Science.gov

Sample records for multipurpose explosive mpx

  1. MPX: software for multiplexing hardware performance counters in multithreaded programs

    SciTech Connect

    May, J M

    2000-08-23

    Hardware performance counters are CPU registers that count data loads and stores, cache misses, and other events. Counter data can help programmers understand software performance. Although CPUs typically have multiple counters, each can monitor only one type of event at a time, and some counters can monitor only certain events. Therefore, some CPUs cannot concurrently monitor interesting combinations of events. Software multiplexing partly overcomes this limitation by using time sharing to monitor multiple events on one counter. However, counter multiplexing is harder to implement for multithreaded programs than for single-threaded ones because of certain difficulties in managing the length of the time slices. This paper describes a software library called MPX that overcomes these difficulties. MPX allows applications to gather hardware counter data concurrently for any combination of countable events. MPX data are typically within a few percent of counts recorded without multiplexing.

  2. MPX: software for multiplexing hardware performance counters in multithreaded programs

    SciTech Connect

    May, J M

    2001-01-08

    Hardware performance counters are CPU registers that count data loads and stores, cache misses, and other events. Counter data can help programmers understand software performance. Although CPUs typically have multiple counters, each can monitor only one type of event at a time, and some counters can monitor only certain events. Therefore, some CPUs cannot concurrently monitor interesting combinations of events. Software multiplexing partly overcomes this limitation by using time sharing to monitor multiple events on one counter: However; counter multiplexing is harder to implement for multithreaded programs than for single-threaded ones because of certain difficulties in managing the length of the time slices. This paper describes a software library called MPX that overcomes these difficulties. MPX allows applications to gather hardware counter data concurrently for any combination of countable events. MPX data are typically within a few percent of counts recorded without multiplexing.

  3. Remote control of ATLAS-MPX Network and Data Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turecek, D.; Holy, T.; Pospisil, S.; Vykydal, Z.

    2011-05-01

    The ATLAS-MPX Network is a network of 15 Medipix2-based detector devices, installed in various positions in the ATLAS detector at CERN, Geneva. The aim of the network is to perform a real-time measurement of the spectral characteristics and the composition of radiation inside the ATLAS detector during its operation. The remote control system of ATLAS-MPX controls and configures all the devices from one place, via a web interface, accessible from different operating systems. The Data Visualization application, also with a web interface, has been developed in order to present measured data to the scientific community. It allows to browse through recorded frames from all devices and to search for specific frames by date and time. Charts containing the number of different types of tracks in each frame as a function of time may be rendered from the database.

  4. MPX-004 and MPX-007: New Pharmacological Tools to Study the Physiology of NMDA Receptors Containing the GluN2A Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Robert A.; Fanger, Christopher M.; Anderson, David R.; Sirivolu, Venkata Ramana; Paschetto, Kathy; Gordon, Earl; Virginio, Caterina; Gleyzes, Melanie; Buisson, Bruno; Steidl, Esther; Mierau, Susanna B.; Fagiolini, Michela; Menniti, Frank S.

    2016-01-01

    GluN2A is the most abundant of the GluN2 NMDA receptor subunits in the mammalian CNS. Physiological and genetic evidence implicate GluN2A-containing receptors in susceptibility to autism, schizophrenia, childhood epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett Syndrome. However, GluN2A-selective pharmacological probes to explore the therapeutic potential of targeting these receptors have been lacking. Here we disclose a novel series of pyrazine-containing GluN2A antagonists exemplified by MPX-004 (5-(((3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)sulfonamido)methyl)-N-((2-methylthiazol-5-yl)methyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide) and MPX-007 (5-(((3-fluoro-4-fluorophenyl)sulfonamido)methyl)-N-((2-methylthiazol-5-yl)methyl)methylpyrazine-2-carboxamide). MPX-004 and MPX-007 inhibit GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors expressed in HEK cells with IC50s of 79 nM and 27 nM, respectively. In contrast, at concentrations that completely inhibited GluN2A activity these compounds have no inhibitory effect on GluN2B or GluN2D receptor-mediated responses in similar HEK cell-based assays. Potency and selectivity were confirmed in electrophysiology assays in Xenopus oocytes expressing GluN2A-D receptor subtypes. Maximal concentrations of MPX-004 and MPX-007 inhibited ~30% of the whole-cell current in rat pyramidal neurons in primary culture and MPX-004 inhibited ~60% of the total NMDA receptor-mediated EPSP in rat hippocampal slices. GluN2A-selectivity at native receptors was confirmed by the finding that MPX-004 had no inhibitory effect on NMDA receptor mediated synaptic currents in cortical slices from GRIN2A knock out mice. Thus, MPX-004 and MPX-007 offer highly selective pharmacological tools to probe GluN2A physiology and involvement in neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. PMID:26829109

  5. Multipurpose Spaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan

    This paper examines the emerging trend of multipurpose class spaces, including educational trends influencing multipurpose classroom use, and key issues when using these spaces. Issues discussed include room location, technology integration, food services, acoustics, lighting, outdoor space, capacity, and storage. Design principles emphasized…

  6. Multipurpose Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

  7. 160 Mpx/Sec Laser Pattern Generator For Mask And Reticle Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, D. B.; Nagler, M.; Van Peski, C.; Whitney, T. R.

    1984-06-01

    A new Laser Pattern Generator (LPG) designed for reticle production was recently introduced by THE Semiconductor Equipment Corporation. The system uses HeCd laser radiation with a wavelength of 441.6 nm to expose commercial photoresist (e.g. AZ 1350J or AZ 1470). A writing rate of 160 Mpx/sec is achieved by parallel operation of sixteen (16) independently modulated channels. The binary light intensity distribution is controlled in each channel by acousto-optic modulation. The sixteen (16) independent chan-nels are brought to a common crossover and scanned simultaneously using a single acousto-optic deflector. Pattern data must be expanded into a pixel format in two steps due to the inherent writing speed of the LPG. Prior to run time, geometrical data is trans-lated from Electromask or Mann format into a compact vector format using an off-line preprocessing unit. The vector data is stored on a 300 Mbyte portable disk pack which has a nominal data transfer rate of 9.67 Mbits/sec. During run time, vector data is read from the disk and expanded in the real time processing unit to supply pixel data to the optical modulation system. The placement of data in the correct position is controlled by a laser interferometry system and a control computer. The LPG system throughput of 160 Mpx/ sec permits the writing of 100 mm x 100 mm rejicles with information equivalent to 10' optical pattern generator flashes in less than 30 minutes, independent of pat-tern complexity. Although the specified minimum geometry is 2.5 pm, patterns with 1 pm features have been resolved. The address resolution is 0.25 μm, and the individual beam spot size is 0.5 μm (FWHM). Examples of printed patterns are included.

