A recent fish kill in the rivers of the lower Eastern Shore has permitted careful investigation and identification of a distinct clinical syndrome resulting from exposure to the Pfiesteria toxin--Pfiesteria human illness syndrome (PHIS). Patients have memory losses, cognitive impairments, headaches, skin rashes, abdominal pain, secretory diarrhea, conjunctival irritation, and bronchospasm. Not all patients have all elements of the syndrome.

  4. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification copy number variant analysis in patients with acquired long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, Victoria S; Cresswell, Carl J; Ruspi, Gerhard; Yang, Tao; Atak, Thomas C; McLoughlin, Matthew; Ingram, Christiana D; Ramirez, Andrea H; Roden, Dan; Armstrong, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Thirteen genetic loci map to families with congenital long QT syndrome (cLQT) and multiple single nucleotide mutations have been functionally implicated in cLQT. Studies have investigated copy number variations (CNVs) in the cLQT genes to ascertain their involvement in cLQT. In these studies 3-12% of cLQT patients who were mutation negative by all other methods carried CNVs in cLQT genes. Prolongation of the QT interval can also be acquired after exposure to certain drugs [acquired LQT (aLQT)]. Single nucleotide mutations in cLQT genes have also been associated with and functionally implicated in aLQT, but to date no studies have explored CNVs as an additional susceptibility factor in aLQT. The aim of this study was to explore the contribution of CNVs in determining susceptibility to aLQT. In this study we screened the commonest cLQT genes (KCNQ1; KCNH2; SCN5A; KCNE1, and KCNE2) in a general population of healthy volunteers and in a cohort of subjects presenting with aLQT for CNVs using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method. Copy number variants were detected and confirmed in 1 of 197 of the healthy volunteers and in 1 of 90 subjects with aLQT. The CNV in the aLQT subject was functionally characterized and demonstrated impaired channel function. Copy number variation is a possible additional risk factor for aLQT and should be considered for incorporation into pharmacogenetic screening of LQTS genes in addition to mutation detection to improve the safety of medication administration. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. MULTIPLEX PCR ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF HUMAN SOMATOTROPIN AND INTERFERON ALPHA2b GENES IN PLANT MATERIAL.

    PubMed

    Gerasymenko, I M; Mazur, M G; Sheludko, Y V; Kuchuk, N V

    2015-01-01

    Using transgenic plants as factories for production of physiologically active human proteins arouses special concern because occasional escape of such transgenes into environment may cause health problems. Creation of plant varieties producing pharmaceutically valuable proteins should be accompanied by development of detection methods suitable for controlling the transgene behavior. Here we describe a multiplex PCR protocol for revealing of two human genes (encoding growth hormone and interferon alpha2b) that have been successfully introduced into plant genomes. The primer pair designed for detection of human growth hormone coding sequence amplifies fragments of different size from the full-length gene in the human genome and the intronless coding sequence usually used for plant transformation. Application of this primer pair may be recommended for ruling out false positive results due to sample contamination with human DNA. Such a control may be useful also in PCR analysis during establishing of transgenic plants carrying genes of human origin.

  6. Multiplexed massively parallel SELEX for characterization of human transcription factor binding specificities

    PubMed Central

    Jolma, Arttu; Kivioja, Teemu; Toivonen, Jarkko; Cheng, Lu; Wei, Gonghong; Enge, Martin; Taipale, Mikko; Vaquerizas, Juan M.; Yan, Jian; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; Bonke, Martin; Palin, Kimmo; Talukder, Shaheynoor; Hughes, Timothy R.; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Ukkonen, Esko; Taipale, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    The genetic code—the binding specificity of all transfer-RNAs—defines how protein primary structure is determined by DNA sequence. DNA also dictates when and where proteins are expressed, and this information is encoded in a pattern of specific sequence motifs that are recognized by transcription factors. However, the DNA-binding specificity is only known for a small fraction of the ∼1400 human transcription factors (TFs). We describe here a high-throughput method for analyzing transcription factor binding specificity that is based on systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) and massively parallel sequencing. The method is optimized for analysis of large numbers of TFs in parallel through the use of affinity-tagged proteins, barcoded selection oligonucleotides, and multiplexed sequencing. Data are analyzed by a new bioinformatic platform that uses the hundreds of thousands of sequencing reads obtained to control the quality of the experiments and to generate binding motifs for the TFs. The described technology allows higher throughput and identification of much longer binding profiles than current microarray-based methods. In addition, as our method is based on proteins expressed in mammalian cells, it can also be used to characterize DNA-binding preferences of full-length proteins or proteins requiring post-translational modifications. We validate the method by determining binding specificities of 14 different classes of TFs and by confirming the specificities for NFATC1 and RFX3 using ChIP-seq. Our results reveal unexpected dimeric modes of binding for several factors that were thought to preferentially bind DNA as monomers. PMID:20378718

  7. In Vivo 18 FDG/18 Choline Mediated Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET) Multiplexed Optical Imaging for Human Prostate Carcinoma Detection and Staging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0138 TITLE: In Vivo 18-FDG/18-Choline-Mediated Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET) Multiplexed Optical...18-Choline-Mediated Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET) Multiplexed Optical Imaging for Human Prostate Carcinoma Detection and Staging 5b...fluorocholine/18F-FDG Cerenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) coupled with TF- and ErbB2/3- molecularly targeted near- infrared (NIR) QDs can be used

  8. A multiplex restriction enzyme-PCR for unequivocal identification and differentiation of Trichostrongylus species in human samples.

    PubMed

    Mizani, Azadeh; Gill, Pooria; Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Amouei, Afsaneh; Katrimi, Ali Bakooie; Soleymani, Eissa; Mirshafiee, Siavash; Gholami, Sara; Hosseini, Seyed Abdollah; Gholami, Shirzad; Rahimi, Mohammad-Taghi; Hashemi-Soteh, Mohammad Bagher; Sharif, Mehdi

    2017-09-01

    Trichostrongylus species remain one of the major health challenges in the tropical and summer rainfall regions worldwide. Identification of strongylid species diagnostic methods is vital for obtaining a deep understanding of the epidemiology, population biology, anthelmintic treatment efficacy, and drug resistance in order to design effective parasite control strategies. We evaluated a multiplex RE-PCR for the diagnosis of key Trichostrongylus spp. Genomic DNA amplification of Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus axei and Trichostrongylus vitrinus was achieved as standard sample using specific primers located in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITSII) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The mentioned method was based on isolation of Trichostrongylus ova from human fecal samples using Willis method, the extraction of ova genomic DNA samples, followed by rDNA ITSII PCR and one-step multiplex RE-PCR using three restriction enzymes of HinfI, DraI, and MseI. The multiplex RE-PCR technique provides a useful tool for discriminating all Trichostrongylus spp., being useful for diagnostic, epidemiological, ecological studies, and control programs. This method is rapid, especially when numerous restriction enzymes are required for species differentiation or identification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Multiplex RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays for detection and subtyping of human influenza virus in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben M'hadheb, Manel; Harrabi, Myriam; Souii, Amira; Jrad-Battikh, Nadia; Gharbi, Jawhar

    2015-03-01

    Influenza viruses are negative stranded segmented RNA viruses belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family. They are classified into three types A, B, and C. Type A influenza viruses are classified into subtypes according to the antigenic characters of the surface glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable multiplex RT-PCR technique for detecting simultaneously the subtypes A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 of influenza virus. Our study included 398 patients (mean age 30.33 ± 19.92 years) with flu or flu-like syndromes, consulting physicians affiliated with collaborating teams. A multiplex RT-PCR detecting A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza viruses and an examination by indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) were performed. In the optimized conditions, we diagnosed by IFI a viral infection in 90 patients (22.6 %): 85 cases of influenza type A, four cases of influenza type B, and only one case of coinfection with types A and B. An evaluation of the technique was performed on 19 clinical specimens positive in IFI, and we detected eight cases of A/H3N2, five cases of A/H1N1, one case of influenza virus type A which is not an H1N1 nor H3N2, and five negative cases. Multiplex RT-PCR is a sensitive technique allowing an effective and fast diagnosis of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in which the optimization often collides with problems of sensibility.

  10. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine using a multiplex immunoassay platform.

    PubMed

    Stiegel, Matthew A; Pleil, Joachim D; Sobus, Jon R; Morgan, Marsha K; Madden, Michael C

    2015-02-01

    A change in the expression of cytokines in human biological media indicates an inflammatory response to external stressors and reflects an early step along the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for various health endpoints. To characterize and interpret this inflammatory response, methodology was developed for measuring a suite of 10 different cytokines in human blood, exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and urine using an electrochemiluminescent multiplex Th1/Th2 cytokine immunoassay platform. Measurement distributions and correlations for eight interleukins (IL) (1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated using 90 blood plasma, 77 EBC, and 400 urine samples collected from nominally healthy adults subjects in North Carolina in 2008-2012. The in vivo results show that there is sufficient sensitivity for characterizing all 10 cytokines at levels of 0.05-0.10 ρg/ml with a dynamic range up to 100 ng/ml across all three of these biological media. The measured in vivo results also show that the duplicate analysis of blood, EBC and urine samples have average estimated fold ranges of 2.21, 3.49, and 2.50, respectively, which are similar to the mean estimated fold range (2.88) for the lowest concentration (0.610 ρg/ml) from a series of spiked control samples; the cytokine method can be used for all three biological media. Nine out of the 10 cytokines measured in EBC were highly correlated within one another with Spearman ρ coefficients ranging from 0.679 to 0.852, while the cytokines measured in blood had a mix of negative and positive correlations, ranging from -0.620 to 0.836. Almost all correlations between EBC and blood were positive. This work also represents the first successful within- and between-person evaluation of ultra trace-level inflammatory markers in blood, EBC, and urine.

  11. Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, I. A.; Burlingame, R. W.; Wang, A. P.; Chawla, K.; Grove, T.; Wang, J.; Southern, S. O.; Iqbal, M.; Gunn, L. C.; Gleeson, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    Genalyte has developed a multiplex silicon photonic chip diagnostics platform (MaverickTM) for rapid detection of up to 32 biological analytes from a drop of sample in just 10 to 20 minutes. The chips are manufactured with waveguides adjacent to ring resonators, and probed with a continuously variable wavelength laser. A shift in the resonant wavelength as mass binds above the ring resonators is measured and is directly proportional to the amount of bound macromolecules. We present here the ability to multiplex the detection of hemorrhagic fever antigens in whole blood, serum, and saliva in a 16 minute assay. Our proof of concept testing of a multiplex antigencapture chip has the ability to detect Zaire Ebola (ZEBOV) recombinant soluble glycoprotein (rsGP), Marburg virus (MARV) Angola recombinant glycoprotein (rGP) and dengue nonstructural protein I (NS1). In parallel, detection of 2 malaria antigens has proven successful, but has yet to be incorporated into multiplex with the others. Each assay performs with sensitivity ranging from 1.6 ng/ml to 39 ng/ml depending on the antigen detected, and with minimal cross-reactivity.

  12. Statistical approaches to developing a multiplex immunoassay for determining human exposure to environmental pathogens.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the application and method performance parameters of a Luminex xMAP™ bead-based, multiplex immunoassay for measuring specific antibody responses in saliva samples (n=5438) to antigens of six common waterborne pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylo...

  13. Multiplex Quantitative Histologic Analysis of Human Breast Cancer Cell Signaling and Cell Fate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Breast cancer, cell signaling, cell proliferation, histology, image analysis 15. NUMBER OF PAGES - 51 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...revealed by individual stains in multiplex combinations; and (3) software (FARSIGHT) for automated multispectral image analysis that (i) segments...Task 3. Develop computational algorithms for multispectral immunohistological image analysis FARSIGHT software was developed to quantify intrinsic

  14. Statistical approaches to developing a multiplex immunoassay for determining human exposure to environmental pathogens.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the application and method performance parameters of a Luminex xMAP™ bead-based, multiplex immunoassay for measuring specific antibody responses in saliva samples (n=5438) to antigens of six common waterborne pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylo...

  15. Multiplexed genetic engineering of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells using CRISPR/Cas9 and AAV6.

    PubMed

    Bak, Rasmus O; Dever, Daniel P; Reinisch, Andreas; Cruz Hernandez, David; Majeti, Ravindra; Porteus, Matthew H

    2017-09-28

    Precise and efficient manipulation of genes is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern human hematopoiesis and for developing novel therapies for diseases of the blood and immune system. Current methods do not enable precise engineering of complex genotypes that can be easily tracked in a mixed population of cells. We describe a method to multiplex homologous recombination (HR) in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and primary human T cells by combining rAAV6 donor delivery and the CRISPR/Cas9 system delivered as ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). In addition, the use of reporter genes allows FACS-purification and tracking of cells that have had multiple alleles or loci modified by HR. We believe this method will enable broad applications not only to the study of human hematopoietic gene function and networks, but also to perform sophisticated synthetic biology to develop innovative engineered stem cell-based therapeutics.

  16. Human tear analysis with miniaturized multiplex cytokine assay on "wall-less" 96-well plate.

    PubMed

    Le Guezennec, Xavier; Quah, Joanne; Tong, Louis; Kim, Namyong

    2015-01-01

    Tears are a particularly limited body fluid and commonly used in the diagnosis of patients who have ocular diseases. A popular method for analysis of ocular inflammation in tears uses Luminex® bead multiplex technology to generate valuable multiple cytokine profile outputs with 25-50 µl tear sample volume. We propose a method for measuring tear cytokines with 5 μl tear sample volume and 80% reduced Luminex reagents compared to previous protocols. Using human tears pooled from 1,000 participants, the DA-Bead-based method running at 5-20 µl volume, using manual pipetting, in conjunction with a magnetic Luminex cytokine (four-plex) panel assay in a 96-well format was performed and validated for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. Upon use of the DA-Bead method at the 5 μl volume with cytokine standards, the concentrations of each of the four cytokines were found to be linear over a range of 3.5-4 log pg/ml with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) ≤5%, inter-assay %CV ≤10%, and accuracy within the 70-130% range. Upon use of a 5 µl healthy pooled tear sample, cytokine concentrations were detected with a precision intra-assay %CV ˂ 20% for IL-6, IFN-γ, or TNF-α or 30.37% with IL-1β. The inter-assay %CV with tears was ≤20.84% for all cytokines. Tear volumes run at 5 μl on DA-Bead produced a similar cytokine expression profile at a 1-month interval and were highly correlated with the larger 10 μl-based tear sample volume cytokine profile with R(2) = 0.98. DA-Bead assay is highly sensitive and reproducible and has a performance profile that is potentially suitable for use in standard clinical scenarios. Considering the use of as little as 5 µl of assay beads and 5 µl sample, this is also likely to reduce the assay cost significantly and ease diagnosis of patients with ocular diseases.

  17. Human tear analysis with miniaturized multiplex cytokine assay on “wall-less” 96-well plate

    PubMed Central

    Quah, Joanne; Tong, Louis; Kim, Namyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tears are a particularly limited body fluid and commonly used in the diagnosis of patients who have ocular diseases. A popular method for analysis of ocular inflammation in tears uses Luminex® bead multiplex technology to generate valuable multiple cytokine profile outputs with 25–50 µl tear sample volume. We propose a method for measuring tear cytokines with 5 μl tear sample volume and 80% reduced Luminex reagents compared to previous protocols. Methods Using human tears pooled from 1,000 participants, the DA-Bead-based method running at 5–20 µl volume, using manual pipetting, in conjunction with a magnetic Luminex cytokine (four-plex) panel assay in a 96-well format was performed and validated for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. Results Upon use of the DA-Bead method at the 5 μl volume with cytokine standards, the concentrations of each of the four cytokines were found to be linear over a range of 3.5–4 log pg/ml with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) ≤5%, inter-assay %CV ≤10%, and accuracy within the 70–130% range. Upon use of a 5 µl healthy pooled tear sample, cytokine concentrations were detected with a precision intra-assay %CV ˂ 20% for IL-6, IFN-γ, or TNF-α or 30.37% with IL-1β. The inter-assay %CV with tears was ≤20.84% for all cytokines. Tear volumes run at 5 μl on DA-Bead produced a similar cytokine expression profile at a 1-month interval and were highly correlated with the larger 10 μl–based tear sample volume cytokine profile with R2 = 0.98. Conclusions DA-Bead assay is highly sensitive and reproducible and has a performance profile that is potentially suitable for use in standard clinical scenarios. Considering the use of as little as 5 µl of assay beads and 5 µl sample, this is also likely to reduce the assay cost significantly and ease diagnosis of patients with ocular diseases. PMID:26539027

  18. Differentiation of human influenza A viruses including the pandemic subtype H1N1/2009 by conventional multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Yuki; Odagiri, Takashi; Okada, Takashi; Khandaker, Irona; Shimabukuro, Kozue; Sawayama, Rumi; Suzuki, Akira; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2010-09-01

    April 2009 witnessed the emergence of a novel H1N1 influenza A virus infecting the human population. Currently, pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses are co-circulating in human populations. Understanding the course of the emerging pandemic virus is important. It is still unknown how the novel virus co-circulates with or outcompetes seasonal viruses. Sustainable and detailed influenza surveillance is required throughout the world including developing countries. In the present study, a multiplex PCR using four primers was developed, which was designed to differentiate the pandemic H1N1 virus from the seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, to obtain amplicons of different sizes. Multiplex PCR analysis could clearly differentiate the three subtypes of human influenza A virus. This assay was performed using 206 clinical samples collected in 2009 in Japan. Between February and April, four samples were subtyped as seasonal H1N1 and four as seasonal H3N2. All samples collected after July were subtyped as pandemic H1N1. Currently, pandemic viruses seem to have replaced seasonal viruses almost completely in Japan. This is a highly sensitive method and its cost is low. Influenza surveillance using this assay would provide significant information on the epidemiology of both pandemic and seasonal influenza.

  19. Detection and typing of human-infecting influenza viruses in China by using a multiplex DNA biochip assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongqiang; Qu, Jiuxin; Ba, Qi; Dong, Jiuhong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Aiping; Wang, Dayan; Xia, Zanxian; Peng, Daxin; Shu, Yuelong; Cao, Bin; Jiang, Taijiao

    2016-08-01

    Rapid identification of the infections of specific subtypes of influenza viruses is critical for patient treatment and pandemic control. Here we report the application of multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) coupled with membrane-based DNA biochip to the detection and discrimination of the type (A and B) and subtype (human H1N1, human H3N2, avian H5N1 and avian H7N9) of influenza viruses in circulation in China. A multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay was designed to simultaneously amplify the HA and NA genes of the four subtypes of influenza A viruses and NS genes to discriminate type A and B viruses. PCR products were analyzed by a membrane-based biochip. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was determined at a range of 2-100 copies/reactions for each of the gene transcripts. Eighty one clinical samples, containing 66 positive samples with evident seasonal influenza virus infections, were tested, which gives the clinical sensitivity and specificity of 95.5% and 100% respectively. For the avian influenza samples, 3 out of 4 H5N1 samples and 2 out of 2 H7N9 avian samples were correctly identified. We argue this method could allow a rapid, reliable and inexpensive detection and differentiation of human-infecting influenza viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiplex RT-PCR method for the analysis of the expression of human sialyltransferases: application to breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Recchi, M A; Harduin-Lepers, A; Boilly-Marer, Y; Verbert, A; Delannoy, P

    1998-01-01

    In many cases of human cancer, the appearance of hypersialylated glycan structures is related to a precise stage of the disease; this may depend on altered regulation of one or more sialyltransferases genes. Since several distinct sialyltransferase enzymes arising from different unique genes transfer sialic acid residues in the same linkage onto the same acceptor, it is impossible to precisely determine which enzyme is involved in the observed phenotype based on enzymatic assays. We have developed a very sensitive and highly reproducible multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique in order to monitor the expression of four human sialyltransferases genes ST6Gal I, ST3Gal I, ST3Gal III and ST3Gal IV in small cell samples. Multiplex PCR amplification using specific primers for each sialyltransferase and detection of amplification products by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a method that is fast and easy to handle and has proven to be useful for establishing sialyltransferase patterns of expression in breast immortalized cell line HBL100 as well as in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/6, MCF-7/AZ and MDA.

  1. Multiplex pcr assay for detection of human interferon alpha2b gene in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Gerasymenko, I M; Sakhno, L O; Mazur, M G; Sheludko, Y V

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade interferons are regarded as potent candidates for generation of plant-based edible vaccines because of broad spectrum of antiviral activities and adjuvant properties. Establishment and certification of numerous interferon producing plant systems requests development of fast and efficient multiplex PCR protocol for the transgene detection in GM plants. Here we represent a protocol for simultaneous amplification in one assay of fragments of hIFN alpha 2b gene and two control genes, namely virD1 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and conservative region of plant actin gene.

  2. Multiplex real-time PCR monitoring of intestinal helminths in humans reveals widespread polyparasitism in Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Acosta, Luz P; Olveda, Remigio M; Williams, Gail M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2015-06-01

    The global socioeconomic importance of helminth parasitic disease is underpinned by the considerable clinical impact on millions of people. While helminth polyparasitism is considered common in the Philippines, little has been done to survey its extent in endemic communities. High morphological similarity of eggs between related species complicates conventional microscopic diagnostic methods which are known to lack sensitivity, particularly in low intensity infections. Multiplex quantitative PCR diagnostic methods can provide rapid, simultaneous identification of multiple helminth species from a single stool sample. We describe a multiplex assay for the differentiation of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, building on our previously published findings for Schistosoma japonicum. Of 545 human faecal samples examined, 46.6% were positive for at least three different parasite species. High prevalences of S. japonicum (90.64%), A. lumbricoides (58.17%), T. saginata (42.57%) and A. duodenale (48.07%) were recorded. Neither T. solium nor N. americanus were found to be present. The utility of molecular diagnostic methods for monitoring helminth parasite prevalence provides new information on the extent of polyparasitism in the Philippines municipality of Palapag. These methods and findings have potential global implications for the monitoring of neglected tropical diseases and control measures. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel deletion of the E3A ubiquitin protein ligase gene detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a patient with Angelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Calì, Francesco; Ragalmuto, Alda; Chiavetta, Valeria; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Fichera, Marco; Vinci, Mirella; Ruggeri, Giuseppa; Schinocca, Pietro; Sturnio, Maurizio; Romano, Salvatore; Elia, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurobehavioural disorder caused by failure of expression of the maternal copy of the imprinted domain located on 15q11-q13. There are different mechanisms leading to AS: maternal microdeletion, uniparental disomy, defects in a putative imprinting centre, mutations of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. However, some of suspected cases of AS are still scored negative to all the latter mutations. Recently, it has been shown that a proportion of negative cases bear large deletions overlapping one or more exons of the UBE3A gene. These deletions are difficult to detect by conventional gene-scanning methods due to the masking effect by the non-deleted allele. In this study, we have used for the first time multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and comparative multiplex dosage analysis (CMDA) to search for large deletions affecting the UBE3A gene. Using this approach, we identified a novel causative deletion involving exon 8 in an affected sibling. Based on our results, we propose the use of MLPA as a fast, accurate and inexpensive test to detect large deletions in the UBE3A gene in a small but significant percentage of AS patients. PMID:21072004

  4. Comparison of real-time multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays with the linear array HPV genotyping PCR assay and influence of DNA extraction method on HPV detection.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christine C; Swoyer, Ryan; Bryan, Janine T; Taddeo, Frank J

    2011-05-01

    Real-time human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific multiplex PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in specimens collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). We evaluated the concordance between type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and the widely used, commercially available Roche Linear Array genotyping PCR assay. Female genital swab specimens were tested for the presence of L1, E6, and E7 sequences of HPV type 6 (HPV6), HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV45, HPV52, and HPV58 and E6 and E7 sequences of HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV51, HPV56, and HPV59 in type- and gene-specific real-time multiplex PCR assays. Specimens were also tested for the presence of L1 sequences using two versions of the Roche Linear Array genotyping assay. Measures of concordance of a modified version of the Linear Array and the standard Linear Array PCR assay were evaluated. With specimen DNA extraction using the Qiagen Spin blood kit held as the constant, multiplex PCR assays detect more HPV-positive specimens for the 14 HPV types common to both than either version of the Linear Array HPV genotyping assay. Type-specific agreements between the assays were good, at least 0.838, but were often driven by negative agreement in HPV types with low prevalence, as evidenced by reduced proportions of positive agreement. Overall HPV status agreements ranged from 0.615 for multiplex PCR and standard Linear Array to 0.881 for multiplex PCR and modified Linear Array. An alternate DNA extraction technique, that used by the Qiagen MinElute kit, impacted subsequent HPV detection in both the multiplex PCR and Linear Array assays.

  5. Multiplex Bead Array Assay for Detection of 25 Soluble Cytokines in Blister Fluid of Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Heijmans-Antonissen, Claudia; Wesseldijk, Feikje; Munnikes, Renate JM; Huygen, Frank JPM; van der Meijden, Patrick; Hop, Wim C. J.; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Zijlstra, Freek J.

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory processes are known to be involved at least in the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1). Blister fluid obtained from the involved extremities displayed increased amounts of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα compared with the noninvolved extremities. The aim of this paper is to investigate the involvement of mediators by measurement of several other cytokines using new detection techniques that enable multiple cytokine measurement in small samples. The use of a multiplex-25 bead array cytokine assay and Luminex technology enabled simultaneous measurement of representative (1) proinflammatory cytokines such as GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α; (2) Th1/Th2 distinguishing cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10; (3) nonspecific acting cytokines IFN-α, IL-7, IL-12p40/p70, IL-13, IL-15, and IL-17; and (4) chemokines eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIG, and RANTES. Although minimal detection levels are significantly higher in the bead array system than those in common ELISA assays, in blister fluid, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-12p40/p70, MCP-1, and MIP-1β were detectable and increased in CRPS1 affected extremities. Levels of IL-6 and TNF-α simultaneously measured by ELISA (Sanquin Compact kit) and by multiplex-25 bead array assay (Biosource) were highly correlated (r = 0.85, P < .001 for IL-6 and r = 0.88, P < .001 for TNF-α). Furthermore, IP-10 and eotaxin were detectable but diminished in CRPS1, whereas detectable amounts of IL-10 were similar in involved and noninvolved extremities. Multiplex bead array assays are useful systems to establish the involvement of cytokines in inflammatory processes by measurements in blister fluids of CRPS1. Ten representative cytokines were detectable. However, detection levels and amounts measured are at least 3 times higher in the multiplex-25 array assay than in the ELISA assays used simultaneously for the measurement of cytokines. PMID:16864900

  6. Multiplex families with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Afawi, Zaid; Oliver, Karen L.; Kivity, Sara; Mazarib, Aziz; Blatt, Ilan; Neufeld, Miriam Y.; Helbig, Katherine L.; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Misk, Adel J.; Straussberg, Rachel; Walid, Simri; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Kahana, Esther; Masalha, Rafik; Kramer, Uri; Ekstein, Dana; Shorer, Zamir; Wallace, Robyn H.; Mangelsdorf, Marie; MacPherson, James N.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Mefford, Heather C.; Jackson, Graeme D.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Bahlo, Melanie; Gecz, Jozef; Heron, Sarah E.; Corbett, Mark; Mulley, John C.; Dibbens, Leanne M.; Korczyn, Amos D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical syndromes and inheritance patterns of multiplex families with epilepsy toward the ultimate aim of uncovering the underlying molecular genetic basis. Methods: Following the referral of families with 2 or more relatives with epilepsy, individuals were classified into epilepsy syndromes. Families were classified into syndromes where at least 2 family members had a specific diagnosis. Pedigrees were analyzed and molecular genetic studies were performed as appropriate. Results: A total of 211 families were ascertained over an 11-year period in Israel. A total of 169 were classified into broad familial epilepsy syndrome groups: 61 generalized, 22 focal, 24 febrile seizure syndromes, 33 special syndromes, and 29 mixed. A total of 42 families remained unclassified. Pathogenic variants were identified in 49/211 families (23%). The majority were found in established epilepsy genes (e.g., SCN1A, KCNQ2, CSTB), but in 11 families, this cohort contributed to the initial discovery (e.g., KCNT1, PCDH19, TBC1D24). We expand the phenotypic spectrum of established epilepsy genes by reporting a familial LAMC3 homozygous variant, where the predominant phenotype was epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, and a pathogenic SCN1A variant in a family where in 5 siblings the phenotype was broadly consistent with Dravet syndrome, a disorder that usually occurs sporadically. Conclusion: A total of 80% of families were successfully classified, with pathogenic variants identified in 23%. The successful characterization of familial electroclinical and inheritance patterns has highlighted the value of studying multiplex families and their contribution towards uncovering the genetic basis of the epilepsies. PMID:26802095

  7. BRAF gene: From human cancers to developmental syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Muhammad Ramzan Manwar; Baig, Mukhtiar; Mohamoud, Hussein Sheik Ali; Ulhaq, Zaheer; Hoessli, Daniel C.; Khogeer, Ghaidaa Siraj; Al-Sayed, Ranem Radwan; Al-Aama, Jumana Yousuf

    2014-01-01

    The BRAF gene encodes for a serine/threonine protein kinase that participates in the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway and plays a vital role in cancers and developmental syndromes (RASopathies). The current review discusses the clinical significance of the BRAF gene and other members of RAS/RAF cascade in human cancers and RAS/MAPK syndromes, and focuses the molecular basis and clinical genetics of BRAF to better understand its parallel involvement in both tumourigenesis and RAS/MAPK syndromes—Noonan syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome. PMID:26150740

  8. Two-color widefield fluorescence microendoscopy enables multiplexed molecular imaging in the alveolar space of human lung tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstajić, Nikola; Akram, Ahsan R.; Choudhary, Tushar R.; McDonald, Neil; Tanner, Michael G.; Pedretti, Ettore; Dalgarno, Paul A.; Scholefield, Emma; Girkin, John M.; Moore, Anne; Bradley, Mark; Dhaliwal, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a fast two-color widefield fluorescence microendoscopy system capable of simultaneously detecting several disease targets in intact human ex vivo lung tissue. We characterize the system for light throughput from the excitation light emitting diodes, fluorescence collection efficiency, and chromatic focal shifts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the instrument by imaging bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in ex vivo human lung tissue. We describe a mechanism of bacterial detection through the fiber bundle that uses blinking effects of bacteria as they move in front of the fiber core providing detection of objects smaller than the fiber core and cladding (˜3 μm). This effectively increases the measured spatial resolution of 4 μm. We show simultaneous imaging of neutrophils, monocytes, and fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus) in ex vivo human lung tissue. The instrument has 10 nM and 50 nM sensitivity for fluorescein and Cy5 solutions, respectively. Lung tissue autofluorescence remains visible at up to 200 fps camera acquisition rate. The optical system lends itself to clinical translation due to high-fluorescence sensitivity, simplicity, and the ability to multiplex several pathological molecular imaging targets simultaneously.

  9. Two-color widefield fluorescence microendoscopy enables multiplexed molecular imaging in the alveolar space of human lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Krstajic, Nikola; Akram, Ahsan R; Choudhary, Tushar R; McDonald, Neil; Tanner, Michael G; Pedretti, Ettore; Dalgarno, Paul A; Scholefield, Emma; Girkin, John M; Moore, Anne; Bradley, Mark; Dhaliwal, Kevin

    2016-04-30

    We demonstrate a fast two-color widefield fluorescence microendoscopy system capable of simultaneously detecting several disease targets in intact human ex vivo lung tissue. We characterize the system for light throughput from the excitation light emitting diodes, fluorescence collection efficiency, and chromatic focal shifts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the instrument by imaging bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in ex vivo human lung tissue. We describe a mechanism of bacterial detection through the fiber bundle that uses blinking effects of bacteria as they move in front of the fiber core providing detection of objects smaller than the fiber core and cladding (∼3  μm ∼3  μm ). This effectively increases the measured spatial resolution of 4  μm 4  μm . We show simultaneous imaging of neutrophils, monocytes, and fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus) in ex vivo human lung tissue. The instrument has 10 nM and 50 nM sensitivity for fluorescein and Cy5 solutions, respectively. Lung tissue autofluorescence remains visible at up to 200 fps camera acquisition rate. The optical system lends itself to clinical translation due to high-fluorescence sensitivity, simplicity, and the ability to multiplex several pathological molecular imaging targets simultaneously.

  10. A human neurodevelopmental model for Williams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chailangkarn, Thanathom; Trujillo, Cleber A.; Freitas, Beatriz C.; Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Herai, Roberto H.; Yu, Diana X.; Brown, Timothy T.; Marchetto, Maria C. N.; Bardy, Cedric; McHenry, Lauren; Stefanacci, Lisa; Järvinen, Anna; Searcy, Yvonne M.; DeWitt, Michelle; Wong, Wenny; Lai, Philip; Ard, M. Colin; Hanson, Kari L.; Romero, Sarah; Jacobs, Bob; Dale, Anders M.; Dai, Li; Korenberg, Julie R.; Gage, Fred H.; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric; Semendeferi, Katerina; Muotri, Alysson R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an uncommon hypersociability and a mosaic of retained and compromised linguistic and cognitive abilities. Nearly all clinically diagnosed individuals with WS lack precisely the same set of genes, with breakpoints in chromosome band 7q11.231–5. The contribution of specific genes to the neuroanatomical and functional alterations, leading to behavioral pathologies in humans, remains largely unexplored. Here, we investigate neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and cortical neurons derived from WS and typically developing (TD) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). WS NPCs have an increased doubling time and apoptosis compared to TD NPCs. Using an atypical WS subject6, 7, we narrowed this cellular phenotype to a single gene candidate, FZD9. At the neuronal stage, WS-derived layers V/VI cortical neurons were characterized by longer total dendrites, increased numbers of spines and synapses, aberrant calcium oscillation and altered network connectivity. Morphometric alterations observed in WS neurons were validated after Golgi staining of postmortem layers V/VI cortical neurons. This human iPSC model8 fills in the current knowledge gap in WS cellular biology and could lead to further insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the disorder and the human social brain. PMID:27509850

  11. Multiplex single-tube screening for mutations in the Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS1) gene in Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients of Slavic origin.

    PubMed

    Soucek, Pavel; Gut, Ivan; Trneny, Marek; Skovlund, Eva; Grenaker Alnaes, Grethe; Kristensen, Tom; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela N

    2003-05-01

    Patients with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) have a high risk to develop malignant diseases, most frequently B-cell lymphomas. It has been demonstrated that this chromosomal breakage syndrome results from mutations in the NBS1 gene that cause either a loss of full-length protein expression or expression of a variant protein. A large proportion of the known NBS patients are of Slavic origin who carry a major founder mutation 657del5 in exon 6 of the NBS1 gene. The prevalence of this mutation in Slav populations is reported to be high, possibly contributing to higher cancer risk in these populations. Therefore, if mutations in NBS1 are associated with higher risk of developing lymphoid cancers it would be most likely to be observed in these populations. A multiplex assay for four of the most frequent NBS1 mutations was designed and a series of 119 lymphoma patients from Slavic origin as well as 177 healthy controls were tested. One of the patients was a heterozygote carrier of the ACAAA deletion mutation in exon 6 (1/119). No mutation was observed in the control group, despite the reported high frequency (1/177). The power of this study was 30% to detect a relative risk of 2.0.

  12. Analyses of Genotypes and Phenotypes of Ten Chinese Patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Xu; Pan, Hong; Li, Lin; Wu, Hai-Rong; Wang, Song-Tao; Bao, Xin-Hua; Jiang, Yu-Wu; Qi, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene syndrome that is typically caused by a deletion of the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 4. However, there are few reports about the features of Chinese WHS patients. This study aimed to characterize the clinical and molecular cytogenetic features of Chinese WHS patients using the combination of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Methods: Clinical information was collected from ten patients with WHS. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of the patients. The deletions were analyzed by MLPA and array CGH. Results: All patients exhibited the core clinical symptoms of WHS, including severe growth delay, a Greek warrior helmet facial appearance, differing degrees of intellectual disability, and epilepsy or electroencephalogram anomalies. The 4p deletions ranged from 2.62 Mb to 17.25 Mb in size and included LETM1, WHSC1, and FGFR3. Conclusions: The combined use of MLPA and array CGH is an effective and specific means to diagnose WHS and allows for the precise identification of the breakpoints and sizes of deletions. The deletion of genes in the WHS candidate region is closely correlated with the core WHS phenotype. PMID:26960370

  13. Multiplexed Quantitative Proteomics for High-Throughput Comprehensive Proteome Comparisons of Human Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Amanda; Haas, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The proteome is the functional entity of the cell, and perturbations of a cellular system almost always cause changes in the proteome. These changes are a molecular fingerprint, allowing characterization and a greater understanding of the effect of the perturbation on the cell as a whole. Monitoring these changes has therefore given great insight into cellular responses to stress and disease states, and analytical platforms to comprehensively analyze the proteome are thus extremely important tools in biological research. Mass spectrometry has evolved as the most relevant technology to characterize proteomes in a comprehensive way. However, due to a lack of throughput capacity of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, researchers frequently use measurement of mRNA levels to approximate proteome changes. Growing evidence of substantial differences between mRNA and protein levels as well as recent improvements in mass spectrometry-based proteomics are heralding an increased use of mass spectrometry for comprehensive proteome mapping. Here we describe the use of multiplexed quantitative proteomics using isobaric labeling with tandem mass tags (TMT) for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of five cancer cell proteomes in biological duplicates in one mass spectrometry experiment.

  14. Wolfram syndrome maps to distal human chromosome 4p

    SciTech Connect

    Polymeropoulos, M.H.; Swift, R.; Swift, M.

    1994-09-01

    Wolfram syndrome (MIM 222300) is an autosomal recessive disorder defined by the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and progressive bilateral optic atrophy. Wolfram syndrome homozygotes develop widespread nervous system abnormalities; in particular, they exhibit severe behavioral difficulties that often lead to suicide attempts or psychiatric hospitalizations. The Wolfram syndrome gene also predisposes heterozygous carriers to psychiatric disorders. Since these heterozygotes are common in the general population, the Wolfram syndrome gene may contribute significantly to the overall burden of psychiatric illness. Based on a linkage analysis of 11 families segregating for this syndrome, using microsatellite repeat polymorphisms throughout the human genome, we found the Wolfram syndrome gene to be linked to markers on the short arm of human chromosome 4, with Zmax=6.46 at {theta}=0.02 for marker D4S431.

  15. Multiplex analysis inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific evidence suggests that inflammation is associated with human health effects and health endpoints, yet most studies have focused on human populations that are already considered “unhealthy”.  As such, it is pertinent to measure inflammatory biomarkers in human biologica...

  16. Multiplex analysis inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific evidence suggests that inflammation is associated with human health effects and health endpoints, yet most studies have focused on human populations that are already considered “unhealthy”.  As such, it is pertinent to measure inflammatory biomarkers in human biologica...

  17. Multiplexed and programmable regulation of gene networks with an integrated RNA and CRISPR/Cas toolkit in human cells.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Lior; Perli, Samuel D; Fridkin, Alexandra; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-05-22

    RNA-based regulation and CRISPR/Cas transcription factors (CRISPR-TFs) have the potential to be integrated for the tunable modulation of gene networks. A major limitation of this methodology is that guide RNAs (gRNAs) for CRISPR-TFs can only be expressed from RNA polymerase III promoters in human cells, limiting their use for conditional gene regulation. We present new strategies that enable expression of functional gRNAs from RNA polymerase II promoters and multiplexed production of proteins and gRNAs from a single transcript in human cells. We use multiple RNA regulatory strategies, including RNA-triple-helix structures, introns, microRNAs, and ribozymes, with Cas9-based CRISPR-TFs and Cas6/Csy4-based RNA processing. Using these tools, we efficiently modulate endogenous promoters and implement tunable synthetic circuits, including multistage cascades and RNA-dependent networks that can be rewired with Csy4 to achieve complex behaviors. This toolkit can be used for programming scalable gene circuits and perturbing endogenous networks for biology, therapeutic, and synthetic biology applications.

  18. Multiplex Aptamer Discovery through Apta-Seq and Its Application to ATP Aptamers Derived from Human-Genomic SELEX.

    PubMed

    Abdelsayed, Michael M; Ho, Bao T; Vu, Michael M K; Polanco, Julio; Spitale, Robert C; Lupták, Andrej

    2017-08-18

    Laboratory-evolved RNAs bind a wide variety of targets and serve highly diverse functions, including as diagnostic and therapeutic aptamers. The majority of aptamers have been identified using in vitro selection (SELEX), a molecular evolution technique based on selecting target-binding RNAs from highly diverse pools through serial rounds of enrichment and amplification. In vitro selection typically yields multiple distinct motifs of highly variable abundance and target-binding affinities. The discovery of new aptamers is often limited by the difficulty of characterizing the selected motifs, because testing of individual sequences tends to be a tedious process. To facilitate the discovery of new aptamers within in vitro selected pools, we developed Apta-Seq, a multiplex analysis based on quantitative, ligand-dependent 2' acylation of solvent-accessible regions of the selected RNA pools, followed by reverse transcription (SHAPE) and deep sequencing. The method reveals, in a single sequencing experiment, the identity, structural features, and target dissociation constants for aptamers present in the selected pool. Application of Apta-Seq to a human genomic pool enriched for ATP-binding RNAs yielded three new aptamers, which together with previously identified human aptamers suggest that ligand-binding RNAs may be common in mammals.

  19. Evaluation of Novel Multiplex Antibody Kit for Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1/2 and Hepatitis C Virus Using Sol-Gel Based Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Seung Gyu; Jang, Jin Woo; Lee, Jong Han; Lim, Chae Seung; Kim, Jinhong; Ki, Yeona; Jo, Minjoung; Kim, Soyoun

    2015-01-01

    Background. Microarrays enable high-throughput screening (HTS) of disease-related molecules, including important signaling proteins/peptides and small molecules that are in low abundance. In this study, we developed a multiplex blood bank screening platform, referred to as the Hi3-1 assay, for simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus 1/2 (HIV 1/2) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Methods. The Hi3-1 assay was tested using four panels (Panel 1, n = 4,581 patient samples; Panel 2, n = 15 seroconversion samples; Panel 3, n = 4 performance samples; and Panel 4, n = 251 purchased positive control samples), and the results were collected by the Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea University Medical College, Republic of Korea. The present study compares the sensitivity of the multiplex detection platform for both HIV and HCV using a sol-gel based microarray, which was based on a reference test (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo and Architect anti-HCV assays), in Korean patients. Results. The sensitivity of the multiplex detection platform for both HIV and HCV was 100%, and the specificity was 99.96% for HIV and 99.76% for HCV, which is equivalent to that of the reference test. Conclusion. We have successfully applied a novel screening technology to multiplex HIV and HCV diagnoses in a blood bank screening test. PMID:26457305

  20. Genotyping human ancient mtDNA control and coding region polymorphisms with a multiplexed Single-Base-Extension assay: the singular maternal history of the Tyrolean Iceman.

    PubMed

    Endicott, Phillip; Sanchez, Juan J; Pichler, Irene; Brotherton, Paul; Brooks, Jerome; Egarter-Vigl, Eduard; Cooper, Alan; Pramstaller, Peter

    2009-06-19

    Progress in the field of human ancient DNA studies has been severely restricted due to the myriad sources of potential contamination, and because of the pronounced difficulty in identifying authentic results. Improving the robustness of human aDNA results is a necessary pre-requisite to vigorously testing hypotheses about human evolution in Europe, including possible admixture with Neanderthals. This study approaches the problem of distinguishing between authentic and contaminating sequences from common European mtDNA haplogroups by applying a multiplexed Single-Base-Extension assay, containing both control and coding region sites, to DNA extracted from the Tyrolean Iceman. The multiplex assay developed for this study was able to confirm that the Iceman's mtDNA belongs to a new European mtDNA clade with a very limited distribution amongst modern data sets. Controlled contamination experiments show that the correct results are returned by the multiplex assay even in the presence of substantial amounts of exogenous DNA. The overall level of discrimination achieved by targeting both control and coding region polymorphisms in a single reaction provides a methodology capable of dealing with most cases of homoplasy prevalent in European haplogroups. The new genotyping results for the Iceman confirm the extreme fallibility of human aDNA studies in general, even when authenticated by independent replication. The sensitivity and accuracy of the multiplex Single-Base-Extension methodology forms part of an emerging suite of alternative techniques for the accurate retrieval of ancient DNA sequences from both anatomically modern humans and Neanderthals. The contamination of laboratories remains a pressing concern in aDNA studies, both in the pre and post-PCR environments, and the adoption of a forensic style assessment of a priori risks would significantly improve the credibility of results.

  1. Whole Blood-Based Multiplex Immunoassays for the Evaluation of Human Biomarker Responses to Emerging Viruses in Resource-Limited Regions.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jessica R; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; McElroy, Anita K

    2017-09-22

    Many emerging viruses such as Ebola and Lassa occur in resource-limited areas of the world. The advent of multiplex immunoassays has facilitated the study of biomarkers of disease since only small amounts of clinical material are required; however, such assays are designed and validated for only plasma or serum. This is a significant impediment when studying infectious diseases in the context of an outbreak in a developing nation. Plasma or serum can be difficult to obtain in the field due to the need for additional processing of infectious materials. Evaluation of multiplex immunoassays using frozen and thawed human whole blood (WB) would permit additional analysis using a more readily available human clinical sample. In this study, frozen and thawed human WB was directly compared with frozen and thawed plasma from normal healthy donors in a series of multiplexed immunoassays for 59 different biomarkers. We demonstrate that most important biomarkers can be evaluated using thawed WB, which will facilitate the study of human cytokine and other biomarker responses to viruses emerging in resource-limited regions.

  2. Development of a Multiplex PCR-Ligase Detection Reaction Assay for Diagnosis of Infection by the Four Parasite Species Causing Malaria in Humans

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, David T.; Thomson, Jodi M.; Kasehagen, Laurin J.; Zimmerman, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of infections caused by Plasmodium species is critical for understanding the nature of malarial disease, treatment efficacy, malaria control, and public health. The demands of field-based epidemiological studies of malaria will require faster and more sensitive diagnostic methods as new antimalarial drugs and vaccines are explored. We have developed a multiplex PCR-ligase detection reaction (LDR) assay that allows the simultaneous diagnosis of infection by all four parasite species causing malaria in humans. This assay exhibits sensitivity and specificity equal to those of other PCR-based assays, identifying all four human malaria parasite species at levels of parasitemias equal to 1 parasitized erythrocyte/μl of blood. The multiplex PCR-LDR assay goes beyond other PCR-based assays by reducing technical procedures and by detecting intraindividual differences in species-specific levels of parasitemia. Application of the multiplex PCR-LDR assay will provide the sensitivity and specificity expected of PCR-based diagnostic assays and will contribute new insight regarding relationships between the human malaria parasite species and the human host in future epidemiological studies. PMID:15184411

  3. Development of a multiplex PCR-ligase detection reaction assay for diagnosis of infection by the four parasite species causing malaria in humans.

    PubMed

    McNamara, David T; Thomson, Jodi M; Kasehagen, Laurin J; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2004-06-01

    The diagnosis of infections caused by Plasmodium species is critical for understanding the nature of malarial disease, treatment efficacy, malaria control, and public health. The demands of field-based epidemiological studies of malaria will require faster and more sensitive diagnostic methods as new antimalarial drugs and vaccines are explored. We have developed a multiplex PCR-ligase detection reaction (LDR) assay that allows the simultaneous diagnosis of infection by all four parasite species causing malaria in humans. This assay exhibits sensitivity and specificity equal to those of other PCR-based assays, identifying all four human malaria parasite species at levels of parasitemias equal to 1 parasitized erythrocyte/microl of blood. The multiplex PCR-LDR assay goes beyond other PCR-based assays by reducing technical procedures and by detecting intraindividual differences in species-specific levels of parasitemia. Application of the multiplex PCR-LDR assay will provide the sensitivity and specificity expected of PCR-based diagnostic assays and will contribute new insight regarding relationships between the human malaria parasite species and the human host in future epidemiological studies.

  4. Simultaneous full-field 3-D vibrometry of the human eardrum using spatial-bandwidth multiplexed holography

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Guignard, Jérémie; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Holographic interferometric methods typically require the use of three sensitivity vectors in order to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) information. Methods based on multiple directions of illumination have limited applications when studying biological tissues that have temporally varying responses such as the tympanic membrane (TM). Therefore, to measure 3-D displacements in such applications, the measurements along all the sensitivity vectors have to be done simultaneously. We propose a multiple-illumination directions approach to measure 3-D displacements from a single-shot hologram that contains displacement information from three sensitivity vectors. The hologram of an object of interest is simultaneously recorded with three incoherently superimposed pairs of reference and object beams. The incident off-axis angles of the reference beams are adjusted such that the frequency components of the multiplexed hologram are completely separate. Because of the differences in the directions and wavelengths of the reference beams, the positions of each reconstructed image corresponding to each sensitivity vector are different. We implemented a registration algorithm to accurately translate individual components of the hologram into a single global coordinate system to calculate 3-D displacements. The results include magnitudes and phases of 3-D sound-induced motions of a human cadaveric TM at several excitation frequencies showing modal and traveling wave motions on its surface. PMID:25984986

  5. Simultaneous full-field 3-D vibrometry of the human eardrum using spatial-bandwidth multiplexed holography.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Guignard, Jérémie; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J

    2015-01-01

    Holographic interferometric methods typically require the use of three sensitivity vectors in order to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) information. Methods based on multiple directions of illumination have limited applications when studying biological tissues that have temporally varying responses such as the tympanic membrane (TM). Therefore, to measure 3-D displacements in such applications, the measurements along all the sensitivity vectors have to be done simultaneously. We propose a multiple-illumination directions approach to measure 3-D displacements from a single-shot hologram that contains displacement information from three sensitivity vectors. The hologram of an object of interest is simultaneously recorded with three incoherently superimposed pairs of reference and object beams. The incident off-axis angles of the reference beams are adjusted such that the frequency components of the multiplexed hologram are completely separate. Because of the differences in the directions and wavelengths of the reference beams, the positions of each reconstructed image corresponding to each sensitivity vector are different. We implemented a registration algorithm to accurately translate individual components of the hologram into a single global coordinate system to calculate 3-D displacements. The results include magnitudes and phases of 3-D sound-induced motions of a human cadaveric TM at several excitation frequencies showing modal and traveling wave motions on its surface.

  6. A Melting Curve-Based Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Four Human Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Ya'nan; He, Zhixiang; Liu, Jia; Lan, Ke; Hu, Yihong; Zhang, Chiyu

    2016-11-23

    Human coronaviruses HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 are common respiratory viruses associated with acute respiratory infection. They have a global distribution. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of HCoV infection is important for the management and treatment of hospitalized patients with HCoV infection. Here, we developed a melting curve-based multiplex RT-qPCR assay for simultaneous detection of the four HCoVs. In the assay, SYTO 9 was used to replace SYBR Green I as the fluorescent dye, and GC-modified primers were designed to improve the melting temperature (Tm) of the specific amplicon. The four HCoVs were clearly distinguished by characteristic melting peaks in melting curve analysis. The detection sensitivity of the assay was 3 × 10² copies for HCoV-OC43, and 3 × 10¹ copies for HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E and HCoV-HKU1 per 30 μL reaction. Clinical evaluation and sequencing confirmation demonstrated that the assay was specific and reliable. The assay represents a sensitive and reliable method for diagnosis of HCoV infection in clinical samples.

  7. Quantitative large scale gene expression profiling from human stem cell culture micro samples using multiplex pre-amplification.

    PubMed

    Kibschull, Mark; Lye, Stephen J; Okino, Steven T; Sarras, Haya

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling is a powerful tool to study biological mechanisms during stem cell differentiation and reprogramming. Genome-wide methods like microarrays or next generation sequencing are expensive, time consuming, and require special equipment and bioinformatics expertise. Quantitative RT-PCR remains one of today's most widely accepted and used methods for analyzing gene expression in biological samples. However, limitations in the amount of starting materials often hinder the quantity and quality of information that could be obtained from a given sample. Here, we present a fast 4-step workflow allowing direct, column-free RNA isolation from limited human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) cultures that is directly compatible with subsequent reverse transcription, target specific multiplex pre-amplification, and standard SYBR-Green quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. The workflow delivers excellent correlations in normalized gene-expression data obtained from different samples of hPSCs over a wide range of cell numbers (500-50,000 cells). We demonstrate accurate and unbiased target gene quantification in limiting stem cell cultures which allows for monitoring embryoid body differentiation and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming. This method highlights a rapid and cost effective screening process, allowing reduction of culture formats and increase of processing throughputs for various stem cell applications.

  8. A Melting Curve-Based Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Four Human Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Ya’nan; He, Zhixiang; Liu, Jia; Lan, Ke; Hu, Yihong; Zhang, Chiyu

    2016-01-01

    Human coronaviruses HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 are common respiratory viruses associated with acute respiratory infection. They have a global distribution. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of HCoV infection is important for the management and treatment of hospitalized patients with HCoV infection. Here, we developed a melting curve-based multiplex RT-qPCR assay for simultaneous detection of the four HCoVs. In the assay, SYTO 9 was used to replace SYBR Green I as the fluorescent dye, and GC-modified primers were designed to improve the melting temperature (Tm) of the specific amplicon. The four HCoVs were clearly distinguished by characteristic melting peaks in melting curve analysis. The detection sensitivity of the assay was 3 × 102 copies for HCoV-OC43, and 3 × 101 copies for HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E and HCoV-HKU1 per 30 μL reaction. Clinical evaluation and sequencing confirmation demonstrated that the assay was specific and reliable. The assay represents a sensitive and reliable method for diagnosis of HCoV infection in clinical samples. PMID:27886052

  9. Analysis of Malassezia microbiota in healthy superficial human skin and in psoriatic lesions by multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Luciana C; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Blaser, Martin J

    2008-05-01

    Yeasts from the genus Malassezia are members of the normal biota of human skin, and may play a role in dermatopathology. Our previous study of the fungal microbiota from healthy subjects and from patients with psoriasis using clone library analysis revealed the presence of five Malassezia species and four uncharacterized phylotypes. We now compared the Malassezia microbiota from six healthy body locations and two psoriatic lesions, and evaluated its stability over time using multiplex real-time PCR. Samples from each body location were obtained monthly, for 4 months. Dual-labeled probes were designed to recognize four Malassezia sp. and two uncharacterized groups, and a genus-specific probe was also developed. A good correspondence was obtained between real-time PCR data and clone library analyses. Malassezia restricta was the most abundant species in the majority of samples, and high amounts of Malassezia globosa were also detected. The uncharacterized phylotype 1 was usually detected in lower proportions, nevertheless it was present in most samples. The microbiota was host-specific and relatively stable over time. In accordance with our previous observations, no significant dichotomy between samples from healthy skin and from psoriatic lesions was found; the samples clustered according to the subject, rather than health status.

  10. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine using a multiplex immunoassay platform

    EPA Science Inventory

    A change in the expression of cytokines in human biological media indicates an inflammatory response to external stressors and reflects an early step along the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for various health endpoints. To characterize and interpret this inflammatory response, m...

  11. Developing a Salivary Antibody Multiplex Immunoassay to Measure Human Exposure to Environmental Pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    The etiology and impacts of human exposure to environmental pathogens are of major concern worldwide and, thus, the ability to assess exposure and infections using cost effective, high-throughput approaches would be indispensable. The principal objective of this work is to devel...

  12. Developing a Salivary Antibody Multiplex Immunoassay to Measure Human Exposure to Environmental Pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    The etiology and impacts of human exposure to environmental pathogens are of major concern worldwide and, thus, the ability to assess exposure and infections using cost effective, high-throughput approaches would be indispensable. The principal objective of this work is to devel...

  13. A MULTIPLEX REVERSE TRANSCIPTION-PCR METHOD FOR DETECTION OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Untreated groundwater is responsible for about half of the waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Human enteric viruses are thought to be leading etiological agents of many of these outbreaks, but there is relatively little information on the types and levels of viru...

  14. A MULTIPLEX REVERSE TRANSCIPTION-PCR METHOD FOR DETECTION OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Untreated groundwater is responsible for about half of the waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Human enteric viruses are thought to be leading etiological agents of many of these outbreaks, but there is relatively little information on the types and levels of viru...

