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Sample records for multiplex rt-pcr assay

  1. Comparison of the conventional multiplex RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR and Luminex xTAG® RVP fast assay for the detection of respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Manohar L; Anand, Siddharth P; Tikhe, Shamal A; Walimbe, Atul M; Potdar, Varsha A; Chadha, Mandeep S; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2016-01-01

    Detection of respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is sensitive, specific and cost effective, having huge potential for patient management. In this study, the performance of an in-house developed conventional multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR), real time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) and Luminex xTAG(®) RVP fast assay (Luminex Diagnostics, Toronto, Canada) for the detection of respiratory viruses was compared. A total 310 respiratory clinical specimens predominantly from pediatric patients, referred for diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1pdm09 from August 2009 to March 2011 were tested to determine performance characteristic of the three methods. A total 193 (62.2%) samples were detected positive for one or more viruses by mRT-PCR, 175 (56.4%) samples by real time monoplex RT-PCR, and 138 (44.5%) samples by xTAG(®) RVP fast assay. The overall sensitivity of mRT-PCR was 96.9% (95% CI: 93.5, 98.8), rtRT-PCR 87.9% (95% CI: 82.5, 92.1) and xTAG(®) RVP fast was 68.3% (95% CI: 61.4, 74.6). Rhinovirus was detected most commonly followed by respiratory syncytial virus group B and influenza A/H1N1pdm09. The monoplex real time RT-PCR and in-house developed mRT-PCR are more sensitive, specific and cost effective than the xTAG(®) RVP fast assay.

  2. Simultaneous detection of three fish rhabdoviruses using multiplex real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongxiao; Teng, Yong; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yulin; Xie, Xiayang; Li, Huifang; Lv, Jiangqiang; Gao, Longying; He, Junqiang; Shi, Xiujie; Tian, Feiyan; Yang, Jingshun; Xie, Congxin

    2008-04-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are three important fish rhabdoviruses, causing serious Office International des Epizooties (OIE) classified diseases in wild and farmed fish. Here, a new multiplex real-time quantitative RT-PCR (mqRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection, identification and quantification of these three rhabdoviruses. The sets of primers and probes were targeted to conserved regions of glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV, nucleoprotein (N) gene of IHNV and G gene of VHSV and used to amplify. The sensitivity, specificity and interference test of mqRT-PCR assay was analyzed. It was shown that the detection levels of 100 copies of SVCV, 220 copies of IHNV and 140 copies of VHSV were achieved, and there was no non-specific amplification and cross-reactivity using RNA of pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and grass carp reovirus (GCRV). A total of 80 clinical fish samples were tested using the mqRT-PCR assay and the results were confirmed by antigen-capture ELISA and cell culture assay. This assay has the potential to be used for both research applications and diagnosis.

  3. Establishment of a multiplex RT-PCR assay for the rapid detection of fish cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kono, Tomoya; Takayama, Hiroaki; Nagamine, Ryusuke; Korenaga, Hiroki; Sakai, Masahiro

    2013-01-15

    To monitor the expression of cytokine genes in Japanese pufferfish, a novel platform for quantitative multiplexed analysis was developed. This custom-designed multiplex RT-PCR assay was used to analyze the expression profiles of 19 cytokine genes, including pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A/F3, IL-18, TNF-α, TNF-N), anti-inflammatory (IL-4/13A, IL-4/13B, IL-10), T-cell proliferation/differentiation (IL-2, IL-15, IL-21, TGF-β1), B-cell activation/differentiation (IL-7, IL-6, IL-4/13A, IL-4/13B), NK cell stimulation (IL-12p35 and IL-12p40), induction of anti-viral activity (I-IFN-1 and IFN-γ), and monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell proliferation (M-CSF1b) cytokines in head kidney cells under immune stimulatory conditions. The expression profiles were dissimilar in the unstimulated control and immune-stimulated cells. Moreover, increased expression profile was observed due to different stimulations for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-21, TNF-α, TNF-N, I-IFN-1 and IFN-γ genes. These results suggest that cytokine genes could be used as biomarkers to know the immune status of fish. The constructed multiplex RT-PCR assay will enhance understanding on immune regulation by cytokines in fish.

  4. A one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of four viruses that infect peach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Zhao, Z; Jiang, D; Wu, Z; Li, S

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) assay was developed to enable the simultaneous detection and differentiation of four viruses that infect peach, namely Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus (APCLSV). In this study, four pairs of primers, one specific for each virus, were designed; the corresponding PCR products were 632, 439, 346 and 282 bp in length for ACLSV, CGRMV, PNRSV and APCLSV, respectively, and the fragments could be distinguished clearly by agarose gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity and specificity of the method were tested using individual RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the identity of the RT-PCR amplification products was also confirmed by DNA sequencing. The results of RT-PCR and ELISA, along with batch detection using samples collected from peach orchards, revealed that this rapid and simple technique is an effective way to identify the four viruses simultaneously. The mRT-PCR assay described in this study was developed for the simultaneous detection of four peach viruses from infected peach samples is reliable and sensitive. In contrast to conventional uniplex RT-PCR, mRT-PCR is more efficient, reducing costs, time and handling when testing large numbers of samples. This rapid and simple method is useful for large-scale surveys of viruses that infect peach. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Detection of enteroviruses and parechoviruses by a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Pabbaraju, Kanti; Wong, Sallene; Wong, Anita A; Tellier, Raymond

    2015-04-01

    Detection of all enteroviruses while excluding cross-detection of rhinoviruses is challenging because of sequence similarities in the commonly used conserved targets for molecular assays. In addition, simultaneous detection and differentiation of enteroviruses and parechoviruses would be beneficial because of a similar clinical picture presented by these viruses. A sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR protocol that can address these clinical needs would be valuable to molecular diagnostic laboratories. Here we report a multiplex nucleic acid based assay using hydrolysis probes targeting the 5' non-translated region for the detection and differentiation of enteroviruses and parechoviruses without cross-detection of rhinoviruses. This assay has been shown to detect enteroviruses belonging to the different species in a variety of specimen types without detecting the different species of rhinoviruses. Laboratory validation shows the assay to be sensitive, specific, reproducible, easy to set up and uses generic cycling conditions. This assay can be implemented for diagnostic testing of patient samples in a high throughput fashion.

  6. Detection of nine respiratory RNA viruses using three multiplex RT-PCR assays incorporating a novel RNA internal control transcript.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Helen; Zuckerman, Mark; Broughton, Simon; Greenough, Anne; Smith, Melvyn

    2011-09-01

    Real-time PCR is a significant improvement over viral isolation and immunofluorescence for routinely detecting respiratory viruses. We developed three real-time internally controlled multiplex RT-PCR assays for detecting nine respiratory viruses. An internal control transcript consisting of a chimeric plasmid was synthesised and incorporated into each multiplex to monitor amplification efficiency, including inhibition. Each multiplex assay was developed on the Rotor-Gene 3000 and evaluated using RNA extracts from 126 nasopharyngeal aspirates from 112 pre-term infants. All 44/126 (35%) samples positive by immunofluorescence were confirmed by multiplex RT-PCR. Additionally, respiratory syncytial virus RNA was detected in 5 samples, influenza A virus RNA in 2 samples and thirteen (10%) dual infections by multiplex RT-PCR were noted. Inclusion of the RNA internal control did not affect the amplification efficiency of the target sequences and only 2 of 1256 (0.2%) samples tested over a 12 month period were inhibitory. Together with the improved sensitivity of the internally controlled multiplex RT-PCR assays over the older technology and the ability to detect co-infections, the internal control monitored the efficiency of both the RT and PCR steps and indicated inhibition, saving time and costs on running duplicate samples with a "spiked" inhibition control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a multiplex immunocapture RT-PCR assay for detection and differentiation of tomato and tobacco mosaic tobamoviruses.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, V; Bachand, G D; Hamelin, R C; Castello, J D

    1998-10-01

    Immunocapture (IC) RT-PCR assays were developed for detection of tomato (ToMV) and tobacco mosaic (TMV) tobamoviruses in spruce and pine extracts. When purified viruses were diluted in root or needle extracts of virus-free conifer seedlings, both IC-RT-PCR assays detected their respective target viruses at concentrations of 10-100 fg ml(-1). This compared to ELISA detection sensitivities of 1 ng ml(-1). Primers were designed from regions of high sequence diversity. Specificity of all primer pairs was confirmed by sequencing of PCR products. PCR distinguished more reliably between the two viruses than ELISA. Moreover, a multiplex IC-RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of TMV and ToMV was developed. When root extracts were seeded with both viruses simultaneously, the multiplex assay detected each virus at concentrations of 1-10 pg ml(-1). Six TMV and 18 ToMV isolates from various hosts, water samples and a soil sample were amplified and differentiated by multiplex IC-RT-PCR. No amplifications were observed against pepper mild mottle and ribgrass mosaic tobamoviruses and against six viruses belonging to other taxonomic groups.

  8. Respiratory virus multiplex RT-PCR assay sensitivities and influence factors in hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jikui; Ma, Zhuoya; Huang, Wenbo; Li, Chengrong; Wang, Heping; Zheng, Yuejie; Zhou, Rong; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-04-01

    Multiplex RT-PCR assays have been widely used tools for detection and differentiation of a panel of respiratory viral pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the Qiagen ResPlex II V2.0 kit and explored factors influencing its sensitivity. Nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens were prospectively collected from pediatric inpatients with lower respiratory tract infections at the time of admission in the Shenzhen Children's Hospital from May 2009 to April 2010. Total nucleic acids were extracted using the EZ1 system (Qiagen, Germany) and 17 respiratory viruses and genotypes including influenza A virus (FluA), FluB, parainfluenza virus 1 (PIV1), PIV2, PIV3, PIV4, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinoviruses (RhV), enteroviruses (EnV), human bocaviruses (hBoV), adenoviruses (AdV), four coronaviruses (229E, OC43, NL63 and HKU1), and FluA 2009 pandemic H1N1(H1N1-p) were detected and identified by the ResPlex II kit. In parallel, 16 real-time TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR assays were used to quantitatively detect each virus except for RhV. Influenza and parainfluenza viral cultures were also performed. Among the total 438 NPS specimens collected during the study period, one or more viral pathogens were detected in 274 (62.6%) and 201(45.9%) specimens by monoplex TaqMan RT-PCR and multiplex ResPlex, respectively. When results from monoplex PCR or cell culture were used as the reference standard, the multiplex PCR possessed specificities of 92.9-100.0%. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR for PIV3, hMPV, PIV1 and BoV were 73.1%, 70%, 66.7% and 55.6%, respectively, while low sensitivities (11.1%-40.0%) were observed for FluA, EnV, OC43, RSV and H1N1. Among the seven viruses/genotypes detected with higher frequencies, multiplex PCR sensitivities were correlated significantly with viral loads determined by the TaqMan RT-PCR in FluA, H1N1-p and RSV (p=0.011-0.000). The Qiagen ResPlex II multiplex RT-PCR kit possesses excellent specificity for simultaneous

  9. Development of a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of dengue and chikungunya viruses.

    PubMed

    Cecilia, D; Kakade, M; Alagarasu, K; Patil, J; Salunke, A; Parashar, D; Shah, P S

    2015-01-01

    Dengue and chikungunya viruses co-circulate and cause infections that start with similar symptoms but progress to radically different outcomes. Therefore, an early diagnostic test that can differentiate between the two is needed. A single-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously detect and quantitate RNA of all dengue virus (DENV) serotypes and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The sensitivity was 100 % for DENV and 95.8 % for CHIKV, whilst the specificity was 100 % for both viruses when compared with conventional RT-PCR. The detection limit ranged from 1 to 50 plaque-forming units. The assay was successfully used for differential diagnosis of dengue and chikungunya in Pune, where the viruses co-circulate.

  10. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and look-alike disease viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Hindson, B J; Reid, S M; Baker, B R; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; King, D P

    2007-07-26

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRT-PCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.

  11. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth and look-alike disease viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Hindson, B J; Baker, B R; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; Reid, S M; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; King, D P

    2007-09-18

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay (Multiplex Version 1.0) was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRTPCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.

  12. Detection of 22 common leukemic fusion genes using a single-step multiplex qRT-PCR-based assay.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, Lina; Chen, Zhenzhu; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Jieying; Fan, Ruihua; Song, Yongping

    2017-07-25

    Fusion genes generated from chromosomal translocation play an important role in hematological malignancies. Detection of fusion genes currently employ use of either conventional RT-PCR methods or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), where both methods involve tedious methodologies and require prior characterization of chromosomal translocation events as determined by cytogenetic analysis. In this study, we describe a real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR)-based multi-fusion gene screening method with the capacity to detect 22 fusion genes commonly found in leukemia. This method does not require pre-characterization of gene translocation events, thereby facilitating immediate diagnosis and therapeutic management. We performed fluorescent qRT-PCR (F-qRT-PCR) using a commercially-available multi-fusion gene detection kit on a patient cohort of 345 individuals comprising 108 cases diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for initial evaluation; remaining patients within the cohort were assayed for confirmatory diagnosis. Results obtained by F-qRT-PCR were compared alongside patient analysis by cytogenetic characterization. Gene translocations detected by F-qRT-PCR in AML cases were diagnosed in 69.4% of the patient cohort, which was comparatively similar to 68.5% as diagnosed by cytogenetic analysis, thereby demonstrating 99.1% concordance. Overall gene fusion was detected in 53.7% of the overall patient population by F-qRT-PCR, 52.9% by cytogenetic prediction in leukemia, and 9.1% in non-leukemia patients by both methods. The overall concordance rate was calculated to be 99.0%. Fusion genes were detected by F-qRT-PCR in 97.3% of patients with CML, followed by 69.4% with AML, 33.3% with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 9.1% with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and 0% with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We describe the use of a F-qRT-PCR-based multi-fusion gene screening method as an efficient one-step diagnostic procedure as an

  13. Dataset of proinflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) measured using a novel GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay was developed and optimized that simultaneously measures expression of a suite of immune-relevant genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), concentrating on tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 ligand/receptor systems and acute phase response genes. The dataset ...

  14. Development of novel AllGlo-probe-based one-step multiplex qRT-PCR assay for rapid identification of avian influenza virus H7N9.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Mao, Haiyan; Yan, Juying; Wang, Xinying; Zhang, Lei; Guus, Koch; Li, Hui; Li, Zhen; Chen, Yin; Gong, Liming; Chen, Zhiping; Xia, Shichang

    2014-07-01

    Recently, human deaths have resulted from infection with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus H7N9 strains that have emerged recently in China. To strengthen H7N9 surveillance and outbreak control, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed. To develop a sensitive quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid detection of H7N9 viral RNA, primers and AllGlo probes were designed to target the HA and NA genes of H7N9. Conserved sequences in the HA and NA genes were identified by phylogenic analysis and used as targets for H7N9 virus detection. The similarities of the targeted HA and NA gene sequences from different H7 and N9 influenza virus strains were 93.2-99.9 % and 96.0-99.6 %, respectively The specificity and sensitivity of the new multiplex real-time qRT-PCR was established. The test was used for the detection of viral RNA in human pharyngeal swabs and environmental samples. The detection limit of the multiplex qRT-PCR was estimated to be about 10(-1) TCID50/reaction. Finally, the diagnostic sensitivities of the multiplex qRT-PCR, virus isolation and TaqMan qRT-PCR were compared using pharyngeal swabs and environmental samples. These analyses yielded positive results in 46.7 %, 43.3 % and 20.0 % of the samples, respectively. The novel multiplex AllGlo qRT-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method to identify H7N9 virus in clinical and environmental samples and can be used to facilitate studies on the epidemiology of H7N9 virus.

  15. Multiplex RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays for detection and subtyping of human influenza virus in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben M'hadheb, Manel; Harrabi, Myriam; Souii, Amira; Jrad-Battikh, Nadia; Gharbi, Jawhar

    2015-03-01

    Influenza viruses are negative stranded segmented RNA viruses belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family. They are classified into three types A, B, and C. Type A influenza viruses are classified into subtypes according to the antigenic characters of the surface glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable multiplex RT-PCR technique for detecting simultaneously the subtypes A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 of influenza virus. Our study included 398 patients (mean age 30.33 ± 19.92 years) with flu or flu-like syndromes, consulting physicians affiliated with collaborating teams. A multiplex RT-PCR detecting A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza viruses and an examination by indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) were performed. In the optimized conditions, we diagnosed by IFI a viral infection in 90 patients (22.6 %): 85 cases of influenza type A, four cases of influenza type B, and only one case of coinfection with types A and B. An evaluation of the technique was performed on 19 clinical specimens positive in IFI, and we detected eight cases of A/H3N2, five cases of A/H1N1, one case of influenza virus type A which is not an H1N1 nor H3N2, and five negative cases. Multiplex RT-PCR is a sensitive technique allowing an effective and fast diagnosis of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in which the optimization often collides with problems of sensibility.

  16. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  17. Design and development of an in-house multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of HIV-1 and HCV in plasma samples

    PubMed Central

    Paryan, M; Forouzandeh, Moghadam M; Kia, V; Mohammadi-Yeganeh, S; Abbasali, Raz A; Mirab, Samiee S

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives HIV-1 and HCV infections are life threatening problems in patients who receive blood products. Serological methods have proven useful in detecting these infections, but there are setbacks that make it challenging to detect these infectious agents. By the advent of Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) methods, especially in multiplex format, more precise detection is possible. Materials and Methods We have developed a multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of HIV-1 and HCV. Primers were designed for highly conserved region of genome of each virus. Using these primers and standard plasmids, we determined the limit of detection, clinical and analytical specificity and sensitivity of the assay. Monoplex and multiplex RT-PCR were performed. Results Analytical sensitivity was considered to be 100 and 200 copies/ml for HIV-1 and HCV, respectively. High concentration of one virus had no significant effect on the detection of the other one with low concentration. By analysis of 40 samples, clinical sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 97.5%. Using different viral and human genome samples, the specificity of the assay was evaluated to be 100%. Conclusions The aim of this study was to develop a reliable, rapid and cost effective method to detect HIV-1 and HCV simultaneously. Results showed that this simple and rapid method is perfectly capable of detecting two viruses in clinical samples. PMID:22783455

  18. Development and evaluation of one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Zika virus and Chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Qing; Li, Xiao; Deng, Cheng-Lin; Yuan, Zhi-Ming; Zhang, Bo

    2017-10-05

    Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are important human pathogens and mosquito-borne arboviruses, which have resembling history, common vectors, circulating regions, and indistinguishable clinical symptoms. Wide geographical range that is suitable for ZIKV and CHIKV transmission underlines the concern about the impact of epidemic and endemic infections on burden of public health. In the present study, a highly sensitive and specific one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed and evaluated for simultaneous detection and quantification of ZIKV and CHIKV. The single reaction assay employs two pairs of primers and two TaqMan probes that differentiate ZIKV and CHIKV infections. The entire viral genomic RNA in vitro transcribed from full-length infectious clones were used to generate the standard curves for absolute quantification in subsequent tests. The detection limit of the one-step multiplex assay was 1 and 0.5 PFU for infectious ZIKV and CHIKV, respectively. The assessment of specificity indicated this assay is highly specific to targeted viruses showing no amplification of a variety of other flaviviruses. Our assay was able to detect geographically separated and phylogenetically diverse strains of ZIKV and CHIKV. On the applicability of monitoring viral multiplication in cells and testing clinical samples, the one-step multiplex assay provided efficient and accurate determination. The one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay offers a valuable tool for detection of ZIKV and CHIKV and potentially contributes to general surveillance and clinical treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1, type 2 and HoBi-like pestivirus.

    PubMed

    Mari, Viviana; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lorusso, Eleonora; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    HoBi-like pestiviruses are emerging pestiviruses that infect cattle causing clinical forms overlapping to those induced by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 and 2. As a consequence of their widespread distribution reported in recent years, molecular tools for rapid discrimination among pestiviruses infecting cattle are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, based on the TaqMan technology, for the rapid and unambiguous characterisation of all bovine pestiviruses, including the emerging HoBi-like strains. The assay was found to be sensitive, specific and repeatable, ensuring detection of as few as 10(0)-10(1) viral RNA copies. No cross-reactions between different pestiviral species were observed even in samples artificially contaminated with more than one pestivirus. Analysis of field samples tested positive for BVDV-1, BVDV-2 or HoBi-like virus by a nested PCR protocol revealed that the developed TaqMan assay had equal or higher sensitivity and was able to discriminate correctly the viral species in all tested samples, whereas a real-time RT-PCR assay previously developed for HoBi-like pestivirus detection showed cross-reactivity with few high-titre BVDV-2 samples.

  20. Simultaneous detection and quantitation of Chikungunya, dengue and West Nile viruses by multiplex RT-PCR assays and dengue virus typing using high resolution melting.

    PubMed

    Naze, F; Le Roux, K; Schuffenecker, I; Zeller, H; Staikowsky, F; Grivard, P; Michault, A; Laurent, P

    2009-12-01

    Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV) and West Nile (WNV) viruses are arthropod-borne viruses that are able to emerge or re-emerge in many regions due to climatic changes and increase in travel. Since these viruses produce similar clinical signs it is important for physicians and epidemiologists to differentiate them rapidly. A molecular method was developed for their detection and quantitation in plasma samples and a DENV typing technique were developed. The method consisted in performing two multiplex real-time one-step RT-PCR assays, to detect and quantify the three viruses. Both assays were conducted in a single run, from a single RNA extract containing a unique coextracted and coamplified composite internal control. The quantitation results were close to the best detection thresholds obtained with simplex RT-PCR techniques. The differentiation of DENV types was performed using a High Resolution Melting technique. The assays enable the early diagnosis of the three arboviruses during viremia, including cases of coinfection. The method is rapid, specific and highly sensitive with a potential for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance. A DENV positive sample can be typed conveniently using the High Resolution Melting technique using the same apparatus.

  1. Typing (A/B) and subtyping (H1/H3/H5) of influenza A viruses by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Suwannakarn, Kamol; Payungporn, Sunchai; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Samransamruajkit, Rujipat; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Songserm, Thaweesak; Chaisingh, Arunee; Chamnanpood, Pornchai; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2008-09-01

    In this study, a specific and sensitive one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR was developed in two assays by using primers and a number of specific locked nucleic acid (LNA)-mediated TaqMan probes which increase the thermal stability of oligonucleotides. The first assay consisted of primers and probes specific to the matrix (M1) gene of influenza A virus, matrix (M1) gene of influenza B virus and GAPDH gene of host cells for typing of influenza virus and verification by an internal control, respectively. The other assay employed primers and probes specific to the hemagglutinin gene of H1, H3 and H5 subtypes in order to identify the three most prominent subtypes of influenza A capable of infecting humans. The specificity results did not produce any cross reactivity with other respiratory viruses or other subtypes of influenza A viruses (H2, H4 and H6-H15), indicating the high specificity of the primers and probes used. The sensitivity of the assays which depend on the type or subtype being detected was approximately 10 to 10(3)copies/microl that depended on the types or subtypes being detected. Furthermore, the assays demonstrated 100% concordance with 35 specimens infected with influenza A viruses and 34 specimens infected with other respiratory viruses, which were identified by direct nucleotide sequencing. In conclusion, the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays have proven advantageous in terms of rapidity, specificity and sensitivity for human specimens and thus present a feasible and attractive method for large-scale detection aimed at controlling influenza outbreaks.

  2. [Detection of influenza virus (RT-PCR assay and others)].

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Yoko

    2003-11-01

    Viral isolation is the conventional method for influenza virus diagnosis but it is less useful for immediate patient management. RT-PCR is the sensitive and rapid assay for the detection of respiratory viruses. Single step and multiplex RT-PCR is able to detect several viruses simultaneously in a single reaction. Real time PCR(TaqMan method) is able to detect the amplicon directly by release of a fluorescent reporter of the probe during the amplification reactions. This procedure can save time since it eliminates post-PCR processing steps. These RT-PCR methods should be useful for the accurate and rapid diagnosis of influenza virus infection, especially severe cases such as pneumonia and encephalopathy.

  3. Development and validation of a multiplex, real-time RT PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of classical and African swine fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Haines, Felicity J; Hofmann, Martin A; King, Donald P; Drew, Trevor W; Crooke, Helen R

    2013-01-01

    A single-step, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed for the simultaneous and differential laboratory diagnosis of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) alongside an exogenous internal control RNA (IC-RNA). Combining a single extraction methodology and primer and probe sets for detection of the three target nucleic acids CSFV, ASFV and IC-RNA, had no effect on the analytical sensitivity of the assay and the new triplex RT-PCR was comparable to standard PCR techniques for CSFV and ASFV diagnosis. After optimisation the assay had a detection limit of 5 CSFV genome copies and 22 ASFV genome copies. Analytical specificity of the triplex assay was validated using a panel of viruses representing 9 of the 11 CSFV subgenotypes, at least 8 of the 22 ASFV genotypes as well as non-CSFV pestiviruses. Positive and negative clinical samples from animals infected experimentally, due to field exposure or collected from the UK which is free from both swine diseases, were used to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for detection of both viruses. The diagnostic sensitivity was 100% for both viruses whilst diagnostic specificity estimates were 100% for CSFV detection and 97.3% for ASFV detection. The inclusion of a heterologous internal control allowed identification of false negative results, which occurred at a higher level than expected. The triplex assay described here offers a valuable new tool for the differential detection of the causative viruses of two clinically indistinguishable porcine diseases, whose geographical occurrence is increasingly overlapping.

  4. Development and Validation of a Multiplex, Real-Time RT PCR Assay for the Simultaneous Detection of Classical and African Swine Fever Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Felicity J.; Hofmann, Martin A.; King, Donald P.; Drew, Trevor W.; Crooke, Helen R.

    2013-01-01

    A single-step, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed for the simultaneous and differential laboratory diagnosis of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) alongside an exogenous internal control RNA (IC-RNA). Combining a single extraction methodology and primer and probe sets for detection of the three target nucleic acids CSFV, ASFV and IC-RNA, had no effect on the analytical sensitivity of the assay and the new triplex RT-PCR was comparable to standard PCR techniques for CSFV and ASFV diagnosis. After optimisation the assay had a detection limit of 5 CSFV genome copies and 22 ASFV genome copies. Analytical specificity of the triplex assay was validated using a panel of viruses representing 9 of the 11 CSFV subgenotypes, at least 8 of the 22 ASFV genotypes as well as non-CSFV pestiviruses. Positive and negative clinical samples from animals infected experimentally, due to field exposure or collected from the UK which is free from both swine diseases, were used to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for detection of both viruses. The diagnostic sensitivity was 100% for both viruses whilst diagnostic specificity estimates were 100% for CSFV detection and 97.3% for ASFV detection. The inclusion of a heterologous internal control allowed identification of false negative results, which occurred at a higher level than expected. The triplex assay described here offers a valuable new tool for the differential detection of the causative viruses of two clinically indistinguishable porcine diseases, whose geographical occurrence is increasingly overlapping. PMID:23923045

  5. Development and Evaluation of a SYBR Green-Based Real-Time Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection and Serotyping of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huixin; Parimelalagan, Mariya; Lai, Yee Ling; Lee, Kim Sung; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige C; Ng, Lee Ching; Ho, Phui San; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) have emerged as the two most important arbovirus diseases of global health significance. Similar clinical manifestations, transmission vectors, geographical distribution, and seasonal correlation often result in misdiagnosis of chikungunya infections as dengue cases and vice versa. In this study, we developed a rapid and accurate laboratory confirmative method to simultaneously detect, quantify, and differentiate DENV serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 and CHIKV. This SYBR Green I-based one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay is highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV and DENV. Melting temperature analysis of PCR amplicons was used to serotype DENV and to differentiate from CHIKV. The detection limit of the assay was 20, 10, 50, 5, and 10 RNA copies/reaction for DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4, and CHIKV, respectively. Our assay did not cross-react with a panel of viruses that included other flaviviruses, alphaviruses, influenza viruses, human enteroviruses, and human coronaviruses. The feasibility of using this assay for clinical diagnosis was evaluated in DENV- and CHIKV-positive patient sera. Accordingly, the assay sensitivity for DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4, and CHIKV was 89.66%, 96.67%, 96.67%, 94.12%, and 95.74%, respectively, with 100% specificity. These findings confirmed the potential of our assay to be used as a rapid test for simultaneous detection and serotyping of DENV and CHIKV in clinical samples.

  6. Development of a multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA to identify four distinct species of tospovirus.

    PubMed

    Charoenvilaisiri, Saengsoon; Seepiban, Channarong; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Luxananil, Plearnpis; Gajanandana, Oraprapai

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA was developed to detect and differentiate four tospovirus species found in Thailand, namely Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV), and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV). In this system, nucleocapsid (N) gene fragments of four tospoviruses were simultaneously amplified and labeled with digoxigenin (DIG) in a single RT-PCR reaction using a pair of degenerate primers binding to the same conserved regions in all four tospovirus N genes. The DIG-labeled amplicons were distinguished into species by four parallel hybridizations to species-specific biotinylated probes in streptavidin-coated microtiter wells followed by ELISA detection using a peroxidase-conjugated anti-DIG antibody. Results indicated that the multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA assay could specifically identify each of these four tospoviruses without cross-reactivity between species or reactivity to healthy plant negative controls. Assay sensitivity was 10- to 1000-fold higher than conventional RT-PCR. When applied to naturally infected plants, all samples yielded concordant results between RT-PCR-ELISA and the reference RT-PCR. In conclusion, the multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA developed in this study has superior specificity, sensitivity, and high-throughput capacity compared to conventional RT-PCR and is an attractive alternative for the identification of different tospovirus species.

  7. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV

  8. Dataset of proinflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) measured using a novel GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Kutyrev, Ivan; Cleveland, Beth; Leeds, Timothy; Wiens, Gregory D

    2017-04-01

    A GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay was developed and optimized that simultaneously measures expression of a suite of immune-relevant genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), concentrating on tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 ligand/receptor systems and acute phase response genes. The dataset includes expression values for drpt, il11a, il1b1, il1b2, il1b3, il1r-like-1(e3-5), il1r-like-1(e9-11), il1r1-like-a, il1r1-like-b, il1r2, saa, tnfa1, tnfa2, tnfa3, tnfrsf1a, tnfrsf1a-like-a, tnfrsf1a-like-b, tnfrsf5, and tnfrsf9. Gene expression was measured at four time-points post-challenge in both a resistant line (ARS-Fp-R) and a susceptible line (ARS-Fp-S) of rainbow trout. In addition, fish body weight, spleen index and the Flavobacterium psychrophilum load are reported. These data are an extension of information presented and discussed in "Proinflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression kinetics following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum in resistant and susceptible lines of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" (Kutyrev et al., 2016) [1].

  9. Simultaneous detection of influenza viruses A, B, and swine origin influenza A using multiplex one-step real-time RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Monavari, S H R; Mollaie, H R; Fazlalipour, M

    2014-01-01

    Every year, seasonal epidemics of influenza viruses are causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Also infrequent novel and rearranged strains of influenza viruses have caused quick, acute universal pandemics resulting in millions of mortalities. The usage of efficient and accurate detection is superior for infection control, effective treatment, and epidemiological supervision. Therefore, evaluation of useful real-time PCR molecular tests for the detection of pandemic viruses is important before the next wave of the pandemic. A novel quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay with specific primers was used successfully for detection and monitoring of the influenza A, B, and swine influenza. The newly designed primers target highly conserved regions in influenza viruses. Our qRT-PCR assay is highly specific for detecting influenza A, B, and swine influenza viruses. The cutoff CT value was determined <38 for domestic human diagnostic test, under conditions of FDA emergency, and the reaction efficiency of the InfA, swInfA, and InfB assays were thereby estimated to be 97.9 % (R2 = 0.998), 98.3 % (R2 = 0.986), and 99.5 % (R2 = 0.995), respectively. Interestingly, based on our finding, there is no cross reactivity of detecting other viruses.

  10. One-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting and genotyping wild-type group A rotavirus strains and vaccine strains (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) in stool samples

    PubMed Central

    Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Tam, Ka Ian; Quaye, Osbourne; Bowen, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Group A rotavirus (RVA) infection is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children worldwide. Introduction of two live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq® and Rotarix®, has dramatically reduced RVA associated AGE and mortality in developed as well as in many developing countries. High-throughput methods are needed to genotype rotavirus wild-type strains and to identify vaccine strains in stool samples. Quantitative RT-PCR assays (qRT-PCR) offer several advantages including increased sensitivity, higher throughput, and faster turnaround time. Methods. In this study, a one-step multiplex qRT-PCR assay was developed to detect and genotype wild-type strains and vaccine (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) rotavirus strains along with an internal processing control (Xeno or MS2 RNA). Real-time RT-PCR assays were designed for VP7 (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, G12) and VP4 (P[4], P[6] and P[8]) genotypes. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay also included previously published NSP3 qRT-PCR for rotavirus detection and Rotarix® NSP2 and RotaTeq® VP6 qRT-PCRs for detection of Rotarix® and RotaTeq® vaccine strains respectively. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay was validated using 853 sequence confirmed stool samples and 24 lab cultured strains of different rotavirus genotypes. By using thermostable rTth polymerase enzyme, dsRNA denaturation, reverse transcription (RT) and amplification (PCR) steps were performed in single tube by uninterrupted thermocycling profile to reduce chances of sample cross contamination and for rapid generation of results. For quantification, standard curves were generated using dsRNA transcripts derived from RVA gene segments. Results. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8–100% sensitivity, 99.7–100% specificity, 85–95% efficiency and a limit of detection of 4–60 copies per singleplex reaction. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 81–92% efficiency and limit of detection of 150–600 copies in multiplex reactions. The VP4 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8

  11. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of three viruses in pear plants by a multiplex RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bingyu; Wang, Guoping; Ma, Xiaofang; Liu, Wenbin; Tang, Huihui; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Ni

    2014-02-01

    A multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for detection and differentiation of the Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), which are viruses frequently occurring in pear trees. Different combinations of mixed primer pairs were tested for their specificity and sensitivity for the simultaneous detection of the three viruses. Three primer pairs were used to amplify their fragments of 247bp, 358bp and 500bp, respectively. The primer pair for ASPV was designed in this work, while the primer pairs for ACLSV and ASGV were from previous reports. The sensitivity and specificity of the mRT-PCR assay for the three viruses were comparable to that of each uniplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR was applied successfully for the detection of three viruses in leaves of pear and apple plants, but was unreliable in the detection of ASGV in dormant barks. In conclusion, this mRT-PCR provides a useful tool for the routine and rapid detection and the differentiation of three pear viruses.

  12. Use of dual priming oligonucleotide system-based multiplex RT-PCR combined with high performance liquid chromatography assay for simultaneous detection of five enteric viruses associated with acute enteritis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wen-Lu; Wang, Zi-Wei; Qin, Yue; Sun, Chao; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Jiang, Yan-Ping; Qiao, Xin-Yuan; Tang, Li-Jie; Li, Yi-Jing; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2017-05-01

    In this study, a specific and sensitive method for simultaneous detection of human astrovirus, human rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus and enteric adenovirus associated with acute enteritis was developed, based on the specific dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) system and the sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The DPO system-based multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) combined with HPLC assay was more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time SYBR Green PCR assay, and showed a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 96%-100%. The high sensitivity and specificity of the assay indicates its great potential to be a useful tool for the accurate diagnosis of enteric virus infections.

  13. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of three common viruses infecting orchids.

    PubMed

    Ali, Raymond N; Dann, Alison L; Cross, Peter A; Wilson, Calum R

    2014-11-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection of three orchid viruses: cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV), odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), and orchid fleck virus (OFV). Primers were used to amplify nucleocapsid protein gene fragments of 845 bp (ORSV), 505 bp (CymMV) and 160 bp (OFV). A 60-bp amplicon of plant glyceraldehyde-3-phophate dehydrogenase mRNA was included as an internal control against false negatives. The assay was validated against 31 collected plants from six orchid genera and compared with results obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The RT-PCR assay proved more sensitive than TEM for detection of OFV.

  14. Development a of multiplex TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Asian prunus viruses, plum bark necrosis stem pitting associated virus, and peach latent mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asian prunus viruses (APV 1, APV 2 and APV 3) and Plum bark necrosis stem pitting associated virus (PBNSPaV) are two recently described viruses infecting Prunus spp., and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is a viroid that infects the same species. A single-tube multiplex, TaqMan real-time RT-PCR as...

  15. Validation and utilization of an internally controlled multiplex Real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of enteroviruses and enterovirus A71 associated with hand foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran Tan; Anh, Nguyen To; Tham, Nguyen Thi; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Qui, Phan Tu; Ngan, Tran Thuy; Van, Tran Thi My; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Thanh, Le Thi My; Chai, Ong Kien; Perera, David; Viet, Do Chau; Khanh, Truong Huu; Ha, Do Quang; Tuan, Ha Manh; Wong, Kum Thong; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H Rogier; Van Tan, Le

    2015-06-09

    Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a disease of public health importance across the Asia-Pacific region. The disease is caused by enteroviruses (EVs), in particular enterovirus A71 (EV-A71). In EV-A71-associated HFMD, the infection is sometimes associated with severe manifestations including neurological involvement and fatal outcome. The availability of a robust diagnostic assay to distinguish EV-A71 from other EVs is important for patient management and outbreak response. We developed and validated an internally controlled one-step single-tube real-time RT-PCR in terms of sensitivity, linearity, precision, and specificity for simultaneous detection of EVs and EV-A71. Subsequently, the assay was then applied on throat and rectal swabs sampled from 434 HFMD patients. The assay was evaluated using both plasmid DNA and viral RNA and has shown to be reproducible with a maximum assay variation of 4.41 % and sensitive with a limit of detection less than 10 copies of target template per reaction, while cross-reactivity with other EV serotypes was not observed. When compared against a published VP1 nested RT-PCR using 112 diagnostic throat and rectal swabs from 112 children with a clinical diagnosis of HFMD during 2014, the multiplex assay had a higher sensitivity and 100 % concordance with sequencing results which showed EVs in 77/112 (68.8 %) and EV-A71 in 7/112 (6.3 %). When applied to clinical diagnostics for 322 children, the assay detected EVs in throat swabs of 257/322 (79.8 %) of which EV-A71 was detected in 36/322 (11.2 %) children. The detection rate increased to 93.5 % (301/322) and 13.4 % (43/322) for EVs and EV-A71, respectively, when rectal swabs from 65 throat-negative children were further analyzed. We have successfully developed and validated a sensitive internally controlled multiplex assay for rapid detection of EVs and EV-A71, which is useful for clinical management and outbreak control of HFMD.

  16. Nested multiplex RT-PCR for detection and differentiation of West Nile virus and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Donna J; Ostlund, Eileen N; Schmitt, Beverly J

    2003-09-01

    A traditional nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay specific for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus was designed to multiplex with a previously described West Nile (WN) virus nested RT-PCR assay. Differentiation of EEE and WN was based on base pair size of the amplified product. One hundred fifty-seven mammalian and avian brain tissues were tested by EEE/WN nested multiplex RT-PCR, EEE nested RT-PCR, and WN nested RT-PCR, and results were compared with other diagnostic test results from the same animals. Serological and virus isolation testing confirmed the results of the multiplex PCR assay. When compared with cell culture virus isolation, the multiplex assay was shown to be more sensitive in detecting the presence of EEE or WN virus in brain tissues. The multiplex assay was shown to be sensitive and specific for North American EEE and WN and provided a rapid means of identifying both viruses in brain tissues. No apparent sacrifice in sensitivity was observed in the multiplex procedure compared with the individual EEE and WN nested RT-PCR assays. Data collected from an additional 485 multiplex RT-PCR tests conducted during the summer and fall of 2002 further support the validity of the procedure.

  17. Single-Reaction, Multiplex, Real-Time RT-PCR for the Detection, Quantitation, and Serotyping of Dengue Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Abeynayake, Janaki; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Gresh, Lionel; Tellez, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Karla; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Pierro, Anna M.; Gaibani, Paolo; Guo, Frances P.; Sambri, Vittorio; Balmaseda, Angel; Karunaratne, Kumudu; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue fever results from infection with one or more of four different serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). Despite the widespread nature of this infection, available molecular diagnostics have significant limitations. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex, real-time, reverse transcriptase-PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection, quantitation, and serotyping of dengue viruses in a single reaction. Methodology/Principal Findings An rRT-PCR assay targeting the 5′ untranslated region and capsid gene of the DENV genome was designed using molecular beacons to provide serotype specificity. Using reference DENV strains, the assay was linear from 7.0 to 1.0 log10 cDNA equivalents/µL for each serotype. The lower limit of detection using genomic RNA was 0.3, 13.8, 0.8, and 12.4 cDNA equivalents/µL for serotypes 1–4, respectively, which was 6- to 275-fold more analytically sensitive than a widely used hemi-nested RT-PCR. Using samples from Nicaragua collected within the first five days of illness, the multiplex rRT-PCR was positive in 100% (69/69) of specimens that were positive by the hemi-nested assay, with full serotype agreement. Furthermore, the multiplex rRT-PCR detected DENV RNA in 97.2% (35/36) of specimens from Sri Lanka positive for anti-DENV IgM antibodies compared to just 44.4% (16/36) by the hemi-nested RT-PCR. No amplification was observed in 80 clinical samples sent for routine quantitative hepatitis C virus testing or when genomic RNA from other flaviviruses was tested. Conclusions/Significance This single-reaction, quantitative, multiplex rRT-PCR for DENV serotyping demonstrates superior analytical and clinical performance, as well as simpler workflow compared to the hemi-nested RT-PCR reference. In particular, this multiplex rRT-PCR detects viral RNA and provides serotype information in specimens collected more than five days after fever onset and from patients who had already developed anti-DENV IgM antibodies. The implementation of this

  18. Simultaneous detection of four causal agents of tobacco bushy top disease by a multiplex one-step RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tobacco bushy top disease is a complex disease caused by mixed infection of Tobacco bushy top virus (TBTV), Tobacco vein distorting virus (TVDV), satellite RNA of TBTV (Sat-TBTV) and Tobacco vein distorting virus associate RNA (TVDVaRNA). A one-tube multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay...

  19. Multiplex RT-PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of both RNA and DNA viruses infecting cassava and the common occurrence of mixed infections by two cassava brown streak viruses in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Abarshi, M M; Mohammed, I U; Jeremiah, S C; Legg, J P; Kumar, P Lava; Hillocks, R J; Maruthi, M N

    2012-01-01

    Uniplex and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols were developed for the detection of cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) in single and mixed infections with cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) in a tropical crop plant, cassava (Manihot esculenta). CMBs contain ssDNA as their genome (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) while CBSVs are made up of positive sense ssRNA (genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae), and they cause the economically important cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak diseases, respectively, in sub-Saharan Africa. Diagnostic methodologies have long been available for CMBs but they are limited for CBSVs especially in mixed infections. In this study, the two CBSVs, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Cassava brown streak Uganda virus (CBSUV) occurring singly or in mixed infection with CMBs, African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic virus were detected in a single RT-PCR using both previously described and newly designed virus-specific primers. These protocols were highly efficient for detecting CBSVs compared to the existing methods and have great potential to minimize sample handling and contamination. As well as improving the diagnosis of cassava viruses, the development of multiplex RT-PCR protocols have revealed the common occurrence of mixed infections by CBSV and CBSUV in cassava fields of Tanzania and Kenya, which was contrary to the common belief until recently that these two viruses have existed separately. These protocols have implications for diagnosis and epidemiological studies on cassava virus diseases in Eastern Africa.

  20. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    which are of two bovine types bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and psuedocowpox (PCP). This document provides details of signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used. A condensed summary of the development, testing and performance of the multiplexed assay panel was presented in a 126 page separate document, entitled 'Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out'. This supplemental document provides additional details of large amount of data collected for signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used for all steps in the assay development and utilization processes. In contrast to last years effort, the development of the bovine and porcine panels is pending additional work to complete analytical characterization of FMDV, VESV, VSV, SVD, RPV and MCF. The signature screening process and final panel composition impacts this effort. The unique challenge presented this year was having strict predecessor limitations in completing characterization, where efforts at LLNL must preceed efforts at PIADC, such challenges were alleviated in the 2006 reporting by having characterization data from the interlaboratory comparison and at Plum Island under AgDDAP project. We will present an addendum at a later date with additional data on the characterization of the porcine and bovine multiplex assays when that data is available.

  1. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and quantification of GI, GII and GIV noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Tibor; Singh, Amy; Le Guyader, Françoise S; La Rosa, Giuseppina; Saif, Linda; McNeal, Monica

    2015-10-01

    Noroviruses are important causes of acute gastroenteritis and are classified into six genogroups with GI, GII and GIV containing human pathogens. This high genetic diversity represents a significant challenge for diagnostic assay development. Genogroup specific monoplex and multiplex real time RT-PCR assays are widely used for the detection of GI and GII noroviruses. On the other hand, GIV norovirus detection is not part of routine laboratory diagnosis. This study describes the development and evaluation of a one tube, real time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and quantification of GI, GII and GIV noroviruses, including both GIV.1 (human) and GIV.2 (animal) strains. Assay performance was evaluated on a panel of norovirus positive clinical samples by comparison of monoplex and multiplex standard curves and Ct values. The multiplex assay demonstrated equal sensitivity and specificity to the monoplex assays and was able to detect all GI, GII and GIV noroviruses with Ct values equal to that of the monoplex assays. The multiplex assay described in this study will be instrumental for the better understanding of GIV norovirus epidemiology, including their possible zoonotic nature.

  2. Single step multiplex real-time RT-PCR for H5N1 influenza A virus detection.

    PubMed

    Payungporn, Sunchai; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Chaisingh, Arunee; Damrongwantanapokin, Sudarat; Buranathai, Chantanee; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2006-02-01

    H5N1 influenza A virus causes a rapidly fatal systemic disease in domestic poultry and spreads directly from poultry to mammalian species such as leopards, tigers and humans. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR for rapid detection of H5N1 influenza A virus. The selected primers and various labeled TaqMan MGB reporter probes corresponding to M, H5 and N1 were used in a single step multiplex real-time RT-PCR to simultaneously detect triple fluorescent signals. In order to validate the method, 75 clinical specimens infected with H5N1 isolated from both poultry and mammals, as well as various specimens of other subtypes and RNA from other viral pathogens of poultry and human were tested. The results showed that the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays can be applied to detect virus suspensions of H5N1 influenza A virus from a wide host range and demonstrated the sensitivity of the assay amounted to approximately 10(2)-10(3)copies/mul. In conclusion, the highlights of this particular method lie in its rapidity, specificity and sensitivity thus rendering it feasible and effective for large-scale screening at times of H5N1 influenza A virus outbreaks.

  3. A Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Avian-Origin Canine H3N2, Equine-Origin H3N8, Human-Origin H3N2, and H1N1/2009 Canine Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Liu, Jinhua; Sun, Yipeng

    2017-01-01

    Virological and serological surveys have documented that H1N1/2009, avian-origin canine H3N2 (cH3N2), seasonal human-origin H3N2 (hH3N2), and equine-origin H3N8 influenza viruses are consistently circulating in dogs. In the present study, a multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of these influenza viruses. Four primer sets were designed to target the hemagglutinin genes of H1N1/2009, cH3N2, hH3N2, and H3N8 canine influenza viruses (CIVs). This mRT-PCR assay demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity for the four CIV subtypes. Additionally, mRT-PCR results obtained from 420 clinical samples were consistent with those obtained by the conventional virus isolation method. Our mRT-PCR assay is reliable for clinical diagnosis and rapid identification of CIVs. PMID:28107507

  4. A Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Avian-Origin Canine H3N2, Equine-Origin H3N8, Human-Origin H3N2, and H1N1/2009 Canine Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenxi; Wang, Qian; Hu, Junyi; Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Liu, Jinhua; Sun, Yipeng

    2017-01-01

    Virological and serological surveys have documented that H1N1/2009, avian-origin canine H3N2 (cH3N2), seasonal human-origin H3N2 (hH3N2), and equine-origin H3N8 influenza viruses are consistently circulating in dogs. In the present study, a multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of these influenza viruses. Four primer sets were designed to target the hemagglutinin genes of H1N1/2009, cH3N2, hH3N2, and H3N8 canine influenza viruses (CIVs). This mRT-PCR assay demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity for the four CIV subtypes. Additionally, mRT-PCR results obtained from 420 clinical samples were consistent with those obtained by the conventional virus isolation method. Our mRT-PCR assay is reliable for clinical diagnosis and rapid identification of CIVs.

  5. Gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Su-Hua; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Tsai, Ming-Hong; Tsai, I.-Shou; Lu, Huang-Chih; Chuang, Pei-Hsin; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2008-10-01

    Virus isolation and antibody detection are routinely used for diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, but the low level of transient viremia in some JE patients makes JEV isolation from clinical and surveillance samples very difficult. We describe the use of gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of JEV from its RNA genome. We tested the effect of gold nanoparticles on four different PCR systems, including conventional PCR, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and SYBR green real-time PCR and RT-PCR assays for diagnosis in the acute phase of JEV infection. Gold nanoparticles increased the amplification yield of the PCR product and shortened the PCR time compared to the conventional reaction. In addition, nanogold-based real-time RT-PCR showed a linear relationship between Ct and template amount using ten-fold dilutions of JEV. The nanogold-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were able to detect low levels (1-10 000 copies) of the JEV RNA genomes extracted from culture medium or whole blood, providing early diagnostic tools for the detection of low-level viremia in the acute-phase infection. The assays described here were simple, sensitive, and rapid approaches for detection and quantitation of JEV in tissue cultured samples as well as clinical samples.

  6. Rapid detection of equine influenza virus H3N8 subtype by insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay using the POCKIT™ Nucleic Acid Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Tiwari, Ashish; Skillman, Ashley; Nam, Bora; Chambers, Thomas M; Tsai, Yun-Long; Ma, Li-Juan; Yang, Pai-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease of equids. Currently, equine influenza virus (EIV) subtype H3N8 continues to be the most important respiratory pathogen of horses in many countries around the world. The need to achieve a rapid diagnosis and to implement effective quarantine and movement restrictions is critical in controlling the spread of EIV. In this study, a novel, inexpensive and user-friendly assay based on an insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) method on the POCKIT™, a field-deployable device, was described and validated for point-of-need detection of EIV-H3N8 in clinical samples. The newly established iiRT-PCR assay targeting the EIV HA3 gene was evaluated for its sensitivity using in vitro transcribed (IVT) RNA, as well as ten-fold serial dilutions of RNA extracted from the prototype H3N8 strain A/equine/Miami/1/63. Inclusivity and exclusivity panels were tested for specificity evaluation. Published real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays targeting the NP and HA3 genes were used as the reference standards for comparison of RNA extracted from field strains and from nasal swab samples collected from experimentally infected horses, respectively. Limit of detection with a 95% probability (LoD95%) was estimated to be 11copies of IVT RNA. Clinical sensitivity analysis using RNA prepared from serial dilutions of a prototype EIV (Miami 1/63/H3N8) showed that the iiRT-PCR assay was about 100-fold more sensitive than the rRT-PCR assay targeting the NP gene of EIV subtype H3N8. The iiRT-PCR assay identified accurately fifteen EIV H3N8 strains and two canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 strains, and did not cross-react with H6N2, H7N7, H1N1 subtypes or any other equine respiratory viral pathogens. Finally, 100% agreement was found between the iiRT-PCR assay and the universal influenza virus type A rRT-PCR assay in detecting the EIV A/equine/Kentucky/7/07 strain in 56 nasal swab samples collected from experimentally inoculated

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF HOMOLOGOUS VIRAL INTERNAL CONTROLS FOR USE IN RT-PCR ASSAYS OF WATERBORNE ENTERIC VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric viruses often contaminate water sources causing frequent outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays are commonly used for detection of human enteric viruses in environmental and drinking water samples. RT-PCR provides ...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF HOMOLOGOUS VIRAL INTERNAL CONTROLS FOR USE IN RT-PCR ASSAYS OF WATERBORNE ENTERIC VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric viruses often contaminate water sources causing frequent outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays are commonly used for detection of human enteric viruses in environmental and drinking water samples. RT-PCR provides ...

  9. Genome-wide mRNA profiling and multiplex quantitative RT-PCR for forensic body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Min; Park, Seong-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kang, Tae-Wook; Park, Jong-Lyul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Jong-Sik; Lee, Han-Chul; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In forensic science, identifying a tissue where a forensic specimen was originated is one of the principal challenges. Messenger RNA (mRNA) profile clearly reveals tissue-specific gene expression patterns that many attempts have been made to use RNA for forensic tissue identification. To systematically investigate the body-fluid-specific expression of mRNAs and find novel mRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification, we performed DNA microarray experiment with 24 Korean body fluid samples. Shannon entropy and Q-values were calculated for each gene, and 137 body-fluid-specific candidate genes were selected. By applying more stringent criteria, we further selected 28 candidate genes and validated them by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. As a result, we suggest a novel combination of four body-fluid-specific mRNA makers: PPBP for blood, FDCSP for saliva, MSMB for semen and MSLN for vaginal secretion. Multiplex qRT-PCR assay was designed using the four mRNA markers and DNA/RNA co-extraction method was tested for forensic use. This study will provide a thorough examination of body-fluid-specifically expressed mRNAs, which will enlarge the possibility of practical use of RNA for forensic purpose.

  10. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) Assays for Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    1 Real - time PCR (RT-PCR) Assays for Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei Vipin K. Rastogi1, Tu-chen Cheng1, Lisa Collins1 and Jennifer Bagley2 1...A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Real - time PCR (RT-PCR) Assays for Burkholderia mallei and B.pseudomallei 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...risk. There is currently no real - time PCR assay for detection of both of these pathogens. Primers and probes corresponding to specific genomic regions

  11. A multiplex RT-PCR approach to detect aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Degola, F; Berni, E; Dall'Asta, C; Spotti, E; Marchelli, R; Ferrero, I; Restivo, F M

    2007-08-01

    To develop a multiplex reverse transciption-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol to discriminate aflatoxin-producing from aflatoxin-nonproducing strains of Aspergillus flavus. The protocol was first optimized on a set of strains obtained from laboratory collections and then validated on A. flavus strains isolated from corn grains collected in the fields of the Po Valley (Italy). Five genes of the aflatoxin gene cluster of A. flavus, two regulatory (aflR and aflS) and three structural (aflD, aflO and aflQ), were targeted with specific primers to highlight their expression in mycelia cultivated under inducing conditions for aflatoxins production. 48-h-old cultures expressed the complete set of the genes analysed here whereas 24-h-old ones did not. Genomic PCR (quadruplex PCR) was also performed in parallel using chromosomal DNA extracted from the same set of strains to correlate the integrity of the genes with their expression. We show that a good correlation exists between gene expression of the aflatoxin genes, here analysed by multipex RT-PCR, and aflatoxin production, except for one strain that apparently transcribed all the relevant genes but did not produce aflatoxin in the medium. This is the first example of the application of a combination of multiplex PCR and RT-PCR approaches to screen a population of A. flavus for the presence of aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic strains. The proposed protocol will be helpful in evaluating the risk posed by A. flavus in natural environments and might also be a useful tool to monitor its presence during the processing steps of food and feed commodities.

  12. Immunocapture-Multiplex RT-PCR for the Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Plant Viruses and Their Strains: Study Case, Potato Virus Y (PVY).

    PubMed

    Chikh-Ali, Mohamad; Karasev, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    Immunocapture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) is a sensitive, reproducible, and robust method for the detection and identification of RNA viruses. The IC step provides a simple method to isolate virus particles from plant tissue, particularly when inhibitory substances are present, and thus enables subsequent use of RT-PCR amplification for large-scale virus testing and typing. The multiplex format of the PCR is often used for the detection and identification of multiple virus/strain simultaneously to save time, labor, and cost. Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important viruses infecting potato worldwide. PVY exists as a complex of at least nine strains and many more unclassified recombinants that vary in their genome structures, phenotypes, and their economic importance. In the current chapter, a detailed protocol of an IC-based, multiplex RT-PCR assay for the detection and identification of various PVY strains is described.

  13. Improved Serotype-Specific Dengue Virus Detection in Trinidad and Tobago using a Multiplex, Real-Time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Sahadeo, Nikita S. D.; Brown, Arianne; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Hadley, Dexter; Carrington, Leslie; Carrington, Christine V. F.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) transmission occurs throughout the Caribbean, though laboratory confirmation and epidemiologic surveillance is limited by the availability of serotype-specific molecular diagnostics. In this study, we show that a serotype-specific DENV multiplex, real-time RT-PCR detected DENV RNA in significantly more samples (82/182) than a reference hemi-nested RT-PCR (57/182; p=0.01). PMID:25533614

  14. Multiplex RT-PCR for Simultaneous Surveillance of Influenza A and B Viruses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Deng, Yi-Mo; Barnes, John R; Sessions, October; Chou, Tsui-Wen; Wilson, Malania; Stark, Thomas J; Volk, Michelle; Spirason, Natalie; Halpin, Rebecca A; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Ding, Tao; Stockwell, Timothy B; Salvatore, Mirella; Ghedin, Elodie; Barr, Ian G; Wentworth, David E

    2017-10-04

    Influenza A and B viruses are the causative agents of annual influenza epidemics that can be severe; influenza A viruses intermittently cause pandemics. Sequence information from influenza genomes is instrumental in determining mechanisms underpinning antigenic evolution and antiviral resistance. However, due to sequence diversity and the dynamics of influenza evolution, rapid and high-throughput sequencing of influenza viruses remains a challenge. We developed a single-reaction FluA/B Multiplex RT-PCR method that amplifies the most critical genomic segments (HA, NA, and M) of seasonal influenza A and B viruses for next-generation sequencing, regardless of viral types, subtypes, or lineages. Herein we demonstrate that the strategy is highly sensitive and robust. The strategy was validated on thousands of seasonal influenza A and B virus positive specimens using multiple next-generation sequencing platforms. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection of viruses commonly causing diarrhea in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Thongprachum, Aksara; Khamrin, Pattara; Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Takanashi, Sayaka; Okitsu, Shoko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Maneekarn, Niwat; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2017-05-01

    Multiplex RT-PCR method using five sets of panel primers was developed for the detection of diarrheal viruses, including rotavirus A, B, and C, adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus GI and GII, sapovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, enterovirus, cosavirus, bocavirus, and Saffold virus. The sensitivity of the method was evaluated and tested with 751 fecal specimens collected from Japanese children with acute diarrhea. Several kinds of viruses were detected in 528 out of 751 (70.3%) fecal specimens. Mixed-infection with different viruses in clinical specimens could also be effectively detected. The method proved to be reliable with highly sensitive and specific and useful for routine diagnosis. J. Med. Virol. 89:818-824, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Multiplex qRT-PCR for the Detection of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viral RNA in Mosquito Pools (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Aaron C.; Fang, Ying; Reisen, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Following the introduction of West Nile virus into California during the summer of 2003, public health and vector control programs expanded surveillance efforts and were in need of diagnostics capable of rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of arbovirus infections of mosquitoes to inform decision support for intervention. Development of a multiplex TaqMan or real-time semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in which three virus specific primer–probe sets were used in the same reaction is described herein for the detection of western equine encephalomyelitis, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viral RNA. Laboratory validation and field data from 10 transmission seasons are reported. The comparative sensitivity and specificity of this multiplex assay to singleplex RT-PCR as well as an antigen detection (rapid analyte measurement platform) and standard plaque assays indicate this assay to be rapid and useful in providing mosquito infection data to estimate outbreak risk. PMID:26334826

  17. Multiplex qRT-PCR for the Detection of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viral RNA in Mosquito Pools (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Brault, Aaron C; Fang, Ying; Reisen, William K

    2015-05-01

    Following the introduction of West Nile virus into California during the summer of 2003, public health and vector control programs expanded surveillance efforts and were in need of diagnostics capable of rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of arbovirus infections of mosquitoes to inform decision support for intervention. Development of a multiplex TaqMan or real-time semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in which three virus specific primer-probe sets were used in the same reaction is described herein for the detection of western equine encephalomyelitis, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viral RNA. Laboratory validation and field data from 10 transmission seasons are reported. The comparative sensitivity and specificity of this multiplex assay to singleplex RT-PCR as well as an antigen detection (rapid analyte measurement platform) and standard plaque assays indicate this assay to be rapid and useful in providing mosquito infection data to estimate outbreak risk.

  18. Facing the problem of "false positives": re-assessment and improvement of a multiplex RT-PCR procedure for the diagnosis of A. flavus mycotoxin producers.

    PubMed

    Degola, F; Berni, E; Spotti, E; Ferrero, I; Restivo, F M

    2009-02-28

    The aim of our research project was to consolidate a multiplex RT-PCR protocol to detect aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. Several independent A. flavus strains were isolated from corn and flour samples from the North of Italy and from three European countries. Aflatoxin producing/not producing phenotype was assessed by qualitative and quantitative assays at day five of growth in aflatoxin inducing conditions. Expression of 16 genes belonging to the aflatoxin cluster was assayed by multiplex or monomeric RT-PCR. There is a good correlation between gene expression and aflatoxin production. Strains that apparently transcribed all the relevant genes but did not release aflatoxin in the medium ("false positives") were re-assessed for mycotoxin production after extended growth in inducing condition. All the "false positive" strains in actual fact were positive when aflatoxin determination was performed after 10 days of growth. These strains should then be re-classified as "slow aflatoxin accumulators". To optimise the diagnostic procedure, a quintuplex RT-PCR procedure was designed consisting of a primer set directed against four informative aflatoxin cluster genes and the beta-tubulin gene as an internal amplification control. In conclusion we have provided evidence for the robustness and reliability of our RT-PCR protocol in discriminating mycotoxin producer from non-producer strains of A. flavus. and the molecular procedure we devised is a promising tool with which to screen and control the endemic population of A. flavus colonising different areas of the World.

  19. Simultaneous detection of Cymbidium mosaic virus and Odontoglossum ringspot virus in orchids using multiplex RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Min; Choi, Sun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A system for simultaneous detection of two orchid-infecting viruses was developed and applied to several orchid species. The detection system involved multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and could simultaneously identify Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) from the orchid species studied. Multiplex RT-PCR was conducted using two virus-specific primer pairs and an internal control pair of primers to amplify the CymMV and ORSV coat protein regions, and orchid 18S rDNA, respectively. For optimization of multiplex RT-PCR conditions, serial dilutions of total RNA and cDNA were performed and the detection limit of the system was evaluated. The optimized multiplex detection system for CymMV and ORSV was applied to various orchid species, including several cultivars of Doritaenopsis, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, and Phalaenopsis to test the efficacy of this method. Our results indicate that the multiplex RT-PCR detection system will be a rapid, simple, and precise diagnosis tool in a range of orchid species.

  20. Universal Single-Probe RT-PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Dengue Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Alm, Erik; Lesko, Birgitta; Lindegren, Gunnel; Ahlm, Clas; Söderholm, Sandra; Falk, Kerstin I.; Lagerqvist, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has become more prevalent in the last few decades. Most patients are viremic when they present with symptoms, and early diagnosis of dengue is important in preventing severe clinical complications associated with this disease and also represents a key factor in differential diagnosis. Here, we designed and validated a hydrolysis-probe-based one-step real-time RT-PCR assay that targets the genomes of dengue virus serotypes 1–4. Methodology/Principal Findings The primers and probe used in our RT-PCR assay were designed to target the 3′ untranslated region of all complete genome sequences of dengue virus available in GenBank (n = 3,305). Performance of the assay was evaluated using in vitro transcribed RNA, laboratory-adapted virus strains, external control panels, and clinical specimens. The linear dynamic range was found to be 104–1011 GCE/mL, and the detection limit was between 6.0×102 and 1.1×103 GCE/mL depending on target sequence. The assay did not cross-react with human RNA, nor did it produce false-positive results for other human pathogenic flaviviruses or clinically important etiological agents of febrile illnesses. We used clinical serum samples obtained from returning travelers with dengue-compatible symptomatology (n = 163) to evaluate the diagnostic relevance of our assay, and laboratory diagnosis performed by the RT-PCR assay had 100% positive agreement with diagnosis performed by NS1 antigen detection. In a retrospective evaluation including 60 archived serum samples collected from confirmed dengue cases 1–9 days after disease onset, the RT-PCR assay detected viral RNA up to 9 days after appearance of symptoms. Conclusions/Significance The validation of the RT-PCR assay presented here indicates that this technique can be a reliable diagnostic tool, and hence we suggest that it be introduced as the method of choice during the first 5 days of dengue symptoms. PMID:25522325

  1. Multiplex RT-PCR and Automated Microarray for Detection of Eight Bovine Viruses.

    PubMed

    Lung, O; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Burton Hughes, K; Pasick, J; King, D P; Hodko, D

    2016-11-23

    Microarrays can be a useful tool for pathogen detection as it allow for simultaneous interrogation of the presence of a large number of genetic sequences in a sample. However, conventional microarrays require extensive manual handling and multiple pieces of equipment for printing probes, hybridization, washing and signal detection. In this study, a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with an accompanying novel automated microarray for simultaneous detection of eight viruses that affect cattle [vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 and type 2, bovine herpesvirus 1, bluetongue virus, malignant catarrhal fever virus, rinderpest virus (RPV) and parapox viruses] is described. The assay accurately identified a panel of 37 strains of the target viruses and identified a mixed infection. No non-specific reactions were observed with a panel of 23 non-target viruses associated with livestock. Vesicular stomatitis virus was detected as early as 2 days post-inoculation in oral swabs from experimentally infected animals. The limit of detection of the microarray assay was as low as 1 TCID50 /ml for RPV. The novel microarray platform automates the entire post-PCR steps of the assay and integrates electrophoretic-driven capture probe printing in a single user-friendly instrument that allows array layout and assay configuration to be user-customized on-site.

  2. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of Cucumber mosaic virus subgroups and Tobamoviruses infecting Tomato using 18S rRNA as an internal control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoning; Gu, Hao; Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Weimin

    2011-06-01

    A multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol was developed for simultaneous detection and discrimination of subgroups of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), including its satellite RNA, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), using 18S rRNA as an internal control. Species- and subgroups-specific primers designed to differentiate CMV subgroups I and II, ToMV and TMV, were assessed using the cDNA clones of viral genomes, CMV satellite RNA and 18S rRNA gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) or tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum). Using total RNA extracted from artificial mixture of tomato leaf tissues infected by each virus, the reaction components and cycling parameters were optimized and a multiplex RT-PCR procedure was established. Six fragments of 704, 593, 512, 421, 385, 255 bp, specific to CMV subgroup II, CMV subgroup I, ToMV, TMV, satellite RNA and 18S rRNA, respectively, were simultaneously amplified. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR method for detecting CMV was 100 times higher than that of double-antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). This method was successfully used for field detection. Among 141 samples collected from East China through tomato growth seasons, 106 single infections with one of the above isolates were detected and 13 mixed infections were found. The results showed the potential use of this method for investigating the epidemiology of viral diseases infecting tomato.