  8. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  9. Multipurpose Compact Spectrometric Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Bocarov, Viktor; Cermak, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Stekl, Ivan

    2009-11-09

    A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is multipurpose device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.

  10. Multipurpose Compact Spectrometric Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bočarov, Viktor; Čermák, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Štekl, Ivan

    2009-11-01

    A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is multipurpose device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.

  11. Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

  12. Novel multipurpose timer for laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisler, W. J.; Klein, P. D.

    1969-01-01

    Multipurpose digital delay timer simultaneously controls both a buffer pump and a fraction-collector. Timing and control may be in 30-second increments for up to 15 hours. Use of glassware and scintillation vials make it economical.

  13. Multipurpose interactive NASA information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. M.; Keefer, R. L.; Sanders, D. R.; Seitz, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System (MINIS) is data management system capable of retrieving descriptive data from LANDSAT photos. General enough to be used with other user-defined data bases, interactive data management and information retrieval system was especially developed for small and medium-sized computers. It uses free-form data base that allows one to create entirely new and different data bases and to control format of output products.

  14. An inexpensive, multipurpose physical pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David

    2012-10-01

    The pendulum is a highly versatile tool for teaching physics. Many special purpose pendula for student experiments have been described.1-4 In this paper, I describe an inexpensive, multipurpose physical pendulum that can function as both a variable gravity and ballistic pendulum. I designed the apparatus for use in a rotational dynamics unit of the AP Physics C mechanics course. The use of a bike wheel hub pivot allows for low-friction, rugged operation that yields results commensurate with those obtained with much more expensive pendula available on the market (typically 500 per unit5), placing these types of experiments within reach of the teacher on a restricted budget.

  15. Multi-purpose satellite bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakoda, Daniel; Agrawal, Brij N.

    1991-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Satellite bus (MPS) can be used for a number of payloads which may require different orbits, pointing accuracy, and electrical power consumption. Specifically, it was designed to accommodate the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and an EHF communication payload, both of which have a three-year life. The estimated beginning-of-life weight of the MPS bus is 150 kg. It can be launched by either the Pegasus ALV or the Taurus SSLV. Configuration requirements for the different missions are discussed.

  16. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  17. Explosives tester

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Eckels, Joel D.; Nunes, Peter J.

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  18. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  19. [Multipurpose treatment of vaginal infections].

    PubMed

    Nikolov, A; Masseva, A; Shopova, E; Georgiev, S

    2012-01-01

    Untreated bacterial vaginosis is related with many complications for non-pregnant women in reproductive age, most common from them are vaginal discharge and postoperative infections. The aim of our investigation was to compare the effectiveness of two therapeutic regimes which consist in Macmiror/Macmiror Complex alone and in combination with Feminella Vagi C for treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and/or mycotic infection. 117 non-pregnant women with symptoms of vaginal infection were prospectively enrolled into two groups according their treatment. First group consist 66 women treated with Macmiror tablets and vaginal capsules followed with local application of Feminella Vagi C, the second group consist 54 women treated with Macmiror tablets and vaginal capsules only. The impact of treatment on clinical symptoms was observed at the end of medication and 20 days after it. Microbiological testing was repeated 20 days after treatment. Over than 80% (78.6 divided by 86.7%) of the cases with vaginal infection (BV and mycotic one) were successfully treated with Macmiror/Macmiror Complex. Supplement treatment with Feminella Vagi C lead to higher percentage of clinically recovery (86.7% vs 84.6%), better microbiological cleaning (86.7% vs 82.1%) and longer effect of treatment. Used medication showed higher efficacy against BV than to fungal infection. According obtained results we may conclude that bacterial vaginosis was better treated with multipurpose treatment (Nifuratel, Nistatin and vit. C) than with Macmiror alone. PMID:23234030

  20. The Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelupessy, F. I.; van Elteren, A.; de Vries, N.; McMillan, S. L. W.; Drost, N.; Portegies Zwart, S. F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the open source Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE), a component library for performing astrophysical simulations involving different physical domains and scales. It couples existing codes within a Python framework based on a communication layer using MPI. The interfaces are standardized for each domain and their implementation based on MPI guarantees that the whole framework is well-suited for distributed computation. It includes facilities for unit handling and data storage. Currently it includes codes for gravitational dynamics, stellar evolution, hydrodynamics and radiative transfer. Within each domain the interfaces to the codes are as similar as possible. We describe the design and implementation of AMUSE, as well as the main components and community codes currently supported and we discuss the code interactions facilitated by the framework. Additionally, we demonstrate how AMUSE can be used to resolve complex astrophysical problems by presenting example applications. http://www.amusecode.org The current version of the code is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A84

  1. Multipurpose Communication Satellite solar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastard, J. L.; Guyot, Ph.