  15. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine using a multiplex immunoassay platform

    EPA Science Inventory

    A change in the expression of cytokines in human biological media indicates an inflammatory response to external stressors and reflects an early step along the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for various health endpoints. To characterize and interpret this inflammatory response, m...

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphism-based multiplex PCR for identification and genotyping of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum from humans, animals and the environment.

    PubMed

    Rujirawat, Thidarat; Sridapan, Thanawat; Lohnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Kumsang, Yothin; Sae-Chew, Pattarana; Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Krajaejun, Theerapong

    2017-10-01

    Pythium insidiosum causes a life-threatening infectious disease, called pythiosis, in humans and animals worldwide. Diagnosis of pythiosis is difficult and often delayed. Surgical removal of infected tissue is the main treatment option. Disabilities and death are common outcomes for pythiosis patients. Reports of Py. insidiosum infections are rising. While it would be useful for clinical, epidemiological, and microbiological studies, information on genetic variation in Py. insidiosum strains is limited. This limitation is, at least in part, due to the cost and time-requirements of DNA sequencing procedures. rDNA-sequence-based phylogenetic analyses categorize Py. insidiosum into three groups, in relation to geographic distribution: Clade-I (American strains), Clade-II (American, Asian, and Australian strains), and Clade-III (Thai and American strains). In rDNA sequence analyses, we observed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that were associated with the phylogenetic clades of Py. insidiosum. In this study, we aim to develop a multiplex PCR assay, targeting the identified SNPs, for rapid genotyping of Py. insidiosum. We also aim to assess diagnostic efficiency of the assay for identification of Py. insidiosum. Fifty-three isolates of Py. insidiosum from humans (n=35), animals (n=14), and the environment (n=4), and 22 negative-control fungi were recruited for assay evaluation. Based on the pattern of amplicons, the multiplex PCR correctly assigned phylogenetic clades in 98% of the Py. insidiosum isolates tested. The assay exhibited 100% sensitivity and specificity for identification of Py. insidiosum. The assay successfully identified and genotyped the first proven isolate of Py. insidiosum from an animal with pythiosis in Thailand. In conclusion, the multiplex PCR provided accurate, sensitive and specific results for identifying and genotyping Py. insidiosum. Thus, this multiplex-PCR assay could be a simple, rapid, and cost-effective alternative to DNA

  17. No association between Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome skin fibrofolliculomas and the first 10 described human polyomaviruses or human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Maria; Nordfors, Cecilia; Vlastos, Andrea; Ferrara, Giovanni; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Dalianis, Tina

    2014-11-01

    The rare autosomal dominant condition Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is attributed to mutations on chromosome 17 in the folliculin (FLCN) gene, but not always diagnosed due to lack of, or a variety of symptoms such as fibrofolliculomas, lung cystic lesions, spontaneous pneumothorax and renal cancer. We hypothesized that the lack of or variability in symptoms could be due to BHD patients potentially being abnormally susceptible to infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) or human polyomavirus (HPyV), which can be associated with skin lesions or latency in the kidneys. Seven fibrofolliculoma skin lesions, one renal cancer and one lung cyst from nine patients with BHD treated at the Karolinska University Hospital were therefore analyzed for cutaneous and mucosal HPV types and 10 HPyVs by bead based multiplex assays or by PCR. All samples were negative for viral DNA. In conclusion, the data suggest that HPV and HPyVs do not contribute to BHD pathology.

  18. An automated integrated platform for rapid and sensitive multiplexed protein profiling using human saliva samples

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shuai; Henley, W. Hampton; Miller, Scott E.; Zhang, Huaibin; Mayer, Kathryn M.; Dennis, Patty J.; Oblath, Emily A.; Alarie, Jean Pierre; Wu, Yue; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Little, Frédéric F.; Uluer, Ahmet Z.; Wang, Peidong; Ramsey, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, saliva has emerged as a potentially ideal diagnostic biofluid for noninvasive testing. In this paper, we present an automated, integrated platform useable by minimally trained personnel in the field for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases using human saliva as a sample specimen. In this platform, a saliva sample is loaded onto a disposable microfluidic chip containing all the necessary reagents and components required for saliva analysis. The chip is then inserted into the automated analyzer, the SDReader, where multiple potential protein biomarkers for respiratory diseases are measured simultaneously using a microsphere-based array via fluorescence sandwich immunoassays. The results are read optically, and the images are analyzed by a custom-designed algorithm. The fully automated assay requires as little as 10 μL of saliva sample, and the results are reported in 70 min. The performance of the platform was characterized by testing protein standard solutions, and the results were comparable to those from the 3.5-h lab bench assay that we have previously reported. The device was also deployed in two clinical environments where 273 human saliva samples collected from different subjects were successfully tested, demonstrating the device’s potential to assist clinicians with the diagnosis of respiratory diseases by providing timely protein biomarker profiling information. This platform, which combines non-invasive sample collection and fully automated analysis, can also be utilized in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24448498

  19. An automated integrated platform for rapid and sensitive multiplexed protein profiling using human saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shuai; Henley, W Hampton; Miller, Scott E; Zhang, Huaibin; Mayer, Kathryn M; Dennis, Patty J; Oblath, Emily A; Alarie, Jean Pierre; Wu, Yue; Oppenheim, Frank G; Little, Frédéric F; Uluer, Ahmet Z; Wang, Peidong; Ramsey, J Michael; Walt, David R

    2014-03-21

    During the last decade, saliva has emerged as a potentially ideal diagnostic biofluid for noninvasive testing. In this paper, we present an automated, integrated platform useable by minimally trained personnel in the field for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases using human saliva as a sample specimen. In this platform, a saliva sample is loaded onto a disposable microfluidic chip containing all the necessary reagents and components required for saliva analysis. The chip is then inserted into the automated analyzer, the SDReader, where multiple potential protein biomarkers for respiratory diseases are measured simultaneously using a microsphere-based array via fluorescence sandwich immunoassays. The results are read optically, and the images are analyzed by a custom-designed algorithm. The fully automated assay requires as little as 10 μL of saliva sample, and the results are reported in 70 min. The performance of the platform was characterized by testing protein standard solutions, and the results were comparable to those from the 3.5 h lab bench assay that we have previously reported. The device was also deployed in two clinical environments where 273 human saliva samples collected from different subjects were successfully tested, demonstrating the device's potential to assist clinicians with the diagnosis of respiratory diseases by providing timely protein biomarker profiling information. This platform, which combines noninvasive sample collection and fully automated analysis, can also be utilized in point-of-care diagnostics.

  20. Multiplexed immunophenotyping of human antigen-presenting cells in whole blood by polychromatic flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Erik; Esposito, Laura; Todd, John A.; Wicker, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe two modular protocols for immunostaining and multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of major human antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, B lymphocytes) in minimally manipulated whole blood. Simultaneous detection of up to eight colors is enabled by careful selection and testing of cell-subset-defining monoclonal antibodies (anchor markers) in the appropriate fluorochrome combinations, to demonstrate the quantification of surface expression levels of molecules involved in chemotaxis (e.g. CX3CR1, CCR2), adhesion (e.g. CD11b, CD62L), antigen presentation (e.g. CD83, CD86, CD209) and immune regulation (e.g. CD101) on circulating antigen-presenting cells. Each immunostaining reaction requires as little as 50–100 μl of peripheral whole blood, no density-gradient separation, and the entire procedure from preparation of reagents to flow cytometry can be completed in <5 h. PMID:20134434

  1. A Multiplex Kindred with Hennekam Syndrome due to Homozygosity for a CCBE1 Mutation that does not Prevent Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Carolyn C; Best, Lucy; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Wacker, Jochen; Bertz, Simone; Agaimy, Abbas; Harrer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Collagen and calcium-binding EGF domain-containing protein 1 (CCBE1) bi-allelic mutations have been associated with syndromes of widespread congenital lymphatic dysplasia, including Hennekam Syndrome (HS). HS is characterized by lymphedema, lymphangiectasia, and intellectual disability. CCBE1 encodes a putative extracellular matrix protein but the HS-causing mutations have not been studied biochemically. We report two HS siblings, born to consanguineous parents of Turkish ancestry, whose clinical phenotype also includes protein losing enteropathy, painful relapsing chylous ascites, and hypogammaglobulinemia. We identified by whole exome and Sanger sequencing the homozygous CCBE1 C174Y mutation in both siblings. This mutation had been previously reported in another HS kindred from the Netherlands. In over-expression studies, we found increased intracellular expression of all forms (monomers, dimers, trimers) of the CCBE1 C174Y mutant protein, by Western blot, despite mutant mRNA levels similar to wild-type (WT). In addition, we detected increased secretion of the mutant CCBE1 protein by ELISA. We further found the mutant and WT proteins to be evenly distributed in the cytoplasm, by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Finally, we found a strong decrease of lymphatic vessels, with a corresponding diminished expression of CCBE1, by immunohistochemistry of the patients' intestinal biopsies. In contrast, mucosal blood vessels and muscularis mucosae showed normal CCBE1 staining. Our findings show that the mutant CCBE1 C174Y protein is not loss-of-function by loss-of-expression.

  2. Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome and primary human herpesvirus 7 infection.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Jun-Ichi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Ihira, Masaru; Okumura, Akihisa; Morishima, Tsuneo; Hayakawa, Fumio

    2004-09-01

    We report a case of hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia (HH) syndrome. An 18-month-old female infant had a hemiconvulsion followed by left hemiplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging immediately after the onset of hemiplegia showed high intensity in the right hemisphere in diffusion-weighted images (DWI), while T1- and T2-weighted images were normal. Single photon emission computed tomography showed hypoperfusion of the right hemisphere in the acute phase. Virological analyses proved primary human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) infection. DWI are useful for the early evaluation of HH syndrome. Vascular disorders due to HHV-7 infection may have been related to the development of HH syndrome in this patient.

  3. Stretchable, multiplexed pH sensors with demonstrations on rabbit and human hearts undergoing ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun-Joong; Sulkin, Matthew S; Kim, Jong-Seon; Goudeseune, Camille; Chao, Hsin-Yun; Song, Joseph W; Yang, Sang Yoon; Hsu, Yung-Yu; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Efimov, Igor R; Rogers, John A

    2014-01-01

    Stable pH is an established biomarker of health, relevant to all tissues of the body, including the heart. Clinical monitoring of pH in a practical manner, with high spatiotemporal resolution, is particularly difficult in organs such as the heart due to its soft mechanics, curvilinear geometry, heterogeneous surfaces, and continuous, complex rhythmic motion. The results presented here illustrate that advanced strategies in materials assembly and electrochemical growth can yield interconnected arrays of miniaturized IrOx pH sensors encapsulated in thin, low-modulus elastomers to yield conformal monitoring systems capable of noninvasive measurements on the surface of the beating heart. A thirty channel custom data acquisition system enables spatiotemporal pH mapping with a single potentiostat. In vitro testing reveals super-Nernstian sensitivity with excellent uniformity (69.9 ± 2.2 mV/pH), linear response to temperature (-1.6 mV °C(-1) ), and minimal influence of extracellular ions (<3.5 mV). Device examples include sensor arrays on balloon catheters and on skin-like stretchable membranes. Real-time measurement of pH on the surfaces of explanted rabbit hearts and a donated human heart during protocols of ischemia-reperfusion illustrate some of the capabilities. Envisioned applications range from devices for biological research, to surgical tools and long-term implants.

  4. Comparing viral metagenomics methods using a highly multiplexed human viral pathogens reagent

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Mee, Edward T.; Collot-Teixeira, Sophie; Anderson, Rob; Schepelmann, Silke; Minor, Philip D.; Delwart, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Unbiased metagenomic sequencing holds significant potential as a diagnostic tool for the simultaneous detection of any previously genetically described viral nucleic acids in clinical samples. Viral genome sequences can also inform on likely phenotypes including drug susceptibility or neutralization serotypes. In this study, different variables of the laboratory methods often used to generate viral metagenomics libraries on the efficiency of viral detection and virus genome coverage were compared. A biological reagent consisting of 25 different human RNA and DNA viral pathogens was used to estimate the effect of filtration and nuclease digestion, DNA/RNA extraction methods, pre-amplification and the use of different library preparation kits on the detection of viral nucleic acids. Filtration and nuclease treatment led to slight decreases in the percentage of viral sequence reads and number of viruses detected. For nucleic acid extractions silica spin columns improved viral sequence recovery relative to magnetic beads and Trizol extraction. Pre-amplification using random RT-PCR while generating more viral sequence reads resulted in detection of fewer viruses, more overlapping sequences, and lower genome coverage. The ScriptSeq library preparation method retrieved more viruses and a greater fraction of their genomes than the TruSeq and Nextera methods. Viral metagenomics sequencing was able to simultaneously detect up to 22 different viruses in the biological reagent analyzed including all those detected by qPCR. Further optimization will be required for the detection of viruses in biologically more complex samples such as tissues, blood, or feces. PMID:25497414

  5. Study comparing human papillomavirus (HPV) real-time multiplex PCR and Hybrid Capture II INNO-LiPA v2 HPV genotyping PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Iftner, Thomas; Germ, Liesje; Swoyer, Ryan; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Breugelmans, J Gabrielle; Munk, Christian; Stubenrauch, Frank; Antonello, Joseph; Bryan, Janine T; Taddeo, Frank J

    2009-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genotyping is an essential test to establish efficacy in HPV vaccine clinical trials and HPV prevalence in natural history studies. A number of HPV DNA genotyping methods have been cited in the literature, but the comparability of the outcomes from the different methods has not been well characterized. Clinically, cytology is used to establish possible HPV infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of HPV multiplex PCR assays compared to those of the testing scheme of the Hybrid Capture II (HCII) assay followed by an HPV PCR/line hybridization assay (HCII-LiPA v2). SurePath residual samples were split into two aliquots. One aliquot was subjected to HCII testing followed by DNA extraction and LiPA v2 genotyping. The second aliquot was shipped to a second laboratory, where DNA was extracted and HPV multiplex PCR testing was performed. Comparisons were evaluated for 15 HPV types common in both assays. A slightly higher proportion of samples tested positive by the HPV multiplex PCR than by the HCII-LiPA v2 assay. The sensitivities of the multiplex PCR assay relative to those of the HCII-LiPA v2 assay for HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, for example, were 0.806, 0.646, 0.920, and 0.860, respectively; the specificities were 0.986, 0.998, 0.960, and 0.986, respectively. The overall comparability of detection of the 15 HPV types was quite high. Analyses of DNA genotype testing compared to cytology results demonstrated a significant discordance between cytology-negative (normal) and HPV DNA-positive results. This demonstrates the challenges of cytological diagnosis and the possibility that a significant number of HPV-infected cells may appear cytologically normal.

  6. Retrospective species identification of microsporidian spores in diarrheic fecal samples from human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS patients by multiplexed fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Johansson, Michael A; Tamang, Leena; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Moura, Laci S; DaSilva, Alexandre J; Girouard, Autumn S; Matos, Olga

    2007-04-01

    In order to assess the applicability of multiplexed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for the clinical setting, we conducted retrospective analysis of 110 formalin-stored diarrheic stool samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients with intestinal microsporidiosis collected between 1992 and 2003. The multiplexed FISH assay identified microsporidian spores in 94 of 110 (85.5%) samples: 49 (52.1%) were positive for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, 43 (45.8%) were positive for Encephalitozoon intestinalis, 2 (2.1%) were positive for Encephalitozoon hellem, and 9 samples (9.6%) contained both E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis spores. Quantitative spore counts per ml of stool yielded concentration values from 3.5 x 10(3) to 4.4 x 10(5) for E. bieneusi (mean, 8.8 x 10(4)/ml), 2.3 x 10(2) to 7.8 x 10(4) (mean, 1.5 x 10(4)/ml) for E. intestinalis, and 1.8 x 10(2) to 3.6 x 10(2) for E. hellem (mean, 2.7 x 10(2)/ml). Identification of microsporidian spores by multiplex FISH assay was more sensitive than both Chromotrope-2R and CalcoFluor White M2R stains; 85.5% versus 72.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The study demonstrated that microsporidian coinfection in HIV/AIDS patients with intestinal microsporidiosis is not uncommon and that formalin-stored fecal samples older than 10 years may not be suitable for retrospective analysis by techniques targeting rRNA. Multiplexed FISH assay is a reliable, quantitative fluorescence microscopy method for the simultaneous identification of E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis, and E. hellem, as well as Encephalitozoon cuniculi, spores in fecal samples and is a useful tool for assessing spore shedding intensity in intestinal microsporidiosis. The method can be used for epidemiological investigations and applied in clinical settings.

  7. Multiplex detection and identification of viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens in human blood and plasma using a high-density resequencing pathogen microarray platform.

    PubMed

    Kourout, Moussa; Fisher, Carolyn; Purkayastha, Anjan; Tibbetts, Clark; Winkelman, Valerie; Williamson, Phillip; Nakhasi, Hira L; Duncan, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The implementation of nucleic acid-based tests for blood donor screening has improved the safety of the blood supply; however, the increasing number of emerging pathogen tests is burdensome. Development of multiplex testing platforms that allow simultaneous screening for different pathogens is a potential solution. The TessArray resequencing microarray is a platform that allows multiplex detection and identification of 97 different blood-borne pathogens in one single test. The objective was to evaluate the lowest concentration detected in blood or plasma, species discrimination, and applicability of the TessArray microarray platform for testing blood donors. Human blood or plasma spiked with selected pathogens (10,000, 1000, or 100 cells or copies/mL), including three viral, four bacterial, and four protozoan pathogens were each tested on this platform. The nucleic acids were extracted, amplified using multiplexed sets of pooled specific primers, fragmented, labeled, and hybridized to a microarray. Finally, the detected sequences were identified using an automated genomic database alignment algorithm. The performance of this platform demonstrated detection for spiked bacterial and protozoan pathogens of 100 cells/mL and viral pathogens as low as 100 copies/mL. Coded specimens, including spiked and negative controls, were identified correctly for blood specimens (31/32, 97%) and for plasma specimens (20/22, 91%) demonstrating the effectiveness of the platform. These results indicated that the TessArray microarray platform could be employed for multiplex detection and identification, with a high level of discriminatory power for numerous blood-borne pathogen targets with potential for use in blood safety. © 2016 AABB.

  8. Comparing viral metagenomics methods using a highly multiplexed human viral pathogens reagent.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Mee, Edward T; Collot-Teixeira, Sophie; Anderson, Rob; Schepelmann, Silke; Minor, Philip D; Delwart, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Unbiased metagenomic sequencing holds significant potential as a diagnostic tool for the simultaneous detection of any previously genetically described viral nucleic acids in clinical samples. Viral genome sequences can also inform on likely phenotypes including drug susceptibility or neutralization serotypes. In this study, different variables of the laboratory methods often used to generate viral metagenomics libraries were compared for their abilities to detect multiple viruses and generate full genome coverage. A biological reagent consisting of 25 different human RNA and DNA viral pathogens was used to estimate the effect of filtration and nuclease digestion, DNA/RNA extraction methods, pre-amplification and the use of different library preparation kits on the detection of viral nucleic acids. Filtration and nuclease treatment led to slight decreases in the percentage of viral sequence reads and number of viruses detected. For nucleic acid extractions silica spin columns improved viral sequence recovery relative to magnetic beads and Trizol extraction. Pre-amplification using random RT-PCR while generating more viral sequence reads resulted in detection of fewer viruses, more overlapping sequences, and lower genome coverage. The ScriptSeq library preparation method retrieved more viruses and a greater fraction of their genomes than the TruSeq and Nextera methods. Viral metagenomics sequencing was able to simultaneously detect up to 22 different viruses in the biological reagent analyzed including all those detected by qPCR. Further optimization will be required for the detection of viruses in biologically more complex samples such as tissues, blood, or feces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a multiplex RT-PCR for simultaneous diagnosis of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Dayakar, Seetha; Pillai, Heera R; Thulasi, Vineetha P; Nair, Radhakrishnan R

    2016-12-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) are ubiquitous respiratory viral pathogens. They belong to the family Paramyxoviridae (subfamily Pneumovirinae) and is responsible for acute respiratory tract infections in children, elderly and immunocompromised patients. We designed and tested a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) as a cost-effective alternative to real-time PCR and cell culture based detection for HMPV and HRSV. The newly developed PCR was used to screen nasal/throat swab samples from 356 patients with suspected acute respiratory infection attending the Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The method was compared with a commercially available kit employing real time PCR, for its sensitivity and specificity. 53 (14.9 %) samples were positive for at least one tested pathogen by mRT-PCR. All except one among the positive samples showed similar pathogen profile when tested using real time PCR. 8 (15.1 %) among these 53 were positive for HRSVA, 33 (62.3 %) positive for HRSVB and 12 (22.6 %) were positive for HMPV. 17 (32.7 %) samples showed co-infections in them. Sensitivity and specificity of the mRT-PCR was comparable to that of the commercial kit. Our findings indicate that this newly developed mRT-PCR can be used as a cost-effective alternative for laboratory diagnosis of HMPV/HRSV infection and will significantly reduce diagnostic costs for these viruses in clinical settings.

  10. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay identifies additional copy number changes compared with R-band karyotype and provide more accuracy prognostic information in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zefeng; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jinqin; Li, Bing; Fang, Liwei; Zhang, Hongli; Pan, Lijuan; Hu, Naibo; Qu, Shiqiang; Cai, Wenyu; Ru, Kun; Jia, Yujiao; Huang, Gang; Xiao, Zhijian

    2017-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis provides important diagnostic and prognostic information for patients with Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and plays an essential role in the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay is a recently developed technique to identify targeted cytogenetic aberrations in MDS patients. In the present study, we evaluated the results obtained using an MLPA assay in 437 patients with MDS to determine the efficacy of MLPA analysis. Using R-banding karyotyping, 45% (197/437) of MDS patients had chromosomal abnormalities, whereas MLPA analysis detected that 35% (153/437) of MDS cases contained at least one copy-number variations (CNVs) .2/5 individuals (40%) with R-band karyotype failures had trisomy 8 detected using only MLPA. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 20/235 (8.5%) MDS patients with a normal R-band karyotype, and 12/20 (60%) of those patients were reclassified into a higher-risk IPSS-R prognostic category. When sequencing and cytogenetics were combined, the fraction of patients with MDS-related oncogenic lesions increased to 87.3% (233/267 cases). MLPA analysis determined that the median OS of patients with a normal karyotype (n=218) was 65 months compared with 27 months in cases with an aberrant karyotype (P=0.002) in 240 patients with normal or failed karyotypes by R-banding karyotyping. The high-resolution MPLA assay is an efficient and reliable method that can be used in conjunction with R-band karyotyping to detect chromosomal abnormalities in patients with suspected MDS. MLPA may also provide more accurate prognostic information. PMID:27906673

  11. Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV) Drug Resistant Genotypes by Multiplex Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Giovanina M.; Marushchak, Tatyana A.; Koth, Andrew; Vaz, Louise E.; Dross, Sandra E.; Beck, Ingrid A.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is a highly specific and relatively simple method to detect point mutations encoding HIV-1 drug-resistance, which can detect mutants comprising ≥2–5% of the viral population. Nevirapine (NVP), tenofovir (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC) are antiretroviral drugs (ARV) used worldwide for treatment of HIV infection and prevention of mother-to-child-transmission. Adapting the OLA to detect multiple mutations associated with HIV resistance to these ARV simultaneously would provide an efficient tool to monitor drug resistance in resource-limited settings. Known proportions of mutant and wild-type plasmids were used to optimize a multiplex OLA for detection of K103N, Y181C, K65R, and M184V in HIV subtypes B and C, and V106M and G190A in subtype C. Simultaneous detection of two mutations was impaired if probes annealed to overlapping regions of the viral template, but was sensitive to ≥2–5% when testing codons using non-overlapping probes. PCR products from HIV-subtype B and C-infected individuals were tested by multiplex-OLA and compared to results of single-codon OLA. Multiplex-OLA detected mutations at codon pairs 103/181, 106/190 and 65/184 reliably when compared to singleplex-OLA in clinical specimens. The multiplex-OLA is sensitive and specific and reduces the cost of screening for NVP, TDF and/or 3TC resistance. PMID:23660583

  12. Treatment of persistent Pfiesteria-human illness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, R

    1998-01-01

    Patients with exposure to Pfiesteria toxin have developed an illness, Pfiesteria-human illness syndrome, characterized by skin lesions, headache, myalgias, conjunctival irritation, bronchospasm, abdominal pain, secretory diarrhea, recent memory loss, and difficulties with number sequencing. Not all patients demonstrated all features of the syndrome. The natural history of Pfiesteria-human illness syndrome shows that most patients' symptoms improve without treatment. This article reports the improvement of symptoms that had persisted for over one month in five patients, which the author attributes to treatment with cholestyramine. These patients were self-referred to the Pocomoke River Rash and Associated Illness Center, a clinic that opened on August 6, 1997, in response to the need for a central facility for diagnosis of human illness acquired from Pfiesteria. Until the Pfiesteria toxin(s) is isolated and characterized, and laboratory diagnostic tests are available, physicians must be able to recognize Pfiesteria-human illness syndrome and intervene when symptoms, particularly memory loss and diarrhea, cause significant impairment in daily activities. There are no precedents for the treatment of Pfiesteria or any dinoflagellate toxin-related human illness reported in the literature. The successful use of cholestyramine reported here may provide a model for understanding dinoflagellate toxin physiology in the human body. This paper reports an uncontrolled observational study. When identification of the toxin is completed, a basis for properly controlled studies will be available.

  13. Rapid and simultaneous detection of 6 types of human herpes virus (herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus 6A/B, and human herpes virus 7) by multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Kogawa, Kazuhiro; Sasa, Hidenori; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Furuya, Kenichi; Sato, Kenji

    2009-10-01

    A multiplex PCR assay was developed that enabled the simultaneous detection of DNA from 6 types of human herpes virus, HSV-1/2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6A/B, and HHV-7, using appropriate primer sets and conventional PCR techniques and instruments, with PCR products for each type of virus designed to be easily distinguishable by size. Electropherograms obtained from conventional agarose gels showed that, for each type, the observed number of base pairs corresponded to the intended product and that bands were easily distinguishable from each other. A minimum of 20 copies of viral DNA in a reaction was sufficient to confirm the existence of each of the 6 types of human herpes virus. Comparison of the data obtained from this method and the data obtained from conventional TaqMan PCR using clinical specimens from various sources showed consistent results. The multiplex PCR method reported here for the detection and differentiation of human herpes viruses did not require special equipment or techniques such as hybridization analysis and sequencing analysis and, therefore, enabled us to easily and rapidly detect and identify the 6 types of human herpes virus using conventional methods.

  14. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. in human fecal samples using multiplex PCR and qPCR-MCA.

    PubMed

    Zebardast, Nozhat; Yeganeh, Farshid; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Abadi, Alireza; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad; Haghighi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. are common causes of diarrheal and intestinal diseases all over the world. Microscopic methods are useful in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites (IPs), but their sensitivity was assessed approximately 60 percent. Recently, molecular techniques have been used increasingly for the identification and characterization of the parasites. Among those, in this study we have used multiplex PCR and Real-time PCR with melting curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) for simultaneous detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. in human fecal samples. Twenty DNA samples from 12 E. histolytica and 8 E. dispar samples and twenty stool samples confirmed positive for G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. were analyzed. After DNA extraction from the samples, multiplex PCR was done for detection and differentiation of above mentioned parasites. QPCR-MCA was also performed for the detection and differentiation of 11 isolates of above mentioned parasite in a cycle with a time and temperature. Multiplex PCR was able to simultaneous detect and differentiate of above mentioned parasite in a single reaction. QPCR-MCA was able to differentiate genus and species those five protozoa using melting temperature simultaneously at the same time and temperature programs. In total, qPCR-MCA diagnosed 7/11 isolation of E. histolytica, 6/8 isolation of E. dispar, 1/1 E. moshkovskii Laredo, 10/11 G. Lamblia and 6/11 Cryptosporidium spp. Application of multiplex PCR for detection of more than one species in a test in developing countries, at least in reference laboratories has accurate diagnosis and plays a critical role in differentiation of protozoan species. Multiplex PCR assay with a template and multi template had different results and it seems that using a set of primers with one template has higher diagnostic capability in compare with multi template. The results of this study

  15. Perturbations of Circulating miRNAs in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Detected Using a Multiplexed High-throughput Gene Expression Platform

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Nicolaas H.; Peace, Ralph M.; Abey, Sarah K.; Sherwin, LeeAnne B.; Wiley, John W.; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    The gene expression platform assay allows for robust and highly reproducible quantification of the expression of up to 800 transcripts (mRNA or miRNAs) in a single reaction. The miRNA assay counts transcripts by directly imaging and digitally counting miRNA molecules that are labeled with color-coded fluorescent barcoded probe sets (a reporter probe and a capture probe). Barcodes are hybridized directly to mature miRNAs that have been elongated by ligating a unique oligonucleotide tag (miRtag) to the 3' end. Reverse transcription and amplification of the transcripts are not required. Reporter probes contain a sequence of six color positions populated using a combination of four fluorescent colors. The four colors over six positions are used to construct a gene-specific color barcode sequence. Post-hybridization processing is automated on a robotic prep station. After hybridization, the excess probes are washed away, and the tripartite structures (capture probe-miRNA-reporter probe) are fixed to a streptavidin-coated slide via the biotin-labeled capture probe. Imaging and barcode counting is done using a digital analyzer. The immobilized barcoded miRNAs are visualized and imaged using a microscope and camera, and the unique barcodes are decoded and counted. Data quality control (QC), normalization, and analysis are facilitated by a custom-designed data processing and analysis software that accompanies the assay software. The assay demonstrates high linearity over a broad range of expression, as well as high sensitivity. Sample and assay preparation does not involve enzymatic reactions, reverse transcription, or amplification; has few steps; and is largely automated, reducing investigator effects and resulting in high consistency and technical reproducibility. Here, we describe the application of this technology to identifying circulating miRNA perturbations in irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:27929459

  16. Glutathione S-transferase L1 multiplex serology as a measure of cumulative infection with human papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several assays are used to measure type-specific serological responses to human papillomavirus (HPV), including the bead-based glutathione S-transferase (GST)-L1 multiplex serology assay and virus-like particle (VLP)-based ELISA. We evaluated the high-throughput GST-L1, which is increasingly used in epidemiologic research, as a measure of cumulative HPV infection and future immune protection among HPV-unvaccinated women. Methods We tested enrollment sera from participants in the control arm of the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (n = 488) for HPV16 and HPV18 using GST-L1, VLP-ELISA, and two assays that measure neutralizing antibodies (cLIA and SEAP-NA). With statistical adjustment for sampling, we compared GST-L1 serostatus to established HPV seropositivity correlates and incident cervical HPV infection using odds ratios. We further compared GST-L1 to VLP-ELISA using pair-wise agreement statistics and by defining alternate assay cutoffs. Results Odds of HPV16 GST-L1 seropositivity increased with enrollment age (OR = 1.20 per year, 95%CI 1.03-1.40) and lifetime number of sexual partners (OR = 2.06 per partner, 95%CI 1.49-2.83), with similar results for HPV18. GST-L1 seropositivity did not indicate protection from incident infection over 4 years of follow-up (HPV16 adjusted OR = 1.72, 95%CI 0.95-3.13; HPV18 adjusted OR = 0.38, 95%CI 0.12-1.23). Seroprevalence by GST-L1 (HPV16 and HPV18, respectively) was 5.0% and 5.2%, compared to 19.4% and 23.8% by VLP-ELISA, giving positive agreement of 39.2% and 20.8%. Lowering GST-L1 seropositivity cutoffs improved GST-L1/VLP-ELISA positive agreement to 68.6% (HPV16) and 61.5% (HPV18). Conclusions Our data support GST-L1 as a marker of cumulative HPV infection, but not immune protection. At lower seropositivity cutoffs, GST-L1 better approximates VLP-ELISA. PMID:24588945

  17. Syndrome Diagnosis: Human Intuition or Machine Intelligence?

    PubMed Central

    Braaten, Øivind; Friestad, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether artificial intelligence methods can represent objective methods that are essential in syndrome diagnosis. Most syndromes have no external criterion standard of diagnosis. The predictive value of a clinical sign used in diagnosis is dependent on the prior probability of the syndrome diagnosis. Clinicians often misjudge the probabilities involved. Syndromology needs objective methods to ensure diagnostic consistency, and take prior probabilities into account. We applied two basic artificial intelligence methods to a database of machine-generated patients - a ‘vector method’ and a set method. As reference methods we ran an ID3 algorithm, a cluster analysis and a naive Bayes’ calculation on the same patient series. The overall diagnostic error rate for the the vector algorithm was 0.93%, and for the ID3 0.97%. For the clinical signs found by the set method, the predictive values varied between 0.71 and 1.0. The artificial intelligence methods that we used, proved simple, robust and powerful, and represent objective diagnostic methods. PMID:19415142

  18. Syndrome diagnosis: human intuition or machine intelligence?

    PubMed

    Braaten, Oivind; Friestad, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether artificial intelligence methods can represent objective methods that are essential in syndrome diagnosis. Most syndromes have no external criterion standard of diagnosis. The predictive value of a clinical sign used in diagnosis is dependent on the prior probability of the syndrome diagnosis. Clinicians often misjudge the probabilities involved. Syndromology needs objective methods to ensure diagnostic consistency, and take prior probabilities into account. We applied two basic artificial intelligence methods to a database of machine-generated patients - a 'vector method' and a set method. As reference methods we ran an ID3 algorithm, a cluster analysis and a naive Bayes' calculation on the same patient series. The overall diagnostic error rate for the the vector algorithm was 0.93%, and for the ID3 0.97%. For the clinical signs found by the set method, the predictive values varied between 0.71 and 1.0. The artificial intelligence methods that we used, proved simple, robust and powerful, and represent objective diagnostic methods.

  19. Detection of high-risk mucosal human papillomavirus DNA in human specimens by a novel and sensitive multiplex PCR method combined with DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological and functional studies have clearly demonstrated that certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) from the genus alpha of the HPV phylogenetic tree, referred to as high-risk (HR) types, are the etiological cause of cervical cancer. Several methods for HPV detection and typing have been developed, and their importance in clinical and epidemiological studies has been well demonstrated. However, comparative studies have shown that several assays have different sensitivities for the detection of specific HPV types, particularly in the case of multiple infections. In this chapter, we describe a novel one-shot method for the detection and typing of 19 mucosal HR HPV types (types 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 73, and 82). The assay combines the advantages of the multiplex PCR methods, i.e., high sensitivity and the possibility to perform multiple amplifications in a single reaction, with an array primer extension (APEX) assay. The latter method offers the benefits of Sanger dideoxy sequencing with the high-throughput potential of the microarray. Initial studies have revealed that the assay is very sensitive in detecting multiple HPV infections.

  20. Human embryonic stem cells as models for aneuploid chromosomal syndromes.

    PubMed

    Biancotti, Juan-Carlos; Narwani, Kavita; Buehler, Nicole; Mandefro, Berhan; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Yanuka, Ofra; Clark, Amander; Hill, David; Benvenisty, Nissim; Lavon, Neta

    2010-09-01

    Syndromes caused by chromosomal aneuploidies are widely recognized genetic disorders in humans and often lead to spontaneous miscarriage. Preimplantation genetic screening is used to detect chromosomal aneuploidies in early embryos. Our aim was to derive aneuploid human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines that may serve as models for human syndromes caused by aneuploidies. We have established 25 hESC lines from blastocysts diagnosed as aneuploid on day 3 of their in vitro development. The hESC lines exhibited morphology and expressed markers typical of hESCs. They demonstrated long-term proliferation capacity and pluripotent differentiation. Karyotype analysis revealed that two-third of the cell lines carry a normal euploid karyotype, while one-third remained aneuploid throughout the derivation, resulting in eight hESC lines carrying either trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), 16, 17, 21 (Down syndrome), X (Triple X syndrome), or monosomy X (Turner syndrome). On the basis of the level of single nucleotide polymorphism heterozygosity in the aneuploid chromosomes, we determined whether the aneuploidy originated from meiotic or mitotic chromosomal nondisjunction. Gene expression profiles of the trisomic cell lines suggested that all three chromosomes are actively transcribed. Our analysis allowed us to determine which tissues are most affected by the presence of a third copy of either chromosome 13, 16, 17 or 21 and highlighted the effects of trisomies on embryonic development. The results presented here suggest that aneuploid embryos can serve as an alternative source for either normal euploid or aneuploid hESC lines, which represent an invaluable tool to study developmental aspects of chromosomal abnormalities in humans.

  1. Human versus Non-Human Face Processing: Evidence from Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Andreia; Rosset, Delphine; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Increased motivation towards social stimuli in Williams syndrome (WS) led us to hypothesize that a face's human status would have greater impact than face's orientation on WS' face processing abilities. Twenty-nine individuals with WS were asked to categorize facial emotion expressions in real, human cartoon and non-human cartoon faces presented…

  2. Simultaneous and sensitive detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) drug resistant genotypes by multiplex oligonucleotide ligation assay.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Giovanina M; Vlaskin, Tatyana A; Koth, Andrew; Vaz, Louise E; Dross, Sandra E; Beck, Ingrid A; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2013-09-01

    Oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is a highly specific and relatively simple method to detect point mutations encoding HIV-1 drug-resistance, which can detect mutants comprising ≥2-5% of the viral population. Nevirapine (NVP), tenofovir (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC) are antiretroviral (ARV) drugs used worldwide for treatment of HIV infection and prevention of mother-to-child-transmission. Adapting the OLA to detect multiple mutations associated with HIV resistance to these ARV simultaneously would provide an efficient tool to monitor drug resistance in resource-limited settings. Known proportions of mutant and wild-type plasmids were used to optimize a multiplex OLA for detection of K103N, Y181C, K65R, and M184V in HIV subtypes B and C, and V106M and G190A in subtype C. Simultaneous detection of two mutations was impaired if probes annealed to overlapping regions of the viral template, but was sensitive to ≥2-5% when testing codons using non-overlapping probes. PCR products from HIV-subtype B- and C-infected individuals were tested by multiplex-OLA and compared to results of single-codon OLA. Multiplex-OLA detected mutations at codon pairs 103/181, 106/190 and 65/184 reliably when compared to singleplex-OLA in clinical specimens. The multiplex-OLA is sensitive and specific and reduces the cost of screening for NVP, TDF and/or 3TC resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Human growth hormone and Turner syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Marco, Silvia Beatriz; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; Ferrer Lozano, Marta; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; Garagorri Otero, Jesús María

    2017-02-01

    The evaluation of clinical and analytical parameters as predictors of the final growth response in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone. A retrospective study was performed on 25 girls with Turner syndrome (17 treated with growth hormone), followed-up until adult height. Auxological, analytical, genetic and pharmacological parameters were collected. A descriptive and analytical study was conducted to evaluate short (12 months) and long term response to treatment with growth hormone. A favourable treatment response was shown during the first year of treatment in terms of height velocity gain in 66.6% of cases (height-gain velocity >3cm/year). A favourable long-term treatment response was also observed in terms of adult height, which increased by 42.82±21.23cm (1.25±0.76 SDS), with an adult height gain of 9.59±5.39cm (1.68±1.51 SDS). Predictors of good response to growth hormone treatment are: A) initial growth hormone dose, B) time on growth hormone treatment until starting oestrogen therapy, C) increased IGF1 and IGFBP-3 levels in the first year of treatment, and D) height gain velocity in the first year of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermally multiplexed polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Phaneuf, Christopher R.; Pak, Nikita; Saunders, D. Curtis; Holst, Gregory L.; Birjiniuk, Joav; Nagpal, Nikita; Culpepper, Stephen; Popler, Emily; Shane, Andi L.; Jerris, Robert; Forest, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Amplification of multiple unique genetic targets using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly required in molecular biology laboratories. Such reactions are typically performed either serially or by multiplex PCR. Serial reactions are time consuming, and multiplex PCR, while powerful and widely used, can be prone to amplification bias, PCR drift, and primer-primer interactions. We present a new thermocycling method, termed thermal multiplexing, in which a single heat source is uniformly distributed and selectively modulated for independent temperature control of an array of PCR reactions. Thermal multiplexing allows amplification of multiple targets simultaneously—each reaction segregated and performed at optimal conditions. We demonstrate the method using a microfluidic system consisting of an infrared laser thermocycler, a polymer microchip featuring 1 μl, oil-encapsulated reactions, and closed-loop pulse-width modulation control. Heat transfer modeling is used to characterize thermal performance limitations of the system. We validate the model and perform two reactions simultaneously with widely varying annealing temperatures (48 °C and 68 °C), demonstrating excellent amplification. In addition, to demonstrate microfluidic infrared PCR using clinical specimens, we successfully amplified and detected both influenza A and B from human nasopharyngeal swabs. Thermal multiplexing is scalable and applicable to challenges such as pathogen detection where patients presenting non-specific symptoms need to be efficiently screened across a viral or bacterial panel. PMID:26339317

  5. design of multiplexed detection assays for identification of avian influenza a virus subtypes pathogenic to humans by SmartCycler real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ren, Peijun; Mardi, Sek; Hou, Lili; Tsai, Cheguo; Chan, Kwok Hung; Cheng, Peter; Sheng, Jun; Buchy, Philippe; Sun, Bing; Toyoda, Tetsuya; Lim, Wilina; Peiris, J S Malik; Zhou, Paul; Deubel, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) epidemics are the result of human-to-human or poultry-to-human transmission. Tracking seasonal outbreaks of IAV and other avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes that can infect humans, aquatic and migratory birds, poultry, and pigs is essential for epidemiological surveillance and outbreak alerts. In this study, we performed four real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for identification of the IAV M and hemagglutinin (HA) genes from six known AIVs infecting pigs, birds, and humans. IAV M1 gene-positive samples tested by single-step rRT-PCR and a fluorogenic Sybr green I detection system were further processed for H5 subtype identification by using two-primer-set multiplex and Sybr green I rRT-PCR assays. H5 subtype-negative samples were then tested with either a TaqMan assay for subtypes H1 and H3 or a TaqMan assay for subtypes H2, H7, and H9 and a beacon multiplex rRT-PCR identification assay. The four-tube strategy was able to detect 10 RNA copies of the HA genes of subtypes H1, H2, H3, H5, and H7 and 100 RNA copies of the HA gene of subtype H9. At least six H5 clades of H5N1 viruses isolated in Southeast Asia and China were detected by that test. Using rRT-PCR assays for the M1 and HA genes in 202 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from children with acute respiratory infections, we identified a total of 39 samples positive for the IAV M1 gene and subtypes H1 and H3. When performed with a portable SmartCycler instrument, the assays offer an efficient, flexible, and reliable platform for investigations of IAV and AIV in remote hospitals and in the field.

  6. Human congenital long QT syndrome: more than previously thought?

    PubMed

    Attali, Bernard

    2002-06-01

    Mutations in KCNQ1 and KCNE1, the alpha- and beta-subunits of the I(KS) K+ channel, produce the cardiac long QT (LQT) syndrome. These subunits are expressed in heart and inner ear, but also in epithelial tissues such as kidney or intestine where their functional roles have remained elusive. Recent work has shown that KCNE1-deficient mice display chronic hypokalemia and hyperaldosteronism. These results have significant implications for human congenital LQT syndromes because hypokalemia increases the risk of ventricular arrhythmia and cardiac sudden death.

  7. Brief report: human figure drawings by children with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hui Keow; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-05-01

    Twenty-nine children with Asperger's syndrome and 28 typically developing children, matched on gender, chronological age and nonverbal IQ, were asked to produce a free drawing, then requested to draw a person, a house and a tree. The drawings were scored using standardized procedures for assessing accuracy, detail and complexity. There were no differences between the diagnostic groups on the tree or house drawing scores. The human figure drawing scores of children with Asperger's syndrome were significantly lower than those of the typically developing children, and there was a positive correlation between human figure drawing scores and communication sub-scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, for the Asperger's group. These results suggest that the selective deficit in generating human figure representations may derive from a relative lack of interest in the social world, and/or limited practice in drawing people.

  8. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract: a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based study.

    PubMed

    Hui, Yiang; Manna, Pradip; Ou, Joyce J; Kerley, Spencer; Zhang, Cunxian; Sung, C James; Lawrence, W Dwayne; Quddus, M Ruhul

    2015-09-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus infection usually is seen at one anatomic site in an individual. Rarely, infection at multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract in the same individual is encountered either simultaneously and/or at a later date. The current study identifies the various subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in these scenarios and analyzes the potential significance of these findings. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving 22 anatomic sites from 7 individuals was identified after institutional review board approval. Residual paraffin-embedded tissue samples were retrieved, and all 15 high-risk human papillomavirus were identified and viral load quantified using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method. Multiple high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes were identified in 32% of the samples and as many as 5 different subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a single anatomic site. In general, each anatomic site has unique combination of viral subtypes, although one individual showed overlapping subtypes in the vagina, cervix, and vulvar samples. Higher viral load and rare subtypes are more frequent in younger patients and in dysplasia compared with carcinoma. Follow-up ranging from 3 to 84 months revealed persistent high-risk human papillomavirus infection in 60% of cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a novel multiplex type-specific quantitative real-time PCR for detection and differentiation of infections with human papillomavirus types HPV2, HPV27, and HPV57.

    PubMed

    Hošnjak, Lea; Fujs Komloš, Kristina; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2016-12-01

    The present study describes the development and evaluation of the first multiplex type-specific quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR), enabling simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific concurrent detection and differentiation of human papillomavirus (HPV) types HPV2, 27, and 57 in a single PCR reaction. The HPV2/27/57 multiplex RT-PCR with a dynamic range of seven orders of magnitude (discriminating 10 to 108 viral genome equivalents/reaction) has an analytical sensitivity of at least 10 viral copies of each targeted HPV type/reaction, and no cross-reactivities were observed among the included targets. All three primer/probe combinations were efficient in amplifying 500 copies of targeted DNA in a background of 108, 107, 500, 100, and 10 copies of non-targeted viral DNA/reaction, and the performance of the HPV2/27/57 multiplex RT-PCR was additionally not affected by the presence of background human genomic DNA. When testing DNA isolates obtained from fresh-frozen tissue specimens of various children's warts, the results of the HPV2/27/57 multiplex RT-PCR were completely in line with the results of the conventional Low-risk Alpha-PV PCR. The newly developed HPV2/27/57 multiplex RT-PCR is an appropriate test for use in routine clinical laboratory settings and for studies focusing on the molecular epidemiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of HPV2/27/57-related lesions.

  10. Development and validation of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous genotyping and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, 2, and 3 proviral load determination.

    PubMed

    Moens, Britta; López, Giovanni; Adaui, Vanessa; González, Elsa; Kerremans, Lien; Clark, Daniel; Verdonck, Kristien; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Vanham, Guido; Cassar, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Dooren, Sonia

    2009-11-01

    The human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) proviral load remains the best surrogate marker for disease progression. Real-time PCR techniques have been developed for detection and quantification of cosmopolitan HTLV type 1a (HTLV-1a) and HTLV-2. Since a growing level of diversity in subtypes and genotypes is observed, we developed a multiplex quantitative PCR for simultaneous detection, genotyping, and quantification of proviral loads of HTLV-1, 2, and 3. Our assay uses tax type-specific primers and dually labeled probes and has a dynamic range of 10(5) to 10 HTLV copies. One hundred sixty-three samples were analyzed, among which all of the different subtypes within each HTLV genotype could be detected. The performance of proviral load determination of our multiplex assay was compared with that of a previously published HTLV-1 singleplex quantitative PCR based on SYBR green detection, developed at a different institute. Linear regression analysis showed a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) and strong (r(2) = 0.87) correlation between proviral load values measured with the two distinct real-time PCR assays. In conclusion, our novel assay offers an accurate molecular diagnosis and genotyping, together with the determination of the proviral load of HTLV-infected individuals, in a single amplification reaction. Moreover, our molecular assay could offer an alternative when current available serological assays are insufficient.

  11. Pediatric Kawasaki Disease and Adult Human Immunodeficiency Virus Kawasaki-Like Syndrome Are Likely the Same Malady.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Raymond M; Bergmann, Kelly R; Manaloor, John J; Yu, Xiaoqing; Slaven, James E; Kharbanda, Anupam B

    2016-09-01

    Background.  Pediatric Kawasaki disease (KD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)(+) adult Kawasaki-like syndrome (KLS) are dramatic vasculitides with similar physical findings. Both syndromes include unusual arterial histopathology with immunoglobulin (Ig)A(+) plasma cells, and both impressively respond to pooled Ig therapy. Their distinctive presentations, histopathology, and therapeutic response suggest a common etiology. Because blood is in immediate contact with inflamed arteries, we investigated whether KD and KLS share an inflammatory signature in serum. Methods.  A custom multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) defined the serum cytokine milieu in 2 adults with KLS during acute and convalescent phases, with asymptomatic HIV(+) subjects not taking antiretroviral therapy serving as controls. We then prospectively collected serum and plasma samples from children hospitalized with KD, unrelated febrile illnesses, and noninfectious conditions, analyzing them with a custom multiplex ELISA based on the KLS data. Results.  Patients with KLS and KD subjects shared an inflammatory signature including acute-phase reactants reflecting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α biologic activity (soluble TNF receptor I/II) and endothelial/smooth muscle chemokines Ccl1 (Th2), Ccl2 (vascular inflammation), and Cxcl11 (plasma cell recruitment). Ccl1 was specifically elevated in KD versus febrile controls, suggesting a unique relationship between Ccl1 and KD/KLS pathogenesis. Conclusions.  This study defines a KD/KLS inflammatory signature mirroring a dysfunctional response likely to a common etiologic agent. The KD/KLS inflammatory signature based on elevated acute-phase reactants and specific endothelial/smooth muscle chemokines was able to identify KD subjects versus febrile controls, and it may serve as a practicable diagnostic test for KD.

  12. Multiplexed LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of three novel hepatitis C antivirals, daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and beclabuvir in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Kandoussi, Hamza; Zeng, Jianing; Wang, Jian; Demers, Roger; Eley, Timothy; He, Bing; Burrell, Richard; Easter, John; Kadiyala, Pathanjali; Pursley, Janice; Cojocaru, Laura; Baker, Chanda; Ryan, John; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2015-03-25

    Dual or triple combination regimens of novel hepatitis C direct-acting antivirals (DAA, daclatasvir, asunaprevir, or beclabuvir) provide high sustained virological response rates and reduced frequency of resistance compared to clinical monotherapy. To support pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments in clinical studies, a multiplexed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitation of daclatasvir, asunaprevir, beclabuvir (BMS-791325) and its active metabolite (BMS-794712) in human plasma was developed and validated. Human plasma samples were extracted with methyl-t-butyl ether followed by an LC-MS/MS analysis, which was conducted in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) were 1 ng/mL for daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and BMS-794712, and 2 ng/mL for beclabuvir. Intra-run precision (≤4.5% CV), inter-run precision (≤2.9% CV), and accuracy (±5.3% deviation) based on different concentration levels (low, geometric mean, mid and high) of the quality control samples (QCs) provided evidence of the methods accuracy and precision. Selectivity and matrix effect on LC-MS/MS detection, stability in plasma, and potential interference of coadministered drugs (ribavirin and interferon) were all evaluated and the results were acceptable. Method reproducibility was demonstrated by the reanalysis of a portion of study samples. The cross-validation results for QCs demonstrated the equivalency between this method and two single-analyte methods which were previously validated for quantitation of daclatasvir in human plasma. This approach of using a multiplexed LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of three DAAs is time- and cost-effective, and can maintain good data quality in sample analysis.

  13. Is preterm birth a human-specific syndrome?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Julie Baker; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-06-14

    Human preterm birth (PTB), a multifactorial syndrome affecting offspring born before 37 completed weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of newborn death worldwide. Remarkably, the degree to which early parturition contributes to mortality in other placental mammals remains unclear. To gain insights on whether PTB is a human-specific syndrome, we examined within- and between-species variation in gestation length across placental mammals and the impact of early parturition on offspring fitness. Within species, gestation length is normally distributed, and all species appear to occasionally give birth before the 'optimal' time. Furthermore, human gestation length, like that of many mammalian species, scales proportionally to body mass, suggesting that this trait, like many others, is constrained by body size. Premature humans suffer from numerous cognitive impairments, but little is known of cognitive impairments in other placental mammals. Human gestation differs in the timing of the 'brain growth spurt', where unlike many mammals, including closely related primates, the trajectory of human brain growth directly overlaps with the parturition time window. Thus, although all mammals experience early parturition, the fitness costs imposed by the cognitive impairments may be unique to our species. Describing PTB broadly in mammals opens avenues for comparative studies on the physiological and genetic regulators of birth timing as well as the development of new mammalian models of the disease.

  14. Is preterm birth a human-specific syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Julie Baker; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Human preterm birth (PTB), a multifactorial syndrome affecting offspring born before 37 completed weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of newborn death worldwide. Remarkably, the degree to which early parturition contributes to mortality in other placental mammals remains unclear. To gain insights on whether PTB is a human-specific syndrome, we examined within- and between-species variation in gestation length across placental mammals and the impact of early parturition on offspring fitness. Within species, gestation length is normally distributed, and all species appear to occasionally give birth before the ‘optimal’ time. Furthermore, human gestation length, like that of many mammalian species, scales proportionally to body mass, suggesting that this trait, like many others, is constrained by body size. Premature humans suffer from numerous cognitive impairments, but little is known of cognitive impairments in other placental mammals. Human gestation differs in the timing of the ‘brain growth spurt’, where unlike many mammals, including closely related primates, the trajectory of human brain growth directly overlaps with the parturition time window. Thus, although all mammals experience early parturition, the fitness costs imposed by the cognitive impairments may be unique to our species. Describing PTB broadly in mammals opens avenues for comparative studies on the physiological and genetic regulators of birth timing as well as the development of new mammalian models of the disease. PMID:26077822

  15. Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Layton, T L; Davis-McFarland, E

    2000-01-01

    This article covers the epidemiological manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in children, demographic statistics, and information on the three modes of virus transmission. The various opportunistic diseases and neurological dysfunction that characterize pediatric HIV are described. The Center for Disease Control pediatric HIV classification system is presented, and the developmental disorders often found in children with HIV are discussed. The Universal Disease Precautions of the American Speech and Hearing Association (ASHA) for clinicians is also presented.

  16. Molecular detection of human Plasmodium species in Sabah using PlasmoNex™ multiplex PCR and hydrolysis probes real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ping Chin; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Anderios, Fread; Al Lim, Yvonne; Chew, Ching Hoong; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-28

    Malaria is a vector borne-parasitic disease transmitted through the bite of the infective female Anopheles mosquitoes. Five Plasmodium species have been recognized by World Health Organization (WHO) as the causative agents of human malaria. Generally, microscopic examination is the gold standard for routine malaria diagnosis. However, molecular PCR assays in many cases have shown improvement on the sensitivity and specificity over microscopic or other immunochromatographic assays. The present study attempts to screen 207 suspected malaria samples from patients seeking treatment in clinics around Sabah state, Malaysia, using two panels of multiplex PCRs, conventional PCR system (PlasmoNex™) and real-time PCR based on hydrolysis probe technology. Discordance results between two PCR assays were further confirmed by sequencing using 18S ssu rRNA species-specific primers. Of the 207 malaria samples, Plasmodium knowlesi (73.4% vs 72.0%) was the most prevalent species based on two PCR assays, followed by Plasmodium falciparum (15.9% vs 17.9%), and Plasmodium vivax (9.7% vs 7.7%), respectively. Neither Plasmodium malariae nor Plasmodium ovale was detected in this study. Nine discrepant species identification based on both the PCR assays were further confirmed through DNA sequencing. Species-specific real-time PCR only accurately diagnosed 198 of 207 (95.7%) malaria samples up to species level in contrast to PlasmoNex™ assay which had 100% sensitivity and specificity based on sequencing results. Multiplex PCR accelerate the speed in the diagnosis of malaria. The PlasmoNex™ PCR assay seems to be more accurate than real-time PCR in the speciation of all five human malaria parasites. The present study also showed a significant increase of the potential fatal P. knowlesi infection in Sabah state as revealed by molecular PCR assays.