  3. Real-time multiplex RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection of the five main grapevine viruses.

    PubMed

    López-Fabuel, Irene; Wetzel, Thierry; Bertolini, Edson; Bassler, Alexandra; Vidal, Eduardo; Torres, Luis B; Yuste, Alberto; Olmos, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    A real-time multiplex RT-PCR has been developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of the major RNA viruses that infect grapevines (Grapevine fanleaf virus, Arabis mosaic virus, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and Grapevine fleck virus). Serial dilutions of infected plant extracts were tested using the new method, and the results were compared with those obtained using a commercially available ELISA and real-time singleplex RT-PCR. The two real-time RT-PCR versions detected up to the same level of dilution and were at least 10,000 times more sensitive than the ELISA. In addition, 158 grapevine plants collected in a survey of the Protected Designation of Origin in Alicante, Spain were compared using the three methods. The results of the molecular methods were very similar, with only four discordant results, and both were able to detect many more infected plants than the ELISA. The high prevalence of Grapevine fleck virus, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and Grapevine fanleaf virus suggests that the main pathways of viral introduction are infected plant material that has escaped controls and/or uncontrolled traffic of propagating plant material. Real-time multiplex RT-PCR could be used to facilitate a better control of grapevine viruses.

  4. A novel real-time RT-PCR assay for influenza C tested in Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    Howard, Leigh M; Johnson, Monika; Gil, Ana I; Pekosz, Andrew; Griffin, Marie R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Lanata, Claudio F; Grijalva, Carlos G; Williams, John V

    2017-09-01

    Influenza C virus (ICV) is associated with acute respiratory illness. Yet ICV remains under recognized, with most previous studies using only culture to identify cases. To develop a sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR assay for ICV that allows for rapid and accurate detection in a clinical or research setting. Multiple ICV sequences obtained from GenBank were analyzed, including 141 hemagglutinin-esterase (HE), 106 matrix (M), and 97 nucleoprotein (NP) sequences. Primers and probes were designed based on conserved regions. Multiple primer-probe sets were tested against multiple ICV strains. The ICV M and NP genes offered the most conserved sequence regions. Primers and probes based on newer sequence data offered enhanced detection of ICV, especially for low titer specimens. An NP-targeted assay yielded the best performance and was capable of detecting 10-100 RNA copies per reaction. The NP assay detected multiple clinical isolates of ICV collected in a field epidemiology study conducted in Peru. We report a new real-time RT-PCR assay for ICV with high sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus 1 and Chlamydia psittaci mucosal swabs by multiplex RT-PCR/PCR.

    PubMed

    Sykes, J E; Allen, J L; Studdert, V P; Browning, G F

    2001-07-26

    A single tube, multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/PCR assay was developed for detection of feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV1), Chlamydia psittaci and feline calicivirus (FCV) in cats with upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), incorporating a simple, rapid extraction procedure capable of extracting both DNA and RNA. The assay was found to be as sensitive in vitro as simplex assays that have previously been shown to be as sensitive as, or more sensitive than, culture for each pathogen in experimentally infected cats. Conjunctival alone or both conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from cats in 104 households with URTD. FHV1 was detected in 18 (17.3%) and C. psittaci was detected in 12 (11.5%) households. The prevalence of C. psittaci was not significantly different to that determined using a duplex PCR assay for C. psittaci and FHV1. The prevalence of FCV was affected by sample storage temperature. Of samples stored at -70 degrees C, 0/31 were positive for FCV but FCV was detected in 10/73 (13.7%) samples stored at 4 degrees C (P=0.006). Of the samples stored at 4 degrees C, 3/19 (15.8%) conjunctival swabs were positive for FCV and 6/32 (18.8%) oropharyngeal/conjunctival swabs were positive for FCV (P=0.79). The potential utility of restriction endonuclease analysis of RT-PCR products resulting from amplification of the hypervariable region of the capsid protein gene of FCV in field samples, without prior cultivation, was also examined. The assay may have considerable importance for diagnosis and epidemiological surveys of feline upper respiratory tract pathogens.

  6. Development of a Rapid Automated Influenza A, Influenza B, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus A/B Multiplex Real-Time RT-PCR Assay and Its Use during the 2009 H1N1 Swine-Origin Influenza Virus Epidemic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Eric T.; Jurgens, Lisa A.; Kehl, Sue C.; Bose, Michael E.; Patitucci, Teresa; LaGue, Elizabeth; Darga, Patrick; Wilkinson, Kimberly; Witt, Lorraine M.; Fan, Jiang; He, Jie; Kumar, Swati; Henrickson, Kelly J.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid, semiautomated, and fully automated multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays were developed and validated for the detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from nasopharyngeal specimens. The assays can detect human H1N1, H3N2, and swine-origin (S-OIV) H1N1 Flu A viruses and were effectively used to distinguish Flu A infections (of all subtypes) from Flu B and RSV infections during the current S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI. The analytical limits of detection were 10−2 to 101 TCID50/ml depending on the platform and analyte and showed only one minor cross-reaction among 23 common respiratory pathogens (intermittent cross-reaction to adenovirus at >107 TCID50/ml). A total of 100 clinical samples were tested by tissue culture, both automated assays, and the US Food and Drug Administration-approved ProFlu+ assay. Both the semiautomated and fully automated assays exhibited greater overall (Flu A, Flu B, and RSV combined) clinical sensitivities (93 and 96%, respectively) and individual Flu A sensitivities (100%) than the Food and Drug Administration-approved test (89% overall sensitivity and 93% Flu A sensitivity). All assays were 99% specific. During the S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI, the fully automated assay was used to test 1232 samples in 2 weeks. Flu A was detected in 134 clinical samples (126 H1N1 S-OIV, 5 H1N1 [human], and 1 untyped) with 100% positive agreement compared with other “in-house” validated molecular assays, with only 2 false-positive results. Such accurate testing using automated high-throughput molecule systems should allow clinicians and public health officials to react quickly and effectively during viral outbreaks. PMID:19959800

  7. Development of a rapid automated influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus A/B multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay and its use during the 2009 H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus epidemic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Beck, Eric T; Jurgens, Lisa A; Kehl, Sue C; Bose, Michael E; Patitucci, Teresa; LaGue, Elizabeth; Darga, Patrick; Wilkinson, Kimberly; Witt, Lorraine M; Fan, Jiang; He, Jie; Kumar, Swati; Henrickson, Kelly J

    2010-01-01

    Rapid, semiautomated, and fully automated multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays were developed and validated for the detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from nasopharyngeal specimens. The assays can detect human H1N1, H3N2, and swine-origin (S-OIV) H1N1 Flu A viruses and were effectively used to distinguish Flu A infections (of all subtypes) from Flu B and RSV infections during the current S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI. The analytical limits of detection were 10(-2) to 10(1) TCID(50)/ml depending on the platform and analyte and showed only one minor cross-reaction among 23 common respiratory pathogens (intermittent cross-reaction to adenovirus at >10(7) TCID(50)/ml). A total of 100 clinical samples were tested by tissue culture, both automated assays, and the US Food and Drug Administration-approved ProFlu+ assay. Both the semiautomated and fully automated assays exhibited greater overall (Flu A, Flu B, and RSV combined) clinical sensitivities (93 and 96%, respectively) and individual Flu A sensitivities (100%) than the Food and Drug Administration-approved test (89% overall sensitivity and 93% Flu A sensitivity). All assays were 99% specific. During the S-OIV outbreak in Milwaukee, WI, the fully automated assay was used to test 1232 samples in 2 weeks. Flu A was detected in 134 clinical samples (126 H1N1 S-OIV, 5 H1N1 [human], and 1 untyped) with 100% positive agreement compared with other "in-house" validated molecular assays, with only 2 false-positive results. Such accurate testing using automated high-throughput molecule systems should allow clinicians and public health officials to react quickly and effectively during viral outbreaks.

  8. RT-PCR and cell culture infectivity assay to detect enteroviruses during drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Ali, M A; El-Esnawy, N A; Shoaeb, A R; Ibraheim, M; El-Hawaary, S E

    1999-01-01

    In this study, 62 water samples were collected from two water treatment plants (WTPs) in Suez Canal cities (Port Said and Ismaillia) and one plant in Cairo (Giza WTP) in addition to the beginning of the two Nile river branches (Rosetta and Damietta). Viruses were concentrated by adsorption-elution ethod sing 142 mm-diameter nitrocellulose membrane of 0.45 microm pore size and eluted with 3% beef extract at pH 9.5. The concentrated samples were inoculated for 3 successive passages in three cell culture types (Vero, BGM and RD). Enterovirus RNAs in CPE-induced samples were extracted by guanidinium thiocyanate/ phenol/chloroform and heat shock methods and detected by RT-PCR and neutralization test. The results showed that eight samples [14.5% (8/62)] contained enteroviruses most of them were polioviruses [87.5% (7/8)] and coxsackievirus type B2 [12.5% (1/8)]. The three cell cultures were of the same sensitivity to detect the isolated viruses. Also, RT-PCR followed by neutralization assay facilitates and accelerate the results. The guanidinium thiocyanate extraction method was more sensitive than heat shock method. The results turned our attention to review our technology of water treatment and disinfection step in addition to the selection of suitable intake for the drinking water treatment plants.

  9. Development of a SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of avian encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingtian; Yang, Zengqi; Hao, Huafang; Cheng, Shenli; Fan, Wentao; Du, Enqi; Xiao, Sa; Wang, Xinglong; Zhang, Shuxia

    2014-09-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) causes epidemic diseases in poultry worldwide. A SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay was developed for the rapid detection and quantitation of AEV in this study. A pair of specific primers was designed in the highly conserved VP1 gene of this virus. When comparing this assay with conventional RT-PCR, the rRT-PCR assay was 100 times more sensitive and could detect levels as low as 10 standard DNA copies of the AEV SX strain. The specificity of this technique was evaluated in five other avian pathogens. The AEV RNA was detected as early as three days post-infection in chicken embryos. All 18 clinical chicken brains collected from an AEV outbreak in Northwestern China were detected to be positive (100%) using the rRT-PCR assay. However, only 5 of the 18 samples were positive (28%) using the conventional RT-PCR. The results were confirmed by virus isolation in chicken embryos. This high sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity of the SYBR Green rRT-PCR approach can be a more effective method than the conventional one for AEV diagnosis and surveillance.

  10. A multiplex RT-PCR for simultaneous detection and identification of five viruses and two viroids infecting chrysanthemum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiting; Liu, Xingliang; Ge, Beibei; Li, Mingjun; Hong, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Pathogens causing significant economic losses in chrysanthemum include tomato aspermy virus (TAV), chrysanthemum virus B (CVB), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), potato virus Y (PVY), chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) and chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd). A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method, using specific primer sets for each virus or viroid, was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of TAV, CVB, CMV, TMV, PVY, CChMVd, and CSVd. The RT-PCR method was validated by testing chrysanthemum samples collected from different regions of China. In this study, CVB, TAV, TMV, PVY, CSVd, CMV, and CChMVd were detected, respectively, in 24.7 %, 17.5 %, 4.4 %, 4.4 %, 2.9 %, 2.5 %, and 1.5 % of the samples tested. These results indicate that CVB and TAV (24.7 % and 17.5 %) are common, whereas CMV, TMV, CChMVd, CSVd, and PVY (all below 5 %) are less frequently encountered. This new multiplex RT-PCR method has potential to be used routinely in large-scale virus and viroid surveys.

  11. Simultaneous detection and identification of four cherry viruses by two step multiplex RT-PCR with an internal control of plant nad5 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Noorani, Md Salik; Awasthi, Prachi; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad; Ram, Raja; Zaidi, Aijaz Asgar; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) was developed and standardized for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses: Cherry virus A (CVA, Genus; Capillovirus), Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, unassigned species of the Betaflexiviridae), Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1, Genus; Closterovirus) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Genus; Ilarvirus) with nad5 as plant internal control. A reliable and quick method for total plant RNA extraction from pome and stone fruit trees was also developed. To minimize primer dimer formation, a single antisense primer for CVA and CNRMV was used. A mixture of random hexamer and oligo (dT) primer was used for cDNA synthesis, which was highly suited and economic for multiplexing. All four viruses were detected successfully by mRT-PCR in artificially created viral RNA mixture and field samples of sweet cherry. The identity of the viruses was confirmed by sequencing. The assay could detect above viruses in diluted cDNA (10(-4)) and RNA (10(-3), except PNRSV which was detected only till ten times lesser dilution). The developed mRT-PCR will not only be useful for the detection of viruses from single or multiple infections of sweet cherry plants but also for other stone and pome fruits. The developed method will be therefore quite helpful for virus indexing, plant quarantine and certification programs. This is the first report for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses by mRT-PCR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison and evaluation of conventional RT-PCR, SYBR green I and TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinrong; Zhang, Tiansheng; Song, Deping; Huang, Tao; Peng, Qi; Chen, Yanjun; Li, Anqi; Zhang, Fanfan; Wu, Qiong; Ye, Yu; Tang, Yuxin

    2017-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious intestinal disease, resulting in substantial economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, three assays, namely a conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR and a TaqMan real-time RT-PCR targeting the highly conserved M gene of PEDV, were developed and evaluated. Then, the analytical specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility of these assays were determined and compared. The TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was 100-fold and 10,000-fold more sensitive than that of the SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR and the conventional RT-PCR, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was 10 copies/μl of target gene and no cross amplification with other viruses tested was observed. With the features of high specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility, the TaqMan real-time RT-PCR established in this study could be a useful tool for clinical diagnosis, epidemiological surveys and outbreak investigations of PED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of real-time RT-PCR assays for detection and quantification of norovirus genogroups I and II.

    PubMed

    Rupprom, Kitwadee; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Diraphat, Pornphan; Kittigul, Leera

    2017-02-20

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) is a promising molecular method for the detection of noroviruses. In this study, the performance of three TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays was assessed, which were one commercially available real-time RT-PCR kit (assay A: Norovirus Real Time RT-PCR kit) and two in-house real-time RT-PCR assays (assay B: LightCycler RNA Master Hybprobe and assay C: RealTime ready RNA Virus Master). Assays A and B showed higher sensitivity than assay C for norovirus GI, while they all had the same sensitivity (10(3) DNA copies/mL) for GII DNA standard controls. Assay B had the highest efficiency for both genogroups. No cross-reactivity was observed among GI and GII noroviruses, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus, and poliovirus. The detection rates of these assays in GI and GII norovirus-positive fecal samples were not significantly different. However, the mean quantification cycle (Cq) value of assay B for GII was lower than assays A and C with statistical significance (P-value, 0.000). All three real-time RT-PCR assays could detect a variety of noroviruses including GI.2, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.12, GII.17, and GII.21. This study suggests assay B as a suitable assay for the detection and quantification of noroviruses GI and GII due to good analytical sensitivity and higher performance to amplify norovirus on DNA standard controls and clinical samples.

  14. Real Time RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Typing of African Horse Sickness Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Maan, Sushila; Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Manning, Nicola M.; Maan, Narender Singh; Potgieter, Abraham C.; Di Nardo, Antonello; Sutton, Geoff; Batten, Carrie; Mertens, Peter P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Although African horse sickness (AHS) can cause up to 95% mortality in horses, naïve animals can be protected by vaccination against the homologous AHSV serotype. Genome segment 2 (Seg-2) encodes outer capsid protein VP2, the most variable of the AHSV proteins. VP2 is also a primary target for AHSV specific neutralising antibodies, and consequently determines the identity of the nine AHSV serotypes. In contrast VP1 (the viral polymerase) and VP3 (the sub-core shell protein), encoded by Seg-1 and Seg-3 respectively, are highly conserved, representing virus species/orbivirus-serogroup-specific antigens. We report development and evaluation of real-time RT-PCR assays targeting AHSV Seg-1 or Seg-3, that can detect any AHSV type (virus species/serogroup-specific assays), as well as type-specific assays targeting Seg-2 of the nine AHSV serotypes. These assays were evaluated using isolates of different AHSV serotypes and other closely related orbiviruses, from the ‘Orbivirus Reference Collection’ (ORC) at The Pirbright Institute. The assays were shown to be AHSV virus-species-specific, or type-specific (as designed) and can be used for rapid, sensitive and reliable detection and identification (typing) of AHSV RNA in infected blood, tissue samples, homogenised Culicoides, or tissue culture supernatant. None of the assays amplified cDNAs from closely related heterologous orbiviruses, or from uninfected host animals or cell cultures. PMID:24721971

  15. Single-step multiplex RT-PCR for simultaneous and colourimetric detection of six RNA viruses in olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, E; Olmos, A; Martínez, M C; Gorris, M T; Cambra, M

    2001-07-01

    A single-step multiplex RT-PCR was developed for the simultaneous and colourimetric detection of six RNA viruses (Cucumber mosaic virus, Cherry leaf roll virus, strawberry latent ringspot virus, Arabis mosaic virus, Olive latent-1 virus and Olive latent-2 virus) which infect olive trees. Six compatible primer set for one-step RT-PCR amplification in a single closed-tube and 3' digoxigenin labelled probes were designed in optimal, specific and conserved regions. The method has been assessed with 195 Spanish field olive trees, suggesting that approximately 1.5% of the tested material was infected by Cucumber mosaic virus and 0.5% by Cherry leaf roll virus. This method saves time and reagent costs compared with monospecific RT-PCR which needs several reactions for the same number of tests. Using colourimetric detection, it is possible to analyse many samples, it increases sensitivity 10-fold, and whilst facilitating the interpretation of results, it avoids the use of gels and the toxic ethidium bromide. The method could be used routinely for sanitary and certification programmes.

  16. A Pan-Lyssavirus Taqman Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Highly Variable Rabies virus and Other Lyssaviruses.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Wilkins, Kimberly; Gao, Jinxin; Condori Condori, Rene Edgar; Gigante, Crystal M; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Xiaoyue; Ellison, James A; Greenberg, Lauren; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Orciari, Lillian; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses. In this study, we demonstrate the validation of a newly developed multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay named LN34, which uses a combination of degenerate primers and probes along with probe modifications to achieve superior coverage of the Lyssavirus genus while maintaining sensitivity and specificity. The primers and probes of the LN34 assay target the highly conserved non-coding leader region and part of the nucleoprotein (N) coding sequence of the Lyssavirus genome to maintain assay robustness. The probes were further modified by locked nucleotides to increase their melting temperature to meet the requirements for an optimal real-time RT-PCR assay. The LN34 assay was able to detect all RABV variants and other lyssaviruses in a validation panel that included representative RABV isolates from most regions of the world as well as representatives of 13 additional Lyssavirus species. The LN34 assay was successfully used for both ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnosis of over 200 clinical samples as well as field derived surveillance samples. This assay represents a major improvement over previously published rabies specific RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays because of its ability to universally detect RABV and other lyssaviruses, its high

  17. A Pan-Lyssavirus Taqman Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Highly Variable Rabies virus and Other Lyssaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Wilkins, Kimberly; Gao, Jinxin; Condori Condori, Rene Edgar; Gigante, Crystal M.; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Xiaoyue; Ellison, James A.; Greenberg, Lauren; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Orciari, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses. In this study, we demonstrate the validation of a newly developed multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay named LN34, which uses a combination of degenerate primers and probes along with probe modifications to achieve superior coverage of the Lyssavirus genus while maintaining sensitivity and specificity. The primers and probes of the LN34 assay target the highly conserved non-coding leader region and part of the nucleoprotein (N) coding sequence of the Lyssavirus genome to maintain assay robustness. The probes were further modified by locked nucleotides to increase their melting temperature to meet the requirements for an optimal real-time RT-PCR assay. The LN34 assay was able to detect all RABV variants and other lyssaviruses in a validation panel that included representative RABV isolates from most regions of the world as well as representatives of 13 additional Lyssavirus species. The LN34 assay was successfully used for both ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnosis of over 200 clinical samples as well as field derived surveillance samples. This assay represents a major improvement over previously published rabies specific RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays because of its ability to universally detect RABV and other lyssaviruses, its high

  18. Development of Multiplex RT-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Garlic Viruses and the Incidence of Garlic Viral Disease in Garlic Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Moon; Lee, Yeong-Hoon; Park, Chung Youl; Lee, Min-A; Bae, Yang-Soo; Lim, Seungmo; Lee, Joong Hwan; Moon, Jae Sun; Lee, Su-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Garlic generally becomes coinfected with several types of viruses belonging to the Potyvirus, Carlavirus, and Allexivirus genera. These viruses produce characteristically similar symptoms, they cannot be easily identified by electron microscopy (EM) or immunological detection methods, and they are currently widespread around the world, thereby affecting crop yields and crop quality adversely. For the early and reliable detection of garlic viruses, virus-specific sets of primers, including species-specific and genus-specific primers were designed. To effectively detect the twelve different types of garlic viruses, primer mixtures were tested and divided into two independent sets for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The multiplex PCR assays were able to detect specific targets up to the similar dilution series with monoplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Seventy-two field samples collected by the Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR. All seventy two samples were infected with at least one virus, and the coinfection rate was 78%. We conclude that the simultaneous detection system developed in this study can effectively detect and differentiate mixed viral infections in garlic. PMID:25774116

  19. A qRT-PCR assay for the expression of all Mal d 1 isoallergen genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A considerable number of individuals suffer from oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to apple, resulting in the avoidance of apple consumption. Apple cultivars differ greatly in their allergenic properties, but knowledge of the causes for such differences is incomplete. Mal d 1 is considered the major apple allergen. For Mal d 1, a wide range of isoallergens and variants exist, and they are encoded by a large gene family. To identify the specific proteins/genes that are potentially involved in the allergy, we developed a PCR assay to monitor the expression of each individual Mal d 1 gene. Gene-specific primer pairs were designed for the exploitation of sequence differences among Mal d 1 genes. The specificity of these primers was validated using both in silico and in vitro techniques. Subsequently, this assay was applied to the peel and flesh of fruits from the two cultivars ‘Florina’ and ‘Gala’. Results We successfully developed gene-specific primer pairs for each of the 31 Mal d 1 genes and incorporated them into a qRT-PCR assay. The results from the application of the assay showed that 11 genes were not expressed in fruit. In addition, differential expression was observed among the Mal d 1 genes that were expressed in the fruit. Moreover, the expression levels were tissue and cultivar dependent. Conclusion The assay developed in this study facilitated the first characterisation of the expression levels of all known Mal d 1 genes in a gene-specific manner. Using this assay on different fruit tissues and cultivars, we obtained knowledge concerning gene relevance in allergenicity. This study provides new perspectives for research on both plant breeding and immunotherapy. PMID:23522122

  20. Analytical and clinical performance of the CDC real time RT-PCR assay for detection and typing of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Gilberto A; Vergne, Edgardo; Quiles, Yashira; Cosme, Joan; Vazquez, Jesus; Medina, Juan F; Medina, Freddy; Colón, Candimar; Margolis, Harold; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is an acute illness caused by the positive-strand RNA dengue virus (DENV). There are four genetically distinct DENVs (DENV-1-4) that cause disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Most patients are viremic when they present with symptoms; therefore, RT-PCR has been increasingly used in dengue diagnosis. The CDC DENV-1-4 RT-PCR Assay has been developed as an in-vitro diagnostic platform and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for detection of dengue in patients with signs or symptoms of mild or severe dengue. The primers and probes of this test have been designed to detect currently circulating strains of DENV-1-4 from around the world at comparable sensitivity. In a retrospective study with 102 dengue cases confirmed by IgM anti-DENV seroconversion in the convalescent sample, the RT-PCR Assay detected DENV RNA in 98.04% of the paired acute samples. Using sequencing as a positive indicator, the RT-PCR Assay had a 97.92% positive agreement in 86 suspected dengue patients with a single acute serum sample. After extensive validations, the RT-PCR Assay performance was highly reproducible when evaluated across three independent testing sites, did not produce false positive results for etiologic agents of other febrile illnesses, and was not affected by pathological levels of potentially interfering biomolecules. These results indicate that the CDC DENV-1-4 RT-PCR Assay provides a reliable diagnostic platform capable for confirming dengue in suspected cases.

  1. Analytical and Clinical Performance of the CDC Real Time RT-PCR Assay for Detection and Typing of Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Gilberto A.; Vergne, Edgardo; Quiles, Yashira; Cosme, Joan; Vazquez, Jesus; Medina, Juan F.; Medina, Freddy; Colón, Candimar; Margolis, Harold; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is an acute illness caused by the positive-strand RNA dengue virus (DENV). There are four genetically distinct DENVs (DENV-1–4) that cause disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Most patients are viremic when they present with symptoms; therefore, RT-PCR has been increasingly used in dengue diagnosis. The CDC DENV-1–4 RT-PCR Assay has been developed as an in-vitro diagnostic platform and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for detection of dengue in patients with signs or symptoms of mild or severe dengue. The primers and probes of this test have been designed to detect currently circulating strains of DENV-1–4 from around the world at comparable sensitivity. In a retrospective study with 102 dengue cases confirmed by IgM anti-DENV seroconversion in the convalescent sample, the RT-PCR Assay detected DENV RNA in 98.04% of the paired acute samples. Using sequencing as a positive indicator, the RT-PCR Assay had a 97.92% positive agreement in 86 suspected dengue patients with a single acute serum sample. After extensive validations, the RT-PCR Assay performance was highly reproducible when evaluated across three independent testing sites, did not produce false positive results for etiologic agents of other febrile illnesses, and was not affected by pathological levels of potentially interfering biomolecules. These results indicate that the CDC DENV-1–4 RT-PCR Assay provides a reliable diagnostic platform capable for confirming dengue in suspected cases. PMID:23875046

  2. Comparison of the immunofluorescence assay with RT-PCR and nested PCR in the diagnosis of canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Jóźwik, A; Frymus, T

    2005-05-01

    Two pairs of primers were prepared, both localized within the sequences of the nucleoprotein gene (NP) of canine distemper virus (CDV). A number of experiments were done to optimize the conditions of RT-PCR and nested PCR methods. The nucleic acids of the Onderstepoort, Rockborn, Snyder Hill and Lederle strains of CDV could be detected with these primers. However, they did not react with the sequences of the Edmonston strain of the measles virus. The detection limit for RT-PCR was 10 TCID50 and for nested PCR 0.1 TCID50 of CDV. The RT-PCR was able to demonstrate the nucleic acid of CDV in the blood of all seven puppies vaccinated with a modified live virus. Blood samples of 23 dogs clinically suspected of distemper were examined by RT-PCR combined with nested PCR, and the results were compared with the detection of the CDV antigen in the smears from the mucous membranes by the direct immunofluorescence (IF) test. Of the 23 dogs, 12 were positive in nested PCR, six in the IF assay, and only two in single RT-PCR. It is concluded that nested PCR seems to be the most sensitive method for ante-mortem diagnosis of canine distemper, especially in its subacute or chronic forms.

  3. Duplex Real-Time RT-PCR Assays for the Detection and Typing of Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Viarouge, Cyril; Breard, Emmanuel; Zientara, Stephan; Vitour, Damien; Sailleau, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) may cause severe clinical episodes in some species of deer and sometimes in cattle. Laboratory diagnosis provides a basis for the design and timely implementation of disease control measures. There are seven distinct EHDV serotypes, VP2 coding segment 2 being the target for serotype specificity. This paper reports the development and validation of eight duplex real-time RT-PCR assays to simultaneously amplify the EHDV target (S9 for the pan-EHDV real-time RT-PCR assay and S2 for the serotyping assays) and endogenous control gene Beta-actin. Analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, inter- and intra-assay variation and efficiency were evaluated for each assay. All were shown to be highly specific and sensitive. PMID:26161784

  4. Real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and differentiation of Citrus tristeza virus isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For universal detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains by real time RT-PCR, a protocol was developed based on a set of primers and a Cy5-labeled TaqMan probe. This test included primers and a TET-labeled TaqMan probe selected on the mitochondrial nad5 gene for the simultaneous detection of ...

  5. Development of reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays for rapid detection and quantification of viable yeasts and molds contaminating yogurts and pasteurized food products.

    PubMed

    Bleve, Gianluca; Rizzotti, Lucia; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR assays have been used to detect and quantify actin mRNA from yeasts and molds. Universal primers were designed based on the available fungal actin sequences, and by RT-PCR they amplified a specific 353-bp fragment from fungal species involved in food spoilage. From experiments on heat-treated cells, actin mRNA was a good indicator of cell viability: viable cells and cells in a nonculturable state were detected, while no signal was observed from dead cells. The optimized RT-PCR assay was able to detect 10 CFU of fungi ml(-1) in pure culture and 10(3) and 10(2) CFU ml(-1) in artificially contaminated yogurts and pasteurized fruit-derived products, respectively. Real-time RT-PCR, performed on a range of spoiled commercial food products, validated the suitability of actin mRNA detection for the quantification of naturally contaminating fungi. The specificity and sensitivity of the procedure, combined with its speed, its reliability, and the potential automation of the technique, offer several advantages to routine analysis programs that assess the presence and viability of fungi in food commodities.

  6. Development of Reverse Transcription (RT)-PCR and Real-Time RT-PCR Assays for Rapid Detection and Quantification of Viable Yeasts and Molds Contaminating Yogurts and Pasteurized Food Products

    PubMed Central

    Bleve, Gianluca; Rizzotti, Lucia; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR assays have been used to detect and quantify actin mRNA from yeasts and molds. Universal primers were designed based on the available fungal actin sequences, and by RT-PCR they amplified a specific 353-bp fragment from fungal species involved in food spoilage. From experiments on heat-treated cells, actin mRNA was a good indicator of cell viability: viable cells and cells in a nonculturable state were detected, while no signal was observed from dead cells. The optimized RT-PCR assay was able to detect 10 CFU of fungi ml−1 in pure culture and 103 and 102 CFU ml−1 in artificially contaminated yogurts and pasteurized fruit-derived products, respectively. Real-time RT-PCR, performed on a range of spoiled commercial food products, validated the suitability of actin mRNA detection for the quantification of naturally contaminating fungi. The specificity and sensitivity of the procedure, combined with its speed, its reliability, and the potential automation of the technique, offer several advantages to routine analysis programs that assess the presence and viability of fungi in food commodities. PMID:12839789

  7. Real-time RT-PCR assays for the rapid and differential detection of dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses.

    PubMed

    Grant, Rebecca J; Banyard, Ashley C; Barrett, Tom; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Romero, Carlos H

    2009-03-01

    Real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assays for identifying and differentiating infections caused by dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV) were developed by targeting the hypervariable C-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Total DMV and PMV RNA extracted from infected Vero cells expressing the canine signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM) produced positive cycle threshold (C(T)) values after the 17th and 25th cycles, respectively. The assays were then validated using infected cetacean tissue RNA. The assays were specific for either DMV or PMV and did not cross-react with canine distemper virus (CDV), phocid distemper virus (PDV), rinderpest virus (RPV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and measles virus (MV). The glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene was targeted as control for RNA quality, and a consensus GAPDH probe that reacted with 11 different marine mammal species, generating positive C(T) values ranging from the 21st to the 37th cycle was used. The rtRT-PCR assays have advantages over conventional assays in that they are rapid, easier to scale up, and are less prone to cross-contamination and have improved the limit of detection and specificity.

  8. [Development and comparison of real-time and conventional RT-PCR assay for detection of human coronavirus NL63 and HKU1].

    PubMed

    Lu, Rou-jian; Zhang, Ling-lin; Tan, Wen-jie; Zhou, Wei-min; Wang, Zhong; Peng, Kun; Ruan, Li

    2008-07-01

    We designed specific primers and fluorescence-labeled probes to develop real-time and conventional RT-PCR assays for detection of human coronavirus NL63 or HKU1. Subsequently, experiments were undertaken to assess diagnostic criteria such as specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility. The detection limit of the real-time RT-PCR assays was 10 RNA copies per reaction mixture. No cross-reactivity was observed between RNA samples derived from designed HCoV and other HCoV or human metapneumovirus. A total of 158 nasopharyngeal swab specimens collected from adult patients with acute respiratory tract infection in Beijing were screened for the presence of human coronavirus NL63 and HKU1 by using real-time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR method. The fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR method detected six specimens positive for human coronavirus NL63, five specimens positive for human coronavirus HKU1; and conventional RT-PCR method detected three HCoV-NL63 positive and three HCoV-HKU1 positive, respectively. The convention RT-PCR products of positive samples were obtained and sequence analysis confirmed the reliability of the above methods. In summary, the real-time RT-PCR assay for HCoV- NL63 or HKU1 was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and with less time (less than 4 hours) for completion. It may be suitable for molecular epidemiological surveillance and clinical diagnosis for human coronavirus NL63 and HKU1.

  9. Sequence Optimized Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-21

    characterization of highly pathogenic viruses : application during Crimean-Congo 313 haemorrhagic fever virus outbreaks in Eastern Europe and the Middle East...1 Sequence optimized real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever 1 virus 2 3 JW Koehler1, KL Delp1, AT Hall1, SP...Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter 9 Street, Fort Detrick, MD, 21702 USA 10 11 12 Abstract 13 14 Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

  10. Comparison of MTT assay, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR in the evaluation of cytotoxicity of five prosthodontic materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Xia, Yang; Liu, Laikui; Liu, Mei; Gu, Ning; Guang, Hanbing; Zhang, Feimin

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of five prosthodontic materials on the L929 cell line were assessed by flow cytometry (FCM), reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoli-umbromide) assay. The cells were treated with eluates resin (RE), pressable ceramics (PC), Co-Cr alloy-porcelain (CC), Ni-Cr alloy-porcelain (NC), and diatomite ceramics (DC). The cytotoxicity of all the materials tested by the MTT assay was grade 1. By FCM analysis, apoptosis rates of DC and PC were low, with no significant difference from the control (p > 0.05). The rest of the groups induced much higher apoptosis rates (p < 0.05), with the highest in the RE group. The necrotic cell levels of RE was also significantly increased (p < 0.05). Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA expression were determined by RT-PCR, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the DC and PC groups were not significantly different from the control (p > 0.05), whereas CC, NC, and RE groups showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Taken together, the results suggest that FCM and RT-PCR analyses can supplement the traditional MTT assay in evaluating the cytotoxicity of prosthodontic materials for selecting highly biocompatible materials. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Use of chimeric influenza viruses as a novel internal control for diagnostic rRT-PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueliang; Liu, Fen; Jiang, Lingli; Bao, Yun; Xiao, Yanqun; Wang, Hualiang

    2016-02-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is now widely used to detect viral pathogens in various human specimens. The application of internal controls to validate the entire process of these assays is necessary to prevent false-negative results caused by unexpected inhibition or inefficient extraction. In the present study, we describe a strategy to produce a stable internal control for rRT-PCR by packaging foreign RNA into influenza virions using plasmid-based reverse genetics technology. The envelope structure of influenza virus can effectively protect RNA segments from RNase digestion, which provides an advantage for its routine use as an internal control. Utilizing this approach, we successfully generated a recombinant influenza virus (rPR8-HCV) containing the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome. After inactivation and purification, the rPR8-HCV particles were demonstrated to be RNase resistant and stable at 4 °C for at least 252 days in human plasma, with no degradation even after being frozen and thawed multiple times. These results were reproducible in the COBAS TaqMan HCV test for 164 days. Moreover, the chimeric influenza virus particles could be easily produced in embryonated eggs and were noninfectious after inactivation treatment. Additionally, this strategy could also be adapted for real-time clinical applications of other RNA targets, providing a universal approach with broad clinical applications in rRT-PCR assays.

  12. [Rapid detection of novel avian influenza virus subtype H7N9 by multiplex real-time RT-PCR].

    PubMed

    Luo, Bao-Zheng; Mo, Qiu-Hua; Li, Ru-Shu; Bo, Qing-Ru; Xu, Hai-Nie; Sha, Cai-Hua; Liao, Xiu-Yun

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a rapid detection kit for novel avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H7N9, two sets of specific primers and probes were designed based on the nucleotide sequences of hemagglutinin antigen (HA) and neuraminidase antigen (NA) of novel H7N9 virus (2013) available in GenBank to establish the method of TaqMan probe-based multiplex real-time RT-PCR for rapid detection of AIV subtype H7N9. The primer and probe of HA were for all H7 subtype AIVs, while the primer and probe of NA were only for novel N9 subtype AIVs. The results showed that this method had high sensitivity and specificity. This method was applicable to the testing of positive standard sample with a minimum concentration of 10 copies/microL; it not only distinguished H7 subtype from H1, H3, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, but also distinguished novel N9 subtype from traditional N9 subtype. A total of 2700 samples from Zhuhai, China were tested by this method, and the results were as expected. For the advantages of sensitivity and specificity, the method holds promise for wide application.

  13. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a New Real-Time RT-PCR Assay For Detection of Peste des petits Ruminants Virus Genome.

    PubMed

    Polci, A; Cosseddu, G M; Ancora, M; Pinoni, C; El Harrak, M; Sebhatu, T T; Ghebremeskel, E; Sghaier, S; Lelli, R; Monaco, F

    2015-06-01

    A duplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was developed for a simple and rapid diagnosis of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR). qRT-PCR primers and TaqMan probe were designed on a conserved region of nucleocapsid protein (Np) of PPR virus (PPRV) genome. An in vitro transcript of the target region was constructed and tested to determine analytical sensitivity. Commercial heterologous Armored RNA(®) was used as an internal positive control (IPC) for either RNA isolation or RT-PCR steps. The detection limit of the newly designed duplex real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR PPR_Np) was approximately 20 copies/μl with a 95% probability. No amplification signals were recorded when the qRT-PCR PPR_Np was applied to viruses closely related or clinically similar to PPRV- or to PPR-negative blood samples. A preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic performance was carried out by testing a group of 43 clinical specimens collected from distinct geographic areas of Africa and Middle East. qRT-PCR PPR_Np showed higher sensitivity than the conventional gel-based RT-PCR assays, which have been used as reference standards. Internal positive control made it possible to identify the occurrence of 5 false-negative results caused by the amplification failure, thus improving the accuracy of PPRV detection. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Development of a real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay for the detection of H9N2 avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Ben Shabat, M; Meir, R; Haddas, R; Lapin, E; Shkoda, I; Raibstein, I; Perk, S; Davidson, I

    2010-09-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of the H9N2 subtype are a major economic problem in the poultry industry in Israel. Most field isolates from the last decade differ significantly from H9N2 isolates from Europe and the USA, rendering published detection methods inadequate. This study aimed to develop a real-time TaqMan((R)) RT-PCR assay, based on a conserved region in the HA9 gene. The assay was validated with viruses representing different genetic subtypes and other common avian pathogens, and was found specific to H9N2. The real-time RT-PCR assay was compared to RT-PCR, which is in routine diagnostic use. Real-time RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than RT-PCR by 1.5-2.5 orders of magnitude when testing tracheal swabs directly and by 2-3 orders of magnitude allantoic fluid after AIV propagation in embryonated eggs. Sensitivity was quantified by using 10-fold dilutions of the H9-gene amplification fragment, and real-time RT-PCR was found to be 10(4)-fold more sensitive than RT-PCR. Clinical samples, which included tracheal and cloacal swabs, as well as allantoic fluid, were tested by both methods. By real-time RT-PCR 20% more positive H9N2 samples were detected than by RT-PCR. The real-time RT-PCR assay was found suitable for detection and epidemiological survey not only of Israeli H9N2 viruses, but also for isolates from other parts of the world.

  15. Comprehensive detection and identification of human coronaviruses, including the SARS-associated coronavirus, with a single RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Adachi, D; Johnson, G; Draker, R; Ayers, M; Mazzulli, T; Talbot, P J; Tellier, R

    2004-12-01

    The SARS-associated human coronavirus (SARS-HCoV) is a newly described, emerging virus conclusively established as the etiologic agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). This study presents a single-tube RT-PCR assay that can detect with high analytical sensitivity the SARS-HCoV, as well as several other coronaviruses including other known human respiratory coronaviruses (HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E). Species identification is provided by sequencing the amplicon, although a rapid screening test by restriction enzyme analysis has proved to be very useful for the analysis of samples obtained during the SARS outbreak in Toronto, Canada.

  16. Validation and comparison of different end point and real time RT-PCR assays for detection and genotyping of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Drigo, Michele; Franzo, Giovanni; Belfanti, Ilaria; Martini, Marco; Mondin, Alessandra; Ceglie, Letizia

    2014-06-01

    The accuracy and rapid diagnosis of PRRSV infection is a major prerequisite for every control and/or eradication strategy. In this study two real time RT-PCR based on different chemistry analysis (TaqMan Probes and SYBR Green) have been developed and validated before comparison to an end point two-step RT-PCR validated previously. All assays were aimed at discrimination between PRRSV genotypes. Furthermore, an exogenous internal control (IC) system had also been implemented in qRT-PCR. A rigorous analytical validation, executed on infected cell cultures and serum, demonstrated good sensitivity, specificity and repeatability. In particular RT-PCR was exceptionally sensitive and could detect a viral titre in the order of a magnitude of 1 copies/μL, 10-fold lower than other qRT-PCR described in this study. Optimal diagnostic performances have been demonstrated analyzing samples retrieved from an experimental infection, with RT-PCR again outperforming real time RT-PCR assays. All tests, showing substantial agreement between them, were able to detect early stages of viraemia (1 DPI) and some animals were classified as positive until the end of the study (76 DPI). Therefore, this supports the assays usefulness in animals with different clinical conditions and in a broad range of epidemiological scenarios. The benefits and disadvantages of different assays were also considered and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time RT-PCR for quantitative and differential detection of wild-type viruses and C-strain vaccine of Classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Jun; Cheng, Dan; Li, Na; Sun, Yuan; Shi, Zixue; Zhu, Qing-Hu; Tu, Changchun; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2008-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), one of OIE listed diseases. Most of the currently available detection methods do not allow discrimination between wild-type CSF viruses and the vaccine strains. This study was designed to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR for the quantitative and differential detection of wild-type viruses and C-strain vaccine widely used in China. CSFV specific primers and two differently labeled TaqMan probes for the differentiation of wild-type viruses from C-strain vaccine were designed in the 5'-untranslated region of the viral genome of CSFV. The two TaqMan probes specifically hybridize wild-type viruses of different subgroups and C-strain vaccine, respectively, in the multiplex real-time RT-PCR, with no cross-reaction to a number of non-CSFV porcine viruses. The sensitivity of the assay for detecting wild-type and C-strain-type vaccine viruses was determined to be 41.8 and 81.5copies/microL viral RNA, respectively. Completely correct differentiation of wild-type viruses from C-strain vaccine was achieved when testing reference strains and characterized field isolates of CSFV in China. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR was able to detect the viral RNA in the whole blood samples of experimentally infected pigs as early as 2 days post-infection, 3 to 4 days prior to the onset of clinical signs in co-housed pigs. The agreements between the multiplex real-time RT-PCR and a multiplex RT-nested PCR for detection of wild-type and C-strain-type viruses were 96.9% and 100%, respectively, when detecting 106 different field samples. There is a positive correlation between the titers of C-strain vaccines titrated in rabbits and RNA copies quantitated by the multiplex real-time RT-PCR. The novel assay described here is rapid and sensitive, and is useful for differentiating field strains and C-strain of CSFV in China.

  18. TaqMan real time RT-PCR assays for detecting ferret innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Louise A; Butler, Jeff; Rockman, Steve; Guarnaccia, Teagan; Hurt, Aeron C; Reading, Patrick; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian; Laurie, Karen L

    2014-09-01

    The ferret is an excellent model for many human infectious diseases including influenza, SARS-CoV, henipavirus and pneumococcal infections. The ferret is also used to study cystic fibrosis and various cancers, as well as reproductive biology and physiology. However, the range of reagents available to measure the ferret immune response is very limited. To address this deficiency, high-throughput real time RT-PCR TaqMan assays were developed to measure the expression of fifteen immune mediators associated with the innate and adaptive immune responses (IFNα, IFNβ, IFNγ, IL1α, IL1β, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12p40, IL17, Granzyme A, MCP1, TNFα), as well as four endogenous housekeeping genes (ATF4, HPRT, GAPDH, L32). These assays have been optimized to maximize reaction efficiency, reduce the amount of sample required (down to 1ng RNA per real time RT-PCR reaction) and to select the most appropriate housekeeping genes. Using these assays, the expression of each of the tested genes could be detected in ferret lymph node cells stimulated with mitogens or infected with influenza virus in vitro. These new tools will allow a more comprehensive analysis of the ferret immune responses following infection or in other disease states.

  19. Development and validation of sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay for broad detection of rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Faye, Martin; Dacheux, Laurent; Weidmann, Manfred; Diop, Sylvie Audrey; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Bourhy, Hervé; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Faye, Ousmane

    2017-05-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) remains one of the most important global zoonotic pathogens. RABV causes rabies, an acute encephalomyelitis associated with a high rate of mortality in humans and animals and affecting different parts of the world, particularly in Asia and Africa. Confirmation of rabies diagnosis relies on laboratory diagnosis, in which molecular techniques such as detection of viral RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are increasingly being used. In this study, two real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were developed for large-spectrum detection of RABV, with a focus on African isolates. The primer and probe sets were targeted highly conserved regions of the nucleoprotein (N) and polymerase (L) genes. The results indicated the absence of non-specific amplification and cross-reaction with a range of other viruses belonging to the same taxonomic family, i.e. Rhabdoviridae, as well as negative brain tissues from various host species. Analytical sensitivity ranged between 100 to 10 standard RNA copies detected per reaction for N-gene and L-gene assays, respectively. Effective detection and high sensitivity of these assays on African isolates showed that they can be successfully applied in general research and used in diagnostic process and epizootic surveillance in Africa using a double-check strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous diagnosis of Cetacean morbillivirus infection in dolphins stranded in the Spanish Mediterranean sea in 2011 using a novel Universal Probe Library (UPL) RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerri, Consuelo; Melero, Mar; Rivera-Arroyo, Belén; Bellière, Edwige Nina; Crespo, Jose Luis; García-Párraga, Daniel; Esperón, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose Manuel

    2013-07-26

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time (rt) RT-PCR assay has been developed for rapid, simultaneous detection of three strains of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV). In this assay, two PCR primers and a hydrolysis probe from a commercially available Universal Probe Library (UPL) are used to amplify a highly conserved region within the fusion protein gene. RT-PCR is carried out on the same sample using two primer sets in parallel: one set detects the more virulent strains, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV), and the other set detects the least virulent and least common strain, pilot whale morbillivirus (PWMV). Sensitivity analysis using dilute samples containing purified DMV, PMV and PWMV showed that viral RNA detection limits in this UPL RT-PCR assay were lower than in a conventional RT-PCR assay. Our method gave no amplification signal with field samples positive for viruses related and unrelated to CeMV, such as phocine distemper virus (PDV). The reliability and robustness of the UPL RT-PCR assay were verified using tissue samples previously analyzed by conventional methods, as well as a panel of clinical samples suspected of containing CeMV. Using the UPL RT-PCR assay, we were able to associate DMV with a mass stranding of striped dolphins in the Spanish Mediterranean in 2011 with greater reliability than was possible with a conventional RT-PCR method. These results suggest that this UPL RT-PCR method is more sensitive and specific than the conventional approach, and that it may be an affordable and rapid test for routine diagnosis of three CeMV strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a One-Step Immunocapture Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for Detection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Guang; Wang, Feng-Long; Chen, De-Xin; Shen, Li-Li; Qian, Yu-Mei; Liang, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Wen-Chang; Yan, Tai-He

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) causes significant losses in many economically important crops. Contaminated soils may play roles as reservoirs and sources of transmission for TMV. In this study we report the development of an immunocapture real-time RT-PCR (IC-real-time RT-PCR) assay for direct detection of TMV in soils without RNA isolation. A series of TMV infected leaf sap dilutions of 1:101, 1:102, 1:103, 1:104, 1:105 and 1:106 (w/v, g/mL) were added to one gram of soil. The reactivity of DAS-ELISA and conventional RT-PCR was in the range of 1:102 and 1:103 dilution in TMV-infested soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the detection limit of IC-real-time RT-PCR sensitivity was up to 1:106 dilution. However, in plant sap infected by TMV, both IC-real-time RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR were up to 1:106 dilution, DAS-ELISA could detect at least 1:103 dilution. IC-real-time RT-PCR method can use either plant sample extracts or cultivated soils, and show higher sensitivity than RT-PCR and DAS-ELISA for detection of TMV in soils. Therefore, the proposed IC-real-time RT-PCR assay provides an alternative for quick and very sensitive detection of TMV in soils, with the advantage of not requiring a concentration or RNA purification steps while still allowing detection of TMV for disease control. PMID:23211755

  2. Evaluation of a broad range real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of septic synovitis in horses.

    PubMed

    Elmas, Colette R; Koenig, Judith B; Bienzle, Dorothee; Cribb, Nicola C; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Coté, Nathalie M; Weese, J Scott

    2013-07-01

    Septic synovitis is a potentially debilitating and life-threatening disorder in horses. We hypothesized that a universal bacterial real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay would have improved sensitivity and decreased turn-around time for detection of bacteria in synovial fluid (SF) samples. Forty-eight SF samples were collected from 36 horses that presented to two referral institutions with suspected septic synovitis. Universal RT-PCR, bacterial culture and SF analysis were performed on all samples, and an interpretation on the sample being septic or not was derived by three board certified specialists from the history, clinical assessment and SF characteristics. RT-PCR results were compared to a composite standard comprised of positive culture and interpretation by all three specialists of samples as "septic". For 41 of 48 samples (85%), culture and RT-PCR results were concordant. Compared to the composite standard, 83% of samples were correctly classified by RT-PCR (turn-around time of approximately 4 hours). Relative sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR were 87% and 72% respectively, and 56% and 86% for culture. Hence, universal RT-PCR was a rapid and highly sensitive test, which may accelerate diagnosis and improve outcome for horses with septic synovitis.

  3. Development of a multiplex RT-PCR for simultaneous diagnosis of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Dayakar, Seetha; Pillai, Heera R; Thulasi, Vineetha P; Nair, Radhakrishnan R

    2016-12-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) are ubiquitous respiratory viral pathogens. They belong to the family Paramyxoviridae (subfamily Pneumovirinae) and is responsible for acute respiratory tract infections in children, elderly and immunocompromised patients. We designed and tested a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) as a cost-effective alternative to real-time PCR and cell culture based detection for HMPV and HRSV. The newly developed PCR was used to screen nasal/throat swab samples from 356 patients with suspected acute respiratory infection attending the Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The method was compared with a commercially available kit employing real time PCR, for its sensitivity and specificity. 53 (14.9 %) samples were positive for at least one tested pathogen by mRT-PCR. All except one among the positive samples showed similar pathogen profile when tested using real time PCR. 8 (15.1 %) among these 53 were positive for HRSVA, 33 (62.3 %) positive for HRSVB and 12 (22.6 %) were positive for HMPV. 17 (32.7 %) samples showed co-infections in them. Sensitivity and specificity of the mRT-PCR was comparable to that of the commercial kit. Our findings indicate that this newly developed mRT-PCR can be used as a cost-effective alternative for laboratory diagnosis of HMPV/HRSV infection and will significantly reduce diagnostic costs for these viruses in clinical settings.

  4. Development of a multiplex immunocapture-RT-PCR for simultaneous detection of BMYV and BChV in plants and single aphids.

    PubMed

    Viganó, Felicita; Stevens, Mark

    2007-12-01

    A multiplex immunocapture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction protocol (mIC-RT-PCR) was successfully developed to improve the detection of Beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV) and Beet chlorosis virus (BChV) in plants and aphids in single and mixed infections. Viral particles from plant and aphid extracts were enriched by antibody-capture and lysed by heating to release the viral RNA. During the RT-PCR step, 5' end sequences specific to each virus were amplified and the products analysed by gel electrophoresis; the PCR products corresponding to BMYV and BChV were 440 and 348bp respectively. The test was evaluated on single aphids carrying BMYV, BChV or both viruses and the results demonstrated that the mIC-RT-PCR is specific and sensitive. Its sensitivity was found to be 10(5) times higher than the TAS-ELISA routinely used for detecting BMYV and BChV and 10(4) times better than RT-PCR when both viruses were present. Eliminating the antibody-capture step to simplify the technique did not affect the sensitivity of the test and a procedure using microtitre plates was developed to allow simultaneous processing of large numbers of samples.

  5. Tailing cDNAs with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in RT-PCR assays to identify ribozyme cleavage products.

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque-Silva, J; Houard, S; Bollen, A

    1998-01-01

    Polytailing a cDNA with terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) results in the addition of a homopolymeric sequence at its 3'-end. Here we describe the use of tailing in competitive RT-PCR assays to evaluate cleavage efficiency of ribozymes. Using a system that perfectly mimics intracellular cleavage, we were able to detect as few as 1% of cleaved moieties. Furthermore, employing primers overlapping the junction between tails and the cleaved RNA moiety in non-competitive assays, the sensitivity of the method could be improved to <10 fg. Using the latter protocol and reactions employing a trans -acting hairpin ribozyme targeting the nucleocapsid mRNA of the mumps virus, we were able to demonstrate ribozyme-induced cleavage. PMID:9628937

  6. A One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection and Quantitation of Sugarcane Streak Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Sheng-Ren; Fu, Hua-Ying; Chen, Ru-Kai; Su, Jin-Wei; Gao, San-Ji

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane mosaic disease is caused by the Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV; genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae) which is common in some Asian countries. Here, we established a protocol of a one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) using the TaqMan probe for the detection of SCSMV in sugarcane. Primers and probes were designed within the conserved region of the SCSMV coat protein (CP) gene sequences. Standard single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) generated by PCR-based gene transcripts of recombinant pGEM-CP plasmid in vitro and total RNA extracted from SCSMV-infected sugarcane were used as templates of qRT-PCR. We further performed a sensitivity assay to show that the detection limit of the assay was 100 copies of ssRNA and 2 pg of total RNA with good reproducibility. The values obtained were approximately 100-fold more sensitive than those of the conventional RT-PCR. A higher incidence (68.6%) of SCSMV infection was detected by qRT-PCR than that (48.6%) with conventional RT-PCR in samples showing mosaic symptoms. SCSMV-free samples were verified by infection with Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) or Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) or a combination of both. The developed qRT-PCR assay may become an alternative molecular tool for an economical, rapid, and efficient detection and quantification of SCSMV.

  7. Strand-specific, real-time RT-PCR assays for quantification of genomic and positive-sense RNAs of the fish rhabdovirus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Hart, S. Alexandra; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The fish rhabdovirus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), is an important pathogen of salmonids. Cell culture assays have traditionally been used to quantify levels of IHNV in samples; however, real-time or quantitative RT-PCR assays have been proposed as a rapid alternative. For viruses having a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome, standard qRT-PCR assays do not distinguish between the negative-sense genome and positive-sense RNA species including mRNA and anti-genome. Thus, these methods do not determine viral genome copy number. This study reports development of strand-specific, qRT-PCR assays that use tagged primers for enhancing strand specificity during cDNA synthesis and quantitative PCR. Protocols were developed for positive-strand specific (pss-qRT-PCR) and negative-strand specific (nss-qRT-PCR) assays for IHNV glycoprotein (G) gene sequences. Validation with synthetic RNA transcripts demonstrated the assays could discriminate the correct strand with greater than 1000-fold fidelity. The number of genome copies in livers of IHNV-infected fish determined by nss-qRT-PCR was, on average, 8000-fold greater than the number of infectious units as determined by plaque assay. We also compared the number of genome copies with the quantity of positive-sense RNA and determined that the ratio of positive-sense molecules to negative-sense genome copies was, on average, 2.7:1. Potential future applications of these IHNV strand-specific qRT-PCR assays are discussed.

  8. Multiplex RT-PCR Amplification of HIV Genes to Create a Completely Autologous DC-Based Immunotherapy for the Treatment of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tcherepanova, Irina; Harris, Jason; Starr, Aijing; Cleveland, Jaclyn; Ketteringham, Helen; Calderhead, David; Horvatinovich, Joe; Healey, Don; Nicolette, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Effective therapy for HIV-infected individuals remains an unmet medical need. Promising clinical trials with dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy consisting of autologous DC loaded with autologous virus have been reported, however, these approaches depend on large numbers of HIV virions to generate sufficient doses for even limited treatment regimens. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study describes a novel approach for RT-PCR amplification of HIV antigens. Previously, RT-PCR amplification of autologous viral sequences has been confounded by the high mutation rate of the virus which results in unreliable primer-template binding. To resolve this problem we developed a multiplex RT-PCR strategy that allows reliable strain-independent amplification of highly polymorphic target antigens from any patient and requires neither viral sequence data nor custom-designed PCR primers for each individual. We demonstrate the application of our RT-PCR process to amplify translationally-competent RNA encoding regions of Gag, Vpr, Rev and Nef. The products amplified using this method represent a complex mixture of autologous antigens encoded by viral quasispecies. We further demonstrate that DCs electroporated with in vitro-transcribed HIV RNAs are capable of stimulating poly-antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in vitro. Conclusion/Significance This study describes a strategy to overcome patient to patient viral diversity enabling strain-independent RT-PCR amplification of RNAs encoding sequence divergent quasispecies of Gag, Vpr, Rev and Nef from small volumes of infectious plasma. The approach allows creation of a completely autologous therapy that does not require advance knowledge of the HIV genomic sequences, does not have yield limitations and has no intact virus in the final product. The simultaneous use of autologous viral antigens and DCs may provoke broad patient-specific immune responses that could potentially induce effective control of viral

  9. Clinical Evaluation of a Single-Tube Multiple RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of 13 Common Virus Types/Subtypes Associated with Acute Respiratory Infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Zhishan; Zhao, Mengchuan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Le; Yang, Shuo; Li, Guixia; Lu, Li; Ma, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory viruses are among the most important causes of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially for infants and young children. In the past years, a few commercial multiplex RT-PCR assays have been used to detect respiratory viruses in spite of the high cost. In the present study, an improved single-tube multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of 13 respiratory viruses was evaluated and compared with a previously reported two-tube assay as the reference method using clinical nasopharyngeal aspirates samples. Of 310 prospectively tested respiratory specimens selected from children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness, 226 (72.90%, 226/310) and 214 (69.03%, 214/310) positive for one or more viruses were identified by the single-tube and the two-tube assays, respectively, with combined test results showing good concordance (Kappa value = 0.874). Individually, the single-tube assay for adenovirus (Adv), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human rhinovirus (HRV), parainfluenza virus type 1 (PIV1), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) and parainfluenza virus type 4 (PIV4) showed the significantly superior sensitivities to those of the two-tube assay. No false positives were found. In conclusion, our results demonstrates the one-tube assay revealed significant improvements over the two-tube assay in terms of the better sensitivity, more accurate quality control, less nonspecific amplification, more cost-effective and shorter turn-around time and will be a valuable tool for routine surveillance of respiratory virus infection in China.

  10. Clinical Evaluation of a Single-Tube Multiple RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of 13 Common Virus Types/Subtypes Associated with Acute Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Le; Yang, Shuo; Li, Guixia; Lu, Li; Ma, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory viruses are among the most important causes of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially for infants and young children. In the past years, a few commercial multiplex RT-PCR assays have been used to detect respiratory viruses in spite of the high cost. In the present study, an improved single-tube multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of 13 respiratory viruses was evaluated and compared with a previously reported two-tube assay as the reference method using clinical nasopharyngeal aspirates samples. Of 310 prospectively tested respiratory specimens selected from children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness, 226 (72.90%, 226/310) and 214 (69.03%, 214/310) positive for one or more viruses were identified by the single-tube and the two-tube assays, respectively, with combined test results showing good concordance (Kappa value = 0.874). Individually, the single-tube assay for adenovirus (Adv), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human rhinovirus (HRV), parainfluenza virus type 1 (PIV1), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) and parainfluenza virus type 4 (PIV4) showed the significantly superior sensitivities to those of the two-tube assay. No false positives were found. In conclusion, our results demonstrates the one-tube assay revealed significant improvements over the two-tube assay in terms of the better sensitivity, more accurate quality control, less nonspecific amplification, more cost-effective and shorter turn-around time and will be a valuable tool for routine surveillance of respiratory virus infection in China. PMID:27043208

  11. Development of a two-step SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR assay for detecting and quantifying peste des petits ruminants virus in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Abera, Tsegalem; Thangavelu, Ardhanary

    2014-12-01

    A two-step SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR targeting the matrix (M) gene of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) was developed. The specificity of the assay was assessed against viral nucleic acid extracted from a range of animal viruses of clinical and structural similarities to PPRV including canine distemper virus, measles virus, bluetongue virus and Newcastle disease virus. But none of the viruses and no template control showed an amplification signal. Sensitivity of the same assay was assessed based on plasmid DNA copy number and with respect to infectivity titre. The lower detection limit achieved was 2.88 plasmid DNA copies/μl with corresponding Ct value of 35.93. Based on tissue culture infectivity titre the lower detection limits were 0.0001TCID50/ml and 1TCID50/ml for the SYBR green I based real time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR, respectively. The calculated coefficient of variations values for intra- and inter-assay variability were low, ranging from 0.21% to 1.83% and 0.44% to 1.97%, respectively. The performance of newly developed assay was evaluated on a total of 36 clinical samples suspected of PPR and compared with conventional RT-PCR. The SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR assay detected PPRV in 32 (88.8%) of clinical samples compared to 19 (52.7%) by conventional RT-PCR. Thus, the two-step SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR assay targeting the M gene of PPRV reported in this study was highly sensitive, specific and reproducible for detection and quantitation of PPRV nucleic acids.

  12. A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of California serogroup and Cache Valley viruses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Nattanmai, Seela; Kramer, Laura D.; Bernard, Kristen A.; Tavakoli, Norma P.

    2009-01-01

    A duplex TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for the detection of California (CAL) serogroup viruses and Cache Valley virus (CVV), for use in human surveillance. The targets selected for the assay were the sequences encoding the nucleocapsid protein of CAL and the G1 glycoprotein of CVV. Conserved regions were selected by aligning genetic sequences from various strains available in the GenBank database. Primers and probes were selected in conserved regions. The assay sensitivity was 75 gene copies (gc)/reaction for CAL serogroup viruses and 30 gc/reaction for CVV. The performance of the assay was linear over at least 6 log10 gc. The assay was specific, given that it did not cross-react with a variety of pathogens. It did however, detect 11 viruses within the CAL serogroup, and 12 CVV isolates. The use of an internal control ensured that possible inefficiency in nucleic acid extraction or PCR inhibition would be detected. PMID:19748425

  13. Multiplex titration RT-PCR: rapid determination of gene expression patterns for a large number of genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nebenfuhr, A.; Lomax, T. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed an improved method for determination of gene expression levels with RT-PCR. The procedure is rapid and does not require extensive optimization or densitometric analysis. Since the detection of individual transcripts is PCR-based, small amounts of tissue samples are sufficient for the analysis of expression patterns in large gene families. Using this method, we were able to rapidly screen nine members of the Aux/IAA family of auxin-responsive genes and identify those genes which vary in message abundance in a tissue- and light-specific manner. While not offering the accuracy of conventional semi-quantitative or competitive RT-PCR, our method allows quick screening of large numbers of genes in a wide range of RNA samples with just a thermal cycler and standard gel analysis equipment.

  14. Multiplex titration RT-PCR: rapid determination of gene expression patterns for a large number of genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nebenfuhr, A.; Lomax, T. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed an improved method for determination of gene expression levels with RT-PCR. The procedure is rapid and does not require extensive optimization or densitometric analysis. Since the detection of individual transcripts is PCR-based, small amounts of tissue samples are sufficient for the analysis of expression patterns in large gene families. Using this method, we were able to rapidly screen nine members of the Aux/IAA family of auxin-responsive genes and identify those genes which vary in message abundance in a tissue- and light-specific manner. While not offering the accuracy of conventional semi-quantitative or competitive RT-PCR, our method allows quick screening of large numbers of genes in a wide range of RNA samples with just a thermal cycler and standard gel analysis equipment.

  15. Performance of Simplexa dengue molecular assay compared to conventional and SYBR green RT-PCR for detection of dengue infection in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sasmono, R Tedjo; Aryati, Aryati; Wardhani, Puspa; Yohan, Benediktus; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Fahri, Sukmal; Setianingsih, Tri Y; Meutiawati, Febrina

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic tests based on detection of dengue virus (DENV) genome are available with varying sensitivities and specificities. The Simplexa Dengue assay (Focus Diagnostics) is a newly developed real-time RT-PCR method designed to detect and serotype DENV simultaneously. To assess the performance of the Simplexa Dengue assay, we performed comparison with conventional RT-PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR on patients sera isolated from eight cities across Indonesia, a dengue endemic country. A total of 184 sera that were confirmed using NS1 and/or IgM and IgG ELISA were examined. Using conventional and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR, we detected DENV in 53 (28.8%) and 81 (44.0%) out of 184 sera, respectively. When the Simplexa Dengue assay was employed, the detection rate was increased to 76.6% (141 out of 184 samples). When tested in 40 sera that were confirmed by virus isolation as the gold standard, the conventional RT-PCR yielded 95% sensitivity while the sensitivity of SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR and Simplexa Dengue assay reached 97.5% and 100%, respectively. The specificities of all methods were 100% when tested in 43 non-dengue illness and 20 healthy human samples. Altogether, our data showed the higher detection rate of Simplexa Dengue compared to conventional and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR in field/surveillance setting. In conclusion, Simplexa Dengue offers rapid and accurate detection and typing of dengue infection and is suitable for both routine diagnostic and surveillance.