    Through research and development studies, Aerospatiale has developed with the French National Space Agency (CNES) a new concept of a rigid Solar Array (GSR) which covers a range of power between 1 kW and 10 kW EOL 7 yr. This technology is used by Aerospatiale on the currently running programs:—TELECOM 1, Telecommunication satellite, spinned in transfer; —ARABSAT, Telecommunication satellite, 3-axis stabilized in transfer; —TELE-X and TV-SAT/TDF1, Direct Broadcasting satellites, 3-axis stabilized in transfer. This paper deals with the description and the electrical and mechanical performance of the Multipurpose Communication Satellite Solar Array (M.C.S.). For this satellite, which is expected to be launched in 1984, Aerospatiale has selected the following concept: primary power (1.4 kW EOL 7 yr) will be provided by two separate sun-oriented solar array wings equipped with AEG Telefunken BSR (Back Surface Reflector) solar cells. This solar generator is directly derived from the GSR technology. Owing to the three-axis stabilization of the satellite and the partial deployment of the solar array during the transfer phase it has been necessary to use a primary and a secondary hold-down devices. In the same way the position of the shunt on the solar generator induced an increase of the mass, because of the supplementary hold-down point and of the support structure. Now scribing Laser System leads to the optimization of the solar cells dimensions and allows a better fill factor of the panels and so an increase of the power performance. Beside the M.C.S concept which is fully adapted as regards its mission specifications, it was interesting to present different concepts of solar generators optimized not only as regards mass budget but also power budget. These concepts covering a large range of powers are fully adapted to telecommunication missions.

  2. Insensitive explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kien-yin; Storm, C.B.

    1991-12-31

    This invention relates to the field of chemistry and, more particularly, to explosives. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36). It is desirable to use explosives in weapons and other applications which are less sensitive than the common explosives RDX, TNT, and HMX, since there have been catastrophic explosions of munitions which use these compounds. In preliminary characterization and sensitivity testing, it has been found that 3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (ANTA) is a promising insensitive high explosive. This report details the safety, production, and physical properties of ANTA.

  3. Multipurpose top for liquid helium Dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. S.; Anderholm, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multipurpose top was fabricated for liquid helium Dewar flask which guards against flash vaporization of liquid helium and allows boiling temperature of liquid helium to be lowered by reduction of ambient pressure in Dewar flask. Device is rugged and simple, and does not require frequent calibrations or adjustments.

  4. Multipurpose ROV system for underwater monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, T.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents achievements of the Underwater Team at the Faculty of Maritime Technology of the Szczecin Technical University in the field of designing the equipment destined for the underwater monitoring. The multipurpose remotely operated vehicle system is described. Technical specification, some laboratory tank test results, research techniques, operational range, experience and development trends have been discussed.

  5. How To Light a Multipurpose Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the questions to ask when designing or retrofitting the lighting needs for a multipurpose campus facility. Issues addressed include the tasks the facility is expected to accommodate, the benefits of available lighting sources, the facility's layout and dimensions, aesthetics and functionality, and budgetary considerations. (GR)

  6. Comparison of Assurance GDS(®) MPX ID for Top STEC with Reference Culture Methods for the Detection of E. coli Top 6 STEC; Direct Confirmation of Top 6 STEC from Isolation Plates and Determination of Equivalence of PickPen(®) and FSIS OctoMACS™ Concentration Protocols.

    PubMed

    Feldsine, Philip; Lienau, Andrew H; Shah, Khyati; Immermann, Amy; Soliven, Khanh; Kaur, Mandeep; Kerr, David E; Jucker, Markus; Hammack, Tom; Brodsky, Michael; Agin, James

    2016-01-01

    Assurance GDS(®) MPX ID for Top Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC; MPX ID) was validated according to the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Methods Committee Guidelines for Validation of Microbiological Methods for Foods and Environmental Surfaces as (1) a secondary screening method for specific detection of the Top 6 STEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in raw beef trim, raw ground beef, raw spinach, and on stainless steel; and (2) as a confirmatory method for the identification of pure culture isolates as Top 6 STEC. MPX ID is used in conjunction with the upfront BCS Assurance GDS MPX Top 7 STEC assay. This Performance Tested Method(SM) validation has two main parts: Method Developer studies and the Independent Laboratory study. A total of 180 samples and controls were analyzed. Results showed that MPX ID had no statistically significant differences with the reference culture methods for the detection of Top 6 STEC in the food matrixes (raw beef trim, raw ground beef, and raw spinach) and environmental sponges (stainless steel) studied. Inclusivity/exclusivity studies were also conducted. One hundred percent inclusivity among the 50 Top 6 STEC serovars tested and 100% exclusivity for the 30 non-Top 6 STEC organisms tested were demonstrated. For validation of MPX ID as a confirmatory method for isolated colonies, all inclusivity and exclusivity organisms were streaked for isolation onto five STEC plating media: modified rainbow agar, Levine's eosin-methylene blue (L-EMB) agar, rainbow agar with novobiocin and cefixime, and enterohemolysin agar with selective agents as well as trypticase soy agar with yeast extract. These isolated colonies were suspended and analyzed by Assurance GDS MPX Top 7 STEC and MPX ID. MPX ID was able to correctly confirm all inclusivity organisms from all plate types, except two STEC isolates from L-EMB agar plates only in the Independent Laboratory study. All exclusivity organisms were correctly determined by MPX ID as non

  7. Vapor Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthoud, Georges

    A vapor explosion results from the rapid and intense heat transfer that may follow contact between a hot liquid and a cold, more volatile one. Because it can happen during severe-accident sequences of a nuclear power plan, that is, when a large part of the core is molten, vapor explosions have been widely studied. The different sequences of a vapor explosion are presented, including premixing, triggering, propagation, and expansion. Typical experimental results are also analyzed to understand the involved physics. Then the different physics involved in the sequences are addressed, as well as the present experimental program.

  8. An Orientation to Explosive Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Betty W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

  9. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.

    1996-04-09

    A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

  10. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    1996-01-01

    A complex modulated structure of reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures.

  11. Explosive laser

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Davis, W.C.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to a laser system wherein reaction products from the detonation of a condensed explosive expand to form a gaseous medium with low translational temperature but high vibration population. Thermal pumping of the upper laser level and de-excitation of the lower laser level occur during the expansion, resulting in a population inversion. The expansion may be free or through a nozzle as in a gas-dynamic configuration. In one preferred embodiment, the explosive is such that its reaction products are CO$sub 2$ and other species that are beneficial or at least benign to CO$sub 2$ lasing. (auth)

  12. Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System was developed to provide remote, interactive information retrieval capability for various types of data bases to be processed on different types of small and medium size computers. Use of the system for three different data bases is decribed: (1) LANDSAT photo look-up, (2) land use, and (3) census/socioeconomic. Each of the data base elements is shown together with other detailed information that a user would require to contact the system remotely, to transmit inquiries on commands, and to receive the results of the queries or commands.