  17. Signalling protein complexes isolated from primary human skin-resident T cells can be analysed by Multiplex IP-FCM.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen E P; Neier, Steven C; Davis, Tessa R; Pittelkow, Mark R; Gil, Diana; Schrum, Adam G

    2014-04-01

    Studying signal transduction in skin-resident T cells (sr-T cells) can be limited by the small size of clinical biopsies. Here, we isolated sr-T cells from clinical samples and analysed signalling protein complexes by multiplex immunoprecipitation detected by flow cytometry (mIP-FCM). In samples from two independent donors, antigenic stimulation induced signalling proteins to join shared complexes that were observed in seven pairwise combinations among five proteins. This demonstrates that sr-T cells isolated from small clinical samples provide sufficient material for mIP-FCM-based analysis of signalling-induced protein complexes. We propose that this strategy may be useful for gaining improved mechanistic insight of sr-T cell signal transduction associated with dermatological disease.

  18. Turner syndrome and the evolution of human sexual dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Turner syndrome is caused by loss of all or part of an X chromosome in females. A series of recent studies has characterized phenotypic differences between Turner females retaining the intact maternally inherited versus paternally inherited X chromosome, which have been interpreted as evidence for effects of X-linked imprinted genes. In this study I demonstrate that the differences between Turner females with a maternal X and a paternal X broadly parallel the differences between males and normal females for a large suite of traits, including lipid profile and visceral fat, response to growth hormone, sensorineural hearing loss, congenital heart and kidney malformations, neuroanatomy (sizes of the cerebellum, hippocampus, caudate nuclei and superior temporal gyrus), and aspects of cognition. This pattern indicates that diverse aspects of human sex differences are mediated in part by X-linked genes, via genomic imprinting of such genes, higher rates of mosaicism in Turner females with an intact X chromosome of paternal origin, karyotypic differences between Turner females with a maternal versus paternal X chromosome, or some combination of these phenomena. Determining the relative contributions of genomic imprinting, karyotype and mosaicism to variation in Turner syndrome phenotypes has important implications for both clinical treatment of individuals with this syndrome, and hypotheses for the evolution and development of human sexual dimorphism. PMID:25567727

  19. High frequency of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis detected by a combined approach of microsatellite segregation analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array-based comparative genome hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Jehee, F S; Krepischi-Santos, A C V; Rocha, K M; Cavalcanti, D P; Kim, C A; Bertola, D R; Alonso, L G; D'Angelo, C S; Mazzeu, J F; Froyen, G; Lugtenberg, D; Vianna-Morgante, A M; Rosenberg, C; Passos-Bueno, M R

    2008-07-01

    We present the first comprehensive study, to our knowledge, on genomic chromosomal analysis in syndromic craniosynostosis. In total, 45 patients with craniosynostotic disorders were screened with a variety of methods including conventional karyotype, microsatellite segregation analysis, subtelomeric multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) and whole-genome array-based comparative genome hybridisation. Causative abnormalities were present in 42.2% (19/45) of the samples, and 27.8% (10/36) of the patients with normal conventional karyotype carried submicroscopic imbalances. Our results include a wide variety of imbalances and point to novel chromosomal regions associated with craniosynostosis. The high incidence of pure duplications or trisomies suggests that these are important mechanisms in craniosynostosis, particularly in cases involving the metopic suture.

  20. Multiplex real-time PCR and high-resolution melting analysis for detection of white spot syndrome virus, yellow-head virus, and Penaeus monodon densovirus in penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Panichareon, Benjaporn; Khawsak, Paisarn; Deesukon, Warin; Sukhumsirichart, Wasana

    2011-12-01

    A multiplex real-time PCR and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed to detect simultaneously three of the major viruses of penaeid shrimp including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow-head virus (YHV), and Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV). Plasmids containing DNA/cDNA fragments of WSSV and YHV, and genomic DNAs of PmDNV and normal shrimp were used to test sensitivity of the procedure. Without the need of any probe, the products were identified by HRM analysis after real-time PCR amplification using three sets of viral specific primers. The results showed DNA melting curves that were specific for individual virus. No positive result was detected with nucleic acids from shrimp, Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV), Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), or Taura syndrome virus (TSV). The detection limit for PmDNV, YHV and WSSV DNAs were 40fg, 50fg, and 500fg, respectively, which was 10 times more sensitive than multiplex real-time PCR analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. In viral nucleic acid mixtures, HRM analysis clearly identified each virus in dual and triple infection. To test the capability to use this method in field, forty-one of field samples were examined by HRM analysis in comparison with agarose gel electrophoresis. For HRM analysis, 11 (26.83%), 9 (21.95%), and 4 (9.76%) were infected with WSSV, PmDNV, and YHV, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis detected lesser number of PmDNV infection which may due to the limit of sensitivity. No multiple infection was found in these samples. This method provides a rapid, sensitive, specific, and simultaneous detection of three major viruses making it as a useful tool for diagnosis and epidemiological studies of these viruses in shrimp and carriers.

  1. Multiplex electrical detection of avian influenza and human immunodeficiency virus with an underlap-embedded silicon nanowire field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee-Yeon; Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Moon, Dong-Il; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Sang Yup; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2014-05-15

    The label-free electrical detection of the binding of antibodies and antigens of avian influenza (AI) and human immunodeficiency (HIV) viruses is demonstrated through an underlap-embedded silicon (Si) nanowire field-effect transistor. The proposed sensor was fabricated on a silicon bulk wafer by a top-down process. Specifically, a Si nanowire was fabricated by a combined isotropic and anisotropic patterning technique, which is one route plasma etching process. The sensor was fabricated by a self-aligned process to the gate with tilted implantation, and it allows precise control of the underlap region. This was problematic in earlier underlap field-effect transistors fabricated by a conventional gate-last process. As a sensing metric to detect the binding of a targeted antibody, the transfer characteristic change was traced. Before and after differences between the antibody binding results were caused by changes in the channel potential on the underlap region due to the charge effect arising from the biomolecules; this is also supported by a simulation. Furthermore, the multiplex detection of AI and HIV is demonstrated, showing distinctive selectivity in each case. Thus, the proposed device has inherent benefits for the label-free, electrical, and multiplex detection of biomolecules. Moreover, its processes are compatible with commercialized technology presently used to fabricate semiconductor devices. This advantage is attractive for those involved in the construction of a point-of-care testing (POCT) system on a chip involving simple, low-cost and low-risk fabrication processes of novel structures and materials.

  2. Molecular diagnosis of the human immunodeficiency, Hepatitis B and C viruses among blood donors in Lomé (Togo) by multiplex real time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Assih, Maléki; Feteke, Lochina; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouermi, Djeneba; Djigma, Florencia; Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of multiplex PCR to ELISA technique in the instantaneous detection of HBV, HCV and HIVin blood samples from donors of the National blood Transfusion Centre in Togo. A total of 440 blood samplesfrom volunteer were collected and tested by ELISA and multiplex PCR for HBV, HCV and HIV detection. Among the 440 volunteer blood donors, 83% were female and 17% were male. Age range of 20-29 years was more represented (73%). Whereas, multiplex PCR detected more cases of HBV than ELISA (50% vs 33%, P=0.0155);ELISA more detected HCV than PCR (34% vs 3%, P<0.0001) and HIV (26% vs 7%, P<0.0001). Confirming these observations our data showed that multiplex PCR was more sensitive in the detection of HBV. The sensitivity of ELISA for the detection of HCV and HIV was elevated compared to multiplex PCR. Multiplex PCR was more specific that ELISA for the detection of HCV and HIV.Interestingly, our data showed that the gender do not influenced the sensitivity of either ELISA or multiplex PCR to detect these viruses. This study showed the limit of both ELISA and multiplex PCR in the detection of HBV, HCV and HIV. PMID:28293358

  3. Molecular diagnosis of the human immunodeficiency, Hepatitis B and C viruses among blood donors in Lomé (Togo) by multiplex real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Assih, Maléki; Feteke, Lochina; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouermi, Djeneba; Djigma, Florencia; Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of multiplex PCR to ELISA technique in the instantaneous detection of HBV, HCV and HIVin blood samples from donors of the National blood Transfusion Centre in Togo. A total of 440 blood samplesfrom volunteer were collected and tested by ELISA and multiplex PCR for HBV, HCV and HIV detection. Among the 440 volunteer blood donors, 83% were female and 17% were male. Age range of 20-29 years was more represented (73%). Whereas, multiplex PCR detected more cases of HBV than ELISA (50% vs 33%, P=0.0155);ELISA more detected HCV than PCR (34% vs 3%, P<0.0001) and HIV (26% vs 7%, P<0.0001). Confirming these observations our data showed that multiplex PCR was more sensitive in the detection of HBV. The sensitivity of ELISA for the detection of HCV and HIV was elevated compared to multiplex PCR. Multiplex PCR was more specific that ELISA for the detection of HCV and HIV.Interestingly, our data showed that the gender do not influenced the sensitivity of either ELISA or multiplex PCR to detect these viruses. This study showed the limit of both ELISA and multiplex PCR in the detection of HBV, HCV and HIV.

  4. Multiplex PCR Tests for Detection of Pathogens Associated with Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei; Morrison, Scott; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis A wide range of enteric pathogens can cause infectious gastroenteritis. Conventional diagnostic algorithms including culture, biochemical identification, immunoassay and microscopic examination are time consuming and often lack sensitivity and specificity. Advances in molecular technology have as allowed its use as clinical diagnostic tools. Multiplex PCR based testing has made its way to gastroenterology diagnostic arena in recent years. In this article we present a review of recent laboratory developed multiplex PCR tests and current commercial multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen tests. We will focus on two FDA cleared commercial syndromic multiplex tests: Luminex xTAG GPP and Biofire FimArray GI test. These multiplex tests can detect and identify multiple enteric pathogens in one test and provide results within hours. Multiplex PCR tests have shown superior sensitivity to conventional methods for detection of most pathogens. The high negative predictive value of these multiplex tests has led to the suggestion that they be used as screening tools especially in outbreaks. Although the clinical utility and benefit of multiplex PCR test are to be further investigated, implementing these multiplex PCR tests in gastroenterology diagnostic algorithm has the potential to improve diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis. PMID:26004652

  5. Quantitative Profiling of Protein Tyrosine Kinases in Human Cancer Cell Lines by Multiplexed Parallel Reaction Monitoring Assays*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Lin, De; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Li, Ming; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play key roles in cellular signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, cell division, and cell differentiation. Dysregulation of PTK-activated pathways, often by receptor overexpression, gene amplification, or genetic mutation, is a causal factor underlying numerous cancers. In this study, we have developed a parallel reaction monitoring-based assay for quantitative profiling of 83 PTKs. The assay detects 308 proteotypic peptides from 54 receptor tyrosine kinases and 29 nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in a single run. Quantitative comparisons were based on the labeled reference peptide method. We implemented the assay in four cell models: 1) a comparison of proliferating versus epidermal growth factor-stimulated A431 cells, 2) a comparison of SW480Null (mutant APC) and SW480APC (APC restored) colon tumor cell lines, and 3) a comparison of 10 colorectal cancer cell lines with different genomic abnormalities, and 4) lung cancer cell lines with either susceptibility (11–18) or acquired resistance (11–18R) to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. We observed distinct PTK expression changes that were induced by stimuli, genomic features or drug resistance, which were consistent with previous reports. However, most of the measured expression differences were novel observations. For example, acquired resistance to erlotinib in the 11–18 cell model was associated not only with previously reported up-regulation of MET, but also with up-regulation of FLK2 and down-regulation of LYN and PTK7. Immunoblot analyses and shotgun proteomics data were highly consistent with parallel reaction monitoring data. Multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring assays provide a targeted, systems-level profiling approach to evaluate cancer-related proteotypes and adaptations. Data are available through Proteome eXchange Accession PXD002706. PMID:26631510

  6. Werner and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndromes: mechanistic basis of human progeroid diseases.

    PubMed

    Kudlow, Brian A; Kennedy, Brian K; Monnat, Raymond J

    2007-05-01

    Progeroid syndromes have been the focus of intense research in part because they might provide a window into the pathology of normal ageing. Werner syndrome and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome are two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases. Mutated genes that are associated with these syndromes have been identified, mouse models of disease have been developed, and molecular studies have implicated decreased cell proliferation and altered DNA-damage responses as common causal mechanisms in the pathogenesis of both diseases.

  7. Simple Identification of Human Taenia Species by Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Combination with Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2016-06-01

    For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical.

  8. Weighted multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation.

  9. Weighted Multiplex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J.; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

  10. Inducible, tunable and multiplex human gene regulation using CRISPR-Cpf1-based transcription factors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Targeted and inducible regulation of mammalian gene expression is a broadly important research capability that may also enable development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases. Here we demonstrate that a catalytically inactive RNA-guided CRISPR-Cpf1 nuclease fused to transcriptional activation domains can up-regulate endogenous human gene expression. We engineered drug-inducible Cpf1-based activators and show how this system can be used to tune the regulation of endogenous gene transcription in human cells.

  11. Prevalence and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in Nigerians living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Akinboro, Adeolu Oludayo; Akinyemi, Suliat Omolola; Adepeju, Akinlawon Adetiloye; Akinremi, Oluwaseun Akinsanmi; Alao, Christiana Adeola; Popoola, Adetoun Adedayo

    2012-10-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa bears an inordinate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Reports have shown increased prevalence of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors referred to as metabolic syndrome in treatment-naïve patients and patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In view of the fact that metabolic syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder with substantial variability in the prevalence and component traits within and across populations and the dearth of publications on the prevalence and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Nigeria, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome among an HIV-infected outpatient population using the National Cholesterol Education Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) definitions. We also sought to determine if HAART use and CD4 count level were associated with metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 291 (95 men, 196 women) consecutive PLWHA. Anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile values were determined. The prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome according to the ATP III, IDF, and JIS criteria were 12.7%, 17.2%, and 21.0%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with female gender (all definitions), body mass index (all definitions), increasing age, and CD4 count (IDF definition). There was no significant association between metabolic syndrome and HAART. The concordance [kappa coefficient (κ)] between the definitions of metabolic syndrome varied between 0.583 and 0.878. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied with the criteria used and metabolic syndrome correlates with traditional cardiovascular risk factors rather than HAART-related factors.

  12. Development of Highly Sensitive and Specific mRNA Multiplex System (XCYR1) for Forensic Human Body Fluids and Tissues Identification

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Xie, Jianhui; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Huaigu; Ping, Yuan; Chen, Liankang; Gu, Lihua; Hu, Wei; Bi, Gang; Ge, Jianye; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Ziqin

    2014-01-01

    The identification of human body fluids or tissues through mRNA-based profiling is very useful for forensic investigations. Previous studies have shown mRNA biomarkers are effective to identify the origin of biological samples. In this study, we selected 16 tissue specific biomarkers to evaluate their specificities and sensitivities for human body fluids and tissues identification, including porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), hemoglobin beta (HBB) and Glycophorin A (GLY) for circulatory blood, protamine 2 (PRM2) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) for semen, mucin 4 (MUC4) and human beta defensin 1(HBD1) for vaginal secretion, matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 11 (MMP7 and MMP11) for menstrual blood, keratin 4(KRT4) for oral mucosa, loricrin (LOR) and cystatin 6 (CST6) for skin, histatin 3(HTN3) for saliva, statherin (STATH) for nasal secretion, dermcidin (DCD) for sweat and uromodulin (UMOD) for urine. The above mentioned ten common forensic body fluids or tissues were used in the evaluation. Based on the evaluation, a reverse transcription (RT) PCR multiplex assay, XCYR1, which includes 12 biomarkers (i.e., HBB, GLY, HTN3, PRM2, KRT4, MMP11, MUC4, DCD, UMOD, MMP7, TGM4, and STATH) and 2 housekeeping genes [i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and 18SrRNA], was developed. This assay was further validated with real casework samples and mock samples (with both single source and mixture) and it was approved that XCYR1 is effective to identify common body fluids or tissues (i.e., circulatory blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, menstrual blood, oral mucosa, nasal secretion, sweat and urine) in forensic casework samples. PMID:24991806

  13. Development of highly sensitive and specific mRNA multiplex system (XCYR1) for forensic human body fluids and tissues identification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Xie, Jianhui; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Huaigu; Ping, Yuan; Chen, Liankang; Gu, Lihua; Hu, Wei; Bi, Gang; Ge, Jianye; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Ziqin

    2014-01-01

    The identification of human body fluids or tissues through mRNA-based profiling is very useful for forensic investigations. Previous studies have shown mRNA biomarkers are effective to identify the origin of biological samples. In this study, we selected 16 tissue specific biomarkers to evaluate their specificities and sensitivities for human body fluids and tissues identification, including porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), hemoglobin beta (HBB) and Glycophorin A (GLY) for circulatory blood, protamine 2 (PRM2) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) for semen, mucin 4 (MUC4) and human beta defensin 1(HBD1) for vaginal secretion, matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 11 (MMP7 and MMP11) for menstrual blood, keratin 4(KRT4) for oral mucosa, loricrin (LOR) and cystatin 6 (CST6) for skin, histatin 3(HTN3) for saliva, statherin (STATH) for nasal secretion, dermcidin (DCD) for sweat and uromodulin (UMOD) for urine. The above mentioned ten common forensic body fluids or tissues were used in the evaluation. Based on the evaluation, a reverse transcription (RT) PCR multiplex assay, XCYR1, which includes 12 biomarkers (i.e., HBB, GLY, HTN3, PRM2, KRT4, MMP11, MUC4, DCD, UMOD, MMP7, TGM4, and STATH) and 2 housekeeping genes [i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and 18SrRNA], was developed. This assay was further validated with real casework samples and mock samples (with both single source and mixture) and it was approved that XCYR1 is effective to identify common body fluids or tissues (i.e., circulatory blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, menstrual blood, oral mucosa, nasal secretion, sweat and urine) in forensic casework samples.

  14. A quasi-quantitative dual multiplexed immunoblot method to simultaneously analyze ATM and H2AX Phosphorylation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Bakkenist, Christopher J.; Czambel, R. Kenneth; Hershberger, Pamela A.; Tawbi, Hussein; Beumer, Jan H.; Schmitz, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacologic inhibition of DNA repair may increase the efficacy of many cytotoxic cancer agents. Inhibitors of DNA repair enzymes including APE1, ATM, ATR, DNA-PK and PARP have been developed and the PARP inhibitor olaparib is the first-in-class approved in Europe and the USA for the treatment of advanced BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer. Sensitive pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of inhibitors of DNA repair enzymes in clinical trials. ATM is a protein kinase that mediates cell-cycle checkpoint activation and DNA double-strand break repair. ATM kinase activation at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is associated with intermolecular autophosphorylation on serine-1981. Exquisite sensitivity and high stoichiometry as well as facile extraction suggest that ATM serine-1981 phosphorylation may be a highly dynamic PD biomarker for both ATM kinase inhibitors and radiation- and chemotherapy-induced DSBs. Here we report the pre-clinical analytical validation and fit-for-purpose biomarker method validation of a quasi-quantitative dual multiplexed immunoblot method to simultaneously analyze ATM and H2AX phosphorylation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We explore the dynamics of these phosphorylations in PBMCs exposed to chemotherapeutic agents and DNA repair inhibitors in vitro, and show that ATM serine-1981 phosphorylation is increased in PBMCs in sarcoma patients treated with DNA damaging chemotherapy. PMID:26097887

  15. Multiplexed color-coded probe-based gene expression assessment for clinical molecular diagnostics in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human renal allograft tissue.

    PubMed

    Adam, Benjamin; Afzali, Bahman; Dominy, Katherine M; Chapman, Erin; Gill, Reeda; Hidalgo, Luis G; Roufosse, Candice; Sis, Banu; Mengel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Histopathologic diagnoses in transplantation can be improved with molecular testing. Preferably, molecular diagnostics should fit into standard-of-care workflows for transplant biopsies, that is, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) processing. The NanoString(®) gene expression platform has recently been shown to work with FFPE samples. We aimed to evaluate its methodological robustness and feasibility for gene expression studies in human FFPE renal allograft samples. A literature-derived antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) 34-gene set, comprised of endothelial, NK cell, and inflammation transcripts, was analyzed in different retrospective biopsy cohorts and showed potential to molecularly discriminate ABMR cases, including FFPE samples. NanoString(®) results were reproducible across a range of RNA input quantities (r = 0.998), with different operators (r = 0.998), and between different reagent lots (r = 0.983). There was moderate correlation between NanoString(®) with FFPE tissue and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with corresponding dedicated fresh-stabilized tissue (r = 0.487). Better overall correlation with histology was observed with NanoString(®) (r = 0.354) than with qRT-PCR (r = 0.146). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of multiplexed gene expression quantification from FFPE renal allograft tissue. This represents a method for prospective and retrospective validation of molecular diagnostics and its adoption in clinical transplantation pathology.

  16. Multiplex genotyping assays for fine-resolution subtyping of the major human Y-chromosome haplogroups E, G, I, J, and R in anthropological, genealogical, and forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    van Oven, Mannis; Toscani, Kimberley; van den Tempel, Nathalie; Ralf, Arwin; Kayser, Manfred

    2013-11-01

    Inherited DNA polymorphisms located within the nonrecombing portion of the human Y chromosome provide a powerful means of tracking the patrilineal ancestry of male individuals. Recently, we introduced an efficient genotyping method for the detection of the basal Y-chromosome haplogroups A to T, as well as an additional method for the dissection of haplogroup O into its sublineages. To further extend the use of the Y chromosome as an evolutionary marker, we here introduce a set of genotyping assays for fine-resolution subtyping of haplogroups E, G, I, J, and R, which make up the bulk of Western Eurasian and African Y chromosomes. The marker selection includes a total of 107 carefully selected bi-allelic polymorphisms that were divided into eight hierarchically organized multiplex assays (two for haplogroup E, one for I, one for J, one for G, and three for R) based on the single-base primer extension (SNaPshot) technology. Not only does our method allow for enhanced Y-chromosome lineage discrimination, the more restricted geographic distribution of the subhaplogroups covered also enables more fine-scaled estimations of patrilineal bio-geographic origin. Supplementing our previous method for basal Y-haplogroup detection, the currently introduced assays are thus expected to be of major relevance for future DNA studies targeting male-specific ancestry for forensic, anthropological, and genealogical purposes. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A quasi-quantitative dual multiplexed immunoblot method to simultaneously analyze ATM and H2AX Phosphorylation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Bakkenist, Christopher J; Czambel, R Kenneth; Hershberger, Pamela A; Tawbi, Hussein; Beumer, Jan H; Schmitz, John C

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacologic inhibition of DNA repair may increase the efficacy of many cytotoxic cancer agents. Inhibitors of DNA repair enzymes including APE1, ATM, ATR, DNA-PK and PARP have been developed and the PARP inhibitor olaparib is the first-in-class approved in Europe and the USA for the treatment of advanced BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer. Sensitive pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of inhibitors of DNA repair enzymes in clinical trials. ATM is a protein kinase that mediates cell-cycle checkpoint activation and DNA double-strand break repair. ATM kinase activation at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is associated with intermolecular autophosphorylation on serine-1981. Exquisite sensitivity and high stoichiometry as well as facile extraction suggest that ATM serine-1981 phosphorylation may be a highly dynamic PD biomarker for both ATM kinase inhibitors and radiation- and chemotherapy-induced DSBs. Here we report the pre-clinical analytical validation and fit-for-purpose biomarker method validation of a quasi-quantitative dual multiplexed immunoblot method to simultaneously analyze ATM and H2AX phosphorylation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We explore the dynamics of these phosphorylations in PBMCs exposed to chemotherapeutic agents and DNA repair inhibitors in vitro, and show that ATM serine-1981 phosphorylation is increased in PBMCs in sarcoma patients treated with DNA damaging chemotherapy.

  18. Detection and identification of human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4 in clinical samples of pediatric patients by multiplex reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, J C; Pérez-Breña, M P; García, M L; Cruz, N; Erdman, D D; Echevarría, J E

    2000-03-01

    We describe a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (m-RT-PCR) assay that is able to detect and differentiate all known human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs). Serial dilution experiments with reference strains that compared cell culture isolation and m-RT-PCR showed sensitivities ranging from 0.0004 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) for HPIV type 4B (HPIV-4B) to 32 TCID(50)s for HPIV-3. As few as 10 plasmids containing HPIV PCR products could be detected in all cases. When 201 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens from pediatric patients hospitalized for lower respiratory illness were tested, m-RT-PCR assay detected 64 HPIVs (24 HPIV-3, 23 HPIV-1, 10 HPIV-4, and 7 HPIV-2), while only 42 of them (21 HPIV-1, 14 HPIV-3, 6 HPIV-2, and 1 HPIV-4 isolates) grew in cell culture. Our m-RT-PCR assay was more sensitive than either cell culture isolation or indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies for the detection of HPIV infections. Also, HPIV-4 was more frequently detected than HPIV-2 in this study, suggesting that it may have been underestimated as a lower respiratory tract pathogen because of the insensitivity of cell culture.

  19. Multiplex PageRank.

    PubMed

    Halu, Arda; Mondragón, Raúl J; Panzarasa, Pietro; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.

  20. Multiplexity and multireciprocity in directed multiplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmetto, Valerio; Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Real-world multilayer networks feature nontrivial dependencies among links of different layers. Here we argue that if links are directed, then dependencies are twofold. Besides the ordinary tendency of links of different layers to align as the result of "multiplexity," there is also a tendency to antialign as a result of what we call "multireciprocity," i.e., the fact that links in one layer can be reciprocated by opposite links in a different layer. Multireciprocity generalizes the scalar definition of single-layer reciprocity to that of a square matrix involving all pairs of layers. We introduce multiplexity and multireciprocity matrices for both binary and weighted multiplexes and validate their statistical significance against maximum-entropy null models that filter out the effects of node heterogeneity. We then perform a detailed empirical analysis of the world trade multiplex (WTM), representing the import-export relationships between world countries in different commodities. We show that the WTM exhibits strong multiplexity and multireciprocity, an effect which is, however, largely encoded into the degree or strength sequences of individual layers. The residual effects are still significant and allow us to classify pairs of commodities according to their tendency to be traded together in the same direction and/or in opposite ones. We also find that the multireciprocity of the WTM is significantly lower than the usual reciprocity measured on the aggregate network. Moreover, layers with low (high) internal reciprocity are embedded within sets of layers with comparably low (high) mutual multireciprocity. This suggests that, in the WTM, reciprocity is inherent to groups of related commodities rather than to individual commodities. We discuss the implications for international trade research focusing on product taxonomies, the product space, and fitness and complexity metrics.

  1. Comparison of a Multiplexed Fluorescent Covalent Microsphere Immunoassay and an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Measurement of Human Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Anthrax Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Raymond E.; Sammons, Deborah L.; Smith, Jerome P.; MacKenzie, Barbara A.; Striley, Cynthia A. F.; Semenova, Vera; Steward-Clark, Evelen; Stamey, Karen; Freeman, Alison E.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Snawder, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an accurate, sensitive, specific, reproducible, and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in human serum (C. P. Quinn, V. A. Semenova, C. M. Elie et al., Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:1103-1110, 2002). The ELISA had a minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of 0.06 μg/ml, which, when dilution adjusted, yielded a whole-serum MDC of 3.0 μg of anti-PA IgG per ml. The reliable detection limit (RDL) was 0.09 μg/ml, while the dynamic range was 0.06 to 1.7 μg/ml. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 97.6% and the diagnostic specificity was 94.2% for clinically verified cases of anthrax. A competitive inhibition anti-PA IgG ELISA was also developed to enhance the diagnostic specificity to 100%. We report a newly developed fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay (FCMIA) for B. anthracis PA which was Luminex xMap technology. The FCMIA MDC was 0.006 μg of anti-PA IgG per ml, the RDL was 0.016 μg/ml, and the whole-serum equivalent MDC was 1.5 μg/ml. The dynamic range was 0.006 to 6.8 μg/ml. Using this system, we analyzed 20 serum samples for anti-PA IgG and compared our results to those measured by ELISA in a double-masked analysis. The two methods had a high positive correlation (r2 = 0.852; P < 0.001). The FCMIA appears to have benefits over the ELISA for the measurement of anti-PA IgG, including greater sensitivity and speed, enhanced dynamic range and reagent stability, the use of smaller sample volumes, and the ability to be multiplexed (measurement of more than one analyte simultaneously), as evidenced by the multiplexed measurement in the present report of anti-PA and anti-lethal factor IgG in serum from a confirmed clinical anthrax infection. PMID:14715544

  2. Correction of Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome aneuploidies in human cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Tomokazu; Jeffries, Emiko; Amano, Misa; Ko, Akihiro C.; Yu, Hong; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes, has previously been considered irremediable. Here, we report findings that euploid cells increased among cultured aneuploid cells after exposure to the protein ZSCAN4, encoded by a mammalian-specific gene that is ordinarily expressed in preimplantation embryos and occasionally in stem cells. For footprint-free delivery of ZSCAN4 to cells, we developed ZSCAN4 synthetic mRNAs and Sendai virus vectors that encode human ZSCAN4. Applying the ZSCAN4 biologics to established cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells, most of which had become aneuploid and polyploid, dramatically increased the number of euploid cells within a few days. We then tested the biologics on non-immortalized primary human fibroblast cells derived from four individuals with Down syndrome—the most frequent autosomal trisomy of chromosome 21. Within weeks after ZSCAN4 application to the cells in culture, fluorescent in situ hybridization with a chromosome 21-specific probe detected the emergence of up to 24% of cells with only two rather than three copies. High-resolution G-banded chromosomes further showed up to 40% of cells with a normal karyotype. These findings were confirmed by whole-exome sequencing. Similar results were obtained for cells with the trisomy 18 of Edwards syndrome. Thus a direct, efficient correction of aneuploidy in human fibroblast cells seems possible in vitro using human ZSCAN4. PMID:26324424

  3. Correction of Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome aneuploidies in human cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tomokazu; Jeffries, Emiko; Amano, Misa; Ko, Akihiro C; Yu, Hong; Ko, Minoru S H

    2015-10-01

    Aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes, has previously been considered irremediable. Here, we report findings that euploid cells increased among cultured aneuploid cells after exposure to the protein ZSCAN4, encoded by a mammalian-specific gene that is ordinarily expressed in preimplantation embryos and occasionally in stem cells. For footprint-free delivery of ZSCAN4 to cells, we developed ZSCAN4 synthetic mRNAs and Sendai virus vectors that encode human ZSCAN4. Applying the ZSCAN4 biologics to established cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells, most of which had become aneuploid and polyploid, dramatically increased the number of euploid cells within a few days. We then tested the biologics on non-immortalized primary human fibroblast cells derived from four individuals with Down syndrome—the most frequent autosomal trisomy of chromosome 21. Within weeks after ZSCAN4 application to the cells in culture, fluorescent in situ hybridization with a chromosome 21-specific probe detected the emergence of up to 24% of cells with only two rather than three copies. High-resolution G-banded chromosomes further showed up to 40% of cells with a normal karyotype. These findings were confirmed by whole-exome sequencing. Similar results were obtained for cells with the trisomy 18 of Edwards syndrome. Thus a direct, efficient correction of aneuploidy in human fibroblast cells seems possible in vitro using human ZSCAN4.

  4. Accelerated aging syndromes, are they relevant to normal human aging?

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Oliver; Stewart, Colin L

    2011-09-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGPS) and Werner syndromes are diseases that clinically resemble some aspects of accelerated aging. HGPS is caused by mutations in theLMNA gene resulting in post-translational processing defects that trigger Progeria in children. Werner syndrome, arising from mutations in the WRN helicase gene, causes premature aging in young adults. What are the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these disorders and what aspects of the diseases resemble physiological human aging? Much of what we know stems from the study of patient derived fibroblasts with both mutations resulting in increased DNA damage, primarily at telomeres. However, in vivo patients with Werner's develop arteriosclerosis, among other pathologies. In HGPS patients, including iPS derived cells from HGPS patients, as well as some mouse models for Progeria, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) appears to be among the most severely affected tissues. Defective Lamin processing, associated with DNA damage, is present in VSM from old individuals, indicating processing defects may be a factor in normal aging. Whether persistent DNA damage, particularly at telomeres, is the root cause for these pathologies remains to be established, since not all progeroid Lmna mutations result in DNA damage and genome instability.

  5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Nevada.

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, J. Q.; Semiatin, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    We summarize information from three sets of epidemiologic data: the Nevada AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] Surveillance System, which contains information about every case identified within the state boundaries through September 1989; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence reporting systems, which currently include data on all HIV-positive reports submitted statewide to public health authorities; and surveys on the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Nevadans concerning HIV-related disease. The Nevada State AIDS Task Force outlined major policy recommendations, nearly half of which concerned testing; only 2 dealt with preventing HIV transmission. Greater efforts should go into education, particularly directed toward groups at greatest risk of exposure to HIV, and to improve community-based care of infected persons. PMID:2024509

  6. Human Quadrupeds, Primate Quadrupedalism, and Uner Tan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Liza J.; Cole, Whitney G.; Young, Jesse W.; Raichlen, David A.; Robinson, Scott R.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005, an extensive literature documents individuals from several families afflicted with “Uner Tan Syndrome (UTS),” a condition that in its most extreme form is characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia, loss of balance and coordination, impaired cognitive abilities, and habitual quadrupedal gait on hands and feet. Some researchers have interpreted habitual use of quadrupedalism by these individuals from an evolutionary perspective, suggesting that it represents an atavistic expression of our quadrupedal primate ancestry or “devolution.” In support of this idea, individuals with “UTS” are said to use diagonal sequence quadrupedalism, a type of quadrupedal gait that distinguishes primates from most other mammals. Although the use of primate-like quadrupedal gait in humans would not be sufficient to support the conclusion of evolutionary “reversal,” no quantitative gait analyses were presented to support this claim. Using standard gait analysis of 518 quadrupedal strides from video sequences of individuals with “UTS”, we found that these humans almost exclusively used lateral sequence–not diagonal sequence–quadrupedal gaits. The quadrupedal gait of these individuals has therefore been erroneously described as primate-like, further weakening the “devolution” hypothesis. In fact, the quadrupedalism exhibited by individuals with UTS resembles that of healthy adult humans asked to walk quadrupedally in an experimental setting. We conclude that quadrupedalism in healthy adults or those with a physical disability can be explained using biomechanical principles rather than evolutionary assumptions. PMID:25029457

  7. A multiplexed chip-based assay system for investigating the functional development of human skeletal myotubes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Smith, A S T; Long, C J; Pirozzi, K; Najjar, S; McAleer, C; Vandenburgh, H H; Hickman, J J

    2014-09-20

    This report details the development of a non-invasive in vitro assay system for investigating the functional maturation and performance of human skeletal myotubes. Data is presented demonstrating the survival and differentiation of human myotubes on microscale silicon cantilevers in a defined, serum-free system. These cultures can be stimulated electrically and the resulting contraction quantified using modified atomic force microscopy technology. This system provides a higher degree of sensitivity for investigating contractile waveforms than video-based analysis, and represents the first system capable of measuring the contractile activity of individual human muscle myotubes in a reliable, high-throughput and non-invasive manner. The development of such a technique is critical for the advancement of body-on-a-chip platforms toward application in pre-clinical drug development screens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiplex gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, Jose R.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the multiplex gas chromatography (GC) technique, which is a possible candidate for chemical analysis of planetary atmospheres, are discussed. Particular attention is given to the chemical modulators developed by present investigators for multiplex GC, namely, the thermal-desorption, thermal-decomposition, and catalytic modulators, as well as to mechanical modulators. The basic technique of multiplex GC using chemical modulators and a mechanical modulator is demonstrated. It is shown that, with the chemical modulators, only one gas stream consisting of the carrier in combination with the components is being analyzed, resulting in a simplified instrument that requires relatively few consumables. The mechanical modulator demonstrated a direct application of multiplex GC for the analysis of gases in atmosphere of Titan at very low pressures.

  9. Multiplexed Engineering in Biology.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jameson K; Church, George M

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology is the manufacturing technology of the future. However, engineering biology is complex, and many possible genetic designs must be evaluated to find cells that produce high levels of a desired drug or chemical. Recent advances have enabled the design and construction of billions of genetic variants per day, but evaluation capacity remains limited to thousands of variants per day. Here we evaluate biological engineering through the lens of the design–build–test cycle framework and highlight the role that multiplexing has had in transforming the design and build steps. We describe a multiplexed solution to the ‘test’ step that is enabled by new research. Achieving a multiplexed test step will permit a fully multiplexed engineering cycle and boost the throughput of biobased product development by up to a millionfold.

  10. Microfluidic multiplexing in bioanalyses.

    PubMed

    Araz, M Kursad; Tentori, Augusto M; Herr, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    The importance of biological assays spans from clinical diagnostics to environmental monitoring. Simultaneous detection of multiple analytes enhances the efficacy of bioassays by providing more data per assay under standardized conditions. Nevertheless, simultaneous handling and assaying of multiple samples, targets, and experimental conditions can be laborious, reagent consuming, and time intensive. Given these demands, microfluidic platforms have emerged over the past two decades as well-suited approaches for multiplexed assays. Microfluidic design supports integration of assay steps and reproducible sample manipulation across large sets of conditions--all relevant to multiplexed assays. Taken together, reduced reagent consumption, faster assay times, and potential for automation stemming from microfluidic assay design are attractive and needed multiplexed assay performance attributes. This review highlights recent advances in multiplexed bioanalyses benefitting from microfluidic integration.

  11. Multiplex gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, Jose R.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the multiplex gas chromatography (GC) technique, which is a possible candidate for chemical analysis of planetary atmospheres, are discussed. Particular attention is given to the chemical modulators developed by present investigators for multiplex GC, namely, the thermal-desorption, thermal-decomposition, and catalytic modulators, as well as to mechanical modulators. The basic technique of multiplex GC using chemical modulators and a mechanical modulator is demonstrated. It is shown that, with the chemical modulators, only one gas stream consisting of the carrier in combination with the components is being analyzed, resulting in a simplified instrument that requires relatively few consumables. The mechanical modulator demonstrated a direct application of multiplex GC for the analysis of gases in atmosphere of Titan at very low pressures.

  12. Multiplex television transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

  13. Development of a set of multiplex PCRs for detection of genes encoding cell wall-associated proteins in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs, humans and the environment.

    PubMed

    Phumthanakorn, Nathita; Chanchaithong, Pattrarat; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2017-11-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius commonly colonizes the skin of dogs, whilst nasal carriage may occur in humans who are in contact with dogs or the environment of veterinary hospitals. Genes encoding cell wall-associated (CWA) proteins have been described in Staphylococcus aureus but knowledge of their occurrence in S. pseudintermedius is still limited. The aim of the study was to develop a method to detect S. pseudintermedius surface protein genes (sps) encoding CWA proteins, and to examine the distribution of the genes in isolates from different sources. Four multiplex PCR assays (mPCR) were developed for detection of 18 sps genes, with 4-5 genes detected per mPCR. These were applied to 135 S. pseudintermedius isolates from carriage sites (n=35) and infected sites (n=35) in dogs, from the nasal cavity of humans (n=25), and from the environment of a veterinary hospital (n=40). The mPCRs were shown to detect all 18 known sps genes, and no discrepancies were found between uniplex and mPCR results. The mPCRs could detect at least 1pg/μl of DNA template. A total of 23 sps gene profiles were found among the 135 isolates, with diverse gene combinations. Only spsD, spsF, spsI, spsO, spsP, and spsQ were not detected in all isolates. spsP and spsQ were more frequently detected in the canine isolates from infected sites than from carriage sites. This finding suggests that these two genes may play a role in pathogenicity, whereas the presence of the 12 sps genes may contribute to adherence function at all surfaces where carriage occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization and Validation of a Multiplex, Electrochemiluminescence-Based Detection Assay for the Quantitation of Immunoglobulin G Serotype-Specific Antipneumococcal Antibodies in Human Serum▿

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Rocio D.; Puchalski, Derek; Miller, Pamela; Antonello, Joseph; Hammond, Olivia; Green, Tina; Rubinstein, Leonard J.; Caulfield, Michael J.; Sikkema, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Pneumovax 23 consists of a mixture of highly purified capsular polysaccharides (Ps) from 23 of the most prevalent serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Testing of vaccine immunogenicity has been historically performed on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) platform, validated to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to all 23 serotypes included in Pneumovax 23. In order to significantly improve the throughput of this form of testing, we have developed and validated a direct binding electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based multiplex assay that can measure the antibody response in human serum to eight serotypes within a single microtiter well. The pneumococcal (Pn) ECL assay is based on the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) technology which utilizes a Sulfo-Tag-labeled anti-human IgG antibody that emits light upon electrochemical stimulation. The Pn ECL assay exhibits a wide dynamic range and provides the ability to read concentrations down to the minimum reported concentration in the Merck ELISA (0.1 μg/ml). Cross-reactivity assessment using type-specific monoclonal antibodies showed no cross talk between antigen spots within a well. By use of the WHO Pn sample reference panel, the results obtained with the Pn ECL assay were compared to the results obtained with the international Pn ELISA. The results for the Pn ECL assay satisfied the WHO-recommended acceptance criterion for concordance for all seven serotypes with published Pn ELISA values, and the overall correlation (r value) across the seven serotypes was 0.994. The MSD methodology has great potential to be extremely useful for simultaneously quantitating IgG responses to several Pn serotypes while conserving serum volumes and laboratory testing time. PMID:19158284

  15. Downlink data multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, S. Douglas (Inventor); Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Romero, Denise M. (Inventor); Koudelka, Robert David (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A data multiplexer that accommodates both industry standard CCSDS data packets and bits streams and standard IEEE 1394 data is described. The multiplexer provides a statistical allotment of bandwidth to the channels in turn, preferably four, but expandable in increments of four up to sixteen. A microcontroller determines bandwidth requested by the plurality of channels, as well as the bandwidth available, and meters out the available bandwidth on a statistical basis employing flow control to the input channels.

  16. Multiplexed chirp waveform synthesizer

    DOEpatents

    Dudley, Peter A.; Tise, Bert L.

    2003-09-02

    A synthesizer for generating a desired chirp signal has M parallel channels, where M is an integer greater than 1, each channel including a chirp waveform synthesizer generating at an output a portion of a digital representation of the desired chirp signal; and a multiplexer for multiplexing the M outputs to create a digital representation of the desired chirp signal. Preferably, each channel receives input information that is a function of information representing the desired chirp signal.

  17. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identifi cation and Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Maria R; Dobreva, Elina G; Ivanova, Katucha I; Asseva, Galina D; Ivanov, Ivan N; Petrov, Peter K; Velev, Valeri R; Tomova, Ivelina I; Tiholova, Maida M; Kantardjiev, Todor V

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causative agents of gastrointestinal infections in humans. The most frequently isolated strains of this bacterial genus are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. To date, genetic methods for bacterial identification have not been used in Bulgaria. We optimized the multiplex PSR assay to identify Campylobacter spp. and differentiate C. jejuni from C. coli in clinical isolates. We also compared this method with the routinely used biochemical methods. To identify Campylobacter spp. and discriminate C. coli from C. jejuni in clinical isolates using multiplex PCR assay. Between February 2014 and January 2015 we studied 93 stool samples taken from patients with diarrheal syndrome and identified 40 species of Campylobacter spp. in them. The clinical material was cultured in microaerophilic atmosphere, the isolated strains being biochemically diff erentiated (hydrolysis of sodium hippurate for C. jejuni, and hydrolysis of indoxyl acetate for C. coli). DNA was isolated from the strains using QiaAmp MiniKit (QIAGEN, Germany). Twenty strains were tested with multiplex PCR for the presence of these genes: cadF, characteristic for Campylobacter spp., hipO for C. jejuni and asp for C. coli. The biochemical tests identified 16 strains of C. jejuni, 3 strains of C. coli, and 1 strain of C. upsaliensis. After the multiplex PCR assay the capillary gel electrophoresis confirmed 16 strains of C. jejuni, 2 strains of C. coli and 2 strains of Campylobacter spp. - because of the presence of the gene cadF. C. jejuni has the gene hipO, and it is possible that this gene may not be expressed in the biochemical differentiation yielding a negative reaction as a result. In comparison, we can conclude that the genetic differentiation is a more accurate method than the biochemical tests. The multiplex PCR assay is a fast, accurate method for identifi cation of Campylobacter spp. which makes it quite necessary in the clinical diagnostic practice.

  18. Compact spatial multiplexers for mode division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haoshuo; van Uden, Roy; Okonkwo, Chigo; Koonen, Ton

    2014-12-29

    Spatial multiplexer (SMUX) for mode division multiplexing (MDM) has evolved from mode-selective excitation, multiple-spot and photonic-lantern based solutions in order to minimize both mode-dependent loss (MDL) and coupler insertion loss (CIL). This paper discusses the implementation of all the three solutions by compact components in a small footprint. Moreover, the compact SMUX can be manufactured in mass production and packaged to assure high reliability. First, push-pull scheme and center launch based SMUXes are demonstrated on two mostly-popular photonic integration platforms: Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and Indium Phosphide (InP) for selectively exciting LP01 and LP11 modes. 2-dimensional (2D) top-coupling by using vertical emitters is explored to provide a coupling interface between a few-mode fiber (FMF) and the photonic integrated SMUX. SOI-based grating couplers and InP-based 45° vertical mirrors are proposed and researched as vertical emitters in each platform. Second, a 3-spot SMUX is realized on an InP-based circuit through employing 45° vertical mirrors. Third, as a newly-emerging photonic integration platform, laser-inscribed 3D waveguide (3DW) technology is applied for a fully-packaged dual-channel 6-mode SMUX including two 6-core photonic lantern structures as mode multiplexer and demultiplexer, respectively.

  19. The sequence of human chromosome 21 and implications for research into Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Katheleen; Davisson, Muriel

    2000-01-01

    The recent completion of the DNA sequence of human chromosome 21 has provided the first look at the 225 genes that are candidates for involvement in Down syndrome (trisomy 21). A broad functional classification of these genes, their expression data and evolutionary conservation, and comparison with the gene content of the major mouse models of Down syndrome, suggest how the chromosome sequence may help in understanding the complex Down syndrome phenotype. PMID:11178230

  20. Human papillomavirus multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay for the assessment of viral load, integration, and gain of telomerase-related genes in cervical malignancies.

    PubMed

    Theelen, Wendy; Litjens, Rogier J N T M; Vinokurova, Svetlana; Haesevoets, Annick; Reijans, Martin; Simons, Guus; Smedts, Frank; Herrington, C Simon; Ramaekers, Frans C S; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Hopman, Anton H N

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the reliability of a novel multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay in detecting integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) based on the viral E2/E6 copy number ratio in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical lesions. The MLPA results were compared with those of amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts for RNA, detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences for DNA, and HPV fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). DNA was isolated from 41 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded HPV-positive cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 lesions, squamous cell carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas) for MLPA analysis. From 13 matching frozen samples, DNA and RNA were isolated for the detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences and/or the amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts, respectively. Integrated HPV16, HPV18, or both were identified. The MLPA assay detected viral integration in 12 of these 13 cases, and episomal copies also were detected in 7 cases. In 20 of the 24 cases with exclusive viral integration or episomal viral copies as detected by FISH, MLPA confirmed the physical status of the virus. In the cases classified as mixed by FISH, the presence of excess episomal copies complicated the recognition of viral integration by MLPA. Furthermore, the feasibility of detecting gain of the telomerase genes with the HPV MLPA assay was evaluated. The MLPA confirmed the FISH data in 12 of 13 cases in which the status of copy number gain for telomerase RNA component was known. In conclusion, the HPV MLPA assay can be performed on routinely processed cervical lesions for the detection of viral load and HPV integration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a Multiplex PCR Test with Automated Genotyping Targeting E7 for Detection of Six High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Paes, Eliana Ferreira; de Assis, Angela Maria; Teixeira, Cirbia S Campos; Aoki, Francisco Hideo; Teixeira, Julio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) and viral detection tests aid in the diagnosis of precursor lesions. In the present study, a molecular test for detection of high-risk HPV DNA, called E7-HPV, was standardized and assessed in samples from women with pre-cancerous lesions. The development of the E7-HPV test for detection and genotyping of six high-risk HPV (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45 and 52), consisted of evaluating primer quality and adjusting the multiplex PCR conditions. Primer design was based on the E7 region of each HPV, and the fluorochrome 6-FAM was added to PCR primers. Viral detection was performed by capillary electrophoresis in automated sequencer in samples obtained from 60 women (55 with ASC-H/HSIL cytology) from August to September 2013. A non-inferiority analysis was conducted with the cobas HPV test as a reference and following international guidelines for the development of new tests. The two tests had a high concordance rate in HPV16 detection (kappa=0.972), with only one discordant case (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, negative with cobas and positive for HPV16 by E7-HPV) and complete agreement in HPV18 detection. When comparing detection of all high-risk HPV, three cases were positive with cobas but negative with E7-HPV, and another three cases were negative with cobas but positive with E7-HPV (HPV16, 31 and 52). When we evaluate the cases initially suspected by cytology, the two tests had the same sensitivity in detection CIN2 or worse. In conclusion, the E7-HPV test has satisfactory initial results, and its development can be continued.

  2. Human herpesvirus 6 involvement in paediatric drug hypersensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, J; Abuabara, K; Perman, M J; Yan, A C

    2015-04-01

    Human herpesvirus (HHV)6 positivity in the context of drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) may influence disease severity. Systemic corticosteroid treatment of those with DHS testing positive for HHV6 has been speculated to prolong the duration of disease. To evaluate whether paediatric HHV6-positive patients with DHS develop a more severe illness than those without presumed reactivation, and to evaluate the response to systemic corticosteroid treatment. A retrospective case series of 29 paediatric inpatients treated for DHS and tested for HHV6 was undertaken. HHV6-positive and -negative patients were identified and stratified into groups treated or not treated with systemic corticosteroids to examine their disease severity on the basis of hospital length of stay (LOS), total number of febrile days (Tfeb) and days until cessation of progression (CTP). Human herpesvirus6-positive patients had similar demographic characteristics to those of HHV6-negative patients, but had significantly longer hospital LOS (11·5 days vs. 5 days, P = 0·039), Tfeb (12·5 days vs. 3 days, P = 0·032) and CTP (4 days vs. 2 days, P = 0·014). All HHV6-positive patients and most (80%) of the HHV6-negative patients received systemic corticosteroids. Among the HHV6-negative patients, those who received corticosteroids showed significantly shorter CTP than those who did not (3 days vs. 2 days, P = 0·043). Additionally, there was a trend towards shorter hospital LOS and Tfeb among HHV6-negative patients who received corticosteroids vs. those who did not, although these differences were not statistically significant. The most common inciting drugs included trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (34%), phenytoin (10%) and amoxicillin (10%). Human herpesvirus6 positivity with DHS is associated with a more severe disease course. Treatment with systemic corticosteroids was associated with a trend towards reduced hospital LOS and Tfeb, and a significantly reduced number of days until cessation of

  3. Preliminary study of visual effect of multiplex hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Huaiping; Xiong, Bingheng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xueguo

    2004-06-01

    The process of any movement of real object can be recorded and displayed by a multiplex holographic stereogram. An embossing multiplex holographic stereogram and a multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram have been made by us, the multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram reconstructs the dynamic 2D line drawing of speech organs, the embossing multiplex holographic stereogram reconstructs the process of an old man drinking water. In this paper, we studied the visual result of an embossing multiplex holographic stereogram made with 80 films of 2-D pictures. Forty-eight persons of aged from 13 to 67 were asked to see the hologram and then to answer some questions about the feeling of viewing. The results indicate that this kind of holograms could be accepted by human visual sense organ without any problem. This paper also discusses visual effect of the multiplex holography stereograms base on visual perceptual psychology. It is open out that the planar multiplex holograms can be recorded and present the movement of real animal and object. Not only have the human visual perceptual constancy for shape, just as that size, color, etc... but also have visual perceptual constancy for binocular parallax.

  4. Simultaneous Detection of Multiplex-Amplified Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA, Hepatitis C Virus RNA, and Hepatitis B Virus DNA Using a Flow Cytometer Microsphere-Based Hybridization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Defoort, J.-P.; Martin, M.; Casano, B.; Prato, S.; Camilla, C.; Fert, V.

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of performing a multiplex assay for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNAs and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is demonstrated. This assay is based (i) on the coamplification of a 142-bp fragment from the gag region of the HIV-1 genome and a 142-bp HIV-1 quantitation standard fragment, a 244-bp fragment from the 5′ noncoding region of the HCV genome, and a 104-bp fragment from the pre-C and C gene regions of the HBV genome, using three sets of specific primers; (ii) on the capacity of these four biotinylated PCR products to hybridize to their specific oligonucleotide probe-coated microspheres; and (iii) on the ability of the flow cytometer to discriminate between distinct fluorescent-microsphere categories. Absence of cross-hybridization between the unrelated oligonucleotide probes and PCR products generated by the multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and the highly sensitive detection method allowed us to assess unambiguously the HIV-1 viral load and the infectious status of 35 serologically well-established clinical samples and 20 seronegative blood donor plasma samples tested. The results indicate that multiplex RT-PCR and flow cytometer microsphere-based hybridization assays, when combined, provide a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for the quantitation and detection of the major viral agents of infectious diseases in a single plasma sample. PMID:10698998

  5. Multiplexing of volume holographic wavelet correlation processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wenyi; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan; Wu, Minxian; He, Qingsheng

    2000-03-01

    Volume holographic associative memory in a photorefractive crystal provides an inherent mechanism to develop a multi-channel correlation identification system with high parallelism. Wavelet transform is introduced to improve discrimination of the system. We first investigate parameters of the system for parallelism enhancement, and then study multiplexing of the system on input objects and wavelet filters. A general volume holographic wavelet correlation processor has a single input-object channel and a single wavelet-filtering channel. In other words, it can only process one input object with one wavelet filter at a same time. Based on the fact that a volume holographic correlator is not a shift-invariant system, multiplexing of input objects is proposed to improve parallelism of the processor. As a result, several input objects can be recognized simultaneously. Multiplexing of wavelet filters with different wavelet parameters is also achieved by a Dammann grating. Wavelet correlation outputs with different filters are synthesized to improve recognition accuracy of the processor. Corresponding experimental results in human face recognition are given. The combination of the input object multiplexing and the wavelet filter multiplexing is also described.

  6. Ultrathin, Stretchable, Multiplexing pH Sensor Arrays on Biomedical Devices With Demonstrations on Rabbit and Human Hearts Undergoing Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyun-Joong; Sulkin, Matthew S.; Kim, Jong-Seon; Goudeseune, Camille; Chao, Hsin-Yun; Song, Joseph W.; Yang, Sang Yoon; Hsu, Yung-Yu; Ghaffari, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    Stable pH is an established biomarker of health, relevant to all tissues of the body, including the heart. Clinical monitoring of pH in a practical manner, with high spatiotemporal resolution, is particularly difficult in organs such as the heart due to its soft mechanics, curvilinear geometry, heterogeneous surfaces and continuous, complex rhythmic motion. The results presented here illustrate that advanced strategies in materials assembly and electrochemical growth can yield interconnected arrays of miniaturized IrOx pH sensors encapsulated in thin, low-modulus elastomers to yield conformal monitoring systems capable of non-invasive measurements on the surface of the beating heart. A thirty channel custom data acquisition system enables spatiotemporal pH mapping with a single potentiostat. In-vitro testing reveals super-Nernstian sensitivity with excellent uniformity (69.9 ± 2.2 mV/pH), linear response to temperature (−1.6 mV/°C), and minimal influence of extracellular ions (< 3.5 mV). Device examples include sensor arrays on balloon catheters and on skin-like stretchable membranes. Real-time measurement of pH on the surfaces of explanted rabbit hearts and a donated human heart during protocols of ischemia-reperfusion illustrate some of the capabilities. Envisioned applications range from devices for biological research, to surgical tools and long-term implants. PMID:23868871

  7. Analysis of human samples reveals impaired SHH-dependent cerebellar development in Joubert syndrome/Meckel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Andrea; Meunier, Alice; Strehl, Laetitia; Martinovic, Jelena; Bonniere, Maryse; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Encha-Razavi, Féréchté; Spassky, Nathalie

    2012-10-16

    Joubert syndrome (JS) and Meckel syndrome (MKS) are pleiotropic ciliopathies characterized by severe defects of the cerebellar vermis, ranging from hypoplasia to aplasia. Interestingly, ciliary conditional mutant mice have a hypoplastic cerebellum in which the proliferation of cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCPs) in response to Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is severely reduced. This suggests that Shh signaling defects could contribute to the vermis hypoplasia observed in the human syndromes. As existing JS/MKS mutant mouse models suggest apparently contradictory hypotheses on JS/MKS etiology, we investigated Shh signaling directly on human fetal samples. First, in an examination of human cerebellar development, we linked the rates of GCP proliferation to the different levels and localizations of active Shh signaling and showed that the GCP possessed a primary cilium with CEP290 at its base. Second, we found that the proliferation of GCPs and their response to SHH were severely impaired in the cerebellum of subjects with JS/MKS and Jeune syndrome. Finally, we showed that the defect in GCP proliferation was similar in the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres in all patients with ciliopathy analyzed, suggesting that the specific cause of vermal hypo-/aplasia precedes this defect. Our results, obtained from the analysis of human samples, show that the hemispheres and the vermis are affected in JS/MKS and provide evidence of a defective cellular mechanism in these pathologic processes.