  16. Performance of Simplexa Dengue Molecular Assay Compared to Conventional and SYBR Green RT-PCR for Detection of Dengue Infection in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Wardhani, Puspa; Yohan, Benediktus; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Fahri, Sukmal; Setianingsih, Tri Y.; Meutiawati, Febrina

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic tests based on detection of dengue virus (DENV) genome are available with varying sensitivities and specificities. The Simplexa Dengue assay (Focus Diagnostics) is a newly developed real-time RT-PCR method designed to detect and serotype DENV simultaneously. To assess the performance of the Simplexa Dengue assay, we performed comparison with conventional RT-PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR on patients sera isolated from eight cities across Indonesia, a dengue endemic country. A total of 184 sera that were confirmed using NS1 and/or IgM and IgG ELISA were examined. Using conventional and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR, we detected DENV in 53 (28.8%) and 81 (44.0%) out of 184 sera, respectively. When the Simplexa Dengue assay was employed, the detection rate was increased to 76.6% (141 out of 184 samples). When tested in 40 sera that were confirmed by virus isolation as the gold standard, the conventional RT-PCR yielded 95% sensitivity while the sensitivity of SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR and Simplexa Dengue assay reached 97.5% and 100%, respectively. The specificities of all methods were 100% when tested in 43 non-dengue illness and 20 healthy human samples. Altogether, our data showed the higher detection rate of Simplexa Dengue compared to conventional and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR in field/surveillance setting. In conclusion, Simplexa Dengue offers rapid and accurate detection and typing of dengue infection and is suitable for both routine diagnostic and surveillance. PMID:25102066

  17. Detection and Typing of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus by Multiplex Real-Time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Dauber, Malte; Lange, Elke; Schirrmeier, Horst; Beer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes economic losses in the pig industry worldwide, and PRRS viruses (PRRSV) are classified into the two distinct genotypes “North American (NA, type 2)” and “European (EU, type 1)”. In 2006, a highly pathogenic NA strain of PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), characterized by high fever as well as high morbidity and mortality, emerged in swine farms in China. Therefore, a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay specific for HP-PRRSV was developed and combined with type 1- and type 2-specific RT-qPCR systems. Furthermore, an internal control, based on a heterologous RNA, was successfully introduced. This final multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR, detecting and typing PRRSV, had an analytical sensitivity of less than 200 copies per µl for the type 1-assay and 20 copies per µl for the type 2- and HP assays and a high diagnostic sensitivity. A panel of reference strains and field isolates was reliably detected and samples from an animal trial with a Chinese HP-PRRS strain were used for test validation. The new multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR system allows for the first time the highly sensitive detection and rapid differentiation of PRRSV of both genotypes as well as the direct detection of HP-PRRSV. PMID:22768042

  18. RT-PCR assay for detection of Lassa virus and related Old World arenaviruses targeting the L gene.

    PubMed

    Vieth, Simon; Drosten, Christian; Lenz, Oliver; Vincent, Martin; Omilabu, Sunday; Hass, Meike; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; ter Meulen, Jan; Nichol, Stuart T; Schmitz, Herbert; Günther, Stephan

    2007-12-01

    This study describes an RT-PCR assay targeting the L RNA segment of arenaviruses. Conserved regions were identified in the polymerase domain of the L gene on the basis of published sequences for Lassa virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), Pichinde virus and Tacaribe virus, as well as 15 novel sequences for Lassa virus, LCMV, Ippy virus, Mobala virus and Mopeia virus determined in this study. Using these regions as target sites, a PCR assay for detection of all known Old World arenaviruses was developed and optimized. The concentration that yields 95% positive results in a set of replicate tests (95% detection limit) was determined to be 4290 copies of Lassa virus L RNA per ml of serum, corresponding to 30 copies per reaction. The ability of the assay to detect various Old World arenaviruses was demonstrated with in vitro transcribed RNA, material from infected cell cultures and samples from patients with Lassa fever and monkeys with LCMV-associated callitrichid hepatitis. The L gene PCR assay may be applicable: (i) as a complementary diagnostic test for Lassa virus and LCMV; (ii) to identify unknown Old World arenaviruses suspected as aetiological agents of disease; and (iii) for screening of potential reservoir hosts for unknown Old World arenaviruses.

  19. Development of a sensitive and controlled real-time RT-PCR assay for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in marine salmonid aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Matejusova, Iveta; McKay, Paul; McBeath, Alastair J A; Collet, Bertrand; Snow, Michael

    2008-07-07

    A survey was undertaken to determine the potential distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in marine cage-based salmonid farms in Scotland. A rapid, accurate and sensitive quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed, targeting a conserved region of the nucleoprotein (N) gene of the virus. The qRT-PCR assay was shown to be more sensitive than the conventional VHSV RT-PCR. A validation protocol included several different virus isolates as the target and confirmed that the assay could detect all European VHSV genotypes (I, II and III). Both endogenous and exogenous controls were designed to control for integrity of template and distinguish between true VHSV positives and contamination with the positive control material. In total, the universal European VHSV qRT-PCR assay with exogenous positive control was applied to screen 2040 individual Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and 150 individual rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. No evidence of the presence of VHSV in association with either salmonid species in Scottish marine farms was detected. However, both marine Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout are still considered possible carriers of VHSV, which remains a potential threat to freshwater farming. Therefore, a continued surveillance of these species in marine environment is recommended.

  20. One-step multiplex quantitative RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection of viroids and phytoplasmas of pome fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Malandraki, Ioanna; Varveri, Christina; Olmos, Antonio; Vassilakos, Nikon

    2015-03-01

    A one-step multiplex real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) based on TaqMan chemistry was developed for the simultaneous detection of Pear blister canker viroid and Apple scar skin viroid along with universal detection of phytoplasmas, in pome trees. Total nucleic acids (TNAs) extraction was performed according to a modified CTAB protocol. Primers and TaqMan MGB probes for specific detection of the two viroids were designed in this study, whereas for phytoplasma detection published universal primers and probe were used, with the difference that the later was modified to carry a MGB quencher. The pathogens were detected simultaneously in 10-fold serial dilutions of TNAs from infected plant material into TNAs of healthy plant up to dilutions 10(-5) for viroids and 10(-4) for phytoplasmas. The multiplex real-time assay was at least 10 times more sensitive than conventional protocols for viroid and phytoplasma detection. Simultaneous detection of the three targets was achieved in composite samples at least up to a ratio of 1:100 triple-infected to healthy tissue, demonstrating that the developed assay has the potential to be used for rapid and massive screening of viroids and phytoplasmas of pome fruit trees in the frame of certification schemes and surveys.

  1. Development of a one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantitation of Araraquara and Rio Mamore hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Machado, Alex Martins; de Souza, William Marciel; de Pádua, Michelly; da Silva Rodrigues Machado, Aline Rafaela; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2013-09-19

    Hantaviruses are members of the family Bunyaviridae and are an emerging cause of disease worldwide with high lethality in the Americas. In Brazil, the diagnosis for hantaviruses is based on immunologic techniques associated with conventional RT-PCR. A novel one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR was developed for the detection and quantitation of Araraquara (ARAV) and Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV). The detection limit of assay was 10 copies/μL of RNA in vitro transcribed of segment S. The specificity of assay was evaluated by melting curve analysis, which showed that the Araraquara virus amplified product generated a melt peak at 80.83 ± 0.89 °C without generating primer-dimers or non-specific products. The assay was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and we detected two samples undetected by conventional RT-PCR. The one-step SYBR Green real-time quantitative RT-PCR is specific, sensible and reproducible, which makes it a powerful tool in both diagnostic applications and general research of ARAV and RIOMV and possibly other Brazilian hantaviruses.

  2. Factors Affecting Detection of Hepatitis E Virus on Canadian Retail Pork Chops and Pork Livers Assayed Using Real-Time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, B J; Leblanc, D; Avery, B; Pearl, D L; Houde, A; Rajić, A; McEwen, S A

    2016-03-01

    We collected 599 Canadian retail pork chops and 283 pork livers routinely (usually weekly) from April 2011 to March 2012 using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) retail sampling platform. Samples were assayed using validated real-time (q) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested classical RT-PCR for the detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV), porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) and rotavirus (RV). The presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was measured on a subset of our samples. Exact logistic regression models were fitted for predictors for HEV detection, for each assay. For both assays, sample type (pork chop versus liver) was a significant predictor for HEV RNA detection. For nested classical RT-PCR but not qRT-PCR, region of sample collection was a significant predictor (P = 0.008) of HEV detection. Odds of HEV detection were greatest in spring relative to other seasons. E. coli was a significant predictor for HEV RNA detection using the qRT-PCR (P = 0.03). Overall, the prevalence of E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was significantly greater than HEV, PEC or RV on our retail pork samples. Our sparse data set for the detection of PEC and RV precluded modelling of risk factors for the detection of these viruses. © 2015 Zoonoses and Public Health © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of the Public Health Agency of Canada.

  3. Development of a Taqman RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantification of negatively stranded RNA of human enteroviruses: evidence for false-priming and improvement by tagged RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Bessaud, Maël; Autret, Arnaud; Jegouic, Sophie; Balanant, Jean; Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2008-11-01

    Human enteroviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans. These viruses are known to be able to infect a wide range of tissues and are believed to establish persistent infections. Enteroviruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses whose replication involves the synthesis of negative strand intermediates. Therefore, the specific detection of negatively stranded viral RNA in tissues or cells is a reliable marker of active enteroviral replication. The present report presents the development of a real-time RT-PCR allowing the specific detection and quantification of negatively stranded viral RNA. Since it was known that specific amplification of single-stranded RNA can be made difficult by false-priming events leading to false-positive or overestimated results, the assay was developed by using a tagged RT primer. This tagged RT-PCR was shown to be able to amplify specifically negative RNA of enteroviruses grown in cell cultures by preventing the amplification of cDNAs generated by false-priming.

  4. Development of tailored real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection and differentiation of serotype O, A and Asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus lineages circulating in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Reid, Scott M; Mioulet, Valerie; Knowles, Nick J; Shirazi, Nazeem; Belsham, Graham J; King, Donald P

    2014-10-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). In countries where FMD is endemic, identification of the serotypes of the causative virus strains is important for vaccine selection and tracing the source of outbreaks. In this study, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays using primer/probe sets designed from the VP1 coding region of the virus genomes were developed for the specific detection of serotype O, A and Asia-1 FMD viruses (FMDVs) circulating in the Middle East. These assays were evaluated using representative field samples of serotype O strains belonging exclusively to the PanAsia-2 lineage, serotype A strains of the Iran-05 lineage and serotype Asia-1 viruses from three relevant sub-groups. When RNA extracted from archival and contemporary field strains was tested using one- or two-step rRT-PCR assays, all three primer/probe sets detected the RNA from homotypic viruses and no cross-reactivity was observed with heterotypic viruses. Similar results were obtained using both single- and multiplex assay formats. Using plasmid standards, the minimum detection level of these tests was found to be lower than two copies. The results illustrate the potential of tailored rRT-PCR tools for the detection and categorization of viruses circulating in the Middle East belonging to distinct subgroups of serotypes O, A and Asia-1. These assays can also overcome the problem of serotyping samples which are found positive by the generic rRT-PCR diagnostic assays but negative by virus isolation and antigen-detection ELISA which would otherwise have to be serotyped by nucleotide sequencing. A similar approach could be used to develop serotyping assays for FMDV strains circulating in other regions of the world.

  5. A real time RT-PCR assay for the specific detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Batten, Carrie A; Banyard, Ashley C; King, Donald P; Henstock, Mark R; Edwards, Lorraine; Sanders, Anna; Buczkowski, Hubert; Oura, Chris C L; Barrett, Tom

    2011-02-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a devastating disease of small ruminants present across much of Africa and Asia. Recent surveillance activities and phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the virus is an emerging problem as it is now being detected in areas previously free of the disease. As such, the virus not only is threatening small ruminant production and agricultural stability in the developing world, but also poses an economic threat to livestock in the European Union (EU) through introduction from European Turkey and North Africa. This report describes the development of a high throughput, rapid, real time RT-PCR method for the sensitive and specific detection of PPRV using robotic RNA extraction. This assay targets the nucleocapsid (N) gene of PPRV and has been shown to detect all four genetic lineages of PPRV in tissues, ocular and nasal swabs and blood samples collected in the field. The lowest detection limit achieved was approximately 10 genome copies/reaction, making this assay an ideal tool for the sensitive and rapid detection of PPRV in diagnostic laboratories.

  6. The establishment of the duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of CD44v6 in pancreatic cancer patients and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Chiu, David; Qin, Dajiang; Niu, Lizhi; Cai, Jinlei; He, Lihua; Huang, Wenhao; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecule CD44v6 has been found to be associated with the progression and metastasis of numerous cancers. In this study, a novel duplex real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed to quantitatively detect the CD44v6 gene expression in pancreatic cancer patients. The primers and probes of CD44v6 and β-actin genes were designed and standard curve of the duplex qRT-PCR was constructed by optimizing the reaction conditions. The specificity and reproducibility of this assay were satisfactory and the detection limit was 100 copies, which was 10 times more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR assay. This assay was also used to detect the expression levels of CD44v6 messenger RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell in 37 pancreatic cancer patients and 12 healthy people. The results showed that 37 clinical samples were tested positive by the duplex qRT-PCR compared with only 30 by the conventional RT-PCR. The levels of CD44v6 expression showed significant correlation with sex, tumor size, tumor differentiation, clinical stage, lymph node, and liver metastasis (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, CD44v6 levels in patients prior and 10 days post cryosurgery were significantly increased (P < 0.05) but had no significant change in those 1 month post cryosurgery (P > 0.05). The duplex qRT-PCR assay may provide a useful tool for the evaluation of prognosis and curative effect of pancreatic cancer.

  7. Comparison of Luminex xTAG® RVP fast assay and real time RT-PCR for the detection of respiratory viruses in adults with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, Vivian; Prades, Yara; Ruiz, Mauricio; Pizarro, Rolando; Rossi, Patricio; Lizama, Luis; Garmendia, María Luisa; Meza, Angela; Larrañaga, Carmen; Avendaño, Luis F

    2016-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the third cause of death worldwide. Viruses are frequently detected in adult CAP. Highly sensitive diagnostic techniques should be used due to poor viral shedding. Different sampling methods can affect viral detection, being necessary to establish the optimal type of sample for identifying respiratory viruses in adults. The detection rates of respiratory viruses by Luminex xTAG® RVP fast assay, real time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) (Sacace®), and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in adult CAP were performed in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and aspirates (NPA) from 179 hospitalized adults. Positivity was 47.5% for Luminex®, 42.5% for rtRT-PCR (P = 0.3), and 2.7% for IFA (2.7%) (P < 0.0). The sensitivity, specificity, and kappa coefficient of xTAG® RVP compared with rtRT-PCR were 84.2%, 79.6%, and 0.62%, respectively. Luminex® and rtRT-PCR detected 65 (58.0%) and 57 (50.9%) viruses in 112 NPA and 35 (34.3%) and 31 (30.4%) in 102 NPS, respectively (P < 0.01). xTAG® RVP is appropriate for detecting respiratory viruses in CAP adults. Both molecular techniques yielded better results with nasopharyngeal aspirate than swabs.

  8. Multiplex RT-PCR method for the analysis of the expression of human sialyltransferases: application to breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Recchi, M A; Harduin-Lepers, A; Boilly-Marer, Y; Verbert, A; Delannoy, P

    1998-01-01

    In many cases of human cancer, the appearance of hypersialylated glycan structures is related to a precise stage of the disease; this may depend on altered regulation of one or more sialyltransferases genes. Since several distinct sialyltransferase enzymes arising from different unique genes transfer sialic acid residues in the same linkage onto the same acceptor, it is impossible to precisely determine which enzyme is involved in the observed phenotype based on enzymatic assays. We have developed a very sensitive and highly reproducible multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique in order to monitor the expression of four human sialyltransferases genes ST6Gal I, ST3Gal I, ST3Gal III and ST3Gal IV in small cell samples. Multiplex PCR amplification using specific primers for each sialyltransferase and detection of amplification products by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a method that is fast and easy to handle and has proven to be useful for establishing sialyltransferase patterns of expression in breast immortalized cell line HBL100 as well as in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/6, MCF-7/AZ and MDA.

  9. Development and Evaluation of Real Time RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Typing of Bluetongue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Narender Singh; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Potgieter, Abraham C.; Kumar, Vinay; Batra, Kanisht; Wright, Isabel M.; Kirkland, Peter D.; Mertens, Peter P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus is the type species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Bluetongue viruses (BTV) are transmitted between their vertebrate hosts primarily by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) in which they also replicate. Consequently BTV distribution is dependent on the activity, geographic distribution, and seasonal abundance of Culicoides spp. The virus can also be transmitted vertically in vertebrate hosts, and some strains/serotypes can be transmitted horizontally in the absence of insect vectors. The BTV genome is composed of ten linear segments of double-stranded (ds) RNA, numbered in order of decreasing size (Seg-1 to Seg-10). Genome segment 2 (Seg-2) encodes outer-capsid protein VP2, the most variable BTV protein and the primary target for neutralising antibodies. Consequently VP2 (and Seg-2) determine the identity of the twenty seven serotypes and two additional putative BTV serotypes that have been recognised so far. Current BTV vaccines are serotype specific and typing of outbreak strains is required in order to deploy appropriate vaccines. We report development and evaluation of multiple ‘TaqMan’ fluorescence-probe based quantitative real-time type-specific RT-PCR assays targeting Seg-2 of the 27+1 BTV types. The assays were evaluated using orbivirus isolates from the ‘Orbivirus Reference Collection’ (ORC) held at The Pirbright Institute. The assays are BTV-type specific and can be used for rapid, sensitive and reliable detection / identification (typing) of BTV RNA from samples of infected blood, tissues, homogenised Culicoides, or tissue culture supernatants. None of the assays amplified cDNAs from closely related but heterologous orbiviruses, or from uninfected host animals or cell cultures. PMID:27661614

  10. Development of a reliable dual-gene amplification RT-PCR assay for the detection of Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus in Turkey brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Irit; Raibstein, Israel; Al-Tori, Amira; Khinich, Yevgeny; Simanov, Michael; Yuval, Chanoch; Perk, Shimon; Lublin, Avishai

    2012-11-01

    The Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus (TMEV) causes neuroparalytic signs, paresis, in-coordination, morbidity and mortality in turkeys. In parallel to the increased worldwide scientific interest in veterinary avian flaviviruses, including the Bagaza, Tembusu and Tembusu-related BYD virus, TMEV-caused disease also reemergence in commercial turkeys during late summer of 2010. While initially TMEV was detected by NS5-gene RT-PCR, subsequently, the env-gene RT-PCR was employed. As lately several inconsistencies were observed between the clinical, serological and molecular detection of the TMEV env gene, this study evaluated whether genetic changes occurred in the recently isolated viruses, and sought to optimize and improve the direct TMEV amplification from brain tissues of affected turkeys. The main findings indicated that no changes occurred during the years in the TMEV genome, but the PCR detection sensitivities of the env and NS5 genes differed. The RT-PCR and RNA purification were optimized for direct amplification from brain tissues without pre-replication of clinical samples in tissue cultures or in embryonated eggs. The amplification sensitivity of the NS5-gene was 10-100 times more than the env-gene when separate. The new dual-gene amplification RT-PCR was similar to that of the NS5 gene, therefore the assay can be considered as a reliable diagnostic assay. Cases where one of the two amplicons would be RT-PCR negative would alert and warn on the virus identity, and possible genetic changes. In addition, the biochemical environment of the dual-gene amplification reaction seemed to contribute in deleting non-specific byproducts that occasionally appeared in the singular RT-PCR assays on RNA purified from brain tissues.

  11. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay combined with ethidium monoazide treatment for RNA viruses and its application to detect viral RNA after heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, K; Katayama, H; Kitajima, M; Tohya, Y; Ohgaki, S

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed for discriminating damaged viruses or naked viral RNA from intact viruses by ethidium monoazide (EMA) treatment before RT-PCR. The applied EMA treatment consisted of three steps: (1) EMA dose, (2) exposure to light, and (3) additional purification by spin-column gel filtration. Approximately 4-log reduction in viral RNA concentration was observed by adding a dose of 10 μg/mL-EMA with 300 s of light irradiation. Although residual EMA can be an inhibitor of RT-PCR, its effect was reduced by spin-column gel filtration or a QIAamp® Viral RNA Mini Kit. EMA-RT-PCR was applied to the thermally treated PV1. Results of EMA-RT-PCR were similar to the plaque assay when PV1 was thermally inactivated. Although this is a preliminary study investigating applicability of the EMA-RT-PCR method for RNA viruses, the results suggest that the method is potentially applicable for the selective detection of epidemiologically important enteric viruses in water such as enteroviruses and noroviruses.

  12. Generation of HIV-1 and Internal Control Transcripts as Standards for an In-House Quantitative Competitive RT-PCR Assay to Determine HIV-1 Viral Load

    PubMed Central

    Armas Cayarga, Anny; Perea Hernández, Yenitse; González González, Yaimé J.; Dueñas Carrera, Santiago; González Pérez, Idania; Robaina Álvarez, René

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) viral load is useful for monitoring disease progression in HIV-infected individuals. We generated RNA standards of HIV-1 and internal control (IC) by in vitro transcription and evaluated its performance in a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. HIV-1 and IC standards were obtained at high RNA concentrations, without DNA contamination. When these transcripts were included as standards in a qRT-PCR assay, it was obtained a good accuracy (±0.5 log10 unit of the expected results) in the quantification of the HIV-1 RNA international standard and controls. The lower limit detection achieved using these standards was 511.0 IU/mL. A high correlation (r = 0.925) was obtained between the in-house qRT-PCR assay and the NucliSens easyQ HIV-1 test (bioMerieux) for HIV-1 RNA quantitation with clinical samples (N = 14). HIV-1 and IC RNA transcripts, generated in this study, proved to be useful as standards in an in-house qRT-PCR assay for determination of HIV-1 viral load. PMID:21766036

  13. Detection and clinical significance of CD44v6 and integrin-β1 in pancreatic cancer patients using a triplex real-time RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Chiu, David; Qin, Dajiang; Niu, Lizhi; Cai, Jinlei; He, Lihua; Huang, Wenhao; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-08-01

    The cell adhesion molecules CD44v6 and integrin-β1 are associated with the progression and metastasis of cancer. A novel triplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was developed to quantify CD44v6 and integrin-β1 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 pancreatic cancer (PC) patients and 12 healthy individuals. The standard curve of the triplex qRT-PCR was constructed by optimizing the reaction condition and the amplification efficiency was 102.5, 101.1, and 100.6 % for CD44v6, integrin-β1 and endogenous gene (β-actin) amplification. Nonspecific bands were not observed from the triplex qRT-PCR amplification and the detection limit of this assay was 100 copies. Expression levels of CD44v6 and integrin-β1 gene were significantly lower in healthy individuals than PC patients (P<0.05). CD44v6 and integrin-β1 gene expression were not associated with the sex, age, and tumor position in PC (P>0.05). CD44v6 gene expression was significantly associated with clinical stage, liver metastasis, and tumor size (P<0.05). Integrin-β1 gene expression was significantly associated with clinical stage and liver metastasis (P<0.05). This triplex qRT-PCR assay may provide a useful tool for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic evaluation in PC.

  14. Development of a novel real-time RT-PCR assay to detect Seneca Valley virus associated with emerging cases of vesicular disease in pigs.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Veronica L; Ransburgh, Russell H; Poulsen, Elizabeth G; Wadsworth, Jemma; King, Donald P; Mioulet, Valerie; Knowles, Nick J; Williamson, Susanna; Liu, Xuming; Anderson, Gary A; Fang, Ying; Bai, Jianfa

    2016-10-29

    Seneca Valley virus (SVV) can cause vesicular disease that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease. SVV-associated disease has been identified in pigs in several countries, namely USA, Canada, Brazil and China. Diagnostic tests are required to reliably detect this emerging virus, and this report describes the development and evaluation of a novel real-time reverse-transcription (RT) PCR assay (rRT-PCR), targeting the viral polymerase gene (3D) of SVV. This new assay detected all historical and contemporary SVV-1 isolates examined (n=8), while no cross-reactivity was observed with nucleic acid template prepared from other vesicular disease viruses or common swine pathogens. The analytical sensitivity of the rRT-PCR was 0.79 TCID50/ml and the limit of detect was equivalent using two different RT-PCR master-mixes. The performance of the test was further evaluated using pig nasal (n=25) and rectal swab samples (n=25), where concordant results compared to virus sequencing were generated for 43/50 samples. The availability of this assay, will enable laboratories to rapidly detect SVV in cases of vesicular disease in pigs, negated for notifiable diseases, and could enable existing knowledge gaps to be investigated surrounding the natural epidemiology of SVV.

  15. Development of a novel real-time RT-PCR assay to detect Seneca Valley virus-1 associated with emerging cases of vesicular disease in pigs.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Veronica L; Ransburgh, Russell H; Poulsen, Elizabeth G; Wadsworth, Jemma; King, Donald P; Mioulet, Valerie; Knowles, Nick J; Williamson, Susanna; Liu, Xuming; Anderson, Gary A; Fang, Ying; Bai, Jianfa

    2017-01-01

    Seneca Valley virus 1 (SVV-1) can cause vesicular disease that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease. SVV-1-associated disease has been identified in pigs in several countries, namely USA, Canada, Brazil and China. Diagnostic tests are required to reliably detect this emerging virus, and this report describes the development and evaluation of a novel real-time (r) reverse-transcription (RT) PCR assay (rRT-PCR), targeting the viral polymerase gene (3D) of SVV-1. This new assay detected all historical and contemporary SVV-1 isolates examined (n=8), while no cross-reactivity was observed with nucleic acid templates prepared from other vesicular disease viruses or common swine pathogens. The analytical sensitivity of the rRT-PCR was 0.79 TCID50/ml and the limit of detection was equivalent using two different rRT-PCR master-mixes. The performance of the test was further evaluated using pig nasal (n=25) and rectal swab samples (n=25), where concordant results compared to virus sequencing were generated for 43/50 samples. The availability of this assay, will enable laboratories to rapidly detect SVV-1 in cases of vesicular disease in pigs, negated for notifiable diseases, and could enable existing knowledge gaps to be investigated surrounding the natural epidemiology of SVV-1.

  16. Development and validation of a novel Taqman-based real-time RT-PCR assay suitable for demonstrating freedom from viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Jonstrup, S P; Kahns, S; Skall, H F; Boutrup, T S; Olesen, N J

    2013-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is a serious disease in several fish species. VHS is caused by the rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). To prevent spreading of the pathogen, it is important to use a fast, robust, sensitive and specific diagnostic tool to identify the infected fish. Traditional diagnosis based on isolation in cell culture followed by identification using, for example, ELISA is sensitive and specific but slow. By switching to RT-PCR for surveillance and diagnosis of VHS the time needed before a correct diagnosis can be given will be considerably shortened and the need for maintaining expensive cell culture facilities reduced. Here we present the validation, according to OIE guidelines, of a sensitive and specific Taqman-based real-time RT-PCR. The assay detects all isolates in a panel of 79 VHSV isolates covering all known genotypes and subtypes, with amplification efficiencies of approximately 100%. The analytical and diagnostic specificity of the real-time RT-PCR is close to 1, and the analytical and diagnostic sensitivity is comparable with traditional cell-based methods. In conclusion, the presented real-time RT-PCR assay has the necessary qualities to be used as a VHSV surveillance tool on par with cell culture assays. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of MMP9 and TIMP1 mRNA in human non small cell lung cancers by multiplex real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Simi, Lisa; Andreani, Matteo; Davini, Federico; Janni, Alberto; Pazzagli, Mario; Serio, Mario; Orlando, Claudio

    2004-08-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis is strictly maintained by a coordinated balance between the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors (TIMPs). Our study was focused on the simultaneous measurement of the expression profile of MMP9 mRNA and its principal inhibitor, TIMP-1, in 100 non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and in corresponding adjacent non malignant tissues. The measurement was performed with a multiplex quantitative RT-PCR assay based on TaqMan assay, using two probes labelled with different fluorocromes. We found that both MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs were significantly higher in NSCLC (P < 0.0001) in comparison to corresponding controls as well as the MMP9/TIMP-1 ratio (P = 0.014). MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNA expression was highly correlated in cancer samples (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001). The analysis in the two main histotypes revealed a significant increase of MMP9 mRNA in adenocarcinomas in comparison to normal tissues (P = 0.006) but not in squamous cell carcinomas, while TIMP-1 mRNA showed a significative increase both in adenocarcinomas and in squamous cell carcinoma samples (P = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Both MMP9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs were significantly correlated to lymphnode invasion and cancer stage. Survival analysis revealed that high levels of expression of MMP9 mRNA, but not of TIMP-1, were significantly associated to an unfavourable outcome in NSCLC patients in toto (P = 0.017). In addition our results showed that high levels of MMP9 expression are of independent prognostic impact in operable NSCLC. Our data seem to demonstrate a simultaneous and coordinated up-regulation of MMP9 and TIMP-1 expression at the mRNA level in NSCLC, even if this phenomenon seems variable according to the histotype. In addition, the increase of MMP9/TIMP-1 ratio may reflect an unbalance of their production in affected tissues. The increased expression of the two mRNAs, even not necessarily equate their enzymatic activities, seems to

  18. Design and testing of multiplex RT-PCR primers for the rapid detection of influenza A virus genomic segments: Application to equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, EunJung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Song, Jae-Young

    2016-02-01

    The avian influenza A virus causes respiratory infections in animal species. It can undergo genomic recombination with newly obtained genetic material through an interspecies transmission. However, the process is an unpredictable event, making it difficult to predict the emergence of a new pandemic virus and distinguish its origin, especially when the virus is the result of multiple infections. Therefore, identifying a novel influenza is entirely dependent on sequencing its whole genome. Occasionally, however, it can be time-consuming, costly, and labor-intensive when sequencing many influenza viruses. To compensate for the difficulty, we developed a rapid, cost-effective, and simple multiplex RT-PCR to identify the viral genomic segments. As an example to evaluate its performance, H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) was studied for the purpose. In developing this protocol to amplify the EIV eight-segments, a series of processes, including phylogenetic analysis based on different influenza hosts, in silico analyses to estimate primer specificity, coverage, and variation scores, and investigation of host-specific amino acids, were progressively conducted to reduce or eliminate the negative factors that might affect PCR amplification. Selectively, EIV specific primers were synthesized with dual priming oligonucleotides (DPO) system to increase primer specificity. As a result, 16 primer pairs were selected to screen the dominantly circulating H3N8 EIV 8 genome segments: PA (3), PB2 (1), PA (3), NP (3), NA8 (2), HA3 (1), NS (1), and M (2). The diagnostic performance of the primers was evaluated with eight sets composing of four segment combinations using viral samples from various influenza hosts. The PCR results suggest that the multiplex RT-PCR has a wide range of applications in detection and diagnosis of newly emerging EIVs. Further, the proposed procedures of designing multiplex primers are expected to be used for detecting other animal influenza A viruses.

  19. Improved RNA extraction and one-tube RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of control plant RNA plus several viruses in plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Nassuth, A; Pollari, E; Helmeczy, K; Stewart, S; Kofalvi, S A

    2000-10-01

    A procedure was developed for simultaneous detection of plant RNA viruses and of plant RNA, as a control. RT-PCR amplification with primers designed for the detection of the plant mRNAs encoding malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RubiscoL) was used for the development of a plant extraction procedure that consistently yields extracts that can be amplified. The control amplification was used successfully on extracts from cane, leaf and/or bud tissues from grapevine, apple, raspberry, strawberry, peach, apricot, plum and wheat. Multiplex RT-PCR conditions were established for the simultaneous detection in grapevine extracts of either arabis mosaic virus, rupestris stem pitting associated virus and malate dehydrogenase mRNA, or grapevine virus A, grapevine virus B, grapevine leafroll associated virus-3, and RubiscoL mRNA.

  20. Improved RT-PCR Assay to Quantitate the Pri-, Pre-, and Mature microRNAs with Higher Efficiency and Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li; Xue, Huihui; Xiong, Li; Xiao, Junhua; Zhou, Yuxun

    2015-10-01

    Understanding of the functional significance of microRNAs (miRNAs) requires efficient and accurate detection method. In this study, we developed an improved miRNAs quantification system based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). This method showed higher efficiency and accuracy to survey the expression of primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs), precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs), and mature miRNAs. Instead of relative quantification method, we quantified the pri-miRNAs and pre-miRNAs with absolute qRT-PCR based on SYBR Green I fluorescence. This improvement corrected for the inaccuracy caused by the differences in amplicon length and PCR efficiency. We also used SYBR Green method to quantify mature miRNAs based on the stem-loop qRT-PCR method. We extended the pairing part of the stem-loop reverse transcript (RT) primer from 6 to 11 bp, which greatly increased the efficiency of reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The performance of the improved RT primer was tested using synthetic mature miRNAs and tissue RNA samples. Results showed that the improved RT primer demonstrated dynamic range of seven orders of magnitude and sensitivity of detection of hundreds of copies of miRNA molecules.

  1. Simultaneous detection of groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV), groundnut rosette virus (GRV) and satellite RNA (satRNA) in groundnuts using multiplex RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Anitha, S; Monyo, E S; Okori, P

    2014-11-01

    Groundnut rosette disease (GRD) is the most devastating disease of groundnuts in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by synergistic interactions between viruses and virus-like pathogens: groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV), groundnut rosette virus (GRV) and a satellite RNA (satRNA). The multi-pathogenic nature of GRD requires efficient diagnostic systems for plant breeding and pathology work. Currently, TAS-ELISA and RT-PCR are used to detect all three pathogens. This approach is time-consuming, expensive and not easily amenable to high throughput. A multiplex PCR-based approach was developed to detect all three pathogens at once, reducing diagnostics costs and time by two thirds. The technique is highly robust and amenable to high throughput, with sensitivity and specificity values of 88 % and 100 %, respectively. The positive predictive value for the technique is 100 %, and the negative predictive value is 90.6 %.

  2. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay with TaqMan probe for specific detection of acute bee paralysis virus.

    PubMed

    Jamnikar Ciglenečki, Urška; Toplak, Ivan

    2012-09-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) is an accurate, rapid and reliable method that can be used for the detection and also for the quantitation of specific DNA molecules. It can be non-specific, with intercalating dyes (SYBR Green I dye) able to bind to any dsDNA, or specific with a probe (TaqMan), whereby the probe is designed to bind within the amplified PCR fragment. A new real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) assay with TaqMan probe for specific detection of acute bee paralysis virus was designed. The assay was optimized to be highly sensitive and analytically specific and tested with a selection of genetically diverse ABPV strains originating from Slovenia, the United Kingdom (UK), Hungary and Germany. The detection limit of the assay and sensitivity comparisons with conventional RT-PCR were analyzed and this assay can detect a minimum of 44 copies of ABPV/reaction and is 230 times more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR. In addition, the assay is highly reproducible, with an average slope of standard curve made of ten-fold dilutions of standard copies/reaction -3.479±0.19 and an average slope of standard curve made of ten-fold dilutions of RNA -3.409±0.18.

  3. Monoclonal antibody-based serological assays and immunocapture-RT-PCR for detecting Rice dwarf virus in field rice plants and leafhopper vectors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianxiang; Ni, Yuequn; Liu, Huan; Ding, Ming; Zhou, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Rice dwarf virus (RDV) causes Rice dwarf disease, which leads to considerable losses in rice production in Asia. Purified RDV virions were used as the immunogen to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Three murine mAbs against RDV were prepared. Plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA), dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) and immunocapture-RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) were then developed for sensitive, specific, and rapid detection of RDV in rice and leafhopper samples obtained in the field using the mAbs. The PTA-ELISA, dot-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR detected the virus in infected tissue crude extracts diluted at 1:81,920, 1:10,240 and 1:655,360 (w/v, g mL(-1)), in individual viruliferous rice green leafhopper crude extracts diluted at 1:25,600, 1:6400 and 1:3,276,800 (individual leafhopper/μL), respectively. 878 rice field samples and 531 leafhopper field samples from ten provinces of China were screened for the presence of RDV using the two serological assays and the IC-RT-PCR and the results indicated that 37 of the 878 rice samples and 22 of the 531 leafhopper samples were infected by RDV. All positive samples were from Yunnan Province, indicating that RDV is prevalent in this province, but not in the other nine provinces. The dot-ELISA is suitable for routine detection of large-scale rice and leafhopper samples in field surveys.

  4. Development and validation of a real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay for investigation of wild poliovirus type 1-South Asian (SOAS) strain reintroduced into Israel, 2013 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Hindiyeh, M Y; Moran-Gilad, J; Manor, Y; Ram, D; Shulman, L M; Sofer, D; Mendelson, E

    2014-02-20

    In February 2013, wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was reintroduced into southern Israel and resulted in continuous silent circulation in the highly immune population. As a part of the public health emergency response, a novel real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was developed, to allow for the sensitive and specific detection of the circulatingWPV1-South Asian (SOAS) strain. Specific primers and probes derived from the VP-1 region were designed, based on sequenced sewage isolates, and used to simultaneously amplify this WPV1-SOAS sequence together with bacteriophage MS-2 as internal control. High titre WPV1-SOAS stock virus was used for assay optimisation and 50 processed sewage samples collected from southern Israel and tested by reference culture based methods were used for analytical validation of the assay’s performance. The limit of detection of the multiplex qRT-PCR (SOAS/MS-2) assay was 0.1 plaque-forming unit (pfu)/reaction (20 pfu/mL) for WPV1-SOAS RNA with 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values when compared to the culture based method. The turnaround time was rapid, providing results for environmental samples within 24 to 48 hours from completion of sewage processing, instead of five to seven days by culture-based analysis. Direct sewage testing by qRT-PCR assay proved to be a useful tool for rapid detection and environmental surveillance of WPV1-SOAS circulating strain during emergency response. Application of the approach for detection of WPV1-SOAS in stool samples obtained during acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance or field surveys should be further evaluated.

  5. Microfluidic based multiplex qRT-PCR identifies diagnostic and prognostic microRNA signatures in sera of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moltzahn, Felix; Olshen, Adam B.; Baehner, Lauren; Peek, Andrew; Fong, Lawrence; Stöppler, Hubert; Simko, Jeffry; Hilton, Joan F.; Carroll, Peter; Blelloch, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) based screening trials indicate an urgent need for novel and non-invasive biomarker identification strategies to improve the prediction of prostate cancer behavior. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum and plasma have been shown to have potential as non-invasive markers for physiological and pathological conditions. To identify serum miRNAs that diagnose and correlate with prognosis of prostate cancer, we developed a multiplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) method involving purification of multiplex PCR products followed by uniplex analysis on a microfluidics chip to evaluate 384 human miRNAs. Using Dgcr8 and Dicer knockout (small RNA - deficient) mouse ES cells (mESC) as the benchmark, we confirmed the validity of our technique, while uncovering a significant lack of accuracy in previously published methods. Profiling 48 sera from healthy men and untreated prostate cancer patients with differing CAPRA (Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment) scores, we identified miRNA signatures that allow to diagnose cancer patients and correlate with prognosis. These serum signatures include oncogenic and tumor suppressive miRNAs suggesting functional roles in prostate cancer progression. PMID:21098088

  6. A Family-Wide RT-PCR Assay for Detection of Paramyxoviruses and Application to a Large-Scale Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    van Boheemen, Sander; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Pas, Suzan D.; Herfst, Sander; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Family-wide molecular diagnostic assays are valuable tools for initial identification of viruses during outbreaks and to limit costs of surveillance studies. Recent discoveries of paramyxoviruses have called for such assay that is able to detect all known and unknown paramyxoviruses in one round of PCR amplification. We have developed a RT-PCR assay consisting of a single degenerate primer set, able to detect all members of the Paramyxoviridae family including all virus genera within the subfamilies Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae. Primers anneal to domain III of the polymerase gene, with the 3′ end of the reverse primer annealing to the conserved motif GDNQ, which is proposed to be the active site for nucleotide polymerization. The assay was fully optimized and was shown to indeed detect all available paramyxoviruses tested. Clinical specimens from hospitalized patients that tested positive for known paramyxoviruses in conventional assays were also detected with the novel family-wide test. A high-throughput fluorescence-based RT-PCR version of the assay was developed for screening large numbers of specimens. A large number of samples collected from wild birds was tested, resulting in the detection of avian paramyxoviruses type 1 in both barnacle and white-fronted geese, and type 8 in barnacle geese. Avian metapneumovirus type C was found for the first time in Europe in mallards, greylag geese and common gulls. The single round family-wide RT-PCR assay described here is a useful tool for the detection of known and unknown paramyxoviruses, and screening of large sample collections from humans and animals. PMID:22496880

  7. A family-wide RT-PCR assay for detection of paramyxoviruses and application to a large-scale surveillance study.

    PubMed

    van Boheemen, Sander; Bestebroer, Theo M; Verhagen, Josanne H; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Pas, Suzan D; Herfst, Sander; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2012-01-01

    Family-wide molecular diagnostic assays are valuable tools for initial identification of viruses during outbreaks and to limit costs of surveillance studies. Recent discoveries of paramyxoviruses have called for such assay that is able to detect all known and unknown paramyxoviruses in one round of PCR amplification. We have developed a RT-PCR assay consisting of a single degenerate primer set, able to detect all members of the Paramyxoviridae family including all virus genera within the subfamilies Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae. Primers anneal to domain III of the polymerase gene, with the 3' end of the reverse primer annealing to the conserved motif GDNQ, which is proposed to be the active site for nucleotide polymerization. The assay was fully optimized and was shown to indeed detect all available paramyxoviruses tested. Clinical specimens from hospitalized patients that tested positive for known paramyxoviruses in conventional assays were also detected with the novel family-wide test. A high-throughput fluorescence-based RT-PCR version of the assay was developed for screening large numbers of specimens. A large number of samples collected from wild birds was tested, resulting in the detection of avian paramyxoviruses type 1 in both barnacle and white-fronted geese, and type 8 in barnacle geese. Avian metapneumovirus type C was found for the first time in Europe in mallards, greylag geese and common gulls. The single round family-wide RT-PCR assay described here is a useful tool for the detection of known and unknown paramyxoviruses, and screening of large sample collections from humans and animals.

  8. Development of a realtime RT-PCR assay for the rapid detection of influenza A(H2) viruses.

    PubMed

    Komissarov, Andrey; Fadeev, Artem; Kosheleva, Anna; Sintsova, Kseniya; Grudinin, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    Influenza and other acute respiratory infections are of great concern for public health, causing excessive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Influenza virus A(H2N2), which caused a pandemic of so called "Asian flu" in 1957 was expelled from the human population by the new pandemic virus subtype H3N2 in 1968, however, influenza A(H2) viruses continue to circulate in wild birds and poultry. The lack of immunity in human population and the continued circulation of influenza A(H2) among animals makes emergence of a new pandemic virus possible. One of the basic techniques of molecular diagnostics of infectious diseases is the realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aim of this work was to design oligonucleotide primers and probes for the rapid detection of influenza A virus subtype H2 by realtime reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Analysis of 539 sequences of influenza A(H2N2) virus hemagglutinin gene from GISAID EpiFlu database revealed conservative regions suitable for use as binding sites for primers and probes. 191 probes were designed and 2 sets of primers and probes (H2-1 and H2-2) were selected for further experimental evaluation. Detection limit of RT-PCR system was 50 copies of DNA per 25 μl reaction when 10-fold dilutions of pCI-neo-H2 plasmid used as template. Analytical specificity of selected sets of primers and probes were tested on wide range of influenza strains and non-influenza respiratory viruses. H2-2 set found to have insufficient specificity detecting seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses and was excluded from further analysis. Analytical sensitivity was further tested on vaccine strain A/17/California/66/395 (H2N2) and A/Japan/305/1957 (H2N2), limit of detection for primers-probe set H2-1 was 3.2 (CI95%: 3.07-3.48) lg EID50/ml. Designed primers and probes for the realtime RT-PCR universal detection of influenza A(H2) viruses could be used in clinical trials of vaccines against influenza A(H2) and

  9. High-throughput quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for determining expression profiles of types I and III interferon subtypes.

    PubMed

    Renn, Lynnsey A; Theisen, Terence C; Navarro, Maria B; Mane, Viraj P; Schramm, Lynnsie M; Kirschman, Kevin D; Fabozzi, Giulia; Hillyer, Philippa; Puig, Montserrat; Verthelyi, Daniela; Rabin, Ronald L

    2015-03-24

    Described in this report is a qRT-PCR assay for the analysis of seventeen human IFN subtypes in a 384-well plate format that incorporates highly specific locked nucleic acid (LNA) and molecular beacon (MB) probes, transcript standards, automated multichannel pipetting, and plate drying. Determining expression among the type I interferons (IFN), especially the twelve IFN-α subtypes, is limited by their shared sequence identity; likewise, the sequences of the type III IFN, especially IFN-λ2 and -λ3, are highly similar. This assay provides a reliable, reproducible, and relatively inexpensive means to analyze the expression of the seventeen interferon subtype transcripts.

  10. Evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay using minor groove binding probe for specific detection of Chinese wild-type classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Guoyuan; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Luo, Qingping; Liao, Yonghong; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Rongrong; Wang, Hongling; Ai, Diyun; Luo, Ling; Song, Nianhua; Shao, Huabin

    2011-09-01

    A one-step real-time RT-PCR assay using a minor groove binding probe was developed for the specific detection of Chinese wild-type classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The assay detected wild-type CSFV strains representing different genotypes, but did not amplify viral RNA from the Hog Cholera Lipinized Virus (HCLV) vaccine-strain and other porcine viruses. The assay had a detection limit of 10 copies/reaction or 3.0 median tissue culture infective dose/reaction. In comparison to the sequencing nested RT-PCR assay, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 98.3% and 94.3%, respectively, when testing 515 veterinary samples. Wild-type CSFV RNA was detected in nasal swabs 2-4 days before detection in serum samples from pigs exposed to infection by contact, and 2-4 days prior to the onset of clinical disease. HCLV RNA remained undetectable in nasal swabs and serum samples from vaccinated pigs. In conclusion, the novel assay described in this study provides a rapid and sensitive method for differentiating between wild-type and the HCLV-strain of CSFV. It could be used for monitoring in CSF outbreak areas or as a screening method for CSFV eradication strategies.

  11. A broadly reactive one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid detection of murine norovirus.

    PubMed

    Hanaki, Ken-Ichi; Ike, Fumio; Kajita, Ayako; Yasuno, Wataru; Yanagiba, Misato; Goto, Motoki; Sakai, Kouji; Ami, Yasushi; Kyuwa, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    A one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of a broad range of murine noroviruses (MNVs). The primer design was based on the multiple sequence alignments of 101 sequences of the open reading frame (ORF)1-ORF2 junction of MNV. The broad reactivity and quantitative capacity of the assay were validated using 7 MNV plasmids. The assay was completed within 1 h, and the reliable detection limit was 10 copies of MNV plasmid or 0.063 median tissue culture infective doses per milliliter of RAW264 cell culture-propagated viruses. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated using 158 mouse fecal samples, 91 of which were confirmed to be positive. The melting curve analysis demonstrated the diversity of MNV in the samples. This is the first report of a broadly reactive one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting of MNVs. The rapid and sensitive performance of this assay makes it a powerful tool for diagnostic applications.

  12. Genotype-specific fluorogenic RT-PCR assays for the detection and quantitation of canine coronavirus type I and type II RNA in faecal samples of dogs.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Ricci, Dominga; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Cavaliere, Nicola; Di Trani, Livia; Tempesta, Maria; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-12-01

    Two genotype-specific fluorogenic RT-PCR assays were developed for the detection and quantitation of canine coronavirus (CCoV) type I and type II RNA in the faeces of dogs with diarrhoea. Both the fluorogenic assays showed high specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility, allowing a precise quantitation of CCoV type I and type II RNA over a linear range of about eight orders of magnitude (from 10(1) to 10(8) copies of standard RNA). Comparison with genotype-specific gel-based RT-PCR assays revealed that the fluorogenic assays were more sensitive and more rapid than conventional amplifications, with a large increase in throughput. The genotype-specific fluorogenic assays were then used to detect and measure viral loads in the faecal samples collected from dogs naturally or experimentally infected with type I, type II, or both genotypes. Of 174 samples collected from naturally infected dogs, 77 were positive for CCoV type I and 46 for CCoV type II. Thirty-eight dogs were found to be infected naturally by both genotypes, with viral RNA titres generally higher for type I in comparison to type II. At the same time, dogs infected experimentally shed type I RNA with higher titres with respect to type II.

  13. Development and evaluation of a real-time Taqman RT-PCR assay for the detection of infectious bronchitis virus from infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Callison, Scott A; Hilt, Deborah A; Boynton, Tye O; Sample, Brenda F; Robison, Robert; Swayne, David E; Jackwood, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    It is important to rapidly differentiate infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) from disease agents like highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and exotic Newcastle disease virus, which can be extremely similar in the early stages of their pathogenesis. In this study, we report the development and testing of a real-time RT-PCR assay using a Taqman-labeled probe for early and rapid detection of IBV. The assay amplifies a 143-bp product in the 5'-UTR of the IBV genome and has a limit of detection and quantification of 100 template copies per reaction. All 15 strains of IBV tested as well as two Turkey coronavirus strains were amplified, whereas none of the other pathogens examined, tested positive. Evaluation of the assay was completed with 1329 tracheal swab samples. A total of 680 samples collected from IBV antibody negative birds were negative for IBV by the real-time RT-PCR assay. We tested 229 tracheal swabs submitted to two different diagnostic laboratories and found 79.04% of the tracheal swabs positive for IBV by real-time RT-PCR, whereas only 27.51% of the samples were positive by virus isolation, which is the reference standard test. We also collected a total of 120 tracheal swabs at six different time points from birds experimentally infected with different dosages of IBV and found that, independent of the dose given, the viral load in the trachea plateau at 5 days post-inoculation. In addition, an inverse relationship between the dose of virus given and the viral load at 14 days post-inoculation was observed. Finally, we tested 300 total tracheal swab samples, from a flock of commercial broilers spray vaccinated for IBV in the field. The percentage of birds infected with the IBV vaccine at 3, 7, and 14 days post-vaccination was 58%, 65%, and 83%, respectively, indicating that only slightly more than half the birds were initially infected then the vaccine was subsequently transmitted to other birds in the flock. This observation is significant because

  14. A one-step duplex rRT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of duck hepatitis A virus genotypes 1 and 3.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qin; Zhu, Dekang; Ma, Guangpeng; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Chen, Shun; Jia, Renyong; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2016-10-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is a highly infectious pathogen that causes significant bleeding lesions in the viscera of ducklings less than 3 weeks old. There are three serotypes of DHAV: serotype 1 (DHAV-1), serotype 2 (DHAV-2) and serotype 3 (DHAV-3). These serotypes have no cross-antigenicity with each other. To establish an rRT-PCR assay for the rapid detection of a mixed infection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, two pairs of primers and a pair of matching TaqMan probes were designed based on conserved regions of DHAV-1 VP0 and DHAV-3 VP3. Finally, we established a one-step duplex rRT-PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity for the simultaneous detection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. This method showed no cross-antigenicity with the other pathogens tested, including duck plague virus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, Riemerella anatipestifer, and pathogenic E. coli from ducks. Sensitivity tests identified the minimum detection limits of this method as 98 (DHAV-1) and 10 (DHAV-3) copies/reaction. To validate the method, thirty-eight clinical samples and thirty artificially infected samples collected from dead duck embryos were studied. Thirty-seven samples were positive for DHAV-1, seventeen samples were positive for DHAV-3, and fourteen samples were positive for a mixed infection using the duplex rRT-PCR method. The method established in this study is specific, sensitive, convenient and timesaving and is a powerful tool for detecting DHAV-1, DHAV-3, and their mixed infection and for conducting surveys of pandemic virus strains.

  15. A real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and absolute quantitation of Citrus tristeza virus in different plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José; Ambrós, Silvia

    2007-11-01

    A real-time RT-PCR assay using SYBR Green was developed for specific and reliable quantitative detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in infected plants. A general primer set designed from conserved sequences in ORFs 1b and 2 enabled amplification of the genomic RNA (gRNA) while excluding most subgenomic and defective RNAs. Single RT-PCR products of 204 bp (isolate T36) or 186 bp (other isolates) were obtained with no primer-dimer or non-specific amplifications detected. Melting curve analysis revealed distinct melting temperature peaks (T(m)) for severe and mild isolates. External standard curves using RNA transcripts of the selected target allowed a reproducible quantitative assay, with a wide dynamic range of detection starting with 10(2) gRNA copies and with very low variation coefficient values. This protocol enabled reliable assessments of CTV accumulation in different tissues and from different citrus species, grown in the greenhouse or under field conditions, and infected with CTV isolates differing in their pathogenicity. CTV accumulation was higher in bark and fruits than in roots or leaves and showed minimal differences among several susceptible citrus species, but it was significantly lower in sour orange. This quantitative detection assay will be a valuable tool for diagnosis and molecular studies on CTV biology.

  16. Multicenter evaluation of the ENTEROVIRUS R-gene real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Pillet, Sylvie; Billaud, Geneviève; Omar, Shabir; Lina, Bruno; Pozzetto, Bruno; Schuffenecker, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The rapid molecular diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis has been shown important for an adequate management of the patients. A new CE-marked real-time RT-PCR assay (ENTEROVIRUS R-gene, Argene) was evaluated in two university hospital virology laboratories. Reactivity, analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using 54 prototype and 173 clinical human enterovirus (HEV) strains, a 12-sample HEV proficiency panel, and 30 non-HEV microorganisms. The clinical performance of the ENTEROVIRUS R-gene assay was evaluated by testing 197 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and 103 respiratory specimens, comparatively to the routinely used diagnostic techniques. Sixty-four out of the 65 HEV serotypes tested were detected. The analytical sensitivity ranged between 10(-2.64) and 10(2.39)TCID(50)/50 microl. Cross-reactivity was observed with four human rhinoviruses. On 59 CSF specimens analyzed prospectively, the results of the ENTEROVIRUS R-gene assay showed a 94.8% concordance with those of the Smart enterovirus (EV) assay (Cepheid). On 138 CSF specimens tested retrospectively, the results of the ENTEROVIRUS R-gene assay showed a 97.1% concordance with those of either the GeneXpert EV assay (Cepheid) or the in-house RT-PCR HEV assays used at the time of specimen collection. On 103 respiratory specimens, the concordance between the results of the ENTEROVIRUS R-gene assay and those of the routine RT-PCRs or viral culture was 90.2% and 96.1% before and after retest, respectively. The new test was found able to detect a large panel of enterovirus serotypes; it was sensitive when used on clinical specimens; and, easy and rapid to perform on a routine basis. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of mono- and polyclonal antibodies to Citrus leprosis virus C2 and their application in triple antibody sandwich ELISA and immunocapture RT-PCR diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Leon, M G; Wei, G; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2017-05-01

    The newly discovered Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2) is one of the causal virus of citrus leprosis disease complex; which leads to substantial loss of citrus production in the states of Meta and Casanare of Colombia. Specific and sensitive detection methods are needed to monitor the dissemination of CiLV-C2 in Colombia, and to prevent introduction of CiLV-C2 to other citrus growing countries. Toward this end, putative coat protein gene (CPG) of CiLV-C2 was amplified from CiLV-C2 infected citrus tissues. The CPG was cloned, expressed and purified a recombinant coat protein of ∼31kDa which used to generate monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antisera. Four monoclonal antibodies and two polyclonal antisera were selected as being specific following Western blotting. The monoclonal antibody MAb E5 and polyclonal antiserum PAb UF715 were selected testing with an extract of CiLV-C2 infected leaves using triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA). In addition, an immunocapture RT-PCR was standardized using MAb E5 for specific and sensitive detection of CiLV-C2. The standardized TAS-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR were able to detect CiLV-C2 in the extracts of symptomatic citrus leprosis tissues up to the dilutions of 1:160 and 1:2580, respectively. Result demonstrated that CiLV-C2 is present in citrus orchards in Meta and Casanare citrus growing areas of Colombia. TAS-ELISA could be used for routine detection of CiLV-C2, epidemiological studies, and for border inspections for quarantine purposes. IC-RT-PCR could be valuable for CiLV-C2 validation and viral genome analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of two real-time RT-PCR assays for differentiation of C-strain vaccinated from classical swine fever infected pigs and wild boars.

    PubMed

    Widén, F; Everett, H; Blome, S; Fernandez Pinero, J; Uttenthal, A; Cortey, M; von Rosen, T; Tignon, M; Liu, L

    2014-10-01

    Classical swine fever is one of the most important infectious diseases for the pig industry worldwide due to its economic impact. Vaccination is an effective means to control disease, however within the EU its regular use is banned owing to the inability to differentiate infected and vaccinated animals, the so called DIVA principle. This inability complicates monitoring of disease and stops international trade thereby limiting use of the vaccine in many regions. The C-strain vaccine is safe to use and gives good protection. It is licensed for emergency vaccination in the EU in event of an outbreak. Two genetic assays that can distinguish between wild type virus and C-strain vaccines have recently been developed. Here the results from a comparison of these two real-time RT-PCR assays in an interlaboratory exercise are presented. Both assays showed similar performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A new fluorogenic real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of lineage 1 and lineage 2 West Nile viruses.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Agüero, Montserrat; Rojo, Gema; Gómez-Tejedor, Concepción

    2006-09-01

    West Nile virus represents an emerging threat for animal and human health worldwide. This virus exhibits a marked genetic variation, with at least 2 distinct evolutionary lineages. Lineage 1 has been recognized in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and more recently in the Americas, whereas lineage 2 is restricted to Africa. Perhaps for this reason, the available real-time RT-PCR methods for detecting West Nile virus genome have mainly focused on lineage 1. However, both viruses may potentially be spread beyond their endemic areas by migratory birds. This report describes a new real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) method based on a 5'-Taq nuclease-3' minor groove binder DNA probe (TaqMan MGB) that allows the detection of a wide range of West Nile virus isolates, including both lineages 1 and 2. This method was able to detect West Nile viruses from different origins (North and Central Africa, Middle East, Europe, and North America), whereas other flaviviruses (Usutu, Dengue, Yellow fever) analyzed in parallel remained negative. The sensitivity achieved by this assay was 10(-2)-10(-3) pfu/tube. This method, which can be performed in 96-well format, could be suitable for the large-scale surveillance of West Nile virus in areas where both lineages can potentially spread.

  20. Improved duplex RT-PCR assay for differential diagnosis of mixed infection of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and type 3 in ducklings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Lin; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Rui-Hua; Yang, Lei; Li, Jing-Xin; Xie, Zhi-Jing; Zhu, Yan-Li; Jiang, Shi-Jin; Si, Xing-Kui

    2013-09-01

    Infection with duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) causes an acute, rapidly spreading, and fatal disease of young ducklings. DHAV type 1 (DHAV-1) and type 3 (DHAV-3) have been identified in China. In this study, a duplex RT-PCR assay was developed to identify DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 with mixed infection. The method was shown to be high specificity and sensitivity. The minimum detection limit of the method has been determined to be 10pg total RNA templates extracted from duck liver samples or 10² copies viral RNA of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 respectively. Using the method, from 60 clinical liver samples of 26 duckling flocks in Shandong, Guangdong, Sichuan and Henan provinces of China, 15 (57.7%) flocks were identified as mixed infection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and 9 (34.6%) flocks were DHAV-1 or DHAV-3 single infection. Among them, 38.3% (23/60) of duckling samples were detected as mixed infection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and 48.3% (29/60) of samples were DHAV-1 or DHAV-3 single infection. These results indicated that the improved duplex RT-PCR method provides a rapid and cost-effective laboratory differential diagnosis for mixed infection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 in ducklings.

  1. Development of a Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of MAGE-A3-Positive Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gruselle, Olivier; Coche, Thierry; Louahed, Jamila

    2015-07-01

    Melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) is a member of the MAGE family of tumor antigens and a relevant candidate for use in cancer immunotherapy. However, not all tumors express MAGE-A3, and closely related members of the MAGE family can be co-expressed with MAGE-A3 in the same tumor. Therefore, in the frame of MAGE-A3 clinical trials, it appeared necessary to evaluate tumors for MAGE-A3 expression with a highly specific quantitative assay to select patients who are eligible for anti-MAGE-A3 immunotherapy treatment. Herein, we describe the development and validation of a quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay for the determination of MAGEA3 gene expression in tumor tissues. In the early phases of development, the designed primers and probe were not able to distinguish between MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A6. To ensure the specificity for MAGE-A3 over MAGE-A6, our strategy was to use a 5'-nuclease probe (or hydrolysis probe). The final assay was shown to be specific and linear within the analytical range, with an acceptable CV for repeatability and intermediate precision. When compared with a reference semiquantitative RT-PCR assay, the two methods were in good agreement, with only 4.23% of the samples giving discordant results. In conclusion, we have developed a MAGE-A3-specific RT-qPCR assay, compatible with a high-throughput setting for the estimation of MAGEA3 gene expression in present and future clinical trials.

  2. Development of a rapid, sensitive TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Rose rosette virus using multiple gene targets.

    PubMed

    Babu, Binoy; Jeyaprakash, Ayyamperumal; Jones, Debra; Schubert, Timothy S; Baker, Carlye; Washburn, Brian K; Miller, Steven H; Poduch, Kristina; Knox, Gary W; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M; Paret, Mathews L

    2016-09-01

    Rose rosette virus (RRV), belonging to the genus Emaravirus, is a highly destructive pathogen that causes rose rosette disease. The disease is a major concern for the rose industry in the U.S. due to the lack of highly sensitive methods for early detection of RRV. This is critical, as early identification of the infected plants and eradication is necessary in minimizing the risks associated with the spread of the disease. A highly reliable, specific and sensitive detection assay is thus required to test and confirm the presence of RRV in suspected plant samples. In this study a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for the detection of RRV from infected roses, utilizing multiple gene targets. Four pairs of primers and probes; two of them (RRV_2-1 and RRV_2-2) based on the consensus sequences of the glycoprotein gene (RNA2) and the other two (RRV_3-2 and RRV_3-5) based on the nucleocapsid gene (RNA3) were designed. The specificity of the primers and probes was evaluated against other representative viruses infecting roses, belonging to the genera Alfamovirus, Cucumovirus, Ilarvirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, and Tospovirus and one Emaravirus (Wheat mosaic virus). Dilution assays using the in vitro transcripts (spiked with total RNA from healthy plants, and non-spiked) showed that all the primers and probes are highly sensitive in consistently detecting RRV with a detection limit of 1 fg. Testing of the infected plants over a period of time (three times in monthly intervals) indicated high reproducibility, with the primer/probe RRV_3-5 showing 100% positive detection, while RRV_2-1, RRV_2-2 and RRV_3-2 showed 90% positive detection. The developed real-time RT-PCR assay is reliable, highly sensitive, and can be easily used in diagnostic laboratories for testing and confirmation of RRV.

  3. Development and evaluation of a SYBR green-based real time RT-PCR assay for detection of the emerging avian influenza A (H7N9) virus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zheng; Fan, Huan; Qi, Xian; Qi, Yuhua; Shi, Zhiyang; Wang, Hua; Cui, Lunbiao; Zhou, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    Most recently a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China and has been associated with lots of human infection and fatal cases. Genetic analysis of the viral genome revealed that this reassortant virus might be better adapted to humans than other avian influenza viruses. Molecular diagnostic methods are thus urgently needed in public health laboratories. In this study, a SYBR green-based one-step real time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect the novel H7N9 virus. The primer pairs on the basis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene sequences of H7N9 viruses amplified subtype-specific fragments with Tm values of 80.77±0.06°C for H7 and 81.20±0.17°C for N9 respectively. The standard curves showed a dynamic linear range across 6 log units of RNA copy number (10(6) to 10(1) copies/ µl) with a detection limit of 10 copies per reaction for both H7 and N9 assays by using serial ten-fold diluted in-vitro transcribed viral RNA. In addition, no cross-reactivity was observed with seasonal H1N1, H1N1 pdm09, H3N2, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses as well as other human respiratory viruses. When the assay was further evaluated in H7N9 virus infected clinical samples, positive amplification signals were obtained in all of the specimens with the accordance between H7 and N9 assays. Therefore, the established SYBR green-based real time RT-PCR assay could provide a rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable alternative approach with lower costs for high throughput screening of suspected samples from humans, animals and environments in first line public health laboratories.

  4. Development and Evaluation of a SYBR Green-Based Real Time RT-PCR Assay for Detection of the Emerging Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Fan, Huan; Qi, Xian; Qi, Yuhua; Shi, Zhiyang; Wang, Hua; Cui, Lunbiao; Zhou, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    Most recently a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China and has been associated with lots of human infection and fatal cases. Genetic analysis of the viral genome revealed that this reassortant virus might be better adapted to humans than other avian influenza viruses. Molecular diagnostic methods are thus urgently needed in public health laboratories. In this study, a SYBR green-based one-step real time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect the novel H7N9 virus. The primer pairs on the basis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene sequences of H7N9 viruses amplified subtype-specific fragments with Tm values of 80.77±0.06°C for H7 and 81.20±0.17°C for N9 respectively. The standard curves showed a dynamic linear range across 6 log units of RNA copy number (106 to 101 copies/ µl) with a detection limit of 10 copies per reaction for both H7 and N9 assays by using serial ten-fold diluted in-vitro transcribed viral RNA. In addition, no cross-reactivity was observed with seasonal H1N1, H1N1 pdm09, H3N2, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses as well as other human respiratory viruses. When the assay was further evaluated in H7N9 virus infected clinical samples, positive amplification signals were obtained in all of the specimens with the accordance between H7 and N9 assays. Therefore, the established SYBR green-based real time RT-PCR assay could provide a rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable alternative approach with lower costs for high throughput screening of suspected samples from humans, animals and environments in first line public health laboratories. PMID:24278234

  5. Development of a Rift Valley fever real-time RT-PCR assay that can detect all three genome segments.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William C; Romito, Marco; Jasperson, Dane C; Weingartl, Hana; Binepal, Yatinder S; Maluleke, Moabi R; Wallace, David B; van Vuren, Petrus Jansen; Paweska, Janusz T

    2013-11-01

    Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritania, and South Africa had devastating effects on livestock and human health. In addition, this disease is a food security issue for endemic countries. There is growing concern for the potential introduction of RVF into non-endemic countries. A number of single-gene target amplification assays have been developed for the rapid detection of RVF viral RNA. This paper describes the development of an improved amplification assay that includes two confirmatory target RNA segments (L and M) and a third target gene, NSs, which is deleted in the Clone 13 commercial vaccine and other candidate vaccines. The assay also contains an exogenous RNA control added during the PCR setup for detection of amplification inhibitors. The assay was evaluated initially with samples from experimentally infected animals, after which clinical veterinary and human samples from endemic countries were tested for further evaluation. The assay has a sensitivity range of 66.7-100% and a specificity of 92.0-100% depending on the comparison. The assay has an overall sensitivity of 92.5%, specificity of 95% and a positive predictive value of 98.7%. The single-tube assay provides confirmation of the presence of RVFV RNA for improved confidence in diagnostic results and a "differentiate infected from vaccinated animals" (DIVA)--compatible marker for RVFV NSs--deleted vaccines, which is useful for RVF endemic countries, but especially important in non-endemic countries.