  13. A MULTIPURPOSE COHERENT INSTABILITY SIMULATION CODE

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.

    2007-06-25

    A multipurpose coherent instability simulation code has been written, documented, and released for use. TRANFT (tran-eff-tee) uses fast Fourier transforms to model transverse wakefields, transverse detuning wakes and longitudinal wakefields in a computationally efficient way. Dual harmonic RF allows for the study of enhanced synchrotron frequency spread. When coupled with chromaticity, the theoretically challenging but highly practical post head-tail regime is open to study. Detuning wakes allow for transverse space charge forces in low energy hadron beams, and a switch allowing for radiation damping makes the code useful for electrons.

  14. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  19. Niche explosion.

    PubMed

    Normark, Benjamin B; Johnson, Norman A

    2011-05-01

    The following syndrome of features occurs in several groups of phytophagous insects: (1) wingless females, (2) dispersal by larvae, (3) woody hosts, (4) extreme polyphagy, (5) high abundance, resulting in status as economic pests, (6) invasiveness, and (7) obligate parthenogenesis in some populations. If extreme polyphagy is defined as feeding on 20 or more families of hostplants, this syndrome is found convergently in several species of bagworm moths, tussock moths, root weevils, and 5 families of scale insects. We hypothesize that extreme polyphagy in these taxa results from "niche explosion", a positive feedback loop connecting large population size to broad host range. The niche explosion has a demographic component (sometimes called the "amplification effect" in studies of pathogens) as well as a population-genetic component, due mainly to the increased effectiveness of natural selection in larger populations. The frequent origins of parthenogenesis in extreme polyphages are, in our interpretation, a consequence of this increased effectiveness of natural selection and consequent reduced importance of sexuality. The niche explosion hypothesis makes detailed predictions about the comparative genomics and population genetics of extreme polyphages and related specialists. It has a number of potentially important implications, including an explanation for the lack of observed trade-offs between generalists and specialists, a re-interpretation of the ecological correlates of parthenogenesis, and a general expectation that Malthusian population explosions may be amplified by Darwinian effects.

  20. Explosive cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Device, jetcord, is metal-clad linear explosive of sufficient flexibility to allow forming into intricate shapes. Total effect is termed ''cutting'' with jetcord consistently ''cutting'' a target of greater thickness than can be penetrated. Applications include sheet metal working, pipe cutting and fire-fighting.

  1. Nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Broyles, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    A summary of the physics of a nuclear bomb explosion and its effects on human beings is presented at the level of a sophomore general physics course without calculus. It is designed to supplement a standard text for such a course and problems are included.

  2. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2011-08-16

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  3. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2009-09-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  4. Explosive Joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

  5. Small multipurpose stored data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, G.C.; Ryerson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories Telemetry Department has designed and is fielding a small, inexpensive multipurpose stored data acquisition system in tests ranging from 6000 meters below the ocean surface in seafloor penetrators to 40,000 meters above sea level in gamma ray telescope balloons. The systems consists of a simple microprocessor-controlled unit which digitizes analog data stores the data in memory for readout after the test by a portable personal compute. The system has been used in over ninety tests consisting of parachute drops, water entry test, vehicle environmental monitoring, and seafloor penetration tests. Data typically recorded with the system are acceleration, strain, temperature, pressure, and angular velocity. The system is also capable of generating control functions such as parachute release. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Multi-purpose neutron radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.P.; Bryant, L.E.; Berry, P.

    1996-07-01

    A conceptual design is given for a low cost, multipurpose radiography system suited for the needs of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The proposed neutron source is californium-252. One purpose is to provide an in-house capability for occasional, reactor quality, neutron radiography thus replacing the recently closed Omega-West Reactor. A second purpose is to provide a highly reliable standby transportable neutron radiography system. A third purpose is to provide for transportable neutron probe gamma spectroscopy techniques. The cost is minimized by shared use of an existing x-ray facility, and by use of an existing transport cask. The achievable neutron radiography and radioscopy performance characteristics have been verified. The demonstrated image qualities range from high resolution gadolinium - SR film, with L:D = 100:1, to radioscopy using a LIXI image with L:D = 30:1 and neutron fluence 3.4 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}.

  7. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pantea, Cristian

    2012-05-04

    The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

  8. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank. 9 figs.

  9. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank.

  10. MINIS: Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information Systems (MINIS) was developed in response to the need for a data management system capable of operation on several different minicomputer systems. The desired system had to be capable of performing the functions of a LANDSAT photo descriptive data retrieval system while remaining general in terms of other acceptable user definable data bases. The system also had to be capable of performing data base updates and providing user-formatted output reports. The resultant MINI System provides all of these capabilities and several other features to complement the data management system. The MINI System is currently implemented on two minicomputer systems and is in the process of being installed on another minicomputer system. The MINIS is operational on four different data bases.

  11. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  12. MYRRHA: A multipurpose nuclear research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Fernandez, Rafaël; De Bruyn, Didier; Van den Eynde, Gert

    2014-12-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a multipurpose research facility currently being developed at SCK•CEN. MYRRHA is based on the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) concept where a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical reactor are coupled. MYRRHA will demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling these three components at a reasonable power level to allow operation feedback. As a flexible irradiation facility, the MYRRHA research facility will be able to work in both critical as subcritical modes. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for GEN IV and fusion reactors, and radioisotope production for medical and industrial applications. MYRRHA will be cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic and will play an important role in the development of the Pb-alloys technology needed for the LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) GEN IV concept. MYRRHA will also contribute to the study of partitioning and transmutation of high-level waste. Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) can be completed in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, so both critical reactors and subcritical ADS are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems. However critical reactors heavily loaded with fuel containing large amounts of MA pose reactivity control problems, and thus safety problems. A subcritical ADS operates in a flexible and safe manner, even with a core loading containing a high amount of MA leading to a high transmutation rate. In this paper, the most recent developments in the design of the MYRRHA facility are presented.

  13. 48. Second floor, looking southwest (possibly former multipurpose room) with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Second floor, looking southwest (possibly former multi-purpose room) with fire stair in center - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  14. Multipurpose simulation systems for regional development forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Kostina, N.I.