  8. [Complete human Klüver-Bucy syndrome after encephalitis caused by herpes simplex type 2].

    PubMed

    Bakchine, S; Chain, F; Lhermitte, F

    1986-01-01

    A case of complete Klüver-Bucy syndrome is reported. A 42 year-old man developed Herpes Simplex type II (H.S.V.II) encephalitis. Good sparing of language functions allowed thorough neuropsychological testing. The troubles usually described in Klüver-Bucy syndrome as psychic blindness, colour agnosia, prosopagnosia, auditive and tactile agnosia were present. The authors theorize that these symptoms are mainly correlated with the amnestic syndrome, which is constantly reported in human Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Unfortunately, after 8 weeks, the encephalitis recurred and the patient was left demented and untestable.

  9. Molecular analyses of neurogenic defects in a human pluripotent stem cell model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boland, Michael J; Nazor, Kristopher L; Tran, Ha T; Szücs, Attila; Lynch, Candace L; Paredes, Ryder; Tassone, Flora; Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Hagerman, Randi J; Loring, Jeanne F

    2017-03-01

    New research suggests that common pathways are altered in many neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder; however, little is known about early molecular events that contribute to the pathology of these diseases. The study of monogenic, neurodevelopmental disorders with a high incidence of autistic behaviours, such as fragile X syndrome, has the potential to identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated in autism spectrum disorder as well as fragile X syndrome. In vitro generation of human disease-relevant cell types provides the ability to investigate aspects of disease that are impossible to study in patients or animal models. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells recapitulates development of the neocortex, an area affected in both fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. We have generated induced human pluripotent stem cells from several individuals clinically diagnosed with fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. When differentiated to dorsal forebrain cell fates, our fragile X syndrome human pluripotent stem cell lines exhibited reproducible aberrant neurogenic phenotypes. Using global gene expression and DNA methylation profiling, we have analysed the early stages of neurogenesis in fragile X syndrome human pluripotent stem cells. We discovered aberrant DNA methylation patterns at specific genomic regions in fragile X syndrome cells, and identified dysregulated gene- and network-level correlates of fragile X syndrome that are associated with developmental signalling, cell migration, and neuronal maturation. Integration of our gene expression and epigenetic analysis identified altered epigenetic-mediated transcriptional regulation of a distinct set of genes in fragile X syndrome. These fragile X syndrome-aberrant networks are significantly enriched for genes associated with autism spectrum disorder, giving support to the idea that underlying similarities exist among these neurodevelopmental diseases.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: steatocystoma multiplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic Changes Steatocystoma multiplex can be caused by mutations in the KRT17 gene. This gene provides instructions ... skin, nails, and other tissues. The KRT17 gene mutations that cause steatocystoma multiplex alter the structure of ...

  11. Modeling Rett Syndrome Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Andoh-Noda, Tomoko; Inouye, Michiko O; Miyake, Kunio; Kubota, Takeo; Okano, Hideyuki; Akamatsu, Wado

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is one of a group of neurodevelopmental disorders typically characterized by deficits in the X-linked gene MECP2 (methyl-CpG binding protein 2). The MECP2 gene encodes a multifunctional protein involved in transcriptional repression, transcriptional activation, chromatin remodeling, and RNA splicing. Genetic deletion of Mecp2 in mice revealed neuronal disabilities including RTT-like phenotypes and provided an excellent platform for understanding the pathogenesis of RTT. So far, there are no effective pharmacological treatments for RTT because the role of MECP2 in RTT is incompletely understood. Recently, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technologies have improved our knowledge of neurological and neurodevelopmental diseases including RTT because neurons derived from RTT-hiPSCs can be used for disease modeling to understand RTT phenotypes and to perform high throughput pharmaceutical drug screening. In this review, we provide an overview of RTT, including MeCP2 function and mouse models of RTT. In addition, we introduce recent advances in disease modeling of RTT using hiPSC-derived neural cells.

  12. Human Kluver-Bucy syndrome following acute subdural haematoma.

    PubMed

    Yoneoka, Y; Takeda, N; Inoue, A; Ibuchi, Y; Kumagai, T; Sugai, T; Takeda, K-I; Ueda, K

    2004-11-01

    We present a rare case of complete human Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) following recovery from transtentorial herniation caused by acute subdural haematoma (ASDH). A 17-year-old right-handed high school boy got into stupor within five minutes after 3-rounds of sparing at boxing. Emergency computed tomographic (CT) scan showed right cerebral hemispheric ASDH, which was evacuated following intentional decompressive craniectomy. After recovery of consciousness, he developed emotional changes (placidity with loss of normal fear and anger), psychic blindness, aberrant sexual behaviour, excessive oral tendencies, increased appetite, and hypermetamorphosis in order of mention, which were observed with waxing and waning from 17th to 28th hospital day. Peri-operative CT scaning and magnetic resonance imaging showed lesions of the right temporal lobe and right-dominant orbitofrontal regions including bilateral rectal and medial orbital gyri, and the intact left temporal lobe. Two pathogeneses can be thought of and the whole picture of KBS following ASDH can arise even though one (left in this case) temporal lobe is preserved, 1) in which associated orbitofrontal lesions of the frontal lobes may correlate with occurrence of KBS, or 2) cerebral blood hypoperfusion of both temporal lobes due to increased intracranial pressure and/or compression of both posterior cerebral arteries at the edge of the tentorium cerebelli occurs.

  13. Autoimmunity and dysmetabolism of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Mei; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Xu, Jia-Hua; Luo, Jiang-Xi; Mo, Han-You; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-06-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains ill-defined by lists of symptoms, infections, tumors, and disorders in metabolism and immunity. Low CD4 cell count, severe loss of body weight, pneumocystis pneumonia, and Kaposi's sarcoma are the major disease indicators. Lines of evidence indicate that patients living with AIDS have both immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Immunodeficiency is attributed to deficits in the skin- and mucosa-defined innate immunity, CD4 T cells and regulatory T cells, presumably relating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The autoimmunity in AIDS is evident by: (1) overproduction of autoantibodies, (2) impaired response of CD4 cells and CD8 cells, (3) failure of clinical trials of HIV vaccines, and (4) therapeutic benefits of immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation and bone marrow transplantation in patients at risk of AIDS. Autoantibodies are generated in response to antigens such as debris and molecules de novo released from dead cells, infectious agents, and catabolic events. Disturbances in metabolic homeostasis occur at the interface of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in the development of AIDS. Optimal treatments favor therapeutics targeting on the regulation of metabolism to restore immune homeostasis.

  14. Metabolic syndrome--psycho neuropathogenesis and human brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Madhusoothanan Bhagavathi

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Heightened hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is associated with pathogenesis of MS. Life style, food habits and physical activity also play critical role in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the precise neurophysiology behind chronic stress leading on to such effects is unknown. Review of recent animal and human studies have shown the subtle differences in morphological changes associated with chronic stress between medial prefrontal cortex and amygdaloid complex. The loss of dendritic spines in pyramidal neurons of medial prefrontal cortex, dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala and dendritic loss in central nucleus of amygdala causes increased basal output from amygdaloid complex to HPA axis and other targets whose networks are evolutionarily well conserved. The increased HPA axis activity, elevated blood pressure and appetite for high calorie diet leads to MS. The evolution of isocortex in primates and associated regression in size of limbic structures predisposed to increased synaptic noise in amygdaloid complex which in turn cause heighetened output from amygdala during chronic stress. Copyright © 2010 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular basis of the human ribosomopathy Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

    PubMed

    Warren, Alan J

    2017-09-06

    Mutations that target the ubiquitous process of ribosome assembly paradoxically cause diverse tissue-specific disorders (ribosomopathies) that are often associated with an increased risk of cancer. Ribosomes are the essential macromolecular machines that read the genetic code in all cells in all kingdoms of life. Following pre-assembly in the nucleus, precursors of the large 60S and small 40S ribosomal subunits are exported to the cytoplasm where the final steps in maturation are completed. Here, I review the recent insights into the conserved mechanisms of ribosome assembly that have come from functional characterisation of the genes mutated in human ribosomopathies. In particular, recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy, coupled with genetic, biochemical and prior structural data, have revealed that the SBDS protein that is deficient in the inherited leukaemia predisposition disorder Shwachman-Diamond syndrome couples the final step in cytoplasmic 60S ribosomal subunit maturation to a quality control assessment of the structural and functional integrity of the nascent particle. Thus, study of this fascinating disorder is providing remarkable insights into how the large ribosomal subunit is functionally activated in the cytoplasm to enter the actively translating pool of ribosomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling Fragile X Syndrome Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mor-Shaked, Hagar; Eiges, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable form of cognitive impairment. It results from a loss-of-function mutation by a CGG repeat expansion at the 5′ untranslated region of the X-linked fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Expansion of the CGG repeats beyond 200 copies results in protein deficiency by leading to aberrant methylation of the FMR1 promoter and the switch from active to repressive histone modifications. Additionally, the CGGs become increasingly unstable, resulting in high degree of variation in expansion size between and within tissues of affected individuals. It is still unclear how the FMR1 protein (FMRP) deficiency leads to disease pathology in neurons. Nor do we know the mechanisms by which the CGG expansion results in aberrant DNA methylation, or becomes unstable in somatic cells of patients, at least in part due to the lack of appropriate animal or cellular models. This review summarizes the current contribution of pluripotent stem cells, mutant human embryonic stem cells, and patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells to disease modeling of FXS for basic and applied research, including the development of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27690107

  17. Human papillomavirus typing by single tube multiplex amplification in real time (SMART): the PapillomaFinder® SMART 20 assay.

    PubMed

    Ossel, J; Litjens, R J; Reijans, M; Brink, A A T P; Ummelen, M; Ramaekers, F C; Hopman, A H N; Simons, G

    2014-12-01

    High-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) infections play a causal role in the development of cervical cancer. The detection of hrHPV is, therefore, advocated in cervical cancer screening programs. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of a novel HPV typing assay, PapillomaFinder® SMART 20. This is a one-tube-per-sample method, to be performed on standard real-time PCR platforms, using melting curve analysis to distinguish targets. The assay detects all 14 hrHPV types, of which 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 52, 56 and 58 individually. HrHPV types 51, 59, 66 and 68 are detected in an hrHPV pool, and low-risk (lr) HPV types 6, 11, 40, 42, 43 and 44 in an lrHPV pool. The method was tested on HPV plasmid models, WHO and QCMD proficiency panels and a series of clinical cytological samples (n=45), the latter in comparison with a clinically validated real-time quantitative PCR. Type-specificity of the test was 100% using plasmids, the WHO and QCMD panels. Sensitivity for hrHPV in single infections was 100% using the WHO and QCMD panels and cytological samples, with an analytical sensitivity of 10-25 copies per reaction for all HPV types tested. Of the 34 HPV types present in the 8 multiple infections in the WHO panel, 30 were detected. In all cytological samples at least one hrHPV type was found, in concordance with the clinically validated method. Only when the viral load of the dominant HPV types in multiple infections greatly exceeded that of the other types in the infection, those other types were not always detected. PapillomaFinder® SMART 20 is a rapid, easy to perform, single tube HPV typing assay. The assay detects the 14 hrHPV types, and the 6 most important lrHPV types with a high sensitivity and type-specificity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Isolates of Human Parvovirus 4 from Patients with Acute Encephalitis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Shantanu; Seth, Akanksha; Singh, Arvind K.; Jain, Bhawana

    2015-01-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (Parv4) is a relatively new virus. Association of this virus with any human disease is yet to be established. We detected human parvovirus 4 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of two patients presenting with acute encephalitis syndrome in northern India. This is the first report of the Parv4 genome sequence from northern India. PMID:25635010

  19. Computer assisted multiplex sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Church, G.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objectives of this project are automation and optimization of multiplex sequencing. This year we have integrated direct transfer electrophoresis, automated multiplex hybridizations and automated film reading and applied this toward sequencing of three contiguous E. coli cosmids. Primers for the directed dideoxy sequence walking and sequence confirmation steps were synthesized with a 15 base tag complimentary to an alkaline phosphatase conjugate. A higher throughput synthesis device is well along in testing as are new automated hybridization devices. We have developed software for automatically annotating ORFs and databases of precise termini of proteis and RNA.

  20. Adaptive Telemetry Multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinderson, R. L.; Salazar, G. A.; Haddick, C. M., Jr.; Spahn, C. J.; Venkatesh, C. N.

    1989-01-01

    Telemetry-data-acquisition unit adjusted remotely to produce changes in sampling rate, sampling channels, measurement scale, and output-bias level. Functional configuration adapted to changing conditions or new requirements by distant operator over telemetry link. Reconfiguration done in real time, without removing equipment from service. Bus-interface unit accepts reprogramming commands and translates them for low-rate adaptive multiplexer. Reprogrammable equipment reduces need for spare parts, since not necessary to stock variety of hardware with fixed characteristics. Adaptive multiplexer performs well in tests, amplitude errors less than 0.5 percent, distortion less than 0.25 percent, and crosstalk and common-mode rejection indiscernible.

  1. Behavioral phenotypes in genetic syndromes: genetic clues to human behavior.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Suzanne B; Morris, Colleen A

    2002-01-01

    A behavioral phenotype is the characteristic cognitive, personality, behavioral, and psychiatric pattern that typifies a disorder. A number of genetic syndromes have been identified as having this type of distinctive and consistent behavior pattern. It may act as an important diagnostic sign, like a malformation or characteristic facial appearance. Such patterns are also useful for the physician's anticipatory guidance from an educational, rehabilitative, and parenting perspective. In addition, because they are the consequences of known genetic alterations, behavioral phenotypes can be potentially highly valuable clues to the identification of genes in the population that are important to determination of cognitive skills or deficits, personality determinants, behavioral abnormalities, or psychiatric disorders. The nature of a behavioral phenotype and its potential for genetic insight can be appreciated through the examples of Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Angelman syndrome. The cognitive and behavioral characteristics of these disorders are distinctive. Williams syndrome is known for its association with remarkable conversational verbal abilities and excessive empathy, whereas Prader-Willi syndrome is known for temper tantrums and obsessive-compulsive features, and Angelman syndrome is associated with a constantly happy affect and hyperactivity. The genetic basis for each of these disorders is known, and the pathophysiology and genotype-phenotype correlations are beginning to provide insight into genes responsible for personality characteristics and behavioral abnormalities.

  2. Spectral analysis of multiplex Raman probe signatures.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Barry R; Dentinger, Claire E; Nguyen, Lienchi N; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Jingwu; Allen, April N; Chan, Selena; Knudsen, Beatrice S

    2008-11-25

    Raman nanoparticle probes are an emerging new class of optical labels for interrogation of physiological and pathological processes in bioassays, cells, and tissues. Although their unique emission signatures are ideal for multiplexing, the full potential of these probes has not been realized because conventional analysis methods are inadequate. We report a novel spectral fitting method that exploits the entire spectral signature to quantitatively extract individual probe signals from multiplex spectra. We evaluate the method in a series of multiplex assays using unconjugated and antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs). Results show sensitive multiplex detection of small signals (<2% of total signal) and similar detection limits in corresponding 4-plex and singlet plate binding assays. In a triplex assay on formalin-fixed human prostate tissue, two antibody-conjugated COINs and a conventional fluorophore are used to image expression of prostate-specific antigen, cytokeratin-18, and DNA. The spectral analysis method effectively removes tissue autofluorescence and other unknown background, allowing accurate and reproducible imaging (area under ROC curve 0.89 +/- 0.03) at subcellular spatial resolution. In all assay systems, the error attributable to spectral analysis constitutes multiplex spectra with overlapping peaks, (2) robust spot-by-spot removal of unknown background, (3) the opportunity to quantitatively assess the analysis error, (4) elimination of operator bias, and (5) simple automation appropriate for high-throughput analysis. The simple implementation and universal applicability of this approach significantly expands the potential of Raman probes for quantitative in vivo and ex vivo multiplex analysis.

  3. Time-division SQUID multiplexers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, K. D.; Vale, L. R.; Bergren, N. E.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Nam, S. W.; Reintsema, C. D.; Rudman, D. A.; Huber, M. E.

    2002-02-01

    SQUID multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of low-temperature bolometers and microcalorimeters based on superconducting transition-edge sensors with a manageable number of readout channels. We discuss the technical tradeoffs between proposed time-division multiplexer and frequency-division multiplexer schemes and motivate our choice of time division. Our first-generation SQUID multiplexer is now in use in an astronomical instrument. We describe our second-generation SQUID multiplexer, which is based on a new architecture that significantly reduces the dissipation of power at the first stage, allowing thousands of SQUIDs to be operated at the base temperature of a cryostat. .

  4. Fused pulmonary lobes is a rat model of human Fraser syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyozumi, Daiji; Nakano, Itsuko; Takahashi, Ken L.; Hojo, Hitoshi; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Fused pulmonary lobes (fpl) mutant rats exhibit similar phenotypes to Fraser syndrome. {yields} The fpl gene harbors a nonsense mutation in Fraser syndrome-associated gene Frem2. {yields} Fpl mutant is defined as a first model of human Fraser syndrome in rats. -- Abstract: Fused pulmonary lobes (fpl) is a mutant gene that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and causes various developmental defects, including fusion of pulmonary lobes, and eyelid and digit anomalies in rats. Since these developmental defects closely resemble those observed in patients with Fraser syndrome, a recessive multiorgan disorder, and its model animals, we investigated whether the abnormal phenotypes observed in fpl/fpl mutant rats are attributable to a genetic disorder similar to Fraser syndrome. At the epidermal basement membrane in fpl/fpl mutant neonates, the expression of QBRICK, a basement membrane protein whose expression is attenuated in Fraser syndrome model mice, was greatly diminished compared with control littermates. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of Fraser syndrome-related genes revealed that Frem2 transcripts were markedly diminished in QBRICK-negative embryos. Genomic DNA sequencing of the fpl/fpl mutant identified a nonsense mutation that introduced a stop codon at serine 2005 in Frem2. These findings indicate that the fpl mutant is a rat model of human Fraser syndrome.

  5. Accelerated Genome Engineering through Multiplexing

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the biological sciences, the past fifteen years have seen a push towards the analysis and engineering of biological systems at the organism level. Given the complexity of even the simplest organisms, though, to elicit a phenotype of interest often requires genotypic manipulation of several loci. By traditional means, sequential editing of genomic targets requires a significant investment of time and labor, as the desired editing event typically occurs at a very low frequency against an overwhelming unedited background. In recent years, the development of a suite of new techniques has greatly increased editing efficiency, opening up the possibility for multiple editing events to occur in parallel. Termed as multiplexed genome engineering, this approach to genome editing has greatly expanded the scope of possible genome manipulations in diverse hosts, ranging from bacteria to human cells. The enabling technologies for multiplexed genome engineering include oligonucleotide-based and nuclease-based methodologies, and their application has led to the great breadth of successful examples described in this review. While many technical challenges remain, there also exists a multiplicity of opportunities in this rapidly expanding field. PMID:26394307

  6. [Klüver-Bucy syndrome in humans].

    PubMed

    Gaul, C; Jordan, B; Wustmann, T; Preuss, U W

    2007-07-01

    The Klüver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) was first described in 1937 as an experimental neurobehavorial syndrome in monkeys with bitemporal brain lesions. The syndrome in man was subsequently observed to be transient or permanent in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders and after traumatic, nontraumatic, and infectious brain injury. Its most common manifestations are hyperorality with changes in dietary habits, hypersexuality, and visual agnosia. Seizures are another frequent symptom. Here we describe KBS in a female inpatient aged 30 in whom KBS and psychotic symptoms occurred together.

  7. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  8. Extracting information from multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ̃(S) for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  9. Downlink Data Multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Douglas; Steele, Glen F.; Romero, Denise M.; Koudelka, Robert David

    2004-01-01

    A multiplexer/demultiplexer system has been developed to enable the transmission, over a single channel, of four data streams generated by a variety of sources at different (including variable) bit rates. In the original intended application, replicas of this multiplexer/demultiplexer system would be incorporated into the spacecraft-to-ground communication systems of the space shuttles. The multiplexer of each system would be installed in the spacecraft, where it would acquire and process data from such sources as commercial digital camcorders, video tape recorders, and the spacecraft telemetry system. The demultiplexer of each system would be installed in a ground station. Purely terrestrial systems of similar design could be attractive for use in situations in which there are requirements to transmit multiple streams of high-quality video data and possibly other data over single channels. The figure is a block diagram of the multiplexer as configured to process data received via three fiber-optic channels like those of the International Space Station and one electrical-cable channel that conforms to the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 1394 standard. (This standard consists of specifications of a high-speed serial data interface, the physical layer of which includes a cable known in the art as "FireWire." An IEEE 1394 interface can also transfer power between the components to which it is connected.) The fiber-optic channels carry packet and/or bit-stream signals that conform to the standards of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The IEEE 1394 interface accepts an isochronous signal like that from a digital camcorder or a video tape recorder. The processing of the four input data streams to combine them into one output stream is governed by a statistical multiplexing algorithm that features a flow-control capability and makes it possible to utilize the transmission channel with nearly 100-percent efficiency. This

  10. Comparison of three human papillomavirus DNA detection methods: Next generation sequencing, multiplex-PCR and nested-PCR followed by Sanger based sequencing.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Galvão, Renata Silva; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Chen, Zigui

    2016-05-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance for HPV infection using three laboratorial techniques. Ninty-five cervicovaginal samples were randomly selected; each was tested for HPV DNA and genotypes using 3 methods in parallel: Multiplex-PCR, the Nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing, and the Next_Gen Sequencing (NGS) with two assays (NGS-A1, NGS-A2). The study was approved by the Brazilian National IRB (CONEP protocol 16,800). The prevalence of HPV by the NGS assays was higher than that using the Multiplex-PCR (64.2% vs. 45.2%, respectively; P = 0.001) and the Nested-PCR (64.2% vs. 49.5%, respectively; P = 0.003). NGS also showed better performance in detecting high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and HPV16. There was a weak interobservers agreement between the results of Multiplex-PCR and Nested-PCR in relation to NGS for the diagnosis of HPV infection, and a moderate correlation for HR-HPV detection. Both NGS assays showed a strong correlation for detection of HPVs (k = 0.86), HR-HPVs (k = 0.91), HPV16 (k = 0.92) and HPV18 (k = 0.91). NGS is more sensitive than the traditional Sanger sequencing and the Multiplex PCR to genotype HPVs, with promising ability to detect multiple infections, and may have the potential to establish an alternative method for the diagnosis and genotyping of HPV.

  11. Delta rhythmicity is a reliable EEG biomarker in Angelman syndrome: a parallel mouse and human analysis.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, Michael S; Deck, Gina M; Dolatshahi, Marjan; Thibert, Ronald L; Bird, Lynne M; Chu, Catherine J; Philpot, Benjamin D

    2017-01-01

    Clinicians have qualitatively described rhythmic delta activity as a prominent EEG abnormality in individuals with Angelman syndrome, but this phenotype has yet to be rigorously quantified in the clinical population or validated in a preclinical model. Here, we sought to quantitatively measure delta rhythmicity and evaluate its fidelity as a biomarker. We quantified delta oscillations in mouse and human using parallel spectral analysis methods and measured regional, state-specific, and developmental changes in delta rhythms in a patient population. Delta power was broadly increased and more dynamic in both the Angelman syndrome mouse model, relative to wild-type littermates, and in children with Angelman syndrome, relative to age-matched neurotypical controls. Enhanced delta oscillations in children with Angelman syndrome were present during wakefulness and sleep, were generalized across the neocortex, and were more pronounced at earlier ages. Delta rhythmicity phenotypes can serve as reliable biomarkers for Angelman syndrome in both preclinical and clinical settings.

  12. Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita: Multiple Congenital Joint Contractures

    PubMed Central

    Sucuoglu, Hamza; Ornek, Nurettin Irem; Caglar, Cagkan

    2015-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a syndrome characterized by nonprogressive multiple congenital joint contractures. The etiology of disease is multifactorial; it is most commonly suspected from absent fetal movements and genetic defects. AMC affects mainly limbs; also it might present with other organs involvement. It is crucial that the diagnosis of AMC should be kept in mind by musculoskeletal physicians in newborns with multiple joint contractures and patients must begin rehabilitation in early stage after accurate diagnosis in terms of functional independence. We present the diagnosis, types, clinical features, and treatment approaches of this disease in our case with literature reviews. PMID:26604929

  13. Mouse and hamster mutants as models for Waardenburg syndromes in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Asher, J H; Friedman, T B

    1990-01-01

    Four different Waardenburg syndromes have been defined based upon observed phenotypes. These syndromes are responsible for approximately 2% of subjects with profound congenital hearing loss. At present, Waardenburg syndromes have not been mapped to particular human chromosomes. One or more of the mouse mutant alleles, Ph (patch), s (piebald), Sp (splotch), and Mior (microphthalmia-Oak Ridge) and the hamster mutation Wh (anophthalmic white) may be homologous to mutations causing Waardenburg syndromes. In heterozygotes, phenotypic effects of these four mouse mutations and the hamster mutation are similar to the phenotypes produced by different Waardenburg syndrome mutations. The chromosomal locations and syntenic relationships associated with three of the four mouse mutant genes have been used to predict human chromosomal locations for Waardenburg syndromes: (1) on chromosome 2q near FN1 (fibronectin 1), (2) on chromosome 3p near the proto-oncogene RAF1 or 3q near RHO (rhodopsin), and (3) on chromosome 4p near the proto-oncogene KIT. Waardenburg syndromes show extensive intrafamilial phenotypic variability. Results of our studies with the hamster mutation Wh suggest that this variability may be explained in part by modifier genes segregating within families. Images PMID:2246770

  14. [Human herpes virus 6 infection in an inmunocompetent patient with carbamazepine-induced DRESS syndrome].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Sergio; Delama, Ignacio; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Eymin, Gonzalo; Ceballos, M Elena; Andino-Navarrete, Romina

    2016-06-01

    DRESS syndrome (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is an adverse life-threatening drug reaction characterized by a polymorphous rash associated with fever, lymphadenopathy and multiorgan involvement with eosinophilia. We present the case of an immunocompetent man with DRESS syndrome secondary to carbamazepine, that developed concomitantly meningoencephalitis caused by human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), and a review of literature. The pathogenic role of HHV-6 in DRESS syndrome remains controversial. Given the diagnostic and possibly prognostic significance of HHV-6, the screening seems to be a good measure to use in the clinical management of these patients.

  15. Histopathology of the human inner ear in Alström's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nadol, Joseph B; Marshall, Jan D; Bronson, Roderick T

    2015-01-01

    Alström's syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndromic genetic disorder caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene. Sensorineural hearing loss occurs in greater than 85% of patients. Histopathology of the inner ear abnormalities in the human has not previously been fully described. Histopathology of the inner ear in Alström's syndrome is presented in 2 genetically confirmed cases. The predominant histopathologic correlates of the sensorineural loss were degeneration of the organ of Corti, both inner and outer hair cells, degeneration of spiral ganglion cells, and atrophy of the stria vascularis and spiral ligament.

  16. Systematic review of vestibular disorders related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heinze, B; Swanepoel, D W; Hofmeyr, L M

    2011-09-01

    Disorders of the auditory and vestibular system are often associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. However, the extent and nature of these vestibular manifestations are unclear. To systematically review the current peer-reviewed literature on vestibular manifestations and pathology related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Systematic review of peer-reviewed articles related to vestibular findings in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Several electronic databases were searched. We identified 442 records, reduced to 210 after excluding duplicates and reviews. These were reviewed for relevance to the scope of the study. We identified only 13 reports investigating vestibular functioning and pathology in individuals affected by human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This condition can affect both the peripheral and central vestibular system, irrespective of age and viral disease stage. Peripheral vestibular involvement may affect up to 50 per cent of patients, and central vestibular involvement may be even more prevalent. Post-mortem studies suggest direct involvement of the entire vestibular system, while opportunistic infections such as oto- and neurosyphilis and encephalitis cause secondary vestibular dysfunction resulting in vertigo, dizziness and imbalance. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome should routinely be monitored for vestibular involvement, to minimise functional limitations of quality of life.

  17. Determinants of public cooperation in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Federico; Perc, Matjaž; Latora, Vito

    2017-07-01

    Synergies between evolutionary game theory and statistical physics have significantly improved our understanding of public cooperation in structured populations. Multiplex networks, in particular, provide the theoretical framework within network science that allows us to mathematically describe the rich structure of interactions characterizing human societies. While research has shown that multiplex networks may enhance the resilience of cooperation, the interplay between the overlap in the structure of the layers and the control parameters of the corresponding games has not yet been investigated. With this aim, we consider here the public goods game on a multiplex network, and we unveil the role of the number of layers and the overlap of links, as well as the impact of different synergy factors in different layers, on the onset of cooperation. We show that enhanced public cooperation emerges only when a significant edge overlap is combined with at least one layer being able to sustain some cooperation by means of a sufficiently high synergy factor. In the absence of either of these conditions, the evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks is determined by the bounds of traditional network reciprocity with no enhanced resilience. These results caution against overly optimistic predictions that the presence of multiple social domains may in itself promote cooperation, and they help us better understand the complexity behind prosocial behavior in layered social systems.

  18. Multiplexed Activity-based Protein Profiling of the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Reveals Large Functional Changes upon Exposure to Human Serum

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Fortuin, Suereta; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Shukla, Anil K.; Ansong, Charles; Panisko, Ellen A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-08-03

    Environmental and metabolic adaptability is critical for survival of the fungal human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus in the immunocompromised lung. We employed an activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) approach utilizing a new aryl vinyl sulfonate probe and a serine hydrolase probe combined with quantitative LC-MS based accurate mass and time (AMT) tag proteomics for the identification of functional pathway adaptation of A. fumigatus to environmental variability relevant to pulmonary Invasive Aspergillosis. When the fungal pathogen was grown with human serum, metabolism and energy processes were markedly decreased compared to no serum culture. Additionally, functional pathways associated with amino acid and protein biosynthesis were limited as the fungus scavenged from the serum to obtain essential nutrients. Our approach revealed significant metabolic adaptation by A. fumigatus, and provides direct insight into this pathogen’s ability to survive and proliferate.

  19. Frequency Hopping Transceiver Multiplexer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    8217 block number) frequency hopping, quadrature coupler, bandpass filter, coupling circuit, filter, helical resonator, matching network, PIN diode switch...which investigated the concept and feasibility of a 30MHz to 88MHz frequency hopping transceiver multiplexer. An approach which uses helical resonator...and Analysis 90 5.9.1 Helical Resonator 90 5.9.2 Shunt Capacitance Binary Bus Discussion 94 5.9.3 Resonator Design Decisions 97 5.9.4 Results and

  20. Low-cost simultaneous detection of CCR5-delta32 and HLA-B*5701 alleles in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected patients by selective multiplex endpoint PCR.

    PubMed

    Rosi, Andrea; Meini, Genny; Materazzi, Angelo; Vicenti, Ilaria; Saladini, Francesco; Zazzi, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Host genetic traits impact susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, disease progression as well as antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity. Remarkable examples include a 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 coreceptor molecule (CCR5-delta32) impairing attachment of monocytotropic HIV-1 to the host cell membrane and the HLA-B*5701 allele, strongly associated with a potentially fatal hypersensitivity reaction triggered by abacavir, a nucleoside inhibitor of HIV reverse transcriptase. We developed a simple selective multiplex endpoint PCR method for simultaneous analysis of both genetic traits. Two primers were designed for amplification of a region surrounding the CCR5 32-bp deletion site. One common forward primer and two reverse primers with different 3' termini targeting the HLA-B*570101 and HLA-B*570102 alleles were designed for HLA-B*5701 analysis. A panel of 110 reference DNA samples typed in the HLA-B locus was used for development and blind validation of the assay. All the 45 HLA-B*5701 positive and the 55 HLA-B*5701 negative samples were correctly identified. The CCR5-delta32 allele was readily detected in 7 samples and did not interfere with detection of HLA-B*5701 while providing an internal amplification control. Multiplex PCR products were easily identified in agarose gels with no background noise. This simple and low-cost end-point selective multiplex PCR can conveniently screen HIV patients for the protective CCR5-delta32 allele and the risk of developing abacavir hypersensitivity reaction.

  1. Horner's syndrome: an electron microscopic study of a human iris.

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, A. C.; Riordan-Eva, P.; Howes, R. C.; Spalton, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Electron microscopy was performed on the irides of a man with a history of a long standing Horner's syndrome which resulted in iris heterochromia. Comparison of his normal brown iris with the depigmented blue iris showed depletion of anterior border cells and absence of sympathetic nerve fibres. Stromal melanocyte numbers were also diminished but melanosome numbers within the residual cells were not significantly different. Postnatal maintenance of stromal and anterior border zone pigmentation, derived from the neural crest, would appear to be dependent on an intact sympathetic nerve supply in contrast to the iris pigment epithelium which remains normally unaffected in Horner's syndrome. Images PMID:1486079

  2. The ironies of human mind: a case of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sayan; Arora, Rachita

    2014-04-01

    Rett Syndrome (RS) is a chromosome X-linked genetic neurological disorder characterized by developmental regression, particularly in relation to expressive language and use of the hands. It is also associated with profound mental retardation and almost exclusively affects females. A four and a half year old girl reported to our dental OPD for a dental checkup. On complete examination, she was diagnosed to be suffering from Rett syndrome. Preventive therapies and proper oral hygiene instructions were explained to her mother. Early diagnosis of such disorders is extremely important along with treatment of patients' problems with love and care to prevent them from further pain and stress.

  3. Cross-host evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in palm civet and human

    PubMed Central

    Song, Huai-Dong; Tu, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zheng, Kui; Lei, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Qiu-Xia; Gao, Yu-Wei; Zhou, Hui-Qiong; Xiang, Hua; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Chern, Shur-Wern Wang; Cheng, Feng; Pan, Chun-Ming; Xuan, Hua; Chen, Sai-Juan; Luo, Hui-Ming; Zhou, Duan-Hua; Liu, Yu-Fei; He, Jian-Feng; Qin, Peng-Zhe; Li, Ling-Hui; Ren, Yu-Qi; Liang, Wen-Jia; Yu, Ye-Dong; Anderson, Larry; Wang, Ming; Xu, Rui-Heng; Wu, Xin-Wei; Zheng, Huan-Ying; Chen, Jin-Ding; Liang, Guodong; Gao, Yang; Liao, Ming; Fang, Ling; Jiang, Li-Yun; Li, Hui; Chen, Fang; Di, Biao; He, Li-Juan; Lin, Jin-Yan; Tong, Suxiang; Kong, Xiangang; Du, Lin; Hao, Pei; Tang, Hua; Bernini, Andrea; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Spiga, Ottavia; Guo, Zong-Ming; Pan, Hai-Yan; He, Wei-Zhong; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Fontanet, Arnaud; Danchin, Antoine; Niccolai, Neri; Li, Yi-Xue; Wu, Chung-I; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2005-01-01

    The genomic sequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses from human and palm civet of the 2003/2004 outbreak in the city of Guangzhou, China, were nearly identical. Phylogenetic analysis suggested an independent viral invasion from animal to human in this new episode. Combining all existing data but excluding singletons, we identified 202 single-nucleotide variations. Among them, 17 are polymorphic in palm civets only. The ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous nucleotide substitution in palm civets collected 1 yr apart from different geographic locations is very high, suggesting a rapid evolving process of viral proteins in civet as well, much like their adaptation in the human host in the early 2002–2003 epidemic. Major genetic variations in some critical genes, particularly the Spike gene, seemed essential for the transition from animal-to-human transmission to human-to-human transmission, which eventually caused the first severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak of 2002/2003. PMID:15695582

  4. Self-calibrating multiplexer circuit

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, Chris P.

    1997-01-01

    A time domain multiplexer system with automatic determination of acceptable multiplexer output limits, error determination, or correction is comprised of a time domain multiplexer, a computer, a constant current source capable of at least three distinct current levels, and two series resistances employed for calibration and testing. A two point linear calibration curve defining acceptable multiplexer voltage limits may be defined by the computer by determining the voltage output of the multiplexer to very accurately known input signals developed from predetermined current levels across the series resistances. Drift in the multiplexer may be detected by the computer when the output voltage limits, expected during normal operation, are exceeded, or the relationship defined by the calibration curve is invalidated.

  5. Chopped molecular beam multiplexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Billy R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The integration of a chopped molecular beam mass spectrometer with a time multiplexing system is described. The chopping of the molecular beam is synchronized with the time intervals by a phase detector and a synchronous motor. Arithmetic means are generated for phase shifting the chopper with respect to the multiplexer. A four channel amplifier provides the capacity to independently vary the baseline and amplitude in each channel of the multiplexing system.

  6. Brief Report: Human Figure Drawings by Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hui Keow; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-nine children with Asperger's syndrome and 28 typically developing children, matched on gender, chronological age and nonverbal IQ, were asked to produce a free drawing, then requested to draw a person, a house and a tree. The drawings were scored using standardized procedures for assessing accuracy, detail and complexity. There were no…

  7. Brief Report: Human Figure Drawings by Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hui Keow; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-nine children with Asperger's syndrome and 28 typically developing children, matched on gender, chronological age and nonverbal IQ, were asked to produce a free drawing, then requested to draw a person, a house and a tree. The drawings were scored using standardized procedures for assessing accuracy, detail and complexity. There were no…

  8. [Relevance of animal models in the study of human pathologies: a mouse model of Down syndrome].

    PubMed

    Morice, Elise

    2010-01-01

    Animal models provide a simplified representation of biological systems impossible to study directly in the human being. Regarding genetic pathologies, mouse models are the most studied since they enable to reproduce in animals the mutation of the gene or genes responsible for the disease and to study the phenotypic consequences. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is characterized by different degrees of phenotypic alterations including morphological, cardiac, muscular, cerebral, motor and intellectual changes. This high phenotypic heterogeneity involves genetic and environmental effects, which are impossible to dissect out in human beings. Various models in mice have been developed in order to identify the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for Down syndrome. The Tc1 mouse is the most complete genetic animal model currently available to study Down syndrome, since it carries an almost complete Hsa 21. The behavioural and electrophysiological studies of this model reveal a great similarity between the animal phenotype and the Down syndrome symptomatology, consequently this model represents a powerful genetic tool with a potential to unravel the mechanisms underlying the deficiencies array characteristic of this human condition. In the long term, Tc1 mice will contribute to the development and the screening of new therapeutics, with the goal of improving all the impairments reported in Down syndrome.

  9. Human adjuvant-related syndrome or autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. Where have we come from? Where are we going? A proposal for new diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Alijotas-Reig, J

    2015-09-01

    In 1964, Miyoshi reported a series of patients with diverse symptoms after receiving treatment with silicone or paraffin fillers. Miyoshi named this condition 'human adjuvant disease'. Since then, the literature has been flooded with case reports and case series of granulomatous and systemic autoimmune disorders related to vaccines, infection or other adjuvants such as silicone and other biomaterials. A new term -autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants--has recently been coined for a process that includes several clinical features previously described by Miyoshi plus other clinical and laboratory parameters related to exposure to diverse external stimuli. Disorders such as siliconosis, Gulf War syndrome, macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome, sick building syndrome and post-vaccination syndrome have been included in autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. Disorders such as Spanish toxic oil syndrome and Ardystil syndrome could also be included. Furthermore, biomaterials other than silicone should also be considered as triggering factors for these adjuvant-related syndromes. New diagnostic criteria in this field have been proposed. Nevertheless, many of these criteria are too subjective, leading to some patients being diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome or other 'central sensitization syndromes'. Diagnostic criteria based only on objective clinical and laboratory data to be further discussed and validated are proposed herein.

  10. Layer Communities in Multiplex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Ta-Chu; Porter, Mason A.

    2017-08-01

    Multiplex networks are a type of multilayer network in which entities are connected to each other via multiple types of connections. We propose a method, based on computing pairwise similarities between layers and then doing community detection, for grouping structurally similar layers in multiplex networks. We illustrate our approach using both synthetic and empirical networks, and we are able to find meaningful groups of layers in both cases. For example, we find that airlines that are based in similar geographic locations tend to be grouped together in a multiplex airline network and that related research areas in physics tend to be grouped together in a multiplex collaboration network.

  11. Functional Multiplex PageRank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Rahmede, Christoph; Arenas, Alex; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-10-01

    Recently it has been recognized that many complex social, technological and biological networks have a multilayer nature and can be described by multiplex networks. Multiplex networks are formed by a set of nodes connected by links having different connotations forming the different layers of the multiplex. Characterizing the centrality of the nodes in a multiplex network is a challenging task since the centrality of the node naturally depends on the importance associated to links of a certain type. Here we propose to assign to each node of a multiplex network a centrality called Functional Multiplex PageRank that is a function of the weights given to every different pattern of connections (multilinks) existent in the multiplex network between any two nodes. Since multilinks distinguish all the possible ways in which the links in different layers can overlap, the Functional Multiplex PageRank can describe important non-linear effects when large relevance or small relevance is assigned to multilinks with overlap. Here we apply the Functional Page Rank to the multiplex airport networks, to the neuronal network of the nematode C. elegans, and to social collaboration and citation networks between scientists. This analysis reveals important differences existing between the most central nodes of these networks, and the correlations between their so-called pattern to success.

  12. Down syndrome and the molecular pathogenesis resulting from trisomy of human chromosome 21.

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Aarti; Wiseman, Frances; Sheppard, Olivia; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2010-03-01

    Chromosome copy number aberrations, anueploidies, are common in the human population but generally lethal. However, trisomy of human chromosome 21 is compatible with life and people born with this form of aneuploidy manifest the features of Down syndrome, named after Langdon Down who was a 19(th) century British physician who first described a group of people with this disorder. Down syndrome includes learning and memory deficits in all cases, as well as many other features which vary in penetrance and expressivity in different people. While Down syndrome clearly has a genetic cause - the extra dose of genes on chromosome 21 - we do not know which genes are important for which aspects of the syndrome, which biochemical pathways are disrupted, or, generally how design therapies to ameliorate the effects of these disruptions. Recently, with new insights gained from studying mouse models of Down syndrome, specific genes and pathways are being shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder. This is opening the way for exciting new studies of potential therapeutics for aspects of Down syndrome, particularly the learning and memory deficits.

  13. Down syndrome and the molecular pathogenesis resulting from trisomy of human chromosome 21

    PubMed Central

    Ruparelia, Aarti; Wiseman, Frances; Sheppard, Olivia; Tybulewicz, Victor L.J.; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chromosome copy number aberrations, anueploidies, are common in the human population but generally lethal. However, trisomy of human chromosome 21 is compatible with life and people born with this form of aneuploidy manifest the features of Down syndrome, named after Langdon Down who was a 19th century British physician who first described a group of people with this disorder. Down syndrome includes learning and memory deficits in all cases, as well as many other features which vary in penetrance and expressivity in different people. While Down syndrome clearly has a genetic cause - the extra dose of genes on chromosome 21 - we do not know which genes are important for which aspects of the syndrome, which biochemical pathways are disrupted, or, generally how design therapies to ameliorate the effects of these disruptions. Recently, with new insights gained from studying mouse models of Down syndrome, specific genes and pathways are being shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder. This is opening the way for exciting new studies of potential therapeutics for aspects of Down syndrome, particularly the learning and memory deficits. PMID:23554618

  14. Large offspring syndrome: a bovine model for the human loss-of-imprinting overgrowth syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Robbins, Katherine Marie; Wells, Kevin Dale; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

    2013-06-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a human loss-of-imprinting syndrome primarily characterized by macrosomia, macroglossia, and abdominal wall defects. BWS has been associated with misregulation of two clusters of imprinted genes. Children conceived with the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) appear to have an increased incidence of BWS. As in humans, ART can also induce a similar overgrowth syndrome in ruminants which is referred to as large offspring syndrome (LOS). The main goal of our study is to determine if LOS shows similar loss-of-imprinting at loci known to be misregulated in BWS. To test this, Bos taurus indicus × Bos taurus taurus F1 hybrids were generated by artificial insemination (AI; control) or by ART. Seven of the 27 conceptuses in the ART group were in the > 97th percentile body weight when compared with controls. Further, other characteristics reported in BWS were observed in the ART group, such as large tongue, umbilical hernia, and ear malformations. KCNQ1OT1 (the most-often misregulated imprinted gene in BWS) was biallelically-expressed in various organs in two out of seven overgrown conceptuses from the ART group, but shows monoallelic expression in all tissues of the AI conceptuses. Furthermore, biallelic expression of KCNQ1OT1 is associated with loss of methylation at the KvDMR1 on the maternal allele and with downregulation of the maternally-expressed gene CDKN1C. In conclusion, our results show phenotypic and epigenetic similarities between LOS and BWS, and we propose the use of LOS as an animal model to investigate the etiology of BWS.

  15. Two Mutations Were Critical for Bat-to-Human Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Chang; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Shi, Zhengli; Baric, Ralph S.

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmitted from bats to humans, we compared the virus surface spikes of MERS-CoV and a related bat coronavirus, HKU4. Although HKU4 spike cannot mediate viral entry into human cells, two mutations enabled it to do so by allowing it to be activated by human proteases. These mutations are present in MERS-CoV spike, explaining why MERS-CoV infects human cells. These mutations therefore played critical roles in the bat-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV, either directly or through intermediate hosts. PMID:26063432

  16. Atypical Hemispheric Asymmetry in the Perception of Negative Human Vocalizations in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen-Pasley, Anna; Pollak, Seth D.; Yam, Anna; Hill, Kiley J.; Grichanik, Mark; Mills, Debra; Reiss, Allan L.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Bellugi, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a neurological condition associated with high levels of auditory reactivity and emotional expression combined with impaired perception of prosody. Yet, little is currently known about the neural organization of affective auditory processing in individuals with this disorder. The current study examines auditory emotion processing in individuals with Williams syndrome. Hemispheric organization for positive and negative human nonlinguistic sound processing was compared in participants with and without the disorder using a dichotic listening paradigm. While controls exhibited an expected right cerebral hemisphere advantage for processing negative sounds, those with Williams syndrome showed the opposite pattern. No differences between the groups emerged for the positive stimuli. The results suggest aberrant processing of negative auditory information in Williams syndrome. PMID:20005238

  17. Premature aging in RecQ helicase-deficient human syndromes.

    PubMed

    Mohaghegh, Payam; Hickson, Ian D

    2002-11-01

    The RecQ family of DNA helicases have potential roles in DNA repair, replication and/or recombination pathways. In humans, a defect in the RecQ family helicases encoded by the BLM, WRN and RECQ4 genes gives rise to Bloom's (BS), Werner's (WS) and Rothmund-Thomson (RTS) syndromes, respectively. These disorders are associated with cancer predisposition and/or premature aging. In Bloom's syndrome, affected individuals are predisposed to many types of cancer at an early age. Werner's syndrome is a premature aging disorder with a complex phenotype, which includes many age-related disorders that develop from puberty, including greying and thinning of the hair, bilateral cataract formation, type II diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. The phenotype of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome patients also consists of some features associated with premature aging, as well as predispositon to certain cancers. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of these RecQ helicase-deficient disorders.

  18. Gene expression and DNA repair in progeroid syndromes and human aging.

    PubMed

    Kyng, Kasper J; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2005-11-01

    Human progeroid syndromes are caused by mutations in single genes accelerating some but not all features of normal aging. Most progeroid disorders are linked to defects in genome maintenance, and while it remains unknown if similar processes underlie normal and premature aging, they provide useful models for the study of aging. Altered transcription is speculated to play a causative role in aging, and is involved in the pathology of most if not all progeroid syndromes. Previous studies demonstrate that there is a similar pattern of gene expression changes in primary cells from old and Werner syndrome compared to young suggesting a presence of common cellular aging mechanisms in old and progeria. Here we review the role of transcription in progeroid syndromes and discuss the implications of similar transcription aberrations in normal and premature aging.

  19. Multiplex Flow Assays

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow or dipstick assays (e.g., home pregnancy tests), where an analyte solution is drawn through a porous membrane and is detected by localization onto a capture probe residing at a specific site on the flow strip, are the most commonly and extensively used type of diagnostic assay. However, after over 30 years of use, these assays are constrained to measuring one or a few analytes at a time. Here, we describe a completely general method, in which any single-plex lateral flow assay is transformed into a multiplex assay capable of measuring an arbitrarily large number of analytes simultaneously. Instead of identifying the analyte by its localization onto a specific geometric location in the flow medium, the analyte-specific capture probe is identified by its association with a specific optically encoded region within the flow medium. The capture probes for nucleic acids, antigens, or antibodies are attached to highly porous agarose beads, which have been encoded using multiple lanthanide emitters to create a unique optical signature for each capture probe. The optically encoded capture probe-derivatized beads are placed in contact with the analyte-containing porous flow medium and the analytes are captured onto the encoded regions as the solution flows through the porous medium. To perform a multiplex diagnostic assay, a solution comprising multiple analytes is passed through the flow medium containing the capture probe-derivatized beads, and the captured analyte is treated with a suitable fluorescent reporter. We demonstrate this multiplex analysis technique by simultaneously measuring DNA samples, antigen–antibody pairs, and mixtures of multiple nucleic acids and antibodies. PMID:27819063

  20. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  1. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Huan-Tsang; Fung, Eliza N.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  2. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  3. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  4. Television multiplexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkins, L. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A television multiplexing system which includes a circuit that inserts a digital codes sync signal and a digital code into a video signal for identifying the channel is described. The digital sync signal and the digital coded signals are generated by a single crystal controlled clock so that they are always in synchronism with each other. In demultiplexing the signals are utilized for shifting the digital coded signals into a shift register. The shift register, in turn, activates a decoder according to the code stored in the shift register for selecting the proper recording disk or receiver for storing the video signal.

  5. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  6. Quantitative multiplexed quantum dot immunohistochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, E.; Ward, T.H.; Gray, N.; Womack, C.; Jayson, G.; Hughes, A.; Dive, C.; Byers, R.

    2008-09-19

    Quantum dots are photostable fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals possessing wide excitation and bright narrow, symmetrical, emission spectra. These characteristics have engendered considerable interest in their application in multiplex immunohistochemistry for biomarker quantification and co-localisation in clinical samples. Robust quantitation allows biomarker validation, and there is growing need for multiplex staining due to limited quantity of clinical samples. Most reported multiplexed quantum dot staining used sequential methods that are laborious and impractical in a high-throughput setting. Problems associated with sequential multiplex staining have been investigated and a method developed using QDs conjugated to biotinylated primary antibodies, enabling simultaneous multiplex staining with three antibodies. CD34, Cytokeratin 18 and cleaved Caspase 3 were triplexed in tonsillar tissue using an 8 h protocol, each localised to separate cellular compartments. This demonstrates utility of the method for biomarker measurement enabling rapid measurement of multiple co-localised biomarkers on single paraffin tissue sections, of importance for clinical trial studies.

  7. Williams syndrome: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Subapriya; Saxena, Deepti; Kishore, Yougal; Phadke, Shubha R

    2014-05-01

    Pediatricians awareness about malformation syndromes can help in their timely diagnosis. Williams syndrome is a microdeletion syndrome associated with characteristic facial features and behavioral phenotype. Diagnosis can be confirmed by fluorescence-in-situ hybridization or multiplex ligation probe amplification. Correct diagnosis can help in diagnosing hypercalcemia and cardiac defects, and providing genetic counseling to the family.

  8. Multiplex Recurrence Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Deniz; Marwan, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    The complex nature of a variety of phenomena in physical, biological, or earth sciences is driven by a large number of degrees of freedom which are strongly interconnected. Although the evolution of such systems is described by multivariate time series (MTS), so far research mostly focuses on analyzing these components one by one. Recurrence based analyses are powerful methods to understand the underlying dynamics of a dynamical system and have been used for many successful applications including examples from earth science, economics, or chemical reactions. The backbone of these techniques is creating the phase space of the system. However, increasing the dimension of a system requires increasing the length of the time series in order get significant and reliable results. This requirement is one of the challenges in many disciplines, in particular in palaeoclimate, thus, it is not easy to create a phase space from measured MTS due to the limited number of available obervations (samples). To overcome this problem, we suggest to create recurrence networks from each component of the system and combine them into a multiplex network structure, the multiplex recurrence network (MRN). We test the MRN by using prototypical mathematical models and demonstrate its use by studying high-dimensional palaeoclimate dynamics derived from pollen data from the Bear Lake (Utah, US). By using the MRN, we can distinguish typical climate transition events, e.g., such between Marine Isotope Stages.

  9. The role of genomic imprinting in human developmental disorders: lessons from Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hanel, M L; Wevrick, R

    2001-03-01

    Normal human development involves a delicate interplay of gene expression in specific tissues at narrow windows of time. Temporally and spatially regulated gene expression is controlled both by gene-specific factors and chromatin-specific factors. Genomic imprinting is the expression of specific genes primarily from only one allele at particular times during development, and is one mechanism implicated in the intricate control of gene expression. Two human genetic disorders, Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS, MIM 176270) and Angelman syndrome (AS, MIM 105830), result from rearrangements of chromosome 15q11-q13, an imprinted region of the human genome. Despite their rarity, disorders such as PWS and AS can give focused insight into the role of genomic imprinting and imprinted genes in human development.

  10. The Use and Effectiveness of Triple Multiplex System for Coding Region Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Mitochondrial DNA Typing of Archaeologically Obtained Human Skeletons from Premodern Joseon Tombs of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Soong Deok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Previous study showed that East Asian mtDNA haplogroups, especially those of Koreans, could be successfully assigned by the coupled use of analyses on coding region SNP markers and control region mutation motifs. In this study, we tried to see if the same triple multiplex analysis for coding regions SNPs could be also applicable to ancient samples from East Asia as the complementation for sequence analysis of mtDNA control region. By the study on Joseon skeleton samples, we know that mtDNA haplogroup determined by coding region SNP markers successfully falls within the same haplogroup that sequence analysis on control region can assign. Considering that ancient samples in previous studies make no small number of errors in control region mtDNA sequencing, coding region SNP analysis can be used as good complimentary to the conventional haplogroup determination, especially of archaeological human bone samples buried underground over long periods. PMID:26345190

  11. The Use and Effectiveness of Triple Multiplex System for Coding Region Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Mitochondrial DNA Typing of Archaeologically Obtained Human Skeletons from Premodern Joseon Tombs of Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Soong Deok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Previous study showed that East Asian mtDNA haplogroups, especially those of Koreans, could be successfully assigned by the coupled use of analyses on coding region SNP markers and control region mutation motifs. In this study, we tried to see if the same triple multiplex analysis for coding regions SNPs could be also applicable to ancient samples from East Asia as the complementation for sequence analysis of mtDNA control region. By the study on Joseon skeleton samples, we know that mtDNA haplogroup determined by coding region SNP markers successfully falls within the same haplogroup that sequence analysis on control region can assign. Considering that ancient samples in previous studies make no small number of errors in control region mtDNA sequencing, coding region SNP analysis can be used as good complimentary to the conventional haplogroup determination, especially of archaeological human bone samples buried underground over long periods.