  6. Quantitative effects of carbohydrates and aromatic amino acids on Clostridium botulinum toxin gene expression using a rapid competitive RT/PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Freddie H; Dooley, James S; Haylock, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    A rapid competitive RT/PCR assay was developed to determine the effects of nutrients on Clostridium botulinum type E toxin gene expression. The type E strain (EVH) was grown in a nutrient-rich broth containing 1% glucose (base medium). Toxin gene expression was quantified at both mid and late exponential phases of growth. It was found that toxin encoding mRNA levels were highly growth phase dependent with elevated levels found in late exponential phase compared to mid exponential phase. Changing the carbohydrate source had a smaller effect on toxin encoding mRNA levels but as earlier results have suggested, toxin encoding mRNA levels show a strong correlation with type E growth rate. The results have important implications for the food industry whereby risk of type E botulism could be correlated to the nutrient composition of the contaminated food or assessed from C. botulinum growth rates in challenged foodstuffs.

  7. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for research studies on enterovirus infections in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Volle, Romain; Nourrisson, Céline; Mirand, Audrey; Regagnon, Christel; Chambon, Martine; Henquell, Cécile; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Archimbaud, Christine

    2012-10-01

    Human enteroviruses are the most frequent cause of aseptic meningitis and are involved in other neurological infections. Qualitative detection of enterovirus genomes in cerebrospinal fluid is a prerequisite in diagnosing neurological diseases. The pathogenesis of these infections is not well understood and research in this domain would benefit from the availability of a quantitative technique to determine viral load in clinical specimens. This study describes the development of a real-time RT-qPCR assay using hydrolysis TaqMan probe and a competitive RNA internal control. The assay has high specificity and can be used for a large sample of distinct enterovirus strains and serotypes. The reproducible limit of detection was estimated at 1875 copies/ml of quantitative standards composed of RNA transcripts obtained from a cloned echovirus 30 genome. Technical performance was unaffected by the introduction of a competitive RNA internal control before RNA extraction. The mean enterovirus RNA concentration in an evaluation series of 15 archived cerebrospinal fluid specimens was determined at 4.78 log(10)copies/ml for the overall sample. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the real time RT-qPCR assay used in combination with the internal control to monitor the overall specimen process make it a valuable tool with applied research into enterovirus infections.

  8. Diagnostic Evaluation of Multiplexed Reverse Transcription-PCR Microsphere Array Assay for Detection of Foot-and-Mouth and Look-Alike Disease Viruses▿

    PubMed Central

    Hindson, Benjamin J.; Reid, Scott M.; Baker, Brian R.; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P.; Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Lenhoff, Raymond J.; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman; Vitalis, Elizabeth A.; Slezak, Thomas R.; Hullinger, Pamela J.; King, Donald P.

    2008-01-01

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses that cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses by using multiplexed reverse transcription-PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the 17 primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR assay was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 247 samples (213 true-positive samples and 35 true-negative samples) from suspected cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true-negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared to those of two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.8 to 96.4%), and the sensitivity was 98.1% (95% CI, 95.3 to 99.3%) for the two singleplex rRT-PCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses, such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n = 2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n = 2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized by using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays. PMID:18216216

  9. Detection of circulating tumor cell-specific markers in breast cancer patients using the quantitative RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hye-Young; Ahn, Sungwoo; Kim, Sunghyun; Park, Sunyoung; Jung, Dongju; Park, Sangjung; Han, Hyunju; Sohn, JooHyuk; Kim, SeungIl; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is a highly prevalent disease among women worldwide. While the expression of certain proteins within breast cancer tumors is used to determine the prognosis and select therapies, additional markers need to be identified. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are constituent cells that have detached from a primary tumor to circulate in the bloodstream. CTCs are considered the main source of breast cancer metastases; therefore, detection of CTCs could be a promising diagnostic method for metastatic breast cancer. In this study, the CircleGen CTC RT-qDx assay was used to analyze the mRNA expression levels of six CTC-specific markers including EpCAM, CK19, HER2, Ki67, hTERT, and vimentin with a total of 692 peripheral whole blood samples from 221 breast cancer patients and 376 healthy individuals. This assay showed high specificity with multiple markers; none of the healthy controls were detected positive, whereas 21.7 and 14 % of breast cancer patients were positive for EpCAM and CK19, respectively. Of the 221 breast cancer patients, 84 (38 %), 46 (20.8 %), 83 (37.6 %), and 39 (17.6 %) were positively for HER2, Ki67, hTERT, and vimentin mRNA, respectively. Of the 84 patients who were HER2 positive, nine (4 %) were also positive for EpCAM, CK19, Ki67, hTERT, and vimentin. Of the 139 breast cancer patients who were HER2 negative, 65 (29.1 %) were negative for EpCAM, CK19, Ki67, hTERT, and vimentin. Furthermore, the EpCAM-positive population decreased from 21.5 to 8.3 % after completion of anti-tumor treatment (TP4). Similarly, the CK19, HER2, hTERT, and vimentin positives also decreased from 13.9 to 9.5 %, from 37.7 to 21.4 %, from 37.2 to 33.3 %, and from 17.5 to 14.3 %, respectively, after completion of anti-tumor treatment. In contrast, the Ki67 positives increased from 20.6 to 41.7 % after completion of anti-tumor treatment. mRNA overexpression of six CTC-specific markers was detected by the CircleGen CTC RT-qDx assay with high specificity, and the obtained m

  10. Real-time RT-PCR assay to differentiate clades of H5N1 avian influenza viruses circulating in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kis, Z; Jones, J; Creanga, A; Ferdinand, K; Inui, K; Gerloff, N; Davis, C T; Nguyen, T; Donis, R O

    2013-11-01

    Continued circulation and geographical expansion of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus have led to the emergence of numerous clades in Vietnam. Although viral RNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis are the gold standard for H5N1 HA clade designation, limited sequencing capacity in many laboratories precludes rapid H5N1 clade identification and detection of novel viruses. Therefore, a Taqman real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid differentiation of the four major H5N1 clades detected in Vietnam was developed. Using HA sequence alignments of clades 1.1, 2.3.2.1, 2.3.4, and 7 viruses, primers and FAM-labeled probes were designed to target conserved regions characteristic of each clade. The assay was optimized and evaluated using circulating clades of H5N1 collected in Vietnam from 2007 to 2012 and shown to be both sensitive and specific for the differentiation of the four H5N1 clades. The assay provides a useful tool for screening of large specimen collections for HA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis and for the rapid identification of molecular clade signatures to support outbreak investigations and surveillance activities. Finally, this assay may be useful to monitor for the emergence of novel or variant clades of H5N1 in Vietnam in the future or in other countries where these particular clades may circulate.

  11. A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of St. Louis encephalitis and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Rene; Nattanmai, Seela; Kramer, Laura D.; Bernard, Kristen A.; Tavakoli, Norma P.

    2008-01-01

    A duplex TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for the detection of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), for use in human and vector surveillance. The respective targets selected for the assay were the conserved NS5 and E1 genes of the two viruses. Due to the insufficient number of NS5 sequences from SLEV strains in the GenBank database, we determined the sequence of an approximately 1-kb region for each of 25 strains of SLEV in order to select primers and probes in a conserved region. Our assay has a sensitivity of 5 gene copies/reaction for EEEV and 10 gene copies/reaction for SLEV, and it’s performance is linear over at least 6 log10 gene copies. The assay is specific and detected all strains of SLEV (69) and EEEV (12) that were tested. An internal control ensures detection of efficient nucleic acid extraction and possible PCR inhibition. PMID:18715737

  12. Development and evaluation of a one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for universal detection of influenza A viruses from avian and mammal species.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Alexander; Vostinakova, Veronika; Pirchanova, Zuzana; Cernikova, Lenka; Dirbakova, Zuzana; Mojzis, Miroslav; Jirincova, Helena; Havlickova, Martina; Dan, Adam; Ursu, Krisztina; Vilcek, Stefan; Hornickova, Jitka

    2010-05-01

    The objective of our study was to develop and evaluate a TaqMan real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) assay for universal detection of influenza A (IA) viruses. The primers and LNA-modified octanucleotide probe were selected to correspond to extremely conserved regions of the membrane protein (MP) segment identified by a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis including 10,405 IA viruses MP sequences, i.e., all of the sequences of the Influenza Virus Sequence database collected as of August 20, 2009. The RRT-PCR has a detection limit of approximately five copies of target RNA/reaction and excellent reaction parameters tested in four IA viruses reference laboratories. The inclusivity of the assay was estimated at both the bioinformatic and the experimental level. Our results predicted that this RRT-PCR assay was able to detect 99.5% of known human IA virus strains, 99.84% of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) strains, 99.75% of avian strains, 98.89% of swine strains, 98.15% of equine strains, and 100% of influenza A viruses of other origin.

  13. Development of a molecular-beacon-based multi-allelic real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of human coronavirus causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV): a general methodology for detecting rapidly mutating viruses.

    PubMed

    Hadjinicolaou, Andreas V; Farcas, Gabriella A; Demetriou, Victoria L; Mazzulli, Tony; Poutanen, Susan M; Willey, Barbara M; Low, Donald E; Butany, Jagdish; Asa, Sylvia L; Kain, Kevin C; Kostrikis, Leondios G

    2011-04-01

    Emerging infectious diseases have caused a global effort for development of fast and accurate detection techniques. The rapidly mutating nature of viruses presents a major difficulty, highlighting the need for specific detection of genetically diverse strains. One such infectious agent is SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which emerged in 2003. This study aimed to develop a real-time RT-PCR detection assay specific for SARS-CoV, taking into account its intrinsic polymorphic nature due to genetic drift and recombination and the possibility of continuous and multiple introductions of genetically non-identical strains into the human population, by using mismatch-tolerant molecular beacons designed to specifically detect the SARS-CoV S, E, M and N genes. These were applied in simple, reproducible duplex and multiplex real-time PCR assays on 25 post-mortem samples and constructed RNA controls, and they demonstrated high target detection ability and specificity. This assay can readily be adapted for detection of other emerging and rapidly mutating pathogens.

  14. A quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay to detect genome segment 9 of all 26 bluetongue virus serotypes.

    PubMed

    Maan, Narender S; Maan, Sushila; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha; Pullinger, Gillian; Montes, Antonio J Arenas; Gasparini, Marcela R; Guimera, Marc; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Mertens, Peter P C

    2015-03-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an arboviral disease, which can often be fatal in naïve sheep and white tailed deer, but is usually less severe, or unapparent in other ruminants. Twenty-six bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have been recognised so far, two of which (BTV-25 and BTV-26) were recently identified by phylogenetic comparisons of genome-segment/outer-capsid protein VP2 (subsequently confirmed by serological 'virus-neutralisation' assays). Rapid, sensitive, reliable and quantitative diagnostic-assays for detection and identification of BTV represent important components of effective surveillance and control strategies. The BTV genome comprises 10 linear segments of dsRNA. We describe a 'TaqMan' fluorescence-probe based quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, targeting the highly conserved genome-segment-9 (encoding the viral-helicase 'VP6' and NS4). The assay detected Seg-9 from isolates of all 26 BTV types, as well as from clinical samples derived from BTV-6w and BTV-8w outbreaks (in Europe), BTV-25 from Switzerland, BTV-26 from Kuwait, BTV-1w, BTV-4w and BTV-8w from Spain, BTV-4w, BTV-8, BTV-10 and BTV-16 from Brazil. Assay efficiency was evaluated with RNA derived from the reference strain of BTV-1w [RSArrrr/01] and was 99.6%, detecting down to 4 copies per reaction. Samples from uninfected insect or mammalian cell-cultures, hosts-species (uninfected sheep blood) or vector-insects, all gave negative results. The assay failed to detect RNA from heterologous but related Orbivirus species (including the nine African horse sickness virus [AHSV] and seven epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus [EHDV] serotypes). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. SYBR Green based real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and genotype prediction of bovine noroviruses and assessment of clinical significance in Norway.

    PubMed

    Jor, Evert; Myrmel, Mette; Jonassen, Christine M

    2010-10-01

    A novel SYBR Green based real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of genogroup III bovine noroviruses (BoNoV) was developed and the assay applied to 419 faecal samples from calves with and without diarrhoea. The samples were obtained from 190 Norwegian dairy and beef herds. BoNoV was detected in 49.6% of the samples from 61.1% of the herds indicating that BoNoV is ubiquitous in Norway. The overall prevalence was not significantly different in diarrhoea and non-diarrhoea samples. Analyses of polymerase gene sequences revealed both genotype III/1 and III/2 with genotype III/2 (Newbury2-like) being the most prevalent. Detected capsid sequences were restricted to Newbury2-like and the chimeric Bo/Thirsk10/00/UK strain. The RNA polymerase genotypes of the circulating BoNoVs in Norway were predicted by melting temperature analysis. Additional data from a challenge experiment suggest that a high proportion of young calves are shedding low levels of BoNoV for a prolonged time after recovering from the associated diarrhoea. The findings may explain some of the discrepancies in detection rates from previous studies and explain why some studies have failed to detect significant prevalence differences between calves with and without diarrhoea. It may also shed new light on some epidemiological aspects of norovirus infections.

  16. Real-time RT-PCR assays to differentiate wild-type group A rotavirus strains from Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®) vaccine strains in stool samples.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Rashi; Esona, Mathew D; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Ian Tam, Ka; Gentsch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. Two live-attenuated RVA vaccines, Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®) are recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) for routine immunization of all infants. Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®) vaccines have substantially reduced RVA associated mortality but occasionally have been associated with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases identified in vaccinees and their contacts. High-throughput assays are needed to monitor the prevalence of vaccine strains in AGE cases and emergence of new vaccine-derived strains following RVA vaccine introduction. In this study, we have developed quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays for detection of Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®) vaccine components in stool samples. Real-time RT-PCR assays were designed for vaccine specific targets in the genomes of Rotarix(®) (NSP2, VP4) and RotaTeq(®) (VP6, VP3-WC3, VP3-human) and validated on sequence confirmed stool samples containing vaccine strains, wild-type RVA strains, and RVA-negative stools. For quantification, standard curves were generated using dsRNA transcripts derived from RVA gene segments. Rotarix(®) NSP2 and VP4 qRT-PCR assays exhibited 92-100% sensitivity, 99-100% specificity, 94-105% efficiency, and a limit of detection of 2-3 copies per reaction. RotaTeq(®) VP6, VP3-WC3, and VP3-human qRT-PCR assays displayed 100% sensitivity, 94-100% specificity, 91-102% efficiency and limits of detection of 1 copy, 2 copies, and 140 copies, respectively. These assays permit rapid identification of Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®) vaccine components in stool samples from clinical and surveillance studies and will be helpful in determining the frequency of vaccine strain-associated AGE.

  17. Simultaneous detection of five enteric viruses associated with gastroenteritis by use of a PCR assay: a single real-time multiplex reaction and its clinical application.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yixiang; Fang, Lin; Shi, Xiaolu; Zhang, Hailong; Li, Yinghui; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Chen, Qingliang; Li, Hui; Zhou, Li; Hu, Qinghua

    2014-04-01

    We developed a highly sensitive reverse transcription and multiplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay that can identify five viruses, including six genogroups, in a single reaction: norovirus genogroups I and II; sapovirus genogroups I, II, IV, and V; human rotavirus A; adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41; and human astrovirus. In comparison to monoplex rtPCR assays, the sensitivities and specificities of the multiplex rtPCR ranged from 75% to 100% and from 99% to 100%, respectively, evaluated on 812 clinical stool specimens.

  18. A duplex SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Massachusetts and non-Massachusetts serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Ana M; Perera, Carmen L; Vega, Armando; Ríos, Liliam; Coronado, Liani; Relova, Damarys; Frías, Maria T; Ganges, Llilianne; Núñez, José I; Pérez, Lester J

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious viral disease of poultry caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and is considered one of the most economically important viral diseases of chickens. Control of IBV has been attempted using live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines of the Massachusetts (Mass.) serotype are the most commonly used for this purpose. Due to the continuous emergence of new variants of the infectious bronchitis virus, the identification of the type of IBV causing an outbreak in commercial poultry is important in the selection of the appropriate vaccine(s) capable of inducing a protective immune response. The present work was aimed at developing and evaluating a duplex SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Mass. and non-Mass. serotypes of IBV. The duplex rRT-PCR yielded curves of amplification with two specific melting curves (Tm1 = 83 °C ± 0.5 °C and Tm2 = 87 °C ± 0.5 °C) and only one specific melting peak (Tm = 87 °C ± 0.5 °C) when the IBV Mass. serotype and IBV non-Mass. serotype strains were evaluated, respectively. The detection limit of the assay was 8.2 gene copies/μL based on in vitro transcribed RNA and 0.1 EID50/mL. The assay was able to detect all the IBV strains assessed and discriminated well among the IBV Mass. and the IBV non-Mass. serotypes strains. In addition, amplification curves were not obtained with any of the other viruses tested. From the 300 field samples tested, the duplex rRT-PCR yielded a total of 80 samples that were positive for IBV (26.67%), 73 samples identified as the IBV Mass. serotype and seven samples as identified as the IBV non-Mass. serotype. A comparison of the performance of test as assessed with field samples revealed that the duplex rRT-PCR detected a higher number of IBV-positive samples than when conventional RT-PCR or virus isolation tests were used. The duplex rRT-PCR presented here is a

  19. The development of a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay using TaqMan technology for the pan detection of bluetongue virus (BTV).

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Catherine; McMenamy, Michael J; Hoffmann, Bernd; Earley, Bernadette; Markey, Bryan; Cassidy, Joseph; Allan, Gordon; Welsh, Michael D; McKillen, John

    2017-03-23

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an infectious, non-contagious viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is transmitted by adult females of certain Culicoides species. Since 2006, several serotypes including BTV-1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9 and 16, have spread from the Mediterranean basin into Northern Europe for the first time. BTV-8 in particular, caused a major epidemic in northern Europe. As a result, it is evident that most European countries are at risk of BTV infection. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay based on TaqMan technology for the detection of representative strains of all BTV serotypes. Primers and probes were based on genome segment 10 of the virus, the NS3 gene. The assay was tested for sensitivity, and specificity. The analytical sensitivity of the rRT-PCR assay was 200 copies of RNA per reaction. The assay did not amplify the closely related orbivirus epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) but successfully detected all BTV reference strains including clinical samples from animals experimentally infected with BTV-8. This real time RT-PCR assay offers a sensitive, specific and rapid alternative assay for the pan detection of BTV that could be used as part of a panel of diagnostic assays for the detection of all serotypes of BTV.

  20. Multiplex Flow Assays

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow or dipstick assays (e.g., home pregnancy tests), where an analyte solution is drawn through a porous membrane and is detected by localization onto a capture probe residing at a specific site on the flow strip, are the most commonly and extensively used type of diagnostic assay. However, after over 30 years of use, these assays are constrained to measuring one or a few analytes at a time. Here, we describe a completely general method, in which any single-plex lateral flow assay is transformed into a multiplex assay capable of measuring an arbitrarily large number of analytes simultaneously. Instead of identifying the analyte by its localization onto a specific geometric location in the flow medium, the analyte-specific capture probe is identified by its association with a specific optically encoded region within the flow medium. The capture probes for nucleic acids, antigens, or antibodies are attached to highly porous agarose beads, which have been encoded using multiple lanthanide emitters to create a unique optical signature for each capture probe. The optically encoded capture probe-derivatized beads are placed in contact with the analyte-containing porous flow medium and the analytes are captured onto the encoded regions as the solution flows through the porous medium. To perform a multiplex diagnostic assay, a solution comprising multiple analytes is passed through the flow medium containing the capture probe-derivatized beads, and the captured analyte is treated with a suitable fluorescent reporter. We demonstrate this multiplex analysis technique by simultaneously measuring DNA samples, antigen–antibody pairs, and mixtures of multiple nucleic acids and antibodies. PMID:27819063

  1. Rapid and sensitive allele-specific (AS)-RT-PCR assay for detection of T315I mutation in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Manrique Arechavaleta, Gonzalo; Scholl, Vanesa; Pérez, Verónica; Bittencourt, Roberta; Moellmann, Arthur; Hassan, Rocio; Seuánez, Héctor N; Dobbin, Jane; Martinez, Lem; Renault, Ilana Zalcberg; Uriarte, Rosario

    2011-03-01

    Point mutations in the kinase domain of BCR-ABL were described in 40-90% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) resistant to Imatinib. We herein describe the development of a rapid allele-specific (AS)-RT-PCR assay to identify the T315I mutation, which confers full resistance to all available tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI). The mutation status of 65 patients with resistant CML was evaluated, and the T315I was detected in 3/65 (4.6%). Comparisons between sequencing and AS-RT-PCR results, as well as serial dilutions experiments proved that the method is specific and reproducible, with maximum sensitivity of 1 × 10(-3). The developed assay is a convenient and easy tool to be used in research of CML resistance for rapid mutation screening and, together with sequencing, may be included in efficient strategies for early detection of TKI resistance in patients with CML.

  2. Sensitive detection of SARS coronavirus RNA by a novel asymmetric multiplex nested RT-PCR amplification coupled with oligonucleotide microarray hybridization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-wei; Zhou, Yi-ming; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Yong; Tao, Sheng-ce; Li, Ze; Zhang, Qiong; Cheng, Jing

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive method for the detection of specific genes simultaneously. First, DNA was amplified by a novel asymmetric multiplex PCR with universal primer(s). Second, the 6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA)-labeled PCR products were hybridized specifically with oligonucleotide microarrays. Finally, matched duplexes were detected by using a laser-induced fluorescence scanner. The usefulness of this method was illustrated by analyzing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus RNA. The detection limit was 10(0) copies/microL. The results of the asymmetric multiplex nested reverse transcription-PCR were in agreement with the results of the microarray hybridization; no hybridization signal was lost as happened with applicons from symmetric amplifications. This reliable method can be used to the identification of other microorganisms, screening of genetic diseases, and other applications.

  3. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and PCR assays for a novel European field isolate of equine infectious anaemia virus based on sequence determination of the gag gene.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, M; Cook, R F; Cullinane, A

    2007-05-05

    In 2006, an outbreak of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) occurred in Ireland. The initial source of the outbreak is believed to have been contaminated plasma imported from Italy. This paper presents the nucleotide sequence of the gag gene of the virus identified in Ireland (EIAV(Ire)), the first for a European strain of EIAV. Comparison of the gag gene with North American and Asian strains of the virus showed that the gag gene is less well conserved than previously believed, and that EIAV strains can have similar phenotypes despite considerable variations in genotype. On the basis of the deduced sequence of the EIAV(Ire) gag gene, highly sensitive, specific and quantitative RT-PCR and PCR assays were developed, and used to quantify the EIAV nucleic acid in postmortem tissues, plasma and secretions of infected horses. This is the first report of the detection and quantification of EIAV in nasal, buccal and genital swabs by RT-PCR.

  4. Assessment of Preparation of Samples Under the Field Conditions and a Portable Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Rapid On-Site Detection of Newcastle Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Benyeda, Z; Zohari, S; Yacoub, A; Isaksson, M; Leijon, M; LeBlanc, N; Benyeda, J; Belák, S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (AMPV-1), is the causative agent of Newcastle disease affecting many species of birds and causing heavy losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Early, rapid and sensitive detection of the viruses or the viral nucleic acids is very important for disease diagnosis and control. This study aimed to evaluate sample preparation under field conditions and the application of a real-time RT-PCR method in the portable T-COR4 platform for the rapid, on-site detection of NDV on a farm. In the laboratory setting, the portable real-time RT-PCR assay had a similar performance compared with that obtained with a larger, stationary Rotor Gene real-time thermocycler. In the field conditions, viral nucleic acids were manually extracted just outside of animal units with minimal equipment and real-time RT-PCR detection was performed with the portable thermocycler T-COR4 placed in a nearby room. The portable assay at the farm detected viral RNA in 15 samples and reached an agreement of 83% (39/47) when the same RNA preparations were tested in the Rotor Gene thermocycler under the laboratory setting. The results demonstrated the feasibility of performing field detection but also the need to improve and further simplify sample preparation procedures. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Multiplexed Elispot Assay

    PubMed Central

    Harriman, William D.; Collarini, Ellen J.; Cromer, Remy G.; Dutta, April; Strandh, Magnus; Zhang, Fen; Kauvar, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Micron scale latex beads are well established as highly biocompatible reagents. Imbibing two fluorescent dyes into the interior of the beads enables the creation of a family of combinatorially colored labels. Previous use of such beads, in flow cytometry for example, has focused on beads of ~5μm diameter. We show here that 280 nm combinatorially labeled particles can be used to create ELISA-style assays in 200 μm scale virtual wells, using digital microscopy as the readout. The utility of this technique is illustrated by profiling the secreted cytokine footprints of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a multiparametric version of the popular Elispot assay. Doing so reveals noncanonical classes of T lymphocytes. We further show that the secreting cell type can be concurrently identified by surface staining with a cell type specific antibody conjugated to the same multiplexed beads. PMID:19084532

  6. Determination of cut-off cycle threshold values in routine RT-PCR assays to assist differential diagnosis of norovirus in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Trang, N V; Choisy, M; Nakagomi, T; Chinh, N T M; Doan, Y H; Yamashiro, T; Bryant, J E; Nakagomi, O; Anh, D D

    2015-11-01

    Norovirus (NV) is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children, but is also frequently detected in asymptomatic children, which complicates the interpretation of NV detection results in both the clinical setting and population prevalence studies. A total of 807 faecal samples from children aged <5 years hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis were collected in Thai Binh, Vietnam, from January 2011 to September 2012. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect and quantify NV-RNA in clinical samples. A bimodal distribution of cycle threshold (Ct) values was observed in which the lower peak was assumed to represent cases for which NV was the causal agent of diarrhoea, whereas the higher peak was assumed to represent cases involving an alternative pathogen other than NV. Under these assumptions, we applied finite-mixture modelling to estimate a threshold of Ct <21·36 (95% confidence interval 20·29-22·46) to distinguish NV-positive patients for which NV was the likely cause of diarrhoea. We evaluated the validity of the threshold through comparisons with NV antigen ELISA results, and comparisons of Ct values in patients co-infected with rotavirus. We conclude that the use of an appropriate cut-off value in the interpretation of NV real-time RT-PCR results may improve differential diagnosis of enteric infections, and could contribute to improved estimates of the burden of NV disease.

  7. A SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR assay for simple and rapid detection and differentiation of highly pathogenic and classical type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus circulating in China.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zheng; Ma, Wenjun; Fu, Fang; Lang, Yuekun; Wang, Wei; Tong, Guangzhi; Liu, Qinfang; Cai, Xuehui; Li, Xi

    2013-02-01

    SYBR Green coupled to melting curve analysis has been suggested to detect RNA viruses showing high genomic variability. Here, a SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) and classical type 2 PRRSV (C-PRRSV). The different strains were identified by their distinctive melting temperatures: 82.98 ± 0.25 °C and 85.95 ± 0.24 °C for HP-PRRSVs or 82.74 ± 0.26 °C for C-PRRSVs. Specificity was tested using nine other viral and bacterial pathogens of swine. The detection limit was 1 TCID(50) for HP- or C-PRRSV. Furthermore, the detection results for samples from an animal trial with HP- or C-PRRSV infections showed that the SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR was more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR. Additionally, an analysis of 319 field samples from North China, Central China and Northeast China showed that HP- and C-PRRSVs co-circulated in pig herds. Thus, the SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR, which can be performed within one hour, is a rapid, sensitive and low-cost diagnostic tool for rapid differential detection and routine surveillance of HP- and classical type 2 PRRSVs in China.

  8. Padlock probe-mediated qRT-PCR for DNA computing answer determination

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fusheng; Frasch, Wayne D.

    2011-01-01

    Padlock probe-mediated quantitative real time PCR (PLP-qRT-PCR) was adapted to quantify the abundance of sequential 10mer DNA sequences for use in DNA computing to identify optimal answers of traveling salesman problems. The protocol involves: (i) hybridization of a linear PLP with a target DNA sequence; (ii) PLP circularization through enzymatic ligation; and (iii) qRT-PCR amplification of the circularized PLP after removal of non-circularized templates. The linear PLP was designed to consist of two 10-mer sequence-detection arms at the 5′ and 3′ ends separated by a core sequence composed of universal PCR primers, and a qRT-PCR reporter binding site. Circularization of each PLP molecule is dependent upon hybridization with target sequence and high-fidelity ligation. Thus, the number of PLP circularized is determined by the abundance of target in solution. The amplification efficiency of the PLP was 98.7% within a 0.2 pg–20 ng linear detection range between thermal cycle threshold (Ct value) and target content. The Ct values derived from multiplex qRT-PCR upon three targets did not differ significantly from those obtained with singleplex assays. The protocol provides a highly sensitive and efficient means for the simultaneous quantification of multiple short nucleic acid sequences that has a wide range of applications in biotechnology. PMID:21691417

  9. Development of Dual TaqMan Based One-Step rRT-PCR Assay Panel for Rapid and Accurate Diagnostic Test of MERS-CoV: A Novel Human Coronavirus, Ahead of Hajj Pilgrimage

    PubMed Central

    Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Rasouli, Rahimeh; Zahraei, Bentolhoda; Izadi, Morteza; Tat, Mahdi; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Najarasl, Mohammad; Khansari Nejad, Behzad; Dorostkar, Ruhollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses causing primarily respiratory disease in humans. A novel human coronavirus, subsequently named middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September of 2012. With increasing numbers of infections and deaths from MERS-CoV, development of a rapid and reliable kit was crucial to prevent further spread of MERS-CoV. Objectives In this study, we present two real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays for in-house rapid and sensitive diagnostic testing of MERS-CoV, detecting the regions upstream of the envelope gene (upE) and open reading frame (ORF) 1b, respectively, for initial screening and final confirmation of MERS-CoV infection, as recommended by the world health organization (WHO). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, acquiring patient samples was difficult; thus, according to WHO recommendations and standard protocols, we synthesized RNA sequences of upE and ORF1b genes as the template signatures and TaqMan based-diagnostic rRT-PCR assays were carried out using these synthetic genes for detection of MERS-CoV. In this research, we also inaugurated a cell-free system to transcribe these RNA sequences using the DNA templates synthesized. Results The upE and ORF1b based one-step rRT-PCR assays were optimized by testing several times via different synthetic RNAs, and validation results were highly successful. The sensitivity obtained for upE was fewer than ten copies of RNA template per reaction and for ORF1b was 50 or fewer copies per reaction. Conclusions This study showed that the developed rRT-PCR assays are rapid, reliable, reproducible, specific, sensitive, and simple tools for detection of MERS-CoV. Finally, a kit consisting of two assay signatures and controls was assembled, which can be distributed to public health laboratories in Iran to support international MERS-CoV surveillance and public

  10. Comparison of ELISA and RT-PCR for the detection of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus and prune dwarf virus in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Genet; Ramesh, Sunita A; Alberts, Evita; Bertozzi, Terry; Wirthensohn, Michelle; Collins, Graham; Sedgley, Margaret

    2003-12-01

    A technique based on the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been developed to detect the presence of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and prune dwarf virus (PDV) simultaneously in almond. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study comparing both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR for the detection of PNRSV and PDV using 175 almond leaf samples. Multiplex RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than ELISA, especially when followed by nested PCR for the detection of PDV. The RT-PCR technique has the added advantage that plant material can be tested at any time throughout the growing season.

  11. Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous identification of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16

    PubMed Central

    Thao, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Tú, Phan Văn; Thúy, Trần Thi; Cardosa, Mary Jane; McMinn, Peter Charles; Phuektes, Patchara

    2010-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are two major aetiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Recently there have been several large outbreaks of HFMD in Vietnam and the Asia-Pacific region. In this study, a multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed in order to detect simultaneously HEV71, CVA16 and other human enteroviruses. Enterovirus detection was performed with a mixture of three pairs of oligonucleotide primers: one pair of published primers for amplifying all known enterovirus genomes and two new primer pairs specific for detection of the VP1 genes of HEV71 and CVA16. Enterovirus isolates, CVA16 and HEV71 strains identified previously from patients with HFMD were examined to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex RT-PCR assay. The assay was then applied to the direct detection of these viruses in clinical specimens obtained from HFMD cases identified at Children's Hospital Number 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The multiplex RT-PCR assay showed 100% specificity in screening for enteroviruses and in identifying HEV71 and CVA16. Similar results were obtained when using the multiplex RT-PCR assay to screen for enteroviruses and to identify HEV71 and CVA16 in clinical specimens obtained from HFMD cases identified at the hospital. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a rapid, sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of HEV71 or CVA16 infection in cases of HFMD and is also potentially useful for molecular epidemiological investigations. PMID:20863857

  12. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to diagnose Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Barr, N B; Ledezma, L A; Farris, R E; Epstein, M E; Gilligan, T M

    2011-10-01

    A molecular assay for diagnosis of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in North America is reported. The assay multiplexes two TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) probe systems that are designed to target DNA segments of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) and 18S rRNA gene. The RT-PCR probe designed for the 18S target recognizes a DNA sequence conserved in all of the moths included in the study and functions as a control in the assay. The second probe recognizes a segment of the ITS2 specifically found in E. postvittana and not found in the other moths included in the study, i.e., this segment is not conserved. Inclusion of the two markers in a single multiplex reaction did not affect assay performance. The assay was tested against 637 moths representing > 90 taxa in 15 tribes in all three subfamilies in the Tortricidae. The assay generated no false negatives based on analysis of 355 E. postvittana collected from California, Hawaii, England, New Zealand, and Australia. Analysis of a data set including 282 moths representing 41 genera generated no false positives. Only three inconclusive results were generated from the 637 samples. Spike experiments demonstrated that DNA contamination in the assay can affect samples differently. Contaminated samples analyzed with the ITS2 RT-PCR assay and DNA barcode methodology by using the cytochrome oxidase I gene can generate contradictory diagnoses.

  13. Evaluation of the Xpert Flu test and comparison with in-house real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of influenza virus from 2008 to 2011 in Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Salez, N; Ninove, L; Thirion, L; Gazin, C; Zandotti, C; de Lamballerie, X; Charrel, R N

    2012-04-01

    Rapid documentation of respiratory specimens can have an impact on the management of patients and their relatives in terms of preventive and curative measures. We compared the results of the Xpert(®) Flu assay (Cepheid) with three real-time RT-PCR assays using 127 nasopharyngeal samples, of which 75 were positive for influenza A (with 52 identified as A/H1N1-2009) and 52 were positive for influenza B. The Xpert(®) Flu assay presented a quasi-absence of non-interpretable tests, and showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 100% for Flu A, 98.4% and 100% for A/H1N1-2009, and 80.7% and 100% for Flu B.

  14. Simultaneous detection of fourteen respiratory viruses in clinical specimens by two multiplex reverse transcription nested-PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Coiras, M T; Aguilar, J C; García, M L; Casas, I; Pérez-Breña, P

    2004-03-01

    There is a need for rapid, sensitive, and accurate diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections in children, elderly, and immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to serious complications. The multiplex RT-nested PCR assay has been used widely for simultaneous detection of non-related viruses involved in infectious diseases because of its high specificity and sensitivity. A new multiplex RT-PCR assay is described in this report. This approach includes nested primer sets targeted to conserve regions of human parainfluenza virus haemagglutinin, human coronavirus spike protein, and human enterovirus and rhinovirus polyprotein genes. It permits rapid, sensitive, and simultaneous detection and typing of the four types of parainfluenza viruses (1, 2, 3, 4AB), human coronavirus 229E and OC43, and the generic detection of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. The testing of 201 clinical specimens with this multiplex assay along with other one formerly described by our group to simultaneously detect and type the influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, and a generic detection of all serotypes of adenovirus, covers the detection of most viruses causing respiratory infectious disease in humans. The results obtained were compared with conventional viral culture, immunofluorescence assay, and a third multiplex RT-PCR assay for all human parainfluenza viruses types described previously. In conclusion, both multiplex RT-PCR assays provide a system capable of detecting and identifying simultaneously 14 different respiratory viruses in clinical specimens with high sensitivity and specificity, being useful for routine diagnosis and survey of these viruses within the population.

  15. Development of a novel dengue virus serotype-specific multiplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for blood screening.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Kenta; Kuramitsu, Madoka; Okuma, Kazu; Nojima, Kiyoko; Araki, Kumiko; Shinohara, Naoya; Matsumoto, Chieko; Satake, Masahiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Saijo, Masayuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2016-12-01

    Dengue fever is caused by four related RNA viruses of the genus Flavivirus, dengue virus (DENV)-1, -2, -3, and -4, which are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Although DENV is not endemic in Japan, an autochthonous dengue outbreak occurred in 2014. Several transfusion-transmitted cases have also been reported after the use of blood and plasma products in DENV-endemic countries. The aim of this study was to develop a novel multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for DENV blood screening. Large-scale oligonucleotide screening was performed to obtain DENV-specific primers and probes using a variety of DENV clinical isolates. A multiplex RT-PCR assay was then developed using the identified oligonucleotides and the ability of this assay to detect DENV RNA was evaluated. A number of oligonucleotides suitable for DENV RNA detection were identified and a novel DENV serotype-specific multiplex RT-PCR assay was successfully established. Comparative analysis revealed that the multiplex assay could detect levels of viral contamination as low as 100 viral copies/mL. This established serotype-specific multiplex RT-PCR assay provides a simple, sensitive, and quantitative detection method for DENV, which could be applied in the screening of blood samples to prevent transfusion-transmitted DENV infection. © 2016 AABB.

  16. PALATAL DYSMORPHOGENESIS: QUANTITATIVE RT-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Palatal Dysmorphogenesis : Quantitative RT-PCR

    Gary A. Held and Barbara D. Abbott

    Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is a very sensitive method for detecting mRNA in tissue samples. However, as it is usually performed it is does not yield quantitativ...

  17. PALATAL DYSMORPHOGENESIS: QUANTITATIVE RT-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Palatal Dysmorphogenesis : Quantitative RT-PCR

    Gary A. Held and Barbara D. Abbott

    Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is a very sensitive method for detecting mRNA in tissue samples. However, as it is usually performed it is does not yield quantitativ...

  18. Molecular characterization of two Rocio flavivirus strains isolated during the encephalitis epidemic in São Paulo State, Brazil and the development of a one-step RT-PCR assay for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, Terezinha Lisieux Moraes; Santos, Raimundo N; Petrella, Selma; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa Keico; Castrignano, Silvana Beres; Santos, Cecília L Simões

    2008-01-01

    Rocio virus (ROCV) was responsible for an explosive encephalitis epidemic in the 1970s affecting about 1,000 residents of 20 coastland counties in São Paulo State, Brazil. ROCV was first isolated in 1975 from the cerebellum of a fatal human case of encephalitis. Clinical manifestations of the illness are similar to those described for St. Louis encephalitis. ROCV shows intense antigenic cross-reactivity with Japanese encephalitis complex (JEC) viruses, particularly with Ilheus (ILHV), St. Louis encephalitis, Murray Valley and West Nile viruses. In this study, we report a specific RT-PCR assay for ROCV diagnosis and the molecular characterization of the SPAn37630 and SPH37623 strains. Partial nucleotide sequences of NS5 and E genes determined from both strains were used in phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that these strains are closely related to JEC viruses, but forming a distinct subclade together with ILHV, in accordance with results recently reported by Medeiros et al. (2007).

  19. Recent sequence variation in probe binding site affected detection of respiratory syncytial virus group B by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kamau, Everlyn; Agoti, Charles N; Lewa, Clement S; Oketch, John; Owor, Betty E; Otieno, Grieven P; Bett, Anne; Cane, Patricia A; Nokes, D James

    2017-03-01

    Direct immuno-fluorescence test (IFAT) and multiplex real-time RT-PCR have been central to RSV diagnosis in Kilifi, Kenya. Recently, these two methods showed discrepancies with an increasing number of PCR undetectable RSV-B viruses. Establish if mismatches in the primer and probe binding sites could have reduced real-time RT-PCR sensitivity. Nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes were sequenced for real-time RT-PCR positive and negative samples. Primer and probe binding regions in N gene were checked for mismatches and phylogenetic analyses done to determine molecular epidemiology of these viruses. New primers and probe were designed and tested on the previously real-time RT-PCR negative samples. N gene sequences revealed 3 different mismatches in the probe target site of PCR negative, IFAT positive viruses. The primers target sites had no mismatches. Phylogenetic analysis of N and G genes showed that real-time RT-PCR positive and negative samples fell into distinct clades. Newly designed primers-probe pair improved detection and recovered previous PCR undetectable viruses. An emerging RSV-B variant is undetectable by a quite widely used real-time RT-PCR assay due to polymorphisms that influence probe hybridization affecting PCR accuracy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and evaluation of a SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay for evaluation of cytokine gene expression in horse.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Kukielka, D; De las Heras, A I; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine secretion is one of the main mechanisms by which the immune system is regulated in response to pathogens. Therefore, the measurement of cytokine expression is fundamental to characterizing the immune response to infections. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used to measure cytokine mRNA levels, but assay conditions should be properly evaluated before analyzing important equine infections through relative quantification of gene expression. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a set of RT-qPCR assays for a panel of the most common cytokines in horses involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. Eight cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα, IFNβ and IFNγ) and a housekeeping gene (β-actin) were detected and amplified with the same annealing temperature in a SYBR Green RT-qPCR assay of samples of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a healthy horse and whole blood from a horse infected with African horse sickness virus. The method gave good efficiency for all genes tested, allowing quantification of relative expression levels. These SYBR Green RT-qPCR assays may be useful for examining cytokine gene expression in horses in response to exposure to economically important pathogens.

  1. A Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Utilizing a Universal Alphavirus Control RNA.

    PubMed

    Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Eiden, Martin; Keller, Markus; Hinrichs, Winfried; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an Alphavirus from the family Togaviridae that causes epizootic outbreaks in equids and humans in Central and South America. So far, most studies use conventional reverse transcriptase PCR assays for the detection of the different VEEV subtypes. Here we describe the development of a TaqMan quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for the specific detection and quantitation of all VEEV subtypes which uses in parallel a universal equine encephalitis virus control RNA carrying target sequences of the three equine encephalitis viruses. The control RNA was used to generate standard curves for the calculation of copy numbers of viral genome of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and VEEV. The new assay provides a reliable high-throughput method for the detection and quantitation of VEEV RNA in clinical and field samples and allows a rapid differentiation from potentially cocirculating EEEV and WEEV strains. The capability to detect all known VEEV variants was experimentally demonstrated and makes this assay suitable especially for the surveillance of VEEV.

  2. A Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Utilizing a Universal Alphavirus Control RNA

    PubMed Central

    Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Eiden, Martin; Keller, Markus; Hinrichs, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an Alphavirus from the family Togaviridae that causes epizootic outbreaks in equids and humans in Central and South America. So far, most studies use conventional reverse transcriptase PCR assays for the detection of the different VEEV subtypes. Here we describe the development of a TaqMan quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for the specific detection and quantitation of all VEEV subtypes which uses in parallel a universal equine encephalitis virus control RNA carrying target sequences of the three equine encephalitis viruses. The control RNA was used to generate standard curves for the calculation of copy numbers of viral genome of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and VEEV. The new assay provides a reliable high-throughput method for the detection and quantitation of VEEV RNA in clinical and field samples and allows a rapid differentiation from potentially cocirculating EEEV and WEEV strains. The capability to detect all known VEEV variants was experimentally demonstrated and makes this assay suitable especially for the surveillance of VEEV. PMID:28042576

  3. The Optimization of TaqMan Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for Transcriptional Profiling of GABA-A Receptor Subunit Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gangisetty, Omkaram; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2009-01-01

    The GABA-A receptor plays a critical role in inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. Quantitation of GABA-A receptor subunits in various brain regions is essential to understand their role in plasticity and brain disorders. However, conventional RNA assays are tedious and less sensitive for use in studies of subunit plasticity. Here we describe optimization of a sensitive assay of GABA-A receptor subunit gene expression by TaqMan real-time PCR. For each subunit gene, a set of primers and TaqMan fluorogenic probe were designed to specifically amplify the target template. The TaqMan methodology was optimized for quantification of mouse GABA-A receptor subunits (α1–6, β1–3, γ2, and δ) and GAPDH. The TaqMan reaction detected very low levels of gene expression (~100 template copies of cDNA). A standard curve for GAPDH and one of the target genes, constructed using the cDNA, revealed slopes around −3.4 (r2=0.990), reflecting similar optimum PCR efficiencies. The methodology was utilized for quantification of the GABA-A receptor α4 subunit, which is known to upregulate following withdrawal from chronic progesterone or neurosteroids. Our results show that the α4-subunit expression increased threefold in the hippocampus following neurosteroid withdrawal in mice. The TaqMan PCR assay allows sensitive, high-throughput transcriptional profiling of complete GABA-A receptor subunit family, and thus provides specific tool for studies of GABA-A receptor subunit plasticity in neurological and psychiatric animal models. PMID:19406150

  4. Simultaneous detection and differentiation by multiplex real time RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 classic (clade 2.2.1 proper) and escape mutant (clade 2.2.1 variant) lineages in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The endemic status of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 in Egypt continues to devastate the local poultry industry and poses a permanent threat for human health. Several genetically and antigenically distinct H5N1 lineages co-circulate in Egypt: Strains of clade 2.2.1 proper replicate mainly in backyard birds causing the bulk of human infections, while a variant lineage within 2.2.1 (2.2.1v) appears to be perpetuated mainly in commercial poultry farms in Egypt. Viruses of the 2.2.1v lineage represent drift variants escaping from conventional vaccine-induced immunity and some of these strains also escaped detection by commercial real time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) protocols due to mismatches in the primers/probe binding sites. Results We developed therefore a versatile, sensitive and lineage-specific multiplex RT-qPCR for detection and typing of H5N1 viruses in Egypt. Analytical characterization was carried out using 50 Egyptian HPAIV H5N1 strains isolated since 2006 and 45 other avian influenza viruses (AIV). A detection limit of 400 cRNA copies per ml sample matrix was found. Higher diagnostic sensitivity of the multiplex assay in comparison to other generic H5 or M-gene based RT-qPCR assays were found by examination of 63 swab samples from experimentally infected chickens and 50 AIV-positive swab samples from different host species in the field in Egypt. Conclusions The new multiplex RT-qPCR assay could be useful for rapid high-throughput monitoring for the presence of HPAIV H5N1 in commercial poultry in Egypt. It may also aid in prospective epidemiological studies to further delineate and better control spread of HPAIV H5N1 in Egypt. PMID:20929539

  5. Evaluation of a real-time two-step RT-PCR assay for quantitation of Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) genome in experimentally-infected bee tissues and in life stages of a symptomatic colony.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Philippe; Ribière, Magali; Celle, Olivier; Lallemand, Perrine; Schurr, Frank; Olivier, Violaine; Iscache, Anne Laure; Faucon, Jean Paul

    2007-04-01

    A two-step real-time RT-PCR assay, based on TaqMan technology using a fluorescent probe (FAM-TAMRA) was developed to quantify Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) genome in bee samples. Standard curves obtained from a CBPV control RNA and from a plasmid containing a partial sequence of CBPV showed that this assay provided linear detection over a 7-log range (R(2)>0.99) with a limit of detection of 100 copies, and reliable inter-assay and intra-assay reproducibility. Standardisation including RNA purification and cDNAs synthesis was also validated. The CBPV TaqMan methodology was first evaluated by quantifying the CBPV genomic load in bee samples from an experimental infection obtained by topical application. Up to 1.9 x 10(10) CBPV copies per segment of insect body (head, thorax and abdomen) were revealed whereas a lower CBPV genomic load was detected in dissected organs such as mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands, brain and alimentary canal (up to 7.2 x 10(6) CBPV copies). The CBPV genomic loads in different categories of bees from a hive presenting the trembling symptoms typical of Chronic paralysis were then quantified. Significantly higher CBPV loads were found in guard, symptomatic and dead bees (up to 1.9 x 10(13) CBPV copies) than in forager, drones and house bees (up to 3.4 x 10(6) CBPV copies). The results obtained for symptomatic or dead bees support the correlation between high CBPV genomic load and pathology expression. Moreover, the high CBPV genomic load revealed in guard bees highlights the possible pivotal role played by this category of bees in CBPV infection.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of two multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for the diagnosis of meningitis in children in a resource-limited setting

    PubMed Central

    Khumalo, Jermaine; Nicol, Mark; Hardie, Diana; Muloiwa, Rudzani; Mteshana, Phindile

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Accurate etiological diagnosis of meningitis is important, but difficult in resource-limited settings due to prior administration of antibiotics and lack of viral diagnostics. We aimed to develop and validate 2 real-time multiplex PCR (RT-PCR) assays for the detection of common causes of community-acquired bacterial and viral meningitis in South African children. Methods We developed 2 multiplex RT- PCRs for detection of S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, enteroviruses, mumps virus and herpes simplex virus. We tested residual CSF samples from children presenting to a local paediatric hospital over a one-year period, whose CSF showed an abnormal cell count. Results were compared with routine diagnostic tests and the final discharge diagnosis. We calculated accuracy of the bacterial RT-PCR assay compared to CSF culture and using World Health Organisation definitions of laboratory-confirmed bacterial meningitis. Results From 292 samples, bacterial DNA was detected in 12 (4.1%) and viral nucleic acids in 94 (32%). Compared to CSF culture, the sensitivity and specificity of the bacterial RT-PCR was 100% and 97.2% with complete agreement in organism identification. None of the cases positive by viral RT-PCR had a bacterial cause confirmed on CSF culture. Only 9/90 (10%) of patients diagnosed clinically as bacterial meningitis or partially treated bacterial meningitis tested positive with the bacterial RT-PCR. Discussion In this population the use of 2 multiplex RT-PCRs targeting 6 common pathogens gave promising results. If introduced into routine diagnostic testing, these multiplex RT-PCR assays would supplement other diagnostic tests, and have the potential to limit unnecessary antibiotic therapy and hospitalisation. PMID:28346504

  7. Detection of D151G/N mutations in the neuraminidase gene of influenza A (H3N2) viruses by real-time RT-PCR allelic discrimination assay.

    PubMed

    Zadeh, Vahid Rajabali; Jagadesh, Anitha; Krishnan, Anjana; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2017-07-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at D151 position of neuraminidase (NA) gene of influenza A (H3N2) virus has been associated with drug resistance and increased binding affinity. NA-D151G/N-substitutions of influenza A (H3N2) viruses are frequently induced and selected by culturing in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines. It is important to consider and exclude D151G/N mutants after isolation of influenza virus in MDCK cell line; since, the substitutions can highly influence the results of experimental research. The study aims to develop an allelic discrimination real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the screening of D151G/N mutants. Thirty-six influenza A (H3N2) virus isolates were included and screened for D151G/N mutants using allelic discrimination assay. Out of the 36 isolates, 11 isolates (30.5%) were detected as heterozygous for D and G/N substitutions. Twenty-one (58.3%) isolates were identified as homozygous wild type and four isolates (11.1%) were undetermined. Isolates with substitutions at D151 position were sequenced by Sanger sequencing method. The present study demonstrates a rapid and convenient method for primary screening of the mutation after culturing of the influenza virus in MDCK cell lines in order to avoid potential misinterpretations of results and improve the quality of experimental research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three papaya viruses.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-10-21

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay's specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya.

  9. Diagnosis of Kyasanur forest disease by nested RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR and IgM capture ELISA.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Mehla, Rajeev; Barde, Pradip V; Yergolkar, Prasanna N; Kumar, Sandeep R P; Thakare, Jyotsna P; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2012-12-01

    Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by infection by a Flavivirus, a member of the family Flaviviridae. KFD is a public health concern in the Karnataka State in southern India. Available conventional diagnostic tests such as virus isolation and serological tests, such as haemagglutination inhibition and complement fixation tests are time consuming. This study reports the development of a nested RT-PCR [nRT-PCR] and a TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR and IgM antibodies capture ELISA [MAC-ELISA] for rapid and accurate diagnosis of suspected KFD cases. The nRT-PCR and the TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR assays were developed using gene sequences of the NS-5/non-coding region. Both the assays detected KFD viral RNA in acute phase human serum samples and can provide early diagnosis of infection. Real-time RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than nRT-PCR, which could detect 38 copies of KFDV RNA. MAC-ELISA was developed for the detection of recent infections. Although real-time RT-PCR and nRT-PCR require expensive reagents, expensive equipment and trained personnel, the developed MAC-ELISA can be used easily in the affected areas. These tests add to the existing diagnosis arsenal against haemorrhagic viruses that are prevalent in India. These assays will also help to extend our knowledge of the pathology of KFD virus and its associated clinical features, by measuring the viral titre during infection and at the time of seroconversion. Information, which is not available currently because of the lack of appropriate diagnostic methods. In addition, early laboratory diagnosis of KFDV infection will help in the application of appropriate control measures and management of KFD cases.

  10. Development and Validation of a Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Three Papaya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay’s specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

  11. Narcissus yellow stripe virus and Narcissus mosaic virus detection in Narcissus via multiplex TaqMan-based reverse transcription-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Jin, J; Shen, J G; Cai, W; Xie, G H; Liao, F R; Gao, F L; Ma, J F; Chen, X H; Wu, Z J

    2017-05-01

    Development of a multiplex TaqMan RT-qPCR assay to simultaneously detect Narcissus yellow stripe virus (NYSV) and Narcissus mosaic virus (NMV), frequently causing mixed narcissus infection. Feasibility verification was confirmed in natural samples. Primers and probes were designed based on the conserved CP gene regions of NYSV or NMV and their suitability for singleplex and multiplex TaqMan RT-qPCR assays as well as for conventional RT-PCR. Conventional RT-PCR, singleplex and multiplex TaqMan RT-qPCR assays proved to be NYSV and NMV specific. P-values and coefficients of variation of TaqMan RT-qPCR assays indicated high reproducibility. Significantly increased sensitivity was achieved compared to conventional RT-PCR. The detection limit of both viruses was 10(3) copies with superior correlation coefficients and linear standard curve responses between plasmid concentrations and Ct values. NYSV and NMV infection of narcissus leaves, petals and bulbs could successfully be detected via our multiplex RT-qPCR method at 1·25 mg. Our multiplex TaqMan RT-qPCR assay provides rapid, specific, sensitive and reliable testing to simultaneously detect NYSV and NMV, supplying useful routine monitoring for different narcissus samples. Efficient identification and discrimination of the narcissus viruses provides reliable information for scientists and conventional growers. Furthermore, it enriches the information of NYSV, NMV and other narcissus viruses. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Type A influenza virus detection from horses by real-time RT-PCR and insulated isothermal RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2014-01-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious disease of horses caused by the equine influenza virus (EIV) H3N8 subtype. EI is the most important respiratory virus infection of horses and can disrupt major equestrian events and cause significant economic losses to the equine industry worldwide. Influenza H3N8 virus spreads rapidly in susceptible horses and can result in very high morbidity within 24-48 h after exposure to the virus. Therefore, rapid and accurate diagnosis of EI is critical for implementation of prevention and control measures to avoid the spread of EIV and to reduce the economic impact of the disease. The probe-based real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays targeting various EIV genes are reported to be highly sensitive and specific compared to the Directigen Flu A(®) test and virus isolation in embryonated hens' eggs. Recently, a TaqMan(®) probe-based insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay for the detection of EIV H3N8 subtype has been described. These molecular based diagnostic assays provide a fast and reliable means of EIV detection and disease surveillance.

  13. Development of a multiplex PCR assay to detect gastroenteric pathogens in the feces of Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Tolentino-Ruiz, R; Montoya-Varela, D; García-Espitia, M; Salas-Benito, M; Gutiérrez-Escolano, A; Gómez-García, C; Figueroa-Arredondo, P; Salas-Benito, J; De Nova-Ocampo, M

    2012-10-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide; the etiology of AGE includes viruses, bacteria, and parasites. A multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously identify human Astrovirus (HAstV), Calicivirus (HuCVs), Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica), and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) in stool samples is described. A total of 103 samples were individually analyzed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) and RT-PCR/PCR. HAstV and HuCVs were detected in four out of 103 samples (3.8 %) by RT-PCR, but ELISAs found only one sample as positive for HuCVs (2.5 %). E. histolytica was identified in two out of 19 samples (10.5 %) and EIEC in 13 out of 20 samples (70 %) by PCR, and all PCR products were sequenced to verify their identities. Our multiplex PCR results demonstrate the simultaneous amplification of different pathogens such as HAstV, EIEC, and E. histolytica in the same reaction, though the HuCVs signal was weak in every replicate. Regardless, this multiplex PCR protocol represents a novel tool for the identification of distinct pathogens and may provide support for the diagnosis of AGE in children.

  14. Direct in situ rt-PCR.

    PubMed

    Lossi, Laura; Gambino, Graziana; Salio, Chiara; Merighi, Adalberto

    2011-01-01

    In situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a histological technique that exploits the advantages of PCR for detection of mRNA directly in tissue sections. It somehow conjugates together PCR and in situ hybridization that is more traditionally employed for mRNA localization in cell organelles, intact cells, or tissue sections. This chapter describes the application of in situ PCR for neuropeptide mRNA localization. We provide here a detailed protocol for direct in situ reverse transcription (RT) PCR (RT-PCR) with nonradioactive probes after fixation and paraffin embedding or cryosectioning. Digoxigenin-labeled nucleotides (digoxigenin-11-dUTP) are incorporated in the PCR product after RT and subsequently detected with an anti-digoxigenin antibody conjugated with alkaline phosphatase. The procedure can be modified for use with fluorescent probes and employed in combination with enzyme/fluorescence immunocytochemical labeling.

  15. [Protein biomarker measurement and simple/rapid diagnostics with supersensitive and multiplex assay, MUSTag technology].

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Futoshi; Morizane, Yoshihito; Makisaka, Noriko

    2009-11-01

    Recently, we face the rapid progression of an aging population, and so the importance of preventive medicine is growing. We would all like to pursue a healthy life during old age through effective treatment on the basis of the early detection of diseases. In this situation, we have developed MUSTag (Multiple Simultaneous Tag) assay technology through an innovative modification of the immuno-PCR method for the super-sensitive and multiplex detection of target biomarkers. In MUSTag technology, each different oligo-tag simultaneously detects multiplex protein targets with extremely high-level sensitivity (more than 10 fg(10(-15) g)/ml) in a dose-dependent manner by qRT-PCR (maximum: 3 plexes). Herein we report our recent results of multiple cytokine assays or disease-specific biomarker assays using MUSTag technology, and, further, clinical results from patients with cancer, ischemic brain, or heart attack, who need a prompt and predictive diagnosis for adequate treatment.

  16. Simultaneous detection of three lily viruses using Triplex IC-RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Yajun; Xie, Zhongkui; Yang, Guo; Guo, Zhihong; Wang, Le

    2017-08-25

    Viruses commonly infecting lily (Lilium spp.) include: Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Lily mottle virus (LMoV). These viruses usually co-infect lilies causing severe economic losses in terms of quantity and quality of flower and bulb production around the world. Reliable and precise detection systems need to be developed for virus identification. We describe the development of a triplex immunocapture (IC) reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV. The triplex IC-RT-PCR was compared with a quadruplex RT-PCR assay. Relative to the quadruplex RT-PCR, the specificity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system for LSV, CMV and LMoV was 100% for field samples. The sensitivity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system was 99.4%, 81.4% and 98.7% for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. Agreement (κ) between the results obtained from the two tests was 0.968, 0.844 and 0.984 for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. This is the first report of the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV in a triplex IC-RT-PCR assay. In particular we believe this convenient and reliable triplex IC-RT-PCR method could be used routinely for large-scale field surveys or crop health monitoring of lily. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Comparative detection of rotavirus RNA by conventional RT-PCR, TaqMan RT-PCR and real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qiu-Hua; Wang, Hai-Bo; Tan, Hua; Wu, Bi-Mei; Feng, Zi-Li; Wang, Qi; Lin, Ji-Can; Yang, Ze

    2015-03-01

    Rotavirus is one of the major viral pathogens leading to diarrhea. Diagnosis has been conducted by either traditional cultural, serological methods or molecular biology techniques, which include RT-PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA). However, their differences regarding accuracy and sensitivity remain unknown. In this study, an in-house conventional RT-PCR assay and more importantly, an in-house real-time NASBA (RT-NASBA) were established, and compared with a commercial TaqMan RT-PCR assay. The results showed that all of these methods were able to detect and distinguish rotavirus from other diarrhea viruses with a 100% concordance rate during the course of an evaluation on 20 clinical stool samples. However, RT-NASBA was much quicker than the other two methods. More importantly, the limit of detection of RT-NASBA could reach seven copies per reaction and was one to two logs lower than that of conventional RT-PCR and TaqMan RT-PCR. These results indicate that this in-house assay was more sensitive, and thus could be used as an efficient diagnosis tool for rotavirus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct comparison among three different assays for the detection of rotavirus. These findings would provide implication for the rational selection of diagnosis tool for rotavirus.

  18. design of multiplexed detection assays for identification of avian influenza a virus subtypes pathogenic to humans by SmartCycler real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ren, Peijun; Mardi, Sek; Hou, Lili; Tsai, Cheguo; Chan, Kwok Hung; Cheng, Peter; Sheng, Jun; Buchy, Philippe; Sun, Bing; Toyoda, Tetsuya; Lim, Wilina; Peiris, J S Malik; Zhou, Paul; Deubel, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) epidemics are the result of human-to-human or poultry-to-human transmission. Tracking seasonal outbreaks of IAV and other avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes that can infect humans, aquatic and migratory birds, poultry, and pigs is essential for epidemiological surveillance and outbreak alerts. In this study, we performed four real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for identification of the IAV M and hemagglutinin (HA) genes from six known AIVs infecting pigs, birds, and humans. IAV M1 gene-positive samples tested by single-step rRT-PCR and a fluorogenic Sybr green I detection system were further processed for H5 subtype identification by using two-primer-set multiplex and Sybr green I rRT-PCR assays. H5 subtype-negative samples were then tested with either a TaqMan assay for subtypes H1 and H3 or a TaqMan assay for subtypes H2, H7, and H9 and a beacon multiplex rRT-PCR identification assay. The four-tube strategy was able to detect 10 RNA copies of the HA genes of subtypes H1, H2, H3, H5, and H7 and 100 RNA copies of the HA gene of subtype H9. At least six H5 clades of H5N1 viruses isolated in Southeast Asia and China were detected by that test. Using rRT-PCR assays for the M1 and HA genes in 202 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from children with acute respiratory infections, we identified a total of 39 samples positive for the IAV M1 gene and subtypes H1 and H3. When performed with a portable SmartCycler instrument, the assays offer an efficient, flexible, and reliable platform for investigations of IAV and AIV in remote hospitals and in the field.

  19. Development of a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the differential diagnosis of Feline leukemia virus vaccine and wild strains.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia-Fang; Chan, Kun-Wei; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Chung, Yang-Tsung; Kuo, James; Wang, Chi-Young

    2014-07-01

    A multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (ARMS RT-PCR) was developed for the differential diagnosis of Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccine and wild-type strains based on a point mutation between the vaccine strain (S) and the wild-type strain (T) located in the p27 gene. This system was further upgraded to obtain a real-time ARMS RT-PCR (ARMS qRT-PCR) with a high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) platform. The genotyping of various strains of FeLV was determined by comparing the HRMA curves with the defined wild-type FeLV (strain TW1), and the results were expressed as a percentage confidence. The detection limits of ARMS RT-PCR and ARMS qRT-PCR combined with HRMA were 100 and 1 copies of transcribed FeLV RNA per 0.5 ml of sample, respectively. No false-positive results were obtained with 6 unrelated pathogens and 1 feline cell line. Twelve FeLV Taiwan strains were correctly identified using ARMS qRT-PCR combined with HRMA. The genotypes of the strains matched the defined FeLV wild-type strain genotype with at least 91.17% confidence. A higher degree of sequence polymorphism was found throughout the p27 gene compared with the long terminal repeat region. In conclusion, the current study describes the phylogenetic relationship of the FeLV Taiwan strains and demonstrates that the developed ARMS RT-PCR assay is able to be used to detect the replication of a vaccine strain that has not been properly inactivated, thus acting as a safety check for the quality of FeLV vaccines.

  20. DETECTION OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES IN STREAM WATER WITH RT-PCR AND CELL CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multiplex RT-PCR method was used to measure virus occurrence at five stream water sites that span a range of hydroclimatic, water-quality, and land-use characteristics. The performance of the molecular method was evaluated in comparison to traditional cell culture and Escherich...

  1. DETECTION OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES IN STREAM WATER WITH RT-PCR AND CELL CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multiplex RT-PCR method was used to measure virus occurrence at five stream water sites that span a range of hydroclimatic, water-quality, and land-use characteristics. The performance of the molecular method was evaluated in comparison to traditional cell culture and Escherich...

  2. Simultaneous detection of papaya ringspot virus, papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, and papaya mosaic virus by multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Huo, P; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2015-12-01

    Both the single infection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) or papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and double infection of PRSV and PLDMV or PapMV which cause indistinguishable symptoms, threaten the papaya industry in Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect simultaneously the three viruses based on their distinctive melting temperatures (Tms): 81.0±0.8°C for PRSV, 84.7±0.6°C for PLDMV, and 88.7±0.4°C for PapMV. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR method was specific and sensitive in detecting the three viruses, with a detection limit of 1.0×10(1), 1.0×10(2), and 1.0×10(2) copies for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively. Indeed, the reaction was 100 times more sensitive than the multiplex RT-PCR for PRSV, and 10 times more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR for PLDMV. Field application of the multiplex real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that some non-symptomatic samples were positive for PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR but negative by multiplex RT-PCR, whereas some samples were positive for both PRSV and PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay but only positive for PLDMV by multiplex RT-PCR. Therefore, this multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay provides a more rapid, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of PRSV, PLDMV, PapMV and their mixed infections in papaya.