    1995-09-01

    We examine the development of automaton-modeling multipurpose simulation systems as an efficient form of simulation software for MIS. Such systems constitute a single problem-oriented package of applications based on a general simulation model, which is equipped with a task source language, interaction tools, file management tools, and an output document editor. The simulation models are described by the method of probabilistic-automaton modeling, which ensures standard representation of models and standardization of the modeling algorithm. Examples of such systems include the demographic forecasting system DEPROG, the VOKON system for assessing the quality of consumer services in terms of free time, and the SONET system for servicing partially accessible customers. The development of computer-aided systems for production and economic control is now moving to the second state, namely operationalization of optimization and forecasting problems, whose solution may account for the main economic effect of MIS. Computation and information problems, which were the main focus of the first stage of MIS development, are thus acquiring the role of a source of information for optimization and forecasting problems in addition to their direct contribution to preparation and analysis of current production and economic information.

  15. Chromospheric explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, G. A.; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h

    1986-01-01

    Three issues relative to chromospheric explosions were debated. (1) Resolved: The blue-shifted components of x-ray spectral lines are signatures of chromospheric evaporation. It was concluded that the plasma rising with the corona is indeed the primary source of thermal plasma observed in the corona during flares. (2) Resolved: The excess line broading of UV and X-ray lines is accounted for by a convective velocity distribution in evaporation. It is concluded that the hypothesis that convective evaporation produces the observed X-ray line widths in flares is no more than a hypothesis. It is not supported by any self-consistent physical theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric heating is driven by electron beams. Although it is possible to cast doubt on many lines of evidence for electron beams in the chromosphere, a balanced view that debaters on both sides of the question might agree to is that electron beams probably heat the low corona and upper chromosphere, but their direct impact on evaporating the chromosphere is energetically unimportant when compared to conduction. This represents a major departure from the thick-target flare models that were popular before the Workshop.

  16. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar-powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is, therefore, beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multipurpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of using solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year-long effort by a group of eight students, divided into four teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a lightweight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structural design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion were governed by weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is an MPRPV weighing 35 N that cruises at 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 12.5 percent-efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were researched and tested during the design process.

  17. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  18. Optically detonated explosive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.; Menichelli, V. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for optically detonating insensitive high explosives, is disclosed. An explosive device is formed by containing high explosive material in a house having a transparent window. A thin metallic film is provided on the interior surface of the window and maintained in contact with the high explosive. A laser pulse provided by a Q-switched laser is focussed on the window to vaporize the metallic film and thereby create a shock wave which detonates the high explosive. Explosive devices may be concurrently or sequentially detonated by employing a fiber optic bundle to transmit the laser pulse to each of the several individual explosive devices.

  19. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  20. New generation of radiacs: small computerized multipurpose radiation monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Umbarger, C.J.; Bjarke, G.O.; Erkkila, B.H.; Trujillo, F.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Health Division at Los Alamos has developed a multipurpose radiation monitoring device that is computer-controlled, light weight (3 lb), includes multiple radiation detectors running simultaneously, and is simple to use. This multipurpose radiac is generic in nature and can use any of the standard radiation detectors such as NaI, /sup 3/He, LET proportional gas counters, solid state surface barrier detectors, etc. LCD displays indicate the various radiation parameters in both alphanumeric and graphics format. Internal batteries allow 100 hours of use.

  1. Antibody-based concepts for multipurpose prevention technologies

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Because of the versatility and specificity of monoclonal antibodies, they are candidates for multipurpose prevention technologies when formulated as topical (gels, films, rings) or injectable drugs and as vaccines. This review focuses on antibody-based proof of concept studies for the human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus and sperm. Opportunities and challenges in antibody evasion/resistance, manufacturing, regulatory, and pharmacoeconomics are discussed. This article is based on a presentation at the “Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies,” held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188703

  2. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation... Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification. A multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device consisting of one automated or...

  3. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation... Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification. A multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device consisting of one automated or...

  4. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation... Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification. A multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device consisting of one automated or...

  5. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation... Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification. A multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device consisting of one automated or...

  6. 21 CFR 864.5425 - Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation... Hematology Devices § 864.5425 Multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies. (a) Identification. A multipurpose system for in vitro coagulation studies is a device consisting of one automated or...

  7. Garrett Multipurpose Small Power Unit (MPSPU) - Program status 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. R.

    1989-09-01

    The Multipurpose Small Power Unit (MPSPU) Advanced Development Program is structured to provide advanced technology for current and future U.S. Army or other DOD auxiliary power unit/secondary power systems applications. Development has proceeded through initial design, component development and initial power unit development.

  8. OCRWM Bulletin: Westinghouse begins designing multi-purpose canister

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This publication consists of two parts: OCRWM (Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management) Bulletin; and Of Mountains & Science which has articles on the Yucca Mountain project. The OCRWM provides information about OCRWM activities and in this issue has articles on multi-purpose canister design, and transportation cask trailer.

  9. Multi-Purpose Tests: A Solution to Test Proliferation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Susan E.

    This research, conducted for California State Department of Education, is one component of a feasibility study focusing on ways to make the testing process more efficient by application of multi-purpose tests (MPT). MPT are designed, administered and scored to serve more than one purpose and to consolidate and unify testing programs as a partial…

  10. Totally confined explosive welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

  11. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  12. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  13. Inspection tester for explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2010-10-05

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  14. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  15. Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

  16. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  17. Simultaneous removal of ammonium and suspended solids in multipurpose filters.