  12. Characterization of a group unrelated patients with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Flores, Margarita; Casas-Avila, Leonora; Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; Kofman, Susana; Hidalgo-Bravo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a relatively rare neuromuscular syndrome, with a prevalence of 1:3000-5000 newborns. In this study, the authors describe the clinical features of a group of 50 unrelated Mexican patients with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Patients were diagnosed by physical and radiographic examination and the family history was evaluated. Of the 50 cases, nine presented other features (pectum excavatum, cleft palate, mental retardation, ulnar agenesis, etc.). Environmental factors, as well as prenatal and family history, were analyzed. The chromosomal anomalies and clinical entities associated with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita were reported. No chromosomal aberrations were present in the cases with mental retardation. Three unrelated familial cases with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita were observed in which autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant and X-linked inheritance patterns are possible. A literature review regarding arthrogryposis multiplex congenita was also conducted. It is important to establish patient-specific physical therapy and rehabilitation programs. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary, with medical, surgical, rehabilitation, social and psychological care, including genetic counseling. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Ticks Collected from Humans, South Korea, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Ryou, Jungsang; Yang, Sung-Chan; Park, Sun-Whan; Roh, Jong Yeol; Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Chan

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the infection rate for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) among ticks collected from humans during May–October 2013 in South Korea. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks have been considered the SFTSV vector. However, we detected the virus in H. longicornis, Amblyomma testudinarium, and Ixodes nipponensis ticks, indicating additional potential SFTSV vectors. PMID:25061851

  14. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in ticks collected from humans, South Korea, 2013.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Ryou, Jungsang; Yang, Sung-Chan; Park, Sun-Whan; Roh, Jong Yeol; Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Chan; Han, Myung Guk

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the infection rate for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) among ticks collected from humans during May-October 2013 in South Korea. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks have been considered the SFTSV vector. However, we detected the virus in H. longicornis, Amblyomma testudinarium, and Ixodes nipponensis ticks, indicating additional potential SFTSV vectors.

  15. Comparative physical maps of the human and mouse Meckel syndrome critical regions.

    PubMed

    Hentges, Kathryn E; Kyttälä, Mira; Justice, Monica J; Peltonen, Leena

    2004-04-01

    Meckel syndrome (MKS-OMIM 24900) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by cystic kidneys, occipital encephalocele, polydactyly, and fibrotic changes of the liver, typically resulting in postnatal death. A Meckel syndrome critical region (MKS1) maps to human Chromosome (Chr) 17, in a region of homology to mouse Chr 11. Here we report the comparison of human Chr 17q23 with mouse Chr 11. We have generated physical maps of the human and mouse MKS1 critical regions. Additionally, we have created a transcript map of the MKS1 critical region in both species. By comparing these physical maps, we observe a high degree of similarity in gene order in the human and mouse Meckel syndrome critical regions. We have also examined the expression patterns of genes in the MKS1 region to assess their potential as MKS1 candidates. Finally, we have analyzed genes present in the other Meckel syndrome critical regions, MKS2 and MKS3, to determine whether any of the candidate genes for the three MKS loci have similar gene functions or are members of a common biological pathway.

  16. Human Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody Inhibition of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication in the Common Marmoset.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Bao, Linlin; Chen, Cong; Zou, Tingting; Xue, Ying; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Gu, Songzhi; Gao, Xiaopan; Cui, Sheng; Wang, Jianmin; Qin, Chuan; Jin, Qi

    2017-06-15

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in humans is highly lethal, with a fatality rate of 35%. New prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to combat human infections are urgently needed. We isolated a fully human neutralizing antibody, MCA1, from a human survivor. The antibody recognizes the receptor-binding domain of MERS-CoV S glycoprotein and interferes with the interaction between viral S and the human cellular receptor human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a human neutralizing monoclonal antibody that completely inhibits MERS-CoV replication in common marmosets. Monotherapy with MCA1 represents a potential alternative treatment for human infections with MERS-CoV worthy of evaluation in clinical settings. © Crown copyright 2017.

  17. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  18. Imprinting in human disease with special reference to transient neonatal diabetes and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Temple, I Karen

    2007-01-01

    There are at least 6 well-studied imprinting domains on human autosomes. Each domain is under the regulatory control of an 'imprinting centre' that harbours a differentially methylated region. A number of molecular mechanisms result in differential silencing of some genes within these domains and gene expression is tightly regulated in normal individuals. However, this makes them vulnerable to naturally occurring genetic and epigenetic aberrations. Nine recognisable developmental syndromes have been described due to abnormalities within these 6 domains: transient neonatal diabetes (TND; at 6q24); Beckwith- Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndrome (at 11p15.5; 2 imprinted domains); maternal and paternal uniparental disomy syndromes (at 14q32); Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes (at 15q11-13), and pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b (at 20q12-13). Furthermore, it is now recognised that involvement at multiple domains can occur simultaneously and result in what has been described as the hypomethylation syndrome. TND and BWS are discussed in more detail as examples of imprinting disorders.

  19. Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, K K; Daly, P A; Sentochnik, D; Doweiko, J; Samore, M; Basgoz, N O; Grinspoon, S K

    1998-07-01

    To our knowledge, an association between human immunodeficiency virus infection and pseudo-Cushing's syndrome has not previously been described. We describe four HIV-infected patients with pseudo-Cushing's syndrome, characterized by striking dorsocervical and submandibular fat accumulation and central obesity. In each case, cortisol levels were either normal or suppressed adequately with administration of dexamethasone, excluding the diagnosis of true Cushing's syndrome. Immune function and weight improved significantly preceding the development of pseudo-Cushing's syndrome. Three of the four patients were taking a common protease inhibitor at the onset of symptoms, and the fourth reported the exacerbation of his symptoms with the addition of a protease inhibitor. The observed characteristic pattern of fat deposition may be attributable to a specific effect of new antiretroviral therapies or may relate to recovery independent of medication usage. Distinguishing between pseudo-Cushing's syndrome and true Cushing's syndrome is critical for preventing the unnecessary and potentially harmful treatment of such patients. Further research into the mechanisms of this novel phenomenon is needed.

  20. Developmental origins of health and disease: experimental and human evidence of fetal programming for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Gusmão Correia, M L; Volpato, A M; Águila, M B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    2012-07-01

    The concept of developmental origins of health and disease has been defined as the process through which the environment encountered before birth, or in infancy, shapes the long-term control of tissue physiology and homeostasis. The evidence for programming derives from a large number of experimental and epidemiological observations. Several nutritional interventions during diverse phases of pregnancy and lactation in rodents are associated with fetal and neonatal programming for metabolic syndrome. In this paper, recent experimental models and human epidemiological studies providing evidence for the fetal programming associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and related diseases are revisited.

  1. Understanding the Basis of Auriculocondylar Syndrome: Insights From Human and Mouse Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Clouthier, David E.; Passos Bueno, Maria Rita; Tavares, Andre L.P.; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Amiel, Jeanne; Gordon, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    Among human birth defect syndromes, malformations affecting the face are perhaps the most striking due to cultural and psychological expectations of facial shape. One such syndrome is auriculocondylar syndrome (ACS), in which patients present with defects in ear and mandible development. Affected structures arise from cranial neural crest cells, a population of cells in the embryo that reside in the pharyngeal arches and give rise to most of the bone, cartilage and connective tissue of the face. Recent studies have found that most cases of ACS arise from defects in signaling molecules associated with the endothelin signaling pathway. Disruption of this signaling pathway in both mouse and zebrafish results in loss of identity of neural crest cells of the mandibular portion of the first pharyngeal arch and the subsequent repatterning of these cells, leading to homeosis of lower jaw structures into more maxillary-like structures. These findings illustrate the importance of endothelin signaling in normal human craniofacial development and illustrate how clinical and basic science approaches can coalesce to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of human birth syndromes. Further, understanding the genetic basis for ACS that lies outside of known endothelin signaling components may help elucidate unknown aspects critical to the establishment of neural crest cell patterning during facial morphogenesis. PMID:24123988

  2. Multiplexed Elispot Assay

    PubMed Central

    Harriman, William D.; Collarini, Ellen J.; Cromer, Remy G.; Dutta, April; Strandh, Magnus; Zhang, Fen; Kauvar, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Micron scale latex beads are well established as highly biocompatible reagents. Imbibing two fluorescent dyes into the interior of the beads enables the creation of a family of combinatorially colored labels. Previous use of such beads, in flow cytometry for example, has focused on beads of ~5μm diameter. We show here that 280 nm combinatorially labeled particles can be used to create ELISA-style assays in 200 μm scale virtual wells, using digital microscopy as the readout. The utility of this technique is illustrated by profiling the secreted cytokine footprints of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a multiparametric version of the popular Elispot assay. Doing so reveals noncanonical classes of T lymphocytes. We further show that the secreting cell type can be concurrently identified by surface staining with a cell type specific antibody conjugated to the same multiplexed beads. PMID:19084532

  3. Multiplex biomarkers in blood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the field of blood biomarker discovery will help in identifying Alzheimer's disease in its preclinical stage, allowing treatment to be initiated before irreversible damage occurs. This review discusses some recent past and current approaches being taken by researchers in the field. Individual blood biomarkers have been unsuccessful in defining the disease pathology, progression and thus diagnosis. This directs to the need for discovering a multiplex panel of blood biomarkers as a promising approach with high sensitivity and specificity for early diagnosis. However, it is a great challenge to standardize a worldwide blood biomarker panel due to the innate differences in the population tested, nature of the samples and methods utilised in different studies across the globe. We highlight several issues that result in the lack of reproducibility in this field of research currently faced by researchers. Several important measures are summarized towards the end of the review that can be taken to minimize the variability among various centres. PMID:23795953

  4. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, E. P.; Pandya, S. S.; Dastur, Darab K.

    1972-01-01

    Sixteen cases with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita were examined clinically and electromyographically; three of them were re-examined later. Joint deformities were present in all extremities in 13 of the cases; in eight there was some degree of mental retardation. In two cases, there was clinical and electromyographic evidence of a myopathic disorder. In the majority, the appearances of the shoulder-neck region suggested a developmental defect. At the same time, selective weakness of muscles innervated by C5-C6 segments suggested a neuropathic disturbance. EMG revealed, in eight of 13 cases, clear evidence of denervation of muscles, but without any regenerative activity. The non-progressive nature of this disorder and capacity for improvement in muscle bulk and power suggest that denervation alone cannot explain the process. Re-examination of three patients after two to three years revealed persistence of the major deformities and muscle weakness noted earlier, with no appreciable deterioration. Images PMID:5049804

  5. Portable Multiplex Pathogen Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Visuri, S; McBride, M T; Matthews, D; Rao, R

    2002-07-15

    Tumor marker concentrations in serum provide useful information regarding clinical stage and prognosis of cancer and can thus be used for presymptomatic diagnostic purposes. Currently, detection and identification of soluble analytes in biological fluids is conducted by methods including bioassays, ELISA, PCR, DNA chip or strip tests. While these technologies are generally sensitive and specific, they are time consuming, labor intensive and cannot be multiplexed. Our goal is to develop a simple, point-of-care, portable, liquid array-based immunoassay device capable of simultaneous detection of a variety of cancer markers. Here we describe the development of assays for the detection of Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, and Ovalbumin from a single sample. The multiplexed immunoassays utilize polystyrene microbeads. The beads are imbedded with precise ratios of red and orange fluorescent dyes yielding an array of 100 beads, each with a unique spectral address (Figure 1). Each bead can be coated with capture antibodies specific for a given antigen. After antigen capture, secondary antibodies sandwich the bound antigen and are indirectly labeled by the fluorescent reporter phycoerythrin (PE). Each optically encoded and fluorescently-labeled microbead is then individually interrogated. A red laser excites the dye molecules imbedded inside the bead and classifies the bead to its unique bead set, and a green laser quantifies the assay at the bead surface. This technology has been proven to be comparable to the ELISA in terms of sensitivity and specificity. We also describe the laser-based instrumentation used to acquire fluorescent bead images Following the assay, droplets of bead suspension containing a mixture of bead classes were deposited onto filters held in place by a disposable plexiglass device and the resultant arrays viewed under the fluorescent imaging setup. Using the appropriate filter sets to extract the necessary red, orange and green fluorescence from the

  6. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita: airway concerns in an emergency situation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Babita; Suri, Saurabh; Kohli, Santvana; Ahmad, Suma; Gupta, Surender

    2014-06-01

    Difficult airway is always of special concern to anesthesiologists, but in a trauma setting where having a secured airway is most important, the incidence of difficult airway increases manifold. We report a "cannot ventilate cannot intubate" situation in a trauma patient who was later diagnosed to have arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, a syndrome known to affect the airway, and in whom all measures of securing a nonsurgical airway failed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Application of a multiplex PCR to cervical cells collected by a paper smear for the simultaneous detection of all mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and typing of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shirish; Bharti, Alok C; Mahata, Sutapa; Hussain, Showket; Hedau, Suresh; Sharma, Rajyashri; Pillai, M Radhakrishna; Krishna, Sudhir; Chiplunkar, Shubhada; Tongaonkar, Hemant; Das, Bhudev C

    2010-11-01

    A simple paper smear (PS) method for dry collection and storage of cervical specimens was employed to develop an easy multiplex (MPX) PCR for simultaneous detection of generic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) as well as typing of the high-risk HPV-16 and -18, the two clinically most important HPV genotypes, which are responsible for more than 80 % of cervical cancers. Multiplexing was performed with a small amount of DNA eluted by boiling from a single PS punch in a single tube and using a mixture of four pairs of primers specific for the HPV L1 consensus sequence, HPV-16, HPV-18 and the β-globin gene. Sixty HPV-positive biopsies and corresponding PS specimens from cervical cancer patients as well as cervical smears from 100 healthy women with or without abnormal cytology were collected both as PSs and in PBS. Detection of HPV DNA from cervical biopsies collected in PBS and corresponding cervical scrapes on a PS or in PBS by conventional and MPX-PCR showed a concordance of 100 % and adequacy of 93 %. A similar comparative study in cervical scrapes from normal women also revealed 100 % concordance. The technique was validated in a multicentric study at four different national laboratories. PSs collected by different centres showed variable adequacy (73-82 %) but the use of multiple PS discs for DNA extraction significantly increased the adequacy. Integration of PSs with MPX-PCR for the detection and typing of HPVs is a highly convenient, efficient, simple and cost-effective method for large-scale clinico-epidemiological studies and is also suitable for HPV vaccine monitoring programmes in resource-poor settings.

  8. Epidemiology and clinical presentations of the four human coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 detected over 3 years using a novel multiplex real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, E R; Hardie, A; Claas, E C J; Simmonds, P; Templeton, K E

    2010-08-01

    Four human coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43) are associated with a range of respiratory outcomes, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Their epidemiologies and clinical characteristics are poorly described and are often reliant on case reports. To address these problems, we conducted a large-scale comprehensive screening for all four coronaviruses by analysis of 11,661 diagnostic respiratory samples collected in Edinburgh, United Kingdom, over 3 years between July 2006 and June 2009 using a novel four-way multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay. Coronaviruses were detected in 0.3 to 0.85% of samples in all age groups. Generally, coronaviruses displayed marked winter seasonality between the months of December and April and were not detected in summer months, which is comparable to the pattern seen with influenza viruses. HCoV-229E was the exception; detection was confined to the winter of 2008 and was sporadic in the following year. There were additional longer-term differences in detection frequencies between seasons, with HCoV-OC43 predominant in the first and third seasons and HCoV-HKU1 dominating in the second (see Results for definitions of seasons). A total of 11 to 41% of coronaviruses detected were in samples testing positive for other respiratory viruses, although clinical presentations of coronavirus monoinfections were comparable to those of viruses which have an established role in respiratory disease, such as respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, and parainfluenza viruses. The novel multiplex assay for real-time pan-coronavirus detection enhances respiratory virus diagnosis, overcomes potential diagnostic problems arising through seasonal variation in coronavirus frequency, and provides novel insights into the epidemiology and clinical implications of coronaviruses.

  9. A 128 Multiplexing Factor Time-Domain SQUID Multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Piat, M.; Decourcelle, T.; Perbost, C.; Chapron, C.; Rambaud, D.; Maestre, S.; Marty, W.; Montier, L.

    2016-07-01

    A cryogenic 128:1 Time-Domain Multiplexer (TDM) has been developed for the readout of kilo-pixel Transition Edge Sensor (TES) arrays dedicated to the Q&U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology (QUBIC) instrument which aims to measure the B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are usually used to read out TESs. Moreover, SQUIDs are used to build TDM by biasing sequentially the SQUIDs connected together—one for each TES. In addition to this common technique which allows a typical 32 multiplexing factor, a cryogenic integrated circuit provides a 4:1 second multiplexing stage. This cryogenic integrated circuit is one of the original part of our TDM achieving an unprecedented 128 multiplexing factor. We present these two dimension TDM stages: topology of the SQUID multiplexer, operation of the cryogenic integrated circuit, and integration of the full system to read out a TES array dedicated to the QUBIC instrument. Flux-locked loop operation in multiplexed mode is also discussed.

  10. Multiplexer and time duration measuring circuit

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Jr., James

    1980-01-01

    A multiplexer device is provided for multiplexing data in the form of randomly developed, variable width pulses from a plurality of pulse sources to a master storage. The device includes a first multiplexer unit which includes a plurality of input circuits each coupled to one of the pulse sources, with all input circuits being disabled when one input circuit receives an input pulse so that only one input pulse is multiplexed by the multiplexer unit at any one time.

  11. Classification of human chromosome 21 gene-expression variations in Down syndrome: impact on disease phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Aït Yahya-Graison, E; Aubert, J; Dauphinot, L; Rivals, I; Prieur, M; Golfier, G; Rossier, J; Personnaz, L; Creau, N; Bléhaut, H; Robin, S; Delabar, J M; Potier, M-C

    2007-09-01

    Down syndrome caused by chromosome 21 trisomy is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation in humans. Disruption of the phenotype is thought to be the result of gene-dosage imbalance. Variations in chromosome 21 gene expression in Down syndrome were analyzed in lymphoblastoid cells derived from patients and control individuals. Of the 359 genes and predictions displayed on a specifically designed high-content chromosome 21 microarray, one-third were expressed in lymphoblastoid cells. We performed a mixed-model analysis of variance to find genes that are differentially expressed in Down syndrome independent of sex and interindividual variations. In addition, we identified genes with variations between Down syndrome and control samples that were significantly different from the gene-dosage effect (1.5). Microarray data were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that 29% of the expressed chromosome 21 transcripts are overexpressed in Down syndrome and correspond to either genes or open reading frames. Among these, 22% are increased proportional to the gene-dosage effect, and 7% are amplified. The other 71% of expressed sequences are either compensated (56%, with a large proportion of predicted genes and antisense transcripts) or highly variable among individuals (15%). Thus, most of the chromosome 21 transcripts are compensated for the gene-dosage effect. Overexpressed genes are likely to be involved in the Down syndrome phenotype, in contrast to the compensated genes. Highly variable genes could account for phenotypic variations observed in patients. Finally, we show that alternative transcripts belonging to the same gene are similarly regulated in Down syndrome but sense and antisense transcripts are not.

  12. Classification of Human Chromosome 21 Gene-Expression Variations in Down Syndrome: Impact on Disease Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Aït Yahya-Graison, E. ; Aubert, J. ; Dauphinot, L. ; Rivals, I. ; Prieur, M. ; Golfier, G. ; Rossier, J. ; Personnaz, L. ; Créau, N. ; Bléhaut, H. ; Robin, S. ; Delabar, J. M. ; Potier, M.-C. 

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome caused by chromosome 21 trisomy is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation in humans. Disruption of the phenotype is thought to be the result of gene-dosage imbalance. Variations in chromosome 21 gene expression in Down syndrome were analyzed in lymphoblastoid cells derived from patients and control individuals. Of the 359 genes and predictions displayed on a specifically designed high-content chromosome 21 microarray, one-third were expressed in lymphoblastoid cells. We performed a mixed-model analysis of variance to find genes that are differentially expressed in Down syndrome independent of sex and interindividual variations. In addition, we identified genes with variations between Down syndrome and control samples that were significantly different from the gene-dosage effect (1.5). Microarray data were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that 29% of the expressed chromosome 21 transcripts are overexpressed in Down syndrome and correspond to either genes or open reading frames. Among these, 22% are increased proportional to the gene-dosage effect, and 7% are amplified. The other 71% of expressed sequences are either compensated (56%, with a large proportion of predicted genes and antisense transcripts) or highly variable among individuals (15%). Thus, most of the chromosome 21 transcripts are compensated for the gene-dosage effect. Overexpressed genes are likely to be involved in the Down syndrome phenotype, in contrast to the compensated genes. Highly variable genes could account for phenotypic variations observed in patients. Finally, we show that alternative transcripts belonging to the same gene are similarly regulated in Down syndrome but sense and antisense transcripts are not. PMID:17701894

  13. Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Peierdun, Mi-ji-ti; Liu, Wen-xian; Renaguli, Ai-ze-zi; Nurmuhammat, Amat; Li, Xiao-chun; Gulibaier, Ka-ha-er; Ainivaer, Wu-la-mu; Halmurat, Upur

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of abnormal hilit syndromes in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM) among human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, and to find out the clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type HIV/AIDS patients. Between June and July in 2012, 307 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from in-patient department and out-patient clinics of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region the Sixth People's Hospital in Urumqi were investigated. TUM syndrome differentiation was performed by a senior TUM physician. Each participant completed a Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (SSC-HIV) questionnaire. Depression was evaluated by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each participant to test the levels of blood chemicals. Of 307 HIV/AIDS patients, 189 (61.6%) were abnormal savda syndrome type, 118 (38.4%) were non-abnormal-savda syndrome type. Mean CD4 counts of abnormal savda syndrome type patients was (227.61±192.93) cells/µL, and the prevalence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated cystatin C were 49.7%, 28.6%, and 44.7%, which were significantly higher than those in the non-abnormal-savda syndrome type patients (26.3%, 16.0% and 25.0%,P<0.05). In addition, depression (79.9%) and HIV/AIDS-related symptoms such as fatigue (42.3%), back aches (40.7%), lack of appetite (33.9%), night sweats (31.7%) were more common among abnormal savda syndrome patients (P<0.05). Abnormal savda syndrome is the dominant syndrome among HIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation.

  14. E2F1-mediated human POMC expression in ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araki, Takako; Liu, Ning-Ai; Tone, Yukiko; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Heltsley, Roy; Tone, Masahide; Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-11-01

    Cushing's syndrome is caused by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion derived from pituitary corticotroph tumors (Cushing disease) or from non-pituitary tumors (ectopic Cushing's syndrome). Hypercortisolemic features of ectopic Cushing's syndrome are severe, and no definitive treatment for paraneoplastic ACTH excess is available. We aimed to identify subcellular therapeutic targets by elucidating transcriptional regulation of the human ACTH precursor POMC (proopiomelanocortin) and ACTH production in non-pituitary tumor cells and in cell lines derived from patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome. We show that ectopic hPOMC transcription proceeds independently of pituitary-specific Tpit/Pitx1 and demonstrate a novel E2F1-mediated transcriptional mechanism regulating hPOMC We identify an E2F1 cluster binding to the proximal hPOMC promoter region (-42 to +68), with DNA-binding activity determined by the phosphorylation at Ser-337. hPOMC mRNA expression in cancer cells was upregulated (up to 40-fold) by the co-expression of E2F1 and its heterodimer partner DP1. Direct and indirect inhibitors of E2F1 activity suppressed hPOMC gene expression and ACTH by modifying E2F1 DNA-binding activity in ectopic Cushing's cell lines and primary tumor cells, and also suppressed paraneoplastic ACTH and cortisol levels in xenografted mice. E2F1-mediated hPOMC transcription is a potential target for suppressing ACTH production in ectopic Cushing's syndrome. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Fused pulmonary lobes is a rat model of human Fraser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kiyozumi, Daiji; Nakano, Itsuko; Takahashi, Ken L; Hojo, Hitoshi; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2011-07-29

    Fused pulmonary lobes (fpl) is a mutant gene that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and causes various developmental defects, including fusion of pulmonary lobes, and eyelid and digit anomalies in rats. Since these developmental defects closely resemble those observed in patients with Fraser syndrome, a recessive multiorgan disorder, and its model animals, we investigated whether the abnormal phenotypes observed in fpl/fpl mutant rats are attributable to a genetic disorder similar to Fraser syndrome. At the epidermal basement membrane in fpl/fpl mutant neonates, the expression of QBRICK, a basement membrane protein whose expression is attenuated in Fraser syndrome model mice, was greatly diminished compared with control littermates. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of Fraser syndrome-related genes revealed that Frem2 transcripts were markedly diminished in QBRICK-negative embryos. Genomic DNA sequencing of the fpl/fpl mutant identified a nonsense mutation that introduced a stop codon at serine 2005 in Frem2. These findings indicate that the fpl mutant is a rat model of human Fraser syndrome.

  16. Lack of cilia and differentiation defects in the liver of human foetuses with the Meckel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Clotman, Frédéric; Libbrecht, Louis; Killingsworth, Murray C; Loo, Christine C K; Roskams, Tania; Lemaigre, Frédéric P

    2008-03-01

    Meckel syndrome is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by a combination of renal cysts, anomalies of the central nervous system, polydactyly and ductal plate malformations (DPM), which are hepatic anomalies consisting of excessive and abnormal foetal biliary structures. Among the genomic loci associated with Meckel syndrome, mutations in four genes were recently identified. These genes code for proteins associated with primary cilia and are possibly involved in cell differentiation. The aim of the present work was to investigate the formation of the primary cilia and the differentiation of the hepatic cells in foetuses with Meckel syndrome. Sections of livers from human foetuses with Meckel syndrome were analysed by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The primary cilia of the biliary cells were absent in some Meckel foetuses, but were present in others. In addition, defects in hepatic differentiation were observed in Meckel livers, as evidenced by the presence of hybrid cells co-expressing hepatocytic and biliary markers. Defects in cilia formation occur in some Meckel livers, and most cases show DPM associated with abnormal hepatic cell differentiation. Because differentiation precedes the formation of the cilia during liver development, we propose that defective differentiation may constitute the initial defect in the liver of Meckel syndrome foetuses.

  17. KCC2 rescues functional deficits in human neurons derived from patients with Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Kim, Julie; Zhou, Li; Wengert, Eric; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Zheng; Carromeu, Cassiano; Muotri, Alysson R.; Marchetto, Maria C. N.; Gage, Fred H.; Chen, Gong

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe form of autism spectrum disorder, mainly caused by mutations of a single gene methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) on the X chromosome. Patients with Rett syndrome exhibit a period of normal development followed by regression of brain function and the emergence of autistic behaviors. However, the mechanism behind the delayed onset of symptoms is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that neuron-specific K+-Cl− cotransporter2 (KCC2) is a critical downstream gene target of MeCP2. We found that human neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with Rett syndrome showed a significant deficit in KCC2 expression and consequently a delayed GABA functional switch from excitation to inhibition. Interestingly, overexpression of KCC2 in MeCP2-deficient neurons rescued GABA functional deficits, suggesting an important role of KCC2 in Rett syndrome. We further identified that RE1-silencing transcriptional factor, REST, a neuronal gene repressor, mediates the MeCP2 regulation of KCC2. Because KCC2 is a slow onset molecule with expression level reaching maximum later in development, the functional deficit of KCC2 may offer an explanation for the delayed onset of Rett symptoms. Our studies suggest that restoring KCC2 function in Rett neurons may lead to a potential treatment for Rett syndrome. PMID:26733678

  18. KCC2 rescues functional deficits in human neurons derived from patients with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin; Kim, Julie; Zhou, Li; Wengert, Eric; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Zheng; Carromeu, Cassiano; Muotri, Alysson R; Marchetto, Maria C N; Gage, Fred H; Chen, Gong

    2016-01-19

    Rett syndrome is a severe form of autism spectrum disorder, mainly caused by mutations of a single gene methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) on the X chromosome. Patients with Rett syndrome exhibit a period of normal development followed by regression of brain function and the emergence of autistic behaviors. However, the mechanism behind the delayed onset of symptoms is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter2 (KCC2) is a critical downstream gene target of MeCP2. We found that human neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with Rett syndrome showed a significant deficit in KCC2 expression and consequently a delayed GABA functional switch from excitation to inhibition. Interestingly, overexpression of KCC2 in MeCP2-deficient neurons rescued GABA functional deficits, suggesting an important role of KCC2 in Rett syndrome. We further identified that RE1-silencing transcriptional factor, REST, a neuronal gene repressor, mediates the MeCP2 regulation of KCC2. Because KCC2 is a slow onset molecule with expression level reaching maximum later in development, the functional deficit of KCC2 may offer an explanation for the delayed onset of Rett symptoms. Our studies suggest that restoring KCC2 function in Rett neurons may lead to a potential treatment for Rett syndrome.

  19. Percolation in real multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Radicchi, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    We present an exact mathematical framework able to describe site-percolation transitions in real multiplex networks. Specifically, we consider the average percolation diagram valid over an infinite number of random configurations where nodes are present in the system with given probability. The approach relies on the locally treelike ansatz, so that it is expected to accurately reproduce the true percolation diagram of sparse multiplex networks with negligible number of short loops. The performance of our theory is tested in social, biological, and transportation multiplex graphs. When compared against previously introduced methods, we observe improvements in the prediction of the percolation diagrams in all networks analyzed. Results from our method confirm previous claims about the robustness of real multiplex networks, in the sense that the average connectedness of the system does not exhibit any significant abrupt change as its individual components are randomly destroyed.

  20. ADAM19: A Novel Target for Metabolic Syndrome in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weerasekera, Lakshini; Rudnicka, Caroline; Sang, Qing-Xiang; Johnson, Matthew P.; Moses, Eric K.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Blangero, John; Hricova, Jana; Schlaich, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases in the Western world and correlates directly with insulin resistance, which may ultimately culminate in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We sought to ascertain whether the human metalloproteinase A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 19 (ADAM19) correlates with parameters of the metabolic syndrome in humans and mice. To determine the potential novel role of ADAM19 in the metabolic syndrome, we first conducted microarray studies on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a well-characterised human cohort. Secondly, we examined the expression of ADAM19 in liver and gonadal white adipose tissue using an in vivo diet induced obesity mouse model. Finally, we investigated the effect of neutralising ADAM19 on diet induced weight gain, insulin resistance in vivo, and liver TNF-α levels. Significantly, we show that, in humans, ADAM19 strongly correlates with parameters of the metabolic syndrome, particularly BMI, relative fat, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides. Furthermore, we identified that ADAM19 expression was markedly increased in the liver and gonadal white adipose tissue of obese and T2D mice. Excitingly, we demonstrate in our diet induced obesity mouse model that neutralising ADAM19 therapy results in weight loss, improves insulin sensitivity, and reduces liver TNF-α levels. Our novel data suggest that ADAM19 is pro-obesogenic and enhances insulin resistance. Therefore, neutralisation of ADAM19 may be a potential therapeutic approach to treat obesity and T2D. PMID:28265178

  1. Evidence for "Unertan Syndrome" and the evolution of the human mind.

    PubMed

    Tan, Uner

    2006-07-01

    A new family exhibiting "Unertan Sydnrome" was discovered. The pedigree analysis showed marriages between relatives. This family was similar to the first one (see Tan, 2006a), providing a firm evidence for the new syndrome. The affected children showed habitual quadrupedal walking gait, that is, they walked on wrists and feet with straight legs and arms. Their heads and bodies were mildly flexed; they exhibited mild cerebellar signs, and severe mental retardation. The pedigree demonstrated a typical autosomal-recessive inheritance. The genetic nature of this syndrome suggests a backward stage in human evolution (devolution), which would be consistent with theories of punctuated evolution. The results reflected a new theory on the evolution of human beings. That is, the evolution of humans would in fact be the evolution of the extensor motor system, responsible for upright posture, against the gravitational forces. This would be coupled with the emergence of the human mind, which can be considered a reflexion of the human motor system, in accord with the psychomotor theory (see Tan, 2005a). The most important characteristic of the newly emerged human mind was the resistance against gravitational forces. This was the resistive mind, the origins of human creativity.

  2. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of human microtia via a pig model of HOXA1 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ruimin; He, Yuyong; Pan, Bo; Xiao, Shijun; Zhang, Xufei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhiyan; Hong, Yuan; Xing, Yuyun; Ren, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Microtia is a congenital malformation of the outer ears. Although both genetic and environmental components have been implicated in microtia, the genetic causes of this innate disorder are poorly understood. Pigs have naturally occurring diseases comparable to those in humans, providing exceptional opportunity to dissect the molecular mechanism of human inherited diseases. Here we first demonstrated that a truncating mutation in HOXA1 causes a monogenic disorder of microtia in pigs. We further performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis on affected and healthy pig embryos (day 14.25). We identified a list of 337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the normal and mutant samples, shedding light on the transcriptional network involving HOXA1. The DEGs are enriched in biological processes related to cardiovascular system and embryonic development, and neurological, renal and urological diseases. Aberrant expressions of many DEGs have been implicated in human innate deformities corresponding to microtia-associated syndromes. After applying three prioritizing algorithms, we highlighted appealing candidate genes for human microtia from the 337 DEGs. We searched for coding variants of functional significance within six candidate genes in 147 microtia-affected individuals. Of note, we identified one EVC2 non-synonymous mutation (p.Asp1174Asn) as a potential disease-implicating variant for a human microtia-associated syndrome. The findings advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human microtia, and provide an interesting example of the characterization of human disease-predisposing variants using pig models.

  3. Evidence for reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 in generalized lymphadenopathy in a patient with drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saraya, Takeshi; Mikoshiba, Michiaki; Kamiyama, Harumi; Yoshizumi, Masakazu; Tsuchida, Shigeru; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Ishioka, Taisei; Terada, Miho; Tanabe, Eiichi; Tomioka, Chizuko; Ishii, Haruyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Shiohara, Tetsuo; Takizawa, Hajime; Goto, Hajime

    2013-06-01

    The present case provides direct evidence of human herpesvirus 6 reactivation in resected lymph node tissue in a patient with drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. This case clearly demonstrates that appropriate pathological evaluation of lymphadenopathy for drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, which mimics malignant lymphoma in clinical, radiological, and pathological findings, is required.

  4. JAGGED1 expression in human embryos: correlation with the Alagille syndrome phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jones, E; Clement-Jones, M; Wilson, D

    2000-01-01

    Alagille syndrome (AGS, MIM 118450) is an autosomal dominant disorder with a variable phenotype characterised by hepatic, eye, cardiac, and skeletal malformations and a characteristic facial appearance. Mutations within the gene JAGGED1 (JAG1), which encodes a ligand for NOTCH receptor(s), has been shown to cause Alagille syndrome. Interactions of NOTCH receptors and their ligands influence cell fate decisions in several developmental pathways. We report the tissue expression of JAG1 in human embryos.
We have performed tissue in situ hybridisation on human embryos aged 32-52 days using 35S labelled riboprobes for JAG1. JAG1 is expressed in the distal cardiac outflow tract and pulmonary artery, major arteries, portal vein, optic vesicle, otocyst, branchial arches, metanephros, pancreas, mesocardium, around the major bronchial branches, and in the neural tube. We conclude that JAG1 is expressed in the structures affected in Alagille syndrome, such as the pulmonary artery, anterior chamber of the eye, and face.


Keywords: Alagille syndrome; arteriohepatic dysplasia; JAGGED1; NOTCH signalling PMID:10978356

  5. A human stem cell model of early Alzheimer's disease pathology in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yichen; Kirwan, Peter; Smith, James; MacLean, Glenn; Orkin, Stuart H; Livesey, Frederick J

    2012-03-07

    Human cellular models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis would enable the investigation of candidate pathogenic mechanisms in AD and the testing and developing of new therapeutic strategies. We report the development of AD pathologies in cortical neurons generated from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from patients with Down syndrome. Adults with Down syndrome (caused by trisomy of chromosome 21) develop early-onset AD, probably due to increased expression of a gene on chromosome 21 that encodes the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We found that cortical neurons generated from iPS cells and embryonic stem cells from Down syndrome patients developed AD pathologies over months in culture, rather than years in vivo. These cortical neurons processed the transmembrane APP protein, resulting in secretion of the pathogenic peptide fragment amyloid-β42 (Aβ42), which formed insoluble intracellular and extracellular amyloid aggregates. Production of Aβ peptides was blocked by a γ-secretase inhibitor. Finally, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, a pathological hallmark of AD, was found to be localized to cell bodies and dendrites in iPS cell-derived cortical neurons from Down syndrome patients, recapitulating later stages of the AD pathogenic process.

  6. Multiplexed analysis of genes using nucleic acid-stabilized silver-nanocluster quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Enkin, Natalie; Wang, Fuan; Sharon, Etery; Albada, H Bauke; Willner, Itamar

    2014-11-25

    Luminescent nucleic acid-stabilized Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) are applied for the optical detection of DNA and for the multiplexed analysis of genes. Two different sensing modules including Ag NCs as luminescence labels are described. One sensing module involves the assembly of a three-component sensing module composed of a nucleic acid-stabilized Ag NC and a quencher-modified nucleic acid hybridized with a nucleic acid scaffold that is complementary to the target DNA. The luminescence of the Ag NCs is quenched in the sensing module nanostructure. The strand displacement of the scaffold by the target DNA separates the nucleic acid-functionalized Ag NCs, leading to the turned-on luminescence of the NCs and to the optical readout of the sensing process. By implementing two different-sized Ag NC-modified sensing modules, the parallel multiplexed analysis of two genes (the Werner Syndrome gene and the HIV, human immunodeficiency, gene), using 615 and 560 nm luminescent Ag NCs, is demonstrated. The second sensing module includes the nucleic acid functionalized Ag NCs and the quencher-modified nucleic acid hybridized with a hairpin DNA scaffold. The luminescence of the Ag NCs is quenched in the sensing module. Opening of the hairpin by the target DNA triggers the luminescence of the Ag NCs, due to the spatial separation of the Ag NCs/quencher units. The system is applied for the optical detection of the BRAC1 gene. In addition, by implementing two-sized Ag NCs, the multiplexed analysis of two genes by the hairpin sensing module approach is demonstrated.

  7. Navigability of multiplex temporal network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qiao-Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Real world complex systems have multiple levels of relationships and in many cases, they need to be modeled as multiplex networks where the same nodes can interact with each other in different layers, such as social networks. However, social relationships only appear at prescribed times so the temporal structures of edge activations can also affect the dynamical processes located above them. To consider both factors are simultaneously, we introduce multiplex temporal networks and propose three different walk strategies to investigate the concurrent dynamics of random walks and the temporal structure of multiplex networks. Thus, we derive analytical results for the multiplex centrality and coverage function in multiplex temporal networks. By comparing them with the numerical results, we show how the underlying topology of the layers and the walk strategy affect the efficiency when exploring the networks. In particular, the most interesting result is the emergence of a super-diffusion process, where the time scale of the multiplex is faster than that of both layers acting separately.

  8. [Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and retinitis pigmentosa].

    PubMed

    Stübiger, N; Biester, S; Deuter, C; Zrenner, E; Besch, D

    2009-12-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a heterogeneous pattern of symptoms consisting of clinically different types. AMC is a non-progressive condition, which is characterized by congenital contracture of several joints in different body areas and may also occur as a manifestation of other syndromes. In such syndromes retinopathy as an ophthalmological manifestation of AMC has been described in the literature in only two patients. A 12-year-old girl with AMC presented with progressive visual loss since 1 year. Visual acuity was 0.5 in the right and 0.8 in the left eye. Visual fields were concentrically constricted. Funduscopy revealed an atrophic retinal pigment epithelium of the whole fundus with vital optic discs. In the scotopic electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes were dramatically decreased or absent and cone signals were delayed. The multifocal ERG (mfERG) presented pathologically reduced amplitudes in the macular region as well as in the periphery. Examinations 5 and 8 years later revealed a reduction of visual acuity to 0.05 in the right and to 0.1 in the left eye, in addition the results of perimetry and of the Ganzfeld-ERG had deceased and the mfERG was no longer measurable. This young female demonstrated an AMC in combination with retinitis pigmentosa, but other disease manifestations or cerebral retardation could not be found. We present here an unusual case of what seems to be a new athrogryposis syndrome.

  9. Diagnosing arthrogryposis multiplex congenita: a review.

    PubMed

    Kalampokas, Emmanouil; Kalampokas, Theodoros; Sofoudis, Chrisostomos; Deligeoroglou, Efthymios; Botsis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) refers either to a syndromic or to a nonsyndromic group of conditions with varied etiology and complex clinical features, including multiple congenital contractures in different body areas. Its etiology still remains unclear but generally any cause that leads to reduced fetal movement may lead to congenital contractures and in severe cases to fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS). It affects approximately 1 in 2-3000 live births with an approximately equal gender ratio. There are many known subgroups of AMC differing in signs, symptoms, and causes. The primary diagnosis is made when a lack of mobility and an abnormal position is noted in routine ultrasound scanning. Early diagnosis, prenatal evaluation, and further surveillance via image scanning (ultrasound and MRI) give the opportunity for family counseling concerning neonatal morbidity and mortality and labor or delivery planning. Better understanding of the ultrasound findings and the etiology of this clinical situation offers the opportunity for careful prenatal assessment.

  10. Diagnosing Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kalampokas, Emmanouil; Kalampokas, Theodoros; Sofoudis, Chrisostomos; Deligeoroglou, Efthymios; Botsis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) refers either to a syndromic or to a nonsyndromic group of conditions with varied etiology and complex clinical features, including multiple congenital contractures in different body areas. Its etiology still remains unclear but generally any cause that leads to reduced fetal movement may lead to congenital contractures and in severe cases to fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS). It affects approximately 1 in 2-3000 live births with an approximately equal gender ratio. There are many known subgroups of AMC differing in signs, symptoms, and causes. The primary diagnosis is made when a lack of mobility and an abnormal position is noted in routine ultrasound scanning. Early diagnosis, prenatal evaluation, and further surveillance via image scanning (ultrasound and MRI) give the opportunity for family counseling concerning neonatal morbidity and mortality and labor or delivery planning. Better understanding of the ultrasound findings and the etiology of this clinical situation offers the opportunity for careful prenatal assessment. PMID:23050160

  11. Enhanced human brain associative plasticity in Costello syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dileone, M; Profice, P; Pilato, F; Alfieri, P; Cesarini, L; Mercuri, E; Leoni, C; Tartaglia, M; Di Iorio, R; Zampino, G; Di Lazzaro, V

    2010-01-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare multiple congenital anomaly disorder which is caused by germline mutations in the v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (HRAS) proto-oncogene. Experimental data suggest perturbing effects of the mutated protein on the functional and structural organization of networks of cerebral cortex and on the activity-dependent strengthening of synaptic transmission known as long term potentiation (LTP). In five patients with molecularly proven diagnosis of CS and in a group of 13 age-matched control subjects we investigated activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. To this end, we used a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol, in which left ulnar nerve stimuli were followed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses to right cortical hand area, and recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) by single pulse TMS from left first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle before and after PAS. In 4 out of 5 CS patients and in a subgroup of nine control subjects we also evaluated the time course and the topographical specificity of PAS after-effects. In these two subgroups, MEPs were measured before, immediately after and 30 min after PAS in the left FDI and left abductor pollicis brevis (APB). While the PAS protocol led to a 65% increase of the FDI MEP amplitude in controls, the LTP-like phenomenon was significantly more pronounced in CS patients, with motor responses increased by 230%. In addition, CS patients showed a similar MEP increase in both muscles while control subjects showed a slight increase in APB and only immediately after PAS. We hypothesize that the extremely enhanced PAS after-effects could be due to the influence of HRAS activity on the susceptibility of synapses to undergo LTP. PMID:20660566

  12. Assessment of human lymphocyte proliferation associated with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinzón, O A; Sánchez, J C; Sepúlveda-Arias, J C; López-Zapata, D F

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of various metabolic conditions, has become epidemic and causes increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to compare lymphocyte proliferation under two different stimuli, Concanavalin A (ConA) and insulin, in a group of patients with MetS (Group 1) and a healthy group (Group 2). Group 1 consisted of 53 patients who met the diagnostic criteria for MetS. Group 2 consisted of 63 patients without MetS. All individuals were evaluated for lipid profile and glycemia. Lymphocyte extraction and culture were performed for each subject and lymphocyte proliferation was assessed using the Alamar blue technique. There was no gender difference between both groups, but in terms of age, there was a significant difference. The use of Con A at concentrations of 1 and 5 µg/mL induced a high lymphocyte proliferation in both groups. In contrast, when different concentrations of insulin were added, no significant changes in lymphocyte proliferation were observed. However, the proliferation of lymphocytes was significantly higher in Group 1 compared to Group 2 under insulin stimulus, which did not happen under ConA stimulation. Even after age and gender correction, this difference was maintained. The increased lymphocyte proliferative response to insulin in patients with MetS found in this study suggests a role of the lymphocyte response to insulin in the pathophysiology of MetS. This response may be used as an immuno-biological marker for MetS, although further studies to evaluate its clinical usefulness need to be conducted.

  13. A model for neural development and treatment of Rett syndrome using human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Marchetto, Maria C N; Carromeu, Cassiano; Acab, Allan; Yu, Diana; Yeo, Gene W; Mu, Yangling; Chen, Gong; Gage, Fred H; Muotri, Alysson R

    2010-11-12

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental diseases in which different combinations of genetic mutations may contribute to the phenotype. Using Rett syndrome (RTT) as an ASD genetic model, we developed a culture system using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from RTT patients' fibroblasts. RTT patients' iPSCs are able to undergo X-inactivation and generate functional neurons. Neurons derived from RTT-iPSCs had fewer synapses, reduced spine density, smaller soma size, altered calcium signaling and electrophysiological defects when compared to controls. Our data uncovered early alterations in developing human RTT neurons. Finally, we used RTT neurons to test the effects of drugs in rescuing synaptic defects. Our data provide evidence of an unexplored developmental window, before disease onset, in RTT syndrome where potential therapies could be successfully employed. Our model recapitulates early stages of a human neurodevelopmental disease and represents a promising cellular tool for drug screening, diagnosis and personalized treatment.

  14. A model for neural development and treatment of Rett Syndrome using human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Marchetto, Maria C. N.; Carromeu, Cassiano; Acab, Allan; Yu, Diana; Yeo, Gene; Mu, Yangling; Chen, Gong; Gage, Fred H.; Muotri, Alysson R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental diseases in which different combinations of genetic mutations may contribute to the phenotype. Using Rett syndrome (RTT) as an ASD genetic model, we developed a culture system using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from RTT patients’ fibroblasts. RTT patients’ iPSCs are able to undergo X-inactivation and generate functional neurons. Neurons derived from RTT-iPSCs had fewer synapses, reduced spine density, smaller soma size, altered calcium signaling and electrophysiological defects when compared to controls. Our data uncovered early alterations in developing human RTT neurons. Finally, we used RTT neurons to test the effects of drugs in rescuing synaptic defects. Our data provide evidence of an unexplored developmental window, before disease onset, in RTT syndrome where potential therapies could be successfully employed. Our model recapitulates early stages of a human neurodevelopmental disease and represents a promising cellular tool for drug screening, diagnosis and personalized treatment. PMID:21074045

  15. Transmission of trisomy decreases with maternal age in mouse models of Down syndrome, mirroring a phenomenon in human Down syndrome mothers.

    PubMed

    Stern, Shani; Biron, David; Moses, Elisha

    2016-07-11

    Down syndrome incidence in humans increases dramatically with maternal age. This is mainly the result of increased meiotic errors, but factors such as differences in abortion rate may play a role as well. Since the meiotic error rate increases almost exponentially after a certain age, its contribution to the overall incidence aneuploidy may mask the contribution of other processes. To focus on such selection mechanisms we investigated transmission in trisomic females, using data from mouse models and from Down syndrome humans. In trisomic females the a-priori probability for trisomy is independent of meiotic errors and thus approximately constant in the early embryo. Despite this, the rate of transmission of the extra chromosome decreases with age in females of the Ts65Dn and, as we show, for the Tc1 mouse models for Down syndrome. Evaluating progeny of 73 Tc1 births and 112 Ts65Dn births from females aged 130 days to 250 days old showed that both models exhibit a 3-fold reduction of the probability to transmit the trisomy with increased maternal ageing. This is concurrent with a 2-fold reduction of litter size with maternal ageing. Furthermore, analysis of previously reported 30 births in Down syndrome women shows a similar tendency with an almost three fold reduction in the probability to have a Down syndrome child between a 20 and 30 years old Down syndrome woman. In the two types of mice models for Down syndrome that were used for this study, and in human Down syndrome, older females have significantly lower probability to transmit the trisomy to the offspring. Our findings, taken together with previous reports of decreased supportive environment of the older uterus, add support to the notion that an older uterus negatively selects the less fit trisomic embryos.

  16. Hantavirus antibodies in rodents and human cases with pulmonary syndrome, Rio Negro, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Edmundo; Cantoni, Gustavo; Herrero, Eduardo; Pérez, Alicia; Talmon, Gabriel; Vázquez, Gabriela; Arellano, Odila; Padula, Paula

    2008-01-01

    In Río Negro Province, Argentina, human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) appeared in the region of subantarctic forests. The Andes virus (ANDV) has been identified in the region both in Oligoryzomys longicaudatus rodents and in humans, with the main transmission being from rodents to humans but also showing the possibility of human to human transmission. Between 1996 and 2004, in 40 campaigns, 29.960 night-traps for capturing live rodents were set up. Blood samples were obtained from the rodents and processed using enzyme immunoassay with recombinant antigens made from ANDV. A total of 1767 rodents were captured, with a capture success of 5.9% and an antibody prevalence of 2.1%. Important differences were observed among the species captured from Andes and Steppe regions. Seropositive Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, Abrotrix olivaceus, Abrotrix xanhtothinus and Loxodontomus microtus were captured. During the 1993-2004 period, 40 HPS cases were registered.

  17. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: A Review of Current Literature.

    PubMed

    Butts, Breann N; Fischer, Philip R; Mack, Kenneth J

    2017-10-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is efficacious in preventing complications of human papillomavirus infection including cervical cancer. However, there have been case reports of adverse events occurring after vaccination, one being postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). This article reviews published data and other available information regarding the relationship between the human papillomavirus vaccine and POTS. Background information is provided regarding the human papillomavirus vaccine and the proposed post-vaccination adverse event POTS. Peer-reviewed literature, statements by government and medical advisory committees, and publicly available information published on this topic are examined. At this time, there is no conclusive evidence supporting a causal relationship between the human papillomavirus vaccine and POTS. Though a causal relationship has been postulated, it is of utmost importance to recognize that while temporal associations may be observed, conclusions of causality cannot be drawn from case reports and case series due to the small sample size and lack of control population.

  18. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, human herpesvirus 8 viremia, and HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Marc O; Ghafouri, Sanaz; Ajmera, Ravi; Simon, Gary L

    2016-07-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma and multicentric Castleman Disease are HIV-related disease processes that are associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection. The development of multicentric Castleman disease can often be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome phenomenon and is associated with markedly elevated levels of HHV-8 viremia, as illustrated by this case. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome associated with human herpes virus-6 rhomboencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, Vincenzo; Piola, Mirko; Binda, Sandro; Santoro, Domenico; Rezzonico, Monica; Arnaboldi, Marco

    2014-06-15

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is characterized by opsoclonus and arrhythmic-action myoclonus that predominantly involves the trunk, limbs, and head. Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) can rarely cause encephalitis in immunocompetent children and adults. Here we report on a case of OMS associated with HHV-6 rhomboencephalitis. HHV-6 infection should be considered in OMS adults and detection of cell-free viral DNA, indicative of active infection, is mandatory in such cases.

  20. Multiplexed lasing in tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Qiushu; Fan, Xudong

    2017-02-01

    Biolasers are an emerging technology for next generation biochemical detection and clinical applications. Progress has recently been made to achieve lasing from biomolecules and single living cells. Tissues, which consist of cells embedded in extracellular matrix, mimic more closely the actual complex biological environment in a living body and therefore are of more practical significance. Here, we developed a highly versatile tissue laser platform, in which tissues stained with fluorophores are sandwiched in a high-Q Fabry-Pérot microcavity. Distinct lasing emissions from muscle and adipose tissues stained respectively with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY), and hybrid muscle/adipose tissue with dual-staining were achieved with a threshold of only 10 μJ/mm2. Additionally, we investigated how tissue structure/geometry, tissue thickness, and staining dye concentration affect the tissue laser. It is further found that, despite large fluorescence spectral overlap between FITC and BODIPY in tissues, their lasing emissions could be clearly distinguished and controlled due to their narrow lasing bands and different lasing thresholds, thus enabling highly multiplexed detection. Our tissue laser platform can be broadly applicable to various types of tissues/diseases. It provides a new tool for a wide range of biological and biomedical applications, such as diagnostics/screening of tissues and identification/monitoring of biological transformations in tissue engineering.

  1. Large-scale multiplex absolute protein quantification of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in human intestine, liver, and kidney microsomes by SWATH-MS: Comparison with MRM/SRM and HR-MRM/PRM.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kenji; Hirayama-Kurogi, Mio; Ito, Shingo; Kuno, Takuya; Yoneyama, Toshihiro; Obuchi, Wataru; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Sumio

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine simultaneously the absolute protein amounts of 152 membrane and membrane-associated proteins, including 30 metabolizing enzymes and 107 transporters, in pooled microsomal fractions of human liver, kidney, and intestine by means of SWATH-MS with stable isotope-labeled internal standard peptides, and to compare the results with those obtained by MRM/SRM and high resolution (HR)-MRM/PRM. The protein expression levels of 27 metabolizing enzymes, 54 transporters, and six other membrane proteins were quantitated by SWATH-MS; other targets were below the lower limits of quantitation. Most of the values determined by SWATH-MS differed by less than 50% from those obtained by MRM/SRM or HR-MRM/PRM. Various metabolizing enzymes were expressed in liver microsomes more abundantly than in other microsomes. Ten, 13, and eight transporters listed as important for drugs by International Transporter Consortium were quantified in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes, respectively. Our results indicate that SWATH-MS enables large-scale multiplex absolute protein quantification while retaining similar quantitative capability to MRM/SRM or HR-MRM/PRM. SWATH-MS is expected to be useful methodology in the context of drug development for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of drug absorption, metabolism, and excretion in the human body based on protein profile information.

  2. Uner tan syndrome: history, clinical evaluations, genetics, and the dynamics of human quadrupedalism.

    PubMed

    Tan, Uner

    2010-07-16

    This review includes for the first time a dynamical systems analysis of human quadrupedalism in Uner Tan syndrome, which is characterized by habitual quadrupedalism, impaired intelligence, and rudimentary speech. The first family was discovered in a small village near Iskenderun, and families were later found in Adana and two other small villages near Gaziantep and Canakkale. In all the affected individuals dynamic balance was impaired during upright walking, and they habitually preferred walking on all four extremities. MRI scans showed inferior cerebellovermian hypoplasia with slightly simplified cerebral gyri in three of the families, but appeared normal in the fourth. PET scans showed a decreased glucose metabolic activity in the cerebellum, vermis and, to a lesser extent the cerebral cortex, except for one patient, whose MRI scan also appeared to be normal. All four families had consanguineous marriages in their pedigrees, suggesting autosomal recessive transmission. The syndrome was genetically heterogeneous. Since the initial discoveries more cases have been found, and these exhibit facultative quadrupedal locomotion, and in one case, late childhood onset. It has been suggested that the human quadrupedalism may, at least, be a phenotypic example of reverse evolution. From the viewpoint of dynamic systems theory, it was concluded there may not be a single factor that predetermines human quadrupedalism in Uner Tan syndrome, but that it may involve self-organization, brain plasticity, and rewiring, from the many decentralized and local interactions among neuronal, genetic, and environmental subsystems.