  3. Real-time RT-PCR for the detection and quantitative analysis of equine rhinitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, M; Maxwell, G; Lyons, P; Arkins, S; Cullinane, A

    2010-03-01

    Equine rhinitis viruses (ERV) cause respiratory disease and loss of performance in horses. It has been suggested that the economic significance of these viruses may have been underestimated due to insensitive methods of detection. To develop a sensitive, rapid, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay suitable for the routine diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of the A and B variants of ERV. TaqMan primer probe sets for ERAV and ERBV were designed from conserved regions of the 5' UTR of the ERV genome. Over 400 samples from both clinically affected and asymptomatic horses were employed for validation of the assays. ERAV samples positive by rRT-PCR were verified by virus isolation and ERBV positive samples were verified by rRT-PCR using a different set of primers. The detection limit of the rRT-PCR for both viruses was 10-100 genome copies. Of 250 archival nasal swabs submitted for diagnostic testing over a 7 year period, 29 were ERAV positive and 3 were ERBV positive with an average incidence rate per year of 10 and 1.5%, respectively. There was evidence of co-circulation of ERAV and ERBV with equine influenza virus (EIV). Of 100 post race urine samples tested, 29 were ERAV positive by rRT-PCR. Partial sequencing of 2 ERBV positive samples demonstrated that one was 100% identical to ERBV1 from a 270 bp sequence and the other was more closely related to ERBV2 than ERBV1 (95% compared to 90% nucleotide identity in 178 bp). The rRT-PCR assays described here are specific and more sensitive than virus isolation. They have good reproducibility and are suitable for the routine diagnosis of ERAV and ERBV. These assays should be useful for investigating the temporal association between clinical signs and rhinitis virus shedding.

  4. [Detection and subgrouping of respiratory syncytial virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR].

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Hajime; Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Mizumura, Ayano; Kitahashi, Tomoko

    2012-09-01

    The TaqMan-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay we developed uses specific probes to identify respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and to distinguish RSV subgroups A (RSV-A) and B (RSV-B). We selected conserved regions of the F gene as assay targets and designed new primers and TaqMan MGB probes to detect RSV-A and B. RSV-A and B control plasmids confirmed real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) reactivity whose efficiency was 2.5 x 10(1) to 2.5 x 10(7) copies/tube. The assay detection limit was 10 to 10(2) times higher than that of the conventional RT-PCR assay and was equal to the nested PCR assay. No cross-reactions occurred against other respiratory viruses, including influenza virus, metapneumovirus, measles virus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus, echovirus, mumps virus, parainfluenza virus, and rhinovirus. Of 154 clinical specimens derived from subjects with acute respiratory infection and tested by using both real-time RT-PCR and nested PCR, 40 were RSV-positive in both assays. Of these, 25 were identified as RSV-A and 15 as RSV-B by both assays. There was 100% concordance in RSV subgroup identification between real-time RT-PCR and nested PCR assays. These results indicate that our real-time RT-PCR assay can be used for rapid detection, quantitative analysis and subgrouping of RSV-A and RSV-B.

  5. Preamplification techniques for real-time RT-PCR analyses of endomyocardial biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Noutsias, Michel; Rohde, Maria; Block, Andrea; Klippert, Katrin; Lettau, Olga; Blunert, Katja; Hummel, Michael; Kühl, Uwe; Lehmkuhl, Hans; Hetzer, Roland; Rauch, Ursula; Poller, Wolfgang; Pauschinger, Matthias; Schultheiss, Heinz P; Volk, Hans D; Kotsch, Katja

    2008-01-01

    Background Due to the limited RNA amounts from endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) and low expression levels of certain genes, gene expression analyses by conventional real-time RT-PCR are restrained in EMBs. We applied two preamplification techniques, the TaqMan® PreAmp Master Mix (T-PreAmp) and a multiplex preamplification following a sequence specific reverse transcription (SSRT-PreAmp). Results T-PreAmp encompassing 92 gene assays with 14 cycles resulted in a mean improvement of 7.24 ± 0.33 Ct values. The coefficients for inter- (1.89 ± 0.48%) and intra-assay variation (0.85 ± 0.45%) were low for all gene assays tested (<4%). The PreAmp uniformity values related to the reference gene CDKN1B for 91 of the investigated gene assays (except for CD56) were -0.38 ± 0.33, without significant differences between self-designed and ABI inventoried Taqman® gene assays. Only two of the tested Taqman® ABI inventoried gene assays (HPRT-ABI and CD56) did not maintain PreAmp uniformity levels between -1.5 and +1.5. In comparison, the SSRT-PreAmp tested on 8 self-designed gene assays yielded higher Ct improvement (9.76 ± 2.45), however was not as robust regarding the maintenance of PreAmp uniformity related to HPRT-CCM (-3.29 ± 2.40; p < 0.0001), and demonstrated comparable intra-assay CVs (1.47 ± 0.74), albeit higher inter-assay CVs (5.38 ± 2.06; p = 0.01). Comparing EMBs from each 10 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and inflammatory cardiomyopathy (DCMi), T-PreAmp real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed differential regulation regarding 27 (30%) of the investigated 90 genes related to both HPRT-CCM and CDKN1B. Ct values of HPRT and CDKN1B did not differ in equal RNA amounts from explanted DCM and donor hearts. Conclusion In comparison to the SSRT-PreAmp, T-PreAmp enables a relatively simple workflow, and results in a robust PreAmp of multiple target genes (at least 92 gene assays as tested here) by a mean Ct improvement around 7 cycles, and in a lower inter-assay

  6. Simple multiplex RT-PCR for identifying common fusion BCR-ABL transcript types and evaluation of molecular response of the a2b2 and a2b3 transcripts to Imatinib resistance in north Indian chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Mir, Rashid; Ahmad, I; Javid, J; Zuberi, M; Yadav, P; Shazia, R; Masroor, M; Guru, S; Ray, P C; Gupta, N; Saxena, A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the Philadelphia chromosome, an abnormally shortened chromosome 22. It is the result of a reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, creating BCR-ABL fusion transcripts, b3a2, b2a2, and e1a2. The aim of our study was to determine the type of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts for molecular diagnosis and investigate the frequency of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts in CML patients by multiplex RT-PCR in CML. A single reaction with multiple primers multiplex PCR was used to detect and investigate the type and frequency in 200 CML patients among which 116, 33, and 51 were in CP, AP, and BC phase, respectively. The study included 200 CML patients, among whom breakpoints in b3a2, b2a2 transcripts were detected in 68% and 24%, respectively, while 8% of the patients showed both b3a2/b2a2. A statistically significant difference was seen between frequency of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts and gender (P = 0.03), molecular response (P = 0.04), and hematological response (P = 0.05). However, there was no correlation found between frequencies of BCR-/ABL fusion transcripts and other clinicopathological parameters like age, type of therapy, thrombocytopenia, and white blood cell count. Multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction is useful and saves time in the detection of BCR-ABL variants; the occurrence of these transcripts associated with CML can assist in prognosis and treatment of disease.

  7. Multiplexed Molecular Assays for Rapid Rule-Out of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-Arani, P; Thissen, J; Olivas, J; Carillo, C; Chinn, C; Rasmussen, M; Messenger, S; Suer, L; Smith, S M; Tammero, L; Vitalis, E; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; Hindson, B J; Hietala, S; Crossley, B; Mcbride, M

    2007-06-26

    A nucleic acid-based multiplexed assay was developed that combines detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) with rule-out assays for two other foreign animal diseases and four domestic animal diseases that cause vesicular or ulcerative lesions indistinguishable from FMDV infection in cattle, sheep and swine. The FMDV 'look-alike' diagnostic assay panel contains five PCR and twelve reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) signatures for a total of seventeen simultaneous PCR amplifications for seven diseases plus incorporating four internal assay controls. It was developed and optimized to amplify both DNA and RNA viruses simultaneously in a single tube and employs Luminex{trademark} liquid array technology. Assay development including selection of appropriate controls, a comparison of signature performance in single and multiplex testing against target nucleic acids, as well of limits of detection for each of the individual signatures is presented. While this assay is a prototype and by no means a comprehensive test for FMDV 'look-alike' viruses, an assay of this type is envisioned to have benefit to a laboratory network in routine surveillance and possibly for post-outbreak proof of freedom from foot-and-mouth disease.

  8. Prognostic Value of RT-PCR Tyrosinase Detection in Peripheral Blood of Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Esmeralda; Prados, José; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Boulaiz, Houria; Martínez, Antonio; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando; Caba, Octavio; Serrano, Salvio; Aránega, Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) prognosis has been related to tumour thickness and clinical stage and metastasis risk has been associated with presence of tumour cells in peripheral blood. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between presence of tyrosinase in peripheral blood of MM patients and their clinical prognosis. Blood samples from 58 MM patients (stage I–IV) were analysed, using RT-PCR assay to detect tyrosinase mRNA. The results showed that positive RT-PCR assay for tyrosinase were significantly associated with clinical status and tumour thickness. After a median follow-up of 24 months, RT-PCR results were found to be significant correlated with recurrence (p < 0.05) and clinical stage III (p < 0.05). Separate analysis of stage III tumours to determine the prognostic value of tyrosinase presence in peripheral blood showed an overall 24-month survival rate of 70% in the RT-PCR negative group versus 10% in the positive group (p < 0.02). These results suggest that detection of circulating melanoma cells may be especially relevant in stage III patients, in whom RT-PCR positivity defines a subpopulation at high risk of recurrence. PMID:16788251

  9. Detection of human enteric viruses in stream water with RT-PCR and cell culture.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denis-Mize, K.; Fout, G.S.; Dahling, D.R.; Francy, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    A multiplex RT-PCR method was used to measure virus occurrence at five stream water sites that span a range of hydroclimatic, water-quality, and land-use characteristics. The performance of the molecular method was evaluated in comparison with traditional cell culture and Escherichia coli membrane filtration assays. The study incorporated multiple quality controls and included a control for virus recovery during the sampling procedure as well as controls to detect potentially false-negative and false-positive data. Poliovirus recovery ranged from 16 to 65% and was variable, even in samples collected within the same stream. All five sites were positive for viruses by both molecular and cell culture-based virus assays. Enteroviruses, reoviruses, rotaviruses, and hepatitis A viruses were detected, but the use of the quality controls proved critical for interpretation of the molecular data. All sites showed evidence of faecal contamination, and culturable viruses were detected in four samples that would have met the US Environmental Protection Agency's recommended E. coli guideline for safe recreational water.

  10. Global changes in gene expression, assayed by microarray hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR, during acclimation of three Arabidopsis thaliana accessions to sub-zero temperatures after cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Le, Mai Q; Pagter, Majken; Hincha, Dirk K

    2015-01-01

    During cold acclimation plants increase in freezing tolerance in response to low non-freezing temperatures. This is accompanied by many physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that have been extensively investigated. In addition, plants of many species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, become more freezing tolerant during exposure to mild, non-damaging sub-zero temperatures after cold acclimation. There is hardly any information available about the molecular basis of this adaptation. Here, we have used microarrays and a qRT-PCR primer platform covering 1,880 genes encoding transcription factors (TFs) to monitor changes in gene expression in the Arabidopsis accessions Columbia-0, Rschew and Tenela during the first 3 days of sub-zero acclimation at -3 °C. The results indicate that gene expression during sub-zero acclimation follows a tighly controlled time-course. Especially AP2/EREBP and WRKY TFs may be important regulators of sub-zero acclimation, although the CBF signal transduction pathway seems to be less important during sub-zero than during cold acclimation. Globally, we estimate that approximately 5% of all Arabidopsis genes are regulated during sub-zero acclimation. Particularly photosynthesis-related genes are down-regulated and genes belonging to the functional classes of cell wall biosynthesis, hormone metabolism and RNA regulation of transcription are up-regulated. Collectively, these data provide the first global analysis of gene expression during sub-zero acclimation and allow the identification of candidate genes for forward and reverse genetic studies into the molecular mechanisms of sub-zero acclimation.

  11. Comparison of electron microscopy, ELISA, real time RT-PCR and insulated isothermal RT-PCR for the detection of Rotavirus group A (RVA) in feces of different animal species.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Mohamed A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-09-01

    There is no gold standard for detection of Rotavirus Group A (RVA), one of the main causes of diarrhea in neonatal animals. Sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assays are available for RVA but require submission of the clinical samples to diagnostic laboratories. Patient-side immunoassays for RVA protein detection have shown variable results, particularly with samples from unintended species. A sensitive and specific test for detection of RVA on the farm would facilitate rapid management decisions. The insulated isothermal RT-PCR (RT-iiPCR) assay works in a portable machine to allow sensitive and specific on-site testing. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate a commercially available RT-iiPCR assay for RVA detection in feces from different animal species. This assay was compared to an in-house rtRT-PCR assay and a commercially available rtRT-PCR kit, as well as an ELISA and EM for RVA detection. All three PCR assays targeted the well-conserved NSP5 gene. Clinical fecal samples from 108 diarrheic animals (mainly cattle and horses) were tested. The percentage of positive samples by ELISA, EM, in-house rtRT-PCR, commercial rtRT-PCR, and RT-iiPCR was 29.4%, 31%, 36.7%, 51.4%, 56.9%, respectively. The agreement between different assays was high (81.3-100%) in samples containing high viral loads. The sensitivity of the RT-iiPCR assay appeared to be higher than the commercially available rtRT-PCR assay, with a limit of detection (95% confidence index) of 3-4 copies of in vitro transcribed dsRNA. In conclusion, the user-friendly, field-deployable RT-iiPCR system holds substantial promise for on-site detection of RVA.

  12. Detection of Zika virus by SYBR green one-step real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Yue; Liu, Si-Qing; Deng, Cheng-Lin; Zhang, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has rapidly spread to new areas of Americas, which were the first transmissions outside its traditional endemic areas in Africa and Asia. Due to the link with newborn defects and neurological disorder, numerous infected cases throughout the world and various mosquito vectors, the virus has been considered to be an international public health emergency. In the present study, we developed a SYBR Green based one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid detection of ZIKV. Our results revealed that the real-time assay is highly specific and sensitive in detection of ZIKV in cell samples. Importantly, the replication of ZIKV at different time points in infected cells could be rapidly monitored by the real-time RT-PCR assay. Specifically, the real-time RT-PCR showed acceptable performance in measurement of infectious ZIKV RNA. This assay could detect ZIKV at a titer as low as 1PFU/mL. The real-time RT-PCR assay could be a useful tool for further virology surveillance and diagnosis of ZIKV.

  13. Detection and identification of infectious bronchitis virus by RT-PCR in Iran.

    PubMed

    Homayounimehr, Alireza; Pakbin, Ahmad; Momayyez, Reza; Fatemi, Seyyedeh Mahsa Rastegar

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe diseases in poultry with significant economic consequences to the poultry industry in Iran. The aim of this study was the detection and identification of IBV by reverse transcription(RT)-PCR in Iran. Ten IB virus strains were detected by testing trachea, cecal tonsil, and kidney tissues collected from broiler and layer farms in Iran. In order to detect infectious bronchitis virus, an optimized RT-PCR was used. Primers targeting the conserved region of known IBV serotypes were used in the RT-PCR assay. Primers selectively detecting Massachusetts and 793/B type IB viruses were designed to amplify the S1 gene of the virus and used in the nested PCR test. Our findings indicate the circulation of at least three genotypes of IB viruses (Massachusetts, 793/B, and variant 2) among poultry flocks.

  14. Detection and typing of human-infecting influenza viruses in China by using a multiplex DNA biochip assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongqiang; Qu, Jiuxin; Ba, Qi; Dong, Jiuhong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Aiping; Wang, Dayan; Xia, Zanxian; Peng, Daxin; Shu, Yuelong; Cao, Bin; Jiang, Taijiao

    2016-08-01

    Rapid identification of the infections of specific subtypes of influenza viruses is critical for patient treatment and pandemic control. Here we report the application of multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) coupled with membrane-based DNA biochip to the detection and discrimination of the type (A and B) and subtype (human H1N1, human H3N2, avian H5N1 and avian H7N9) of influenza viruses in circulation in China. A multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay was designed to simultaneously amplify the HA and NA genes of the four subtypes of influenza A viruses and NS genes to discriminate type A and B viruses. PCR products were analyzed by a membrane-based biochip. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was determined at a range of 2-100 copies/reactions for each of the gene transcripts. Eighty one clinical samples, containing 66 positive samples with evident seasonal influenza virus infections, were tested, which gives the clinical sensitivity and specificity of 95.5% and 100% respectively. For the avian influenza samples, 3 out of 4 H5N1 samples and 2 out of 2 H7N9 avian samples were correctly identified. We argue this method could allow a rapid, reliable and inexpensive detection and differentiation of human-infecting influenza viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR for rapid detection, quantitation and diagnosis of unclassified bovine enteric calicivirus.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ik; Park, Da-Hae; Saif, Linda J; Jeong, Young-Ju; Shin, Dong-Jun; Chun, Young-Hyun; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Hosmillo, Myra; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Kang, Mun-Il; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2009-07-01

    Unclassified bovine enteric calicivirus (BECV) is a newly recognized bovine enteric calicivirus that differs from bovine norovirus, and which causes diarrhea in the small intestines of calves. To date, methods such as real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) have not been developed for the rapid detection, quantitation and diagnosis of BECV. Presently, a BECV-specific SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay was evaluated and optimized. Diarrheic specimens (n=118) collected from 2004 to 2005 were subjected to RT-PCR, nested PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR. By conventional RT-PCR and nested PCR, 9 (7.6%) and 59 (50%) samples tested positive, respectively, whereas the SYBR Green assay detected BECV in 91 (77.1%) samples. Using BECV RNA standards generated by in vitro transcription, the SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay sensitively detected BECV RNA to 1.1 x 10(0)copies/microl (correlation coefficiency=0.98). The detection limits of the RT-PCR and nested PCR were 1.1 x 10(5) and 1.1 x 10(2)copies/microl, respectively. These results indicate that the SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay is more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and nested PCR assays, and has potential as a reliable, reproducible, specific, sensitive and rapid tool for the detection, quantitation and diagnosis of unclassified BECV.

  16. Predicting Gene Structures from Multiple RT-PCR Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, Jakub; Vinař, Tomáš; Brejová, Broňa

    It has been demonstrated that the use of additional information such as ESTs and protein homology can significantly improve accuracy of gene prediction. However, many sources of external information are still being omitted from consideration. Here, we investigate the use of product lengths from RT-PCR experiments in gene finding. We present hardness results and practical algorithms for several variants of the problem and apply our methods to a real RT-PCR data set in the Drosophila genome. We conclude that the use of RT-PCR data can improve the sensitivity of gene prediction and locate novel splicing variants.

  17. Quantitative RT-PCR for titration of replication-defective recombinant Semliki Forest virus.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Ana L P; Rezende, Alexandre G; Jorge, Soraia A C; Wagner, Renaud; Pereira, Carlos A; Astray, Renato M

    2013-11-01

    Virus titration may constitute a drawback in the development and use of replication-defective viral vectors like Semliki Forest virus (SFV). The standardization and validation of a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) method for SFV titration is presented here. The qRT-PCR target is located within the nsp1 gene of the non-structural polyprotein SFV region (SFV RNA), which allows the strategy to be used for several different recombinant SFV constructs. Titer determinations were carried out by performing virus titration and infection assays with SFVs containing an RNA coding region for the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). Results showed that the standardized qRT-PCR is applicable for different SFV constructs, and showed good reproducibility. To evaluate the correlation between the amount of functional SFV RNA in a virus lot and its infectivity in BHK-21 cell cultures, a temperature mediated titer decrease was performed and successfully quantitated by qRT-PCR. When used for cell infection at the same multiplicity of infection (MOI), the temperature treated SFV-RVGP samples induced the same levels of RVGP expression. Similarly, when different SFV-GFP lots with different virus titers, as accessed by qRT-PCR, were used for cell infection at the same MOI, the cultures showed comparable amounts of fluorescent cells. The data demonstrate a good correlation between the amount of virus used for infection, as measured by its SFV RNA, and the protein synthesis in the cells. In conclusion, the qRT-PCR method developed here is accurate and enables the titration of replication-defective SFV vectors, an essential aid for viral vector development as well as for establishment of production bioprocesses.

  18. Duplex-immunocapture-RT-PCR for detection and discrimination of two distinct potyviruses naturally infecting sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ch V Subba; Sreenivasulu, P; Sekhar, G

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive duplex-immunocapture-RT-PCR (D-IC-RT-PCR) technique was developed for detection and discrimination of taxonomically distinct Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) that naturally infect sugarcane. D-IC-RT-PCR was performed using polyclonal antisera for capture of virions. Oligo 5'-d(T)18(AGC)-3' as a common reverse primer for both viruses and virus specific forward primers, 5'-AAGTGGTTAAACGCCTGTGG-3' and 5'-ATGTC(GA)AAGAA(GA)ATGCGCTTGC-3' were used for amplifying approximately 1400 and approximately 900 bp fragments of SCSMV and SCMV genomes, respectively from their 3' termini. To assess the applicability of the developed technique, 67 mosaic affected sugarcane samples were initially screened by direct antigen coating-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) followed by D-IC-RT-PCR. In DAC-ELISA, approximately 69% of tested samples were shown to be positive for presence of SCSMV, approximately 28% for SCMV and approximately 10% for both viruses. In D-IC-RT-PCR both viruses were detected up to the dilution of 10(-4). In D-IC-RT-PCR, approximately 76% of tested samples were found to be positive for SCSMV, approximately 37% for SCMV and approximately 16% for both viruses. The sequence analyses of D-IC-RT-PCR amplicons of 3 isolates of each virus revealed that the designed primers were virus-specific. The developed technique had potential application for sensitive parallel detection of two viruses in sugarcane.

  19. Development and Validation of a Quantitative, One-Step, Multiplex, Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay for Detection of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Todd; Guevara, Carolina; Jungkind, Donald; Williams, Maya; Houng, Huo-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are important human pathogens with common transmission vectors and similar clinical presentations. Patient care may be impacted by the misdiagnosis of DENV and CHIKV in areas where both viruses cocirculate. In this study, we have developed and validated a one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) to simultaneously detect, quantify, and differentiate between four DENV serotypes (pan-DENV) and chikungunya virus. The assay uses TaqMan technology, employing two forward primers, three reverse primers, and four fluorophore-labeled probes in a single-reaction format. Coextracted and coamplified RNA was used as an internal control (IC), and in vitro-transcribed DENV and CHIKV RNAs were used to generate standard curves for absolute quantification. The diagnostic 95% limits of detection (LOD) within the linear range were 50 and 60 RNA copies/reaction for DENV (serotypes 1 to 4) and CHIKV, respectively. Our assay was able to detect 53 different strains of DENV, representing four serotypes, and six strains of CHIKV. No cross-reactivity was observed with related flaviviruses and alphaviruses, To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, 89 clinical samples positive or negative for DENV (serotypes 1 to 4) and CHIKV by the standard virus isolation method were tested in our assay. The multiplex RT-PCR assay showed 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity for DENV and 100% sensitivity and specificity for CHIKV. With an assay turnaround time of less than 2 h, including extraction of RNA, the multiplex quantitative RT-PCR assay provides rapid diagnosis for the differential detection of two clinically indistinguishable diseases, whose geographical occurrence is increasingly overlapping. PMID:27098955

  20. Field evaluation of an open and polyvalent universal HIV-1/SIVcpz/SIVgor quantitative RT-PCR assay for HIV-1 viral load monitoring in comparison to Abbott RealTime HIV-1 in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Guichet, Emilande; Aghokeng, Avelin; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Vidal, Nicole; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Ciaffi, Laura; Peeters, Martine

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing demand of HIV viral load (VL) tests in resource-limited countries (RLCs) there is a need for assays at affordable cost and able to quantify all known HIV-1 variants. VLs obtained with a recently developed open and polyvalent universal HIV-1/SIVcpz/SIVgor RT-qPCR were compared to Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay in Cameroon. On 474 plasma samples, characterized by a wide range of VLs and a broad HIV-1 group M genetic diversity, 97.5% concordance was observed when using the lower detection limit of each assay. When using the threshold of 3.00 log10 copies/mL, according to WHO guidelines to define virological failure (VF) in RLCs, the concordance was 94.7%, 360/474 versus 339/474 patients were identified with VF with the new assay and Abbott RealTime HIV-1, respectively. Higher VLs were measured with the new assay, +0.47 log10 copies/mL (95% CI; 0.42-0.52) as shown with Bland-Altman analysis. Eleven samples from patients on VF with drug resistance were not detected by Abbott RealTime HIV-1 versus two only with the new assay. Overall, our study showed that the new assay can be easily implemented in a laboratory in RLCs with VL experience and showed good performance on a wide diversity of HIV-1 group M variants.

  1. Development and Characterization of Probe-Based Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Serotyping of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Viruses Circulating in West Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Syed M; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and virus serotyping are of paramount importance for control of this disease in endemic areas where vaccination is practiced. Ideally this virus characterization should be achieved without the need for virus amplification in cell culture. Due to the heterogeneity of FMD viruses (FMDVs) in different parts of the world, region specific diagnostic tests are required. In this study, hydrolysable probe-based real time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays were developed for specific detection and serotyping of the FMDVs currently circulating in West Eurasia. These assays were evaluated, in parallel with pan-FMDV diagnostic assays and earlier serotype-specific assays, using field samples originating from Pakistan and Afghanistan containing FMD viruses belonging to different sublineages of O-PanAsia, A-Iran05 and Asia-1 (Group-II and Group-VII (Sindh-08)). In addition, field samples from Iran and Bulgaria, containing FMDVs belonging to the O-PanAsiaANT-10 sublineage were also tested. Each of the three primer/probe sets was designed to be specific for just one of the serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of FMDV and detected the RNA from the target viruses with cycle threshold (CT) values comparable with those obtained with the serotype-independent pan-FMDV diagnostic assays. No cross-reactivity was observed in these assays between the heterotypic viruses circulating in the region. The assays reported here have higher diagnostic sensitivity (100% each for serotypes O and Asia-1, and 92% [95% CI = 81.4-100%] for serotype A positive samples) and specificity (100% each for serotypes O, A and Asia-1 positive samples) for the viruses currently circulating in West Eurasia compared to the serotyping assays reported earlier. Comparisons of the sequences of the primers and probes used in these assays and the corresponding regions of the circulating viruses provided explanations for the poor

  2. Serogrouping of United States and some African serotypes of bluetongue virus using RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Aradaib, Imadeldin E; Mohamed, Mohamed E H; Abdalla, Tamadour M; Sarr, Joesph; Abdalla, Mohamed A; Yousof, Mohamed A M; Hassan, Yahia A; Karrar, Abdel Rahim E

    2005-12-20

    The diagnostic potential of RT-PCR for detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequence in cell culture and tissue samples from infected ruminants from United States, Sudan, South Africa and Senegal, was evaluated. The non structural protein 1 (NS1) gene of North American BTV serotype 11 was targeted for PCR amplification. The United States BTV serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13 and 17 and the Sudanese BTV serotypes 1, 2, 4 and 16 and BTV serotype 4 from South Africa and BTV serotype 2 from Senegal were studied. RNAs from all BTV field isolates used in this study, propagated in cell cultures, were detected by the described RT-PCR-based assay. The first specific 790bp BTV PCR products were amplified using a pair of outer primers (BTV1 and BTV2). Specificity of the PCR products was confirmed by a nested amplification of a 520bp PCR product using a pair of internal (nested) primers (BTV3 and BTV4). The BTV PCR products were visualized on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. Amplification products were not detected when the RT-PCR-based assay was applied to RNAs from closely related orbiviruses including, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) prototypes serotypes 1, 2, 4; RNA from Sudanese isolate of palyam orbiviruses serogroup and total nucleic acid extracts from uninfected Vero cells. Application of the nested BTV RT-PCR to clinical samples resulted in amplification of BTV RNA from blood and serum samples from goats experimentally infected with BTV4 and from naturally infected sheep, goats, cattle and deer. The results of this study indicated that this RT-PCR assay could be applied for rapid detection of BTV, in cell culture and clinical samples from susceptible ruminants during an outbreak of the disease, in the United States and African.

  3. A modified molecular beacons-based multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of eight foodborne pathogens in a single reaction and its application.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinghua; Lyu, Dongyue; Shi, Xiaolu; Jiang, Yixiang; Lin, Yiman; Li, Yinghui; Qiu, Yaqun; He, Lianhua; Zhang, Ran; Li, Qingge

    2014-03-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are often caused by one of the major pathogens. Early identification of the causal pathogen is crucial for disease control and prevention. We describe a real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) assay that can identify, in a single reaction, up to eight common foodborne bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Shigella spp. This multiplex rtPCR assay takes advantage of modified molecular beacons and the multicolor combinational probe coding strategy to discriminate each pathogen and the homo-tag assisted non-dimer (HAND) system to prevent dimer formation. The detection limits of the assay ranged from 1.3×10(3) colony-forming units (CFU)/g stool (L. monocytogenes) to 1.6×10(4) CFU/g stool (Shigella spp.). The target genes were 100% specific as assessed on 986 reference strains covering 41 species since no cross-reactions were observed. The assay was applied to the detection of foodborne pathogens in 11,167 clinical samples and the results were compared with culture methods for further validation. The sensitivity and specificity of the rtPCR were 100% and 99%, respectively. When performed in a 96-well rtPCR system, more than 90 samples could be analyzed within 3 h. Given the high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and short turn-around time, the established assay could be used for the rapid and reliable identification of the causative pathogens responsible for a certain foodborne disease outbreak and rapid screening of these major foodborne pathogens in laboratory-based surveillance of outpatient clinical samples or even food samples.

  4. Development and evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Ebola virus (Zaire) during an Ebola outbreak in Guinea in 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Dedkov, V G; Magassouba, N' F; Safonova, M V; Deviatkin, A A; Dolgova, A S; Pyankov, O V; Sergeev, A A; Utkin, D V; Odinokov, G N; Safronov, V A; Agafonov, A P; Maleev, V V; Shipulin, G A

    2016-02-01

    In early February 2014, an outbreak of the Ebola virus disease caused by Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) occurred in Guinea; cases were also recorded in other West African countries with a combined population of approximately 25 million. A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for detecting EBOV is needed to effectively control such outbreak. Here, we report a real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay for Z. ebolavirus detection used by the Specialized Anti-epidemic Team of the Russian Federation during the Ebola virus disease prevention mission in the Republic of Guinea. The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 5 × 10(2) viral particles per ml, and high specificity is demonstrated using representative sampling of viral, bacterial and human nucleic acids. This assay can be applied successfully for detecting the West African strains of Z. ebolavirus as well as on strains isolated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2014.

  5. Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Marília Mendes Melo de; Tavares, Eder Torres; Silva, Felipe Rodrigues da; Marinho, Vera Lúcia de Almeida; Júnior, Manoel Teixeira Souza

    2007-12-01

    A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a "sticky" texture. In the field, disease symptoms are seen almost exclusively on fruit. However, infected plants can be a source of virus for dissemination by insects. Primers specific for PMeV were designed based on nucleotide sequences of the viral dsRNA obtained using a RT-RAPD approach. When tested for RT-PCR amplification, one of these primers (C05-3') amplified a 669-nucleotide fragment using dsRNA obtained from purified virus particles as a template. The translated sequence of this DNA fragment showed a certain degree of similarity to the amino acid sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from other dsRNA viruses. When used as the single primer in two RT-PCR kits available commercially, primer C05-3' also amplified the DNA fragment from papaya latex of infected, but not from healthy plants. The RT-PCR-based method developed in this study could simplify early plant disease diagnosis, assist in monitoring the dissemination of the pathogen within and between fields, and assist in guiding plant disease management.

  6. Comparison of the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay and Real-Time RT-PCR in the Detection of p53 Isoform mRNA Expression in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues- A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Morten, Brianna C.; Scott, Rodney J.; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    p53 is expressed as multiple smaller isoforms whose functions in cancer are not well understood. The p53 isoforms demonstrate abnormal expression in different cancers, suggesting they are important in modulating the function of full-length p53 (FLp53). The quantification of relative mRNA expression has routinely been performed using real-time PCR (qPCR). However, there are serious limitations when detecting p53 isoforms using this method, particularly for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. The use of FFPE tumours would be advantageous to correlate expression of p53 isoforms with important clinical features of cancer. One alternative method of RNA detection is the hybridization-based QuantiGene 2.0 Assay, which has been shown to be advantageous for the detection of RNA from FFPE tissues. In this pilot study, we compared the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay to qPCR for the detection of FLp53 and its isoform Δ40p53 in matched fresh frozen (FF) and FFPE breast tumours. FLp53 mRNA expression was detected using qPCR in FF and FFPE tissues, but Δ40p53 mRNA was only detectable in FF tissues. Similar results were obtained for the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay. FLp53 relative mRNA expression was shown to be strongly correlated between the two methods (R2 = 0.9927, p = 0.0031) in FF tissues, however Δ40p53 was not (R2 = 0.4429, p = 0.3345). When comparing the different methods for the detection of FLp53 mRNA from FFPE and FF samples, no correlation (R2 = 0.0002, p = 0.9863) was shown using the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay, and in contrast, the level of expression was highly correlated between the two tissues using qPCR (R2 = 0.8753, p = 0.0644). These results suggest that both the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay and qPCR methods are inadequate for the quantification of Δ40p53 mRNA in FFPE tissues. Therefore, alternative methods of RNA detection and quantification are required to study the relative expression of Δ40p53 in FFPE samples. PMID:27832134

  7. A multiplexed reverse transcriptase PCR assay for identification of viral respiratory pathogens at point-of-care

    SciTech Connect

    Letant, S E; .Ortiz, J I; Tammero, L; Birch, J M; Derlet, R W; Cohen, S; Manning, D; McBride, M T

    2007-04-11

    We have developed a nucleic acid-based assay that is rapid, sensitive, specific, and can be used for the simultaneous detection of 5 common human respiratory pathogens including influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza type 1 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus group B, C, and E. Typically, diagnosis on an un-extracted clinical sample can be provided in less than 3 hours, including sample collection, preparation, and processing, as well as data analysis. Such a multiplexed panel would enable rapid broad-spectrum pathogen testing on nasal swabs, and therefore allow implementation of infection control measures, and timely administration of antiviral therapies. This article presents a summary of the assay performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Limits of detection are provided for each targeted respiratory pathogen, and result comparisons are performed on clinical samples, our goal being to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the multiplexed assay to the combination of immunofluorescence and shell vial culture currently implemented at the UCDMC hospital. Overall, the use of the multiplexed RT-PCR assay reduced the rate of false negatives by 4% and reduced the rate of false positives by up to 10%. The assay correctly identified 99.3% of the clinical negatives, 97% of adenovirus, 95% of RSV, 92% of influenza B, and 77% of influenza A without any extraction performed on the clinical samples. The data also showed that extraction will be needed for parainfluenza virus, which was only identified correctly 24% of the time on un-extracted samples.

  8. VARIATION OF THE EXPRESSION OF ENDOGENOUS "HOUSEKEEPING" GENES IN B[A]P TREATED MOUSE LUNGS MEASURED BY qRT-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative RT-PCR is frequently used to analyze gene expression in different experimental systems. In this assay, housekeeping genes are frequently used to normalize for the variability between samples (relative quantification). We have examined the utility of using qRT-PCR and...

  9. VARIATION OF THE EXPRESSION OF ENDOGENOUS "HOUSEKEEPING" GENES IN B[A]P TREATED MOUSE LUNGS MEASURED BY qRT-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative RT-PCR is frequently used to analyze gene expression in different experimental systems. In this assay, housekeeping genes are frequently used to normalize for the variability between samples (relative quantification). We have examined the utility of using qRT-PCR and...

  10. Analytical and clinical performance of a Chikungunya qRT-PCR for Central and South America.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Thomas; Del Carmen Castillo Signor, Leticia; Williams, Christopher; Larcher, Clément; Espinel, Mauricio; Theaker, Jane; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis E; Adams, Emily R

    2017-09-01

    Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in 2015 causing a pandemic across the continent. Testing during the acute phase of infection relies on qRT-PCR, but available assays have a number of limitations. A qRT-PCR assay specific to the chikungunya E1 gene was designed using sequence data from contemporary strains. A probit analysis established the 95% limit of detection as 19.6 copies per reaction. We compared the assay with a US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) chikungunya qRT-PCR as the reference standard. The assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 98.4% and 100% in 90 samples retrospectively collected in Guatemala. In a further 74 febrile samples prospectively collected in Ecuador and Guatemala the test had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 98.4%, respectively. Sequencing the nsp4 gene of the discordant positive sample indicated the presence of chikungunya RNA, and mismatches to the primer binding sites of the CDC assay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of two real-time RT-PCR assays for quantitation of hepatitis C virus RNA during PEG-IFN plus ribavirin therapy by HCV genotypes and IL28B genotype.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Yugo; Nomura, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Nobuyuki; Tanimoto, Hironori; Ito, Kiyoaki; Masaki, Naohiko; Mizokami, Masashi; Shibuya, Tsunefumi

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA values measured with two real-time PCR methods (Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan, CAP/CTM, and the Abbott real-time PCR test, ART) vary among patients with genotype 1. We investigated HCV RNA values measured by two real-time PCR assays during pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) therapy. We evaluated 185 cases of chronic hepatitis C patients, among which 97 patients received the PEG-IFN/RBV therapy. HCV RNA values of CAP/CTM for genotype 1 were significantly higher than those of ART (p < 0.05) The difference in HCV RNA values (CAP/CTM minus ART) of genotype 1 was significantly higher than those in genotype 2 (p < 0.0001). The positive rate (>0) of the difference of HCV RNA values in genotype 1 was 100 % (55/55), which was significantly higher than the 78.6 % (33/42) of genotype 2 (p < 0.001). There was no difference between TT and TG/GG genotype groups in terms of difference of HCV RNA values (CAP/CTM minus ART). After PEG-IFN/RBV therapy was administered, reduction of HCV measurements was observed from day 1 for both assays regardless of genotype. The HCV value of CAP/CTM during PEG-IFN/RBV therapy was consistently higher than the value of ART, although the difference in these two values gradually became smaller during the course of therapy, and eventually no significant difference was observed near the detection level. No correlation was observed between the sustained virological response (SVR) rate and the difference between the CAP/CTM HCV values and the ART HCV value before treatment.

  12. RT-PCR detection of HIV in Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Bosevska, Golubinka; Panovski, Nikola; Dokić, Eleni; Grunevska, Violeta

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to detect HIV RNA in seropositive patients using RT-PCR method and thus, to establish PCR methodology in the routine laboratory works. The total of 33 examined persons were divided in two groups: 1) 13 persons seropositive for HIV; and 2) 20 healthy persons - randomly selected blood donors that made the case control group. The subjects age was between 25 and 52 years (average 38,5). ELFA test for combined detection of HIV p24 antigen and anti HIV-1+2 IgG and ELISA test for detection of antibodies against HIV-1 and HIV-2, were performed for each examined person. RNA from the whole blood was extracted using a commercial kit based on salt precipitation. Detection of HIV RNA was performed using RT-PCR kit. Following nested PCR, the product was separated by electrophoresis in 1,5 % agarose gel. The result was scored positive if the band of 210bp was visible regardless of intensity. Measures of precaution were taken during all the steps of the work and HIV infected materials were disposed of accordingly. In the group of blood donors ELFA, ELISA and RT-PCR were negative. Assuming that prevalence of HIV infection is zero, the clinical specificity of RT-PCR is 100 %. The analytical specificity of RT-PCR method was tested against Hepatitis C and B, Human Papiloma Virus, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus, Rubella Virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis. None of these templates yielded amplicon. In the group of 13 seropositive persons, 33 samples were analyzed. HIV RNA was detected in 15 samples. ELISA and ELFA test were positive in all samples. Different aliquots of the samples were tested independently and showed the same results. After different periods of storing the RNA samples at -70 masculineC, RT-PCR reaction was identical to the one performed initially. The obtained amplicons were maintained frozen at -20 masculineC for a week and the subsequently performed electrophoresis was identical to the previous one. The reaction is

  13. Development and evaluation of ELISA and qRT-PCR for identification of Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays were developed for identification of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), the cause of viral watermelon vine decline. Both assays were capable of detecting SqVYV in a wide range of cucurbit hosts. ...

  14. Multiple gene detection by in situ RT-PCR in isolated plant cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Pesquet, Edouard; Barbier, Odile; Ranocha, Philippe; Jauneau, Alain; Goffner, Deborah

    2004-09-01

    With the number of functional genomic approaches in plant biology increasing daily, the demand for rapid and reliable RNA localization techniques for gene characterization is being felt. We present herein a novel, liquid phase in situ RT-PCR (IS-RT-PCR) protocol using a combination of gene-specific fluorescent primers and spectral confocal microscopy to localize target RNA in epicotyl sections and xylogenic suspension cultures of Zinnia elegans. Potential sources of artefacts from fixation to gene detection were systematically eliminated using both fluorescent primers and nucleotides for 18S rRNA gene detection, resulting in a set of optimal parameters for IS-RT-PCR that may be readily adapted to any target gene. By judiciously choosing fluorescent primers with non-overlapping fluorochromes, we have shown that our technique is readily adapted to multiplex IS-RT-PCR, enabling the simultaneous localization of more than one gene within a complex tissue or heterogeneous cell population. A 6-carboxy-2',4,4',5',7,7'-hexachlorofluorescein (6-HEX)-labelled primer and a tetrachloro-6-carboxy-fluorescein (TET)-labelled primer were designed for two marker genes associated with programmed cell death in tracheary elements (TEs): an endonuclease (Zen1) and a cysteine protease (ZcP4), respectively. An additional Cyan5 (Cy5)-labelled primer was used to monitor 18SrRNA expression. As expected, the 18S signal was constitutively expressed throughout epicotyls sections and living cells in xylogenic in vitro cultures, whereas Zen1 and ZcP4 were co-localized in forming TEs both in planta and in vitro. Analogous to clustering analysis of gene expression using microarrays to elucidate common metabolic pathways and developmental processes, this novel technique is perfectly adapted to gaining a better understanding of gene function via the coordinated expression of genes in specific cell types of complex tissues and cell populations.

  15. Utility of Linearly Amplified RNA for RT-PCR Detection of Chromosomal Translocations

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Jonathan A.; Jenson, Stephen D.; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S. J.; Lim, Megan S.

    2004-01-01

    The requirement for sufficient quantities of starting RNA has limited the ability to evaluate multiple transcripts using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In this study, we demonstrate the utility of linear RNA amplification for RT-PCR analysis of multiple gene transcripts including a chromosomal translocation, using the t(2;5)(p23;q35) as a model. RNA from the t(2;5)-positive cell line, SU-DHL-1, and the t(2;5)-negative cell line, HUT-78, was extracted and exposed to two rounds of linear amplification. RT-PCR using cDNA from the resultant amplified (a) RNA and total RNA resulted in the 177 bp NPM-ALK fusion gene product from the SU-DHL-1 cell line, but not from aRNA or total RNA from the HUT-78 cell line. DNA sequencing of the RT-PCR products from total and aRNA of SU-DHL-1 cells demonstrated identical sequences corresponding to the NPM-ALK fusion gene. Evaluation of 25 snap-frozen tissue samples, including eight NPM-ALK-positive ALCLs demonstrated 100% concordance of t(2;5) detection between cDNA from total RNA and that from aRNA. Our results show that linear amplification of RNA can enhance starting RNA greater than 200-fold and can be used for rapid and specific detection of multiplex gene expression from a variety of sources. This method can generate a renewable archive of representative cDNA, which can be used for retrospective screening of stored samples as well as positive controls for the clinical molecular diagnostic laboratory. PMID:14736822

  16. Rapid identification viruses from nasal pharyngeal aspirates in acute viral respiratory infections by RT-PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Fu; Rothman, Richard E; Ramachandran, Padmini; Blyn, Lawrence; Sampath, Rangarajan; Ecker, David J; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2011-04-01

    Diagnosis of the etiologic agent of respiratory viral infection relies traditionally on culture or antigen detection. This pilot evaluation compared performance characteristics of the RT-PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS) platform to conventional virologic methods for identifying multiple clinically relevant respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates. The RT-PCR/ESI-MS respiratory virus surveillance kit was designed to detect respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-4, adenoviridae types A-F, coronaviridae, human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Patients (N=192) attending an emergency department during the 2007-2008 respiratory season consented, and "excess" frozen archived nasopharyngeal aspirates were analysed; 46 were positive by conventional virology and 69 by RT-PCR/ESI-MS, among which there were six samples with multiple viral pathogens detected. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 89.1% and 80.3%, respectively. Additional viruses that were not identified by conventional virology assays were detected (4 human bocaviruses and 7 coronaviruses). Samples in which the RT-PCR/ESI-MS results disagreed with conventional virology were sent for analysis by a third method using a commercial RT-PCR-based assay, which can identify viruses not detectable by conventional virologic procedures. Time to first result of RT-PCR/ESI-MS was 8h. RT-PCR/ESI-MS demonstrated capacity to detect respiratory viruses identifiable and unidentifiable by conventional methods rapidly.

  17. Rapid Identification Viruses from Nasal Pharyngeal Aspirates in Acute Viral Respiratory Infections by RT-PCR and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Fu; Rothman, Richard E.; Ramachandran, Padmini; Blyn, Lawrence; Sampath, Rangarajan; Ecker, David; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of the etiologic agent of respiratory viral infection relies traditionally on culture or antigen detection. This pilot was conducted evaluation comparing performance characteristics of the RT-PCR and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS) platform to conventional virological methods for identifying multiple clinically relevant respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates. The RT-PCR/ESI-MS respiratory virus surveillance kit was designed to detect respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-4, adenoviridae types A-F, coronaviridae, human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Patients (N=192) attending an emergency department during the 2007-8 respiratory season consented, and “excess” frozen archived nasopharyngeal aspirates were analysed; 46 were positive by conventional virology and 69 by RT-PCR/ESI-MS, among which there were six samples with multiple viral pathogens detected. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 89.1% and 80.3%, respectively. Additional viruses that were not identified by conventional virology assays were detected (4 human bocaviruses and 7 coronaviruses). Samples in which the RT-PCR/ESI-MS results disagreed with conventional virology were sent for analysis by a third method using a commercial RT-PCR-based assay, which can identify viruses not detectable by conventional virologic procedures. Time to first result of RT-PCR/ESI-MS was 8 hours. RT-PCR/ESI-MS demonstrated capacity to detect respiratory viruses identifiable and unidentifiable by conventional methods rapidly. PMID:21256867

  18. A host-based RT-PCR gene expression signature to identify acute respiratory viral infection.

    PubMed

    Zaas, Aimee K; Burke, Thomas; Chen, Minhua; McClain, Micah; Nicholson, Bradly; Veldman, Timothy; Tsalik, Ephraim L; Fowler, Vance; Rivers, Emanuel P; Otero, Ronny; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Voora, Deepak; Lucas, Joseph; Hero, Alfred O; Carin, Lawrence; Woods, Christopher W; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2013-09-18

    Improved ways to diagnose acute respiratory viral infections could decrease inappropriate antibacterial use and serve as a vital triage mechanism in the event of a potential viral pandemic. Measurement of the host response to infection is an alternative to pathogen-based diagnostic testing and may improve diagnostic accuracy. We have developed a host-based assay with a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) TaqMan low-density array (TLDA) platform for classifying respiratory viral infection. We developed the assay using two cohorts experimentally infected with influenza A H3N2/Wisconsin or influenza A H1N1/Brisbane, and validated the assay in a sample of adults presenting to the emergency department with fever (n = 102) and in healthy volunteers (n = 41). Peripheral blood RNA samples were obtained from individuals who underwent experimental viral challenge or who presented to the emergency department and had microbiologically proven viral respiratory infection or systemic bacterial infection. The selected gene set on the RT-PCR TLDA assay classified participants with experimentally induced influenza H3N2 and H1N1 infection with 100 and 87% accuracy, respectively. We validated this host gene expression signature in a cohort of 102 individuals arriving at the emergency department. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR test was 89% [95% confidence interval (CI), 72 to 98%], and the specificity was 94% (95% CI, 86 to 99%). These results show that RT-PCR-based detection of a host gene expression signature can classify individuals with respiratory viral infection and sets the stage for prospective evaluation of this diagnostic approach in a clinical setting.

  19. Lab-on-a-Chip Multiplex Assays.

    PubMed

    Peter, Harald; Wienke, Julia; Bier, Frank F

    2017-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip multiplex assays allow a rapid identification of multiple parameters in an automated manner. Here we describe a lab-based preparation followed by a rapid and fully automated DNA microarray hybridization and readout in less than 10 min using the Fraunhofer in vitro diagnostics (ivD) platform to enable rapid identification of bacterial species and detection of antibiotic resistance. The use of DNA microarrays allows a fast adaptation of new biomarkers enabling the identification of different genes as well as single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes. In this protocol we describe a DNA microarray developed for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and the mecA resistance gene.

  20. Combination of immunohistochemistry, FISH and RT-PCR shows high incidence of Xp11 translocation RCC: comparison of three different diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Shin, Dong Hoon; Noh, Gyu You; Kim, Young Keum; Kim, Ahrong; Shin, Nari; Lee, Jung Hee; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Jee Yeon; Lee, Chang Hun; Sol, Mee Young; Rha, Seo Hee; Park, Sung Woo

    2017-05-09

    We evaluated the frequency of translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and how well the TFE3 immunoreactivity is concordant with TFE3 gene translocation status proved by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay and RT-PCR. TFE3 and Cathepsin K expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 185 RCC cases, and 48 cases either of more than weak expression of TFE3 or of positivity for Cathepsin K were done for FISH analysis and RT-PCR. All the RT-PCR positive cases were confirmed by cloning and sequencing. Of the 14 cases with strong nuclear TFE3 expression, 12 showed a break-apart signal by FISH. ASPL- and PRCC-TFE3 translocations were detected in 13 and one case, respectively, by RT-PCR. Of 21 cases with weak TFE3 expression, five were translocation-positive by FISH. ASPL-, PRCC-, and PSF-TFE3 translocations were detected by RT-PCR (n=3, 3, and 1, respectively). All 13 TFE3-negative/cathepsin K-positive cases were negative by FISH and two each harbored ASPL- and PRCC-TFE3 translocations that were detected by RT-PCR. A high rate of TFE3 immunoreactivity (8.6%) was confirmed by RT-PCR (13.5%) and FISH (9.7%). Higher translocation rate of RT-PCR means RT-PCR detected translocation in TFE3 weak expression group and only cathepsin K positive group more specifically than FISH. Thus, RT-PCR would complement FISH analysis for detecting translocation RCC with fusion partners.

  1. A multiplex real-time PCR panel assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of 12 common swine viruses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiju; Liu, Xuming; Wang, Qin; Das, Amaresh; Ma, Guiping; Xu, Lu; Sun, Qing; Peddireddi, Lalitha; Jia, Wei; Liu, Yanhua; Anderson, Gary; Bai, Jianfa; Shi, Jishu

    2016-10-01

    Mixed infection with different pathogens is common in swine production systems especially under intensive production conditions. Quick and accurate detection and differentiation of different pathogens are necessary for epidemiological surveillance, disease management and import and export controls. In this study, we developed and validated a panel of multiplex real-time PCR/RT-PCR assays composed of four subpanels, each detects three common swine pathogens. The panel detects 12 viruses or viral serotypes, namely, VSV-IN, VSV-NJ, SVDV, CSFV, ASFV, FMDV, PCV2, PPV, PRV, PRRSV-NA, PRRSV-EU and SIV. Correlation coefficients (R(2)) and PCR amplification efficiencies of all singular and triplex real-time PCR reactions are within the acceptable range. Comparison between singular and triplex real-time PCR assays of each subpanel indicates that there is no significant interference on assay sensitivities caused by multiplexing. Specificity tests on 226 target clinical samples or 4 viral strains and 91 non-target clinical samples revealed that the real-time PCR panel is 100% specific, and there is no cross amplification observed. The limit of detection of each triplex real-time PCR is less than 10 copies per reaction for DNA, and less than 16 copies per reaction for RNA viruses. The newly developed multiplex real-time PCR panel also detected different combinations of co-infections as confirmed by other means of detections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of duchenne muscular dystrophy female carriers by fluorescence in situ hybridization and RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Wong, Ana Claudia; Hernández-Huerta, César; Márquez-Calixto, Areli; Hernández-Aguilar, Fidel Omar; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón

    2008-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin DMD gene located at Xp21.1 region. Up to 65% of the patients present dystrophin gene deletions. Mothers of DMD patients have a two-thirds chance of carrying a dystrophin mutation. The female carrier will transmit the disease gene to half of her sons and half of her daughters. As the recurrence risk for the disease is extremely high, it is very important to detect carrier status among female relatives of the patients to bring an adequate genetic counseling. In this work, results from two methods to identify female carriers are presented. One method is a multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, and the other is reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We showed that FISH is an efficient, sensitive method that brings confident results to detect DMD female carriers as compared to RT-PCR.

  3. Detection of Banana mild mosaic virus and Banana virus X by polyvalent degenerate oligonucleotide RT-PCR (PDO-RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Teycheney, Pierre-Yves; Acina, Isabelle; Lockhart, Benham E L; Candresse, Thierry

    2007-06-01

    Viruses are important constraints to the movement and propagation of plant germplasm, especially for vegetatively propagated crops such as banana and plantain. Their control relies primarily on the use of virus-free plant material, whose production and certification requires sensitive and reliable detection methods. An existing polyvalent degenerate oligonucleotide RT-PCR (PDO-RT-PCR) assay was adapted to the detection of Banana mild mosaic virus (BanMMV) and Banana virus X, two Flexiviridae infecting Musa spp. PDO inosine-containing primers were found to be well suited to the detection of BanMMV, despite its high molecular diversity, but not to that of the highly conserved BVX, for which species-specific primers were designed. Sampling and sample processing steps were optimized in order to avoid nucleic acid purification prior to the reverse transcription step. A polyclonal anti-BanMMV antiserum was raised and successfully used for the immunocapture (IC) of BanMMV viral particles from leaf extracts, leading to the development of a PDO-IC-RT-nested PCR assay. Although the anti-BanMMV antiserum could to some extent recognize BVX viral particles, direct binding (DB) was shown to be a more efficient method for processing BVX-infected samples and a PDO-DB-RT-nested PCR assay was developed for the detection of BVX from leaf extracts.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Norovirus Infection in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis by Rapid Immunochromatographic Test, RT-PCR and Real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kumthip, Kattareeya; Khamrin, Pattara; Saikruang, Wilaiporn; Supadej, Kanittapon; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2017-03-02

    Immunochromatographic (IC) test for norovirus detection is a rapid and simple detection method. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of a recent version of R-Biopharm RIDA®QUICK Norovirus IC assay for norovirus detection in fecal specimens from children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Fecal specimens were tested by IC kit in comparison with gold standard reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. The IC kit showed high sensitivity and specificity comparable with PCR-based methods. None of false positive and false negative was found and the assay did not cross-react with other gastroenteritis viruses. The IC assay could detect genogroup I.5 (GI.5) and a wide range of genotypes in the GII noroviruses including GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.14, GII.15, GII.21, and also newly emerging GII.17 norovirus. In conclusion, this norovirus IC kit could be an alternative choice for rapid screening or a quick diagnostic tool for norovirus detection in fecal specimens of acute gastroenteritis patients.

  5. Development and validation of two SYBR green PCR assays and a multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in meat.

    PubMed

    Brusa, Victoria; Galli, Lucía; Linares, Luciano H; Ortega, Emanuel E; Lirón, Juan P; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2015-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are recognized as food-borne pathogens. We developed and validated two SYBR green PCR (SYBR-PCR) and a real-time multiplex PCR (RT-PCR) to detect stx1 and stx2 genes in meat samples, and compared these techniques in ground beef samples from retail stores. One set of primers and one hydrolysis probe were designed for each stx gene. For RT-PCR, an internal amplification control (IAC) was used. All PCR intra-laboratory validations were performed using pure strains and artificially contaminated ground beef samples. A total of 50 STEC and 30 non-STEC strains were used. Naturally contaminated ground beef samples (n=103) were obtained from retail stores and screened with SYBR-PCR and RT-PCR, and stx-positive samples were processed for STEC isolation. In the intra-laboratory validation, each PCR obtained a 1×10(2) CFU mL(-1) limit of detection and 100% inclusivity and exclusivity. The same results were obtained when different laboratory analysts in alternate days performed the assay. The level of agreement obtained with SYBR-PCR and RT-PCR was kappa=0.758 and 0.801 (P<0.001) for stx1 and stx2 gene detection, respectively. Two PCR strategies were developed and validated, and excellent performance with artificially contaminated ground beef samples was obtained. However, the efforts made to isolate STEC from retail store samples were not enough. Only 11 STEC strains were isolated from 35 stx-positive ground beef samples identically detected by all PCRs. The combination of molecular approaches based on the identification of a virulence genotypic profile of STEC must be considered to improve isolation.

  6. Real-Time RT-PCR for the Detection of Lyssavirus Species

    PubMed Central

    Deubelbeiss, A.; Zahno, M.-L.; Zanoni, M.; Bruegger, D.; Zanoni, R.

    2014-01-01

    The causative agents of rabies are single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses in the genus Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae, consisting of twelve classified and three as yet unclassified species including classical rabies virus (RABV). Highly neurotropic RABV causes rapidly progressive encephalomyelitis with nearly invariable fatal outcome. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of rabies is highly relevant for public and veterinary health. Due to growing variety of the genus Lyssavirus observed, the development of suitable molecular assays for diagnosis and differentiation is challenging. This work focused on the establishment of a suitable real-time RT-PCR technique for rabies diagnosis as a complement to fluorescent antibody test and rabies tissue culture infection test as gold standard for diagnosis and confirmation. The real-time RT-PCR was adapted with the goal to detect the whole spectrum of lyssavirus species, for nine of which synthesized DNA fragments were used. For the detection of species, seven probes were developed. Serial dilutions of the rabies virus strain CVS-11 showed a 100-fold higher sensitivity of real-time PCR compared to heminested RT-PCR. Using a panel of thirty-one lyssaviruses representing four species, the suitability of the protocol could be shown. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained by heminested PCR allowed correct classification of all viruses used. PMID:26464934

  7. Development of a duplex real-time RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus and rat theilovirus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wen; Wang, Jing; Xu, Fengjiao; Huang, Bihong; Lian, Yuexiao; Rao, Dan; Yin, Xueqin; Wu, Miaoli; Zhu, Yujun; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Ren; Guo, Pengju

    2016-10-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and rat theilovirus (RTV), the member of the genus Cardiovirus, are widespread in laboratory mice and rats, and are potential contaminants of biological materials. Cardioviruses infection may cause serious complications in biomedical research. To improve the efficiency of routine screening for Cardioviruses infection, a duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of TMEV and RTV. The duplex assay was specific for reference strains of TMEV and RTV, and no cross-reaction was found with seven other rodent viruses. The limits of detection of both TMEV and RTV were 4×10(1) copies RNA/reaction. Reproducibility was estimated using standard dilutions, with coefficients of variation <3.1%. 439 clinical samples were evaluated by both duplex real-time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR. For 439 clinical samples,95 samples were positive for TMEV and 72 samples were positive for RTV using duplex real-time RT-PCR approach, whereas only 77 samples were positive for TMEV and 66 samples were positive for RTV when conventional RT-PCR was applied. Mixed infections were found in 20 samples when analyzed by conventional RT-PCR whereas 30 samples were found to be mixed infection when duplex real-time RT-PCR was applied. This duplex assay provides a useful tool for routine health monitoring and screening of contaminated biological materials of these two viruses.

  8. Detection of gastroenteritis viruses among pediatric patients in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, between 2006 and 2013 using multiplex reverse transcription PCR-based assays involving fluorescent dye-labeled primers.

    PubMed

    Shigemoto, Naoki; Hisatsune, Yuri; Toukubo, Yasushi; Tanizawa, Yukie; Shimazu, Yukie; Takao, Shinichi; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Noda, Mamoru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2017-05-01

    Multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays involving fluorescent dye-labeled primers were modified to detect 10 types of gastroenteritis viruses by adding two further assays to a previously developed assay. Then, these assays were applied to clinical samples, which were collected between January 2006 and December 2013. All 10 types of viruses were effectively detected in the multiplex RT-PCR-based assays. In addition, various viral parameters, such as the detection rates and age distributions of each viral type, were examined. The frequency and types of mixed infections were also investigated. Among the 186 virus-positive samples, genogroup II noroviruses were found to be the most common type of virus (32.7%), followed by group A rotaviruses (10.6%) and parechoviruses (10.3%). Mixed infections were observed in 37 samples, and many of them were detected in patients who were less than 2 years old. These observations showed that the multiplex RT-PCR-based assays involving fluorescent dye-labeled primers were able to effectively detect the viruses circulating among pediatric acute gastroenteritis patients and contributed to the highly specific and sensitive diagnosis of gastroenteritis. J. Med. Virol. 89:791-800, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Development of real-time RT-PCR for the detection of low concentrations of Rift Valley fever virus.

    PubMed

    Maquart, Marianne; Temmam, Sarah; Héraud, Jean-Michel; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Dellagi, Koussay; Cardinale, Eric; Pascalis, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been affected by epidemics of Rift Valley fever (RVF), however detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in zebu, sheep and goats during the post epidemic periods was frequently unsuccessful. Thus, a highly sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for the detection of RVFV at low viral loads. A new RVF SYBR Green RT-PCR targeting the M segment was tested on serum from different RVF seronegative ruminant species collected from May 2010 to August 2011 in Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago and compared with a RVF specific quantitative real time RT-PCR technique, which is considered as the reference technique. The specificity was tested on a wide range of arboviruses or other viruses giving RVF similar clinical signs. A total of 38 out of 2756 serum samples tested positive with the new RT-PCR, whereas the reference technique only detected 5 out of the 2756. The described RT-PCR is an efficient diagnostic tool for the investigation of enzootic circulation of the RVF virus. It allows the detection of low viral RNA loads adapted for the investigations of reservoirs or specific epidemiological situations such as inter-epizootic periods.

  10. Identification of circulating tumour cells in early stage breast cancer patients using multi marker immunobead RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Michael P; Stephenson, Sally-Anne; Pittman, Kenneth B; Walsh, David CA; Henderson, Michael A; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The ability to screen blood of early stage operable breast cancer patients for circulating tumour cells is of potential importance for identifying patients at risk of developing distant relapse. We present the results of a study of the efficacy of the immunobead RT-PCR method in identifying patients with circulating tumour cells. Results Immunomagnetic enrichment of circulating tumour cells followed by RT-PCR (immunobead RT-PCR) with a panel of five epithelial specific markers (ELF3, EPHB4, EGFR, MGB1 and TACSTD1) was used to screen for circulating tumour cells in the peripheral blood of 56 breast cancer patients. Twenty patients were positive for two or more RT-PCR markers, including seven patients who were node negative by conventional techniques. Significant increases in the frequency of marker positivity was seen in lymph node positive patients, in patients with high grade tumours and in patients with lymphovascular invasion. A strong trend towards improved disease free survival was seen for marker negative patients although it did not reach significance (p = 0.08). Conclusion Multi-marker immunobead RT-PCR analysis of peripheral blood is a robust assay that is capable of detecting circulating tumour cells in early stage breast cancer patients. PMID:19500345

  11. Development and evaluation of a four-tube real time multiplex PCR assay covering fourteen respiratory viruses, and comparison to its corresponding single target counterparts.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rogier R; Schinkel, Janke; Koekkoek, Sylvie; Pajkrt, Dasja; Beld, Marcel; de Jong, Menno D; Molenkamp, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses and has shown to be superior to traditional methods, like culture and antigen detection. However, comprehensive data on sensitivity, specificity and performance of the multiplex PCR compared to the single target PCR's is limited for most published respiratory multiplex real time PCR assays. Development and extensive analysis of an internally controlled multiplex real time rt-PCR for detection of respiratory viruses. The assay was validated in comparison to single-target PCR's using plasmid targets and prospectively collected nasopharyngeal aspirates. Using plasmid targets the multiplex format was found to be as least as sensitive and specific as the single-target PCR and no competition was observed when different targets were present at different amounts in one tube. Clinical validation showed high concordance for all viruses tested except for samples with low levels of enterovirus. This multiplex showed excellent specificities for all 14 respiratory viruses and sensitivity was high except for clinical samples with low levels of enterovirus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  13. Development of a TaqMan MGB RT-PCR for the rapid detection of H3 subtype avian influenza virus circulating in China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Qiaoyang; Shen, Weixia; Yan, Dawei; Yan, Liping; Li, Xuesong; Li, Guoxin; Yang, Jianmei; Li, Zejun

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the H3 avian influenza virus (AIV) in China is isolated most frequently from wild birds and live poultry markets. However, there is no subtype-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) available for the rapid and highly sensitive identification of H3 AIV. In this study, a TaqMan minor groove binder (MGB) probe and a pair of primers were designed based on a conserved region in the hemagglutinin gene of H3 AIV. These were used to generate an H3-MGB RT-PCR assay that recognizes only H3 AIV. The detection limit of the H3-MGB RT-PCR was 10 copies of DNA per reaction when 10-fold serial dilutions of T-H3HA plasmid were used as the template. This was 1000-times more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR. In experimental samples obtained from oropharyngeal swabs or cloacal swabs, the virus was detected in all ducks using H3-MGB RT-PCR, whereas only one duck tested positive for the virus in oropharyngeal swabs tested using conventional RT-PCR. The H3-MGB RT-PCR assay developed in this study is a sensitive and rapid tool for screening H3 AIV in China.

  14. Microsatellite multiplex assay for the analysis of Atlantic sturgeon populations.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, H; Popovic, D; Zalewska, K; Weglenski, P; Stankovic, A

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a multiplex assay covering 16 microsatellite loci, amplified in four polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and loaded on the ABI DNA Analyzer in two separate panels. The assay was tested on 603 individuals originating from wild populations and hatchery stocks of Atlantic sturgeon. The assay was also tested on 12 individuals of European sturgeon and appeared to be almost equally useful. The multiplex assay designed in this study can be successfully applied in studies requiring high genetic resolution, such as relatedness analysis, selective breeding programs, and stock identification of Atlantic sturgeon.

  15. Misidentification of Bordetella bronchiseptica as Bordetella pertussis using a Newly Described RT-PCR Targeting the Pertactin Gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently a real-time PCR (RT-PCT) assay based on sequence from the gene for pertactin was proposed for identification of Bordetella pertussis. Here we report that the B. pertussis pertactin gene sequence for the region encompassing the RT-PCR probe and primers is nearly identical to that of many B....