    PubMed

    Alkas, Deniz; Baykal, Bilsen Beler; Kinaci, Cumali

    2012-06-01

    A multipurpose filter in which sand and clinoptilolite are used together as filter material is suggested for the simultaneous removal of suspended solids and ammonium in one single unit. The capacity of the clinoptilolite used was determined as 10.4 mg/g for 20 mg/l initial ammonium concentration. In addition, a packed column ion exchanger with clinoptilolite and a classical sand filter were also investigated for comparison. Ammonium and suspended solids removal rates were observed and compared for all columns. The results of the column analysis have revealed that the ammonium removal rate, which was only 20% in the sand column, was increased to 100% by replacing 50% of the sand with clinoptilolite; similarly, the suspended solids removal, which was only 17% in the clinoptilolite column, was increased to 75% by replacing 50% of the clinoptilolite with sand. As such, when ion exchange and filtration processes were carried out in a multipurpose column, high removals for both parameters could be obtained simultaneously. Multipurpose columns could be an alternative both for the upgrading of existing treatment plants or for new plants for simultaneous removal of ammonium and suspended solids, giving considerable savings in terms of land requirements.

  18. Free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  19. Explosives tester with heater

    SciTech Connect

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  20. Los Alamos explosives performance data

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, C.L.; Crane, S.L.; Johnson, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    This book provides explosives performances, as measured by plate acceleration data, aquarium data, and detonation velocity data. It includes some 800 pages of data and is for explosives scientists more than engineers. (This is a companion volume to the 1980 ''LASL Explosive Property Data'' which covered only pure explosives and well-characterized explosive formulations).

  1. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  2. Explosives simulants: Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, G.L.; Pruneda, C.O.; Simpson, R.L.

    1992-03-04

    Two TNT high explosives simulants have been developed. Small scale testing has shown them to be insensitive to: impact, spark, friction, temperature, and shock. The materials have been scaled to 0.5 kg quantities and samples given to the Protective Services Department for field evaluation using explosives detecting canines.

  3. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  4. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1994-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  5. Gunshot and Explosion Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, Kobi; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Stein, Michael; Michaelson, Moshe; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Noji, Eric K.

    2004-01-01

    Context: An increase of terror-related activities may necessitate treatment of mass casualty incidents, requiring a broadening of existing skills and knowledge of various injury mechanisms. Objective: To characterize and compare injuries from gunshot and explosion caused by terrorist acts. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR), all due to terror-related injuries, between October 1, 2000, to June 30, 2002. The ITR records all casualty admissions to hospitals, in-hospital deaths, and transfers at 9 of the 23 trauma centers in Israel. All 6 level I trauma centers and 3 of the largest regional trauma centers in the country are included. The registry includes the majority of severe terror-related injuries. Injury diagnoses, severity scores, hospital resource utilization parameters, length of stay (LOS), survival, and disposition. Results: A total of 1155 terror-related injuries: 54% by explosion, 36% gunshot wounds (GSW), and 10% by other means. This paper focused on the 2 larger patient subsets: 1033 patients injured by terror-related explosion or GSW. Seventy-one percent of the patients were male, 84% in the GSW group and 63% in the explosion group. More than half (53%) of the patients were 15 to 29 years old, 59% in the GSW group and 48% in the explosion group. GSW patients suffered higher proportions of open wounds (63% versus 53%) and fractures (42% versus 31%). Multiple body-regions injured in a single patient occurred in 62% of explosion victims versus 47% in GSW patients. GSW patients had double the proportion of moderate injuries than explosion victims. Explosion victims have a larger proportion of minor injuries on one hand and critical to fatal injuries on the other. LOS was longer than 2 weeks for 20% (22% in explosion, 18% in GSW). Fifty-one percent of the patients underwent a surgical procedure, 58% in the GSW group and 46% in explosion group. Inpatient death rate was 6.3% (65 patients), 7

  6. [Early rehabilitation of vascular amputees. Value of the multipurpose prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Brenot, R; Grumler, B; Didier, J P; David, M

    1984-01-01

    After a recall of surgical indications and of technical points of the lower limbs amputations in arteriosclerosis disease, the authors report their experience of early rehabilitation. They define the aims of the rehabilitation and the means to reach it. Among these, a multipurpose prosthesis made by them, authorized their patients to an early walk training. The results are analysed with 86 patients rehabilitated in 2 years by this method. They have 49 good results/51 with amputation below the knee, 31 good results/35 with femoral amputation. The mean age of the patients is 72. PMID:6502020

  7. Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multipurpose Logistics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. W.; Glasgow, S. d.; Reagan, S. E.; Presson, K. H.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    The STS-121/ULF 1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the programmable thermostat module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the multi-purpose logistics module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a data recorder module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This Technical Memorandum discusses the hardware design, development, test, and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

  8. The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) of the collider experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatyuk, V.; Kekelidze, V.; Kolesnikov, V.; Rogachevsky, O.; Sorin, A.

    2016-08-01

    The project NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) is aimed to study dense baryonic matter in heavy-ion collisions in the energy range up to √{s_{NN}} = 11 GeV with average luminosity of L = 1027 cm-2s-1 (for 197Au79). The experimental program at the NICA collider will be performed with the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD). We report on the main physics objectives of the NICA heavy-ion program and present the main detector components.

  9. Optically measured explosive impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

    2014-06-01

    An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

  10. 25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? Homeliving programs must provide adequate areas for sleeping, study... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 Section 36.103 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  11. 25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? Homeliving programs must provide adequate areas for sleeping, study... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 Section 36.103 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  12. 25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? Homeliving programs must provide adequate areas for sleeping, study... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 Section 36.103 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  13. 25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? Homeliving programs must provide adequate areas for sleeping, study... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 Section 36.103 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  14. 25 CFR 36.103 - What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? Homeliving programs must provide adequate areas for sleeping, study... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are the requirements for multipurpose spaces in homeliving programs? 36.103 Section 36.103 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  15. 76 FR 32391 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2007 Dodge Durango Multipurpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to Read Comments submitted to the Docket: You... Nonconforming 2007 Dodge Durango Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles Manufactured for the Mexican Market Are... Administration (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that 2007 Dodge Durango multipurpose passenger vehicles...

  16. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H.; Graham, Robert A.; Kuehn, Stephen F.; Precit, Richard R.; Rogers, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  17. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  18. Liquid explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Lowell J.

    1994-03-01

    A Liquid Explosives Screening System capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives has been developed. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly, or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to interrogate the liquid. NMR produces an extremely rich data set and many parameters of the NMR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple NMR signatures may be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat.