  3. Uner Tan Syndrome: History, Clinical Evaluations, Genetics, and the Dynamics of Human Quadrupedalism

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Uner

    2010-01-01

    This review includes for the first time a dynamical systems analysis of human quadrupedalism in Uner Tan syndrome, which is characterized by habitual quadrupedalism, impaired intelligence, and rudimentary speech. The first family was discovered in a small village near Iskenderun, and families were later found in Adana and two other small villages near Gaziantep and Canakkale. In all the affected individuals dynamic balance was impaired during upright walking, and they habitually preferred walking on all four extremities. MRI scans showed inferior cerebellovermian hypoplasia with slightly simplified cerebral gyri in three of the families, but appeared normal in the fourth. PET scans showed a decreased glucose metabolic activity in the cerebellum, vermis and, to a lesser extent the cerebral cortex, except for one patient, whose MRI scan also appeared to be normal. All four families had consanguineous marriages in their pedigrees, suggesting autosomal recessive transmission. The syndrome was genetically heterogeneous. Since the initial discoveries more cases have been found, and these exhibit facultative quadrupedal locomotion, and in one case, late childhood onset. It has been suggested that the human quadrupedalism may, at least, be a phenotypic example of reverse evolution. From the viewpoint of dynamic systems theory, it was concluded there may not be a single factor that predetermines human quadrupedalism in Uner Tan syndrome, but that it may involve self-organization, brain plasticity, and rewiring, from the many decentralized and local interactions among neuronal, genetic, and environmental subsystems. PMID:21258577

  4. What Is Down Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Down Syndrome » What Is Down Syndrome? What Is Down Syndrome? In every cell in the human body there ... degrees, or not at all. How Common is Down Syndrome? According to the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  5. Modeling Monogenic Human Nephrotic Syndrome in the Drosophila Garland Cell Nephrocyte.

    PubMed

    Hermle, Tobias; Braun, Daniela A; Helmstädter, Martin; Huber, Tobias B; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2017-05-01

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome is characterized by podocyte dysfunction. Drosophila garland cell nephrocytes are podocyte-like cells and thus provide a potential in vivo model in which to study the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. However, relevant pathomechanisms of nephrotic syndrome have not been studied in nephrocytes. Here, we discovered that two Drosophila slit diaphragm proteins, orthologs of the human genes encoding nephrin and nephrin-like protein 1, colocalize within a fingerprint-like staining pattern that correlates with ultrastructural morphology. Using RNAi and conditional CRISPR/Cas9 in nephrocytes, we found this pattern depends on the expression of both orthologs. Tracer endocytosis by nephrocytes required Cubilin and reflected size selectivity analogous to that of glomerular function. Using RNAi and tracer endocytosis as a functional read-out, we screened Drosophila orthologs of human monogenic causes of nephrotic syndrome and observed conservation of the central pathogenetic alterations. We focused on the coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis gene Coq2, the silencing of which disrupted slit diaphragm morphology. Restoration of CoQ10 synthesis by vanillic acid partially rescued the phenotypic and functional alterations induced by Coq2-RNAi. Notably, Coq2 colocalized with mitochondria, and Coq2 silencing increased the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Silencing of ND75, a subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain that controls ROS formation independently of CoQ10, phenocopied the effect of Coq2-RNAi. Moreover, the ROS scavenger glutathione partially rescued the effects of Coq2-RNAi. In conclusion, Drosophila garland cell nephrocytes provide a model with which to study the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome, and ROS formation may be a pathomechanism of COQ2-nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Efficient exploration of multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2016-04-01

    Efficient techniques to navigate networks with local information are fundamental to sample large-scale online social systems and to retrieve resources in peer-to-peer systems. Biased random walks, i.e. walks whose motion is biased on properties of neighbouring nodes, have been largely exploited to design smart local strategies to explore a network, for instance by constructing maximally mixing trajectories or by allowing an almost uniform sampling of the nodes. Here we introduce and study biased random walks on multiplex networks, graphs where the nodes are related through different types of links organised in distinct and interacting layers, and we provide analytical solutions for their long-time properties, including the stationary occupation probability distribution and the entropy rate. We focus on degree-biased random walks and distinguish between two classes of walks, namely those whose transition probability depends on a number of parameters which is extensive in the number of layers, and those whose motion depends on intrinsically multiplex properties of the neighbouring nodes. We analyse the effect of the structure of the multiplex network on the steady-state behaviour of the walkers, and we find that heterogeneous degree distributions as well as the presence of inter-layer degree correlations and edge overlap determine the extent to which a multiplex can be efficiently explored by a biased walk. Finally we show that, in real-world multiplex transportation networks, the trade-off between efficient navigation and resilience to link failure has resulted into systems whose diffusion properties are qualitatively different from those of appropriately randomised multiplex graphs. This fact suggests that multiplexity is an important ingredient to include in the modelling of real-world systems.

  7. Simultaneous measurement of MMP9 and TIMP1 mRNA in human non small cell lung cancers by multiplex real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Simi, Lisa; Andreani, Matteo; Davini, Federico; Janni, Alberto; Pazzagli, Mario; Serio, Mario; Orlando, Claudio

    2004-08-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis is strictly maintained by a coordinated balance between the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors (TIMPs). Our study was focused on the simultaneous measurement of the expression profile of MMP9 mRNA and its principal inhibitor, TIMP-1, in 100 non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and in corresponding adjacent non malignant tissues. The measurement was performed with a multiplex quantitative RT-PCR assay based on TaqMan assay, using two probes labelled with different fluorocromes. We found that both MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs were significantly higher in NSCLC (P < 0.0001) in comparison to corresponding controls as well as the MMP9/TIMP-1 ratio (P = 0.014). MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNA expression was highly correlated in cancer samples (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001). The analysis in the two main histotypes revealed a significant increase of MMP9 mRNA in adenocarcinomas in comparison to normal tissues (P = 0.006) but not in squamous cell carcinomas, while TIMP-1 mRNA showed a significative increase both in adenocarcinomas and in squamous cell carcinoma samples (P = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Both MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs were significantly correlated to lymphnode invasion and cancer stage. Survival analysis revealed that high levels of expression of MMP9 mRNA, but not of TIMP-1, were significantly associated to an unfavourable outcome in NSCLC patients in toto (P = 0.017). In addition our results showed that high levels of MMP9 expression are of independent prognostic impact in operable NSCLC. Our data seem to demonstrate a simultaneous and coordinated up-regulation of MMP9 and TIMP-1 expression at the mRNA level in NSCLC, even if this phenomenon seems variable according to the histotype. In addition, the increase of MMP9/TIMP-1 ratio may reflect an unbalance of their production in affected tissues. The increased expression of the two mRNAs, even not necessarily equate their enzymatic activities, seems to

  8. The new challenges of multiplex networks: Measures and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2017-02-01

    What do societies, the Internet, and the human brain have in common? They are all examples of complex relational systems, whose emerging behaviours are largely determined by the non-trivial networks of interactions among their constituents, namely individuals, computers, or neurons, rather than only by the properties of the units themselves. In the last two decades, network scientists have proposed models of increasing complexity to better understand real-world systems. Only recently we have realised that multiplexity, i.e. the coexistence of several types of interactions among the constituents of a complex system, is responsible for substantial qualitative and quantitative differences in the type and variety of behaviours that a complex system can exhibit. As a consequence, multilayer and multiplex networks have become a hot topic in complexity science. Here we provide an overview of some of the measures proposed so far to characterise the structure of multiplex networks, and a selection of models aiming at reproducing those structural properties and quantifying their statistical significance. Focusing on a subset of relevant topics, this brief review is a quite comprehensive introduction to the most basic tools for the analysis of multiplex networks observed in the real-world. The wide applicability of multiplex networks as a framework to model complex systems in different fields, from biology to social sciences, and the colloquial tone of the paper will make it an interesting read for researchers working on both theoretical and experimental analysis of networked systems.

  9. Strategical incoherence regulates cooperation in social dilemmas on multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Matamalas, Joan T; Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-04-27

    Cooperation is a very common, yet not fully-understood phenomenon in natural and human systems. The introduction of a network within the population is known to affect the outcome of cooperative dynamics, allowing for the survival of cooperation in adverse scenarios. Recently, the introduction of multiplex networks has yet again modified the expectations for the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, compared to the monoplex case. However, much remains unstudied regarding other social dilemmas on multiplex, as well as the unexplored microscopic underpinnings of it. In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of cooperation in all four games in the T-S plane on multiplex. More importantly, we find some remarkable and previously unknown features in the microscopic organization of the strategies, that are responsible for the important differences between cooperative dynamics in monoplex and multiplex. Specifically, we find that in the stationary state, there are individuals that play the same strategy in all layers (coherent), and others that don't (incoherent). This second group of players is responsible for the surprising fact of a non full-cooperation in the Harmony Game on multiplex, never observed before, as well as a higher-than-expected cooperation rates in some regions of the other three social dilemmas.

  10. Strategical incoherence regulates cooperation in social dilemmas on multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamalas, Joan T.; Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Cooperation is a very common, yet not fully-understood phenomenon in natural and human systems. The introduction of a network within the population is known to affect the outcome of cooperative dynamics, allowing for the survival of cooperation in adverse scenarios. Recently, the introduction of multiplex networks has yet again modified the expectations for the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, compared to the monoplex case. However, much remains unstudied regarding other social dilemmas on multiplex, as well as the unexplored microscopic underpinnings of it. In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of cooperation in all four games in the T - S plane on multiplex. More importantly, we find some remarkable and previously unknown features in the microscopic organization of the strategies, that are responsible for the important differences between cooperative dynamics in monoplex and multiplex. Specifically, we find that in the stationary state, there are individuals that play the same strategy in all layers (coherent), and others that don't (incoherent). This second group of players is responsible for the surprising fact of a non full-cooperation in the Harmony Game on multiplex, never observed before, as well as a higher-than-expected cooperation rates in some regions of the other three social dilemmas.

  11. Bond Percolation on Multiplex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, A.; Cellai, D.; Gómez, S.; Arenas, A.; Gleeson, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytical approach for bond percolation on multiplex networks and use it to determine the expected size of the giant connected component and the value of the critical bond occupation probability in these networks. We advocate the relevance of these tools to the modeling of multilayer robustness and contribute to the debate on whether any benefit is to be yielded from studying a full multiplex structure as opposed to its monoplex projection, especially in the seemingly irrelevant case of a bond occupation probability that does not depend on the layer. Although we find that in many cases the predictions of our theory for multiplex networks coincide with previously derived results for monoplex networks, we also uncover the remarkable result that for a certain class of multiplex networks, well described by our theory, new critical phenomena occur as multiple percolation phase transitions are present. We provide an instance of this phenomenon in a multiplex network constructed from London rail and European air transportation data sets.

  12. Structural measures for multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2014-03-01

    Many real-world complex systems consist of a set of elementary units connected by relationships of different kinds. All such systems are better described in terms of multiplex networks, where the links at each layer represent a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes rather than in terms of (single-layer) networks. In this paper we present a general framework to describe and study multiplex networks, whose links are either unweighted or weighted. In particular, we propose a series of measures to characterize the multiplexicity of the systems in terms of (i) basic node and link properties such as the node degree, and the edge overlap and reinforcement, (ii) local properties such as the clustering coefficient and the transitivity, and (iii) global properties related to the navigability of the multiplex across the different layers. The measures we introduce are validated on a genuinely multiplex data set of Indonesian terrorists, where information among 78 individuals are recorded with respect to mutual trust, common operations, exchanged communications, and business relationships.

  13. Scalable multiplexing for parallel imaging with interleaved optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Yoon; Marvdashti, Tahereh; Duan, Lian; Khan, Saara A.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate highly parallel imaging with interleaved optical coherence tomography (iOCT) using an in-house-fabricated, air-spaced virtually-imaged phased array (VIPA). The air-spaced VIPA performs spectral encoding of the interferograms from multiple lateral points within a single sweep of the source and allows us to tune and balance several imaging parameters: number of multiplexed points, ranging depth, and sensitivity. In addition to a thorough discussion of the parameters and operating principles of the VIPA, we experimentally demonstrate the effect of different VIPA designs on the multiplexing potential of iOCT. Using a 200-kHz light source, we achieve an effective A-scan rate of 3.2-MHz by multiplexing 16 lateral points onto a single wavelength sweep. The improved sensitivity of this system is demonstrated for 3D imaging of biological samples such as a human finger and a fruit fly. PMID:25401031

  14. In Vivo 18-FDG/18-Choline-Mediated Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET) Multiplexed Optical Imaging for Human Prostate Carcinoma Detection and Staging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    bearing MDA- PCa-2b human prostate cancer xenografts. We have selected peptides from bacteriophage display libraries that target TF and ErbB2/ErbB3. The...peptides that bind human ErbB-2 selected from a bacteriophage display library. J Protein Chem, 21:287-296, 2002. 11. Appendices. None 13

  15. A recurrent synonymous mutation in the human androgen receptor gene causing complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Batista, Rafael Loch; Rodrigues, Andresa di Santi; Nishi, Mirian Yumie; Gomes, Nathalia Lisboa; Faria, José Antonio Diniz; Moraes, Daniela Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Luciani Renata; Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Domenice, Sorahia; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2017-07-22

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is the most common cause of 46,XY disorders of sex development (46,XY DSD). This syndrome is an X-linked inheritance disease and it is caused by mutations in the human androgen receptor (AR) gene. Non-synonymous point AR mutations are frequently described in this disease, including in the complete phenotype. We present a novel synonymous mutation in the human AR gene (c.1530C > T) in four 46,XY patients from two unrelated families associated with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). The analysis of mRNA from testis showed that synonymous AR mutation changed the natural exon 1 donor splice site, with deletion of the last 92 nucleotides of the AR exon 1 leading to a premature stop codon 12 positions ahead resulting in a truncate AR protein. Linkage analyses suggested a probable founder effect for this mutation. In conclusion, we described the first synonymous AR mutation associated with CAIS phenotype, reinforcing the disease-causing role of synonymous mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of ANKRD11 mutations in humans and mice related to KBG syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walz, Katherina; Cohen, Devon; Neilsen, Paul M; Foster, Joseph; Brancati, Francesco; Demir, Korcan; Fisher, Richard; Moffat, Michelle; Verbeek, Nienke E; Bjørgo, Kathrine; Lo Castro, Adriana; Curatolo, Paolo; Novelli, Giuseppe; Abad, Clemer; Lei, Cao; Zhang, Lily; Diaz-Horta, Oscar; Young, Juan I; Callen, David F; Tekin, Mustafa

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in ANKRD11 have recently been reported to cause KBG syndrome, an autosomal dominant condition characterized by intellectual disability (ID), behavioral problems, and macrodontia. To understand the pathogenic mechanism that relates ANKRD11 mutations with the phenotype of KBG syndrome, we studied the cellular characteristics of wild-type ANKRD11 and the effects of mutations in humans and mice. We show that the abundance of wild-type ANKRD11 is tightly regulated during the cell cycle, and that the ANKRD11 C-terminus is required for the degradation of the protein. Analysis of 11 pathogenic ANKRD11 variants in humans, including six reported in this study, and one reported in the Ankrd11 (Yod/+) mouse, shows that all mutations affect the C-terminal regions and that the mutant proteins accumulate aberrantly. In silico analysis shows the presence of D-box sequences that are signals for proteasome degradation. We suggest that ANKRD11 C-terminus plays an important role in regulating the abundance of the protein, and a disturbance of the protein abundance due to the mutations leads to KBG syndrome.

  17. Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Dandan; Yue, Fuyong; Li, Guixin; Zheng, Guoxing; Chan, Kinlong; Chen, Shumei; Chen, Ming; Li, King Fai; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Cheah, Kok Wai; Yue Bun Pun, Edwin; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Metasurfaces are engineered interfaces that contain a thin layer of plasmonic or dielectric nanostructures capable of manipulating light in a desirable manner. Advances in metasurfaces have led to various practical applications ranging from lensing to holography. Metasurface holograms that can be switched by the polarization state of incident light have been demonstrated for achieving polarization multiplexed functionalities. However, practical application of these devices has been limited by their capability for achieving high efficiency and high image quality. Here we experimentally demonstrate a helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with high efficiency and good image fidelity over a broad range of frequencies. The metasurface hologram features the combination of two sets of hologram patterns operating with opposite incident helicities. Two symmetrically distributed off-axis images are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the input light. The demonstrated helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with its high performance opens avenues for future applications with functionality switchable optical devices. PMID:26354497

  18. Evidence for "Uner Tan Syndrome" as a human model for reverse evolution.

    PubMed

    Tan, Uner

    2006-12-01

    "Uner Tan Syndrome" was further studied in a second family. There was no cerebellar atrophy, except a mild vermial atrophy in MRI scans of the affected individuals. This is not, however, the pathogenesis of the "Uner Tan Syndrome", since in the first and second families there were bipedal men exhibiting very similar MRI scans. The second family may also be considered a live model for reverse evolution in human beings. The present work provided evidence for a reverse evolution: (i) quadrupedality; (ii) primitive mental abilities including language; (iii) curved fingers during wrist-walking of the quadrupedal woman; (iv) arm to leg ratios being close to those of the human-like apes. The quadrupedal individuals were raised in separate places, so that they could not imitate each other, excluding the socio-cultural factors contributing to the habitual quadrupedal gait. The results are consistent with the single gene theory, suggesting a single gene controlling multiple behavioral traits, and the psychomotor theory, and a co-evolution of the human mind, an emergent property of the motor system expressed by human language.

  19. The Werner syndrome. A model for the study of human aging.

    PubMed

    Nehlin, J O; Skovgaard, G L; Bohr, V A

    2000-06-01

    Human aging is a complex process that leads to the gradual deterioration of body functions with time. Various models to approach the study of aging have been launched over the years such as the genetic analysis of life span in the yeast S. cerevisiae, the worm C. elegans, the fruitfly, and mouse, among others. In human models, there have been extensive efforts using replicative senescence, the study of centenerians, comparisons of young versus old at the organismal, cellular, and molecular levels, and the study of premature aging syndromes to understand the mechanisms leading to aging. One good model for studying human aging is a rare autosomal recessive disorder known as the Werner syndrome (WS), which is characterized by accelerated aging in vivo and in vitro. A genetic defect implicated in WS was mapped to the WRN locus. Mutations in this gene are believed to be associated, early in adulthood, with clinical symptoms normally found in old individuals. WRN functions as a DNA helicase, and recent evidence, summarized in this review, suggests specific biochemical roles for this multifaceted protein. The interaction of WRN protein with RPA (replication protein A) and p53 will undoubtedly direct efforts to further dissect the genetic pathway(s) in which WRN protein functions in DNA metabolism and will help to unravel its contribution to the human aging process.

  20. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in Venda, South Africa: distribution of virulence-related genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in stool samples of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative individuals and primary school children.

    PubMed

    Samie, Amidou; Obi, Chikwelu Larry; Dillingham, Rebecca; Pinkerton, Relana C; Guerrant, Richard L

    2007-07-01

    We used a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a quantitative real-time PCR to determine the distribution of three enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) virulence-related genes in stool samples from hospital patients and school children in the Venda region of South Africa. At least one gene was found in 52 (16.5%) samples, 50 (19.6%) from hospitals and 2 (3%) from schools. The AA probe was found in 36 (69%), the aggR gene was found in 41 (79%), and the aap gene was found in 49 (94%) of all positive samples. EAEC was significantly associated with diarrhea and intestinal inflammation and was significantly higher (chi(2) = 5.360, P = 0.021) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons (29.5%) than in HIV-negative persons (13.7%). The presence of EAEC genes was significantly associated with occult blood (chi(2) = 30.543, P < 0.0001) in the stool samples. This study suggests that the clinical presentation of EAEC infection may be directly related to the bacterial load as well as to the genetic characteristics of the strains involved.

  1. Proposed mechanism of inheritance and expression of the human fragile-X syndrome of mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, C.D.

    1987-11-01

    A mechanism is proposed for the inheritance and expression of the fragile-X-linked syndrome of mental retardation in humans. Two independent events are required for expression of the syndrome: the fragile-X mutation, and X chromosome inactivation in pre-oogonial cells. The fragile-X mutation at site Xq27 has little or no effect until the chromosome is inactivated in a female as part of the process of dosage compensation. At a stage where the inactivated X chromosome would normally be reactivated in preparation for oogenesis, the mutation results in a local block to the reactivation process. This block to reactivation leads to mental retardation in progeny by reducing the level of products from the unreactivated Xq27 region in male cells, and, for a heterozygous female, in somatic cells in which the normal X chromosome has been inactivated. Published data relevant to this proposed mechanism are discussed.

  2. Insights into the Mutation-Induced HHH Syndrome from Modeling Human Mitochondrial Ornithine Transporter-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-Fang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1 is reported in coupling with the hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. For in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of the disease, it is crucially important to acquire the 3D structure of human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1. Since no such structure is available in the current protein structure database, we have developed it via computational approaches based on the recent NMR structure of human mitochondrial uncoupling protein (Berardi MJ, Chou JJ, et al. Nature 2011, 476:109–113). Subsequently, we docked the ligand L-ornithine into the computational structure to search for the favorable binding mode. It was observed that the binding interaction for the most favorable binding mode is featured by six remarkable hydrogen bonds between the receptor and ligand, and that the most favorable binding mode shared the same ligand-binding site with most of the homologous mitochondrial carriers from different organisms, implying that the ligand-binding sites are quite conservative in the mitochondrial carriers family although their sequences similarity is very low with 20% or so. Moreover, according to our structural analysis, the relationship between the disease-causing mutations of human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1 and the HHH syndrome can be classified into the following three categories: (i) the mutation occurs in the pseudo-repeat regions so as to change the region of the protein closer to the mitochondrial matrix; (ii) the mutation is directly affecting the substrate binding pocket so as to reduce the substrate binding affinity; (iii) the mutation is located in the structural region closer to the intermembrane space that can significantly break the salt bridge networks of the protein. These findings may provide useful insights for in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of the HHH syndrome and developing effective

  3. Insights into the mutation-induced HHH syndrome from modeling human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Fang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1 is reported in coupling with the hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. For in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of the disease, it is crucially important to acquire the 3D structure of human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1. Since no such structure is available in the current protein structure database, we have developed it via computational approaches based on the recent NMR structure of human mitochondrial uncoupling protein (Berardi MJ, Chou JJ, et al. Nature 2011, 476:109-113). Subsequently, we docked the ligand L-ornithine into the computational structure to search for the favorable binding mode. It was observed that the binding interaction for the most favorable binding mode is featured by six remarkable hydrogen bonds between the receptor and ligand, and that the most favorable binding mode shared the same ligand-binding site with most of the homologous mitochondrial carriers from different organisms, implying that the ligand-binding sites are quite conservative in the mitochondrial carriers family although their sequences similarity is very low with 20% or so. Moreover, according to our structural analysis, the relationship between the disease-causing mutations of human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1 and the HHH syndrome can be classified into the following three categories: (i) the mutation occurs in the pseudo-repeat regions so as to change the region of the protein closer to the mitochondrial matrix; (ii) the mutation is directly affecting the substrate binding pocket so as to reduce the substrate binding affinity; (iii) the mutation is located in the structural region closer to the intermembrane space that can significantly break the salt bridge networks of the protein. These findings may provide useful insights for in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of the HHH syndrome and developing effective

  4. Development of Microarray and Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for Identification of Serovars and Virulence Genes in Salmonella enterica of Human or Animal Origin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica is an important enteric pathogen consisting of many serotypes that can cause severe clinical diseases in animals and humans. Rapid identification of Salmonella isolates is especially important for epidemiological monitoring and controlling outbreaks of disease. Although immunolo...

  5. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Food-Choice Behavior in Humans: Evidence from Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Scott J; Couto, Lizette; Cohen, Vanessa; Lalazar, Yelena; Makotkine, Iouri; Williams, Nia; Yehuda, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Geer, Eliza B

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing's syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing's syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission) and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index (BMI) completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with "explicit" task contingencies and one with "probabilistic" task contingencies), during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images vs. standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-h urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task), participants with active Cushing's syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing's syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing's patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing's patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing's, these results may have relevance for elucidating

  6. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Food-Choice Behavior in Humans: Evidence from Cushing's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Couto, Lizette; Cohen, Vanessa; Lalazar, Yelena; Makotkine, Iouri; Williams, Nia; Yehuda, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Geer, Eliza B.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing's syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing's syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission) and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index (BMI) completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with “explicit” task contingencies and one with “probabilistic” task contingencies), during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images vs. standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-h urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task), participants with active Cushing's syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing's syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing's patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing's patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing's, these results may have relevance for

  7. Integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Tan, Hongdong

    2002-05-14

    The present invention provides an integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of sample analytes. The system integrates and automates multiple components, such as chromatographic columns and separation capillaries, and further provides a detector for the detection of analytes eluting from the separation capillaries. The system employs multiplexed freeze/thaw valves to manage fluid flow and sample movement. The system is computer controlled and is capable of processing samples through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in parallel fashion. Methods employing the system of the invention are also provided.

  8. Multiplex Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.; Snell, Hilary E.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) technique in which one of the etalon plates is moved over a large optical distance while the other remains fixed, thus exploiting the multiplex advantage of the instrument. This technique involves the application of Fourier-transform spectrometer to the multiple harmonics passing through the FPI etalon. It is shown that the multiplex FPI acts as several Michelson interferometers working at the same time, over the same spectral interval, and at different spectral resolutions. A high spectral resolution has been obtained over a large wavenumber interval, while the advantage of a reasonable scan length has been retained.

  9. Multiplex Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.; Snell, Hilary E.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) technique in which one of the etalon plates is moved over a large optical distance while the other remains fixed, thus exploiting the multiplex advantage of the instrument. This technique involves the application of Fourier-transform spectrometer to the multiple harmonics passing through the FPI etalon. It is shown that the multiplex FPI acts as several Michelson interferometers working at the same time, over the same spectral interval, and at different spectral resolutions. A high spectral resolution has been obtained over a large wavenumber interval, while the advantage of a reasonable scan length has been retained.

  10. Superresolved spatially multiplexed interferometric microscopy.

    PubMed

    Picazo-Bueno, José Ángel; Zalevsky, Zeev; García, Javier; Micó, Vicente

    2017-03-01

    Superresolution capability by angular and time multiplexing is implemented onto a regular microscope. The technique, named superresolved spatially multiplexed interferometric microscopy (S2MIM), follows our previously reported SMIM technique [Opt. Express22, 14929 (2014)OPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.22.014929, J. Biomed. Opt.21, 106007 (2016)JBOPFO1083-366810.1117/1.JBO.21.10.106007] improved with superresolved imaging. All together, S2MIM updates a commercially available non-holographic microscope into a superresolved holographic one. Validation is presented for an Olympus BX-60 upright microscope with resolution test targets.

  11. Holographic data storage system combining shift-multiplexing with peristrophic-multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Kengo; Tsukamoto, Yu; Okubo, Kaito; Yamamoto, Manabu

    2014-02-01

    Holographic data storage (HDS) is a next-generation optical storage that uses the principles of holography. The multiplex holographic recording method is an important factor that affects the recording capacity of this storage. Various multiplex recording methods have been proposed so far. In this study, we focus on shift multiplexing with spherical waves and propose a method of shift multiplex recording that combines the peristrophic multiplexed recording. Simulation and experimental verification shows that the proposed method is effective in principle.

  12. Human Rights and Equal Opportunities for People with Mental Handicap--With Particular Reference to Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratford, Brian

    1991-01-01

    Issues of human rights and the mentally retarded, especially those with Down's Syndrome, are reviewed noting the influence of Christianity, definitions of "humanness," quality of life issues, utilitarian and formalist philosophies, the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons, and the right to work. (DB)

  13. Global differential expression of genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region in normal human brain

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Julio Cesar; Fajardo, Dianora; Peña, Angela; Sánchez, Adalberto; Domínguez, Martha C; Satizábal, José María

    2014-01-01

    Background: The information of gene expression obtained from databases, have made possible the extraction and analysis of data related with several molecular processes involving not only in brain homeostasis but its disruption in some neuropathologies; principally in Down syndrome and the Alzheimer disease. Objective: To correlate the levels of transcription of 19 genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR) with their expression in several substructures of normal human brain. Methods: There were obtained expression profiles of 19 DSCR genes in 42 brain substructures, from gene expression values available at the database of the human brain of the Brain Atlas of the Allen Institute for Brain Sciences", (http://human.brain-map.org/). The co-expression patterns of DSCR genes in brain were calculated by using multivariate statistical methods. Results: Highest levels of gene expression were registered at caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and putamen among central areas of cerebral cortex. Increased expression levels of RCAN1 that encode by a protein involved in signal transduction process of the CNS were recorded for PCP4 that participates in the binding to calmodulin and TTC3; a protein that is associated with differentiation of neurons. That previously identified brain structures play a crucial role in the learning process, in different class of memory and in motor skills. Conclusion: The precise regulation of DSCR gene expression is crucial to maintain the brain homeostasis, especially in those areas with high levels of gene expression associated with a remarkable process of learning and cognition. PMID:25767303

  14. Global differential expression of genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region in normal human brain.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Julio Cesar; Fajardo, Dianora; Peña, Angela; Sánchez, Adalberto; Domínguez, Martha C; Satizábal, José María; García-Vallejo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The information of gene expression obtained from databases, have made possible the extraction and analysis of data related with several molecular processes involving not only in brain homeostasis but its disruption in some neuropathologies; principally in Down syndrome and the Alzheimer disease. To correlate the levels of transcription of 19 genes located in the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR) with their expression in several substructures of normal human brain. There were obtained expression profiles of 19 DSCR genes in 42 brain substructures, from gene expression values available at the database of the human brain of the Brain Atlas of the Allen Institute for Brain Sciences", (http://human.brain-map.org/). The co-expression patterns of DSCR genes in brain were calculated by using multivariate statistical methods. Highest levels of gene expression were registered at caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and putamen among central areas of cerebral cortex. Increased expression levels of RCAN1 that encode by a protein involved in signal transduction process of the CNS were recorded for PCP4 that participates in the binding to calmodulin and TTC3; a protein that is associated with differentiation of neurons. That previously identified brain structures play a crucial role in the learning process, in different class of memory and in motor skills. The precise regulation of DSCR gene expression is crucial to maintain the brain homeostasis, especially in those areas with high levels of gene expression associated with a remarkable process of learning and cognition.

  15. Weak percolation on multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Gareth J.; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.; Cellai, Davide

    2014-04-01

    Bootstrap percolation is a simple but nontrivial model. It has applications in many areas of science and has been explored on random networks for several decades. In single-layer (simplex) networks, it has been recently observed that bootstrap percolation, which is defined as an incremental process, can be seen as the opposite of pruning percolation, where nodes are removed according to a connectivity rule. Here we propose models of both bootstrap and pruning percolation for multiplex networks. We collectively refer to these two models with the concept of "weak" percolation, to distinguish them from the somewhat classical concept of ordinary ("strong") percolation. While the two models coincide in simplex networks, we show that they decouple when considering multiplexes, giving rise to a wealth of critical phenomena. Our bootstrap model constitutes the simplest example of a contagion process on a multiplex network and has potential applications in critical infrastructure recovery and information security. Moreover, we show that our pruning percolation model may provide a way to diagnose missing layers in a multiplex network. Finally, our analytical approach allows us to calculate critical behavior and characterize critical clusters.

  16. A High Resolution CCD Multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Larry S.; Kadekod i, Narayan; Nugroho, Yohanes; Lo, Mike; Mortz, Margaret; Ibrahim, Ali

    1983-11-01

    This paper describes a high resolution CCD multiplexer for focal plane imaging systems. The multiplexer incorporates quadrilinear readout registers to achieve two times the resolution of conventional bilinear structure while using the same design rules. Complete parallel charge transfer are ensured by a novel buried channel poly gate isolation scheme. A monolithic silicon photodiode array of 8 Am pitch, 3533 elements was designed with the multi-plexer. Video preprocessing circuits of high speed four to one channel stitching, compensated sample and hold and bad pixel deletion were integrated on chip for improved performance. The modulation transfer functions due to the geometry and the transfer inefficiency are discussed. The theoretically calculated total MTF agrees with the experimental result. At Nyquist frequency of 62.5 c/mm the total MTF is better than 0.6 in the absence of the diffusion MTF degradation. The noise spectrum of the CCD and the output amplifier are presented. The RMS noise of the CCD in dark is approximately 0.35 my over 1 MHz bandwidth. The CCD noise increases with light input attributed primarily to the shot noise. The low noise nature of the multiplexer makes it ideal for the high resolution low light level detection applications.

  17. Human Immune Responses to HTLV-III Virus Infections in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-10

    in western blots in the antibodies to HIV-1 structural antigens between this serum and the other sera which neutralize HIV at low dilutions but enhance...n3est AvailabCe AD N T== HUMAN IMMUNE RESPONSE TO HTLV -III VIRUS INFECTION IN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME N ANNUAL REPORT FRANCIS A. ENNIS D...Stimulation of HIV-1 specific T cells. We have stimulated the PBL of 20 HIV antibody-positive donors with live HIV-1 ( HTLV -IIIB) virus, and only 30% respond

  18. Structure of the human MLH1 N-terminus: implications for predisposition to Lynch syndrome

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Lam, Robert; ...

    2015-08-01

    Mismatch repair prevents the accumulation of erroneous insertions/deletions and non-Watson–Crick base pairs in the genome. Pathogenic mutations in theMLH1gene are associated with a predisposition to Lynch and Turcot's syndromes. Although genetic testing for these mutations is available, robust classification of variants requires strong clinical and functional support. Here, the first structure of the N-terminus of human MLH1, determined by X-ray crystallography, is described. Lastly, the structure shares a high degree of similarity with previously determined prokaryoticMLH1homologs; however, this structure affords a more accurate platform for the classification ofMLH1variants.

  19. Mathematical model of biological order state or syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine: based on electromagnetic radiation within the human body.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinxiang; Huang, Jinzhao

    2012-03-01

    In this study, based on the resonator model and exciplex model of electromagnetic radiation within the human body, mathematical model of biological order state, also referred to as syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine, was established and expressed as: "Sy = v/ 1n(6I + 1)". This model provides the theoretical foundation for experimental research addressing the order state of living system, especially the quantitative research syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine.

  20. Generation of a miniature pig disease model for human Laron syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Dan; Li, Fang; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Jia; Zhao, Yaofeng; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Ran; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Laron syndrome is a rare disease caused by mutations of the growth hormone receptor (GHR), inheriting in an autosomal manner. To better understand the pathogenesis and to develop therapeutics, we generated a miniature pig model for this disease by employing ZFNs to knock out GHR gene. Three types of F0 heterozygous pigs (GHR+/4bp, GHR+/2bp, GHR+/3bp) were obtained and in which no significant phenotypes of Laron syndrome were observed. Prior to breed heterozygous pigs to homozygosity (GHR4bp/4bp), pig GHR transcript with the 4 bp insert was evaluated in vitro and was found to localize to the cytoplasm rather than the membrane. Moreover, this mutated transcript lost most of its signal transduction capability, although it could bind bGH. GHR4bp/4bp pigs showed a small body size and reduced body weight. Biochemically, these pigs exhibited significantly elevated levels of GH and decreased levels of IGF-I. These results resemble the phenotype observed in Laron patients, suggesting that these pigs could serve as an ideal model for Laron syndrome to bridge the gaps between mouse model and human. PMID:26511035

  1. Generation of a miniature pig disease model for human Laron syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dan; Li, Fang; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Jia; Zhao, Yaofeng; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Ran; Li, Ning

    2015-10-29

    Laron syndrome is a rare disease caused by mutations of the growth hormone receptor (GHR), inheriting in an autosomal manner. To better understand the pathogenesis and to develop therapeutics, we generated a miniature pig model for this disease by employing ZFNs to knock out GHR gene. Three types of F0 heterozygous pigs (GHR(+/4bp), GHR(+/2bp), GHR(+/3bp)) were obtained and in which no significant phenotypes of Laron syndrome were observed. Prior to breed heterozygous pigs to homozygosity (GHR(4bp/4bp)), pig GHR transcript with the 4 bp insert was evaluated in vitro and was found to localize to the cytoplasm rather than the membrane. Moreover, this mutated transcript lost most of its signal transduction capability, although it could bind bGH. GHR(4bp/4bp) pigs showed a small body size and reduced body weight. Biochemically, these pigs exhibited significantly elevated levels of GH and decreased levels of IGF-I. These results resemble the phenotype observed in Laron patients, suggesting that these pigs could serve as an ideal model for Laron syndrome to bridge the gaps between mouse model and human.

  2. A baboon syndrome induced by intravenous human immunoglobulins: report of a case and immunological analysis.

    PubMed

    Barbaud, A; Tréchot, P; Granel, F; Lonchamp, P; Faure, G; Schmutz, J L; Béné, M C

    1999-01-01

    Following the second series of intravenous human immunoglobulins (IVIg; 0.4 g/kg) prescribed to treat a sensorimotor polyneuritis, a 28-year-old woman developed pompholyx that recurred after each of the following monthly treatments with IVIg. During the administration of the 10th series, the patient developed a typical baboon syndrome. Immunohistochemical studies of a skin biopsy revealed an unexpected epidermal expression of P-selectin, usually expressed by endothelial cells. Patch, prick and intradermal tests performed with IVIg on the back, arms and buttocks gave negative results on immediate and delayed readings. IVIg were re-administered, with the informed consent of the patient, and induced a generalized maculopapular rash. This is the first reported case of baboon syndrome induced by IVIg. Although extensive skin testing was performed, all test sites remained negative. We wonder whether IVIg could reproduce immunological mechanisms involved in the 3 types of systemic contact dermatitis (pompholyx, baboon syndrome and maculopapular rash), including the epidermal expression of P-selectin.

  3. Modeling non-syndromic autism and the impact of TRPC6 disruption in human neurons.

    PubMed

    Griesi-Oliveira, K; Acab, A; Gupta, A R; Sunaga, D Y; Chailangkarn, T; Nicol, X; Nunez, Y; Walker, M F; Murdoch, J D; Sanders, S J; Fernandez, T V; Ji, W; Lifton, R P; Vadasz, E; Dietrich, A; Pradhan, D; Song, H; Ming, G-L; Gu, X; Haddad, G; Marchetto, M C N; Spitzer, N; Passos-Bueno, M R; State, M W; Muotri, A R

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number of genetic variants have been implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and the functional study of such variants will be critical for the elucidation of autism pathophysiology. Here, we report a de novo balanced translocation disruption of TRPC6, a cation channel, in a non-syndromic autistic individual. Using multiple models, such as dental pulp cells, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neuronal cells and mouse models, we demonstrate that TRPC6 reduction or haploinsufficiency leads to altered neuronal development, morphology and function. The observed neuronal phenotypes could then be rescued by TRPC6 complementation and by treatment with insulin-like growth factor-1 or hyperforin, a TRPC6-specific agonist, suggesting that ASD individuals with alterations in this pathway may benefit from these drugs. We also demonstrate that methyl CpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2) levels affect TRPC6 expression. Mutations in MeCP2 cause Rett syndrome, revealing common pathways among ASDs. Genetic sequencing of TRPC6 in 1041 ASD individuals and 2872 controls revealed significantly more nonsynonymous mutations in the ASD population, and identified loss-of-function mutations with incomplete penetrance in two patients. Taken together, these findings suggest that TRPC6 is a novel predisposing gene for ASD that may act in a multiple-hit model. This is the first study to use iPSC-derived human neurons to model non-syndromic ASD and illustrate the potential of modeling genetically complex sporadic diseases using such cells.

  4. Modeling non-syndromic autism and the impact of TRPC6 disruption in human neurons

    PubMed Central

    Griesi-Oliveira, Karina; Acab, Allan; Gupta, Abha R.; Sunaga, Daniele Yumi; Chailangkarn, Thanathom; Nicol, Xavier; Nunez, Yanelli; Walker, Michael F.; Murdoch, John D.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Ji, Weizhen; Lifton, Richard P.; Vadasz, Estevão; Dietrich, Alexander; Pradhan, Dennis; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-li; Guoe, Xiang; Haddad, Gabriel; Marchetto, Maria C. N.; Spitzer, Nicholas; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; State, Matthew W.; Muotri, Alysson R.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genetic variants have been implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and the functional study of such variants will be critical for the elucidation of autism pathophysiology. Here, we report a de novo balanced translocation disruption of TRPC6, a cation channel, in a non-syndromic autistic individual. Using multiple models, such as dental pulp cells, iPSC-derived neuronal cells and mouse models, we demonstrate that TRPC6 reduction or haploinsufficiency leads to altered neuronal development, morphology, and function. The observed neuronal phenotypes could then be rescued by TRPC6 complementation and by treatment with IGF1 or hyperforin, a TRPC6-specific agonist, suggesting that ASD individuals with alterations in this pathway might benefit from these drugs. We also demonstrate that MeCP2 levels affect TRPC6 expression. Mutations in MeCP2 cause Rett syndrome, revealing common pathways among ASDs. Genetic sequencing of TRPC6 in 1041 ASD individuals and 2872 controls revealed significantly more nonsynonymous mutations in the ASD population, and identified loss-of-function mutations with incomplete penetrance in two patients. Taken together, these findings suggest that TRPC6 is a novel predisposing gene for ASD that may act in a multiple-hit model. This is the first study to use iPSC-derived human neurons to model non-syndromic ASD and illustrate the potential of modeling genetically complex sporadic diseases using such cells. PMID:25385366

  5. ATRX ADD Domain Links an Atypical Histone Methylation Recognition Mechanism to Human Mental-Retardation Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    S Iwase; B Xiang; S Ghosh; T Ren; P Lewis; J Cochrane; C Allis; D Picketts; D Patel; et al.

    2011-12-31

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  6. ATRX ADD domain links an atypical histone methylation recognition mechanism to human mental-retardation syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Shigeki; Xiang, Bin; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Ren, Ting; Lewis, Peter W.; Cochrane, Jesse C.; Allis, C. David; Picketts, David J.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Li, Haitao; Shi, Yang

    2011-07-19

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  7. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells benefits an animal model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B.

    PubMed

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Willing, Alison E; Desjarlais, Tammy; Davis Sanberg, Cyndy; Sanberg, Paul R

    2005-08-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B is caused by alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme deficiency leading to an accumulation of undegraded heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Cell therapy is a promising new treatment and human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cell transplantation may be preferred for delivery of the missing enzyme. We investigated the ability of mononuclear hUCB cells administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle to ameliorate/prevent histopathological changes in mice modeling Sanfilippo syndrome type B. These are the first results supporting enzyme replacement by administered hUCB cells. In vivo, transplanted hUCB cells survived long-term (7 months), migrated into the parenchyma of the brain and peripheral organs, expressed neural antigens, and exhibited neuron and astrocyte-like morphology. Transplant benefits were also demonstrated by stable cytoarchitecture in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and by reduced GAGs in the livers of treated mutant mice. A hUCB cell transplant may be an effective therapeutic strategy for enzyme delivery in Sanfilippo syndrome type B.

  8. Structure of the RecQ C-terminal domain of human Bloom syndrome protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Yong; Hakoshima, Toshio; Kitano, Ken

    2013-11-21

    Bloom syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by genomic instability and cancer predisposition. The disease is caused by mutations of the Bloom syndrome protein (BLM). Here we report the crystal structure of a RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain from human BLM. The structure reveals three novel features of BLM RQC which distinguish it from the previous structures of the Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and RECQ1. First, BLM RQC lacks an aromatic residue at the tip of the β-wing, a key element of the RecQ-family helicases used for DNA-strand separation. Second, a BLM-specific insertion between the N-terminal helices exhibits a looping-out structure that extends at right angles to the β-wing. Deletion mutagenesis of this insertion interfered with binding to Holliday junction. Third, the C-terminal region of BLM RQC adopts an extended structure running along the domain surface, which may facilitate the spatial positioning of an HRDC domain in the full-length protein.

  9. Multiplex PCR for Diagnosis of Enteric Infections Associated with Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Roberto; Vidal, Maricel; Lagos, Rossana; Levine, Myron; Prado, Valeria

    2004-01-01

    A multiplex PCR for detection of three categories of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. With this method, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli were identified in fecal samples from patients with hemorrhagic colitis, watery diarrhea, or hemolytic-uremic syndrome and from food-borne outbreaks. PMID:15071051

  10. Pneumatic Valve Operated by Multiplex Pneumatic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Yasutaka; Suzumori, Koichi; Kanda, Takefumi; Wakimoto, Shuichi

    A pneumatic system has several advantages, which are cheapness, lightweight, and reliability to human and environment. These advantages are adapted to some research areas, such as industrial lines, medical and nursing cares, and rehabilitation tools. However, the pneumatic system needs several devices; compressor, air tube, and control valve. This research aim to downsize pneumatic system. In this paper, a new method of multiplex pneumatic transmission for multi-pneumatic servo system is proposed. The valve for this system consists of two vibrators supported by springs, which was designed with simple and cheap structure. The working principle of the valve is vibrators resonance from multiplex pneumatic transmission and it is possible to work as ON/OFF valves without electric wire. Dynamic simulation was used to confirm the working principle of the resonance driving system. A prototype device confirming the principle was designed and developed based on the simulation. The experiments show that this new control system works very well to control two separated valves through single pneumatic tube.

  11. An Integrated Human/Murine Transcriptome and Pathway Approach To Identify Prenatal Treatments For Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guedj, Faycal; Pennings, Jeroen LA; Massingham, Lauren J.; Wick, Heather C.; Siegel, Ashley E.; Tantravahi, Umadevi; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical and functional brain abnormalities begin during fetal life in Down syndrome (DS). We hypothesize that novel prenatal treatments can be identified by targeting signaling pathways that are consistently perturbed in cell types/tissues obtained from human fetuses with DS and mouse embryos. We analyzed transcriptome data from fetuses with trisomy 21, age and sex-matched euploid controls, and embryonic day 15.5 forebrains from Ts1Cje, Ts65Dn, and Dp16 mice. The new datasets were compared to other publicly available datasets from humans with DS. We used the human Connectivity Map (CMap) database and created a murine adaptation to identify FDA-approved drugs that can rescue affected pathways. USP16 and TTC3 were dysregulated in all affected human cells and two mouse models. DS-associated pathway abnormalities were either the result of gene dosage specific effects or the consequence of a global cell stress response with activation of compensatory mechanisms. CMap analyses identified 56 molecules with high predictive scores to rescue abnormal gene expression in both species. Our novel integrated human/murine systems biology approach identified commonly dysregulated genes and pathways. This can help to prioritize therapeutic molecules on which to further test safety and efficacy. Additional studies in human cells are ongoing prior to pre-clinical prenatal treatment in mice. PMID:27586445

  12. Occupational trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome: human herpesvirus 6 reactivation and rash phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Kamijima, Michihiro; Wang, Hailan; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Ito, Yuki; Xia, Lihua; Yanagiba, Yukie; Chen, Cishan; Okamura, Ai; Huang, Zhenlie; Qiu, Xinxiang; Song, Xiangrong; Cai, Tingfeng; Liu, Lili; Ge, Yichen; Deng, Yingyu; Naito, Hisao; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Tohyama, Mikiko; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Nakajima, Tamie

    2013-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent which can cause severe generalized dermatitis, i.e., occupational TCE hypersensitivity syndrome. Reactivation of latent human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) can occur in such patients, which has made TCE known as a causative chemical of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). This study aimed to clarify HHV6 status, cytokine profiles and their association with rash phenotypes in patients with TCE hypersensitivity syndrome. HHV6 DNA copy numbers, anti-HHV6 antibody titers, and cytokines were measured in blood prospectively sampled 5-7 times from 28 hospitalized patients with the disease. The patients (19 had exfoliative dermatitis (ED) and 9 had non-ED type rash) generally met the diagnostic criteria for DIHS. Viral reactivation defined as increases in either HHV6 DNA (≥100 genomic copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells) or antibody titers was identified in 24 (89%) patients. HHV6 DNA, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were remarkably higher in the patients than in the healthy workers (p<0.01). Positive correlations between HHV6 DNA, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 were significant (p<0.05) except for that between HHV6 DNA and IFN-γ. An increase in HHV6 DNA was positively associated with an increase in TNF-α on admission (p<0.01). HHV6 DNA, the antibody titers, TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations were significantly higher in ED than in the non-ED type (p<0.05). Reactivated HHV6 and the increased cytokines could be biomarkers of TCE hypersensitivity syndrome. The higher-level reactivation and stronger humoral responses were associated with ED-type rash. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic syndrome update.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Scott M

    2016-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a multiplex risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. It is composed of atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance and elevated glucose, a pro-thrombotic state, and a pro-inflammatory state. Excess energy intake and concomitant obesity are the major drivers of the syndrome. Lifestyle intervention can reverse metabolic risk factors, but at times, drug therapies or bariatric surgery may be required to control more overt risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Multiple pterygium syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Penchaszadeh, V B; Salszberg, B

    1981-01-01

    The multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterised by arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, pterygia of the neck, fingers, and antecubital, popliteal, and intercrural areas, growth retardation, and facial, vertebral, and genital anomalies. We present two unrelated patients of 17 and 6 years of age, respectively, affected with this condition. We describe the natural history of their disorder since birth and review the spectrum of phenotypic variation of the multiple pterygium syndrome in 25 published cases. Images PMID:7334504

  15. Sagliker syndrome: uglifying human face appearance in late and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Sagliker, Yahya; Balal, Mustafa; Sagliker Ozkaynak, Piril; Paydas, Saime; Sagliker, Cemal; Sabit Sagliker, Hasan; Kiralp, Necati; Mumin Adam, Siddik; Tuncer, Ilhan; Gonlusen, Gulfiliz; Esenturk, Mustafa; Gocmez, Erdal; Taskapan, Hulya; Yeksan, Mehdi; Kobaner, Ersin; Ozkaya, Ozan; Yuksekgonul, Musa; Emir, Idris; Cengiz, Nurdan; Onder Isik, Ismet; Bilginer, Omer; Guler, Turgay; Yakar, Hasan; Sarsmaz, Nedim; Dilaver, Serkan; Akoglu, Balim; Basgumus, Mustafa; Chirik, Ercin

    2004-09-01

    Almost every patient with chronic renal failure (CRF) eventually develops secondary hyperparathyroidism (SH) unless they are treated with proper and novel medications in advanced medical centers by skilled medical personnel. Every kind of bone abnormality including skull deformities has been described in detail by almost every concerned researcher and textbook, but descriptions of this phenomenon are limited in the medical literature to the years from 1973 to 1977. To our knowledge, extensive data regarding uglifying human face appearances have not been defined so far in the literature. We are therefore making this addition to the clinical nephrology field by accumulating such data. After we found 2 consecutive peculiar and unique patients with uglifying human face appearances in 2000, we attempted to inform and draw attention to this new entity to all hemodialysis (HD) centers in Turkey, as well as in other developing countries around the world to collect data on this phenomenon. Accordingly, we visited dialysis centers and patients' houses to collect detailed information, including medical clinical histories, physical examinations, laboratory data, biographies, current medications, and so forth. We found 25 patients who had CRF, SH, short stature, extremely severe skull changes, maxillary and mandibular bone changes, teeth/dental abnormalities, and soft and innocuous tumoral tissues in the mouth (hence, uglifying the appearance of the face), fingertip changes, severe psychologic problems, and depression. It appears that patients with CRF may have a new syndrome of bone deformities that have long been neglected, ignored, and forgotten since the mid-1970s when they were first described. This is vital and critical information for the clinical status of patients who suffered from the syndrome that we have named Sagliker syndrome (SS), and we believe there are many more patients in the world who are suffering from it.

  16. Multiplexed quantitative high content screening reveals that cigarette smoke condensate induces changes in cell structure and function through alterations in cell signaling pathways in human bronchial cells.

    PubMed

    Carter, Charleata A; Hamm, Jonathan T

    2009-07-10

    Human bronchial cells are one of the first cell types exposed to environmental toxins. Toxins often activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and protein kinase C (PKC). We evaluated the hypothesis that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, activates PKC-alpha and NF-kappaB, and concomitantly disrupts the F-actin cytoskeleton, induces apoptosis and alters cell function in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Compared to controls, exposure of BEAS-2B cells to doses of 30mug/ml CSC significantly activated PKC-alpha, while CSC doses above 20mug/ml CSC significantly activated NF-kappaB. As NF-kappaB was activated, cell number decreased. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced a decrease in cell size and an increase in cell surface extensions including filopodia and lamellipodia. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced F-actin rearrangement such that stress fibers were no longer prominent at the cell periphery and throughout the cells, but relocalized to perinuclear regions. Concurrently, CSC induced an increase in the focal adhesion protein vinculin at the cell periphery. CSC doses above 30mug/ml induced a significant increase in apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells evidenced by an increase in activated caspase 3, an increase in mitochondrial mass and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. As caspase 3 increased, cell number decreased. CSC doses above 30mug/ml also induced significant concurrent changes in cell function including decreased cell spreading and motility. CSC initiates a signaling cascade in human bronchial epithelial cells involving PKC-alpha, NF-kappaB and caspase 3, and consequently decreases cell spreading and motility. These CSC-induced alterations in cell structure likely prevent cells from performing their normal function thereby contributing to smoke-induced diseases.

  17. Multiplex immunoassay characterization and species comparison of inflammation in acute and non-acute ischemic infarcts in human and mouse brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy-Vi V; Frye, Jennifer B; Zbesko, Jacob C; Stepanovic, Kristina; Hayes, Megan; Urzua, Alex; Serrano, Geidy; Beach, Thomas G; Doyle, Kristian P

    2016-09-06

    This study provides a parallel characterization of the cytokine and chemokine response to stroke in the human and mouse brain at different stages of infarct resolution. The study goal was to address the hypothesis that chronic inflammation may contribute to stroke-related dementia. We used C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice to control for strain related differences in the mouse immune response. Our data indicate that in both mouse strains, and humans, there is increased granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 p70 (IL-12p70), interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10), keratinocyte chemoattractant/interleukin-8 (KC/IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the infarct core during the acute time period. Nevertheless, correlation and two-way ANOVA analyses reveal that despite this substantial overlap between species, there are still significant differences, particularly in the regulation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which is increased in mice but not in humans. In the weeks after stroke, during the stage of liquefactive necrosis, there is significant resolution of the inflammatory response to stroke within the infarct. However, CD68+ macrophages remain present, and levels of IL-6 and MCP-1 remain chronically elevated in infarcts from both mice and humans. Furthermore, there is a chronic T cell response within the infarct in both species. This response is differentially polarized towards a T helper 1 (Th1) response in C57BL/6 mice, and a T helper 2 (Th2) response in BALB/c mice, suggesting that the chronic inflammatory response to stroke may follow a different trajectory in different patients. To control for the fact that the average age of the patients used in this study was 80 years, they

  18. Structure of the human MLH1 N-terminus: implications for predisposition to Lynch syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Lam, Robert; Tempel, Wolfram; Kerr, Iain D.; Min, Jinrong

    2015-07-28

    The crystal structure of the human MLH1 N-terminus is reported at 2.30 Å resolution. The overall structure is described along with an analysis of two clinically important mutations. Mismatch repair prevents the accumulation of erroneous insertions/deletions and non-Watson–Crick base pairs in the genome. Pathogenic mutations in the MLH1 gene are associated with a predisposition to Lynch and Turcot’s syndromes. Although genetic testing for these mutations is available, robust classification of variants requires strong clinical and functional support. Here, the first structure of the N-terminus of human MLH1, determined by X-ray crystallography, is described. The structure shares a high degree of similarity with previously determined prokaryotic MLH1 homologs; however, this structure affords a more accurate platform for the classification of MLH1 variants.