  16. Novel multitarget real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of Bordetella species in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Tatti, Kathleen M; Sparks, Kansas N; Boney, Kathryn O; Tondella, Maria Lucia

    2011-12-01

    A novel multitarget real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay for the rapid identification of Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. holmesii was developed using multicopy insertion sequences (ISs) in combination with the pertussis toxin subunit S1 (ptxS1) singleplex assay. The RT-PCR targets for the multiplex assay include IS481, commonly found in B. pertussis and B. holmesii; IS1001 of B. parapertussis; and the IS1001-like sequence of B. holmesii. Overall, 402 Bordetella species and 66 non-Bordetella species isolates were tested in the multitarget assay. Cross-reactivity was found only with 5 B. bronchiseptica isolates, which were positive with IS1001 of B. parapertussis. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) of the multiplex assay was similar to the LLOD of each target in an individual assay format, which was approximately 1 genomic equivalent per reaction for all targets. A total of 197 human clinical specimens obtained during cough-illness outbreak investigations were used to evaluate the multitarget RT-PCR assay. The multiplex assay results from 87 clinical specimens were compared to the individual RT-PCR assay and culture results. The multitarget assay is useful as a diagnostic tool to confirm B. pertussis infections and to rapidly identify other Bordetella species. In conclusion, the use of this multitarget RT-PCR approach increases specificity, while it decreases the amount of time, reagents, and specimen necessary for RT-PCRs used for accurate diagnosis of pertussis-like illness.

  17. Enhancing the sensitivity of Dengue virus serotype detection by RT-PCR among infected children in India.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Syed Fazil; Vivek, Rosario; Kotabagi, Shalini; Nayak, Kaustuv; Chandele, Anmol; Kaja, Murali-Krishna; Shet, Anita

    2017-02-27

    Dengue surveillance relies on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), for confirmation of dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. We compared efficacies of published and modified primer sets targeting envelope (Env) and capsid-premembrane (C-prM) genes for detection of circulating DENV serotypes in southern India. Acute samples from children with clinically-diagnosed dengue were used for RT-PCR testing. All samples were also subjected to dengue serology (NS1 antigen and anti-dengue-IgM/IgG rapid immunochromatographic assay). Nested RT-PCR was performed on viral RNA using three methods targeting 654bp C-prM, 511bp C-prM and 641bp Env regions, respectively. RT-PCR-positive samples were validated by population sequencing. Among 171 children with suspected dengue, 121 were dengue serology-positive and 50 were dengue serology-negative. Among 121 serology-positives, RT-PCR detected 91 (75.2%) by CprM654, 72 (59.5%) by CprM511, and 74 (61.1%) by Env641. Among 50 serology-negatives, 10 (20.0%) were detected by CprM654, 12 (24.0%) by CprM511, and 11 (22.0%) by Env641. Overall detection rate using three methods sequentially was 82.6% (100/121) among serology-positive and 40.0% (20/50) among serology-negative samples; 6.6% (8/120) had co-infection with multiple DENV serotypes. We conclude that detection of acute dengue was enhanced by a modified RT-PCR method targeting the 654bp C-prM region, and further improved by using all three methods sequentially.

  18. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for squash mosaic virus useful for broad spectrum detection of various serotypes and its incorporation into a multiplex seed health assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed-borne pathogens pose a serious threat to modern agricultural cropping systems as they can be disseminated to many geographical regions around the world. With trends of increasing global seed production and trade, seed-health testing is an important quality control step to prevent the introduct...

  19. Comparison of SYBR green I real-time RT-PCR with conventional agarose gel-based RT-PCR for the diagnosis of infectious bronchitis virus infection in chickens in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Fellahi, Siham; El Harrak, Mehdi; Kuhn, Jens H; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Bouaiti, El Arbi; Khataby, Khadija; Fihri, Ouafae Fassi; El Houadfi, Mohammed; Ennaji, My Mustapha

    2016-04-22

    A rapid, sensitive, and specific molecular method for the diagnosis of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection is important in curbing infectious bronchitis outbreaks in Morocco and other countries. In this study, an easy-to-perform SYBR green I real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the nucleocapsid gene of IBV was developed and compared with conventional agarose gel-based RT-PCR for the detection of IBV infection. We found that the SYBR green I real-time RT-PCR was at least 10 times more sensitive than the agarose gel electrophoresis detection method. The assay exhibited high specificity for IBV infection. All negative controls, such as Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and avian influenza virus, were not detected. The SYBR green I real-time RT-PCR test described herein can be used to rapidly distinguish IBV from other respiratory pathogens, which is important for diagnosis and control of infectious bronchitis outbreaks in Morocco. The test is a valuable and useful method as a routine assay for diagnosis of clinical IBV infection in commercial chickens.

  20. Avian influenza virus detection and quantitation by real-time RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) has been used for avian influenza virus (AIV) detection since the early 2000’s for routine surveillance, during outbreaks and for research. Some of the advantages of rRT-PCR are: high sensitivity, high specificity, rapid time-to-result, scalability, cost, and its inherentl...

  1. Development of a simplified RT-PCR without RNA isolation for rapid detection of RNA viruses in a single small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiufang; Liu, Haoqiu; Yuan, Pingping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Qingqing; Jiang, Xuanli; Zhou, Yijun

    2017-05-03

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is an important pest of cereal crops and acts as a transmission vector for multiple RNA viruses. Rapid diagnosis of virus in the vector is crucial for efficient forecast and control of viral disease. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for virus detection. The traditional RT-PCR contains a RNA isolation step and is widely used for virus detection in insect. However, using the traditional RT-PCR for detecting RNA virus in individual SBPHs becomes challenging because of the expensive reagents and laborious procedure associated with RNA isolation when processing a large number of samples. We established a simplified RT-PCR method without RNA isolation for RNA virus detection in a single SBPH. This method is achieved by grinding a single SBPH in sterile water and using the crude extract directly as the template for RT-PCR. The crude extract containing the virus RNA can be prepared in approximately two minutes. Rice stripe virus (RSV), rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Himetobi P virus (HiPV) were successfully detected using this simplified method. The detection results were validated by sequencing and dot immunobinding assay, indicating that this simplified method is reliable for detecting different viruses in insects. The evaluation of the sensitivity of this method showed that both RSV and HiPV can be detected when the cDNA from the crude extract was diluted up to 10(3) fold. Compared to the traditional RT-PCR with RNA isolation, the simplified RT-PCR method greatly reduces the sample processing time, decreases the detection cost, and improves the efficiency by avoiding RNA isolation. A simplified RT-PCR method is developed for rapid detection of RNA virus in a single SBPH without the laborious RNA isolation step. It offers a convenient alternative to the traditional RT-PCR method.

  2. OP32A COMBINED STRATEGY FOR THE DETECTION OF BRAF FUSIONS IN PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMA USING RT-PCR AND FISH

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, C.; Shaw, A.; Wragg, C.; Greenslade, M.; Haynes, H.; Williams, H.; Lowis, S.; Williams, M.; Kurian, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pilocytic astrocytomas can show a wide morphological spectrum making definitive histological diagnosis challenging. The FISH test for KIAA1549-BRAF fusions is most commonly used, but this is difficult to interpret. We aimed to develop a real-time PCR (RT-PCR) test as a first-line screen for the three most common KIAA1549-BRAF fusion variants. METHOD: A RT-PCR method for detecting KIAA1549-BRAF fusions from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain tumour tissues (pilocytic astrocytoma). The three most common fusion variants are detected using this assay: exon 16 of KIAA1549 fused to exon 9 of BRAF, exon 15 of KIAA1549 fused to exon 9 of BRAF and exon 16 of KIAA1549 fused to exon 11 of BRAF fusion. GAPDH expression was used as a control. RESULTS: The RT-PCR assay was initially validated on 12 samples previously tested by FISH or RT-PCR in a different laboratory. The RT-PCR assay had a sensitivity of 89% (8/9 - one sample tested positive by FISH but negative on RT-PCR) and a specificity of 100% (2/2). The failure rate was 8.3% (1/12). Sensitivity experiments showed that the fusion can be detected when present at a least 5% of the total cDNA content. 51 Neuropathology diagnostic FFPE samples from 42 pilocytic astrocytoma patients were then tested using the BRAF fusion RT-PCR assay. The overall pick-up rate was 54% (20/37 patients) Of the positive patients (20), 55% (11/20) had the 16-9 fusion and 45% (9/20) had the 15-9 fusion. Two patients had multiple fusions (2/20 positive patients, 10%) showing the 16-9 fusion and a low-level 16-11 fusion. No patients exclusively had the 16-11 fusion. CONCLUSION: We propose RTPCR first line for fusion analysis followed by FISH, for pilocytic astrocytoma.

  3. A novel DANP-coupled hairpin RT-PCR for rapid detection of Chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huixin; Takei, Fumie; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan; Nakatani, Kazuhiko; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2013-03-01

    Chikungunya has re-emerged as an important arboviral infection of global health significance. Because of lack of a vaccine and effective treatment, rapid diagnosis plays an important role in early clinical management of patients. In this study, we have developed a novel molecular diagnostic platform that ensures a rapid and cost-effective one-step RT-PCR assay, with high sensitivity and specificity, for the early detection of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). It uses 2,7-diamino-1,8-naphthyridine derivative (DANP)-labeled cytosine-bulge hairpin primers to amplify the nsP2 region of the CHIKV genome, followed by measurement of the fluorescence emitted from DANP-primer complexes after PCRs. The detection limit of our assay was 0.01 plaque-forming units per reaction of CHIKV. Furthermore, the HP-nsP2 primers were highly specific in detecting CHIKV, without any cross-reactivity with the panel of RNA viruses validated in this study. The feasibility of the DANP-coupled hairpin RT-PCR for clinical diagnosis was evaluated using clinical serum samples from CHIKV-infected patients, and the specificity and sensitivity were 100% (95% CI, 80.0% to 100%) and 95.5% (95% CI, 75.1% to 99.8%), respectively. These findings confirmed its potential as a point-of-care clinical molecular diagnostic assay for CHIKV in acute-phase patient serum samples.

  4. Protocol: a highly sensitive RT-PCR method for detection and quantification of microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Wu, Rongmei; Wood, Marion; Walton, Eric F; Hellens, Roger P

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs with a critical role in development and environmental responses. Efficient and reliable detection of miRNAs is an essential step towards understanding their roles in specific cells and tissues. However, gel-based assays currently used to detect miRNAs are very limited in terms of throughput, sensitivity and specificity. Here we provide protocols for detection and quantification of miRNAs by RT-PCR. We describe an end-point and real-time looped RT-PCR procedure and demonstrate detection of miRNAs from as little as 20 pg of plant tissue total RNA and from total RNA isolated from as little as 0.1 μl of phloem sap. In addition, we have developed an alternative real-time PCR assay that can further improve specificity when detecting low abundant miRNAs. Using this assay, we have demonstrated that miRNAs are differentially expressed in the phloem sap and the surrounding vascular tissue. This method enables fast, sensitive and specific miRNA expression profiling and is suitable for facilitation of high-throughput detection and quantification of miRNA expression. PMID:17931426

  5. Simultaneous detection and genotyping of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) by real-time RT-PCR and amplicon melting curve analysis using SYBR Green.

    PubMed

    Martínez, E; Riera, P; Sitjà, M; Fang, Y; Oliveira, S; Maldonado, J

    2008-08-01

    The feasibility of using a SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR assay (SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR) followed by melting curve analysis (MCA) for detecting and genotyping porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was assessed. The SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR and a previously reported two-step, non-nested RT-PCR assays were simultaneously tested on selected European (EU) and North American (US) PRRSV strains and isolates collected from diverse clinical, temporal, and geographical origins. The validation experiments showed that the optimised SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR can sensitively and specifically detect PRRSV, consistently detecting as little as 0.03TCID(50)/sample of each virus genotype, with no type-bias and no amplification signal for other swine pathogens. After MCA, two well-differentiated melting temperature (T(m)) profiles for each virus genotype were obtained, as sequencing confirmed it. High repeatability was obtained for the T(m) values, with intra-run coefficients of variation (CoVs) of 0.25 and 0.32 and inter-run CoVs of 0.42 and 0.52 for EU and US genotypes, respectively. The sensitivity of the SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR (100%) was higher than that of the RT-PCR (95.7%) when testing field isolates. This greater sensitivity of the SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR was further confirmed by the detection of a higher proportion of PRRSV-positive diagnostic specimens (29.7%) than by the RT-PCR (28.5%). The SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR test detected infection as early as 2 dpi in the sera of experimentally infected pigs regardless of virus genotype, and discriminated negative (non-inoculated), EU- and US-infected pigs. In conclusion, the reported SYBR Green ReTi RT-PCR assay coupled with MCA can detect and type PRRSV and may be useful as an alternative diagnostic assay in diverse PRRSV epidemiological circumstances.

  6. Simultaneous Detection of Multiplex-Amplified Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA, Hepatitis C Virus RNA, and Hepatitis B Virus DNA Using a Flow Cytometer Microsphere-Based Hybridization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Defoort, J.-P.; Martin, M.; Casano, B.; Prato, S.; Camilla, C.; Fert, V.

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of performing a multiplex assay for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNAs and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is demonstrated. This assay is based (i) on the coamplification of a 142-bp fragment from the gag region of the HIV-1 genome and a 142-bp HIV-1 quantitation standard fragment, a 244-bp fragment from the 5′ noncoding region of the HCV genome, and a 104-bp fragment from the pre-C and C gene regions of the HBV genome, using three sets of specific primers; (ii) on the capacity of these four biotinylated PCR products to hybridize to their specific oligonucleotide probe-coated microspheres; and (iii) on the ability of the flow cytometer to discriminate between distinct fluorescent-microsphere categories. Absence of cross-hybridization between the unrelated oligonucleotide probes and PCR products generated by the multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and the highly sensitive detection method allowed us to assess unambiguously the HIV-1 viral load and the infectious status of 35 serologically well-established clinical samples and 20 seronegative blood donor plasma samples tested. The results indicate that multiplex RT-PCR and flow cytometer microsphere-based hybridization assays, when combined, provide a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for the quantitation and detection of the major viral agents of infectious diseases in a single plasma sample. PMID:10698998

  7. Development of universal SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR for the rapid detection and quantitation of bovine and porcine toroviruses.

    PubMed

    Hosmillo, Myra D T; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Collantes, Therese Marie; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Park, Jun-Gyu; Kim, Ha-Hyun; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Park, Su-Jin; Kang, Mun-Il; Park, Sang-Ik; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2010-09-01

    Toroviruses (ToVs) are a group of emerging viruses that cause gastroenteritis in domestic animals and humans. Currently, methods such as real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) have not yet been developed for the rapid detection and quantitation of bovine (BToV) and porcine (PToV) toroviruses. Using BToV and PToV RNA standards generated by in vitro transcription, the detection limit of the SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay was 2.54 x 10(2) BToV and 2.17 x 10(3) PToV copies/reaction (correlation coefficiency=0.99 and 0.97, respectively), whereas those of RT-PCR and nested PCR were 2.54 x 10(5) and 2.54 x 10(4) (BToV) and 2.17 x 10(7) and 2.17 x 10(5) (PToV) cRNA viral copies/reaction, respectively. Archived diarrhea specimens of calves (n=121) and piglets (n=86) were subjected to RT-PCR, nested PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR. By conventional RT-PCR, 1 (0.8%) bovine and 7 (8.1%) porcine samples tested positive to BToV and PToV, respectively. With nested PCR, 13 (10.7%) bovine and 17 (19.8%) porcine samples tested positive. SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay detected BToV and PToV in 22 of 121 (18.2%) bovine and 31 of 86 (36.0%) porcine samples. These results indicate that SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR (P<0.05) is a more sensitive assay, which can be reproduced as a reliable, sensitive, and rapid tool for the detection and quantitation of toroviruses.

  8. Advanced multiplex PCR assay for differentiation of Brucella species.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Il; Her, Moon; Kim, Jong Wan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ko, Kyung Yuk; Ha, Yun-Mi; Jung, Suk Chan

    2011-09-01

    Two new primer sets of a 766- and a 344-bp fragment were introduced into the conventional Bruce-ladder PCR assay. This novel multiplex PCR assay rapidly and concisely discriminates Brucella canis and Brucella microti from Brucella suis strains and also may differentiate all of the 10 Brucella species.

  9. Rapid detection of lineage IV peste des petits ruminants virus by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wu, Xiaodong; Liu, Fuxiao; Wang, Zhiliang; Liu, Chunju; Wang, Qinghua; Bao, Jingyue

    2016-09-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the cause agent of peste des petitis ruminants (PPR). A novel lineage IV PPRV has reemerged in China in 2013 and 2014. Mass vaccination was implemented in most provinces in China. In order to detect lineage IV PPRV in clinical samples and to distinguish rapidly it from the other lineages PPRVs, a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed. This assay showed high sensitivity, specificity and efficiency in differentiating the lineage IV PPRV from others. The performance of this assay was evaluated by positive clinical samples of lineage IV viruses. This new real-time RT-PCR assay will facilitate epidemiological investigations and rapid differentiatial diagnosis in areas where lineage IV viruses are circulating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing protocols for preparation of DNA-free total yeast RNA suitable for RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Del Aguila, Eduardo M; Dutra, Marcio B; Silva, Joab T; Paschoalin, Vânia MF

    2005-01-01

    Background Preparation of RNA free from DNA is a critical step before performing RT-PCR assay. Total RNA isolated from several sources, including those obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using routine methodologies are frequently contaminated with DNA, which can give rise to amplification products that mimic the amplicons expected from the RNA target. Results We investigated the efficiency of two DNase I based protocols for eliminating DNA contaminations from RNA samples obtained from yeast cells. Both procedures are very efficient in eliminating DNA contamination from RNA samples and entail three main steps, which involve treating of RNA samples with DNase I, inhibition of the enzyme by EDTA and its subsequent inactivation at 65°C. The DNase I treated samples were further purified with phenol: chloroform followed by precipitation with ice-cold ethanol (protocol I) or, alternatively, they were directly used in RT-PCR reactions (protocol II). Transcripts from ACT1, PDA1, CNA1, CNA2, TPS1 and TPS2 analyzed after each treatment showed that all mRNAs tested can be amplified if total RNA was extracted and purified after DNase I treatment, however, only TPS1, TPS2 and ACT1 mRNAs were amplified without extraction/purification step. Conclusion Although more laborious and requiring a higher initial amount of material, the inclusion of an extraction and purification step allows to prepare RNA samples that are free from DNA and from low molecular contaminants and can be applied to amplify any Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNA by RT-PCR. PMID:15833107

  11. Evaluating L1CAM expression in human endometrial cancer using qRT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Notaro, Sara; Reimer, Daniel; Duggan-Peer, Michaela; Fiegl, Heidi; Wiedermair, Annamarie; Rössler, Julia; Altevogt, Peter; Marth, Christian; Zeimet, Alain Gustave

    2016-01-01

    Background Management of endometrial carcinoma (EC) still needs improvement of risk assessment. Recently, L1CAM immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation showed a unique value to predict the outcome of early EC. However IHC results are often conflicting for lack of inter-laboratory standardisation. Methods Here, as a proof of concept and to increase reproducibility we assayed eighty-two EC and 26 normal endometrium samples for L1CAM expression (L1CAMEXP) via qRT-PCR. The IHC evaluation was performed in 50 cancer samples. Moreover, we aimed to substantiate the in-vitro findings of L1CAM regulation through its promoter methylation (L1CAMMET), miR-34a expression and miR-34a promoter methylation. DNA methylation was assessed with MethyLight PCR technique. Results High overall concordant results between IHC and RT-PCR evaluations were found. L1CAMEXP was detected in 11% of cancer specimens. These positive cancers exhibited a worse DFS (p=0.032) and OS (p=0.016) in a multivariate COX-regression model. L1CAMEXP predicted distant failure (p=0.007) and L1CAMMET predicted risk-reduction of lymph-node involvement (p=0.005). Inverse correlations between L1CAMEXP and L1CAMMET (p=0.004) and between L1CAMEXP and miR-34a expression (p=0.002) were found. Conclusions In conclusion qRT-PCR analysis is a reliable approach to evaluate L1CAM status in EC and L1CAMEXP was highly predictive for distant failure and poor outcome, confirming the large IHC-based studies. Interestingly, L1CAMMET was able to assess the risk of pelvic lymph-node involvement. Especially the latter finding has to be confirmed in larger prospective series. PMID:27233077

  12. ECC-RT-PCR: a new method to determine the viability and infectivity of Giardia cysts.

    PubMed

    Alum, Absar; Sbai, Basel; Asaad, Hamas; Rubino, Joseph R; Khalid Ijaz, M

    2012-05-01

    Giardia sp is a major cause of diarrheal illness worldwide, and millions of people are infected each year. Rapid methods to determine the infectivity and virulence of isolates are critical for the development of intervention strategies to control the transmission of Giardia sp cysts, which occurs through contaminated surfaces, food, and water. However, determining the viability, infectivity, and virulence of Giardia sp cysts using molecular methods is a technical challenge because of the lack of a cell culture model. This study was designed to evaluate mRNA expression in trophozoites and to assess trophozoite attachment to cell monolayer and changes in transcellular resistance as an indicator of Giardia sp viability and infectivity. Heat shock mRNA in Giardia cysts and variant-specific protein (VSP) mRNA in trophozoites were quantified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). C2bb (Caco-2) cells were grown on transwell chambers to study the attachment of trophozoites, changes in transcellular resistance, and expression of VSP in trophozoites. The results of these molecular and cell culture studies indicate a direct linear correlation between the viability and infectivity of fresh stocks of Giardia sp cysts. The attachment of trophozoites to cell monolayer, expression of VSP, and change in the transcellular resistance was directly correlated with their infectivity in neonatal mice. PCR was successfully combined with the electrophysiological analysis of cell culture (ECC-RT-PCR) post-trophozoite attachment. This study shows that the ECC-RT-PCR, a new integrated cell culture assay, can be used as a rapid and cost-effective tool for assessing the viability and infectivity of environmental isolates of Giardia sp cysts. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin production genes from patient samples using an automated extraction platform and multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Chiefari, Amy K; Perry, Michael J; Kelly-Cirino, Cassandra; Egan, Christina T

    2015-12-01

    To minimize specimen volume, handling and testing time, we have developed two TaqMan(®) multiplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) assays to detect staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin production genes directly from clinical patient stool specimens utilizing a novel lysis extraction process in parallel with the Roche MagNA Pure Compact. These assays are specific, sensitive and reliable for the detection of the staphylococcal enterotoxin encoding genes and the tst1 gene from known toxin producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Specificity was determined by testing a total of 47 microorganism strains, including 8 previously characterized staphylococcal enterotoxin producing strains against each rtPCR target. Sensitivity for these assays range from 1 to 25 cfu per rtPCR reaction for cultured isolates and 8-20 cfu per rtPCR for the clinical stool matrix.

  14. Detection of dermcidin for sweat identification by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Koichi; Akutsu, Tomoko; Fukushima, Hisayo; Watanabe, Ken; Yoshino, Mineo

    2010-01-30

    We evaluated the performance of real-time RT-PCR and ELISA assays for detection of dermcidin (DCD) in sweat and body-fluid stains. DCD, a small antibiotic peptide secreted into human sweat, was detected by real-time RT-PCR in 7-day-old stains containing as small as 10 microL of sweat, and the assay showed high specificity when testing 7-day-old stains containing 30 microL of other body-fluid. ELISA using anti-human dermcidin mouse monoclonal antibody detected DCD sweat diluted up to approximately 10,000-fold and could specifically detect DCD in 10 microL of body-fluid stains. The performance of the two assays was tested during winter on samples that simulated forensic case samples: an undershirt and a sock worn for 20 h, a handkerchief used to wipe the brow several times within 12h, a cap and a cotton glove worn for 4h, and a white robe worn at intervals for 2 years. The result showed that the former assay detected DCD in all sites of the undershirt examined (armpit, back, and breast), and the latter gave a relatively high OD value in the armpit among the three sites. For the socks, although the latter assay gave very high OD values in both the center and toe of the foot sole, the former could not detect DCD in both of them. These results indicate that highly damp conditions, such as inside a shoe, might promote the degradation of mRNA in samples such as socks. In the other case samples, sweat was adequately detected by both assays. This study is the first demonstration of the use of real-time RT-PCR to sensitively identify sweat among body-fluid stains, and it confirmed that dermcidin was an excellent marker for sweat identification. In addition, the usefulness of ELISA was also verified. Positive sweat identification using these assays is expected to assist forensic practice. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and evaluation of a fluorogenic real-time RT-PCR for the detection of dengue 3 virus.

    PubMed

    Tan, Irene L; Dimamay, Mark Pierre S; Buerano, Corazon C; Alfon, Jhoe Anthony R; Tanig, Carol Z; Matias, Ronald R; Natividad, Filipinas F

    2010-12-01

    A dengue-3-specific real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed using the novel Light Upon eXtension (LUX™) fluorogenic technology. A labeled forward primer and a standard reverse primer that target a conserved region within the non-structural 1 (NS1) gene of dengue 3 strains were designed. The dengue-3-specific assay did not recognize other dengue serotypes and related flaviviruses. Using a tenfold serial dilution of plasmid DNA containing the dengue 3 NS1 gene as standards, the range of dengue virus detection was determined to be from 10(3) to 10(9) copies/ml or from 80 to 8 × 10(7) copies/reaction with an average correlation coefficient of ≥ 0.99. The mean intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) at 2.01% and the mean inter-assay CV at 2.68% suggest the repeatability of the procedure. Moreover, the fluorogenic assay was evaluated by using clinical specimens and comparing test results with historical data obtained from conventional RT-PCR, which served as the criterion standard. Using patient sera as test samples, the assay demonstrated 95.45% sensitivity and 100% specificity, respectively. These results reveal that the real-time RT-PCR assay may be utilized as a rapid, convenient, and sensitive tool for the detection of dengue 3 in clinical and laboratory specimens.

  16. Data transformation methods for multiplexed assays

    DOEpatents

    Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

    2013-07-23

    Methods to improve the performance of an array assay are described. A correlation between fluorescence intensity-related parameters and negative control values of the assay is determined. The parameters are then adjusted as a function of the correlation. As a result, sensitivity of the assay is improved without changes in its specificity.

  17. Multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay for determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Cook, Linda; Sullivan, KaWing; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Bagabag, Arthur; Jerome, Keith R

    2006-11-01

    A variety of methods have been used to determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes. Because therapeutic decisions for chronic HCV-related hepatitis are made on the basis of genotype, it is important that genotype be accurately determined by clinical laboratories. Existing methods are often subjective, inaccurate, manual, time-consuming, and contamination prone. We therefore evaluated real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) reagents that have recently become commercially available (Abbott HCV Genotype ASR). The assay developed by our laboratory starts with purified RNA and can be performed in 4 to 5 h. An initial evaluation of 479 samples was done with a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method and the RT-PCR assay, and discrepant samples were sequenced. An additional 1,200 samples were then tested, and data from all assays were used to evaluate the efficiency and specificity of each genotype-specific reaction. Good correlation between results by the two methods was seen. Discrepant samples included those indeterminate by the RT-PCR assay (n = 110) and a subset that were incorrectly called 2a by the RFLP method (n = 75). The real-time RT-PCR assay performed well with genotype 1, 2, and 3 samples. Inadequate numbers of samples were available to evaluate fully genotypes 4, 5, and 6. Analysis of each primer-probe set demonstrated that weak cross-reactive amplifications were common but usually did not interfere with the genotype determination. However, in about 1% of samples, two or more genotypes amplified at roughly equivalent amounts. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these mixed-genotype samples are true mixtures or a reflection of occasional cross-reactive amplifications.

  18. Multiplexed Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay To Detect Intestinal Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Crannell, Zachary; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Nair, Gayatri; Mejia, Rojelio; White, A Clinton; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-02-02

    This work describes a proof-of-concept multiplex recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay with lateral flow readout that is capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating DNA from any of the diarrhea-causing protozoa Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. Together, these parasites contribute significantly to the global burden of diarrheal illness. Differential diagnosis of these parasites is traditionally accomplished via stool microscopy. However, microscopy is insensitive and can miss up to half of all cases. DNA-based diagnostics such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are far more sensitive; however, they rely on expensive thermal cycling equipment, limiting their availability to centralized reference laboratories. Isothermal DNA amplification platforms, such as the RPA platform used in this study, alleviate the need for thermal cycling equipment and have the potential to broaden access to more sensitive diagnostics. Until now, multiplex RPA assays have not been developed that are capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating infections caused by different pathogens. We developed a multiplex RPA assay to detect the presence of DNA from Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. The multiplex assay was characterized using synthetic DNA, where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 403, 425, and 368 gene copies per reaction of the synthetic Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba targets, respectively (roughly 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than for the same targets in a singleplex RPA assay). The multiplex assay was also characterized using DNA extracted from live parasites spiked into stool samples where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 444, 6, and 9 parasites per reaction for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba parasites, respectively. This proof-of-concept assay may be reconfigured to detect a wide variety of targets by re-designing the primer and probe sequences.

  19. Development of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of influenza virus type A including H5 and H9 subtypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Qiong; Zhang, Jun; Muller, Claude P; Chen, Jing-Xian; Yang, Zi-Feng; Zhang, Ren; Li, Juan; He, Yun-Shao

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are endemic in wild birds and, if transmitted to poultry, can cause serious economic losses. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for rapid detection of influenza virus type A, including H5 and H9 subtypes. The selected primers and various labeled TaqMan reporter probes corresponding to matrix, H5, and H9 genes were used in a multiplex real-time RT-PCR to simultaneously detect triple fluorescent signals. The results showed that the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay can be applied to detect RNA of influenza virus type A including H5 and H9 subtypes with a high specificity and a sensitivity of 10 copies per reaction. As a result of its short turnaround times and a high specificity and sensitivity, the assay is very suitable for large-scale screening during AIV outbreaks.

  20. A new StaRT-PCR approach to detect and quantify fish Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv): enhanced quality control with internal standards.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Lindsey R; Willey, James C; Crawford, Erin L; Palsule, Vrushalee V; Leaman, Douglas W; Faisal, Mohamed; Kim, Robert K; Shepherd, Brian S; Stanoszek, Lauren M; Stepien, Carol A

    2013-04-01

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) causes one of the world's most important finfish diseases, killing >80 species across Eurasia and North America. A new and especially virulent strain (IVb) emerged in the North American Great Lakes in 2003, threatening fisheries, baitfish, and aquaculture industries. Weeks-long and costly cell culture is the OIE and USDA-APHIS approved diagnostic. A new Standardized Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (StaRT-PCR) assay that uniquely incorporates internal standards to improve accuracy and prevent false negatives was developed and evaluated for its ability to detect and quantify VHSv. Results from StaRT-PCR, SYBR(®) green real time qRT-PCR, and cell culture were compared, as well as the effects of potential PCR inhibitors (EDTA and high RNA). Findings show that StaRT-PCR is sensitive, detecting a single molecule, with 100% accuracy at six molecules, and had no false negatives. In comparison, false negatives ranged from 14 to 47% in SYBR(®) green real time qRT-PCR tests, and 47-70% with cell culture. StaRT-PCR uniquely controlled for EDTA and RNA interference. Range of VHSv quantitation by StaRT-PCR was 1.0×10(0)-1.2×10(5) VHSv/10(6)actb1 molecules in wild caught fishes and 1.0×10(0)-8.4×10(5) molecules in laboratory challenged specimens. In the latter experiments, muskellunge with skin lesions had significantly more viral molecules (mean=1.9×10(4)) than those without (1.1×10(3)) (p<0.04). VHSv infection was detected earlier in injection than in immersion challenged yellow perch (two versus three days), with molecule numbers in both being comparable and relatively consistent over the remaining course of the experiment. Our results show that the StaRT-PCR test accurately and reliably detects and quantifies VHSv.

  1. Picoinjection Enables Digital Detection of RNA with Droplet RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Adam R.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to add reagents to drops in a sequential fashion is necessary for numerous applications of microfluidics in biology. An important method for accomplishing this is picoinjection, a technique in which reagents are injected into aqueous drops using an electric field. While picoinjection has been shown to allow the precise addition of reagents to drops, its compatibility with biological reactions is yet to be thoroughly demonstrated. Here, we investigate the compatibility of picoinjection with digital RT-PCR Taqman assays, reactions that incorporate nucleic acids, enzymes, and other common biological reagents. We find that picoinjection is compatible with this assay and enables the detection of RNA transcripts at rates comparable to workflows not incorporating picoinjection. We also find that picoinjection results in negligible transfer of material between drops and that the drops faithfully retain their compartmentalization. PMID:23658657

  2. Detection of Strawberry necrotic shock virus using conventional and TaqMan(®) quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Thekke Veetil, Thanuja; Ho, Thien; Moyer, Catalina; Whitaker, Vance M; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2016-09-01

    Graft-indexing of an advanced selection from the University of Florida strawberry breeding program produced virus-like symptoms on Fragaria vesca. However; RT-PCR testing of the material did not detect the presence of any of 16 strawberry virus species or members of virus groups for which strawberries are routinely indexed. Large scale sequencing of the material revealed the presence of an isolate of Strawberry necrotic shock virus. The nucleotide sequence of this isolate from Florida shows a significant number of base changes in the annealing sites of the primers compared to the primers currently in use for the detection of SNSV thereby explaining the most probable reason for the inability to detect the virus in the original screening. RT-PCR and Taqman(®) qPCR assays were developed based on conserved virus sequences identified in this isolate from Florida and other sequences for SNSV currently present in GenBank. The two assays were applied successfully on multiple samples collected from several areas across the United States as well as isolates from around the world. Comparison between the RT-PCR and the qPCR assays revealed that the qPCR assay is at least 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR.

  3. The use of collagenase to improve the detection of plant viruses in vector nematodes by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert R; Pinkerton, Jack N; Kraus, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) are transmitted to healthy plants by viruliferous nematodes in the soil. A method was developed for extraction of genomic viral RNA from virus particles carried within nematodes and a sensitive nested RT-PCR detection assay. The procedure has been adapted to microscale for handling multiple samples. This assay is effective for detection of ToRSV or TRSV in Xiphinema americanum or TRV in Paratrichodorus allius. With this method, viruses can be detected in nematodes fed on infected plants or from field-collected nematodes where the percentage of viruliferous nematodes is unknown. Soil samples from four red raspberry fields infected with ToRSV were collected in 2003 and 2004. Nematodes isolated from these samples were assayed for ToRSV by RT-PCR and compared to cucumber baiting bioassay for virus transmission from the same soil samples. ToRSV was detected in nematodes throughout the season with similar frequencies by the RT-PCR assay and the transmission bioassay.

  4. Efficacy of quantitative RT-PCR for detection of the nucleoprotein gene from different porcine rubulavirus strains.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; García-Contreras, Adelfa del Carmen; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Sánchez-Betancourt, José Iván; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2013-09-01

    Blue-eye disease is an emergent viral swine infection caused by porcine rubulavirus (PoRV). We have developed a qRT-PCR method to detect and quantify expression of the nucleoprotein gene for different PoRV strains. The limit of detection for this assay was 10(2) copies of synthetic RNA. Viral RNA from PoRV was detectable at a TCID50 of 0.01. Significant differences were observed between viral RNA quantification and virus titration results for nine PoRV strains. For nasal and oral swab samples that were collected from experimentally infected pigs, the qRT-PCR assay was more sensitive (87.1-83.9 %) for the detection of positive samples than methods involving isolation of virus. The implementation of highly sensitive assays that yield results quickly will be of great assistance in the eradication of PoRV from Mexico. We also believe that the newly developed qRT-PCR assay will help reduce the spread of this viral infection to other countries.

  5. Methods for threshold determination in multiplexed assays

    DOEpatents

    Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

    2014-06-24

    Methods for determination of threshold values of signatures comprised in an assay are described. Each signature enables detection of a target. The methods determine a probability density function of negative samples and a corresponding false positive rate curve. A false positive criterion is established and a threshold for that signature is determined as a point at which the false positive rate curve intersects the false positive criterion. A method for quantitative analysis and interpretation of assay results together with a method for determination of a desired limit of detection of a signature in an assay are also described.

  6. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for detection and differentiation of influenza viruses A and B during the 2001-2002 influenza season in Israel.

    PubMed

    Hindiyeh, Musa; Levy, Virginia; Azar, Roberto; Varsano, Noemi; Regev, Liora; Shalev, Yael; Grossman, Zehava; Mendelson, Ella

    2005-02-01

    The ability to rapidly diagnose influenza virus infections is of the utmost importance in the evaluation of patients with upper respiratory tract infections. It is also important for the influenza surveillance activities performed by national influenza centers. In the present study we modified a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay (which uses TaqMan chemistry) and evaluated it for its ability to detect and concomitantly differentiate influenza viruses A and B in 370 patient samples collected during the 2001-2002 influenza season in Israel. The performance of the TaqMan assay was compared to those of a multiplex one-step RT-PCR with gel detection, a shell vial immunofluorescence assay, and virus isolation in tissue culture. The TaqMan assay had an excellent sensitivity for the detection of influenza viruses compared to that of tissue culture. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the TaqMan assay compared to the results of culture were 98.4 and 85.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the TaqMan assay for the detection of influenza virus A alone were 100 and 91.1%, respectively. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of influenza virus B alone were 95.7 and 98.7%, respectively. The rapid turnaround time for the performance of the TaqMan assay (4.5 h) and the relatively low direct cost encourage the routine use of this assay in place of tissue culture. We conclude that the multiplex TaqMan assay is highly suitable for the rapid diagnosis of influenza virus infections both in well-established molecular biology laboratories and in reference clinical laboratories.

  7. The genotyping of infectious bronchitis virus in Taiwan by a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shr-Wei; Ho, Chia-Fang; Chan, Kun-Wei; Cheng, Min-Chung; Shien, Jui-Hung; Liu, Hung-Jen; Wang, Chi-Young

    2014-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV; Avian coronavirus) causes acute respiratory and reproductive and urogenital diseases in chickens. Following sequence alignment of IBV strains, a combination of selective primer sets was designed to individually amplify the IBV wild-type and vaccine strains using a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (ARMS RT-PCR) approach. This system was shown to discriminate the IBV wild-type and vaccine strains. Moreover, an ARMS real-time RT-PCR (ARMS qRT-PCR) was combined with a high-resolution analysis (HRMA) to establish a melt curve analysis program. The specificity of the ARMS RT-PCR and the ARMS qRT-PCR was verified using unrelated avian viruses. Different melting temperatures and distinct normalized and shifted melting curve patterns for the IBV Mass, IBV H120, IBV TW-I, and IBV TW-II strains were detected. The new assays were used on samples of lung and trachea as well as virus from allantoic fluid and cell culture. In addition to being able to detect the presence of IBV vaccine and wild-type strains by ARMS RT-PCR, the IBV Mass, IBV H120, IBV TW-I, and IBV TW-II strains were distinguished using ARMS qRT-PCR by their melting temperatures and by HRMA. These approaches have acceptable sensitivities and specificities and therefore should be able to serve as options when carrying out differential diagnosis of IBV in Taiwan and China.

  8. Simultaneous detection of the seven main tomato-infecting RNA viruses by two multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions.

    PubMed

    Panno, Stefano; Davino, Salvatore; Rubio, Luis; Rangel, Ezequiel; Davino, Mario; García-Hernández, Jorge; Olmos, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato mosaic virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, Torrado tomato virus and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus cause serious damage and significant economic losses in tomato crops worldwide. The early detection of these pathogens is essential for preventing the viruses from spreading and improving their control. In this study, a procedure based on two multiplex RT-PCRs was developed for the sensitive and reliable detection of these seven viruses. Serial dilutions of positive controls were analysed by this methodology, and the results were compared with those obtained by ELISA and singleplex versions of RT-PCR. The multiplex and singleplex RT-PCR assays were able to detect specific targets at the same dilution and were 100 times more sensitive than ELISA. The multiplex versions were able to detect composite samples containing different concentrations of specific targets at ratios from 1:1 to 1:1000. In addition, 45 symptomatic tomato samples collected in different tomato-growing areas of Sicily (Italy) were analysed by multiplex RT-PCR, singleplex RT-PCR and commercially available ELISA tests. Similar results were obtained using the RT-PCR techniques, with a higher sensitivity than ELISA, revealing a common occurrence of mixed infections and confirming the presence of these seven virus species in Italy.

  9. Computational tradeoffs in multiplex PCR assay design for SNP genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, John; Ding, Chunming; Cantor, Charles; Kasif, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Background Multiplex PCR is a key technology for detecting infectious microorganisms, whole-genome sequencing, forensic analysis, and for enabling flexible yet low-cost genotyping. However, the design of a multiplex PCR assays requires the consideration of multiple competing objectives and physical constraints, and extensive computational analysis must be performed in order to identify the possible formation of primer-dimers that can negatively impact product yield. Results This paper examines the computational design limits of multiplex PCR in the context of SNP genotyping and examines tradeoffs associated with several key design factors including multiplexing level (the number of primer pairs per tube), coverage (the % of SNP whose associated primers are actually assigned to one of several available tube), and tube-size uniformity. We also examine how design performance depends on the total number of available SNPs from which to choose, and primer stringency criterial. We show that finding high-multiplexing/high-coverage designs is subject to a computational phase transition, becoming dramatically more difficult when the probability of primer pair interaction exceeds a critical threshold. The precise location of this critical transition point depends on the number of available SNPs and the level of multiplexing required. We also demonstrate how coverage performance is impacted by the number of available snps, primer selection criteria, and target multiplexing levels. Conclusion The presence of a phase transition suggests limits to scaling Multiplex PCR performance for high-throughput genomics applications. Achieving broad SNP coverage rapidly transitions from being very easy to very hard as the target multiplexing level (# of primer pairs per tube) increases. The onset of a phase transition can be "delayed" by having a larger pool of SNPs, or loosening primer selection constraints so as to increase the number of candidate primer pairs per SNP, though the latter

  10. Evaluation of viral extraction methods on a broad range of Ready-To-Eat foods with conventional and real-time RT-PCR for Norovirus GII detection.

    PubMed

    Baert, Leen; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan

    2008-03-31

    Noroviruses (NoV) are a common cause of foodborne outbreaks. In spite of that, no standard viral detection method is available for food products. Therefore, three viral elution-concentration methods and one direct RNA isolation method were evaluated on a broad range of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) food products (mixed lettuce, fruit salad, raspberries and two RTE dishes) artificially seeded with a diluted stool sample contaminated with NoV genogroup II. These seeding experiments revealed two categories of RTE products, fruits and vegetables grouped together and RTE dishes (penne and tagliatelle salads) which are rich in proteins and fat formed another category. The RNA extracts were amplified and detected with two conventional RT-PCR systems (Booster and Semi-nested GII) and one real-time RT-PCR (Real-time GII) assay. A fast direct RNA isolation method detected 10(2) RT-PCRU on 10 g penne and tagliatelle salads with the conventional RT-PCR assays. However real-time RT-PCR was less sensitive for penne salad. A viral elution-concentration method, including a buffer solution for the elution step and one polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation step, was able to detect 10(2) RT-PCRU on 50 g frozen raspberries with conventional and real-time RT-PCR assays. Moreover the latter extraction method used no environmental hazardous chemical reagents and was easy to perform.

  11. Survey of Canadian retail pork chops and pork livers for detection of hepatitis E virus, norovirus, and rotavirus using real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Leblanc, Danielle; Houde, Alain; Brassard, Julie; Gagné, Marie-Josée; Plante, Daniel; Bellon-Gagnon, Pascale; Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria; Janecko, Nicol; Avery, Brent; Rajić, Andrijana; McEwen, Scott A

    2014-08-18

    Over the past 15 years, hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV) have been hypothesized to be potentially zoonotic; swine and pork have been suggested as possible human infection sources for all 3 viruses. Our objective was to estimate HEV, NoV, and RV prevalence and load on Canadian retail pork chops and livers. Using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) sampling platform, pork livers (n=283) and chops (n=599) were collected, processed, and assayed for the 3 viruses by four collaborating federal laboratories using validated real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR). Follow-up qRT-PCR estimating viral load in genomic copies/g was followed by nested classical RT-PCR and isolate sequencing of a partial segment of the ORF2 gene. Local alignments were performed using MUSCLE (Multiple Sequence Comparison by Log-Expectation); a phylogenetic tree was created. Twenty-five livers and 6 chops were classified 'positive' (thresholds for viral RNA detected in both replicates of the assay) or 'suspect' (thresholds detected in one of two replicates) for HEV. Follow-up qRT-PCR detected HEV on 16 livers, 0 chops, and nested classical RT-PCR, on 14 livers and 0 chops. Initial qRT-PCR classified 12 chops 'suspect' for NoV. Follow-up qRT-PCR detected viral RNA on only one sample with thresholds greater than 40 in both replicates. No amplicon was yielded, and therefore no isolate was sequenced from this sample. Partial ORF2 genes from 14 HEV isolates were sequenced, and compared via sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis with selected human case isolates listed in NCBI-GenBank. Overall, HEV prevalence on retail pork was comparable with other published reports. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Methods for recovery of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and other viruses from processed foods and detection of HAV by nested RT-PCR and TaqMan RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Casteel, Michael J; Meschke, John S; Sobsey, Mark D

    2008-08-15

    Enteric viruses are important agents of foodborne disease. Unfortunately, robust, quantitative methods for sampling and analysis of enteric and other viruses in processed or complex foods are not well-established. As a result, epidemiologically determined etiologies or pathogen sources in foodborne outbreaks are rarely confirmed by virological analysis. In this study, an acid-adsorption elution concentration (AEC) method previously used to monitor virus occurrence and investigate enteric virus outbreaks in shellfish was adapted for examination of processed food items, namely tomato sauce and blended strawberries. Hepatitis A virus (HAV), poliovirus, and coliphage MS2 (MS2) were seeded in 10 or 30 g samples of tomato sauce or blended strawberries, recovered by AEC, and quantified by cell culture infectivity assay. In addition, nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and TaqMan RT-PCR assays were used to detect HAV RNA. Viruses were efficiently adsorbed to foods as an initial concentration step, with infectious HAV and MS2 adsorption of 67% and 93%, respectively, to tomato sauce, and 89% and 99%, respectively, to blended strawberries. Forty-three to 65% of HAV and poliovirus were subsequently eluted and recovered from tomato sauce using 0.5 M threonine, pH 7.2. The lower limits of HAV detection were at initial seeding levels of 14 PFU/g of tomato sauce and 33 PFU/g of blended strawberries. Unlike TaqMan RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR was not inhibited by undiluted final RNA extracts of tomato sauce or blended strawberries. The successful adaptation of the AEC method for enteric and other virus recovery, quantitation and detection in processed foods demonstrates its potential for use in the investigation of foodborne outbreaks of viral etiology and for validation of virus disinfection and sanitary processing procedures used by the food industry.

  13. A Multiplex Assay for the Diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidoses and Mucolipidoses

    PubMed Central

    Langereis, Eveline J.; Wagemans, Tom; Kulik, Wim; Lefeber, Dirk J.; van Lenthe, Henk; Oussoren, Esmee; van der Ploeg, Ans T.; Ruijter, George J.; Wevers, Ron A.; Wijburg, Frits A.; van Vlies, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diagnosis of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) generally relies on an initial analysis of total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion in urine. Often the dimethylmethylene blue dye-binding (DMB) assay is used, although false-negative results have been reported. We report a multiplexed diagnostic test with a high sensitivity for all MPSs and with the potential to identify patients with I-cell disease (ML II) and mucolipidosis III (ML III). Methods Urine samples of 100 treatment naive MPS patients were collected and analyzed by the conventional DMB assay and a multiplex assay based on enzymatic digestion of heparan sulfate (HS), dermatan sulfate (DS) and keratan sulfate (KS) followed by quantification by LC-MS/MS. Specificity was calculated by analyzing urine samples from a cohort of 39 patients suspected for an inborn error of metabolism, including MPSs. Results The MPS cohort consisted of 18 MPS I, 16 MPS II, 34 MPS III, 10 MPS IVA, 3 MPS IVB, 17 MPS VI and 2 MPS VII patients. All 100 patients were identified by the LC-MS/MS assay with typical patterns of elevation of HS, DS and KS, respectively (sensitivity 100%). DMB analysis of the urine was found to be in the normal range in 10 of the 100 patients (sensitivity 90%). Three out of the 39 patients were identified as false-positive, resulting in a specificity of the LS-MS/MS assay of 92%. For the DMB this was 97%. All three patients with MLII/MLIII had elevated GAGs in the LC-MS/MS assay while the DMB test was normal in 2 of them. Conclusion The multiplex LC-MS/MS assay provides a robust and very sensitive assay for the diagnosis of the complete spectrum of MPSs and has the potential to identify MPS related disorders such as MLII/MLIII. Its performance is superior to that of the conventional DMB assay. PMID:26406883

  14. Detection of Langat virus by TaqMan real-time one-step qRT-PCR method

    PubMed Central

    Muhd Radzi, Siti Fatimah; Rückert, Claudia; Sam, Sing-Sin; Teoh, Boon-Teong; Jee, Pui-Fong; Phoon, Wai-Hong; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    Langat virus (LGTV), one of the members of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) complex, was firstly isolated from Ixodes granulatus ticks in Malaysia. However, the prevalence of LGTV in ticks in the region remains unknown. Surveillance for LGTV is therefore important and thus a tool for specific detection of LGTV is needed. In the present study, we developed a real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for rapid detection of LGTV. Our findings showed that the developed qRT-PCR could detect LGTV at a titre as low as 0.1 FFU/ml. The detection limit of the qRT-PCR assay at 95% probability was 0.28 FFU/ml as determined by probit analysis (p ≤ 0.05). Besides, the designed primers and probe did not amplify ORF of the E genes for some closely related and more pathogenic viruses including TBEV, Louping ill virus, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), Alkhurma virus (ALKV), Kyasanur Forest Disease virus (KFDV) and Powassan virus (POWV) which showed the acceptable specificity of the developed assay. The sensitivity of the developed method also has been confirmed by determining the LGTV in infected tick cell line as well as LGTV- spiked tick tissues. PMID:26360297

  15. Specific detection of chikungunya virus using a RT-PCR/nested PCR combination.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, M; Linssen, B; Parke, M D; Kinney, R M

    2002-02-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is enzootic in many countries in Asia and throughout tropical Africa. In Asia the virus is transmitted from primates to humans almost exclusively by Aedes aegypti, while various aedine mosquito species are responsible for human infections in Africa. The clinical picture is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, rash and severe pain in the joints which may persist in a small proportion of cases. Although not listed as a haemorrhagic fever virus, illness caused by CHIK virus can be confused with diseases such as dengue or yellow fever, based on the similarity of the symptoms. Thus, laboratory confirmation of suspected cases is required to launch control measures during an epidemic. CHIK virus diagnosis based on virus isolation is very sensitive, yet requires at least a week in conjunction with virus identification using monovalent sera. We developed a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay which amplifies a 427-bp fragment of the E2 gene. Specificity was confirmed by testing representative strains of all known alphavirus species. To verify further the viral origin of the amplicon and to enhance sensitivity, a nested PCR was performed subsequently. This RT-PCR/nested PCR combination was able to amplify a CHIK virus-specific 172-bp amplicon from a sample containing as few as 10 genome equivalents. This assay was successfully applied to four CHIK virus isolates from Asia and Africa as well as to a vaccine strain developed by USAMRIID. Our method can be completed in less than two working days and may serve as a sensitive alternative in CHIK virus diagnosis.

  16. Evaluation of Altona Diagnostics RealStar Zika Virus RT-PCR Test Kit for Zika virus PCR testing.

    PubMed

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Lombos, Ernesto; Tang, Elaine; Perusini, Stephen; Eshaghi, Alireza; Nagra, Sandeep; Frantz, Christine; Olsha, Romy; Kristjanson, Erik; Dimitrova, Kristina; Safronetz, David; Drebot, Mike; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2017-03-15

    Background: With the emerging ZIKA virus (ZIKV) epidemic, accessible real-time reverse-transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) assays are needed to streamline testing. The commercial Altona Diagnostics RealStar ZIKV rRT-PCR Test Kit has been approved for Emergency Use Authorization by the FDA. Our aim was to verify Altona-PCR, by comparing it to the CDC-designed dual target ZIKV virus rRT-PCR reference assay (Reference-PCR), and describe demographics of patients tested for ZIKV by rRT-PCR in Ontario, Canada.Methods: A large set of clinical specimens were tested for ZIKV by Altona-PCR and Reference-PCR. Positive or equivocal specimens underwent PCR and Sanger sequencing targeting ZIKV NS5 gene.Results: 671 serum specimens were tested by Reference-PCR: 58 (8.6%) were positive, 193 (28.8%) equivocal and 420 (62.6%) negative. Ninety percent of Reference-PCR positive patients were tested in the first 5 days after symptom onset. Altona-PCR was performed on 284/671 tested specimens by Reference-PCR. Altona-PCR was positive in 53/58 (91%) Reference-PCR positive and 16/193 (8%) Reference-PCR equivocal specimens; ZIKV NS5 PCR was positive in all 68 Altona-PCR positive specimens, and negative in all 181 Altona-PCR negative specimens that underwent NS5 PCR.Conclusion: Most ZIKV PCR positive cases are detected in the first five days of illness. Altona-PCR has very good sensitivity (91%) and specificity (97%) compared to Reference-PCR. Altona-PCR can be used for ZIKV diagnostic testing, with less extensive verification requirements compared to a laboratory developed test.

  17. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) skin biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Spinsanti, Giacomo; Panti, Cristina; Lazzeri, Elisa; Marsili, Letizia; Casini, Silvia; Frati, Francesco; Fossi, Cristina Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background Odontocete cetaceans occupy the top position of the marine food-web and are particularly sensitive to the bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants. The effects of environmental pollution on these species are highly debated and various ecotoxicological studies have addressed the impact of xenobiotic compounds on marine mammals, raising conservational concerns. Despite its sensitivity, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has never been used to quantify gene induction caused by exposure of cetaceans to contaminants. A limitation for the application of qRT-PCR is the need for appropriate reference genes which allow the correct quantification of gene expression. A systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in cetacean skin biopsies is presented, in order to validate future qRT-PCR studies aiming at using the expression of selected genes as non-lethal biomarkers. Results Ten commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs) were partially sequenced in the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and, for each gene, PCR primer pairs were specifically designed and tested in qRT-PCR assays. The expression of these potential control genes was examined in 30 striped dolphin skin biopsy samples, obtained from specimens sampled in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The stability of selected control genes was determined using three different specific VBA applets (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) which produce highly comparable results. Glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAZ) always rank as the two most stably expressed HKGs according to the analysis with geNorm and Normfinder, and are defined as optimal control genes by BestKepeer. Ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) and S18 (RPS18) also exhibit a remarkable stability of their expression levels. On the other hand, transferrin receptor (TFRC), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase (HPRT1) and β-2-microglobin (B2M) show variable expression among the studied

  18. Multisite comparison of high-sensitivity multiplex cytokine assays.

    PubMed

    Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Reynolds, Sandra M; Cox, Christopher; Jacobson, Lisa P; Magpantay, Larry; Mulder, Candice B; Dibben, Oliver; Margolick, Joseph B; Bream, Jay H; Sambrano, Elise; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Borrow, Persephone; Landay, Alan L; Rinaldo, Charles R; Norris, Philip J

    2011-08-01

    The concentrations of cytokines in human serum and plasma can provide valuable information about in vivo immune status, but low concentrations often require high-sensitivity assays to permit detection. The recent development of multiplex assays, which can measure multiple cytokines in one small sample, holds great promise, especially for studies in which limited volumes of stored serum or plasma are available. Four high-sensitivity cytokine multiplex assays on a Luminex (Bio-Rad, BioSource, Linco) or electrochemiluminescence (Meso Scale Discovery) platform were evaluated for their ability to detect circulating concentrations of 13 cytokines, as well as for laboratory and lot variability. Assays were performed in six different laboratories utilizing archived serum from HIV-uninfected and -infected subjects from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and commercial plasma samples spanning initial HIV viremia. In a majority of serum samples, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were detectable with at least three kits, while IL-1β was clearly detected with only one kit. No single multiplex panel detected all cytokines, and there were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) between laboratories and/or lots with all kits. Nevertheless, the kits generally detected similar patterns of cytokine perturbation during primary HIV viremia. This multisite comparison suggests that current multiplex assays vary in their ability to measure serum and/or plasma concentrations of cytokines and may not be sufficiently reproducible for repeated determinations over a long-term study or in multiple laboratories but may be useful for longitudinal studies in which relative, rather than absolute, changes in cytokines are important.

  19. Development of duplex real-time RT-PCR based on Taqman technology for detecting simultaneously the genome of pan-enterovirus and enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seoyeon; Kang, Byunghak; Hong, Jiyoung; Kim, Ahyoun; Kim, Hyejin; Kim, Kisang; Cheon, Doo-Sung

    2013-07-01

    Human enterovirus (EV) 71 is the main etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). It is associated with neurological complications, and caused fatalities during recent outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region. Infections caused by EV71 could lead to many complications, ranging from brainstem encephalitis to pulmonary oedema, resulting in high mortality. In this study, a duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed in order to simultaneously detect pan-EV and EV71. EV71-specific primers and probes were designed based on the highly conserved VP1 region of EV71. Five EV71 strains were detected as positive, and no positive fluorescence signal was observed in the duplex real-time RT-PCR for other viral RNA, which showed 100% specificity for the selected panel, and no cross-reactions were observed in this duplex real-time RT-PCR. The EV71-specific duplex real-time RT-PCR was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, and detected viral titers that were 10-fold lower than those measured by the latter. Of the 381 HFMD clinical specimens, 196 (51.4%) cases were pan-EV-positive, of which 170 (86.7%) were EV71-positive when tested by pan-EV and EV71-specific duplex real-time RT-PCR. EV71-specific duplex real-time RT-PCR offers a rapid and sensitive method to detect EV71 from clinical specimens, and will allow quarantine measures to be taken more effectively during outbreaks.

  20. Evaluation of reference genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus for gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a useful tool for studying gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus to characterize the viru...

  1. Development and Validation of a qRT-PCR Classifier for Lung Cancer Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoan; Kim, Sinae; Taylor, Jeremy MG; Wang, Zhuwen; Lee, Oliver; Ramnath, Nithya; Reddy, Rishindra M; Lin, Jules; Chang, Andrew C; Orringer, Mark B; Beer, David G

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This prospective study aimed to develop a robust and clinically-applicable method to identify high-risk early stage lung cancer patients and then to validate this method for use in future translational studies. Patients and Methods Three published Affymetrix microarray data sets representing 680 primary tumors were used in the survival-related gene selection procedure using clustering, Cox model and random survival forest (RSF) analysis. A final set of 91 genes was selected and tested as a predictor of survival using a qRT-PCR-based assay utilizing an independent cohort of 101 lung adenocarcinomas. Results The RSF model built from 91 genes in the training set predicted patient survival in an independent cohort of 101 lung adenocarcinomas, with a prediction error rate of 26.6%. The mortality risk index (MRI) was significantly related to survival (Cox model p < 0.00001) and separated all patients into low, medium, and high-risk groups (HR = 1.00, 2.82, 4.42). The MRI was also related to survival in stage 1 patients (Cox model p = 0.001), separating patients into low, medium, and high-risk groups (HR = 1.00, 3.29, 3.77). Conclusions The development and validation of this robust qRT-PCR platform allows prediction of patient survival with early stage lung cancer. Utilization will now allow investigators to evaluate it prospectively by incorporation into new clinical trials with the goal of personalized treatment of lung cancer patients and improving patient survival. PMID:21792073

  2. RT-PCR analysis of dystrophin mRNA in DND/BMD patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ciafaloni, E.; Silva, H.A.R. de; Roses, A.D.

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD, BMD) are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin (dys) gene. The majority of these mutations are intragenic deletions of duplications routinely detected by Southern biots and multiplex PCR. The remainder are very likely, smaller mutations, mostly point-mutations. Detection of these mutations is very difficult due to the size and complexity of the dys gene. We applied RT-PCR to analyse the entire dys mRNA of three DMD patients with no detectable genomic defect. In two unrelated patients, a duplication of the 62 bp exon 2 was identified. This causes a frameshift sufficient to explain the DMD phenotype. In the third patient, who had congenital DMD and severe mental retardation, a complex pattern of aberrant splicing at the 3-prime exons 67-79 was observed. Sural nerve biopsy in this patient showed the complete absence of Dp116. PCR-SSCP studies are presently in progress to identify the mutations responsible for the aberrant splicing patterns.

  3. First generic one step real-time Taqman RT-PCR targeting the RNA1 of betanodaviruses.

    PubMed

    Baud, M; Cabon, J; Salomoni, A; Toffan, A; Panzarin, V; Bigarré, L

    2015-01-01

    The detection of betanodavirus genomic components is a major issue for diagnostics and control of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a devastating disease affecting fish worldwide. Despite a number of published molecular-based tests, most of them targeting the RNA2 molecule of the virus, diagnostics is still a challenge due to the high genetic diversity within this genus. In the present study, a new one-step real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR), targeting RNA1 of most genotypes of betanodaviruses, was proposed and validated. The test detected successfully various isolates of betanodavirus representatives of the four species RGNNV, SJNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV, either produced on cell culture or from clinical samples. It was specific as shown by the absence of signal on samples from healthy sea bass or from field samples of six other fish species without clinical signs of VNN. The assay detected reliably 50-100 copies of plasmids containing the targeted cloned RNA1 region, as well as an infectious dose of virus of 10(2.5)-10(2.85) TCID50/ml. A set of samples was tested by two different laboratories, with similar results, demonstrating the robustness of the test. This is the first one step generic rRT-PCR method for betanodaviruses. It is simple to perform and may be used for first intention diagnostics as well as for confirmation in case of doubtful results obtained with other published tests targeting RNA2.

  4. Effect of Preservative on Recoverable RT-PCR Amplicon Length from Influenza A Virus in Bird Feces

    PubMed Central

    Evers, David L.; Slemons, Richard D.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Surveillance for avian influenza A viruses in wild bird populations is often limited by requirements for a cold chain from time of specimen collection, by availability of ultra–low temperature specimen storage within a few hours or days, and by laborious classical virologic procedures. Successful storage of specimens in preservatives at ambient temperature and subsequent detection of RNA by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) would assist in helping influenza surveillance efforts become more widespread in remote areas, as well as more timely and inexpensive. Here, we describe bird feces spiked with influenza A virus preserved with guanidine and commercial buffers or alcohols at ambient temperature and analyzed by RT-PCR protocols. Virus-specific RT-PCR products of, at most, 206 bp were recovered for samples preserved with alcohols and up to 521 bp for samples preserved with guanidine or commercial buffers. These results suggest that this approach is feasible in the field and that preserved specimens might be better assayed molecularly when preserved in guanidine or commercial buffers. PMID:18251409

  5. RT-PCR-based analysis of microRNA (miR-1 and -124) expression in mouse CNS.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Takuya; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Takizawa, Takami; Takizawa, Toshihiro

    2007-02-02

    More than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs) have been cloned, and the functions of these molecules in developmental timing, cell proliferation, and cancer have been investigated widely. MiRNAs are analyzed with Northern blot and sequential colony evaluation; however, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based miRNA assay remains to be developed. In this report, we describe improved real-time RT-PCR methods using specific or non-specific RT primer for the semi-quantitative analysis of miRNA expression. The use of the new methods in a model study revealed differential expression of miRNA-1 (miR-1) and miR-124 in mouse organs. Specifically, our methods revealed that miR-124 concentrations in the mouse central nervous system (CNS; cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and spinal cord) were more than 100 times those in other organs. By contrast, miR-1 expression in the CNS was 100-1000 times lower than that in skeletal muscle and heart. Furthermore, we revealed anatomically regional differences in miR-124 expression within the CNS: expression ratios versus the cerebral cortex were 60.7% for the cerebellum and 35.4% for the spinal cord. These results suggest that our RT-PCR-based methods would be a powerful tool for studies of miRNA expression that is associated with various neural events.

  6. A novel approach to quantitating leukemia fusion transcripts by qRT-PCR without the need for standard curves.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Jonathan A; Scott Reading, N; Szankasi, Philippe; Matynia, Anna P; Kelley, Todd W

    2015-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia patients with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities including inv(16);CBFB-MYH11 and t(15;17);PML-RARA may be assessed by monitoring the levels of the corresponding abnormal fusion transcripts by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Such testing is important for evaluating the response to therapy and for the detection of early relapse. Existing qRT-PCR methods are well established and in widespread use in clinical laboratories but they are laborious and require the generation of standard curves. Here, we describe a new method to quantitate fusion transcripts in acute myeloid leukemia by qRT-PCR without the need for standard curves. Our approach uses a plasmid calibrator containing both a fusion transcript sequence and a reference gene sequence, representing a perfect normalized copy number (fusion transcript copy number/reference gene transcript copy number; NCN) of 1.0. The NCN of patient specimens can be calculated relative to that of the single plasmid calibrator using experimentally derived PCR efficiency values. We compared the data obtained using the plasmid calibrator method to commercially available assays using standard curves and found that the results obtained by both methods are comparable over a broad range of values with similar sensitivities. Our method has the advantage of simplicity and is therefore lower in cost and may be less subject to errors that may be introduced during the generation of standard curves.

  7. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Studies of Gene Expression in Dioscorea opposita

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiting; Zhang, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaobo; Li, Shujie; Han, Linlin; Song, Zhihui; Wang, Yunying; Li, Junhua; Li, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is one of the most common methods for gene expression studies. Data normalization based on reference genes is essential for obtaining reliable results for qRT-PCR assays. This study evaluated potential reference genes of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.), which is an important tuber crop and medicinal plant in East Asia. The expression of ten candidate reference genes across 20 samples from different organs and development stages was assessed. We identified the most stable genes for qRT-PCR studies using combined samples from different organs. Our results also suggest that different suitable reference genes or combinations of reference genes for normalization should be applied according to different organs and developmental stages. To validate the suitability of the reference genes, we evaluated the relative expression of PE2.1 and PE53, which are two genes that may be associated with microtuber formation. Our results provide the foundation for reference gene(s) selection in D. opposita and will contribute toward more accurate gene analysis studies of the genus Dioscorea. PMID:27314014

  8. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Studies of Gene Expression in Dioscorea opposita.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiting; Zhang, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaobo; Li, Shujie; Han, Linlin; Song, Zhihui; Wang, Yunying; Li, Junhua; Li, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is one of the most common methods for gene expression studies. Data normalization based on reference genes is essential for obtaining reliable results for qRT-PCR assays. This study evaluated potential reference genes of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.), which is an important tuber crop and medicinal plant in East Asia. The expression of ten candidate reference genes across 20 samples from different organs and development stages was assessed. We identified the most stable genes for qRT-PCR studies using combined samples from different organs. Our results also suggest that different suitable reference genes or combinations of reference genes for normalization should be applied according to different organs and developmental stages. To validate the suitability of the reference genes, we evaluated the relative expression of PE2.1 and PE53, which are two genes that may be associated with microtuber formation. Our results provide the foundation for reference gene(s) selection in D. opposita and will contribute toward more accurate gene analysis studies of the genus Dioscorea.