  19. Multipurpose bus interface utilizing a digital signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlberg, Christian L.

    1994-09-01

    A multi-purpose bus interface comprising a digital signal processor which receives a clock signal and control signals from a Manchester type encoder/decoder and then processes the clock and control signals allowing for the serial transfer of data to and from the 1553 multiplex data bus, the encoder/decoder and the digital signal processor into an IC memory card for storage in or retrieval from the IC memory card. Software stored in an electrically erasable programmable read only memory controls how the data is transferred and interpreted making it easier to modify the digital signal processor's operation to accommodate its use with different bus standards and data protocols/formats. The encoder/decoder of the present invention formats and protocols data transferred from the electrically erasable programmable read only memory to the 1553 multiplex data bus as well data transferred from the 1553 multiplex data bus to the memory, as appropriate. The multipurpose bus interface of the present invention also includes an RS-232 interface and an RS-422 interface controlled by the digital signal processor which provides for data transfer to and from a host computer or the like into the IC memory card.

  20. System Engineering Strategy for Distributed Multi-Purpose Simulation Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhula, Dlilpkumar; Kurt, Cindy Marie; Luty, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the system engineering approach used to develop distributed multi-purpose simulations. The multi-purpose simulation architecture focuses on user needs, operations, flexibility, cost and maintenance. This approach was used to develop an International Space Station (ISS) simulator, which is called the International Space Station Integrated Simulation (ISIS)1. The ISIS runs unmodified ISS flight software, system models, and the astronaut command and control interface in an open system design that allows for rapid integration of multiple ISS models. The initial intent of ISIS was to provide a distributed system that allows access to ISS flight software and models for the creation, test, and validation of crew and ground controller procedures. This capability reduces the cost and scheduling issues associated with utilizing standalone simulators in fixed locations, and facilitates discovering unknowns and errors earlier in the development lifecycle. Since its inception, the flexible architecture of the ISIS has allowed its purpose to evolve to include ground operator system and display training, flight software modification testing, and as a realistic test bed for Exploration automation technology research and development.

  1. Multipurpose image watermarking algorithm based on multistage vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Xu, Dian-Guo; Sun, Sheng-He

    2005-06-01

    The rapid growth of digital multimedia and Internet technologies has made copyright protection, copy protection, and integrity verification three important issues in the digital world. To solve these problems, the digital watermarking technique has been presented and widely researched. Traditional watermarking algorithms are mostly based on discrete transform domains, such as the discrete cosine transform, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Most of these algorithms are good for only one purpose. Recently, some multipurpose digital watermarking methods have been presented, which can achieve the goal of content authentication and copyright protection simultaneously. However, they are based on DWT or DFT. Lately, several robust watermarking schemes based on vector quantization (VQ) have been presented, but they can only be used for copyright protection. In this paper, we present a novel multipurpose digital image watermarking method based on the multistage vector quantizer structure, which can be applied to image authentication and copyright protection. In the proposed method, the semi-fragile watermark and the robust watermark are embedded in different VQ stages using different techniques, and both of them can be extracted without the original image. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in terms of robustness and fragility. PMID:15971780

  2. Designing a multipurpose technology for acceptability and adherence

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Elizabeth E.; Morrow, Kathleen M.; Owen, Derek H.

    2015-01-01

    Multipurpose Prevention Technologies (MPTs) are new tools aimed at reducing or preventing multiple and overlapping sexual and reproductive health risks faced by women and couples around the globe. While MPTs could prove more acceptable and easier to adhere to than single-purpose prevention products, continuing high rates of HIV and unintended pregnancy remind us that these new products will need to be efficacious, acceptable and effectively used to achieve a public health impact. In this paper, we describe how a range of research methods can be applied during the pre-clinical phase of product development to inform decisions related to formulation and vehicle or product delivery mechanisms, and consider how choices in product-related characteristics may influence future demand for, delivery and use of future products. We draw on examples from the development of new single-purpose HIV and contraceptive products and then extend our discussion to the development of MPTs, including vaginal rings and injections. This article is based on a presentation at the “Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies,” held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188706

  3. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2016-07-12

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  4. Disorder induces explosive synchronization.

    PubMed

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

    2014-06-01

    We study explosive synchronization, a phenomenon characterized by first-order phase transitions between incoherent and synchronized states in networks of coupled oscillators. While explosive synchronization has been the subject of many recent studies, in each case strong conditions on the heterogeneity of the network, its link weights, or its initial construction are imposed to engineer a first-order phase transition. This raises the question of how robust explosive synchronization is in view of more realistic structural and dynamical properties. Here we show that explosive synchronization can be induced in mildly heterogeneous networks by the addition of quenched disorder to the oscillators' frequencies, demonstrating that it is not only robust to, but moreover promoted by, this natural mechanism. We support these findings with numerical and analytical results, presenting simulations of a real neural network as well as a self-consistency theory used to study synthetic networks.

  5. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  6. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  7. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

    2004-10-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  8. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  9. Saturn's Hot Plasma Explosions

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini Spacecraft shows how the "explosions" of hot plasma on the night side (orange and white) periodically inflate Saturn's magnetic field (white ...

  10. Polymeric binder for explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bissell, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical reaction for producing a polymer which can be mixed with explosives to produce a rigid material is discussed. Physical and chemical properties of polymers are described and chemical structure of the polymer is illustrated.

  11. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  12. Improving airport explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1990-01-01

    ORNL has developed the technology to detect hidden explosives in luggage using X ray and neutron detection devices. The Federal Aviation Administration has ordered the airlines to buy and install Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) units. The combined pulsed-neutron and X-ray interrogation inspection (CPNX) system developed at ORNL uses less radioactive materials as well as being more sensitive to weapons, electronic devices and plastic explosives.

  13. Modeling of interior explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Y. V.; Fedorova, N. N.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of numerical simulation of an interior explosion are presented. The main purpose of the work is an investigation of shock-wave structure caused by explosion and estimation of pressure level on building walls. The numerical simulation was carried out by means of ANSYS AUTODYN software at normal atmospheric conditions with different mass of charge and internal geometry of room. The effect of mass charge and presence of vent area were shown. The calculation results are compared with published experimental data.