  19. Histidine decarboxylase deficiency causes Tourette syndrome: parallel findings in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Baldan, Lissandra Castellan; Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Crowley, Michael; Anderson, George M.; Loring, Erin; Gorczyca, Roxanne; Billingslea, Eileen; Wasylink, Suzanne; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Krusong, Kuakarun; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Bloch, Michael H.; Hughes, Zoë A.; Krystal, John H.; Mayes, Linda; de Araujo, Ivan; Ding, Yu-Shin; State, Matthew W.; Pittenger, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by tics, sensorimotor gating deficiencies, and abnormalities of cortico-basal ganglia circuits. A mutation in histidine decarboxylase (Hdc), the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of histamine (HA), has been implicated as a rare genetic cause. Hdc knockout mice exhibited potentiated tic-like stereotypies, recapitulating core phenomenology of TS; these were mitigated by the dopamine D2 antagonist haloperidol, a proven pharmacotherapy, and by HA infusion into the brain. Prepulse inhibition was impaired in both mice and humans carrying Hdc mutations. HA infusion reduced striatal dopamine (DA) levels; in Hdc knockout mice, striatal DA was increased and the DA-regulated immediate early gene Fos was upregulated. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding was altered both in mice and in humans carrying the Hdc mutation. These data confirm HDC deficiency as a rare cause of TS and identify histamine-dopamine interactions in the basal ganglia as an important locus of pathology. PMID:24411733

  20. Fatal human anaplasmosis associated with macrophage activation syndrome in Greece and the Public Health response.

    PubMed

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Spanakis, Nikos; Spanakos, Gregory; Pervanidou, Danai; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Campos, Elsa; Petra, Theofania; Kanellopoulos, Petros; Georgiadis, George; Antalis, Emmanouil; Kontos, Vassileios; Giannopoulos, Lambros A; Tselentis, Yiannis; Papa, Anna; Tsakris, Athanassios; Saroglou, George

    2017-02-08

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum that has the potential to spread in new geographical areas. The first fatal case of HGA in Greece is presented. Fever of unknown origin, renal and respiratory insufficiency and development of macrophage activation syndrome characterized the clinical presentation. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the groEL gene revealed the presence of A. phagocytophilum. The epidemiological and clinical features were collected during an epidemiological investigation. Public health measures were instituted by the Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. The Public Health intervention required the collaboration of epidemiologists, veterinarians and microbiologists. Emphasis was given to communication activities and misconceptions concerning canines and their role in the disease. The emergence of human anaplasmosis in a new geographical area highlights the importance of disease awareness and of the need for continued support for tick and tick-borne disease surveillance networks.

  1. Risk Factors for Primary Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Illness in Humans, Saudi Arabia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Alraddadi, Basem M.; Watson, John T.; Almarashi, Abdulatif; Abedi, Glen R.; Turkistani, Amal; Sadran, Musallam; Housa, Abeer; Almazroa, Mohammad A.; Alraihan, Naif; Banjar, Ayman; Albalawi, Eman; Alhindi, Hanan; Choudhry, Abdul Jamil; Meiman, Jonathan G.; Paczkowski, Magdalena; Curns, Aaron; Mounts, Anthony; Feikin, Daniel R.; Marano, Nina; Swerdlow, David L.; Gerber, Susan I.; Hajjeh, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for primary Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) illness in humans are incompletely understood. We identified all primary MERS-CoV cases reported in Saudi Arabia during March–November 2014 by excluding those with history of exposure to other cases of MERS-CoV or acute respiratory illness of unknown cause or exposure to healthcare settings within 14 days before illness onset. Using a case–control design, we assessed differences in underlying medical conditions and environmental exposures among primary case-patients and 2–4 controls matched by age, sex, and neighborhood. Using multivariable analysis, we found that direct exposure to dromedary camels during the 2 weeks before illness onset, as well as diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and smoking, were each independently associated with MERS-CoV illness. Further investigation is needed to better understand animal-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV. PMID:26692185

  2. The human Shwachman-Diamond syndrome protein, SBDS, associates with ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Ganapathi, Karthik A; Austin, Karyn M; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Dias, Anusha; Malsch, Maggie M; Reed, Robin; Shimamura, Akiko

    2007-09-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, and leukemia predisposition. Mutations in the SBDS gene are identified in most patients with SDS. SBDS encodes a highly conserved protein of unknown function. Data from SBDS orthologs suggest that SBDS may play a role in ribosome biogenesis or RNA processing. Human SBDS is enriched in the nucleolus, the major cellular site of ribosome biogenesis. Here we report that SBDS nucleolar localization is dependent on active rRNA transcription. Cells from patients with SDS or Diamond-Blackfan anemia are hypersensitive to low doses of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of rRNA transcription. The addition of wild-type SBDS complements the actinomycin D hypersensitivity of SDS patient cells. SBDS migrates together with the 60S large ribosomal subunit in sucrose gradients and coprecipitates with 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Loss of SBDS is not associated with a discrete block in rRNA maturation or with decreased levels of the 60S ribosomal subunit. SBDS forms a protein complex with nucleophosmin, a multifunctional protein implicated in ribosome biogenesis and leukemogenesis. Our studies support the addition of SDS to the growing list of human bone marrow failure syndromes involving the ribosome.

  3. Occupational trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome with human herpesvirus-6 and cytomegalovirus reactivation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hideaki; Tohyama, Mikiko; Kamijima, Michihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Yoshida, Takemi; Hashimoto, Koji; Iijima, Masafumi

    2010-08-01

    Patients having a generalised rash with severe liver dysfunction associated with exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) have been reported mainly in Asian countries. However, no case has been reported in Japan since the 1990s. Here, we describe a case of hypersensitivity syndrome (HS) caused by TCE in a 30-year-old Japanese man. The patient developed a rash, fever and liver dysfunction 21 days after he had been exposed to TCE at his workplace. Serum human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA were detected 4 and 7 weeks, respectively, after the onset; the IgG antibody titres to HHV-6 and CMV were significantly elevated 6 and 9 weeks, respectively, after the onset. Patch testing was positive for the metabolites of TCE (i.e. trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid and chloral hydrate) but not for TCE itself; these results suggest that the TCE metabolites induced this disease. Human leucocyte antigen-B*1301, which has been reported to be strongly associated with TCE-induced HS, was identified in this patient. In addition, the clinical findings, laboratory data and period of virus reactivation after onset were quite similar to those of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). We also review TCE-induced HS from the viewpoint of the similarity to DIHS in this article. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Solution structure of the RecQ C-terminal domain of human Bloom syndrome protein.

    PubMed

    Park, Chin-Ju; Ko, Junsang; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Choi, Byong-Seok

    2014-02-01

    RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain is known as the main DNA binding module of RecQ helicases such as Bloom syndrome protein (BLM) and Werner syndrome protein (WRN) that recognizes various DNA structures. Even though BLM is able to resolve various DNA structures similarly to WRN, BLM has different binding preferences for DNA substrates from WRN. In this study, we determined the solution structure of the RQC domain of human BLM. The structure shares the common winged-helix motif with other RQC domains. However, half of the N-terminal has unstructured regions (α1-α2 loop and α3 region), and the aromatic side chain on the top of the β-hairpin, which is important for DNA duplex strand separation in other RQC domains, is substituted with a negatively charged residue (D1165) followed by the polar residue (Q1166). The structurally distinctive features of the RQC domain of human BLM suggest that the DNA binding modes of the BLM RQC domain may be different from those of other RQC domains.

  5. Myokymia and neuromyotonia in veterinary medicine: a comparison with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Vanhaesebrouck, An E; Bhatti, Sofie F M; Franklin, Robin J M; Van Ham, Luc

    2013-08-01

    Involuntary muscle hyperactivity can result from muscle or peripheral nerve hyperexcitability or central nervous system dysfunction. In humans, diseases causing hyperexcitability of peripheral nerves are grouped together under the term 'peripheral nerve hyperexcitability' (PNH). Hyperexcitability of the peripheral motor nerve can result into five different phenotypic main variants, i.e. fasciculations, myokymia, neuromyotonia, cramps and tetany, each with their own clinical and electromyographic characteristics. This review focuses on the most commonly described expressions of PNH in veterinary medicine, i.e. myokymia and neuromyotonia, in particular in young Jack Russell terriers. Data from 58 veterinary cases with generalized myokymia and neuromyotonia were analyzed, including unpublished treatment and follow-up data on eight Jack Russell terriers from a previous study and seven additional Jack Russell terriers. A dysfunction of the potassium channel or its associated proteins has been found in many human syndromes characterized by PNH, in particular in generalized myokymia and neuromyotonia, and is suspected to occur in veterinary medicine. Potential pathomechanisms of potassium channel dysfunction leading to signs of PNH are broad and include genetic mutations, antibody-mediated attack or ion channel maldistribution due to axonal degeneration or demyelination. A more accurate classification of the different PNH syndromes will facilitate a more rapid diagnosis and guide further research into natural occurring PNH in animals.

  6. Visualization of human Bloom's syndrome helicase molecules bound to homologous recombination intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Gyimesi, Máté; Pires, Ricardo H.; Billington, Neil; Sarlós, Kata; Kocsis, Zsuzsa S.; Módos, Károly; Kellermayer, Miklós S. Z.; Kovács, Mihály

    2013-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is a key process in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) that can initiate cancer or cell death. Human Bloom's syndrome RecQ-family DNA helicase (BLM) exerts complex activities to promote DSB repair while avoiding illegitimate HR. The oligomeric assembly state of BLM has been a key unresolved aspect of its activities. In this study we assessed the structure and oligomeric state of BLM, in the absence and presence of key HR-intermediate DNA structures, by using single-molecule visualization (electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic single-particle analysis) and solution biophysical (dynamic light scattering, kinetic and equilibrium binding) techniques. Besides full-length BLM, we used a previously characterized truncated construct (BLM642–1290) as a monomeric control. Contrary to previous models proposing a ring-forming oligomer, we found the majority of BLM molecules to be monomeric in all examined conditions. However, BLM showed a tendency to form dimers when bound to branched HR intermediates. Our results suggest that HR activities requiring single-stranded DNA translocation are performed by monomeric BLM, while complex DNA structures encountered and dissolved by BLM in later stages of HR induce partial oligomerization of the helicase.—Gyimesi, M., Pires, R.H., Billington, N., Sarlós, K., Kocsis, Z.S. Módos, K., Kellermayer, M. S. Z., Kovács, M. Visualization of human Bloom's syndrome helicase molecules bound to homologous recombination intermediates. PMID:24005907

  7. Revisiting the case for genetically engineered mouse models in human myelodysplastic syndrome research

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ting; Kinney, Marsha C.; Scott, Linda M.; Zinkel, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    Much-needed attention has been given of late to diseases specifically associated with an expanding elderly population. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a hematopoietic stem cell-based blood disease, is one of these. The lack of clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this disease has hampered the development of efficacious therapies, especially in the presence of comorbidities. Mouse models could potentially provide new insights into this disease, although primary human MDS cells grow poorly in xenografted mice. This makes genetically engineered murine models a more attractive proposition, although this approach is not without complications. In particular, it is unclear if or how myelodysplasia (abnormal blood cell morphology), a key MDS feature in humans, presents in murine cells. Here, we evaluate the histopathologic features of wild-type mice and 23 mouse models with verified myelodysplasia. We find that certain features indicative of myelodysplasia in humans, such as Howell-Jolly bodies and low neutrophilic granularity, are commonplace in healthy mice, whereas other features are similarly abnormal in humans and mice. Quantitative hematopoietic parameters, such as blood cell counts, are required to distinguish between MDS and related diseases. We provide data that mouse models of MDS can be genetically engineered and faithfully recapitulate human disease. PMID:26077396

  8. A human papilloma virus testing algorithm comprising a combination of the L1 broad-spectrum SPF10 PCR assay and a novel E6 high-risk multiplex type-specific genotyping PCR assay.

    PubMed

    van Alewijk, Dirk; Kleter, Bernhard; Vent, Maarten; Delroisse, Jean-Marc; de Koning, Maurits; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Quint, Wim; Colau, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) epidemiological and vaccine studies require highly sensitive HPV detection and genotyping systems. To improve HPV detection by PCR, the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) LiPA system and a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific system (MPTS123) that uses Luminex xMAP technology were combined into a new testing algorithm. To evaluate this algorithm, cervical swabs (n = 860) and cervical biopsy specimens (n = 355) were tested, with a focus on HPV types detected by the MPTS123 assay (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 6, and 11). Among the HPV-positive samples, identifications of individual HPV genotypes were compared. When all MPTS123 targeted genotypes were considered together, good overall agreement was found (κ = 0.801, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.784 to 0.818) with identification by SPF10 LiPA, but significantly more genotypes (P < 0.0001) were identified by the MPTS123 PCR Luminex assay, especially for HPV types 16, 35, 39, 45, 58, and 59. An alternative type-specific assay was evaluated that is based on detection of a limited number of HPV genotypes by type-specific PCR and a reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA). This assay showed results similar to those of the expanded MPTS123 Luminex assay. These results confirm the fact that broad-spectrum PCRs are hampered by type competition when multiple HPV genotypes are present in the same sample. Therefore, a testing algorithm combining the broad-spectrum PCR and a range of type-specific PCRs can offer a highly accurate method for the analysis of HPV infections and diminish the rate of false-negative results and may be particularly useful for epidemiological and vaccine studies.

  9. Prevalence, distribution, and viral burden of all 15 high-risk human papillomavirus types in adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based study.

    PubMed

    Quddus, M Ruhul; Manna, Pradip; Sung, C James; Kerley, Spencer; Steinhoff, Margaret M; Lawrence, W Dwayne

    2014-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 are the types most commonly found in cervical adenosquamous carcinoma. Multiple HPV types have been found in cervical adenocarcinoma but not in the adenosquamous variant. Type-specific detection of high-risk (HR) HPV allows the detection of co-infection by multiple HPV types and assessment of viral load per cell. Our aim was to identify and quantify all HR HPV types in cervical adenosquamous carcinoma and to correlate viral loads with prognosis-related histologic features. All 15 HR HPV types were tested for by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction, and standard curves were created for each type. Viral loads were determined retrospectively. Prognosis-related histologic features were correlated with specific HPV types and the viral loads. A total of 80% of the tumors examined expressed HPV. Types 16/18 were detected in 86% of these cases, whereas the remaining 14% of the positive cases were infected by other types. A single type of virus was detected in 67% of cases, 2 in 29%, and 3 in 4%. Poor prognostic features were seen in 84.6% of the tumors infected with HPV 16, 46% of those infected with HPV 18, and 100% of those infected with other types. As expected, HPV 16, HPV 18, or both were the most frequent viral types; HPV 73 was the next most frequent type. Multiple HPV types were detected in 33% of the tumors. Non-HPV 16/18 cases had low viral loads, but all of these had poor prognosis-related histologic features. Two of the three recurrent cases had multiple viral types. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Human Papilloma Virus Testing Algorithm Comprising a Combination of the L1 Broad-Spectrum SPF10 PCR Assay and a Novel E6 High-Risk Multiplex Type-Specific Genotyping PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kleter, Bernhard; Vent, Maarten; Delroisse, Jean-Marc; de Koning, Maurits; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Quint, Wim; Colau, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) epidemiological and vaccine studies require highly sensitive HPV detection and genotyping systems. To improve HPV detection by PCR, the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) LiPA system and a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific system (MPTS123) that uses Luminex xMAP technology were combined into a new testing algorithm. To evaluate this algorithm, cervical swabs (n = 860) and cervical biopsy specimens (n = 355) were tested, with a focus on HPV types detected by the MPTS123 assay (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 6, and 11). Among the HPV-positive samples, identifications of individual HPV genotypes were compared. When all MPTS123 targeted genotypes were considered together, good overall agreement was found (κ = 0.801, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.784 to 0.818) with identification by SPF10 LiPA, but significantly more genotypes (P < 0.0001) were identified by the MPTS123 PCR Luminex assay, especially for HPV types 16, 35, 39, 45, 58, and 59. An alternative type-specific assay was evaluated that is based on detection of a limited number of HPV genotypes by type-specific PCR and a reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA). This assay showed results similar to those of the expanded MPTS123 Luminex assay. These results confirm the fact that broad-spectrum PCRs are hampered by type competition when multiple HPV genotypes are present in the same sample. Therefore, a testing algorithm combining the broad-spectrum PCR and a range of type-specific PCRs can offer a highly accurate method for the analysis of HPV infections and diminish the rate of false-negative results and may be particularly useful for epidemiological and vaccine studies. PMID:23363835

  11. Comparison of Hybrid Capture II, Linear Array, and a Bead-Based Multiplex Genotyping Assay for Detection of Human Papillomavirus in Women with Negative Pap Test Results and Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance

    PubMed Central

    Comar, Manola; Iannacone, Michelle R.; Casalicchio, Giorgia; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Tommasino, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Many methods with different levels of analytical sensitivity and clinical specificity have been developed to detect the presence of high-risk (HR) types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples. The Hybrid Capture II (HC-II) assay is broadly used for primary screening. In addition, several HPV genotyping assays, based on PCR methods, display higher sensitivity than the HC-II and are also used in screening programs. We evaluated the performance of three HPV DNA tests, namely, the HC-II, the Linear Array (LA) HPV genotyping assay, and an HPV type-specific E7 PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping assay (TS-MPG) that is a laboratory-developed method for the detection of HPV, in 94 women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and in cytological samples from 86 women with a negative Pap test. The HPV prevalence with the TS-MPG assay was increased compared to the prevalence with the LA and HC-II assays. The HPV DNA prevalence in women with ASC-US was greater with the TS-MPG assay (46.2%) than with the LA (36.3%) and HC-II (29.7%) assays. The HPV DNA prevalence in the control group was greater with the TS-MPG assay (32.1%) than with the LA assay (10.7%). Two women with ASC-US who were HPV DNA negative by the HC-II and positive by the TS-MPG or/and LA assays had lesions that progressed to low-grade squamous intraepithelial and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. This study shows that the TS-MPG assay exhibited higher analytical sensitivity than the LA and HC-II assays for the detection of HPV DNA, which reduces the potential to incorrectly identify a woman's HPV infection status. PMID:23035194

  12. A CHRNB1 frameshift mutation is associated with familial arthrogryposis multiplex congenita in Red dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; McEvoy, Fintan J; Menzi, Fiona; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord

    2016-06-30

    Bovine arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a syndromic term for a congenital condition characterized by multiple joint contractures. Rare inherited forms of bovine AMC have been reported in different breeds. For AMC in Angus cattle a causative genomic deletion encompassing the agrin (AGRN) gene, encoding an essential neural regulator that induces the aggregation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), is known. In 2015, three genetically related cases of generalized AMC affecting Red dairy calves were diagnosed in Denmark. The family history of three affected calves suggested an autosomal recessive inheritance. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping showed a single genomic region of extended homozygosity of 21.5 Mb on chromosome 19. Linkage analysis revealed a maximal parametric LOD score of 1.8 at this region. By whole genome re-sequencing of the three cases, two private homozygous non-synonymous variants were detected in the critical interval. Both variants, located in the myosin phosphatase Rho interacting protein (MPRIP) and the cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 1 subunit gene (CHRNB1), were perfectly associated with the AMC phenotype. Previously described CHRNB1 variants in humans lead to a congenital myasthenic syndrome with impaired neuromuscular transmission. The cattle variant represents a single base deletion in the first exon of CHRNB1 (c.55delG) introducing a premature stop codon (p.Ala19Profs47*) in the second exon, truncating 96 % of the protein. This study provides the first phenotypically and genetically characterized example of a bovine AMC phenotype that represents an inherited neuromuscular disorder corresponding to human congenital myasthenic syndrome. The identified CHRNB1 loss of function variant is predicted to have a deleterious effect on fetal AChR function, which could explain the lethal phenotype reported in this study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of

  13. Development of multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of six swine DNA and RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Gang; Chen, Guang-Da; Huang, Yong; Ding, Li; Li, Zhao-Cai; Chang, Ching-Dong; Wang, Chi-Young; Tong, De-Wen; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Uniplex and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR protocols were developed and evaluated subsequently for its effectiveness in detecting simultaneously single and mixed infections in swine. Specific primers for three DNA viruses and three RNA viruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) were used for testing procedure. A single nucleic acid extraction protocol was adopted for the simultaneous extraction of both RNA and DNA viruses. The multiplex PCR consisted with two-step procedure which included reverse transcription of RNA virus and multiplex PCR of viral cDNA and DNA. The multiplex PCR assay was shown to be sensitive detecting at least 450pg of viral genomic DNA or RNA from a mixture of six viruses in a reaction. The assay was also highly specific in detecting one or more of the same viruses in various combinations in specimens. Thirty clinical samples and aborted fetuses collected from 4- to 12-week-old piglets were detected among 39 samples tested by both uniplex and multiplex PCR, showing highly identification. Because of the sensitivity and specificity, the multiplex PCR is a useful approach for clinical diagnosis of mixed infections of DNA and RNA viruses in swine.

  14. A Multiplex Human Syndrome Implicates a Key Role for Intestinal Cell Kinase in Development of Central Nervous, Skeletal, and Endocrine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lahiry, Piya; Wang, Jian; Robinson, John F.; Turowec, Jacob P.; Litchfield, David W.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Gloor, Gregory B.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Martens, Mildred B.; Ramsay, David A.; Rupar, C. Anthony; Siu, Victoria; Hegele, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Six infants in an Old Order Amish pedigree were observed to be affected with endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO). ECO is a previously unidentified neonatal lethal recessive disorder with multiple anomalies involving the endocrine, cerebral, and skeletal systems. Autozygosity mapping and sequencing identified a previously unknown missense mutation, R272Q, in ICK, encoding intestinal cell kinase (ICK). Our results established that R272 is conserved across species and among ethnicities, and three-dimensional analysis of the protein structure suggests protein instability due to the R272Q mutation. We also demonstrate that the R272Q mutant fails to localize at the nucleus and has diminished kinase activity. These findings suggest that ICK plays a key role in the development of multiple organ systems. PMID:19185282

  15. Analysis of spatial domain multiplexing/space division multiplexing (SDM) based hybrid architectures operating in tandem with wavelength division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murshid, Syed; Lovell, Greg; Chowdhury, Bilas; Hridoy, Arnob; Parhar, Gurinder; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Alanzi, Saud

    2014-09-01

    Spatial domain multiplexing (SDM) also known as space division multiplexing adds a new degree of photon freedom to existing optical fiber multiplexing techniques by allocating separate radial locations to different MIMO channels as a function of the input launch angle. These independent MIMO channels remain confined to the designated location while traversing the length of the carrier fiber, due to helical propagation of light inside the fiber core. The SDM technique can be used in tandem with other multiplexing techniques, such as time division multiplexing (TDM), and wavelength division multiplexing in hybrid optical communication schemes, to achieve higher optical fiber bandwidth by increasing the photon efficiency due to added degrees of photon freedom. This paper presents the feasibility of a novel hybrid optical fiber communications architecture and shows that SDM channels of different operating wavelengths continue to follow the input launch angle based radial distribution pattern.

  16. Parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song; Tan, Yidong; Zhang, Shulian

    2013-12-15

    We present a parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometer based on spatial multiplexing which avoids the signal crosstalk in the former feedback interferometer. The interferometer outputs two close parallel laser beams, whose frequencies are shifted by two acousto-optic modulators by 2Ω simultaneously. A static reference mirror is inserted into one of the optical paths as the reference optical path. The other beam impinges on the target as the measurement optical path. Phase variations of the two feedback laser beams are simultaneously measured through heterodyne demodulation with two different detectors. Their subtraction accurately reflects the target displacement. Under typical room conditions, experimental results show a resolution of 1.6 nm and accuracy of 7.8 nm within the range of 100 μm.

  17. Multiplexed DNA-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Slinker, Jason D; Muren, Natalie B; Gorodetsky, Alon A; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2010-03-03

    We report the use of silicon chips with 16 DNA-modified electrodes (DME chips) utilizing DNA-mediated charge transport for multiplexed detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets. Four DNA sequences were simultaneously distinguished on a single DME chip with 4-fold redundancy, including one incorporating a single base mismatch. These chips also enabled investigation of the sequence-specific activity of the restriction enzyme Alu1. DME chips supported dense DNA monolayer formation with high reproducibility, as confirmed by statistical comparison to commercially available rod electrodes. The working electrode areas on the chips were reduced to 10 microm in diameter, revealing microelectrode behavior that is beneficial for high sensitivity and rapid kinetic analysis. These results illustrate how DME chips facilitate sensitive and selective detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets in a robust and internally standardized multiplexed format.

  18. Multiplexed DNA-Modified Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Slinker, Jason D.; Muren, Natalie B.; Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2011-01-01

    We report the use of silicon chips with 16 DNA-modified electrodes (DME chips) utilizing DNA-mediated charge transport for multiplexed detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets. Four DNA sequences were simultaneously distinguished on a single DME chip with fourfold redundancy, including one incorporating a single base mismatch. These chips also enabled investigation of the sequence-specific activity of the restriction enzyme Alu1. DME chips supported dense DNA monolayer formation with high reproducibility, as confirmed by statistical comparison to commercially available rod electrodes. The working electrode areas on the chips were reduced to 10 µm in diameter, revealing microelectrode behavior that is beneficial for high sensitivity and rapid kinetic analysis. These results illustrate how DME chips facilitate sensitive and selective detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets in a robust and internally standardized multiplexed format. PMID:20131780

  19. Rett Syndrome Turns 50: Themes From a Chronicle: Medical Perspectives and the Human Face of Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Gabriel M; Rosenbaum, Peter L

    2016-08-01

    Fifty years ago Andreas Rett first described in great detail what came to be known as "Rett syndrome." Understanding girls and women with this syndrome and their families helped in many ways to revolutionize modern neurodevelopmental medicine. For some people the identification of the genetic underpinning of the syndrome and the ongoing biological research into this condition represented the peak of the scientific accomplishments in Rett syndrome. For others, it was developments in clinical research methodologies that were especially important. Above all, the patient- and family-oriented empathetic and collaborative approach to care by professionals collaborating with families has led to immense achievements, both scientific and humanistic. The aim of this narrative was to describe the medical and personal life story of a young woman with Rett syndrome and to offer a history that highlights developments in the unraveling of this condition from its initial recognition to our current understanding. We believe that much can be learned from the humanistic style of care provision combined with the best possible level of assisted autonomy and life enjoyment of the young woman with Rett syndrome. In addition, the approach to collaborative research by dedicated and often charitable leaders in the field can teach us many important lessons about the ethics of clinical and health services research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): animal to human interaction

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Ali S.; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel enzootic betacoronavirus that was first described in September 2012. The clinical spectrum of MERS-CoV infection in humans ranges from an asymptomatic or mild respiratory illness to severe pneumonia and multi-organ failure; overall mortality is around 35.7%. Bats harbour several betacoronaviruses that are closely related to MERS-CoV but more research is needed to establish the relationship between bats and MERS-CoV. The seroprevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies is very high in dromedary camels in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoV RNA and viable virus have been isolated from dromedary camels, including some with respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, near-identical strains of MERS-CoV have been isolated from epidemiologically linked humans and camels, confirming inter-transmission, most probably from camels to humans. Though inter-human spread within health care settings is responsible for the majority of reported MERS-CoV cases, the virus is incapable at present of causing sustained human-to-human transmission. Clusters can be readily controlled with implementation of appropriate infection control procedures. Phylogenetic and sequencing data strongly suggest that MERS-CoV originated from bat ancestors after undergoing a recombination event in the spike protein, possibly in dromedary camels in Africa, before its exportation to the Arabian Peninsula along the camel trading routes. MERS-CoV serosurveys are needed to investigate possible unrecognized human infections in Africa. Amongst the important measures to control MERS-CoV spread are strict regulation of camel movement, regular herd screening and isolation of infected camels, use of personal protective equipment by camel handlers and enforcing rules banning all consumption of unpasteurized camel milk and urine. PMID:26924345

  1. Atypical Steatocystoma Multiplex with Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Muhammad Hasibur; Islam, Muhammad Saiful; Ansari, Nazma Parvin

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old male reported to us with an atypical case of giant steatocystoma multiplex in the scrotum with calcification. There was no family history of similar lesions. Yellowish, creamy material was expressed from a nodule during punch biopsy. The diagnosis was based on clinical as well as histological findings. Successful surgical excision was done to cure the case without any complications. PMID:22363850

  2. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    DOEpatents

    Siezak, Thomas R.; Gardner, Shea; Torres, Clinton; Vitalis, Elizabeth; Lenhoff, Raymond J.

    2013-01-15

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of agricultural pathogens in a sample. Genomic sequence information from agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay and/or an array assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  3. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    DOEpatents

    McBride, Mary Teresa; Slezak, Thomas Richard; Messenger, Sharon Lee

    2010-09-14

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  4. AmericaPlex26: A SNaPshot Multiplex System for Genotyping the Main Human Mitochondrial Founder Lineages of the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Alexandra; Valverde, Guido; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Cooper, Alan; Barreto Romero, Maria Inés; Espinoza, Isabel Flores; Llamas, Bastien; Haak, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies have described a reduced genetic diversity in Native American populations, indicative of one or more bottleneck events during the peopling and prehistory of the Americas. Classical sequencing approaches targeting the mitochondrial diversity have reported the presence of five major haplogroups, namely A, B, C, D and X, whereas the advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has recently refined the number of founder lineages within the given diversity to 15 sub-haplogroups. We developed and optimized a SNaPshot assay to study the mitochondrial diversity in pre-Columbian Native American populations by simultaneous typing of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) characterising Native American sub-haplogroups. Our assay proved to be highly sensitive with respect to starting concentrations of target DNA and could be applied successfully to a range of ancient human skeletal material from South America from various time periods. The AmericaPlex26 is a powerful assay with enhanced phylogenetic resolution that allows time- and cost-efficient mitochondrial DNA sub-typing from valuable ancient specimens. It can be applied in addition or alternative to standard sequencing of the D-loop region in forensics, ancestry testing, and population studies, or where full-resolution mitochondrial genome sequencing is not feasible. PMID:24671218

  5. Biallelic mutations in human DCC cause developmental split-brain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jamuar, Saumya S; Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; D'Gama, Alissa M; Drottar, Marie; Chan, Wai-Man; Peeva, Maya; Servattalab, Sarah; Lam, Anh-Thu N; Delgado, Mauricio R; Clegg, Nancy J; Zayed, Zayed Al; Dogar, Mohammad Asif; Alorainy, Ibrahim A; Jamea, Abdullah Abu; Abu-Amero, Khaled; Griebel, May; Ward, Wendy; Lein, Ed S; Markianos, Kyriacos; Barkovich, A James; Robson, Caroline D; Grant, P Ellen; Bosley, Thomas M; Engle, Elizabeth C; Walsh, Christopher A; Yu, Timothy W

    2017-04-01

    Motor, sensory, and integrative activities of the brain are coordinated by a series of midline-bridging neuronal commissures whose development is tightly regulated. Here we report a new human syndrome in which these commissures are widely disrupted, thus causing clinical manifestations of horizontal gaze palsy, scoliosis, and intellectual disability. Affected individuals were found to possess biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the axon-guidance receptor 'deleted in colorectal carcinoma' (DCC), which has been implicated in congenital mirror movements when it is mutated in the heterozygous state but whose biallelic loss-of-function human phenotype has not been reported. Structural MRI and diffusion tractography demonstrated broad disorganization of white-matter tracts throughout the human central nervous system (CNS), including loss of all commissural tracts at multiple levels of the neuraxis. Combined with data from animal models, these findings show that DCC is a master regulator of midline crossing and development of white-matter projections throughout the human CNS.

  6. Evaluation of a novel broad-spectrum PCR-multiplex genotyping assay for identification of cutaneous wart-associated human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Maurits N C; ter Schegget, Jan; Eekhof, Just A H; Kamp, Marga; Kleter, Bernhard; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Feltkamp, Mariet C W; Bouwes Bavinck, Jan Nico; Purdie, Karin J; Bunker, Christopher B; Proby, Charlotte M; Meys, Rhonda; Harwood, Catherine A; Quint, Wim G V

    2010-05-01

    A large number of human papillomavirus (HPV) types, distributed over five papillomavirus genera, are detectable in the skin. HPV types belonging to the alpha, gamma, and mu genera have been detected in cutaneous warts. A state-of-the-art HPV genotyping assay for these cutaneous wart-associated HPV types does not exist although warts constitute a highly prevalent skin condition, especially in children (33%) and organ transplant recipients (45%). Cutaneous warts are again the focus of attention as their clinical relevance rises with the increasing number of chronically immunosuppressed patients. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a DNA-based genotyping system for all known cutaneous wart-related HPV types using PCR and Luminex xMAP technology. The broad-spectrum PCR amplified DNA of all known wart-associated HPV types from the genera alpha (HPVs 2, 3, 7, 10, 27, 28, 29, 40, 43, 57, 77, 91, and 94), gamma (HPVs 4, 65, 95, 48, 50, 60, and 88), mu (HPVs 1 and 63), and nu (HPV41). The probes were evaluated using plasmid HPV DNA and a panel of 45 previously characterized cutaneous wart biopsy specimens showing high specificity. HPV was also identified in 96% of 100 swabs from nongenital cutaneous warts. HPV types 1, 2, 27, and 57 were the most prevalent HPV types detected in 89% of the swabs. In conclusion, this Luminex-based genotyping system identifies all known cutaneous wart HPV types including phylogenetically related types, is highly HPV type specific, and is suitable for large-scale epidemiological studies.

  7. Evaluation of a Novel Broad-Spectrum PCR-Multiplex Genotyping Assay for Identification of Cutaneous Wart-Associated Human Papillomavirus Types ▿

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Maurits N. C.; ter Schegget, Jan; Eekhof, Just A. H.; Kamp, Marga; Kleter, Bernhard; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Feltkamp, Mariet C. W.; Bouwes Bavinck, Jan Nico; Purdie, Karin J.; Bunker, Christopher B.; Proby, Charlotte M.; Meys, Rhonda; Harwood, Catherine A.; Quint, Wim G. V.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of human papillomavirus (HPV) types, distributed over five papillomavirus genera, are detectable in the skin. HPV types belonging to the alpha, gamma, and mu genera have been detected in cutaneous warts. A state-of-the-art HPV genotyping assay for these cutaneous wart-associated HPV types does not exist although warts constitute a highly prevalent skin condition, especially in children (33%) and organ transplant recipients (45%). Cutaneous warts are again the focus of attention as their clinical relevance rises with the increasing number of chronically immunosuppressed patients. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a DNA-based genotyping system for all known cutaneous wart-related HPV types using PCR and Luminex xMAP technology. The broad-spectrum PCR amplified DNA of all known wart-associated HPV types from the genera alpha (HPVs 2, 3, 7, 10, 27, 28, 29, 40, 43, 57, 77, 91, and 94), gamma (HPVs 4, 65, 95, 48, 50, 60, and 88), mu (HPVs 1 and 63), and nu (HPV41). The probes were evaluated using plasmid HPV DNA and a panel of 45 previously characterized cutaneous wart biopsy specimens showing high specificity. HPV was also identified in 96% of 100 swabs from nongenital cutaneous warts. HPV types 1, 2, 27, and 57 were the most prevalent HPV types detected in 89% of the swabs. In conclusion, this Luminex-based genotyping system identifies all known cutaneous wart HPV types including phylogenetically related types, is highly HPV type specific, and is suitable for large-scale epidemiological studies. PMID:20237103

  8. Evaluation of a multiplex real time PCR assay for the detection of human papillomavirus infections on self-collected cervicovaginal lavage samples.

    PubMed

    Jentschke, Matthias; Soergel, Philipp; Hillemanns, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Self-collection of cervical samples for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing can help to raise the participation rate in cervical cancer screening among non-responders. This study was conducted to compare the analytical and clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV Test (RealTime) with the Hybrid Capture 2 assay (HC2) on self-collected cervicovaginal lavage samples. One hundred samples from women referred for colposcopy (reference smears and biopsies in case of abnormalities) were included. Fifty-seven women had a normal cytology, 27 had low grade and 16 had high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Fourteen of 49 biopsies (28.6%) were benign, 14 (28.6%) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, 11 (22.4%) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2, 8 (16.3%) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and 2 (4.1%) invasive cancer. The agreement between RealTime and HC2 in the self-collected and in the reference samples was 85% (κ=0.665) and 83% (κ=0.620), respectively. The agreement between self-sampling and the reference smears was higher with RealTime (93%; κ=0.849) than with HC2 (89%; κ=0.741). In the self-collected samples, the sensitivity and specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse of RealTime/HC2 were 81.0%/66.7% (p=0.25) and 53.6%/57.1%, respectively. The sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or worse of RealTime and HC2 were 80.0% and 70.0% (p=1.0). The specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or worse was 43.6% (RealTime) and 51.3% (HC2). This study shows that RealTime can be used for HR-HPV testing of self-collected lavage samples in a referral population with at least equal quality and performance as HC2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioethics, biotechnology products and humans: Europe between the skilled Theseus and the Labyrinth-Minotaur's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frati, P

    1999-01-01

    Following the approval on May 1998 of the European Union Common position no. 19/98 regarding the legal protection of biotechnological inventions, the debate on bioethical aspects of biotechnologies is increased. The European Union document clearly protects the patentability of inventions (that concerns more than a particular plant or animal variety or a single procedure if they are of industrial interest), but not the finding or discovery of that is in the nature, e.g. a gene. Some safeguards (the dignity and integrity of the person and of the human embryo, the plant diversity, etc.) and exclusions from patentability (plant and animal varieties, processes for the production of plants or animals, the human body at any stage of growth, cloning of human beings, modifications of germ line, use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes as well as the inventions whose publication or exploitation would offend against public policy or morality, according to the Article 53a of the European Patenting Convention) are also indicated. Ethical issues discussed include the nature of human life and its protection, the safeguard of plant-animal biological diversity, the safeguard of human dignity and nature, whereas on several aspects (e. g. limits of the use of genetic material, xenotransplantation, etc.) the Parliament Assembly of the Council of Europe has requested a discussion or a moratorium (April, 1999). In this case an evaluation on the basis of the ethical beneficial principles should be performed and society should decide whether to master technologies and emulate the positive action of the hero Theseus against the Labyrinth-Minotaur syndrome or to renounce or "misuse" technologies like Daedalus and Icarus, who met a tragic end.

  10. A dietary non-human sialic acid may facilitate hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Löfling, Jonas C; Paton, Adrienne W; Varki, Nissi M; Paton, James C; Varki, Ajit

    2009-07-01

    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a systemic disease characterized by microvascular endothelial damage, mainly in the gastrointestinal tract and the kidneys. A major cause of HUS is Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) infection. In addition to Shiga toxin, additional STEC virulence factors may contribute to HUS. One is the newly discovered subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), which is highly toxic to eukaryotic cells, and when injected intraperitoneally into mice causes pathology resembling that associated with human HUS. Recent data show that SubAB exhibits a strong preference for glycans terminating in alpha2-3-linked N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), a sialic acid that humans are unable to synthesize, because we genetically lack the necessary enzyme. However, Neu5Gc can still be found on human cells due to metabolic incorporation from the diet. Dietary incorporation happens to be highest in human endothelium and to a lesser extent in the intestinal epithelium, the two affected cell types in STEC-induced HUS. Mammalian-derived foods such as red meat and dairy products appear to be the primary source of dietary Neu5Gc. Ironically, these are also common sources of STEC contamination. Taken together, these findings suggest a 'two-hit' process in the pathogenesis of human SubAB-induced disease. First, humans eat Neu5Gc-rich food, leading to incorporation of Neu5Gc on the surfaces of endothelial and intestinal cells. Second, when exposed to a SubAB-producing STEC strain, the toxin produced would be able to bind to the intestinal epithelial cells, perhaps causing acute gastrointestinal symptoms, and eventually damaging endothelial cells in other organs like the kidney, thereby causing HUS.

  11. Large-scale fibre-array multiplexing

    SciTech Connect

    Cheremiskin, I V; Chekhlova, T K

    2001-05-31

    The possibility of creating a fibre multiplexer/demultiplexer with large-scale multiplexing without any basic restrictions on the number of channels and the spectral spacing between them is shown. The operating capacity of a fibre multiplexer based on a four-fibre array ensuring a spectral spacing of 0.7 pm ({approx} 10 GHz) between channels is demonstrated. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  12. Multiplexing of encrypted data using fractal masks.

    PubMed

    Barrera, John F; Tebaldi, Myrian; Amaya, Dafne; Furlan, Walter D; Monsoriu, Juan A; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

    2012-07-15

    In this Letter, we present to the best of our knowledge a new all-optical technique for multiple-image encryption and multiplexing, based on fractal encrypting masks. The optical architecture is a joint transform correlator. The multiplexed encrypted data are stored in a photorefractive crystal. The fractal parameters of the key can be easily tuned to lead to a multiplexing operation without cross talk effects. Experimental results that support the potential of the method are presented.

  13. Structure and function of the human Werner syndrome gene promoter: evidence for transcriptional modulation.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Hunt, K E; Martin, G M; Oshima, J

    1998-01-01

    The Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive segmental progeroid syndrome caused by mutations in a novel member ( WRN ) of the RecQ family of helicases. Somatic WS cells are hypermutable and have elongated S phases, suggesting possible defects in DNA replication and/or repair. As an initial approach to the investigation of how this locus might be responsive to DNA damage, we determined the structure of the human WRN promoter. The WRN promoter region has two transcription initiation sites and exhibits several features characteristic of so-called constitutive promoters, including the absence of TATA and CAAT boxes. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that the upstream promoter was used 2-10-fold less frequently than the downstream promoter, the variation being a function of cell type. The activity of the WRN promoter was dramatically reduced in cells from WS patients. The reduction of activity was not seen in three other promoters tested, including one TATA-less promoter and one TATA-containing promoter. This is consistent with the presence of a positive regulatory mechanism of WRN expression. PMID:9671808

  14. Chromosome fragility at FRAXA in human cleavage stage embryos at risk for fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verdyck, Pieter; Berckmoes, Veerle; De Vos, Anick; Verpoest, Willem; Liebaers, Inge; Bonduelle, Maryse; De Rycke, Martine

    2015-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited intellectual disability syndrome, is caused by expansion and hypermethylation of the CGG repeat in the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene. This expanded repeat, also known as the rare fragile site FRAXA, causes X chromosome fragility in cultured cells from patients but only when induced by perturbing pyrimidine synthesis. We performed preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on 595 blastomeres biopsied from 442 cleavage stage embryos at risk for FXS using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. In six blastomeres, from five embryos an incomplete haplotype was observed with loss of all alleles telomeric to the CGG repeat. In all five embryos, the incomplete haplotype corresponded to the haplotype carrying the CGG repeat expansion. Subsequent analysis of additional blastomeres from three embryos by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) confirmed the presence of a terminal deletion with a breakpoint close to the CGG repeat in two blastomeres from one embryo. A blastomere from another embryo showed the complementary duplication. We conclude that a CGG repeat expansion at FRAXA causes X chromosome fragility in early human IVF embryos at risk for FXS.

  15. The impact of metabolic disease associated with metabolic syndrome on human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Malek, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic diseases induced by metabolic syndrome (MS) have been increased during the past two decades. During healthy pregnancy maternal organs and placenta are challenged to adapt to the increasingly physiological changes. In addition to the increasingly proatherogenic MS, pregnant woman develops a high cardiac output, hypercoagulability, increased inflammatory activity and insulin resistance with dyslipidemia. The MS describes a cluster of metabolic changes associated with an impact on the physiology of many organs. While the metabolic syndrome is directly responsible for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, additional impact on human pregnancy like preterm delivery with low-birth-weight infants as well as the development of diseases such as diabetes, preeclampsia and hypertension. Recent evidence suggests that MS is originated in fetal life in association with maternal nutrition during pregnancy and fetal programming which apparently increases the susceptibility for MS in children and later life. This review will describe the MS in association with the origin of the emerging diseases during pregnancy such as diabetes, preeclampsia and others. The influence of perinatal environment and maternal diet and smoking on MS as well as the genetic biomarkers of MS will be described.

  16. Structure of human Bloom's syndrome helicase in complex with ADP and duplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Swan, Michael K; Legris, Valerie; Tanner, Adam; Reaper, Philip M; Vial, Sarah; Bordas, Rebecca; Pollard, John R; Charlton, Peter A; Golec, Julian M C; Bertrand, Jay A

    2014-05-01

    Bloom's syndrome is an autosomal recessive genome-instability disorder associated with a predisposition to cancer, premature aging and developmental abnormalities. It is caused by mutations that inactivate the DNA helicase activity of the BLM protein or nullify protein expression. The BLM helicase has been implicated in the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway, which is essential for the limitless replication of some cancer cells. This pathway is used by 10-15% of cancers, where inhibitors of BLM are expected to facilitate telomere shortening, leading to apoptosis or senescence. Here, the crystal structure of the human BLM helicase in complex with ADP and a 3'-overhang DNA duplex is reported. In addition to the helicase core, the BLM construct used for crystallization (residues 640-1298) includes the RecQ C-terminal (RQC) and the helicase and ribonuclease D C-terminal (HRDC) domains. Analysis of the structure provides detailed information on the interactions of the protein with DNA and helps to explain the mechanism coupling ATP hydrolysis and DNA unwinding. In addition, mapping of the missense mutations onto the structure provides insights into the molecular basis of Bloom's syndrome.

  17. Rare Syndromes and Common Variants of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene in Human Obesity.

    PubMed

    Han, J C

    2016-01-01

    Rare genetic disorders that cause BDNF haploinsufficiency, such as WAGR syndrome, 11p deletion, and 11p inversion, serve as models for understanding the role of BDNF in human energy balance and neurocognition. Patients with BDNF haploinsufficiency or inactivating mutations of the BDNF receptor exhibit hyperphagia, childhood-onset obesity, intellectual disability, and impaired nociception. Prader-Willi, Smith-Magenis, and ROHHAD syndromes are separate genetic disorders that do not directly affect the BDNF locus but share many similar clinical features with BDNF haploinsufficiency, and BDNF insufficiency is believed to possibly contribute to the pathophysiology of each of these conditions. In the general population, common variants of BDNF that affect BDNF gene expression or BDNF protein processing have also been associated with modest alterations in energy balance and cognitive functioning. Thus, variable degrees of BDNF insufficiency appear to contribute to a spectrum of excess weight gain and cognitive impairment that ranges in phenotypic severity. In this modern era of precision medicine, genotype-specific therapies aimed at increasing BDNF signaling in patients with rare and common disorders associated with BDNF insufficiency could serve as useful approaches for treating obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct, Specific and Rapid Detection of Staphylococcal Proteins and Exotoxins Using a Multiplex Antibody Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Stieber, Bettina; Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Büchler, Joseph; Ehricht, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background S. aureus is a pathogen in humans and animals that harbors a wide variety of virulence factors and resistance genes. This bacterium can cause a wide range of mild to life-threatening diseases. In the latter case, fast diagnostic procedures are important. In routine diagnostic laboratories, several genotypic and phenotypic methods are available to identify S. aureus strains and determine their resistances. However, there is a demand for multiplex routine diagnostic tests to directly detect staphylococcal toxins and proteins. Methods In this study, an antibody microarray based assay was established and validated for the rapid detection of staphylococcal markers and exotoxins. The following targets were included: staphylococcal protein A, penicillin binding protein 2a, alpha- and beta-hemolysins, Panton Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin, enterotoxins A and B as well as staphylokinase. All were detected simultaneously within a single experiment, starting from a clonal culture on standard media. The detection of bound proteins was performed using a new fluorescence reading device for microarrays. Results 110 reference strains and clinical isolates were analyzed using this assay, with a DNA microarray for genotypic characterization performed in parallel. The results showed a general high concordance of genotypic and phenotypic data. However, genotypic analysis found the hla gene present in all S. aureus isolates but its expression under given conditions depended on the clonal complex affiliation of the actual isolate. Conclusions The multiplex antibody assay described herein allowed a rapid and reliable detection of clinically relevant staphylococcal toxins as well as resistance- and species-specific markers. PMID:26624622

  19. Massively multiplexed microbial identification using resequencing DNA microarrays for outbreak investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leski, T. A.; Ansumana, R.; Jimmy, D. H.; Bangura, U.; Malanoski, A. P.; Lin, B.; Stenger, D. A.

    2011-06-01

    Multiplexed microbial diagnostic assays are a promising method for detection and identification of pathogens causing syndromes characterized by nonspecific symptoms in which traditional differential diagnosis is difficult. Also such assays can play an important role in outbreak investigations and environmental screening for intentional or accidental release of biothreat agents, which requires simultaneous testing for hundreds of potential pathogens. The resequencing pathogen microarray (RPM) is an emerging technological platform, relying on a combination of massively multiplex PCR and high-density DNA microarrays for rapid detection and high-resolution identification of hundreds of infectious agents simultaneously. The RPM diagnostic system was deployed in Sierra Leone, West Africa in collaboration with Njala University and Mercy Hospital Research Laboratory located in Bo. We used the RPM-Flu microarray designed for broad-range detection of human respiratory pathogens, to investigate a suspected outbreak of avian influenza in a number of poultry farms in which significant mortality of chickens was observed. The microarray results were additionally confirmed by influenza specific real-time PCR. The results of the study excluded the possibility that the outbreak was caused by influenza, but implicated Klebsiella pneumoniae as a possible pathogen. The outcome of this feasibility study confirms that application of broad-spectrum detection platforms for outbreak investigation in low-resource locations is possible and allows for rapid discovery of the responsible agents, even in cases when different agents are suspected. This strategy enables quick and cost effective detection of low probability events such as outbreak of a rare disease or intentional release of a biothreat agent.

  20. Measuring and modeling correlations in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2015-09-01

    The interactions among the elementary components of many complex systems can be qualitatively different. Such systems are therefore naturally described in terms of multiplex or multilayer networks, i.e., networks where each layer stands for a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes. There is today a growing interest in understanding when and why a description in terms of a multiplex network is necessary and more informative than a single-layer projection. Here we contribute to this debate by presenting a comprehensive study of correlations in multiplex networks. Correlations in node properties, especially degree-degree correlations, have been thoroughly studied in single-layer networks. Here we extend this idea to investigate and characterize correlations between the different layers of a multiplex network. Such correlations are intrinsically multiplex, and we first study them empirically by constructing and analyzing several multiplex networks from the real world. In particular, we introduce various measures to characterize correlations in the activity of the nodes and in their degree at the different layers and between activities and degrees. We show that real-world networks exhibit indeed nontrivial multiplex correlations. For instance, we find cases where two layers of the same multiplex network are positively correlated in terms of node degrees, while other two layers are negatively correlated. We then focus on constructing synthetic multiplex networks, proposing a series of models to reproduce the correlations observed empirically and/or to assess their relevance.

  1. Measuring and modeling correlations in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2015-09-01

    The interactions among the elementary components of many complex systems can be qualitatively different. Such systems are therefore naturally described in terms of multiplex or multilayer networks, i.e., networks where each layer stands for a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes. There is today a growing interest in understanding when and why a description in terms of a multiplex network is necessary and more informative than a single-layer projection. Here we contribute to this debate by presenting a comprehensive study of correlations in multiplex networks. Correlations in node properties, especially degree-degree correlations, have been thoroughly studied in single-layer networks. Here we extend this idea to investigate and characterize correlations between the different layers of a multiplex network. Such correlations are intrinsically multiplex, and we first study them empirically by constructing and analyzing several multiplex networks from the real world. In particular, we introduce various measures to characterize correlations in the activity of the nodes and in their degree at the different layers and between activities and degrees. We show that real-world networks exhibit indeed nontrivial multiplex correlations. For instance, we find cases where two layers of the same multiplex network are positively correlated in terms of node degrees, while other two layers are negatively correlated. We then focus on constructing synthetic multiplex networks, proposing a series of models to reproduce the correlations observed empirically and/or to assess their relevance.

  2. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  3. The Effects of a Kansas Education Class on Students' Knowledge and Attitudes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, R. Warren, Jr.

    This study was undertaken to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of 8th, 9th, and 10th grade Kansas students pertaining to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Attitudes and knowledge of 9th and 10th grade students who had participated in a Sex Respect Class offered in the 9th grade were compared…

  4. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  5. Defining global syndromes of fire and the relationship of these to biomes, climate and human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, C.; Archibald, S.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Bradstock, R.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is a ubiquitous component of the Earth system that remains poorly understood. To date, global scale understanding of fire is limited largely to the annual extent of burning as detected by satellites. This is problematic because fire is multi-dimensional, and focus on individual metrics belies both the complexity and importance of fire within the Earth system. In an applied sense, the lack of a unified understanding of fire impedes estimation of GHG emissions or prediction of future fire regimes as a consequence of changing patterns of climate and land use. To address this we identified five key characteristics of fire regimes: size, frequency, intensity, season and extent. We combined new global datasets with existing datasets to examine cross-correlations among characteristics. We demonstrate that only certain combinations of fire characteristics are possible and this likely reflects fundamental energetic constraints derived from interactions between under-lying fuel types, climate and rates of re-growth post-fire. For example, very intense fires can only occur infrequently because a system requires a lengthy period to develop sufficient fuel to burn. Further, very cool fires only occur infrequently because fuels are not available to burn. Following, we applied a clustering algorithm to these data to determine whether we could identify syndromes of fire regimes. Pyromes, as global syndromes of fire are conceptually analogous to biomes (global syndromes of vegetation) where the extent of each pyrome is determined solely as a product of the fire characteristics themselves. A point of difference to biomes being that no one has previously attempted to quantify the global range of fire syndromes. We identified five pyromes, four of which we believe represent distinctions between crown, litter and grass-fuelled fires. The relationship of pyromes to biomes and climate are not deterministic as different biomes and climates may be represented within a single pyrome

  6. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  7. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 536: Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and women of color.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    In the United States, most new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occur among women of color (primarily African American and Hispanic women). Most women of color acquire the disease from heterosexual contact, often from a partner who has undisclosed risk factors for HIV infection. Safe sex practices, especially consistent condom use, must be emphasized for all women, including women of color. A combination of testing, education, and brief behavioral interventions can help reduce the rate of HIV infection and its complications among women of color. In addition,biomedical interventions such as early treatment of patients infected with HIV and pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis of high-risk individuals offer promise for future reductions in infections.

  8. White-Nose Syndrome: Human Activity in the Emergence of an Extirpating Mycosis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Hannah T; Barton, Hazel A

    2013-12-01

    In winter 2006, the bat population in Howe Cave, in central New York State, USA, contained a number of bats displaying an unusual white substance on their muzzles. The following year, numerous bats in four surrounding caves displayed unusual winter hibernation behavior, including day flying and entrance roosting. A number of bats were found dead and dying, and all demonstrated a white, powdery substance on their muzzles, ears, and wing membranes, which was later identified as the conidia of a previously undescribed fungal pathogen, Geomyces destructans. The growth of the conidia gave infected bats the appearance of having dunked their faces into powdered sugar. The disease was named white-nose syndrome and represents an emerging zoonotic mycosis, likely introduced through human activities, which has led to a precipitous decline in North American bat species.

  9. Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Fábio; Doneda, Denise; Gandolfi, Denise; Nemes, Maria Inês Battistella; Andrade, Tarcísio; Bueno, Regina; Piconez e Trigueiros, Daniela

    2003-12-15

    The Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is being observed all over the world because of its success. Understanding the role of injection drug users (IDUs) in the epidemic and the political response thereto is a key factor in the control of the epidemic in Brazil. This paper summarizes some of the most important analyses of the Brazilian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among and from IDUs. Key elements of the response include the support of the Brazilian Universal Public Health System, the provision of universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the creation of harm reduction projects that are politically and financially supported by the federal government. The response among and from IDUs is a key element in overall control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The response to the epidemic among and from IDUs has been headed in the correct direction since its beginning and is now being intensively expanded.