  9. Quality Control of RNA Preservation and Extraction from Paraffin-Embedded Tissue: Implications for RT-PCR and Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Martin; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of RNA isolated from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues is widely used in biomedical research and molecular pathological diagnostics. We have performed a comprehensive and systematic investigation of the impact of factors in the pre-analytical workflow, such as different fixatives, fixation time, RNA extraction method and storage of tissues in paraffin blocks, on several downstream reactions including complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and microarray hybridization. We compared the effects of routine formalin fixation with the non-crosslinking, alcohol-based Tissue Tek Xpress Molecular Fixative (TTXMF, Sakura Finetek), and cryopreservation as gold standard for molecular analyses. Formalin fixation introduced major changes into microarray gene expression data and led to marked gene-to-gene variations in delta-ct values of qRT-PCR. We found that qRT-PCR efficiency and gene-to-gene variations were mainly attributed to differences in the efficiency of cDNA synthesis as the most sensitive step. These differences could not be reliably detected by quality assessment of total RNA isolated from formalin-fixed tissues by electrophoresis or spectrophotometry. Although RNA from TTXMF fixed samples was as fragmented as RNA from formalin fixed samples, much higher cDNA yield and lower ct-values were obtained in qRT-PCR underlining the negative impact of crosslinking by formalin. In order to better estimate the impact of pre-analytical procedures such as fixation on the reliability of downstream analysis, we applied a qRT-PCR-based assay using amplicons of different length and an assay measuring the efficiency of cDNA generation. Together these two assays allowed better quality assessment of RNA extracted from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues and should be used to supplement quality scores derived from automated electrophoresis. A better standardization of the pre-analytical workflow, application

  10. Quality control of RNA preservation and extraction from paraffin-embedded tissue: implications for RT-PCR and microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Kashofer, Karl; Viertler, Christian; Pichler, Martin; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of RNA isolated from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues is widely used in biomedical research and molecular pathological diagnostics. We have performed a comprehensive and systematic investigation of the impact of factors in the pre-analytical workflow, such as different fixatives, fixation time, RNA extraction method and storage of tissues in paraffin blocks, on several downstream reactions including complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and microarray hybridization. We compared the effects of routine formalin fixation with the non-crosslinking, alcohol-based Tissue Tek Xpress Molecular Fixative (TTXMF, Sakura Finetek), and cryopreservation as gold standard for molecular analyses. Formalin fixation introduced major changes into microarray gene expression data and led to marked gene-to-gene variations in delta-ct values of qRT-PCR. We found that qRT-PCR efficiency and gene-to-gene variations were mainly attributed to differences in the efficiency of cDNA synthesis as the most sensitive step. These differences could not be reliably detected by quality assessment of total RNA isolated from formalin-fixed tissues by electrophoresis or spectrophotometry. Although RNA from TTXMF fixed samples was as fragmented as RNA from formalin fixed samples, much higher cDNA yield and lower ct-values were obtained in qRT-PCR underlining the negative impact of crosslinking by formalin. In order to better estimate the impact of pre-analytical procedures such as fixation on the reliability of downstream analysis, we applied a qRT-PCR-based assay using amplicons of different length and an assay measuring the efficiency of cDNA generation. Together these two assays allowed better quality assessment of RNA extracted from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues and should be used to supplement quality scores derived from automated electrophoresis. A better standardization of the pre-analytical workflow, application

  11. Whole genome alignment based one-step real-time RT-PCR for universal detection of avian orthoreoviruses of chicken, pheasant and turkey origins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Lu, Huaguang

    2016-04-01

    Newly emerging avian orthoreovirus (ARV) variants have been continuously detected in Pennsylvania poultry since 2011. In this paper, we report our recent diagnostic assay development of one-step real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) for the rapid and universal detection of all ARVs or reference strains of chicken, pheasant and turkey origins and six σC genotypes of the newly emerging field ARV variants in Pennsylvania (PA) poultry. Primers and probes for the rRT-PCR were designed from the conserved region of the M1 genome segment 5' end based on the whole-genome alignment of various ARV strains, including six field variants or novel strains obtained in PA poultry. The detection limit of the newly developed rRT-PCR for ARV was as low as 10 copies/reaction of viral RNA, and 10(0.50)-10(0.88) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/100 μL of viruses. This new rRT-PCR detected all six σC genotypes from the 66 ARV field variant strains and reference strains tested in this study. There were no cross-reactions with other avian viruses. Reproducibility of the assay was confirmed by intra- and inter-assay tests with variability from 0.12% to 2.19%. Sensitivity and specificity of this new rRT-PCR for ARV were achieved at 100% and 88%, respectively, in comparison with virus isolation as the "gold standard" in testing poultry tissue specimen.

  12. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid... § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid... § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid... § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid... § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid... § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended...

  17. Comparison of molecular quantification of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes by Pfs25 qRT-PCR and QT-NASBA in relation to mosquito infectivity.

    PubMed

    Pett, Helmi; Gonçalves, Bronner P; Dicko, Alassane; Nébié, Issa; Tiono, Alfred B; Lanke, Kjerstin; Bradley, John; Chen, Ingrid; Diawara, Halimatou; Mahamar, Almahamoudou; Soumare, Harouna M; Traore, Sekou F; Baber, Ibrahima; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Sauerwein, Robert; Brown, Joelle; Gosling, Roly; Felger, Ingrid; Drakeley, Chris; Bousema, Teun

    2016-11-08

    Quantifying gametocyte densities in natural malaria infections is important to estimate malaria transmission potential. Two molecular methods (Pfs25 mRNA quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and Pfs25 mRNA quantitative nucleic acid sequence based amplification (QT-NASBA)) are commonly used to determine gametocyte densities in clinical and epidemiological studies and allow gametocyte detection at densities below the microscopic threshold for detection. Here, reproducibility of these measurements and the association between estimated gametocyte densities and mosquito infection rates were compared. To quantify intra- and inter-assay variation of QT-NASBA and qRT-PCR, a series of experiments was performed using culture-derived mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes from three different parasite isolates (NF54, NF135, NF166). Pfs25 mRNA levels were also determined in samples from clinical trials in Mali and Burkina Faso using both methods. Agreement between the two methods and association with mosquito infection rates in membrane feeding assays were assessed. Intra- and inter-assay variability was larger in QT-NASBA compared to qRT-PCR, particularly at low gametocyte densities (< 1 gametocyte per μL). Logistic models, including log-transformed gametocytaemia estimated by QT-NASBA, explained variability in mosquito feeding experiment results as well as log-transformed gametocytaemia by qRT-PCR (marginal R(2) 0.28 and 0.22, respectively). Densities determined by both methods strongly correlated with mosquito infection rates [Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, 0.59 for qRT-PCR and 0.64 for QT-NASBA (P < 0.001 for both)]. Gametocyte densities estimated by qRT-PCR were higher than levels estimated by QT-NASBA or light microscopy at high densities (>100 gametocyte per μL). Samples collected in one of the two transmission studies had extremely low gametocyte densities by both molecular methods, which is suggestive of RNA degradation due to an unknown

  18. Gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with Norwalk-like viruses and their investigation by nested RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Hugh J; McCaughey, Conall; Wyatt, Dorothy E; Mitchell, Frederick; Coyle, Peter V

    2001-01-01

    Background Norwalk-like viruses are the most common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks and sporadic cases of vomiting and diarrhoea. In healthy individuals infection is often mild and short-lived but in debilitated patients infection can be severe. It is essential that the virus laboratory can offer a sensitive and specific test, delivered in a timely manner. Methods We have developed a nested reverse transcriptase PCR based on published primers against the RNA polymerase gene and after comparison with electronmicroscopy used the assay to investigate 31 outbreaks of gastroenteritis. These were in diverse situations including nursing homes, small district hospitals, large general hospitals, a ferry ship, hotels, restaurants and staff canteens. Results A positive diagnosis was made in 30/31 outbreaks investigated giving an overall outbreak positive detection rate of 97%. At an individual patient level there was a positive diagnostic rate of 11.5% in a large hospital environment to 100% in smaller outbreak situations. The average patient positive rate was 34%. In addition we investigated 532 control faecal specimens from adults. Of these 530 were negative and 2 were repeatedly positive. Conclusions It is essential that insensitive electronmicroscopy is replaced with the more sensitive reverse transcription PCR assays. These tests should be made available "on call" at weekends and public holidays. It is also important that outbreaks of NLV infection are monitored using sensitive RT-PCR assays so that the laboratory information can be used in ascertaining the spread and duration of the outbreak PMID:11511325

  19. Detection of canine distemper virus in dogs by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Elia, Gabriella; Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Cirone, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lorusso, Eleonora; Di Trani, Livia; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2006-09-01

    Canine distemper virus is the etiological agent of a severe disease in dogs and many other carnivores. Clinical diagnosis of canine distemper is difficult due to the broad spectrum of signs that may be confounded with other respiratory and enteric diseases of dogs. Accordingly, a laboratory confirmation is required for suspected cases. In this study a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for detection and quantitation of canine distemper virus. The assay exhibited high specificity as all the negative controls (no-template-controls and samples from healthy sero-negative dogs) and other canine pathogens were not misdetected. Up to 1 x 10(2) copies of RNA were detected by the TaqMan assay, thus revealing a high sensitivity. Quantitative TaqMan was validated on clinical samples, including various tissues and organs collected from dogs naturally infected by canine distemper virus. Urines, tonsil, conjunctival swabs and whole blood were found to contain high virus loads and therefore proved to be suitable targets for detection of canine distemper virus RNA.

  20. Molecular simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus by real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melting analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, real-time RT-PCR assays were combined with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) infection in sweet cherry trees. Detection of CNRMV and CGRMV was performed using a...

  1. Real-time RT-PCR for detection of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf mottle virus and characterizing synergistic interactions in mixed infections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two TaqMan-based real-time One-Step RT-PCR assays were developed for the rapid and efficient detection of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) and Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV), two of the most common raspberry viruses in North America and Europe. The primers and probes were designed from conser...

  2. Development of a quantitative competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QC-RT-PCR) for detection and quantitation of Chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shashi; Dash, Paban Kumar; Santhosh, S R; Shukla, Jyoti; Parida, Manmohan; Rao, P V Lakshmana

    2010-05-01

    Chikungunya is one of the most important emerging arboviral infections of public health significance. Due to lack of a licensed vaccine, rapid diagnosis plays an important role in early management of patients. In this study, a QC-RT-PCR assay was developed to quantify Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) RNA by targeting the conserved region of E1 gene. A competitor molecule containing an internal insertion was generated, which provided a stringent control of the quantification process. The introduction of 10-fold serially diluted competitor in each reaction was further used to determine sensitivity. The applicability of this assay for quantification of CHIKV RNA was evaluated with human clinical samples, and the results were compared with real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The sensitivity of this assay was estimated to be 100 RNA copies per reaction with a dynamic detection range of 10(2) to 10(10) copies. Specificity was confirmed using closely related alpha and flaviviruses. The comparison of QC-RT-PCR result with real-time RT-PCR revealed 100% concordance for the detection of CHIKV in clinical samples. These findings demonstrated that the reported assay is convenient, sensitive and accurate method and has the potential usefulness for clinical diagnosis due to simultaneous detection and quantification of CHIKV in acute-phase serum samples.

  3. Development of an Internally Controlled Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay for Pan-Dengue Virus Detection and Comparison of Four Molecular Dengue Virus Detection Assays

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Abeynayake, Janaki; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Gresh, Lionel; Tellez, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Karla; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Balmaseda, Angel; Karunaratne, Kumudu; Harris, Eva

    2013-01-01

    A number of diagnostic tests are available for dengue virus (DENV) detection, including a variety of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). However, reports describing a direct comparison of different NAATs have been limited. In this study, we report the design of an internally controlled real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) that detects all four DENV serotypes but does not distinguish between them (the pan-DENV assay). Two hundred clinical samples were then tested using four different DENV RT-PCR assays: the pan-DENV assay, a commercially produced, internally controlled DENV rRT-PCR (the Altona assay), a widely used heminested RT-PCR, and a serotype-specific multiplex rRT-PCR assay. The pan-DENV assay had a linear range extending from 1.0 to 7.0 log10 cDNA equivalents/μl and a lower limit of 95% detection ranging from 1.7 to 7.6 cDNA equivalents/μl, depending on the serotype. When measured against a composite reference standard, the pan-DENV assay proved to be more clinically sensitive than either the Altona or heminested assays, with a sensitivity of 98.0% compared to 72.3% and 78.8%, respectively (P ≤ 0.0001 for both comparisons). The pan-DENV assay detected DENV in significantly more samples collected on or after day 5 of illness and in a subgroup of patients with detectable anti-DENV IgM at presentation. No significant difference in sensitivity was observed between the pan-DENV assay and the multiplex rRT-PCR, despite the presence of an internal control in the former. The detection of DENV RNA late in the course of clinical illness should serve to lengthen the period during which a confirmed molecular diagnosis of DENV infection can be provided. PMID:23637298

  4. Development of a real-time RT-PCR method for detection of porcine rubulavirus (PoRV-LPMV).

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Alvarado, Arcelia; Hernández-Jauregui, Pablo; Rivera-Benitez, Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto; Berg, Mikael

    2013-04-01

    In order to provide a rapid and sensitive method for detection of the Porcine rubulavirus La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico Virus (PoRV-LPMV), we have developed a specific real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. The detection of PoRV-LPMV, represents a diagnostic challenge due to the viral RNA being present in very small amounts in tissue samples. In this study, a TaqMan(®) real-time PCR assay was designed based on the phosphoprotein gene of PoRV-LPMV, to allow specific amplification and detection of viral RNA in clinical samples. Assay conditions for the primers and probe were optimized using infected PK15 cells and ten-fold serial dilutions of a plasmid containing the whole P-gene. The sensitivity of the developed TaqMan(®) assay was approximately 10 plasmid copies per reaction, and was shown to be 1000 fold better than a conventional nested RT-PCR. The performance of this real-time RT-PCR method enables studies of various aspects of PoRV-LPMV infection. Finally, the assay detects all current known variants of the virus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Field-based multiplex and quantitative assay platforms for diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa; Dixon, C. Edward; Chipman, Russell; Scherer, Axel; Beshay, Manal; Kempen, Lothar U.; Chandra Sekhar, Jai Ganesh; Yan, Hong; Puccio, Ava; Okonkwo, David; McClain, Stephen; Gilbert, Noah; Vyawahare, Saurabh

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. military has a continued interest in the development of handheld, field-usable sensors and test kits for a variety of diagnostic applications, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and infectious diseases. Field-use presents unique challenges for biosensor design, both for the readout unit and for the biological assay platform. We have developed robust biosensor devices that offer ultra-high sensitivity and also meet field-use needs. The systems under development include a multiplexed quantitative lateral flow test strip for TBI diagnostics, a field test kit for the diagnosis of pathogens endemic to the Middle East, and a microfluidic assay platform with a label-free reader for performing complex biological automated assays in the field.

  6. A universal TaqMan-based RT-PCR protocol for cost-efficient detection of small noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ulrike; Jiang, Xiaoou; Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.; Patzel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Several methods for the detection of RNA have been developed over time. For small RNA detection, a stem–loop reverse primer-based protocol relying on TaqMan RT-PCR has been described. This protocol requires an individual specific TaqMan probe for each target RNA and, hence, is highly cost-intensive for experiments with small sample sizes or large numbers of different samples. We describe a universal TaqMan-based probe protocol which can be used to detect any target sequence and demonstrate its applicability for the detection of endogenous as well as artificial eukaryotic and bacterial small RNAs. While the specific and the universal probe-based protocol showed the same sensitivity, the absolute sensitivity of detection was found to be more than 100-fold lower for both than previously reported. In subsequent experiments, we found previously unknown limitations intrinsic to the method affecting its feasibility in determination of mature template RISC incorporation as well as in multiplexing. Both protocols were equally specific in discriminating between correct and incorrect small RNA targets or between mature miRNA and its unprocessed RNA precursor, indicating the stem–loop RT-primer, but not the TaqMan probe, triggers target specificity. The presented universal TaqMan-based RT-PCR protocol represents a cost-efficient method for the detection of small RNAs. PMID:24149841

  7. A universal TaqMan-based RT-PCR protocol for cost-efficient detection of small noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ulrike; Jiang, Xiaoou; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Patzel, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Several methods for the detection of RNA have been developed over time. For small RNA detection, a stem-loop reverse primer-based protocol relying on TaqMan RT-PCR has been described. This protocol requires an individual specific TaqMan probe for each target RNA and, hence, is highly cost-intensive for experiments with small sample sizes or large numbers of different samples. We describe a universal TaqMan-based probe protocol which can be used to detect any target sequence and demonstrate its applicability for the detection of endogenous as well as artificial eukaryotic and bacterial small RNAs. While the specific and the universal probe-based protocol showed the same sensitivity, the absolute sensitivity of detection was found to be more than 100-fold lower for both than previously reported. In subsequent experiments, we found previously unknown limitations intrinsic to the method affecting its feasibility in determination of mature template RISC incorporation as well as in multiplexing. Both protocols were equally specific in discriminating between correct and incorrect small RNA targets or between mature miRNA and its unprocessed RNA precursor, indicating the stem-loop RT-primer, but not the TaqMan probe, triggers target specificity. The presented universal TaqMan-based RT-PCR protocol represents a cost-efficient method for the detection of small RNAs.

  8. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for Legionella species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Min; Jeong, Yoojung; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Min Ja

    2015-12-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (sg1) accounts for the majority of infections in humans, but other Legionella species are also associated with human disease. In this study, a new SYBR Green I-based multiplex real-time PCR assay in a single reaction was developed to allow the rapid detection and differentiation of Legionella species by targeting specific gene sequences. Candidate target genes were selected, and primer sets were designed by referring to comparative genomic hybridization data of Legionella species. The Legionella species-specific groES primer set successfully detected all 30 Legionella strains tested. The xcpX and rfbA primers specifically detected L. pneumophila sg1-15 and L. pneumophila sg1, respectively. In addition, this assay was validated by testing clinical samples and isolates. In conclusion, this novel multiplex real-time PCR assay might be a useful diagnostic tool for the rapid detection and differentiation of Legionella species in both clinical and epidemiological studies.

  9. Hepatitis C Virus RNA Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Method Based on a New Primer Design Strategy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lida; Li, Wenli; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Tian; Hao, Mingju; Jia, Tingting; Sun, Yu; Lin, Guigao; Wang, Lunan; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Viral nucleic acids are unstable when improperly collected, handled, and stored, resulting in decreased sensitivity of currently available commercial quantitative nucleic acid testing kits. Using known unstable hepatitis C virus RNA, we developed a quantitative RT-PCR method based on a new primer design strategy to reduce the impact of nucleic acid instability on nucleic acid testing. The performance of the method was evaluated for linearity, limit of detection, precision, specificity, and agreement with commercial hepatitis C virus assays. Its clinical application was compared to that of two commercial kits--Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) and Kehua. The quantitative RT-PCR method delivered a good performance, with a linearity of R(2) = 0.99, a total limit of detection (genotypes 1 to 6) of 42.6 IU/mL (95% CI, 32.84 to 67.76 IU/mL), a CV of 1.06% to 3.34%, a specificity of 100%, and a high concordance with the CAP/CTM assay (R(2) = 0.97), with a means ± SD value of -0.06 ± 1.96 log IU/mL (range, -0.38 to 0.25 log IU/mL). The method was superior to commercial assays in detecting unstable hepatitis C virus RNA (P < 0.05). This quantitative RT-PCR method can effectively eliminate the influence of RNA instability on nucleic acid testing. The principle of primer design strategy may be applied to the detection of other RNA or DNA viruses. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. RT-PCR and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS) for Identifying Acute Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Fu; Blyn, Lawrence; Rothman, Richard E.; Ramachandran, Padmini; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Ecker, David; Sampath, Rangarajan; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of respiratory viruses traditionally relies on culture or antigen detection.We aimed to demonstrate capacity of the RT-PCR/ESI-MS platform to identify clinical relevant respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples and compare the diagnostic performance characteristics relative to conventional culture- and antigen-based methods. A RT-PCR/ESI-MS respiratory virus surveillance kit designed to detect respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-4, adenoviridae types A-F, coronaviridae, human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus was evaluated using both mock-ups and frozen archived NPA (N=280), 95 of which were positive by clinical virology methods. RT-PCR/ESI-MS detected 74/95 (77.9%) known positive samples and identified an additional 13/185 (7%) from culture negative samples. Viruses that are non-detectable with conventional methods were also identified. Viral load was semi-quantifiable and ranged from 2,400 to >320,000copies/ml. Time to results was 8hrs. RT-PCR/ESI-MS showed promise in rapid detection of respiratory viruses, merits further evaluation for use in clinical settings. PMID:21251562

  11. Identification of Kashmir bee virus in France using a new RT-PCR method which distinguishes closely related viruses.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Philippe; Carletto, Jerome; Siede, Reinhold; Schurr, Frank; Thiéry, Richard; Ribière, Magali

    2014-03-01

    A new RT-PCR protocol has been developed, avoiding potential misdiagnosis of Kashmir bee virus (KBV) linked to the use of KBV primers designed originally. The PCR assay validation was realised taking into account the analytical specificity and the PCR detection limit. KBV was detected in a bee sample collected in France from an apparently healthy apiary in 2012. The specificity of the primers was confirmed by sequencing the PCR product. This French sequence clustered into the KBV genotype by phylogenetic analysis, while previous French sequence isolates collected in 2002 belong to the IAPV genotype. These data represent the first detection of KBV in France.

  12. Comparison of quantitative RT-PCR with cell culture to detect viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) IVb infections in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hope, Kristine M; Casey, Rufina N; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Getchell, Rodman G; Bowser, Paul R; Casey, James W

    2010-03-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish in marine and freshwater environments. A new genotype, VHSV IVb, was isolated from a fish collected from the Great Lakes in 2003. Since the first isolation, VHSV IVb has been confirmed in 28 species, signaling the early invasion and continued spread of this Office International des Epizooties-reportable agent. For surveillance of this virus in both wild and experimental settings, we have developed a rapid and sensitive one-step quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay that amplifies a 100-base-pair conserved segment from both the genomic negative strand and the mRNA positive strand of the nucleoprotein (N) gene of VHSV IVb. This assay is linear over seven orders of magnitude, with an analytical capability of detecting a single copy of viral RNA and reproducibility at 100 copies. The assay is approximately linear with RNA input from 50 to 1000 ng per assay and works equally well with RNA prepared from a column-based or phenol-chloroform-based method. In wild-caught fish, 97% of the cases were found to be more than three orders of magnitude more sensitive using qRT-PCR than using cell culture. Of the 1,428 fish from the Great Lakes region tested in 2006 and 2007, 24% were positive by qRT-PCR whereas only 5% were positive by cell culture. All of the fish that were positive by cell culture were also positive by qRT-PCR. Importantly, qRT-PCR sensitivity is comparable to that of cell culture detection when comparing VHSV viral RNA levels with viral titer stocks, confirming that the high qRT-PCR signals obtained with diagnostic samples are due to the accumulation of N gene mRNA by transcriptional attenuation. The qRT-PCR assay is particularly valuable for rapid and high-throughput prescreening of fish before confirmatory testing by cell culture or sequencing tissue-derived amplicons and especially in detecting infection in fish that do not show clinical

  13. Selection of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemin; Fu, Yuanyuan; Ban, Liping; Wang, Zan; Feng, Guangyan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is the most commonly used method for accurately detecting gene expression patterns. As part of qRT-PCR analysis, normalization of the data requires internal control gene(s) that display uniform expression under different biological conditions. However, no invariable internal control gene exists, and therefore more than one reference gene is needed to normalize RT-PCR results. In this study, we assessed the expression of eight candidate internal control genes, namely 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor-1alpha, β-Actin, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, β-Tubulin (TUB), ACTIN2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and Msc27 of unknown function, in a diverse set of 16 alfalfa (Medicago sativa) samples representing different tissues and abiotic stress challenges, using geNorm and BestKeeper software. The results revealed that the eight candidate genes are inconsistently expressed under different experimental conditions. Msc27 and 18S rRNA are suitable reference genes for comparing different tissue types. Under different abscisic acid and NaCl conditions, three reference genes are necessary. Finally, GAPDH, TUB and β-Actin are unsuitable for normalization of qRT-PCR data under these given conditions in alfalfa. The relative expression level of MsWRKY33 was analyzed using selected reference genes. These results provide an experimental guideline for future research on gene expression in alfalfa using qRT-PCR.

  14. Red blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid as possible inhibitory factor for enterovirus RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro de; Raboni, Sônia Mara; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Vidal, Luine R Renaud

    2016-10-01

    The presence of hemoglobin in samples are considered an important inhibitory factor for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aim of this study was to examine the influence of red blood cells (RBC)s in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as an inhibitory factor to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for enteroviruses (EV). Forty-four CSF samples from patients showing characteristics of viral meningitis were assessed for EV by RT-PCR. Viral RNA extracted with guanidine isothyocianate buffer and virus detection was performed by in-house nested PCR. Positivity for EV RT-PCR was higher in CSF samples without RBCs than in samples with RBCs: 13(26%) and 36(9.2%), p = 0.001. In the group with positive EV RT-PCR, the mean + SD CSF RBC was 37 ± 183 cell/mm3; the group with negative results had 580 + 2,890 cell/mm3 (p = 0.007). The acceptable upper limit for CSF RBCs that could not influence RT-PCR was 108 cells/mm3. CSF samples with negative results for EV RT-PCR have more erythrocytes.

  15. MicroRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification obtained from microarray screening and quantitative RT-PCR confirmation

    PubMed Central

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Boersma, Anton W. M.; Choi, Ying; van Kuijk, Patricia F.; Wiemer, Erik A. C.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-protein coding molecules with important regulatory functions; many have tissue-specific expression patterns. Their very small size in principle makes them less prone to degradation processes, unlike messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which were previously proposed as molecular tools for forensic body fluid identification. To identify suitable miRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification, we first screened total RNA samples derived from saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, and venous and menstrual blood for the expression of 718 human miRNAs using a microarray platform. All body fluids could be easily distinguished from each other on the basis of complete array-based miRNA expression profiles. Results from quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR; TaqMan) assays for microarray candidate markers confirmed strong over-expression in the targeting body fluid of several miRNAs for venous blood and several others for semen. However, no candidate markers from array experiments for other body fluids such as saliva, vaginal secretion, or menstrual blood could be confirmed by RT-PCR. Time-wise degradation of venous blood and semen stains for at least 1 year under lab conditions did not significantly affect the detection sensitivity of the identified miRNA markers. The detection limit of the TaqMan assays tested for selected venous blood and semen miRNA markers required only subpicogram amounts of total RNA per single RT-PCR test, which is considerably less than usually needed for reliable mRNA RT-PCR detection. We therefore propose the application of several stable miRNA markers for the forensic identification of blood stains and several others for semen stain identification, using commercially available TaqMan assays. Additional work remains necessary in search for suitable miRNA markers for other forensically relevant body fluids. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00414-009-0402-3) contains

  16. Diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by EV71 and other enteroviruses by a one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bingfu; Zhang, Jianhua; You, Xianhui; Dong, Chen; Cheng, Xianfeng; Dai, Xing; Meng, Jihong

    2012-11-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused mainly by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and other enteroviruses (EVs) such as Coxsackie A16 in China. EV71 infection can lead to severe clinical manifestations and even death. Other EVs, however, generally cause mild symptoms. Thus, early and accurate distinction of EV71 from other EVs for HFMD will offer significant benefits. A one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR assay is described in the present study to detect simultaneously EV71 and other EVs. The primers used for the duplex RT-PCR underwent screening and optimization. The detection threshold was 0.001 TCID(50)/ml for EV71 and 0.01 TCID(50)/ml for other EVs. The positive rate of enterovirus detection in 165 clinical samples reached 68.5%, including 46.1% for EV71 and 22.4% for other EVs. Of all the severe HFMD cases, EV71 was responsible for 85.3% cases. The positive rate of EV71 fell markedly by day 8 after onset. In addition, sequencing of EV71 specific amplicons from duplex RT-PCR revealed that C4a was the predominant subgenotype of EV71 circulating in Nanjing, China. The accuracy and reliability of the assay suggest strongly that the one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR will be useful for early diagnosis and monitoring of EV71 and other EV infections.

  17. Multiple RT-PCR markers for the detection of circulating tumour cells of metastatic canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    da Costa, A; Kohn, B; Gruber, A D; Klopfleisch, R

    2013-04-01

    In humans, detection of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) using nucleic acid-based methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has proven to be of prognostic relevance. However, similar procedures are still lacking in veterinary oncology. To assess the correlation of CTC markers with the metastatic potential of canine mammary tumours, 120 peripheral blood samples from bitches with mammary carcinomas with (group 1) and without (group 2) histological evidence of vascular invasion and/or presence of lymph node metastases and mammary adenomas (group 3) were analyzed. Blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes and RNA was extracted within 48 h. Subsequently, the samples were tested by RT-PCR for a panel of seven CTC mRNA markers. CRYAB was the most sensitive single marker with a sensitivity of 35% and also the most specific marker with a specificity of 100% to detect group 1 blood samples. A multimarker assay combining four genes enhanced the sensitivity up to 77.5%, but decreased the specificity to 80%. CRYAB appeared to be highly specific but only moderately sensitive at detecting blood samples from dogs with metastatic tumours and detection significantly correlated with vascular invasion of primary mammary tumours. However, a multimarker assay of four genes significantly enhanced the sensitivity of the assay and is therefore preferable for CTC detection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. RT-PCR using glycoprotein target is more sensitive for the detection of Ebola virus in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingjuan; Ke, Yuehua; Zhang, Wenyi; Liu, Chao; Yang, Ruifu; Chen, Zeliang

    2017-03-01

    The recent largest ever Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has been of worldwide concern, causing huge economic losses and constituting serious threat to the local residents and health care workers. Rapid detection of Ebola virus (EBOV) using RT-PCR has been suggested to be of great value in stopping the outbreak, because it is highly sensitive and specific and can return results within hours. In this study, 210 clinical samples, including 109 blood and 101 nasopharyngeal swab samples were used to compare the performance of glycoprotein (GP) and nucleoprotein (NP) gene targets for the detection of EBOV. The analytical sensitivity of both assays were 10 molecules/μL. For clinical samples, the sensitivity of the assay targeting GP gene is higher than that of NP gene (respectively 98% and 94%) and the specificities for both targets were 100%. In addition, the positive samples in the RT-PCR assay targeting GP showed lower cycle threshold values and higher virus loads than NP gene.

  19. Quantitative detection of Cryptosporidium oocyst in water source based on 18S rRNA by alternately binding probe competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (ABC-RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Kishida, Naohiro; Miyata, Ryo; Furuta, Atsushi; Izumiyama, Shinji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Noda, Naohiro; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-01-01

    We describe an assay for simple and cost-effective quantification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water samples using a recently developed quantification method named alternately binding probe competitive PCR (ABC-PCR). The assay is based on the detection of 18S rRNA specific for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The standard curve of the ABC-PCR assay had a good fitting to a rectangular hyperbola with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9997. Concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts in real river water samples were successfully quantified by the ABC-reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. The quantified values by the ABC-RT-PCR assay very closely resemble those by the real-time RT-PCR assay. In addition, the quantified concentration in most water samples by the ABC-RT-PCR assay was comparable to that by conventional microscopic observation. Thus, Cryptosporidium oocysts in water samples can be accurately and specifically determined by the ABC-RT-PCR assay. As the only equipment that is needed for this end-point fluorescence assay is a simple fluorometer and a relatively inexpensive thermal cycler, this method can markedly reduce time and cost to quantify Cryptosporidium oocysts and other health-related water microorganisms.

  20. Simultaneous detection of eight swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyser-based multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minxiu; Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Liji; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Luo, Sisi; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Khan, Mazhar I

    2015-11-01

    A new high-throughput GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler (GeXP) analyser-based multiplex PCR assay was developed for the detection of eight reproductive and respiratory pathogens in swine. The reproductive and respiratory pathogens include North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-NA), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), swine influenza virus (SIV) (including H1 and H3 subtypes), porcine parvovirus (PPV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Nine pairs of specific chimeric primers were designed and used to initiate PCRs, and one pair of universal primers was used for subsequent PCR cycles. The specificity of the GeXP assay was examined using positive controls for each virus. The sensitivity was evaluated using serial ten-fold dilutions of in vitro-transcribed RNA from all of the RNA viruses and plasmids from DNA viruses. The GeXP assay was further evaluated using 114 clinical specimens and was compared with real-time PCR/single RT-PCR methods. The specificity of the GeXP assay for each pathogen was examined using single cDNA/DNA template. Specific amplification peaks of the reproductive and respiratory pathogens were observed on the GeXP analyser. The minimum copies per reaction detected for each virus by the GeXP assay were as follows: 1000 copies/μl for PRV; 100 copies/μl for CSFV, JEV, PCV-2 and PPV; and 10 copies/μl for SIV-H1, SIV-H3 and PRRSV-NA. Analysis of 114 clinical samples using the GeXP assay demonstrated that the GeXP assay had comparable detection to real-time PCR/single RT-PCR. This study demonstrated that the GeXP assay is a new method with high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of these swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens. The GeXP assay may be adopted for molecular epidemiological surveys of these reproductive and respiratory pathogens in swine populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance of a Multiplex Serological Helicobacter pylori Assay on a Novel Microfluidic Assay Platform.

    PubMed

    Filomena, Angela; Guenther, Anna; Planatscher, Hannes; Topin, Francois; She, Joseph; Formichella, Luca; Terradot, Laurent; Gerhard, Markus; Joos, Thomas O; Meyer, Hannelore; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole

    2017-10-03

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) occurs in 50% of the world population, and is associated with the development of ulcer and gastric cancer. Serological diagnostic tests indicate an H. pylori infection by detecting antibodies directed against H. pylori proteins. In addition to line blots, multiplex assay platforms provide smart solutions for the simultaneous analysis of antibody responses towards several H. pylori proteins. We used seven H. pylori proteins (FliD, gGT, GroEL, HpaA, CagA, VacA, and HP0231) and an H. pylori lysate for the development of a multiplex serological assay on a novel microfluidic platform. The reaction limited binding regime in the microfluidic channels allows for a short incubation time of 35 min. The developed assay showed very high sensitivity (99%) and specificity (100%). Besides sensitivity and specificity, the technical validation (intra-assay CV = 3.7 ± 1.2% and inter-assay CV = 5.5 ± 1.2%) demonstrates that our assay is also a robust tool for the analysis of the H. pylori-specific antibody response. The integration of the virulence factors CagA and VacA allow for the assessment of the risk for gastric cancer development. The short assay time and the performance of the platform shows the potential for implementation of such assays in a clinical setting.

  2. Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in a rural community of Venezuela: Advantages and disadvantages of using microscopy or RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Incani, Renzo Nino; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Hoek, Denise; Ramak, Robbert; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Kortbeek, Titia; Pinelli, Elena

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular anthelminthic treatments. A total of 228 participants were included in this study. A multiplex RT-PCR was used for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp. and a monoplex RT-PCR for Entamoeba histolytica. Furthermore, a multiplex PCR was performed for detection of Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Combined microscopy-PCR revealed prevalences of 49.3% for A. lumbricoides, 10.1% for N. americanus (no A. duodenale was detected), 2.0% for S. stercoralis, 40.4% for D. fragilis, 35.1% for G. intestinalis, and 7.9% for E. histolytica/dispar. Significant increases in prevalence at PCR vs. microscopy were found for A. lumbricoides, G. intestinalis and D. fragilis. Other parasites detected by microscopy alone were Trichuris trichiura (25.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (3.4%), Blastocystis sp. (65.8%), and the non-pathogenic Entamoeba coli (28.9%), Entamoeba hartmanni (12.3%), Endolimax nana (19.7%) and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.5%). Age- but no gender-related differences in prevalences were found for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, G. intestinalis, and E. histolytica/dispar. The persistently high prevalences of intestinal helminths are probably related to the high faecal pollution as also evidenced by the high prevalences of non-pathogenic intestinal protozoans. These results highlight the importance of using sensitive diagnostic techniques in combination with microscopy to better estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in the case of D. fragilis trophozoites, which deteriorate very rapidly and would be missed by microscopy. In addition, the differentiation between

  3. Microdroplet Sandwich Real-Time RT-PCR for Detection of Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Angione, Stephanie L.; Inde, Zintis; Beck, Christina M.; Artenstein, Andrew W.; Opal, Steven M.; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2013-01-01

    As demonstrated by the recent 2012/2013 flu epidemic, the continual emergence of new viral strains highlights the need for accurate medical diagnostics in multiple community settings. If rapid, robust, and sensitive diagnostics for influenza subtyping were available, it would help identify epidemics, facilitate appropriate antiviral usage, decrease inappropriate antibiotic usage, and eliminate the extra cost of unnecessary laboratory testing and treatment. Here, we describe a droplet sandwich platform that can detect influenza subtypes using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). Using clinical samples collected during the 2010/11 season, we effectively differentiate between H1N1p (swine pandemic), H1N1s (seasonal), and H3N2 with an overall assay sensitivity was 96%, with 100% specificity for each subtype. Additionally, we demonstrate the ability to detect viral loads as low as 104 copies/mL, which is two orders of magnitude lower than viral loads in typical infected patients. This platform performs diagnostics in a miniaturized format without sacrificing any sensitivity, and can thus be easily developed into devices which are ideal for small clinics and pharmacies. PMID:24066051

  4. Application of real time RT-PCR for the genetic homogeneity and stability tests of the seed candidates for live attenuated influenza vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Shcherbik, Svetlana; Sergent, Sheila B; Davis, William G; Shu, Bo; Barnes, John; Kiseleva, Irina; Larionova, Natalie; Klimov, Alexander; Bousse, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Development and improvement of quality control tests for live attenuated vaccines are a high priority because of safety concerns. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) viruses are 6:2 reassortants containing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from circulating influenza viruses to induce protective immune responses, and the six internal gene segments from a cold-adapted Master Donor Virus (MDV). LAIV candidate viruses for the 2012-2013 seasons, A/Victoria/361/2011-CDC-LV1 (LV1) and B/Texas/06/2011-CDC-LV2B (LV2B), were created by classical reassortment of A/Victoria/361/2011 and MDV-A A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) or B/Texas/06/2011 and MDV-B B/USSR/60/69. In an attempt to provide better identity and stability testing for quality control of LV1 and LV2B, sensitive real-time RT-PCR assays (rRT-PCR) were developed to detect the presence of undesired gene segments (HA and NA from MDV and the six internal genes from the seasonal influenza viruses). The sensitivity of rRT-PCR assays designed for each gene segment ranged from 0.08 to 0.8EID50 (50% of Egg Infectious Dose) per reaction for the detection of undesired genes in LV1 and from 0.1 to 1EID50 per reaction for the detection of undesired genes in LV2B. No undesired genes were detected either before or after five passages of LV1 or LV2B in eggs. The complete genome sequencing of LV1 and LV2B confirmed the results of rRT-PCR, demonstrating the utility of the new rRT-PCR assays to provide the evidence for the homogeneity of the prepared vaccine candidate. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Rapid molecular haemagglutinin subtyping of avian influenza isolates by specific real-time RT-PCR tests.

    PubMed

    Elizalde, Maia; Agüero, Montserrat; Buitrago, Dolores; Yuste, María; Arias, María Luisa; Muñoz, María Jesús; Lelli, Davide; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Moreno-Martin, Ana María; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita

    2014-02-01

    Sixteen haemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have been described to date. Rapid subtype identification of any AIV is of major interest because of the possible serious consequences for the poultry industry and even public health. Molecular techniques currently allow immediate accurate subtype characterisation prior to virus isolation. In this study, a set of fourteen specific real-time RT-PCR methods were developed and evaluated for AIV HA subtyping (H1-H4, H6-H8, H10-H16), H5 and H9 being excluded on the basis of the current validity of the European Union (EU) recommended specific assays. Specific primers and probes sets for each HA-subtype were designed to hybridise the largest isolates range within each single subtype, considering the Eurasian lineage as a major target. The robustness and general application of the 14 HA-subtype methods were verified by the analysis of 110 AIV isolates belonging to all 16 HA-subtypes, performed in different laboratories. The developed real-time RT-PCR assays proved to be highly specific and revealed suitable sensitivity, allowing direct HA-subtyping of clinical material. In summary, this study provides for the first time a panel of molecular tests using specific hydrolysis probes for rapid and complete AIV HA-subtype identification.

  6. Development and validation of one-step SYBR green real-time RT-PCR for the rapid detection of newly emerged duck Tembusu virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongliang; Fu, Yuguang; Ji, Yanhong; Wei, Jianzhong; Cai, Xuepeng; Zhu, Qiyun

    2013-09-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes disease to emerge in duck flocks and results in huge economic losses to the duck industry. However, no vaccines and control measures are available in China to date. Development of reliable and fast detection methods is necessary to prevent and control this disease. Therefore, a one-step SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method is established here for DTMUV detection. The results show that the method can specifically detect DTMUV without cross-reactions with selected avian pathogens. The sensitivity of the assay was 1000 times greater than that of a conventional RT-PCR and able to test as few as 20 copies from RNA standard samples. The coefficients of variations of inter- and intra-assay values ranged from 0.09% to 0.36% and 0.1% to 0.23%, respectively. Testing 168 field samples and 96 experimentally infected samples by conventional RT-PCR and the one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR, the positive rates were 35.1% and 73.8% from field samples and 30.2% and 64.6% from infected samples. The one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR developed in this study was shown to be a sensitive, specific, high-throughput, cost-effective, and simple diagnostic tool for the rapid detection and epidemiological surveillance of the emerging DTMUV infection.

  7. Development of a strand-specific real-time qRT-PCR for the accurate detection and quantitation of West Nile virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Lim, Stephanie M; Koraka, Penelope; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Martina, Byron E E

    2013-12-01

    Studying the tropism and replication kinetics of West Nile virus (WNV) in different cell types in vitro and in tissues in animal models is important for understanding its pathogenesis. As detection of the negative strand viral RNA is a more reliable indicator of active replication for single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses, the specificity of qRT-PCR assays currently used for the detection of WNV positive and negative strand RNA was reassessed. It was shown that self- and falsely-primed cDNA was generated during the reverse transcription step in an assay employing unmodified primers and several reverse transcriptases. As a result, a qRT-PCR assay using the thermostable rTth in combination with tagged primers was developed, which greatly improved strand specificity by circumventing the events of self- and false-priming. The reliability of the assay was then addressed in vitro using BV-2 microglia cells as well as in C57/BL6 mice. It was possible to follow the kinetics of positive and negative-strand RNA synthesis both in vitro and in vivo; however, the sensitivity of the assay will need to be optimized in order to detect and quantify negative-strand RNA synthesis in the very early stages of infection. Overall, the strand-specific qRT-PCR assay developed in this study is an effective tool to quantify WNV RNA, reassess viral replication, and study tropism of WNV in the context of WNV pathogenesis.

  8. RT-PCR for Detecting ALK Translocations in Cytology Samples from Lung Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Shinji; Seike, Masahiro; Miyanaga, Akihiko; Chiba, Mika; Matsuda, Kuniko; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Takahashi, Akiko; Takeuchi, Susumu; Minegishi, Yuji; Kubota, Kaoru; Gemma, Akihiko

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations using cytology samples from lung cancer patients. We analyzed ALK translocations by RT-PCR in cytology samples from lung cancer patients diagnosed at the Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2013 and 2015. Immunochemistry (IHC) and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were also performed on available tissue samples. A total of 155 cytology samples were analyzed in our study. We obtained 115 (68%) samples from bronchial lavage. We were able to determine 153 (99%) results by RT-PCR with 4 (3%) positive samples. The four samples positive by RT-PCR were also positive by IHC and FISH performed on the tissue samples collected simultaneously. RT-PCR is a suitable method for detecting ALK translocations using cytology samples from patients with primary lung cancer, especially when tissue samples are not available. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular analysis of dolphin morbillivirus: A new sensitive detection method based on nested RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Centelleghe, Cinzia; Beffagna, Giorgia; Zanetti, Rossella; Zappulli, Valentina; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Mazzariol, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) has been identified as the most pathogenic virus for cetaceans. Over the past three decades, this RNA virus has caused several outbreaks of lethal disease in odontocetes and mysticetes worldwide. Isolation and identification of CeMV RNA is very challenging in whales because of the poor preservation status frequently shown by tissues from stranded animals. Nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested RT-PCR) is used instead of conventional RT-PCR when it is necessary to increase the sensitivity and the specificity of the reaction. This study describes a new nested RT-PCR technique useful to amplify small amounts of the cDNA copy of Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) when it is present in scant quantity in whales' biological specimens. This technique was used to analyze different tissues (lung, brain, spleen and other lymphoid tissues) from one under human care seal and seven cetaceans stranded along the Italian coastline between October 2011 and September 2015. A well-characterized, 200 base pair (bp) fragment of the dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) haemagglutinin (H) gene, obtained by nested RT-PCR, was sequenced and used to confirm DMV positivity in all the eight marine mammals under study. In conclusion, this nested RT-PCR protocol can represent a sensitive detection method to identify CeMV-positive, poorly preserved tissue samples. Furthermore, this is also a rather inexpensive molecular technique, relatively easy to apply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling qRT-PCR dynamics with application to cancer biomarker quantification.

    PubMed

    Chervoneva, Inna; Freydin, Boris; Hyslop, Terry; Waldman, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used for molecular diagnostics and evaluating prognosis in cancer. The utility of mRNA expression biomarkers relies heavily on the accuracy and precision of quantification, which is still challenging for low abundance transcripts. The critical step for quantification is accurate estimation of efficiency needed for computing a relative qRT-PCR expression. We propose a new approach to estimating qRT-PCR efficiency based on modeling dynamics of polymerase chain reaction amplification. In contrast, only models for fluorescence intensity as a function of polymerase chain reaction cycle have been used so far for quantification. The dynamics of qRT-PCR efficiency is modeled using an ordinary differential equation model, and the fitted ordinary differential equation model is used to obtain effective polymerase chain reaction efficiency estimates needed for efficiency-adjusted quantification. The proposed new qRT-PCR efficiency estimates were used to quantify GUCY2C (Guanylate Cyclase 2C) mRNA expression in the blood of colorectal cancer patients. Time to recurrence and GUCY2C expression ratios were analyzed in a joint model for survival and longitudinal outcomes. The joint model with GUCY2C quantified using the proposed polymerase chain reaction efficiency estimates provided clinically meaningful results for association between time to recurrence and longitudinal trends in GUCY2C expression.

  11. Development of a multiplexed urine assay for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vener, Tatiana; Derecho, Carlo; Baden, Jonathan; Wang, Haiying; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Skelton, Joanne; Mehrotra, Jyoti; Varde, Shobha; Chowdary, Dondapati; Stallings, Walt; Leibovich, Bradley; Robin, Howard; Pelzer, Alexandre; Schäfer, Georg; Auprich, Marco; Mannweiler, Sebastian; Amersdorfer, Peter; Mazumder, Abhijit

    2008-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the value of DNA methylation in urine-based assays for prostate cancer diagnosis. However, a multicenter validation with a clinical prototype has not been published. We developed a multiplexed, quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) assay consisting of 3 methylation markers, GSTP1, RARB, and APC, and an endogenous control, ACTB, in a closed-tube, homogeneous assay format. We tested this format with urine samples collected after digital rectal examination from 234 patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations > or =2.5 microg/L in 2 independent patient cohorts from 9 clinical sites. In the first cohort of 121 patients, we demonstrated 55% sensitivity and 80% specificity, with area under the curve (AUC) 0.69. In the second independent cohort of 113 patients, we found a comparable sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 76% (AUC 0.65). In the first cohort, as well as in a combined cohort, the MSP assay in conjunction with total PSA, digital rectal examination status, and age improved the AUC without MSP, although the difference was not statistically significant. Importantly, the GSTP1 cycle threshold value demonstrated a good correlation (R = 0.84) with the number of cores found to contain prostate cancer or premalignant lesions on biopsy. Moreover, samples that exhibited methylation for either GSTP1 or RARB typically contained higher tumor volumes at prostatectomy than those samples that did not exhibit methylation. These data confirm and extend previously reported studies and demonstrate the performance of a clinical prototype assay that should aid urologists in identifying men who should undergo biopsy.

  12. Identification of nasal blood by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Koichi; Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Yoshino, Mineo

    2012-07-01

    A new approach for the identification of body fluid stains by comparing specific mRNA expression levels has been extensively studied in recent years. Here, we examine whether nasal blood, which is regarded as one of the most difficult types of blood to identify, can be identified by comparing mRNA expression levels of target genes specific to saliva, nasal secretion, and blood. The saliva-specific statherin gene (STATH) was found to be expressed at high levels in not only saliva (dCt value: 1.32±1.39, n=5), but also nasal secretions (dCt value: 0.90±1.14, n=5), while the histatin gene (HTN3) was only expressed at high levels in saliva (dCt value: 1.08±2.35, n=5). We also confirmed that the hemoglobin-beta gene (HBB) showed high expression levels in blood (dCt value: -9.51±0.40, n=5). Four nasal blood stains were found to highly express STATH (dCt value: 5.65±3.98) and HBB (dCt value: -8.79±1.67) but not HTN3, suggesting that the stain samples contained both nasal secretions and blood and can therefore be identified as nasal blood stains. Although menstrual blood showed the same expression pattern as nasal blood, the menstrual blood-specific protein matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) was not expressed in all nasal blood stain samples. Therefore, its expression levels could be used to discriminate between nasal and menstrual blood. In conclusion, real-time RT-PCR was able to identify nasal blood, although the stability of gene expression in nasal blood stains was low over time, suggesting that this assay may not be effective for older stains. Future work should examine the usefulness of this assay under various environmental conditions.

  13. Sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus by real-time TaqMan RT-PCR targeting the highly conserved 3'-UTR region.

    PubMed

    Tang, Joe; Khan, Subuhi; Delmiglio, Catia; Ward, Lisa I

    2014-06-01

    A real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), an important plant virus which infects a wide range of fruit and ornamental crops. Primers and a probe were designed based on the highly conserved 3'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences of ToRSV, to amplify a 182bp fragment of this region of RNA-1 and RNA-2. The assay was demonstrated to reliably amplify all ToRSV isolates tested. The detection limit was estimated to be about 12 copies of the ToRSV target region. No amplification was observed from the RNA of other nepoviruses or healthy host species. A comparison with a published conventional RT-PCR and a SYBR-based qRT-PCR indicated that both of the published assays lacked reliability and sensitivity, as neither were able to amplify all ToRSV isolates tested, and both were approximately 1000 times less sensitive than the novel TaqMan real-time assay. This TaqMan real-time assay was tested using four different reagent kits and was shown to be robust and stable, with no significant differences in sensitivity between kits. It is expected that the implementation of this TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay will facilitate efficient phytosanitary certification of nursery stock requiring testing for ToRSV by regulatory agencies, and will also have wider uses for the general detection of ToRSV in a range of hosts.

  14. Quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis of laser microdissected tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Heidi S.; Albert, Paul S.; Gillespie, John W.; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Linehan, W. Marston; Pinto, Peter A.; Chuaqui, Rodrigo F.; Emmert-Buck, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a valuable tool for measuring gene expression in biological samples. However, unique challenges are encountered when studies are performed on cells microdissected from tissues derived from animal models or the clinic, including specimen related issues, variability of RNA template quality and quantity, and normalization. qRT-PCR using small amounts of mRNA derived from dissected cell populations requires adaptation of standard methods to allow meaningful comparisons across sample sets. The protocol described here presents the rationale, technical steps, normalization strategy, and data analysis necessary to generate reliable gene expression measurements of transcripts from dissected samples. The entire protocol from tissue microdissection through qRT-PCR analysis requires approximately 16 hours. PMID:19478806

  15. A rapid silica spin column-based method of RNA extraction from fruit trees for RT-PCR detection of viruses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Guoping; Xu, Wenxing; Hong, Ni

    2017-09-01

    Efficient recovery of high quality RNA is very important for successful RT-PCR detection of plant RNA viruses. High levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides in plant tissues can irreversibly bind to and/or co-precipitate with RNA, which influences RNA isolation. In this study, a silica spin column-based RNA isolation method was developed by using commercially available silica columns combined with the application of a tissue lysis solution, and binding and washing buffers with high concentration guanidinium thiocyanate (GuSCN, 50% w/v), which helps remove plant proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds. The method was successfully used to extract high quality RNA from citrus (Citrus aurantifolia), grapevine (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), pear (Pyrus spp.), taro (Colocosia esculenta) and tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) samples. The method was comparable to conventional CTAB method in RNA isolation efficiency, but it was more sample-adaptable and cost-effective than commercial kits. High quality RNA isolated using silica spin column-based method was successfully used for the RT-PCR and/or multiplex RT-PCR amplification of woody fruit tree viruses and a viroid. The study provided a useful tool for the detection and characterization of plant viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of novel influenza A(H1N1) virus by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Whiley, David M; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Bletchly, Cheryl; Faux, Cassandra E; Harrower, Bruce; Gould, Allan R; Lambert, Stephen B; Nimmo, Graeme R; Nissen, Michael D; Sloots, Theo P

    2009-07-01

    Accurate and rapid diagnosis of novel influenza A(H1N1) infection is critical for minimising further spread through timely implementation of antiviral treatment and other public health based measures. In this study we developed two TaqMan-based reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) methods for the detection of novel influenza A(H1N1) virus targeting the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. The assays were validated using 152 clinical respiratory samples, including 61 Influenza A positive samples, collected in Queenland, Australia during the years 2008 to 2009 and a further 12 seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A isolates collected from years 2000 to 2002. A wildtype swine H1N1 isolate was also tested. RNA from an influenza A(H1N1) virus isolate (Auckland, 2009) was used as a positive control. Overall, the results showed that the RT-PCR methods were suitable for sensitive and specific detection of novel influenza A(H1N1) RNA in human samples.

  17. Detection of micrometastasis by cytokeratin 20 RT-PCR is limited due to stable background transcription in granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, R; Petersen, K; Krüger, W; Wolf, M; Wagener, C; Zander, A; Neumaier, M

    1999-01-01

    The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of cytokeratin 20 (CK20) mRNA is considered a promising candidate method for the detection of circulating tumour cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood of cancer patients. In this study we have investigated the diagnostic specificity of the CK20 mRNA detection in samples from healthy donors (HD; n = 33), intensive care units patients (ICU; n = 20) and bone marrow obtained from patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases (CID; n = 14). RNAs purified from stabilized lysates showed positive results in 24% of the HD group (8/33), 35% of the ICU group (8/20) and in 40% of the CID group (5/14). The use of Ficoll gradients to separate nucleated cells completely restored the specificity of this CK20 RT-PCR assay. The CK20-expressing cells are positively identified to belong to the granulocyte fraction of leucocytes, which appear to express the gene on a background level. Our results demonstrate for the first time that CK20 mRNA expression is not limited to epithelium. Its occurrence in normal granulocytes has to be considered in tests designed to detect circulating cancer cells or micrometastases. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10555760

  18. Direct RT-PCR from serum enables fast and cost-effective phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Bachofen, Claudia; Willoughby, Kim; Zadoks, Ruth; Burr, Paul; Mellor, Dominic; Russell, George C

    2013-06-01

    Studies of the molecular epidemiology of viral diseases are dependent on the analysis of large numbers of samples from infected individuals, and the assembly of relevant sequence databases are a prerequisite to investigate chains of infection. As part of research in support of the Scottish BVDV eradication campaign, we have established a direct RT-PCR method for the high throughput amplification and analysis of the informative 5'-untranslated region of the BVDV genome. Heat-treatment followed by a one-step RT-PCR, performed in 96-well plates, produced sufficient material for sequence analysis from 0.5 μl of serum or plasma. Of 93 samples assayed, only five failed to give full sequence data for the region amplified and these were subsequently successfully analysed in single tube format reactions. This approach improved the speed of analysis, reduced costs, operator time and the potential for contamination, and may allow analysis of samples for which volumes are too low for conventional RNA isolation. It also has the potential for wider application in both human and animal disease research in which high throughput and low cost would increase the size of datasets that can be obtained.

  19. A simplified strategy for sensitive detection of Rose rosette virus compatible with three RT-PCR chemistries.

    PubMed

    Dobhal, Shefali; Olson, Jennifer D; Arif, Mohammad; Garcia Suarez, Johnny A; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M

    2016-06-01

    Rose rosette disease is a disorder associated with infection by Rose rosette virus (RRV), a pathogen of roses that causes devastating effects on most garden cultivated varieties, and the wild invasive rose especially Rosa multiflora. Reliable and sensitive detection of this disease in early phases is needed to implement proper control measures. This study assesses a single primer-set based detection method for RRV and demonstrates its application in three different chemistries: Endpoint RT-PCR, TaqMan-quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and SYBR Green RT-qPCR with High Resolution Melting analyses. A primer set (RRV2F/2R) was designed from consensus sequences of the nucleocapsid protein gene p3 located in the RNA 3 region of RRV. The specificity of primer set RRV2F/2R was validated in silico against published GenBank sequences and in-vitro against infected plant samples and an exclusivity panel of near-neighbor and other viruses that commonly infect Rosa spp. The developed assay is sensitive with a detection limit of 1fg from infected plant tissue. Thirty rose samples from 8 different states of the United States were tested using the developed methods. The developed methods are sensitive and reliable, and can be used by diagnostic laboratories for routine testing and disease management decisions.

  20. One-Step Multiplex RT-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Four Pome Tree Viroids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd), Apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd), Apple fruit crinkle viroid (AFCVd), and Pear blister canker viroid (PBCVd) cause natural infections in pome (apple, pear, quince) fruit trees. These viroids are found worldwide and are important quarantine pathogens for the internati...

  1. Multiplexed Serologic Assay for Nine Anogenital Human Papillomavirus Types▿

    PubMed Central

    Opalka, David; Matys, Katie; Bojczuk, Paul; Green, Tina; Gesser, Richard; Saah, Alfred; Haupt, Richard; Dutko, Frank; Esser, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    A multiplexed human papillomavirus (HPV) immunoassay has been developed for the detection of human IgG antibodies to HPV type 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 virus-like particle (VLP) types in serum following natural infection or immunization with VLP-based vaccines. The VLP antigens were covalently conjugated to carboxyl Luminex microspheres (MS) using a carbodiimide chemistry. Antibody (Ab) titers were determined in a direct binding format, in which an IgG1- to -4-specific, phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) (HP6043) binds to human serum IgG antibodies. Pooled serum samples from rhesus macaques immunized with a 9-valent VLP-based vaccine served as the reference standard. The overall specificity of the assay was >99%, and the linearity (parallelism) of the assay was <7% per 10-fold dilution. Total assay precision was <19% across 3 different VLP-microsphere lots, 2 secondary antibody lots, and 2 different operators over a period of 3 weeks. Three different methods were used to evaluate serostatus cutoffs (SCO): (i) a clinical sensitivity/specificity analysis based on “likely negative” and “likely positive” samples from nonvaccinees, (ii) stringent upper tolerance limits on samples from “likely negatives,” and (iii) stringent upper tolerance limits from the same “likely negative” sample set after VLP adsorption. Depending on the method to set the serostatus cutoff, the percentage of seropositive samples at the month 48 time point following vaccination with the HPV 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent vaccine ranged from 70% to 100%. This assay has proven useful for measuring the levels of serum antibody to the nine HPV VLPs following natural infection or administration of VLP-based vaccines. PMID:20237197

  2. Multiplexed serologic assay for nine anogenital human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Opalka, David; Matys, Katie; Bojczuk, Paul; Green, Tina; Gesser, Richard; Saah, Alfred; Haupt, Richard; Dutko, Frank; Esser, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    A multiplexed human papillomavirus (HPV) immunoassay has been developed for the detection of human IgG antibodies to HPV type 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 virus-like particle (VLP) types in serum following natural infection or immunization with VLP-based vaccines. The VLP antigens were covalently conjugated to carboxyl Luminex microspheres (MS) using a carbodiimide chemistry. Antibody (Ab) titers were determined in a direct binding format, in which an IgG1- to -4-specific, phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) (HP6043) binds to human serum IgG antibodies. Pooled serum samples from rhesus macaques immunized with a 9-valent VLP-based vaccine served as the reference standard. The overall specificity of the assay was >99%, and the linearity (parallelism) of the assay was <7% per 10-fold dilution. Total assay precision was <19% across 3 different VLP-microsphere lots, 2 secondary antibody lots, and 2 different operators over a period of 3 weeks. Three different methods were used to evaluate serostatus cutoffs (SCO): (i) a clinical sensitivity/specificity analysis based on "likely negative" and "likely positive" samples from nonvaccinees, (ii) stringent upper tolerance limits on samples from "likely negatives," and (iii) stringent upper tolerance limits from the same "likely negative" sample set after VLP adsorption. Depending on the method to set the serostatus cutoff, the percentage of seropositive samples at the month 48 time point following vaccination with the HPV 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent vaccine ranged from 70% to 100%. This assay has proven useful for measuring the levels of serum antibody to the nine HPV VLPs following natural infection or administration of VLP-based vaccines.

  3. A Multiplex Assay for Detection of Staphylococcal and Streptococcal Exotoxins.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Preeti; Wang, Ningyan; Chervin, Adam S; Quinn, Cheryl L; Stone, Jennifer D; Kranz, David M

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal and streptococcal exotoxins, also known as superantigens, mediate a range of diseases including toxic shock syndrome, and they exacerbate skin, pulmonary and systemic infections caused by these organisms. When present in food sources they can cause enteric effects commonly known as food poisoning. A rapid, sensitive assay for the toxins would enable testing of clinical samples and improve surveillance of food sources. Here we developed a bead-based, two-color flow cytometry assay using single protein domains of the beta chain of T cell receptors engineered for high-affinity for staphylococcal (SEA, SEB and TSST-1) and streptococcal (SpeA and SpeC) toxins. Site-directed biotinylated forms of these high-affinity agents were used together with commercial, polyclonal, anti-toxin reagents to enable specific and sensitive detection with SD50 values of 400 pg/ml (SEA), 3 pg/ml (SEB), 25 pg/ml (TSST-1), 6 ng/ml (SpeA), and 100 pg/ml (SpeC). These sensitivities were in the range of 4- to 80-fold higher than achieved with standard ELISAs using the same reagents. A multiplex format of the assay showed reduced sensitivity due to higher noise associated with the use of multiple polyclonal agents, but the sensitivities were still well within the range necessary for detection in food sources or for rapid detection of toxins in culture supernatants. For example, the assay specifically detected toxins in supernatants derived from cultures of Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, these reagents can be used for simultaneous detection of the toxins in food sources or culture supernatants of potential pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.

  4. A Multiplex Assay for Detection of Staphylococcal and Streptococcal Exotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Preeti; Wang, Ningyan; Chervin, Adam S.; Quinn, Cheryl L.; Stone, Jennifer D.; Kranz, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal and streptococcal exotoxins, also known as superantigens, mediate a range of diseases including toxic shock syndrome, and they exacerbate skin, pulmonary and systemic infections caused by these organisms. When present in food sources they can cause enteric effects commonly known as food poisoning. A rapid, sensitive assay for the toxins would enable testing of clinical samples and improve surveillance of food sources. Here we developed a bead-based, two-color flow cytometry assay using single protein domains of the beta chain of T cell receptors engineered for high-affinity for staphylococcal (SEA, SEB and TSST-1) and streptococcal (SpeA and SpeC) toxins. Site-directed biotinylated forms of these high-affinity agents were used together with commercial, polyclonal, anti-toxin reagents to enable specific and sensitive detection with SD50 values of 400 pg/ml (SEA), 3 pg/ml (SEB), 25 pg/ml (TSST-1), 6 ng/ml (SpeA), and 100 pg/ml (SpeC). These sensitivities were in the range of 4- to 80-fold higher than achieved with standard ELISAs using the same reagents. A multiplex format of the assay showed reduced sensitivity due to higher noise associated with the use of multiple polyclonal agents, but the sensitivities were still well within the range necessary for detection in food sources or for rapid detection of toxins in culture supernatants. For example, the assay specifically detected toxins in supernatants derived from cultures of Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, these reagents can be used for simultaneous detection of the toxins in food sources or culture supernatants of potential pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:26305471

  5. Comparison of four multiplex PCR assays for the detection of viral pathogens in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Trevor P; Werno, Anja M; Barratt, Kevin; Mahagamasekera, Patalee; Murdoch, David R; Jennings, Lance C

    2013-08-01

    Multiplex PCR has become the test of choice for the detection of multiple respiratory viruses in clinical specimens. However, there are few direct comparisons of different PCR assays. This study compares 4 different multiplex PCR assays for the recovery of common respiratory viruses. We tested 213 respiratory specimens using four different multiplex PCR assays: the xTAG respiratory viral panel fast (Abbott Molecular Laboratories), Fast-track Respiratory Pathogen assay (Fast-track Diagnostics), Easyplex respiratory pathogen 12 kit (Ausdiagnostics), and an in-house multiplex real-time PCR assay. The performance of the four assays was very similar, with 93-100% agreement for all comparisons. Other issues, such as through-put, technical requirements and cost, are likely to be as important for making a decision about which of these assays to use given their comparative performance.