  10. Abnormal proplatelet formation and emperipolesis in cultured human megakaryocytes from gray platelet syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Di Buduo, Christian A.; Alberelli, Maria Adele; Glembostky, Ana C.; Podda, Gianmarco; Lev, Paola R.; Cattaneo, Marco; Landolfi, Raffaele; Heller, Paula G.; Balduini, Alessandra; De Candia, Erica

    2016-01-01

    The Gray Platelet Syndrome (GPS) is a rare inherited bleeding disorder characterized by deficiency of platelet α-granules, macrothrombocytopenia and marrow fibrosis. The autosomal recessive form of GPS is linked to loss of function mutations in NBEAL2, which is predicted to regulate granule trafficking in megakaryocytes, the platelet progenitors. We report the first analysis of cultured megakaryocytes from GPS patients with NBEAL2 mutations. Megakaryocytes cultured from peripheral blood or bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells from four patients were used to investigate megakaryopoiesis, megakaryocyte morphology and platelet formation. In vitro differentiation of megakaryocytes was normal, whereas we observed deficiency of megakaryocyte α-granule proteins and emperipolesis. Importantly, we first demonstrated that platelet formation by GPS megakaryocytes was severely affected, a defect which might be the major cause of thrombocytopenia in patients. These results demonstrate that cultured megakaryocytes from GPS patients provide a valuable model to understand the pathogenesis of GPS in humans. PMID:26987485

  11. Structure of the PHD zinc finger from human Williams-Beuren syndrome transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; Martinez-Yamout, M; Dyson, H J; Wright, P E

    2000-12-15

    The PHD (plant homeo domain) is a approximately 50-residue motif found mainly in proteins involved in eukaryotic transcription regulation. The characteristic sequence feature is a conserved Cys(4)-HisCys(3) zinc binding motif. We have determined the solution structure of the PHD motif from the human Williams-Beuren syndrome transcription factor (WSTF) protein. The domain folds into an interleaved zinc finger which binds two Zn(2+) in a similar manner to that of the RING and FYVE domains. The structure reveals a conserved zinc-binding core, together with two variable loops that are likely candidates for interactions between the various PHD domains and their specific ligands. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge and risk factors in Ethiopian military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Abebe, Yegeremu; Brodine, Stephanie K; Kraft, Heidi S; Shaffer, Richard A; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2004-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related knowledge and behaviors were assessed in face-to-face structured interviews with 314 Ethiopian military personnel. A significant finding of this research was the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risky sexual behavior. That is, military personnel who had inaccurate knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention were 3.4 times as likely to engage in combined sexual risk behaviors compared with personnel with accurate knowledge, after controlling for age, military rank, and marital status (odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-6.22). This finding highlights the potential value of educational programs in slowing the spread of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Structure of the human MLH1 N-terminus: implications for predisposition to Lynch syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Lam, Robert; Tempel, Wolfram; Kerr, Iain D.; Min, Jinrong

    2015-08-01

    Mismatch repair prevents the accumulation of erroneous insertions/deletions and non-Watson–Crick base pairs in the genome. Pathogenic mutations in theMLH1gene are associated with a predisposition to Lynch and Turcot's syndromes. Although genetic testing for these mutations is available, robust classification of variants requires strong clinical and functional support. Here, the first structure of the N-terminus of human MLH1, determined by X-ray crystallography, is described. Lastly, the structure shares a high degree of similarity with previously determined prokaryoticMLH1homologs; however, this structure affords a more accurate platform for the classification ofMLH1variants.

  14. Potential Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis and Sjögren Syndrome With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Rao, C V

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Sjögren syndrome (SS) ameliorate during pregnancy, through dampening (immunotolerance) of the maternal immune system which protects the fetus from rejection. A large number of studies have shown that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) contributes to this tolerance. Studies on animal models have reaffirmed that hCG treatment mimics the benefits of pregnancy. Based on the scientific evidence, randomized clinical trials comparing hCG with current therapies and/or placebo are recommended for RA, SS, and for other autoimmune diseases such as, type 1 diabetes and ankylosing spondylitis, which also get better during pregnancy and hCG treatment seems to help. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Blinded case-control study of the relationship between human coronavirus NL63 and Kawasaki syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Samuel R; Anderson, Marsha S; Glodé, Mary P; Robinson, Christine C; Holmes, Kathryn V

    2006-12-15

    We conducted a blinded, case-control, retrospective study in pediatric patients hospitalized at The Children's Hospital, Denver, Colorado, to determine whether human coronavirus (HCoV)-NL63 infection is associated with Kawasaki syndrome (KS). Over the course of a 7-month period, nasopharyngeal-wash samples from 2 (7.7%) of 26 consecutive children with KS and 4 (7.7%) of 52 matched control subjects tested positive for HCoV-NL63 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These data suggest that, although HCoV-NL63 was circulating in children in our community during the time of the study, the prevalence of infection with HCoV-NL63 was not greater in patients with KS than in control subjects.

  16. Comparison of a new multiplex real-time PCR with the Kato Katz thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA for the detection and differentiation of Taenia spp. in human stools.

    PubMed

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah; Vo, Tinh Van; Nguyen, Van-Anh Thi; Phan, Trong Van; Hii, Sze Fui; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-07-01

    Taenia solium, the cause of neurocysticercosis (NCC), has significant socioeconomic impacts on communities in developing countries. This disease, along with taeniasis is estimated to infect 2.5 to 5 million people globally. Control of T. solium NCC necessitates accurate diagnosis and treatment of T. solium taeniasis carriers. In areas where all three species of Taenia tapeworms (T. solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica) occur sympatrically, conventional microscope- and copro-antigen based diagnostic methods are unable to distinguish between these three Taenia species. Molecular diagnostic tools have been developed to overcome this limitation; however, conventional PCR-based techniques remain unsuitable for large-scale deployment in community-based surveys. Moreover, a real-time PCR (qPCR) for the discrimination of all three species of Taenia in human stool does not exist. This study describes the development and validation of a new triplex Taq-Man probe-based qPCR for the detection and discrimination of all three Taenia human tapeworms in human stools collected from communities in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The diagnostic characteristics of the test are compared with conventional Kato Katz (KK) thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA (cAgELISA) method utilizing fecal samples from a community based cross-sectional study. Using this new multiplex real-time PCR we provide an estimate of the true prevalence of taeniasis in the source population for the community based cross-sectional study. Primers and TaqMan probes for the specific amplification of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica were designed and successfully optimized to target the internal transcribed spacer I (ITS-1) gene of T. solium and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX-1) gene of T. saginata and T. asiatica. The newly designed triplex qPCR (T3qPCR) was compared to KK and cAgELISA for the detection of Taenia eggs in stool samples collected from 342 individuals in Dak Lak province, Central

  17. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) multiplex system: the association of five SNPs with human eye and hair color in the Slovenian population and comparison using a Bayesian network and logistic regression model.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, Vanja; Drobnic, Katja

    2012-10-01

    To analyze two phenotype characteristics--eye and hair color--using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluate their prediction accuracy in Slovenian population. Twelve SNPs (OCA2 - rs1667394, rs7170989, rs1800407, rs7495174; HERC2 - rs1129038, rs12913832; MC1R - rs1805005, rs1805008; TYR - rs1393350; SLC45A2 - rs16891982, rs26722; SLC24A5 - rs1426654) were used for the development of a single multiplex assay. The single multiplex assay was based on SNaPshot chemistry and capillary electrophoresis. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the prediction of eye and hair color, we used the logistic regression model and the Bayesian network model, and compared the parameters of both. The new single multiplex assay displayed high levels of genotyping sensitivity with complete profiles generated from as little as 62 pg of DNA. Based on a prior evaluation of all SNPs in a single multiplex, we focused on the five most statistically significant in our population in order to investigate the predictive value. The two prediction models performed reliably without prior ancestry information, and revealed very good accuracy for both eye and hair color. Both models determined the highest predictive value for rs12913832 (P<0.0001), while the other four SNPs (rs1393350, rs1800407, rs1805008, and rs7495174) showed additional association for color prediction. We developed a sensitive and reliable single multiplex genotyping assay. More samples from different populations should be analyzed before this assay could be used as one of the supplemental tools in tracing unknown individuals in more complicated crime investigations.

  18. Connexin26 hemichannels with a mutation that causes KID syndrome in humans lack sensitivity to CO2.

    PubMed

    Meigh, Louise; Hussain, Naveed; Mulkey, Daniel K; Dale, Nicholas

    2014-11-25

    AbstractMutations in connexin26 (Cx26) underlie a range of serious human pathologies. Previously we have shown that Cx26 hemichannels are directly opened by CO2 (Meigh et al., 2013). However the effects of human disease-causing mutations on the CO2 sensitivity of Cx26 are entirely unknown. Here, we report the first connection between the CO2 sensitivity of Cx26 and human pathology, by demonstrating that Cx26 hemichannels with the mutation A88V, linked to Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness syndrome, are both CO2 insensitive and associated with disordered breathing in humans.

  19. Comparative Mapping of the Region of Human Chromosome 7 Deleted in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    DeSilva, Udaya; Massa, Hillary; Trask, Barbara J.; Green, Eric D.

    1999-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a complex developmental disorder resulting from the deletion of a large (∼1.5–2 Mb) segment of human chromosome 7q11.23. Physical mapping studies have revealed that this deleted region, which contains a number of known genes, is flanked by several large, nearly identical blocks of DNA. The presence of such highly related DNA segments in close physical proximity to one another has hampered efforts to elucidate the precise long-range organization of this segment of chromosome 7. To gain insight about the structure and evolutionary origins of this important and complex genomic region, we have constructed a fully contiguous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) contig map encompassing the corresponding region on mouse chromosome 5. In contrast to the difficulties encountered in constructing a clone-based physical map of the human WS region, the BAC/PAC-based map of the mouse WS region was straightforward to construct, with no evidence of large duplicated segments, such as those encountered in the human WS region. To confirm this difference, representative human and mouse BACs were used as probes for performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to metaphase and interphase chromosomes. Human BACs derived from the nonunique portion of the WS region hybridized to multiple, closely spaced regions on human chromosome 7q11.23. In contrast, corresponding mouse BACs hybridized to a single site on mouse chromosome 5. Furthermore, FISH analysis revealed the presence of duplicated segments within the WS region of various nonhuman primates (chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon). Hybridization was also noted at the genomic locations corresponding to human chromosome 7p22 and 7q22 in human, chimpanzee, and gorilla, but not in the other animal species examined. Together, these results indicate that the WS region is associated with large, duplicated blocks of DNA on human chromosome 7q11.23 as well

  20. Novel therapeutic approaches: Rett syndrome and human induced pluripotent stem cell technology

    PubMed Central

    Gomathi, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology target screening and discovering of therapeutic agents for the possible cure of human diseases. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are the right kind of platform for testing potency of specific active compounds. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine developed between 2,500 and 500 BC, is a science involving the intelligent formulations of herbs and minerals. It can serve as a “goldmine” for novel neuroprotective agents used for centuries to treat neurological disorders. This review discusses limitations in screening drugs for neurological disorders and the advantages offered by hiPSC integrated with Indian traditional system of medicine. We begin by describing the current state of hiPSC technology in research on Rett syndrome (RTT) followed by the current controversies in RTT research combined with the emergence of patient-specific hiPSC that indicate an urgent need for researchers to understand the etiology and drug mechanism. We conclude by offering recommendations to reinforce the screening of active compounds present in the ayurvedic medicines using the human induced pluripotent neural model system for research involving drug discovery for RTT. This integrative approach will fill the current knowledge gap in the traditional medicines and drug discovery. PMID:28447035

  1. The first human infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Li, Shen; Dong, Jian-Hua; Tian, Hui; Chowell, Gerardo; Tian, Huai-Yu; Lv, Wen; Han, Zong-Qi; Xu, Bing; Yu, Peng-Bo; Wang, Jing-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease discovered in China in 2009. In July 2013, the first human infection with SFTS virus (SFTSV) was detected in Shaanxi Province, Western China. A seroprevalence study among humans was carried out in an SFTS endemic village; specifically, serum samples were collected from 363 farmers in an SFTS endemic village in Shaanxi Province. The presence of SFTSV antibodies in serum was determined using an ELISA. SFTSV antibodies were found in a total of 20 people (5.51%), with no significant difference between males and females (6.93% and 4.42%, respectively; Chi-square=1.29, p=0.25). Moreover, the SFTSV antibody positive rate was not significantly different across different age groups (Chi-square=2.23, p=0.69). SFTSV readily infects humans with outdoor exposure. The results of the serological study indicate that the virus circulates widely in Shaanxi Province. SFTSV represents a public health threat in China. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Increased expression of the interleukin 1 receptor on blood neutrophils of humans with the sepsis syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, M B; Cousart, S; Neal, S; McCall, C E

    1991-01-01

    Because of the potential importance of interleukin 1 (IL-1) in modulating inflammation and the observations that human blood neutrophils (PMN) express IL-1 receptors (IL-1R) and synthesize IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta, we studied the IL-1R on blood PMN from a group of patients with the sepsis syndrome. We report a marked enhancement in the sites per cell of IL-1R expressed on sepsis-PMN of 25 consecutively studied patients compared to 20 controls (patient mean = 9,329 +/- 2,212 SE; control mean = 716 +/- 42 SE, respectively). There was no demonstrable difference in the Kd of IL-1R on sepsis-PMN (approximately 1 nM) as determined by saturation curves of 125I-IL-1 alpha binding and the IL-1R on sepsis-PMN had an apparent Mr approximately 68,000, a value like that of normal PMN. Cytofluorographic analysis indicated that the sepsis-PMN phenotype is a single homogeneous population with respect to IL-1R expression. In contrast, expression of the membrane complement receptor CR3 is not increased on sepsis-PMN. Similar increases in expression of IL-1R were not observed in various other inflammatory processes, including acute disseminated inflammation and organ failure not caused by infection, acute infection without organ failure, and immunopathologies such as active systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Enhanced expression of IL-1R was not related simply to the state of myeloid stimulation. Increased expression of IL-1R on normal PMN was induced in vitro by incubating cells with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage/colony-stimulating factor for 18 h and this response was inhibited by cycloheximide, suggesting the possibility that de novo synthesis of IL-1R might occur in PMN during the sepsis syndrome. Images PMID:1834697

  3. Human thermal bioclimatic conditions associated with acute cardiovascular syndromes in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the association between bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of admissions for non-fatal acute cardiovascular (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, decompensation of heart failure) syndromes (ACS) registered by the two main hospitals in Heraklion, Crete Island, during a five-year period 2008-2012. The bioclimatic conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Mean daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness, were acquired from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service). These parameters were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the use of the radiation and bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Generalized linear models (GLM) were applied to time series of daily numbers of outpatients with ACS against bioclimatic variations, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased coronary heart disease incidence, especially in the elderly and males. Additionally, heat stress plays an important role in the configuration of daily ACS outpatients, even in temperate climate, as that in Crete Island. In this point it is worth mentioning that Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks, which are associated in many cases with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). Taking into consideration the projected increased ambient temperature in the future, ACS

  4. An investigation of genetic counselors' testing recommendations: pedigree analysis and the use of multiplex breast cancer panel testing.

    PubMed

    Lundy, Meghan G; Forman, Andrea; Valverde, Kathleen; Kessler, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Genetic testing recommendations for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer involve pedigree analysis and consultation of testing guidelines. The testing landscape for hereditary cancer syndromes is shifting as multiplex panel tests become more widely integrated into clinical practice. The purpose of the current study was to assess how genetic counselors utilize pedigrees to make recommendations for genetic testing, to determine consistency of these recommendations with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines and to explore current use of multiplex panel testing. Sixty-nine genetic counselors were recruited through the National Society of Genetic Counselors Cancer Special Interest Group's Discussion Forum. Participation involved pedigree analysis and completion of an online questionnaire assessing testing recommendations and use of multiplex panel testing. Pedigree analysis and test recommendations were scored for consistency with NCCN guidelines. The average score was 12.83/15 indicating strong consistency with NCCN guidelines. Participants were more likely to consider multiplex testing when pedigrees demonstrated highly penetrant dominant inheritance but were not indicative of a particular syndrome. Participant concerns about multiplex panel testing include limited guidelines for both testing eligibility and medical management. This study demonstrates high utilization of pedigree analysis and raises new questions about its use in multiplex genetic testing.

  5. Comparison of Two Widely Used Human Papillomavirus Detection and Genotyping Methods, GP5+/6+-Based PCR Followed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization and Multiplex Type-Specific E7-Based PCR

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarella, Salvatore; Franceschi, Silvia; Tenet, Vanessa; Umulisa, M. Chantal; Tshomo, Ugyen; Dondog, Bolormaa; Vorsters, Alex; Tommasino, Massimo; Heideman, Daniëlle A. M.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Gheit, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    GP5+/6+-based PCR followed by reverse line blot hybridization (GP5+/6+RLB) and multiplex type-specific PCR (E7-MPG) are two human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping methodologies widely applied in epidemiological research. We investigated their relative analytical performance in 4,662 samples derived from five studies in Bhutan, Rwanda, and Mongolia coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). A total of 630 samples were positive by E7-MPG only (13.5%), 24 were positive by GP5+/6+RLB only (0.5%), and 1,014 were positive (21.8%) by both methods. Ratios of HPV type-specific positivity of the two tests (E7-MPG:GP5+/6+RLB ratio) were calculated among 1,668 samples that were HPV positive by one or both tests. E7-MPG:GP5+/6+RLB ratios were >1 for all types and highly reproducible across populations and sample types. E7-MPG:GP5+/6+RLB ratios were highest for HPV53 (7.5) and HPV68 (7.1). HPV16 (1.6) and HPV18 (1.7) had lower than average E7-MPG:GP5+/6+RLB ratios. Among E7-MPG positive infections, median mean fluorescence intensity (MFI; a semiquantitative measure of viral load) tended to be higher among samples positive for the same virus type by GP5+/6+RLB than for those negative for the same type by GP5+/6+RLB. Exceptions, however, included HPV53, -59, and -82, for which the chances of being undetected by GP5+/6+RLB appeared to be MFI independent. Furthermore, the probability of detecting an additional type by E7-MPG was higher when another type was already detected by GP5+/6+RLB, suggesting the existence of masking effects due to competition for GP5+/6+ PCR primers. In conclusion, this analysis is not an evaluation of clinical performance but may inform choices for HPV genotyping methods in epidemiological studies, when the relative merits and dangers of sensitivity versus specificity for individual types should be considered, as well as the potential to unmask nonvaccine types following HPV vaccination. PMID:27225411

  6. Comparison of Two Widely Used Human Papillomavirus Detection and Genotyping Methods, GP5+/6+-Based PCR Followed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization and Multiplex Type-Specific E7-Based PCR.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Gary M; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Franceschi, Silvia; Tenet, Vanessa; Umulisa, M Chantal; Tshomo, Ugyen; Dondog, Bolormaa; Vorsters, Alex; Tommasino, Massimo; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Snijders, Peter J F; Gheit, Tarik

    2016-08-01

    GP5+/6+-based PCR followed by reverse line blot hybridization (GP5+/6+RLB) and multiplex type-specific PCR (E7-MPG) are two human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping methodologies widely applied in epidemiological research. We investigated their relative analytical performance in 4,662 samples derived from five studies in Bhutan, Rwanda, and Mongolia coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). A total of 630 samples were positive by E7-MPG only (13.5%), 24 were positive by GP5+/6+RLB only (0.5%), and 1,014 were positive (21.8%) by both methods. Ratios of HPV type-specific positivity of the two tests (E7-MPG:GP5+/6+RLB ratio) were calculated among 1,668 samples that were HPV positive by one or both tests. E7-MPG:GP5+/6+RLB ratios were >1 for all types and highly reproducible across populations and sample types. E7-MPG:GP5+/6+RLB ratios were highest for HPV53 (7.5) and HPV68 (7.1). HPV16 (1.6) and HPV18 (1.7) had lower than average E7-MPG:GP5+/6+RLB ratios. Among E7-MPG positive infections, median mean fluorescence intensity (MFI; a semiquantitative measure of viral load) tended to be higher among samples positive for the same virus type by GP5+/6+RLB than for those negative for the same type by GP5+/6+RLB. Exceptions, however, included HPV53, -59, and -82, for which the chances of being undetected by GP5+/6+RLB appeared to be MFI independent. Furthermore, the probability of detecting an additional type by E7-MPG was higher when another type was already detected by GP5+/6+RLB, suggesting the existence of masking effects due to competition for GP5+/6+ PCR primers. In conclusion, this analysis is not an evaluation of clinical performance but may inform choices for HPV genotyping methods in epidemiological studies, when the relative merits and dangers of sensitivity versus specificity for individual types should be considered, as well as the potential to unmask nonvaccine types following HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2016, American Society for

  7. Investigation of angular multiplexing and de-multiplexing of digital holograms recorded in microscope configuration.

    PubMed

    Paturzo, M; Memmolo, P; Tulino, A; Finizio, A; Ferraro, P

    2009-05-25

    We investigated a method for the angular multiplexing and de-multiplexing of digital holograms recorded in microscope off-axis configuration. The multiplexing has been performed rotating numerically one hologram at different angles and adding all the rotated holograms to obtain a single synthetic digital hologram. Then the digital holograms were de-multiplexed thanks to the unique property of the digital holography to manage numerically the complex wavefields at different image planes. We show that it is possible to retrieve correctly quantitative information about the amplitude and phase maps. The obtained results can be useful to employ the multiplexing technique during the recording process by rotating the CCD array.

  8. Flexible Multiplexed Surface Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Johnson, Preston B.; Ash, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Unitary array of sensors measures temperatures at points distributed over designated area on surface. Useful in measuring surface temperatures of aerodynamic models and thermally controlled objects. Made of combination of integrated-circuit microchips and film circuitry. Temperature-sensing chips scanned at speeds approaching 10 kHz. Operating range minus 40 degrees C to 120 degrees C. Flexibility of array conforms to curved surfaces. Multiplexer eliminates numerous monitoring cables. Control of acquisition and recording of data effected by connecting array to microcomputers via suitable interface circuitry.

  9. Multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens

    DOEpatents

    McBride, Mary [Brentwood, CA; Slezak, Thomas [Livermore, CA; Birch, James M [Albany, CA

    2012-07-31

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of respiratory pathogens (influenza A (including subtyping capability for H1, H3, H5 and H7 subtypes) influenza B, parainfluenza (type 2), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from the respiratory pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  10. Flexible Multiplexed Surface Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Johnson, Preston B.; Ash, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Unitary array of sensors measures temperatures at points distributed over designated area on surface. Useful in measuring surface temperatures of aerodynamic models and thermally controlled objects. Made of combination of integrated-circuit microchips and film circuitry. Temperature-sensing chips scanned at speeds approaching 10 kHz. Operating range minus 40 degrees C to 120 degrees C. Flexibility of array conforms to curved surfaces. Multiplexer eliminates numerous monitoring cables. Control of acquisition and recording of data effected by connecting array to microcomputers via suitable interface circuitry.

  11. Human coronavirus NL63 employs the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor for cellular entry.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Heike; Pyrc, Krzysztof; van der Hoek, Lia; Geier, Martina; Berkhout, Ben; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2005-05-31

    Coronavirus (CoV) infection of humans is usually not associated with severe disease. However, discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV revealed that highly pathogenic human CoVs (HCoVs) can evolve. The identification and characterization of new HCoVs is, therefore, an important task. Recently, a HCoV termed NL63 was discovered in patients with respiratory tract illness. Here, cell tropism and receptor usage of HCoV-NL63 were analyzed. The NL63 spike (S) protein mediated infection of different target cells compared with the closely related 229E-S protein but facilitated entry into cells known to be permissive to SARS-CoV-S-driven infection. An analysis of receptor engagement revealed that NL63-S binds angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, the receptor for SARS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 uses ACE2 as a receptor for infection of target cells. Potent neutralizing activity directed against NL63- but not 229E-S protein was detected in virtually all sera from patients 8 years of age or older, suggesting that HCoV-NL63 infection of humans is common and usually acquired during childhood. Here, we show that SARS-CoV shares its receptor ACE2 with HCoV-NL63. Because the two viruses differ dramatically in their ability to induce disease, analysis of HCoV-NL63 might unravel pathogenicity factors in SARS-CoV. The frequent HCoV-NL63 infection of humans suggests that highly pathogenic variants have ample opportunity to evolve, underlining the need for vaccines against HCoVs.

  12. System for Multiplexing Acoustic Emission (AE) Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Gorman, Michael R. (Inventor); Scales, Edgar F. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic monitoring device has at least two acoustic sensors with a triggering mechanism and a multiplexing circuit. After the occurrence of a triggering event at a sensor, the multiplexing circuit allows a recording component to record acoustic emissions at adjacent sensors. The acoustic monitoring device is attached to a solid medium to detect the occurrence of damage.

  13. Generation of an ICF syndrome model by efficient genome editing of human induced pluripotent stem cells using the CRISPR system.

    PubMed

    Horii, Takuro; Tamura, Daiki; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Hatada, Izuho

    2013-09-30

    Genome manipulation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is essential to achieve their full potential as tools for regenerative medicine. To date, however, gene targeting in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has proven to be extremely difficult. Recently, an efficient genome manipulation technology using the RNA-guided DNase Cas9, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system, has been developed. Here we report the efficient generation of an iPS cell model for immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability, facial anomalies syndrome (ICF) syndrome using the CRISPR system. We obtained iPS cells with mutations in both alleles of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) in 63% of transfected clones. Our data suggest that the CRISPR system is highly efficient and useful for genome engineering of human iPS cells.

  14. Screening of human chromosome 21 genes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of individuals with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Ning; Xu, Xue-Ju; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Jiang, Miao

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to identify the genes on human chromosome 21 (HC21) that may serve important functions in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome (DS). The microarray data GSE5390 were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which contained 7 DS and 8 healthy normal samples. The data were then normalized and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the LIMMA package and Bonferroni correction. Furthermore, the DEGs underwent clustering and gene ontology analysis. Additionally, the locations of the DEGs on HC21 were confirmed using human genome 19 in the University of California, Santa Cruz Interaction Browser. A total of 25 upregulated and 275 downregulated genes were screened between DS and healthy samples with a false discovery rate of <0.05 and |logFC|>1. The expression levels of these genes in the two samples were different. In addition, the up‑ and downregulated genes were markedly enriched in organic substance biological processes (P=4.48x10‑10) and cell‑cell signaling (P=0.000227). Furthermore, 17 overexpressed genes were identified on the 21q21‑22 area, including COL6A2, TTC3 and ABCG1. Together, these observations suggest that 17 upregulated genes on HC21 may be involved in the development of DS and provide the basis for understanding this disability.

  15. A chimeric human-mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Young, Nicholas A; Wu, Lai-Chu; Bruss, Michael; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Hampton, Jeffrey; Bolon, Brad; Jarjour, Wael N

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of Sjögren's Syndrome (SjS), the pathogenic mechanisms remain elusive and an ideal model for early drug discovery is not yet available. To establish a humanized mouse model of SjS, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers or patients with SjS were transferred into immunodeficient NOD-scid IL-2rγ(null) mouse recipients to produce chimeric mice. While no difference was observed in the distribution of cells, chimeric mice transferred with PBMCs from SjS patients produced enhanced cytokine levels, most significantly IFN-γ and IL-10. Histological examination revealed enhanced inflammatory responses in the lacrimal and salivary glands of SjS chimeras, as measured by digital image analysis and blinded histopathological scoring. Infiltrates were primarily CD4+, with minimal detection of CD8+ T-cells and B-cells. These results demonstrate a novel chimeric mouse model of human SjS that provides a unique in vivo environment to test experimental therapeutics and investigate T-cell disease pathology.

  16. Association between human leukocyte antigen-DR and demylinating Guillain-Barré syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Zaki N.; Zalzala, Haider H.; Mohammedsalih, Hyam R.; Mahdi, Batool M.; Abid, Laheeb A.; Shakir, Zena N.; Fadhel, Maithem J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find an association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, and DRB5 alleles frequencies in a sample of Iraqi patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and compare with a healthy control group. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study consisting of 30 Iraqi Arab patients with GBS attending the Neurological Department in the Neuroscience Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq between September 2012 and June 2013. The control group comprised 42 apparently healthy volunteers. Human leukocyte antigen genotyping for HLA DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, and DRB5 was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers method. The allele frequencies were compared across both groups. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class II HLA-DR genotyping and serotyping were performed by software analysis. Results: We found increased frequencies of HLA genotype DRB1*03:01 (p=0.0009), DRB1*07:01 (p=0.0015), and DRB4*01:01 (p<0.0001) in patients with GBS compared with healthy controls. The HLA DR6 was increased in the control group (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Our results suggest an association between HLA-DRB1*03:01, DRB1*07:01, DRB4*01:01, and HLA DR3, DR7 and a susceptibility to GBS. PMID:25274590

  17. A novel human autoimmune syndrome caused by combined hypomorphic and activating mutations in ZAP-70.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alice Y; Punwani, Divya; Kadlecek, Theresa A; Cowan, Morton J; Olson, Jean L; Mathes, Erin F; Sunderam, Uma; Fu, Shu Man; Srinivasan, Rajgopal; Kuriyan, John; Brenner, Steven E; Weiss, Arthur; Puck, Jennifer M

    2016-02-08

    A brother and sister developed a previously undescribed constellation of autoimmune manifestations within their first year of life, with uncontrollable bullous pemphigoid, colitis, and proteinuria. The boy had hemophilia due to a factor VIII autoantibody and nephrotic syndrome. Both children required allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), which resolved their autoimmunity. The early onset, severity, and distinctive findings suggested a single gene disorder underlying the phenotype. Whole-exome sequencing performed on five family members revealed the affected siblings to be compound heterozygous for two unique missense mutations in the 70-kD T cell receptor ζ-chain associated protein (ZAP-70). Healthy relatives were heterozygous mutation carriers. Although pre-HCT patient T cells were not available, mutation effects were determined using transfected cell lines and peripheral blood from carriers and controls. Mutation R192W in the C-SH2 domain exhibited reduced binding to phosphorylated ζ-chain, whereas mutation R360P in the N lobe of the catalytic domain disrupted an autoinhibitory mechanism, producing a weakly hyperactive ZAP-70 protein. Although human ZAP-70 deficiency can have dysregulated T cells, and autoreactive mouse thymocytes with weak Zap-70 signaling can escape tolerance, our patients' combination of hypomorphic and activating mutations suggested a new disease mechanism and produced previously undescribed human ZAP-70-associated autoimmune disease. © 2016 Chan et al.

  18. The human retrovirus XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Robert H; Nguyen, Carvell; Weight, Christopher J; Klein, Eric A

    2010-07-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is an authentic, newly recognized human retrovirus first identified in prostate cancer tissues from men with a deficiency in the innate immunity gene RNASEL. At present, studies have detected XMRV at widely different rates in prostate cancer cases (0-27%) and in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS; 0-67%). Indirect or direct modes of carcinogenesis by XMRV have been suggested depending on whether the virus was found in stroma or malignant epithelium. Viral replication in the prostate might be affected by androgens, which stimulate XMRV through a transcriptional enhancer site in viral DNA. By contrast, host restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 and tetherin, inhibit virus replication. Immune dysfunction mediated by XMRV has been suggested as a possible factor in CFS. Recent studies show that some existing antiretroviral drugs suppress XMRV infections and diagnostic assays are under development. Although other retroviruses of the same genus as XMRV (gammaretroviruses) cause cancer and neurological disease in animals, whether XMRV is a cause of either prostate cancer or CFS remains unknown. Emerging science surrounding XMRV is contributing to our knowledge of retroviral infections while focusing intense interest on two major human diseases.

  19. The Great Obstetrical Syndromes and the Human Microbiome—A New Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Solt, Ido; Cohavy, Offer

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, advanced molecular genetics technology has enabled analysis of complex microbial communities and the study of microbial genomics. Interest has grown in characterizing the microbiome, defined as a collective microbial community and its extensive genome, as a clue to disease mechanisms. “The Human Microbiome Project,” sponsored by the NIH Common Fund, was established to characterize the pathology-associated human microbiome in nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, the gastrointestinal tract, and the urogenital compartment. In particular, characterization of urogenital microbiota may elucidate etiologies of complex obstetrical syndromes and factors in fetal development that define risk for pathology in adulthood. This article summarizes recent findings defining the microbiome associated with the female urogenital compartment in child-bearing age women. We also describe our analysis of microbiome samples from the oral, vaginal, and rectal compartments in a cohort of pregnant women. Findings present technical considerations in the characterization of microbial diversity and composition associated with gestational diabetes as a model pregnancy-associated pathology. PMID:23908833

  20. Carbamazepine hypersensitivity syndrome triggered by a human herpes virus reactivation in a genetically predisposed patient.

    PubMed

    Calligaris, Lorenzo; Stocco, Gabriele; De Iudicibus, Sara; Marino, Sara; Decorti, Giuliana; Barbi, Egidio; Carrozzi, Marco; Marchetti, Federico; Bartoli, Fiora; Ventura, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A case of severe hypersensitivity syndrome, triggered by carbamazepine in the presence of a concomitant active human herpes virus (HHV) 6 and 7 infection is described. To further understand the molecular mechanism of this adverse reaction, analyses of the genetic variants of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and of the epoxide hydrolase gene (EPHX1), previously associated with carbamazepine hypersensitivity, were performed. A lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was conducted in order to detect drug-specific lymphocytes. In the hypersensitive patient, 2 genetic factors previously associated with intolerance to carbamazepine were detected: the allele HLA-A*3101 and homozygosity for the variant allele of SNP rs1051740 in EPHX1. Drug-specific lymphocytes could be detected by LTT when the HHV was active (positive PCR for viral DNA and increased anti-HHV 6 IgG titer), but not when it was no longer active. In conclusion, we document a case of severe carbamazepine hypersensitivity triggered by viral reactivation in a patient presenting the interaction of 2 unfavorable genetic factors.

  1. Onset of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) in humans as a consequence of genetic defect accumulation.

    PubMed

    Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Neven, Bénédicte; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Daussy, Cécile; Arkwright, Peter D; Lanzarotti, Nina; Schaffner, Catherine; Cluet-Dennetiere, Sophie; Haerynck, Filomeen; Michel, Gérard; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Zarhrate, Mohammed; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Romana, Serge P; Picard, Capucine; Fischer, Alain; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases develop in approximately 5% of humans. They can arise when self-tolerance checkpoints of the immune system are bypassed as a consequence of inherited mutations of key genes involved in lymphocyte activation, survival, or death. For example, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) results from defects in self-tolerance checkpoints as a consequence of mutations in the death receptor-encoding gene TNF receptor superfamily, member 6 (TNFRSF6; also known as FAS). However, some mutation carriers remain asymptomatic throughout life. We have now demonstrated in 7 ALPS patients that the disease develops as a consequence of an inherited TNFRSF6 heterozygous mutation combined with a somatic genetic event in the second TNFRSF6 allele. Analysis of the patients' CD4(-)CD8(-) (double negative) T cells--accumulation of which is a hallmark of ALPS--revealed that in these cells, 3 patients had somatic mutations in their second TNFRSF6 allele, while 4 patients had loss of heterozygosity by telomeric uniparental disomy of chromosome 10. This observation provides the molecular bases of a nonmalignant autoimmune disease development in humans and may shed light on the mechanism underlying the occurrence of other autoimmune diseases.

  2. Using human intestinal biopsies to study the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Y; Boeckxstaens, G E; Wouters, M M; Schemann, M; Vanner, S

    2014-04-01

    Although animal models of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have provided important insights, there are no models that fully express the features of this complex condition. One alternative approach is the use of human intestinal biopsies obtained during endoscopic procedures to examine peripheral mechanisms in this disorder. These studies have served to confirm the existence of peripheral pathways in humans with IBS and have provided many new mechanistic insights. Two general approaches have been employed; one approach has been to examine the biological activity of mediators within the mucosal tissue of IBS patients and the other has been to examine changes in the structural properties of key signaling pathways contained within the biopsies. Using these approaches, important changes have been discovered involving the enteric nervous system and the extrinsic sensory pathway (dorsal root ganglia neurons), the immune system, and epithelial signaling in IBS patients compared to healthy subjects. This review will systematically explore these mechanistic pathways, highlight the implications of these novel findings and discuss some of the important limitations of this approach. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A novel human autoimmune syndrome caused by combined hypomorphic and activating mutations in ZAP-70

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Alice Y.; Punwani, Divya; Kadlecek, Theresa A.; Cowan, Morton J.; Olson, Jean L.; Mathes, Erin F.; Sunderam, Uma; Man Fu, Shu; Srinivasan, Rajgopal; Kuriyan, John; Brenner, Steven E.; Weiss, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    A brother and sister developed a previously undescribed constellation of autoimmune manifestations within their first year of life, with uncontrollable bullous pemphigoid, colitis, and proteinuria. The boy had hemophilia due to a factor VIII autoantibody and nephrotic syndrome. Both children required allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), which resolved their autoimmunity. The early onset, severity, and distinctive findings suggested a single gene disorder underlying the phenotype. Whole-exome sequencing performed on five family members revealed the affected siblings to be compound heterozygous for two unique missense mutations in the 70-kD T cell receptor ζ-chain associated protein (ZAP-70). Healthy relatives were heterozygous mutation carriers. Although pre-HCT patient T cells were not available, mutation effects were determined using transfected cell lines and peripheral blood from carriers and controls. Mutation R192W in the C-SH2 domain exhibited reduced binding to phosphorylated ζ-chain, whereas mutation R360P in the N lobe of the catalytic domain disrupted an autoinhibitory mechanism, producing a weakly hyperactive ZAP-70 protein. Although human ZAP-70 deficiency can have dysregulated T cells, and autoreactive mouse thymocytes with weak Zap-70 signaling can escape tolerance, our patients’ combination of hypomorphic and activating mutations suggested a new disease mechanism and produced previously undescribed human ZAP-70–associated autoimmune disease. PMID:26783323

  4. Management of a case of human bite complicated by myonecrosis and compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basaran, Sibel; Ozkan, Cenk; Coskun-Benlidayi, Ilke; Kozanoglu, Erkan

    2009-03-01

    Case reports concerning rare complications of human bite injuries are uncommon in the literature. Further, rehabilitation of the resultant dysfunction is also hardly reported. A 41-year-old housewife who had had a human bite during an altercation 6 months ago was referred to the rehabilitation department with a nonfunctioning right hand. Twelve days after the injury she developed a compartment syndrome with complicating myonecrosis, which required fasciotomy and resulted in amputation of the fifth digit on the 17th day. Soft-tissue defects were reconstructed with skin grafts. Unfortunately, the patient did not attend followup visits, and 6 months after the initial injury she had to be admitted to the rehabilitation department with a nonfunctional hand. She had marked limitations of range of motion of the wrist and almost all finger joints. A rehabilitation program was initiated to improve the functional limitations of her hand. After the rehabilitation program, she was able to use her right hand in her daily routine activities. Rehabilitation can still be useful in order to avoid permanent disability even in late and complicated cases of bite injuries.

  5. A Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity Resembling Most Features of Human Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Della Vedova, Maria C.; Muñoz, Marcos D.; Santillan, Lucas D.; Plateo-Pignatari, Maria G.; Germanó, Maria J.; Rinaldi Tosi, Martín E.; Garcia, Silvina; Gomez, Nidia N.; Fornes, Miguel W.; Gomez Mejiba, Sandra E.; Ramirez, Dario C.

    2016-01-01

    Increased chicken-derived fat and fructose consumption in the human diet is paralleled by an increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Herein, we aimed at developing and characterizing a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) resembling most of the key features of the human MS. To accomplish this, we fed male C57BL/6J mice for 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks with either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-chicken-fat diet (HFD) and tap water with or without 10% fructose (F). This experimental design resulted in the following four experimental groups: LFD, LFD + F, HFD, and HFD + F. Over the feeding period, and on a weekly basis, the HFD + F group had more caloric intake and gained more weight than the other experimental groups. Compared to the other groups, and at the end of the feeding period, the HFD + F group had a higher adipogenic index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting basal glycemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, and atherogenic index and showed steatohepatitis and systemic oxidative stress/inflammation. A mouse model of DIO that will allow us to study the effect of MS in different organs and systems has been developed and characterized. PMID:27980421

  6. SQUID Multiplexers for Cryogenic Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Kent; Beall, James; Deiker, Steve; Doriese, Randy; Duncan, William; Hilton, Gene; Moseley, S. Harvey; Reintsema, Carl; Stahle, Caroline; Ullom, Joel; hide

    2004-01-01

    SQUID multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of cryogenic detectors with a manageable number of readout channels. We are developing time-division SQUID multiplexers based on Nb trilayer SQUIDs to read arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors. Our first-generation, 8-channel SQUID multiplexer was used in FIBRE, a one-dimensional TES array for submillimeter astronomy. Our second-generation 32-pixel multiplexer, based on an improved architecture, has been developed for instruments including Constellation-X, SCUBA-2, and solar x-ray astronomy missions. SCUBA-2, which is being developed for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, will have more than 10,000 pixels. We are now developing a third-generation architecture based on superconducting hot-electron switches. The use of SQUID multiplexers in instruments operating at above 2 K will also be discussed.

  7. SQUID Multiplexers for Cryogenic Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Kent; Beall, James; Deiker, Steve; Doriese, Randy; Duncan, William; Hilton, Gene; Moseley, S. Harvey; Reintsema, Carl; Stahle, Caroline; Ullom, Joel; Vale, Leila

    2004-01-01

    SQUID multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of cryogenic detectors with a manageable number of readout channels. We are developing time-division SQUID multiplexers based on Nb trilayer SQUIDs to read arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors. Our first-generation, 8-channel SQUID multiplexer was used in FIBRE, a one-dimensional TES array for submillimeter astronomy. Our second-generation 32-pixel multiplexer, based on an improved architecture, has been developed for instruments including Constellation-X, SCUBA-2, and solar x-ray astronomy missions. SCUBA-2, which is being developed for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, will have more than 10,000 pixels. We are now developing a third-generation architecture based on superconducting hot-electron switches. The use of SQUID multiplexers in instruments operating at above 2 K will also be discussed.

  8. Information transport in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Cunlai; Li, Siyuan; Yang, Xianxia; Yang, Jian; Wang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study information transport in multiplex networks comprised of two coupled subnetworks. The upper subnetwork, called the logical layer, employs the shortest paths protocol to determine the logical paths for packets transmission, while the lower subnetwork acts as the physical layer, in which packets are delivered by the biased random walk mechanism characterized with a parameter α. Through simulation, we obtain the optimal α corresponding to the maximum network lifetime and the maximum number of the arrival packets. Assortative coupling is better than random coupling and disassortative coupling, since it achieves better transmission performance. Generally, the more homogeneous the lower subnetwork is, the better the transmission performance, which is the opposite for the upper subnetwork. Finally, we propose an attack centrality for nodes based on the topological information of both subnetworks, and investigate the transmission performance under targeted attacks. Our work aids in understanding the spread and robustness issues of multiplex networks and provides some clues about the design of more efficient and robust routing architectures in communication systems.

  9. An essential role of intestinal cell kinase in lung development is linked to the perinatal lethality of human ECO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yixin; Park, So Hyun; Wu, Di; Xu, Wenhao; Guillot, Stacey J; Jin, Li; Li, Xudong; Wang, Yalin; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Fu, Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Human endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome, caused by the loss-of-function mutation R272Q in the intestinal cell kinase (ICK) gene, is a neonatal-lethal developmental disorder. To elucidate the molecular basis of ECO syndrome, we constructed an Ick R272Q knock-in mouse model that recapitulates ECO pathological phenotypes. Newborns bearing Ick R272Q homozygous mutations die at birth due to respiratory distress. Ick mutant lungs exhibit not only impaired branching morphogenesis associated with reduced mesenchymal proliferation but also significant airspace deficiency in primitive alveoli concomitant with abnormal interstitial mesenchymal differentiation. ICK dysfunction induces elongated primary cilia and perturbs ciliary Hedgehog signaling and autophagy during lung sacculation. Our study identifies an essential role for ICK in lung development and advances the mechanistic understanding of ECO syndrome. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. Syndromic Algorithms for Detection of Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Jennifer J.; Surur, Elizeous I.; Goch, Garang W.; Mayen, Mangar A.; Lindner, Andreas K.; Pittet, Anne; Kasparian, Serena; Checchi, Francesco; Whitty, Christopher J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Active screening by mobile teams is considered the best method for detecting human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense but the current funding context in many post-conflict countries limits this approach. As an alternative, non-specialist health care workers (HCWs) in peripheral health facilities could be trained to identify potential cases who need testing based on their symptoms. We explored the predictive value of syndromic referral algorithms to identify symptomatic cases of HAT among a treatment-seeking population in Nimule, South Sudan. Methodology/Principal Findings Symptom data from 462 patients (27 cases) presenting for a HAT test via passive screening over a 7 month period were collected to construct and evaluate over 14,000 four item syndromic algorithms considered simple enough to be used by peripheral HCWs. For comparison, algorithms developed in other settings were also tested on our data, and a panel of expert HAT clinicians were asked to make referral decisions based on the symptom dataset. The best performing algorithms consisted of three core symptoms (sleep problems, neurological problems and weight loss), with or without a history of oedema, cervical adenopathy or proximity to livestock. They had a sensitivity of 88.9–92.6%, a negative predictive value of up to 98.8% and a positive predictive value in this context of 8.4–8.7%. In terms of sensitivity, these out-performed more complex algorithms identified in other studies, as well as the expert panel. The best-performing algorithm is predicted to identify about 9/10 treatment-seeking HAT cases, though only 1/10 patients referred would test positive. Conclusions/Significance In the absence of regular active screening, improving referrals of HAT patients through other means is essential. Systematic use of syndromic algorithms by peripheral HCWs has the potential to increase case detection and would increase their participation in HAT programmes. The

  11. A Human Homeotic Transformation Resulting from Mutations in PLCB4 and GNAI3 Causes Auriculocondylar Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Mark J.; Green, Glenn E.; Park, Sarah S.; Stamper, Brendan D.; Gordon, Christopher T.; Johnson, Jason M.; Cunniff, Christopher M.; Smith, Joshua D.; Emery, Sarah B.; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Amiel, Jeanne; Holder, Muriel; Heggie, Andrew A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Cox, Timothy C.; Hing, Anne V.; Horst, Jeremy A.; Cunningham, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Auriculocondylar syndrome (ACS) is a rare, autosomal-dominant craniofacial malformation syndrome characterized by variable micrognathia, temporomandibular joint ankylosis, cleft palate, and a characteristic “question-mark” ear malformation. Careful phenotypic characterization of severely affected probands in our cohort suggested the presence of a mandibular patterning defect resulting in a maxillary phenotype (i.e., homeotic transformation). We used exome sequencing of five probands and identified two novel (exclusive to the patient and/or family studied) missense mutations in PLCB4 and a shared mutation in GNAI3 in two unrelated probands. In confirmatory studies, three additional novel PLCB4 mutations were found in multigenerational ACS pedigrees. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, were not present in more than 10,000 control chromosomes, and resulted in amino-acid substitutions located in highly conserved protein domains. Additionally, protein-structure modeling demonstrated that all ACS substitutions disrupt the catalytic sites of PLCB4 and GNAI3. We suggest that PLCB4 and GNAI3 are core signaling molecules of the endothelin-1-distal-less homeobox 5 and 6 (EDN1-DLX5/DLX6) pathway. Functional studies demonstrated a significant reduction in downstream DLX5 and DLX6 expression in ACS cases in assays using cultured osteoblasts from probands and controls. These results support the role of the previously implicated EDN1-DLX5/6 pathway in regulating mandibular specification in other species, which, when disrupted, results in a maxillary phenotype. This work defines the molecular basis of ACS as a homeotic transformation (mandible to maxilla) in humans. PMID:22560091

  12. The human mitochondrial citrate transporter gene (SLC20A3) maps to chromosome band 22q11 within a region implicated in DiGeorge syndrome, velo-cardio-facial syndrome and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, M; Karayiorgou, M; Espinosa, R; Beau, M M

    1996-07-01

    The gene encoding the human mitochondrial citrate transporter designated SLC20A3 was mapped to chromosome 22 by analyzing its segregation in a panel of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. This assignment was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes, and the gene was further localized to band 22q11.21. The gene is located in a critical region associated with allelic losses in a variety of clinical syndromes, including DiGeorge syndrome, velo-cardio-facial syndrome and a subtype of schizophrenia.

  13. Production of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus in human and nonhuman cells transfected with an infectious molecular clone

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, A.; Gendelman, H.E.; Koenig, S.; Folks, T.; Willey, R.; Rabson, A.; Martin, M.A.

    1986-08-01

    The authors considered an infectious molecular clone of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus. Upon transfection, this clone directed the production of infectious virus particles in a wide variety of cells in addition to human T4 cells. The progeny, infectious virions, were synthesized in mouse, mink, monkey, and several human non-T cell lines, indicating the absence of any intracellular obstacle to viral RNA or protein production or assembly. During the course of these studies, a human colon carcinoma cell line, exquisitely sensitive to DNA transfection, was identified.

  14. Differential Expression of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Receptor in the Upper Respiratory Tracts of Humans and Dromedary Camels

    PubMed Central

    Widagdo, W.; Raj, V. Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.; Bosch, Berend J.; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Koopmans, Marion P.; van den Brand, Judith M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor—dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)—is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not in that of humans. Lack of DPP4 expression may be the primary cause of limited MERS-CoV replication in the human upper respiratory tract and hence restrict transmission. PMID:26889022

  15. Differential Expression of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Receptor in the Upper Respiratory Tracts of Humans and Dromedary Camels.

    PubMed

    Widagdo, W; Raj, V Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Bosch, Berend J; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; van den Brand, Judith M A; Haagmans, Bart L

    2016-05-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor--dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)--is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not in that of humans. Lack of DPP4 expression may be the primary cause of limited MERS-CoV replication in the human upper respiratory tract and hence restrict transmission. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Zavaleta, Cristina L; Garai, Ellis; Liu, Jonathan T C; Sensarn, Steven; Mandella, Michael J; Van de Sompel, Dominique; Friedland, Shai; Van Dam, Jacques; Contag, Christopher H; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2013-06-18

    Endoscopic imaging is an invaluable diagnostic tool allowing minimally invasive access to tissues deep within the body. It has played a key role in screening colon cancer and is credited with preventing deaths through the detection and removal of precancerous polyps. However, conventional white-light endoscopy offers physicians structural information without the biochemical information that would be advantageous for early detection and is essential for molecular typing. To address this unmet need, we have developed a unique accessory, noncontact, fiber optic-based Raman spectroscopy device that has the potential to provide real-time, multiplexed functional information during routine endoscopy. This device is ideally suited for detection of functionalized surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles as molecular imaging contrast agents. This device was designed for insertion through a clinical endoscope and has the potential to detect and quantify the presence of a multiplexed panel of tumor-targeting SERS nanoparticles. Characterization of the Raman instrument was performed with SERS particles on excised human tissue samples, and it has shown unsurpassed sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities, detecting 326-fM concentrations of SERS nanoparticles and unmixing 10 variations of colocalized SERS nanoparticles. Another unique feature of our noncontact Raman endoscope is that it has been designed for efficient use over a wide range of working distances from 1 to 10 mm. This is necessary to accommodate for imperfect centering during endoscopy and the nonuniform surface topology of human tissue. Using this endoscope as a key part of a multiplexed detection approach could allow endoscopists to distinguish between normal and precancerous tissues rapidly and to identify flat lesions that are otherwise missed.

  17. Antibody-dependent infection of human macrophages by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health risks associated to infection by human coronaviruses remain considerable and vaccination is a key option for preventing the resurgence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We have previously reported that antibodies elicited by a SARS-CoV vaccine candidate based on recombinant, full-length SARS-CoV Spike-protein trimers, trigger infection of immune cell lines. These observations prompted us to investigate the molecular mechanisms and responses to antibody-mediated infection in human macrophages. Methods We have used primary human immune cells to evaluate their susceptibility to infection by SARS-CoV in the presence of anti-Spike antibodies. Fluorescence microscopy and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were utilized to assess occurrence and consequences of infection. To gain insight into the underlying molecular mechanism, we performed mutational analysis with a series of truncated and chimeric constructs of fragment crystallizable γ receptors (FcγR), which bind antibody-coated pathogens. Results We show here that anti-Spike immune serum increased infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages by replication-competent SARS-CoV as well as Spike-pseudotyped lentiviral particles (SARS-CoVpp). Macrophages infected with SARS-CoV, however, did not support productive replication of the virus. Purified anti-viral IgGs, but not other soluble factor(s) from heat-inactivated mouse immune serum, were sufficient to enhance infection. Antibody-mediated infection was dependent on signaling-competent members of the human FcγRII family, which were shown to confer susceptibility to otherwise naïve ST486 cells, as binding of immune complexes to cell surface FcγRII was necessary but not sufficient to trigger antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Furthermore, only FcγRII with intact cytoplasmic signaling domains were competent to sustain ADE of SARS-CoVpp infection, thus

  18. Development and validation of a multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Mollicutes impurities in human cells, cultured under good manufacturing practice conditions, and following European Pharmacopoeia requirements and the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Irene; Ugolotti, Elisabetta; Raso, Alessandro; Di Marco, Eddi; Melioli, Giovanni; Biassoni, Roberto

    2012-07-01

    The clinical applications of in vitro manipulated cultured cells and their precursors are often made use of in therapeutic trials. However, tissue cultures can be easily contaminated by the ubiquitous Mollicutes micro-organisms, which can cause various and severe alterations in cellular function. Thus methods able to detect and trace Mollicutes impurities contaminating cell cultures are required before starting any attempt to grow cells under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. We developed a multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay specific for the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions, for the Tuf and P1 cytoadhesin genes, able to detect contaminant Mollicutes species in a single tube reaction. The system was validated by analyzing different cell lines and the positive samples were confirmed by 16S and P1 cytoadhesin gene dideoxy sequencing. Our multiplex qPCR detection system was able to reach a sensitivity, specificity and robustness comparable with the culture and the indicator cell culture method, as required by the European Pharmacopoeia guidelines. We have developed a multiplex qPCR method, validated following International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, as a qualitative limit test for impurities, assessing the validation characteristics of limit of detection and specificity. It also follows the European Pharmacopoeia guidelines and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements.

  19. Guillain-Barre syndrome following quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination among vaccine-eligible individuals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Rohit P; Jackson, Bradford E; Tota, Joseph E; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha N; Singh, Karan P; Bae, Sejong

    2014-01-01

    Post-marketing surveillance studies provide conflicting evidence about whether Guillain-Barre syndrome occurs more frequently following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccination. We aimed to assess whether Guillain-Barre syndrome is reported more frequently following HPV4 vaccination than other vaccinations among females and males aged 9 to 26 y in the United States. We used adverse event reports received by the United States Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 to estimate overall, age-, and sex-specific proportional reporting ratios (PRRs) and corresponding Χ2 values for reports of Guillain-Barre syndrome between 5 and 42 d following HPV vaccination. Minimum criteria for a signal using this approach are 3 or more cases, PRR≥2, and Χ2≥4. Guillain-Barre syndrome was listed as an adverse event in 45 of 14,822 reports, of which 9 reports followed HPV4 vaccination and 36 reports followed all other vaccines. The overall, age-, and sex-specific PRR estimates were uniformly below 1. In addition, the overall, age-, and sex-specific Χ2 values were uniformly below 3. Our analysis of post-marketing surveillance data does not suggest that Guillain-Barre syndrome is reported more frequently following HPV4 vaccination than other vaccinations among vaccine-eligible females or males in the United States. Our findings may be useful when discussing the risks and benefits of HPV4 vaccination.

  20. Signature MicroRNA expression patterns identified in humans with 22q11.2 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de la Morena, M. Teresa; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Dozmorov, Igor M.; Belkaya, Serkan; Hoover, Ashley R.; Anguiano, Esperanza; Pascual, M. Virginia; van Oers, Nicolai S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have heterogeneous clinical presentations including immunodeficiency, cardiac anomalies, and hypocalcemia. The syndrome arises from hemizygous deletions of up to 3 Mb on chromosome 22q11.2, a region that contains 60 genes and 4 microRNAs. MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, with mutations in several microRNAs causal to specific human diseases. We characterized the microRNA expression patterns in the peripheral blood of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n=31) compared to normal controls (n=22). Eighteen microRNAs had a statistically significant differential expression (p<0.05), with miR-185 expressed at 0.4× normal levels. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cohort exhibited microRNA expression hyper-variability and group dysregulation. Selected microRNAs distinguished patients with cardiac anomalies, hypocalcemia, and/or low circulating T cell counts. In summary, microRNA profiling of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome/DiGeorge patients revealed a signature microRNA expression pattern distinct from normal controls with clinical relevance. PMID:23454892

  1. Signature MicroRNA expression patterns identified in humans with 22q11.2 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    de la Morena, M Teresa; Eitson, Jennifer L; Dozmorov, Igor M; Belkaya, Serkan; Hoover, Ashley R; Anguiano, Esperanza; Pascual, M Virginia; van Oers, Nicolai S C

    2013-04-01

    Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have heterogeneous clinical presentations including immunodeficiency, cardiac anomalies, and hypocalcemia. The syndrome arises from hemizygous deletions of up to 3Mb on chromosome 22q11.2, a region that contains 60 genes and 4 microRNAs. MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, with mutations in several microRNAs causal to specific human diseases. We characterized the microRNA expression patterns in the peripheral blood of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n=31) compared to normal