  6. Evaluation of two singleplex reverse transcription-Insulated isothermal PCR tests and a duplex real-time RT-PCR test for the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine deltacoronavirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqiang; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Yan; Chiang, Cheng-Jen; Shen, Yu-Han; Li, Fu-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Gauger, Phillip C; Harmon, Karen M; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) in multiple countries have caused significant economic losses and remain a serious challenge to the swine industry. Rapid diagnosis is critical for the implementation of efficient control strategies before and during PEDV and PDCoV outbreaks. Insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) on the portable POCKIT™ device is user friendly for on-site pathogen detection. In the present study, a singleplex PEDV RT-iiPCR, a singleplex PDCoV RT-iiPCR, and a duplex PEDV/PDCoV real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) commercial reagents targeting the M gene were compared to an N gene-based PEDV rRT-PCR and an M gene-based PDCoV rRT-PCR that were previously published and used as reference PCRs. All PCR assays were highly specific and did not cross react with other porcine enteric pathogens. Analytical sensitivities of the PEDV RT-iiPCR, PDCoV RT-iiPCR and duplex PEDV/PDCoV rRT-PCR were determined using in vitro transcribed RNA as well as viral RNA extracted from ten-fold serial dilutions of PEDV and PDCoV cell culture isolates. Performance of each PCR assay was further evaluated using 170 clinical samples (86 fecal swabs, 24 feces, 19 intestines, and 41 oral fluids). Compared to the reference PEDV rRT-PCR, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the PEDV RT-iiPCR were 97.73%, 98.78%, and 98.24%, respectively, and those of the duplex PEDV/PDCoV rRT-PCR were 98.86%, 96.34%, and 97.65%, respectively. Compared to the reference PDCoV rRT-PCR, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the PDCoV RT-iiPCR were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, and those of the PEDV/PDCoV duplex rRT-PCR were 96.34%, 100%, and 98.24%, respectively. Overall, all three new PCR assays were comparable to the reference rRT-PCRs for detection of PEDV and/or PDCoV. The PEDV and PDCoV RT-iiPCRs are potentially useful tools for on-site detection and the duplex PEDV/PDCoV rRT-PCR provides a convenient method to simultaneously detect

  7. Insulated Isothermal Reverse Transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus.

    PubMed

    Lung, O; Pasick, J; Fisher, M; Buchanan, C; Erickson, A; Ambagala, A

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an OIE-listed disease that can have a severe impact on the swine industry. User-friendly, sensitive, rapid diagnostic tests that utilize low-cost field-deployable instruments for CSF diagnosis can be useful for disease surveillance and outbreak monitoring. In this study, we describe validation of a new probe-based insulated isothermal reverse transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay for rapid detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on a compact, user-friendly device (POCKIT(™) Nucleic Acid Analyzer) that does not need data interpretation by the user. The assay accurately detected CSFV RNA from a diverse panel of 33 CSFV strains representing all three genotypes plus an additional in vitro-transcribed RNA from cloned sequences representing a vaccine strain. No cross-reactivity was observed with a panel of 18 viruses associated with livestock including eight other pestivirus strains (bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 and type 2, border disease virus, HoBi atypical pestivirus), African swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, swine influenza virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, porcine circovirus 1, porcine circovirus 2, porcine respiratory coronavirus, vesicular exanthema of swine virus, bovine herpes virus type 1 and vesicular stomatitis virus. The iiRT-PCR assay accurately detected CSFV as early as 2 days post-inoculation in RNA extracted from serum samples of experimentally infected pigs, before appearance of clinical signs. The limit of detection (LOD95% ) calculated by probit regression analysis was 23 copies per reaction. The assay has a sample to answer turnaround time of less than an hour using extracted RNA or diluted or low volume of neat serum. The user-friendly, compact device that automatically analyses and displays results could potentially be a useful tool for surveillance and monitoring of CSF in a disease outbreak.

  8. Comparison of real-time multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays with INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping extra assay.

    PubMed

    Else, Elizabeth A; Swoyer, Ryan; Zhang, Yuhua; Taddeo, Frank J; Bryan, Janine T; Lawson, John; Van Hyfte, Inez; Roberts, Christine C

    2011-05-01

    Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59. Here, we evaluated clinical specimen concordance and compared the limits of detection (LODs) between multiplex HPV PCR assays and the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay, which detects 28 types, for the 14 HPV types common to both of these methods. Overall HPV detection agreement rates were >90% for swabs and >95% for thin sections. Statistically significant differences in detection were observed for HPV6, HPV16, HPV18, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59 in swabs and for HPV45, HPV58, and HPV59 in thin sections. Where P was <0.05, discordance was due to detection of more HPV-positive samples by the multiplex HPV PCR assays. LODs were similar for eight HPV types, significantly lower in multiplex assays for five HPV types, and lower in INNO-LiPA for HPV6 only. LODs were under 50 copies for all HPV types, with the exception of HPV39, HPV58, and HPV59 in the INNO-LiPA assay. The overall percent agreement for detection of 14 HPV types between the type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and INNO-LiPA genotyping assays was good. The differences in positive sample detection favored multiplex HPV PCR, suggesting increased sensitivity of HPV DNA detection by type-specific multiplex HPV PCR assays.

  9. Development and evaluation of one-step rRT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods for detection of Rift Valley fever virus in biosafety level 2 diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Barbara S; Weingartl, Hana M; Jiang, Jieyuan; Neufeld, James; Marszal, Peter; Lindsay, Robbin; Miller, Myrna M; Czub, Markus; Wilson, William C

    2012-02-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic insect transmitted virus endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Infection causes abortions and high mortality in newborn ruminants. The overall human infection rate is <1%; however, fatality rates in those with severe clinical disease have been reported as high as 29%. The potential of RVFV as a bioterrorism agent and/or being accidentally introduced into North America is widely recognized. Currently, regional veterinary biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) diagnostic laboratories lack safe, modern, validated diagnostic tests to detect RVFV. An existing one-step real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay was modified for quick virus inactivation for use in BSL-2 laboratories, evaluated on serum and tissue samples from experimentally infected lambs and calves, and compared to virus isolation. Viremia was detected in all inoculated sheep with titers reaching 10(6.5) plaque forming units/ml, or up to 10(10) viral RNA copies/ml. Viremia in calves was lower and not detected in all inoculated animals; however, all animals became transiently febrile and were infected as determined by rRT-PCR of tissues. Virus was isolated from rRT-PCR-positive liver and/or spleen in 33% of lamb and 41% of calf samples between 2 and 7 days post inoculation. For RVFV antigen detection, reagents are typically produced at BSL-3Ag or BSL-4 conditions and require inactivation and safety testing for use outside of containment. In this study, antiserum against recombinant RVFV-nucleocapsid (N) was produced to develop an immunohistochemical (IHC) assay which was subsequently evaluated on formalin fixed lamb and calf tissues at BSL-2 laboratory conditions. Antigen was detected by IHC in 79% of rRT-PCR-positive sheep and 70% of rRT-PCR-positive calf tissues tested. Once validated and approved by national regulatory agencies, these assays can be safely produced and distributed to regional diagnostic laboratories, providing capacity for early detection of RVFV in

  10. RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR methods for the detection of potato virus Y in potato leaves and tubers.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Tyler D B; Nie, Xianzhou; Singh, Mathuresh

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major threat to potato crops around the world. It is an RNA virus of the family Potyviridae, exhibiting many different strains that cause a range of symptoms in potato. ELISA detection of viral proteins has traditionally been used to quantify virus incidence in a crop or seed lot. ELISA, however, cannot reliably detect the virus directly in dormant tubers, requiring several weeks of sprouting tubers to produce detectable levels of virus. Nor can ELISA fully discriminate between the wide range of strains of the virus. Several techniques for directly detecting the viral RNA have been developed which allow rapid detection of PVY in leaf or tuber tissue, and that can be used to easily distinguish between different strains of the virus. Described in this chapter are several protocols for the extraction of RNA from leaf and tuber tissues, and three detection methods based upon reverse-transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). First described is a traditional two-step protocol with separate reverse transcription of viral RNA into cDNA, then PCR to amplify the viral cDNA fragment. Second described is a one-step RT-PCR protocol combining the cDNA production and PCR in one tube and one step, which greatly reduces material and labor costs for PVY detection. The third protocol is a real-time RT-PCR procedure which not only saves on labor but also allows for more precise quantification of PVY titre. The three protocols are described in detail, and accompanied with a discussion of their relative advantages, costs, and possibilities for cost-saving modifications. While these techniques have primarily been developed for large-scale screening of many samples for determining viral incidence in commercial fields or seed lots, they are also amenable to use in smaller-scale research applications.

  11. Simultaneously Typing Nine Serotypes of Enteroviruses Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease by a GeXP Analyzer-Based Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiumei; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Xiaomian; Xu, Banglao; Yang, Mengjie; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Chen; Li, Jin; Bai, Ruyin

    2012-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious enteroviral disease occurring primarily in young children and caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), and other serotypes of coxsackievirus and echovirus. In this study, a GeXP analyzer-based multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay (GeXP assay) consisting of chimeric primer-based PCR amplification with fluorescent labeling and capillary electrophoresis separation was developed to simultaneously identify nine serotypes of enteroviruses associated with HFMD in China, including EV71, CVA16, CVA4, -5, -9, and -10, and CVB1, -3, and -5. The RNAs extracted from cell cultures of viral isolates and synthetic RNAs via in vitro transcription were used to analyze the specificity and sensitivity of the assay. The GeXP assay detected as little as 0.03 tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of EV71 and CVA16, 10 copies of panenterovirus, EV71, CVA16, CVB1, and CVB5, and 100 copies of 10 (including panenterovirus) premixed RNA templates. A total of 180 stool specimens collected from HFMD patients and persons suspected of having HFMD were used to evaluate the clinical performance of this assay. In comparison with the results of conventional methods, the sensitivities of the GeXP assay for detection of panenterovirus, EV71, and CVA16 were 98.79% (163/165), 91.67% (44/48), and 91.67% (33/36), respectively, and the specificities were 80.00% (12/15), 98.48% (130/132), and 100% (144/144), respectively. The concordance of typing seven other serotypes of enteroviruses with the results of conventional methods was 92.59% (25/27). In conclusion, the GeXP assay is a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput method for typing nine serotypes of HFMD-associated enteroviruses. PMID:22116146

  12. Simultaneously typing nine serotypes of enteroviruses associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease by a GeXP analyzer-based multiplex reverse transcription-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiumei; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Xiaomian; Xu, Banglao; Yang, Mengjie; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Chen; Li, Jin; Bai, Ruyin; Xu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuejun

    2012-02-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious enteroviral disease occurring primarily in young children and caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), and other serotypes of coxsackievirus and echovirus. In this study, a GeXP analyzer-based multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay (GeXP assay) consisting of chimeric primer-based PCR amplification with fluorescent labeling and capillary electrophoresis separation was developed to simultaneously identify nine serotypes of enteroviruses associated with HFMD in China, including EV71, CVA16, CVA4, -5, -9, and -10, and CVB1, -3, and -5. The RNAs extracted from cell cultures of viral isolates and synthetic RNAs via in vitro transcription were used to analyze the specificity and sensitivity of the assay. The GeXP assay detected as little as 0.03 tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) of EV71 and CVA16, 10 copies of panenterovirus, EV71, CVA16, CVB1, and CVB5, and 100 copies of 10 (including panenterovirus) premixed RNA templates. A total of 180 stool specimens collected from HFMD patients and persons suspected of having HFMD were used to evaluate the clinical performance of this assay. In comparison with the results of conventional methods, the sensitivities of the GeXP assay for detection of panenterovirus, EV71, and CVA16 were 98.79% (163/165), 91.67% (44/48), and 91.67% (33/36), respectively, and the specificities were 80.00% (12/15), 98.48% (130/132), and 100% (144/144), respectively. The concordance of typing seven other serotypes of enteroviruses with the results of conventional methods was 92.59% (25/27). In conclusion, the GeXP assay is a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput method for typing nine serotypes of HFMD-associated enteroviruses.

  13. Salmonella detection from chicken rinsate with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and RT-PCR validation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optical detection of bacteria has been approached in recent years as a bacteria detection method that can counter time restraints of traditional plating or the high reoccurring cost of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The goal of optical detection is to identify bacteria with spectral s...

  14. Detecting the Presence of Nora Virus in "Drosophila" Utilizing Single Fly RT-PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Bethany; Ericson, Brad; Carlson, Darby J.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    A single fly RT-PCR protocol has recently been developed to detect the presence of the persistent, horizontally transmitted Nora virus in "Drosophila." Wild-caught flies from Ohio were tested for the presence of the virus, with nearly one-fifth testing positive. The investigation presented can serve as an ideal project for biology…

  15. Identification and evaluation of reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang; Xu, ZhiChao; Zhu, YingJie; Luo, HongMei; Qian, Jun; Ji, AiJia; Hu, YuanLei; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Song, JingYuan; Sun, Chao; Chen, ShiLin

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable technique for gene expression studies. The accuracy and reliability of qRT-PCR results depend on the stability of the reference genes used for gene normalization. Therefore, a systematic process of reference gene evaluation is needed. Ganoderma lucidum is a famous medicinal mushroom in East Asia. In the current study, 10 potential reference genes were selected from the G. lucidum genomic data. The sequences of these genes were manually curated, and primers were designed following strict criteria. The experiment was conducted using qRT-PCR, and the stability of each candidate gene was assessed using four commonly used statistical programs-geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. According to our results, PP2A was expressed at the most stable levels under different fermentation conditions, and RPL4 was the most stably expressed gene in different tissues. RPL4, PP2A, and β-tubulin are the most commonly recommended reference genes for normalizing gene expression in the entire sample set. The current study provides a foundation for the further use of qRT-PCR in G. lucidum gene analysis.

  16. [Detection of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Rehmannia glutinosa f. hueichingensis by IC-RT-PCR].

    PubMed

    Du, Lin; Xiang, Jin-Le; Fan, Jin-Ling; Li, Xin; Luo, Lei

    2013-07-01

    To establish a rapid, sensitive and efficient detection method for tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and provide technical support of TMV detection of Rehmannia glutinosa f. hueichingensis. The virus-free plantlets could be produced on a large scale to ameliorate breed degeneration caused by viral disease. Specific primers were designed based on the conserved region of coat protein(CP) gene of TMV. Immunocapture RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) was employed to detect TMV and the sequence of the products was detected. The expected nucleotide acid fragments were amplified by IC-RT-PCR. The homology of nucleotide acid sequence and amino acid sequence were 95.29% and 96.7% between the PCR products and the CP gene of TMV (accession number AY555269). The method was established for the detection of TMV in R. glutinosa f. hueichingensis by IC-RT-PCR. This detection combined molecular biology technology with immunology, was convenient for a quick, sensitive and simple detection of TMV.

  17. Generic RT-PCR tests for detection and identification of tospoviruses.

    PubMed

    Hassani-Mehraban, A; Westenberg, M; Verhoeven, J T J; van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Kormelink, R; Roenhorst, J W

    2016-07-01

    A set of tests for generic detection and identification of tospoviruses has been developed. Based on a multiple sequence alignment of the nucleocapsid gene and its 5' upstream untranslated region sequence from 28 different species, primers were designed for RT-PCR detection of tospoviruses from all recognized clades, i.e. the American, Asian and Eurasian clades, and from the small group of distinct and floating species. Pilot experiments on isolates from twenty different species showed that the designed primer sets successfully detected all species by RT-PCR, as confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplicons. In a final optimized design, the primers were applied in a setting of five RT-PCR tests. Seven different tospoviruses were successfully identified from diagnostic samples and in addition a non-described tospovirus species from alstroemeria plants. The results demonstrate that the newly developed generic RT-PCR tests provide a relevant tool for broad detection and identification of tospoviruses in plant quarantine and diagnostic laboratories.

  18. Detection, discrimination and quantitation of 22 bluetongue virus serotypes using real-time RT-PCR with TaqMan MGB probes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yufei; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Sun, Encheng; Li, Junping; Lv, Shuang; Wang, Haixiu; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jikai; Wu, Donglai

    2015-09-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the etiological agent of bluetongue (BT) disease, a noncontagious insect-transmitted disease of international importance. To date, 26 BTV serotypes have been recognized worldwide. Methods to discriminate BTV serotypes in clinical samples are essential to epidemiological surveillance efforts and BTV vaccination programs. The BTV VP2 major outer capsid protein, encoded by genomic segment 2 (Seg-2), is the most highly variable BTV protein and is the primary determinant of the virus serotype. Here, we report the development of rapid and reliable real-time RT-PCR assays to detect and discriminate 22 BTV serotypes on the basis of VP2-encoding genomic sequences. Serotype-specific primers and probes detected only the targeted BTV serotype and displayed no cross-amplification of off-target BTV serotypes or other closely related Reoviridae and Bunyaviridae family members. The real-time RT-PCR assays developed were highly sensitive, and the majority of serotype-specific reactions could detect template when present at ≥10 copies. These BTV serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays represent a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method for the identification, differentiation and quantification of 22 BTV serotypes.

  19. Identification of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis in Yesso Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Liying; Yu, Qian; Li, Xue; Ning, Xianhui; Wang, Jing; Zou, Jiajun; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Jingjie; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Bivalves comprise around 30,000 extant species and have received much attention for their importance in ecosystems, aquaculture and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing application of real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in gene expression studies on bivalve species, little research has been conducted on reference gene selection which is critical for reliable and accurate qRT-PCR analysis. For scallops, systematic evaluation of reference genes that can be used among tissues or embryo/larva stages is lacking, and β-actin (ACT) is most frequently used as qRT-PCR reference gene without validation. Results In this study, 12 commonly used candidate reference genes were selected from the transcriptome data of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) for suitable qRT-PCR reference genes identification. The expression of these genes in 36 tissue samples and 15 embryo/larva samples under normal physiological conditions was examined by qRT-PCR, and their expression stabilities were evaluated using three statistic algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, and comparative ∆Ct method. Similar results were obtained by the three approaches for the most and the least stably expressed genes. Final comprehensive ranking for the 12 genes combing the results from the three programs showed that, for different tissues, DEAD-box RNA helicase (HELI), ubiquitin (UBQ), and 60S ribosomal protein L16 (RPL16) were the optimal reference genes combination, while for different embryo/larva stages, gene set containing Cytochrome B (CB), Cytochrome C (CC), Histone H3.3 (His3.3), and Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were recommended for qRT-PCR normalization. ACT was among the least stable genes for both adult tissues and embryos/larvae. Conclusions This work constitutes the first systematic analysis on reference genes selection for qRT-PCR normalization in scallop under normal conditions. The suitable reference genes we recommended will be useful for

  20. Clinical Validation of Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, M. Jordan; Mair, Raydel; Trujillo-Lopez, Elizabeth; du Plessis, Mignon; Wolter, Nicole; Baughman, Andrew L.; Hatcher, Cynthia; Vuong, Jeni; Lott, Lisa; von Gottberg, Anne; Sacchi, Claudio; McDonald, J. Matthew; Messonnier, Nancy E.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are important causes of meningitis and other infections, and rapid, sensitive, and specific laboratory assays are critical for effective public health interventions. Singleplex real-time PCR assays have been developed to detect N. meningitidis ctrA, H. influenzae hpd, and S. pneumoniae lytA and serogroup-specific genes in the cap locus for N. meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, W135, X, and Y. However, the assay sensitivity for serogroups B, W135, and Y is low. We aimed to improve assay sensitivity and develop multiplex assays to reduce time and cost. New singleplex real-time PCR assays for serogroup B synD, W135 synG, and Y synF showed 100% specificity for detecting N. meningitidis species, with high sensitivity (serogroup B synD, 99% [75/76]; W135 synG, 97% [38/39]; and Y synF, 100% [66/66]). The lower limits of detection (LLD) were 9, 43, and 10 copies/reaction for serogroup B synD, W135 synG, and Y synF assays, respectively, a significant improvement compared to results for the previous singleplex assays. We developed three multiplex real-time PCR assays for detection of (i) N. meningitidis ctrA, H. influenzae hpd, and S. pneumoniae lytA (NHS assay); (ii) N. meningitidis serogroups A, W135, and X (AWX assay); and (iii) N. meningitidis serogroups B, C, and Y (BCY assay). Each multiplex assay was 100% specific for detecting its target organisms or serogroups, and the LLD was similar to that for the singleplex assay. Pairwise comparison of real-time PCR between multiplex and singleplex assays showed that cycle threshold values of the multiplex assay were similar to those for the singleplex assay. There were no substantial differences in sensitivity and specificity between these multiplex and singleplex real-time PCR assays. PMID:22170919

  1. Design of Two Multiplex PCR Assays for Serotyping Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Claudia A; Rogé, Ariel D; Bordagorría, Ximena L; de Urquiza, Maria T; Celi Castillo, Ana B; Bruno, Susana B

    2017-10-10

    Shigella flexneri is a major health problem in developing countries. There are 19 serotypes recognized based on O-antigen structure and its typing is important for epidemiological purposes. However, the diversity of serotypes and the difficulties presented by phenotypic serotyping, for example, unavailable antisera for less common antigens, require the implementation of molecular techniques. In this study, we developed two multiplex PCR assays targeting the O-antigen synthesis genes and the O-antigen modification genes, for the rapid identification of S. flexneri serotypes 1/7, 2, 4, 5, and 6 (PCR A) and serotype 7 and group antigenic factors (3,4; 6; 7,8; E1037) (PCR B). A total of 73 S. flexneri strains representing 18 serotypes, except serotype 1d, were used in the study. Specific amplification patterns were obtained for each of the different serotypes. All strains tested had concordant results with phenotypic and genotypic serotyping; therefore, its implementation in the microbiology clinical laboratory will significantly improve S. flexneri serotyping.

  2. A comparison of in situ hybridisation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ-RT-PCR for the detection of canine distemper virus RNA in Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Hoyland, Judith A; Dixon, Janet A; Berry, Jacqueline L; Davies, Michael; Selby, Peter L; Mee, Andrew P

    2003-05-01

    Previous evidence implicating Paramyxoviruses in the aetiopathology of Paget's disease of bone has proved controversial. Whilst several groups have demonstrated Paramyxoviruses using techniques such as in situ hybridisation (ISH), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and in situ-RT-PCR (IS-RT-PCR), others have found no evidence of viruses using only RT-PCR. To investigate this latter finding, we have now compared detection of canine distemper virus by ISH, RT-PCR (three different methods) and IS-RT-PCR, in 10 patients with Paget's disease, and samples of non-diseased bone from four patients. Canine distemper virus was detectable in six of the samples by ISH, but only in five of the samples by RT-PCR, using one of the methods. Neither of the other RT-PCR methods detected canine distemper virus. IS-RT-PCR demonstrated canine distemper virus in all 10 samples. There was no evidence of virus in the control samples. We have shown that the ability to detect canine distemper virus in bone is dependent on the technique used. IS-RT-PCR clearly showed that canine distemper virus was present in 100% of Pagetic samples, whereas canine distemper virus was only found in 60% by ISH and in 50% using one particular RT-PCR method. These results provide conclusive evidence that canine distemper virus is present within Pagetic bone, and provide a possible explanation for the failure of some groups to detect Paramyxovirus sequences. These findings also have wider implications for other studies investigating viral expression.

  3. Application of F⁺RNA Coliphages as Source Tracking Enteric Viruses on Parsley and Leek Using RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Shahrampour, Dina; Yavarmanesh, Masoud; Najafi, Mohammad Bagher Habibi; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify sources of fecal contamination in leek and parsley, by using four different F(+)RNA coliphage genogroups (IV, I indicate animal fecal contamination and II, III indicate human fecal contamination). Three different concentrations (10(2), 10(4), 10(6) pfu/ml) of MS2 coliphage were inoculated on the surface of parsley and leek samples for detection of phage recovery efficiency among two methods of elution concentration (PEG-precipitation and Ultracentrifugation) by performing double agar layer (DAL) assay in three replications. Highest recovery of MS2 was observed in PEG method and in 10(6) inoculation concentration. Accordingly, the PEG method was used for washing and isolation of potentially contaminated phages of 30 collected samples (15 samples from the market and 15 samples from the farm). The final solutions of PEG method were tested for the enumeration of plaques by DAL assay. Total RNA was then extracted from recovered phages, and RT-PCR was performed by using four primer sets I, II, III, and IV. Incidence of F(+)RNA coliphages was observed in 12/15 (80 %) and 10/15 (66/6 %) of samples were obtained from farm and market, respectively, using both DAL and RT-PCR test methods. Different genotypes (I, II, and IV) of F(+)RNA coliphages were found in farm samples, while only genotype I was detected in market samples by using the primer sets. Due to the higher frequency of genotype I and IV, the absence of genotype III, and also the low frequency of genotype II, it is concluded that the contamination of vegetable (parsley and leek) in Neyshabour, Iran is most likely originated from animal sources.

  4. Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients Using Cytokeratin-19 Real-Time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung Seok; Han, Hyun Ju; Lee, Soohyeon; Kim, Gun Min; Park, Seho; Choi, Yeon A; Lee, Jeong Dong; Kim, Gi Moon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The roles of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as predictive and prognostic factors, as well as key mediators in the metastatic cascade, have been investigated. This study aimed to validate a method to quantify CTCs in peripheral blood using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for cytokeratin (CK)-19 and to evaluate the utility of this assay in detecting CTCs in breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods Real-time monitoring PCR of fluorescently labeled specific hybridization probes for CK-19 mRNA was established. Peripheral blood samples from 30 healthy donors, 69 patients with early breast cancer, 47 patients with locally advanced breast cancer, and 126 patients with metastatic breast cancer were prospectively obtained and analyzed for CTC detection. Results CK-19 mRNA was not detectable in healthy subjects using the real-time RT-PCR method. The detection rates of CK-19 mRNA in breast cancer patients were 47.8% for early breast cancer (33/69), 46.8% for locally advanced breast cancer (22/47), and 61.1% for metastatic breast cancer (77/129). The detection rate of CK-19-positive CTCs in metastatic disease was slightly higher than early or locally advanced breast cancer; however, the detection rate according to disease burden was not statistically different (p=0.097). The detection rate was higher in patients with pleural metastasis (p=0.045). CTC detection was associated with poor survival (p=0.014). Conclusion A highly specific and sensitive CK-19 mRNA-based method to detect CTCs in peripheral blood in breast cancer patients can be used in further prospective studies to evaluate the predictive and prognostic importance of CTCs. PMID:27873491

  5. Rt-PCR gene expression profiling of RNA from paraffin-embedded tissues prepared using a range of different fixatives and conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Lan; Jeong, Jennie; Ambannavar, Ranjana; Millward, Carl; Baehner, Frederick; Sangli, Chithra; Dutta, Debjani; Pho, Mylan; Nguyen, Anhthu; Cronin, Maureen T

    2011-01-01

    Although RNA is isolated from archival fixed tissues routinely for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and microarray analyses to identify biomarkers of cancer prognosis and therapeutic response prediction, the sensitivity of these molecular profiling methods to variability in pathology tissue processing has not been described in depth. As increasing numbers of expression analysis studies using fixed archival tumor specimens are reported, it is important to examine how dependent these results are on tissue-processing methods.We carried out a series of studies to systematically evaluate the effects of various tissue-fixation reagents and protocols on RNA quality and RT-PCR gene expression profiles. Human placenta was selected as a model specimen for these studies since it is relatively easily obtained and has proliferative and invasive qualities similar to solid tumors. In addition, each specimen is relatively homogeneous and large enough to provide sufficient tissue to systematically compare a range of fixation conditions and reagents, thereby avoiding the variability inherent in studying collections of tumor tissue specimens. Since anatomical pathology laboratories generally offer hundreds of different tissue-fixation protocols, we focused on fixation reagents and conditions used to process the most common solid tumors for primary cancer diagnosis. Fresh placentas donated under an IRB-approved protocol were collected at delivery and immediately submerged in cold saline for transport to a central pathology laboratory for processing. RNA was extracted from each specimen, quantified, and analyzed for size distribution and analytical performance using a panel of 24 RT-PCR gene expression assays. We found that different tissue-fixation reagents and tissue-processing conditions resulted in widely varying RNA extraction yields and extents of RNA fragmentation. However, the RNA extraction method and RT-PCR assays could be optimized to achieve

  6. Validation of Reference Genes for Robust qRT-PCR Gene Expression Analysis in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Che Omar, Sarena; Bentley, Michael A; Morieri, Giulia; Preston, Gail M; Gurr, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    The rice blast fungus causes significant annual harvest losses. It also serves as a genetically-tractable model to study fungal ingress. Whilst pathogenicity determinants have been unmasked and changes in global gene expression described, we know little about Magnaporthe oryzae cell wall remodelling. Our interests, in wall remodelling genes expressed during infection, vegetative growth and under exogenous wall stress, demand robust choice of reference genes for quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) data normalisation. We describe the expression stability of nine candidate reference genes profiled by qRT-PCR with cDNAs derived during asexual germling development, from sexual stage perithecia and from vegetative mycelium grown under various exogenous stressors. Our Minimum Information for Publication of qRT-PCR Experiments (MIQE) compliant analysis reveals a set of robust reference genes used to track changes in the expression of the cell wall remodelling gene MGG_Crh2 (MGG_00592). We ranked nine candidate reference genes by their expression stability (M) and report the best gene combination needed for reliable gene expression normalisation, when assayed in three tissue groups (Infective, Vegetative, and Global) frequently used in M. oryzae expression studies. We found that MGG_Actin (MGG_03982) and the 40S 27a ribosomal subunit MGG_40s (MGG_02872) proved to be robust reference genes for the Infection group and MGG_40s and MGG_Ef1 (Elongation Factor1-α) for both Vegetative and Global groups. Using the above validated reference genes, M. oryzae MGG_Crh2 expression was found to be significantly (p<0.05) elevated three-fold during vegetative growth as compared with dormant spores and two fold higher under cell wall stress (Congo Red) compared to growth under optimal conditions. We recommend the combinatorial use of two reference genes, belonging to the cytoskeleton and ribosomal synthesis functional groups, MGG_Actin, MGG_40s, MGG_S8 (Ribosomal subunit 40S S8) or MGG

  7. Molecular-Beacon Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Gubala, Aneta J.; Proll, David F.

    2006-01-01

    A multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed using molecular beacons for the detection of Vibrio cholerae by targeting four important virulence and regulatory genes. The specificity and sensitivity of this assay, when tested with pure culture and spiked environmental water samples, were high, surpassing those of currently published PCR assays for the detection of this organism. PMID:16957277

  8. Highly Specific Detection of Five Exotic Quarantine Plant Viruses using RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong; Yu, Jisuk; Lee, Jong-Seung; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    To detect five plant viruses (Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Eggplant mottled dwarf virus, Pelargonium zonate spot virus, and Rice yellow mottle virus) for quarantine purposes, we designed 15 RT-PCR primer sets. Primer design was based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene, which is highly conserved within species. All but one primer set successfully amplified the targets, and gradient PCRs indicated that the optimal temperature for the 14 useful primer sets was 51.9°C. Some primer sets worked well regardless of annealing temperature while others required a very specific annealing temperature. A primer specificity test using plant total RNAs and cDNAs of other plant virus-infected samples demonstrated that the designed primer sets were highly specific and generated reproducible results. The newly developed RT-PCR primer sets would be useful for quarantine inspections aimed at preventing the entry of exotic plant viruses into Korea. PMID:25288934

  9. Comparison of transcription mediated amplification (TMA) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Wolf Peter; Dries, Volker; Herrmann, Eva; Gärtner, Barbara; Zeuzem, Stefan; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2005-04-01

    Transcription mediated amplification (TMA) is known to be one of the most sensitive detection assays for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum but has not yet been evaluated in liver tissue. It is unknown whether the higher sensitivity of TMA in comparison with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays is related to a higher efficiency of the extraction and/or amplification step. The sensitivity of a TMA-based assay (Versant HCV RNA Qualitative assay, Bayer Diagnostics) and a standard RT-PCR-based assay (Cobas Amplicor HCV 2.0, Roche Diagnostics) was compared in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver biopsy specimens of patients with chronic hepatitis C. After deparaffinization of 7.5 microm liver sections HCV RNA was extracted by standard phenol/chloroform. HCV RNA dilution panels were transferred in parallel to cDNA synthesis and amplification steps of PCR and TMA. Furthermore, TMA amplification from stepwise diluted HCV sera was performed following RNA extraction by either microcentrifuge colums (QIAmp Viral RNA spin Kit, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) or magnetic microparticles (VERSANT HCV RNA Qualitative assay). The total number of HCV RNA positive liver specimens detected by TMA was higher compared with those detected by RT-PCR (P=0.032). The total number of TMA positive serum samples was higher when HCV RNA was extracted using magnetic microparticles in comparison with multicentrifuge column extraction (P=0.019). Our results suggest that both the extraction and amplification step of the TMA-based assay contribute to the higher sensitivity compared with standard RT-PCR.

  10. Detection of Schmallenberg virus in different Culicoides spp. by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    De Regge, N; Deblauwe, I; De Deken, R; Vantieghem, P; Madder, M; Geysen, D; Smeets, F; Losson, B; van den Berg, T; Cay, A B

    2012-12-01

    To identify possible vectors of Schmallenberg virus (SBV), we tested pools containing heads of biting midges (Culicoides) that were caught during the summer and early autumn of 2011 at several places in Belgium by real-time RT-PCR. Pools of heads originating from following species: C. obsoletus complex, C. dewulfi and C. chiopterus were found positive, strongly indicating that these species are relevant vectors for SBV.

  11. Detection of influenza by real time RT-PCR is not affected by delays in respiratory specimen processing.

    PubMed

    Dare, Ryan; Zhu, Yuwei; Williams, John V; Griffin, Marie; Talbot, H Keipp

    2016-11-01

    Sample processing for real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) based diagnostic assays requires stabilizing sample ribonucleic acid (RNA) in lysis buffer prior to testing. The stability of viral RNA prior to processing is difficult to assure. It is unknown whether clinical sample integrity is compromised by delays in processing, as may occur due to weekends and holidays. We sought to examine the integrity of respiratory specimens with variable processing times. Upper respiratory specimens were collected during three influenza seasons 2009-2012 and tested for influenza virus and internal control human RNase P (RNP) RNA by rRT-PCR. Time to processing was measured in hours from specimen collection to placement in lysis buffer. Six hundred thirty-five (11.4%) of 5,583 samples were influenza positive. Mean and median times to processing were 11.5 hr and 6.0 hr, respectively (min 0.1 hr, max 105.2 hr). There were no significant associations between time to processing and presence of RNP (OR = 1.0, P = 0.740), or detection of influenza (OR = 1.0, P = 0.060). Longer duration of illness was associated with a lower likelihood of influenza detection (OR = 0.92, P < 0.001) and with increased influenza A cycle threshold (Ct) values (P < 0.001), while older age was associated with increased influenza B Ct values (P = 0.001), indicating the presence of less amplifiable RNA. Delays in time to processing of upper respiratory specimens up to 105 hr were not associated with decreased detection of amplifiable RNA, suggesting specimen integrity is not compromised by such delays. J. Med. Virol. 88:1891-1895, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Investigation of Reference Genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus for Gene Expression Analysis Using Quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue-Jiao; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Yong; Pan, Ying-Jie; Hwang, Cheng-An; Wu, Vivian C H

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a useful tool for studying gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus to characterize its virulence factors and understand the effect of environmental conditions on its pathogenicity. However, there is not a stable gene in V. parahaemolyticus that has been identified for use as a reference gene for qRT-PCR. This study evaluated the stability of 6 reference genes (16S rRNA, recA, rpoS, pvsA, pvuA, and gapdh) in 5 V. parahaemolyticus strains (O3:K6-clinical strain-tdh+, ATCC33846-tdh+, ATCC33847-tdh+, ATCC17802-trh+, and F13-environmental strain-tdh+) cultured at 4 different temperatures (15, 25, 37 and 42°C). Stability values were calculated using GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and Delta CT algorithms. The results indicated that recA was the most stably expressed gene in the V. parahaemolyticus strains cultured at different temperatures. This study examined multiple V. parahaemolyticus strains and growth temperatures, hence the finding provided stronger evidence that recA can be used as a reference gene for gene expression studies in V. parahaemolyticus.

  13. Investigation of Reference Genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus for Gene Expression Analysis Using Quantitative RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue-jiao; Sun, Xiao-hong; Xu, Xiao-yan; Zhao, Yong; Pan, Ying-jie; Hwang, Cheng-An; Wu, Vivian C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a useful tool for studying gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus to characterize its virulence factors and understand the effect of environmental conditions on its pathogenicity. However, there is not a stable gene in V. parahaemolyticus that has been identified for use as a reference gene for qRT-PCR. This study evaluated the stability of 6 reference genes (16S rRNA, recA, rpoS, pvsA, pvuA, and gapdh) in 5 V. parahaemolyticus strains (O3:K6-clinical strain-tdh+, ATCC33846-tdh+, ATCC33847-tdh+, ATCC17802-trh+, and F13-environmental strain-tdh+) cultured at 4 different temperatures (15, 25, 37 and 42°C). Stability values were calculated using GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and Delta CT algorithms. The results indicated that recA was the most stably expressed gene in the V. parahaemolyticus strains cultured at different temperatures. This study examined multiple V. parahaemolyticus strains and growth temperatures, hence the finding provided stronger evidence that recA can be used as a reference gene for gene expression studies in V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:26659406

  14. Detection of morbillivirus infection by RT-PCR RFLP analysis in cetaceans and carnivores.

    PubMed

    Verna, Federica; Giorda, Federica; Miceli, Ilaria; Rizzo, Giovanna; Pautasso, Alessandra; Romano, Angelo; Iulini, Barbara; Pintore, Maria Domenica; Mignone, Walter; Grattarola, Carla; Bozzetta, Elena; Varello, Katia; Dondo, Alessandro; Casalone, Cristina; Goria, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Morbillivirus genus comprises several members related to specific hosts, such as canine distemper virus (CDV) and cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) in which the dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) is included. Both CDV and DMV are able to cause serious outbreak associated with high morbidity and mortality representing an important conservation threat for terrestrial and aquatic mammalian species. This paper describes a new RT-PCR RFLP technique based on a RT-PCR with degenerate primers targeting a 287 bp fragment located on the conserved N terminus of the morbillivirus NP gene, followed by MseI RFLP, in order both to confirm the detection of the virus and to distinguish DMV from CDV. Both carnivores and cetaceans tissues (brain, lung and lymph node) presenting evidence of morbillivirus infection (MI) were analyzed. RT-PCR positive samples were typed by RFLP analysis and then sequenced to confirm the RFLP results. This method was applied during the last morbillivirus cetacean die-off occurred in the Mediterranean basin in 2013, when there was the urgent need of a rapid and economic method to investigate among causes of death on stranded cetaceans. This new technique has proved to be a valuable, reliable, simple and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool easily applicable also in limited-resource laboratories. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative RT-PCR studies in Talaromyces marneffei.

    PubMed

    Dankai, Wiyada; Pongpom, Monsicha; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2015-11-01

    Talaromyces marneffei (or Penicillium marneffei) is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, especially in Southeast Asia. T. marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus. Typically, T. marneffei has an adaptive morphology. It grows in a filamentous form (mould) at 25°C and can differentiate to produce asexual spores (conidia). In contrast, at 37°C, it grows as yeast cells that divide by fission. This study aimed to validate a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for gene expression analysis in T. marneffei. Analysis of relative gene expression by qRT-PCR requires normalization of data using a proper reference gene. However, suitable reference genes have not been identified in gene expression studies across different cell types or under different experimental conditions in T. marneffei. In this study, four housekeeping genes were selected for analysis: β-actin (act); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh); β-tubulin (benA) and 18S rRNA. Two analysis programs; BestKeeper and geNorm software tools were used to validate the expression of the candidate normalized genes. The results indicated that the actin gene was the one which was most stably expressed and was recommended for use as the endogenous control for gene expression analysis of all growth forms in T. marneffei by qRT-PCR under normal and stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Liquid phase fluorescence in situ RT-PCR analysis for gene expression analysis in woody stems.

    PubMed

    Gray-Mitsumune, M; Abe, H; Takahashi, J; Sundberg, B; Mellerowicz, E J

    2004-01-01

    We explore a rapid in situ RT-PCR protocol for gene expression studies in woody stem tissues. In situ RT-PCR was performed using fluorescent dye-conjugated nucleic acid and the fluorescence signals derived from target RNAs were detected using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The signal to background ratio was greatly enhanced by performing two rounds of PCR reactions, first without the fluorescent dye and second with the dye. Using this protocol, we obtained strong gene-specific signals in secondary stem tissues. The signals were PCR-dependent, as shown by the lack of cytoplasmic signals in the tissue sections in which either DNA polymerase or primers were omitted from PCR reactions, and were RNA-dependent, as shown by great reduction of cytoplasmic signals when sections were treated with RNase before RT reactions. To verify our protocol, transcript localization of the rbcS gene was examined in secondary stems of hybrid aspen ( Populus tremula L. x tremuloides Michx.) and compared to the chlorophyll autofluorescence signal. The in situ RT-PCR signals form the rbcS gene and chlorophyll autofluorescence co-localized in the same cell types. The signal was also confirmed by Northern blot analysis of isolated RNA from the cambium and developing xylem, thus confirming the validity of the protocol. Some difficulties of in situ transcript localization and the interpretation of the signal distribution in the secondary tissues are discussed.

  17. Mass scale screening of common arboviral infections by an affordable, cost effective RT-PCR method

    PubMed Central

    Taraphdar, Debjani; Sarkar, Arindam; Chatterjee, Shyamalendu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a rapid, cost effective RT-PCR method for the mass scale diagnosis of such diseases at the viremia stage to find out the actual disease burden in that area. Methods For this purpose, cases with the history of only short febrile illness were considered. Thus 157 samples with the history of dengue/chikungunya like illness and only 58 samples with a history of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) were selected. Results Out of 157 samples, 42 and 74 were detected as dengue and chikungunya, respectively and out of 58 AES cases only 23 could be detected as Japanese encephalitis by this RT-PCR method. Conclusions This cost effective RT-PCR method can detect the total positive cases that remain undetected by ELISA method. Moreover, this method is capable to detect the viral RNA from patients' sera even after the appearance of IgM antibody at one fifth costs as compared with the other commercially available kits. PMID:23569876

  18. Introduction of a novel parechovirus RT-PCR clinical test in a regional medical center.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Christian; Kuypers, Jane; Ficken, Elle; Cent, Anne; Corey, Lawrence; Englund, Janet A

    2011-05-01

    Although data documenting the severity and frequency of human parechovirus (HPeV) infections have been published, detection of HPeV is not routinely performed in most clinical virology laboratories. To describe diagnostic yield, epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients infected with HPeV during the first year using a new HPeV reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. We introduced an HPeV RT-PCR for the routine testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples submitted to our clinical laboratory for detection of human enteroviruses (HEV). Prospective testing of samples with retrospective analysis of medical charts was performed. Of the 499 clinical samples received between May, 2009 and May, 2010, 9.6% (46 patients) had HEV detected and 3.4% (15 patients) had HPeV detected. All patients infected by HPeV were <3 months old, hospitalized between June and October 2009, and all typed viruses were HPeV3. Clinical characteristics of HPeV and HEV infected infants were similar. However, patients infected with HPeV were more likely to have a normal leukocyte count in their CSF (p<0.001). One HPeV3-infected infant developed encephalitis and another developed hepatitis. In our institution, the HPeV RT-PCR was useful to diagnose a novel pathogen in infants with sepsis-like disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. How Many Microorganisms Are Present? Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Andy; Álvarez, Laura Acuña; Whitby, Corinne; Larsen, Jan

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a variation of conventional quantitative or real-time PCR, whereby mRNA is first converted into the complementary DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcription, the cDNA is then subsequently quantified by qPCR. The use of mRNA as the initial template allows the quantification of gene transcripts, rather than gene copy numbers. mRNA is only produced by actively metabolising cells and is produced by its corresponding gene to provide a 'blueprint' in order for a cell to manufacture a specific protein. Conventional qPCR detects not only DNA present in actively metabolising cells but also inactive and dead cells. qRT-PCR has the advantage that only actively metabolising cells are detected, hence provides a more reliable measure of microbial activity in oilfield samples. When qRT-PCR is combined with primers and probes for specific genes, the activity of microbial processes important in the oilfield, such as sulphate reduction, methanogenesis and nitrate reduction can be monitored.

  20. RT-PCR is a more accurate diagnostic tool for detection of BCR-ABL rearrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnbauer, B.A.; Allen, A.P.; McGrath, S.D.

    1994-09-01

    Detection of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1) or genomic Southern hybridization for clonal gene rearrangement (GSH-R) has provided very specific identification of BCR-ABL gene rearrangement. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is diagnostic for patterns of BCR-ABL expression which are undetected by GSH-R and/or Ph1 and provides increased sensitivity both at diagnosis and in detection of minimal residual leukemia. Fifty-three specimens (of 150 tested from 119 consecutive leukemia patients) were RT-PCR positive for BCR-ABL gene expression confirmed by hybridization of PCR products with b{sub 3}a{sub 2}, b{sub 2}a{sub 2}, or e{sub 1}a{sub 2} junction-specific oligonucleotides. In 6 cases of CML with GSH-R{sup {minus}}at diagnosis, RT-PCR provided specific BCR-ABL identification. Deletion of BCR regions, low mitotic index, or e{sub 1}a{sub 2} expression caused failure to detect GSH-R or Ph1 translocation.

  1. Comparison of conventional RT-PCR, reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification, and SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR in the rapid detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus nucleotide in contaminated commercial bovine sera batches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Qin; Tan, Bin; Li, Peng; Wang, Feng-Xue; Guo, Li; Yang, Yong; Sun, Na; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Wen, Yong-Jun; Cheng, Shi-Peng

    2014-10-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can contaminate biological products produced in bovine or porcine cells or manufactured using bovine sera. A rapid, specific, sensitive, and practical method of detecting BVDV in bio-products is needed. The purpose of this study was to compare three assays with respect to their ability to accurately detect BVDV in biological samples, namely reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR, and conventional RT-PCR. All assays detected BVDV nucleotide and differentiated between BVDV-free and -contaminated bovine sera successfully. In addition, the results were specific to BVDV: the amplification of samples containing the closely related classical swine fever virus or other pathogenic bovine viruses yielded negative results. The lowest detection threshold, 10(1) copies, was displayed by the SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR and RT-LAMP assay. This assay was also the most effective in the detection of BVDV contamination in a set of commercially available bovine sera. The field conditions suggest that RT-LAMP is specific and sensitive to detecting BVDV in biological samples and may be used for quality control of biomaterials.

  2. Final Report Nucleic Acid System - Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay Project Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R P; Langlois, R G; Nasarabadi, S; Benett, W J; Colston, B W; Johnson, D C; Brown, S B; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-04-17

    This report covers phase 2 (year 2) of the Nucleic Acid System--Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay project. The objective of the project is to reduce to practice the detection and identification of biological warfare pathogens by the nucleic acid recognition technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in a multiplex mode using flow cytometry. The Hybrid instrument consists of a flow-through PCR module capable of handling a multiplexed PCR assay, a hybridizing module capable of hybridizing multiplexed PCR amplicons and beads, and a flow cytometer module for bead-based identification, all controlled by a single computer. Multiplex immunoassay using bead-based Luminex flow cytometry is available, allowing rapid screening for many agents. PCR is highly specific and complements and verifies immunoassay. It can also be multiplexed and detection provided using the bead-based Luminex flow cytometer. This approach allows full access to the speed and 100-fold multiplex capability of flow cytometry for rapid screening as well as the accuracy and specificity of PCR. This project has two principal activities: (1) Design, build and test a prototype hybrid PCR/flow cytometer with the basic capabilities for rapid, broad spectrum detection and identification, and (2) Develop and evaluate multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products. This project requires not only building operationally functional instrumentation but also developing the chemical assays for detection of priority pathogens. This involves development and evaluation of multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products.

  3. Profiling of multiple signal pathway activities by multiplexing antibody and GFP-based translocation assays.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Ulla; Fog, Jacob; Loechel, Frosty; Praestegaard, Morten

    2008-08-01

    Multiplexing of GFP based and immunofluorescence translocation assays enables easy acquisition of multiple readouts from the same cell in a single assay run. Immunofluorescence assays monitor translocation, phosphorylation, and up/down regulation of endogenous proteins. GFP-based assays monitor translocation of stably expressed GFP-fusion proteins. Such assays may be multiplexed along (vertical), across (horizontal), and between (branch) signal pathways. Examples of these strategies are presented: 1) The MK2-GFP assay monitors translocation of MK2-GFP from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to stimulation of the p38 pathway. By applying different immunofluorescent assays to the MK2 assay, a multiplexed HCA system is created for deconvolution of p38 pathway activation including assay readouts for MK2, p38, NFkappaB, and c-Jun. 2) A method for evaluating GPCR activation and internalization in a single assay run has been established by multiplexing GFP-based internalization assays with immunofluorescence assays for downstream transducers of GPCR activity: pCREB (cAMP sensor), NFATc1 (Ca(2+) sensor), and ERK (G-protein activation). Activation of the AT1 receptor is given as an example. 3) Cell toxicity readouts can be linked to primary readouts of interest via acquisition of secondary parameters describing cellular morphology. This approach is used to flag cytotoxic compounds and deselect false positives. The ATF6 Redistribution assay is provided as an example. These multiplex strategies provide a unique opportunity to enhance HCA data quality and save time during drug discovery. From a single assay run, several assay readouts are obtained that help the user to deconvolute the mode of action of test compounds.

  4. Application of quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) for the determination of the total viable count (TVC) on meat samples.

    PubMed

    Dolan, A; Burgess, C M; Fanning, S; Duffy, G

    2010-07-01

    To apply a quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) method to determine the total viable count (TVC) on meat samples. Using two sets of primers to target the ribonuclease-P (RNase P) RNA transcripts of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, standard curves were generated using the LightCycler 2.0 instrument (Roche Diagnostics). RNA standards were extracted from known cell numbers and subsequently converted to cDNA for the construction of standard curves for quantification of the TVC of beef carcass swabs (n = 60) and beef (n = 30), chicken (n = 50) and pork (n = 49) pieces. A high correlation between the standard plate count method and the qRT-PCR was observed for beef swabs (R(2) = 0·93) and beef pieces (R(2) = 0·82). The correlation coefficient for chicken pieces and pork pieces were R(2) = 0·34 and 0·55, respectively. Using beef pieces (n = 13), an interlaboratory study was conducted and each participating laboratory (n = 3) found a reasonable degree of agreement between the cultural method and the PCR method. The qRT-PCR assay used in this study can enumerate the total bacteria on beef samples with a high degree of accuracy. The qRT-PCR method may have the potential to be applied to various sample types as an alternative rapid method for determining TVCs; however, further validation would be required. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Comparison of protocols for the analysis of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by RT-PCR using oral fluids.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard; Mateu, Enric

    2017-05-01

    The detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in oral fluids (OF) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is gaining increasing popularity. However, the different steps leading to a result have not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect on the performance of qRT-PCR with different sampling materials, conditions of storage of the OF, the need for centrifuging OF, as well as to compare RNA extraction methods and PCR mixes. For the assays, pen-based oral fluids were used, which were pooled and spiked in a serial dilution (up to genotype 10(0) TCID50/mL) of type 1 PRRSV isolate 3267. Centrifugation at 15,000g for 15min resulted in an increase in sensitivity (1-2 PCR cycles) that was significant (P<0.05) at the lowest dilution tested. The TRIzol and MagMAX RNA extraction methods gave the maximum sensitivity, lowest threshold cycle (Ct), at equivalent virus concentrations. The AgPath-ID One-Step RT-PCR Kit PCR mix reagents were more sensitive for the detection of PRRSV using a purified plasmid as standard, but LSI VetMAX PRRSV EU/NA PRRSV reagents resulted in a slightly better sensitivity with OF (p<0.05). The present results may be useful to standardize protocols for optimizing detection of type 1 PRRSV in OF by qRT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Selection and validation of reference genes for real-time RT-PCR studies in the non-model species Delomys sublineatus, an endemic Brazilian rodent.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Alexandra; Axtner, Jan; Sommer, Simone

    2010-02-05

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for gene expression analysis. A critical factor for creating reliable data in relative quantification is the normalization of the expression data of genes of interest. Therefore the needed normalization factor is calculated out of the expression data of co-amplified genes that are stable expressed in the certain sample material, the so-called reference genes. In this study, we demonstrate the important process of validating potential reference genes using a non-model species. As there are almost no sequences known of the Pallid Atlantic Forest Rat (Delomys sublineatus), a rodent used as indicator species in conservation studies of the endangered Brazilian rainforest, suitable primer sets are more problematic to find than in model species. Out of nine tested primer sets designed for the fully sequenced Mus musculus, five could be used for the establishment of a proper running SYBR-Green assay and validation of their constant expression. qRT-PCR results of 12 cDNAs of Delomys livers were analyzed with three different validation software programs: BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm. Our approach showed that out of the five (Sdha, Canx, Pgk1, Actb and Actg1) potential reference genes, the first four should be used for accurate normalization in further relative quantification analyses. Transferring data from close-by model organisms makes high sensitive real-time RT-PCR applicable even to free-ranging non-model organisms. Our approach might be suitable for other non-model organisms. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR): A New Patent to Diagnostic Purposes for Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Silva, Fabiana; Gomes, Luciana I; Gracielle-Melo, Cidiane; Goes, Alfredo M; Caligiorne, Rachel B

    2017-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. It is prevalent in Latin American, mainly in Brazil. Therefore, PCM has fundamental impact on the Brazilian global economy, especially in public health system, since it is affecting economical active population in different country regions. The present study aimed to standardize the Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) for an efficient and safe PCM diagnosis amplifying the recombinant protein PB27 gene, only expressed by specimens of Paracoccidioides genus. To standardize a methodology of rt-PCR using species-specific primers and probe designed for annealing in this specific region of the fungi´s genome, amplifying the recombinant protein PB27 gene, only expressed by specimens of Paracoccidioides genus. Followed by design in silico, experiments were performed in vitro to determine rt-PCR specificity, efficiency and genome detection limit. The primers and probe sequences were deposited in Brazilian Coordination of Technological Innovation and Transfer (CTIT), under patent reference number BR1020160078830. The present study demonstrated the rt-PCR applicability for support on diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis, presenting low cost, which makes it affordable for public health services in developing countries as Brazil. It is noteworthy that it is necessary to validate this methodology using clinical samples before to use as a safe method of diagnosis. A review of all patents related to this topic was performed and it was shown that, to date, there are no records of patent on kits for paracoccidioidomycosis´s diagnostic. Indeed, there is still a lot to go to reach this goal. The reaction developed was standardized and patented, opening perspectives to molecular diagnosis development for paracoccidioidomycosis, since rt-PCR can be applied to a broad spectrum of infectious diseases. It would need to be tested in biological

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ASTROVIRUS RT-PCR DETECTION ASSAY FOR USE WITH CONVENTIONAL, REAL-TIME, AND INTEGRATED CELL CULTURE/RT-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Astrovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans that has been determined to be responsible for outbreaks of illness in several countries. Since astrovirus can be waterborne, it is important to be able to identify this virus in environmental water. We have developed an...

  9. Selection of housekeeping genes as internal controls for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa).

    PubMed

    Song, Hao; Dang, Xin; He, Yuan-Qiu; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The veined rapa whelk Rapana venosa is an important commercial shellfish in China and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has become the standard method to study gene expression in R. venosa. For accurate and reliable gene expression results, qRT-PCR assays require housekeeping genes as internal controls, which display highly uniform expression in different tissues or stages of development. However, to date no studies have validated housekeeping genes in R. venosa for use as internal controls for qRT-PCR. In this study, we selected the following 13 candidate genes for suitability as internal controls: elongation factor-1α (EF-1α), α-actin (ACT), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1α subcomplex subunit 7 (NDUFA7), 60S ribosomal protein L5 (RL5), 60S ribosomal protein L28 (RL28), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-tubulin (TUBB), 40S ribosomal protein S25 (RS25), 40S ribosomal protein S8 (RS8), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (UBE2), histone H3 (HH3), and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A (PPIA). We measured the expression levels of these 13 candidate internal controls in eight different tissues and twelve larvae developmental stages by qRT-PCR. Further analysis of the expression stability of the tested genes was performed using GeNorm and RefFinder algorithms. Of the 13 candidate genes tested, we found that EF-1α was the most stable internal control gene in almost all adult tissue samples investigated with RL5 and RL28 as secondary choices. For the normalization of a single specific tissue, we suggested that EF-1α and NDUFA7 are the best combination in gonad, as well as COX1 and RL28 for intestine, EF-1α and RL5 for kidney, EF-1α and COX1 for gill, EF-1α and RL28 for Leiblein and mantle, EF-1α, RL5, and NDUFA7 for liver, GAPDH, PPIA, and RL28 for hemocyte. From a developmental perspective, we found that RL28 was the most stable gene in all developmental stages measured

  10. Development and implementation of the quality control panel of RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for avian influenza A (H5N1) surveillance network in mainland China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) have been indispensable methods for influenza surveillance, especially for determination of avian influenza. The movement of testing beyond reference lab introduced the need of quality control, including the implementation of an evaluation system for validating personal training and sample proficiency testing. Methods We developed a panel with lysates of seasonal influenza virus (H1N1, H3N2 and B), serials of diluted H5N1 virus lysates, and in-vitro transcribed H5 hemaglutinin (HA) and an artificial gene RNAs for RT-PCR and rRT-PCR quality control assessment. The validations of stability and reproducibility were performed on the panel. Additionally, the panel was implemented to assess the detection capability of Chinese human avian influenza networks. Results The panel has relatively high stability and good reproducibility demonstrated by kappa's tests. In the implementation of panel on Chinese human avian influenza networks, the results suggested that there were a relatively low number of discrepancies for both concise and reproducibility in Chinese avian influenza virus net works. Conclusions A quality control panel of RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for avian influenza A (H5N1) surveillance network was developed. An availably statistical data, which are used to assess the detection capability of networks on avian influenza virus (H5N1), can be obtained relatively easily through implementation of the panel on networks. PMID:21406119

  11. Comparison of the performance in detection of HPV infections between the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR and the PCR-reverse dot blot assays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lahong; Dai, Yibei; Chen, Jiahuan; Hong, Liquan; Liu, Yuhua; Ke, Qiang; Chen, Yiwen; Cai, Chengsong; Liu, Xia; Chen, Zhaojun

    2017-08-29

    A new multiplex real-time PCR assay, the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR assay (HR HPV RT-PCR), has been developed to detect 15 high-risk HPV types with respective viral loads. In this report, a total of 684 cervical specimens from women diagnosed with vaginitis were assessed by the HR HPV RT-PCR and the PCR reaction and reverse dot blot (PCR-RDB) assays, using a PCR-sequencing method as a reference standard. A total coincidence of 97.7% between the HR HPV RT PCR and the PCR-RDB assays was determined with a Kappa value of 0.953. The HR HPV RT PCR assay had sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rates (accuracy) of 99.7%, 99.7%, and 99.7%, respectively, as confirmed by PCR-sequencing, while the PCR-RDB assay had respective rates of 98.8%, 97.1%, and 98.0%. The overall rate of HPV infection, determined by PCR-sequencing, in women diagnosed with vaginitis was 49.85%, including 36.26% of single infection and 13.6% of multiple infections. The most common infections among the 15 high-risk HPV types in women diagnosed with vaginitis were HPV-52, HPV-16, and HPV-58, with a total detection rate of 10.23%, 7.75%, and 5.85%, respectively. We conclude that the HR HPV RT PCR assay exhibits better clinical performance than the PCR-RDB assay, and is an ideal alternative method for HPV genotyping. In addition, the HR HPV RT PCR assay provides HPV DNA viral loads, and could serve as a quantitative marker in the diagnosis and treatment of single and multiple HPV infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Development of real-time RT-PCR for detection of human metapneumovirus and genetic analysis of circulating strains (2009-2011) in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Manohar Lal; Anand, Siddharth P; Sonawane, Nupoor S; Chadha, Mandeep S

    2014-02-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important respiratory virus implicated in respiratory infections. The purpose of this study was to develop a one-step real-time RT-PCR assay that can detect all four lineages of HMPV and to identify the HMPV lineages circulating in Pune, India. Conserved regions of the nucleoprotein gene were used to design real-time primers and a probe. A total of 224 clinical samples that were positive for different respiratory viruses (including 51 samples that were positive for HMPV) were tested using the real time RT-PCR assay, and the specificity of the assay was observed to be 100 %. Using in vitro-synthesized RNA, the sensitivity of the assay was ascertained to be 100 copies of the target gene per reaction. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) and attachment glycoprotein (G) genes confirmed that this assay detected all lineages of HMPV. A2, B1 and B2 strains were observed during the study period. Our assay is highly sensitive and specific for all known lineages of HMPV, making it a valuable tool for rapid detection of the virus. A2 and B2 were the predominant subtypes circulating in Pune, Western India.

  13. Simultaneous detection of influenza A, B, and C viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenoviruses in clinical samples by multiplex reverse transcription nested-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Coiras, M T; Pérez-Breña, P; García, M L; Casas, I

    2003-01-01

    The clinical presentation of infections caused by the heterogeneous group of the respiratory viruses can be very similar. Thus, the implementation of virological assays that rapidly identify the most important viruses involved is of great interest. A new multiplex reverse transcription nested-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay that is able to detect and type different respiratory viruses simultaneously is described. Primer sets were targeted to conserved regions of nucleoprotein genes of the influenza viruses, fusion protein genes of respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV), and hexon protein genes of adenoviruses. Individual influenza A, B, and C viruses, RSV (A and B), and a generic detection of the 48 serotypes of adenoviruses were identified and differentiated by the size of the PCR products. An internal amplification control was included in the reaction mixture to exclude false-negative results due to sample inhibitors and/or extraction failure. Detection levels of 0.1 and 0.01 TCID50 of influenza A and B viruses and 1-10 molecules of cloned amplified products of influenza C virus, RSV A and B, and adenovirus serotype 1 were achieved. The specificity was checked using specimens containing other respiratory viruses and no amplified products were detected in any case. A panel of 290 respiratory specimens from the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 seasons was used to validate the assay. Accurately amplifying RNA from influenza and RSV prototype strains and DNA from all adenovirus serotypes demonstrates the use of this method for both laboratory routine diagnosis and surveillance of all these viruses.

  14. Ring test evaluation of the detection of influenza A virus in swine oral fluids by real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and virus isolation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The probability of detecting influenza A virus (IAV) in oral fluid (OF) specimens was calculated for each of 13 real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and 7 virus isolation (VI) assays. To conduct the study, OF was inoculated with H1N1 or H3N2 IAV and serially 10-fold d...

  15. Opportunities for bead-based multiplex assays in veterinary diagnostic laboratories

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bead based multiplex assays (BBMA) also referred to as Luminex, MultiAnalyte Profiling or cytometric bead array (CBA) assays, are applicable for high throughput, simultaneous detection of multiple analytes in solution (from several, up to 50-500 analytes within a single, small sample volume). Curren...

  16. Application of real-time RT-PCR in vector surveillance and assessment of replication kinetics of an emerging novel ECSA genotype of Chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ankita; Singh, Anil K; Sharma, Shashi; Soni, Manisha; Thakur, Ashish K; Gopalan, N; Parida, M M; Rao, P V L; Dash, Paban K

    2013-11-01

    Chikungunya has emerged as one of the most important arboviral infection of global significance. Expansion of Chikungunya virus endemic areas can be ascribed to naive population, increasing vector population and adaptability of virus to new vector. In this study, a SYBR Green I based quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed. The assay was found to be 10-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and no cross reactivity was observed with related alphaviruses and flaviviruses. The detection efficiency of the assay was impervious to mosquitoes of different pool sizes. Vector surveillance has resulted in detection of CHIKV RNA in Aedes aegypti, confirming its vectorial potential for CHIKV in northern India. The assessment of the assay was further carried out by studying the competence of Indian Ae. aegypti for CHIKV, which revealed 100% infection rate and dissemination rate with 60% transmission rate. The replication kinetics of CHIKV in different anatomical sites of Ae. aegypti revealed highest titre at day 6 post infection in midgut and at day 10 post infection in saliva, legs and wings. The implementation of the assay in detecting lower viral load makes it a remarkable tool for surveillance of virus activity in mosquitoes.

  17. Switching gears for an influenza pandemic: validation of a duplex reverse transcriptase PCR assay for simultaneous detection and confirmatory identification of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jason J; Li, Yan; Bastien, Nathalie; Forward, Kevin R; Davidson, Ross J; Hatchette, Todd F

    2009-12-01

    Rapid methods for the detection and confirmatory identification of pandemic influenza A virus (also known as pandemic [H1N1] 2009) are of utmost importance. In this study, a conventional reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of influenza A virus and the hemagglutinin of swine lineage H1 (swH1) was designed, optimized, and validated. Nucleic acids were extracted from 198 consecutive nasopharyngeal, nasal, or throat swab specimens collected early in the outbreak (127 negative specimens, 66 specimens with pandemic [H1N1] 2009 influenza virus, 3 specimens with seasonal [H1N1] influenza A virus, and 2 specimens with seasonal [H3N2] influenza A virus). The performance characteristics of the duplex RT-PCR assay were assessed and compared to those of various detection methods: a monoplex RT-PCR assay at the National Microbiology Laboratory, a real-time RT-PCR assay using a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention protocol, an in-house multiplex RT-PCR assay (targeting influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and respiratory syncytial virus), and a rapid antigen test (the Binax Now Influenza A & B assay). The sensitivity of the duplex RT-PCR assay for influenza A virus detection was 97.2%, whereas the sensitivities were 74.6%, 71.8%, 47.8%, and 12.7% for the other four assays, respectively. The duplex RT-PCR assay was also able to identify swH1 in 94% of the cases, thereby reducing the number of specimens forwarded to reference laboratories for confirmatory identification. Only a limited number of specimens that contained influenza A virus had amounts of virus that fell below the limit of detection of the assay with the swH1 primers. Overall, the duplex RT-PCR assay is a reliable method for the simultaneous detection and confirmatory identification of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus and would be particularly attractive to laboratories without real-time RT-PCR capabilities.

  18. Biosurveillance of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in the Barda region of Azerbaijan using real time RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zeynalova, Shalala; Guliyev, Fizuli; Vatani, Mahira; Abbasov, Bahruz

    2015-01-01

    The Azerbaijan State Veterinary Control Service (SVCS) has conducted active serological surveillance for avian influenza (AI) in poultry since 2006, when the first outbreak of AI H5N1 occurred in Azerbaijan. Samples are collected from September to May annually and tested using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay to detect antibodies against H5 AI viruses. HI testing is also performed for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) upon request, but since this method cannot distinguish between natural infections and immune responses to vaccination, all positive results require follow-up epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, blood collection for the surveillance program is time-intensive and can be stressful to birds. In order to improve the national surveillance program, alternative sampling and testing methodologies were applied among a population of birds in the Barda region and compared with results of the national surveillance program. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected instead of blood. Rather than testing individual samples, RNA was pooled to conserve resources and time, and pools were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Environmental sampling at a live bird market was also introduced as another surveillance mechanism. A total of 1,030 swabs were collected, comprising tracheal, and cloacal samples from 441 birds and 148 environmental surface samples from farms or the live bird market. During the same time, 3,890 blood samples were collected nationally for the surveillance program; 400 of these samples originated in the Barda region. Birds sampled for rRT-PCR were likely different than those tested as part of national surveillance. All swab samples tested negative by rRT-PCR for both AI and NDV. All blood samples tested negative for H5 by HI, while 6.2% of all sa