  14. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  15. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1997-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

  16. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  17. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  18. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  19. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  20. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  1. Development of a multipurpose smart recorder for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. H.; Finger, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    An intelligent flight recorder, called the Smart Recorder, was fabricated and installed on a King Air aircraft used in standard commercial charter service. This recorder was used for collection of data toward two objectives: (1) the characterization of the typical environment encountered by the aircraft; and (2) research in the area of trend monitoring. Data processing routines and data presentation formats were defined that are applicable to commuter size aircraft. The feasibility of a cost-effective, multipurpose recorder for general aviation aircraft was successfully demonstrated. Implementation of on-board environmental data processing increased the number of flight hours that could be stored on a single data cartridge and simplified the data management problem by reducing the volume of data to be processed in the laboratory. Trend monitoring algorithms showed less variability in the trend plots when compared against plots of manual data.

  2. Multipurpose Panel Display Device Investigation. [technology assessment and product development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, R.

    1977-01-01

    A multipurpose panel was developed to provide a flexible control and a LED display panel with easily changeable nomenclature for use in applications where panel space is limited, but where a number of similar subsystems must be controlled, or where basic panel nomenclature and functions must be changed rapidly, as in the case of between mission changes of space shuttle payloads. In the first application, panel area limitations are overcome by time sharing a central control panel among several subsystems. In the latter case, entire control panel changes are effected by simply replacing a memory module, thereby reducing the extent of installation and checkout procedures between missions. Several types of control technologies (other than LED's) which show potential in meeting criteria for overcoming limitations of the panel are assessed.

  3. Nonpoint source pollution management for the multipurpose dam watersheds.

    PubMed

    Choi, J-Y

    2008-01-01

    Main pollution sources in multipurpose dam watersheds in Korea are highland fields, stream banks, livestock farms, roads, and construction sites. Specifically, highland fields are the major nonpoint pollution sources. Excessive organic chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticide can be exuded from the land, and the area is likely to be eroded by heavy rain. Fallow, conservative cultivation, and covering can be alternatives for soil protection and reinforcement. In addition to these, construction of detour waterways and improvement of irrigation method can minimize the impact of runoff. In the case of slope in 15% degree or more, prohibiting cultivation and restoring the surface is preferred to improving cultivation method in order to control nonpoint pollution sources efficiently.

  4. Multipurpose prevention technologies: the future of HIV and STI protection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Every day, more than 1 million people are newly infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can lead to morbidity, mortality, and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Existing prevention and management strategies, including behavior change, condom promotion, and therapy have not reduced the global incidence and prevalence, pointing to the need for novel innovative strategies. This review summarizes important issues raised during a satellite session at the first HIV R4P conference, held in Cape Town, on October 31, 2014. We explore key STIs that are challenging public health today; new biomedical prevention approaches including multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs); and the scientific and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome to make combination prevention tools a reality. PMID:25759332

  5. Multi-purpose canister system evaluation: A systems engineering approach

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to investigate various container systems for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The primary goal of DOE`s investigations was to select a container technology that could handle the vast majority of commercial SNF at a reasonable cost, while ensuring the safety of the public and protecting the environment. Several alternative cask and canister concepts were evaluated for SNF assembly packaging to determine the most suitable concept. Of these alternatives, the multi-purpose canister (MPC) system was determined to be the most suitable. Based on the results of these evaluations, the decision was made to proceed with design and certification of the MPC system. A decision to fabricate and deploy MPCs will be made after further studies and preparation of an environmental impact statement.

  6. Development of a multipurpose hand controller for JEMRMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuhira, Nobuto; Iikura, Shoichi; Asakura, Makoto; Shinomiya, Yasuo

    1990-01-01

    A prototype multipurpose hand controller for the JEMRMS (Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System) was developed. The hand controller (H/C) is an orthogonal type, with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) and small size. The orthogonal type H/C is very simple for coordinate transformations and can easily control any type of manipulators. In fact, the JEMRMS is planned to have two manipulators controlled by a common H/C at this stage. The H/C was able to be used as a rate control joystick and a force reflection master arm, using an experimental 6 DOF manipulator. Good maneuverability was confirmed in the verification test. The orthogonal type H/C is suitable for use as a common H/C for the two manipulators of the JEMRMS.

  7. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification.

  8. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  9. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  10. Design of Multilayer Insulation for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlow, Weston A.

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is a critical component for future, long term space missions. These missions will require the storage of cryogenic fuels for extended periods of time with little to no boil-off and MLI is vital due to its exceptional radiation shielding properties. Several MLI test articles were designed and fabricated which explored methods of assembling and connecting blankets, yielding results for evaluation. Insight gained, along with previous design experience, will be used in the design of the replacement blanket for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is slated for upcoming tests. Future design considerations are discussed which include mechanical testing to determine robustness of such a system, as well as cryostat testing of samples to give insight to the loss of thermal performance of sewn panels in comparison to the highly efficient, albeit laborious application of the original MHTB blanket.

  11. Explosively separable casing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.K.; Kychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

    1985-02-19

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  12. Detection of Explosive Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogler, William

    2008-03-01

    High explosives present a challenge for detection methods because of their range of physical properties, which range from volatile liquids to nonvolatile solids. They share the common feature of possessing both oxidizing and reducing chemical properties within a single molecule or an intimate chemical mixture. Our research group has been focused on the synthesis of new luminescent polymers, which undergo electron transfer quenching by a variety of organic high explosives, such as TNT, RDX, and PETN. The application to imaging trace explosive particle residues will be described. Density functional calculations show an excellent correlation between the sensor response and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the explosive analyte. For volatile high explosives, such as organic peroxides (e.g. TATP), vapor sensors based on chemically sensitive transistors containing different metal phthalocyanines have been explored. The mechanism of current response in these films has been shown to be a result of surface Lewis acid-base chemistry or redox catalysis at the metal centers. The link between surface chemistry and electronic resonse has led to a simple peroxide specific vapor sensor array.

  13. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, A.K.; Rychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a picket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  14. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Albin K.; Rychnovsky, Raymond E.; Visbeck, Cornelius N.

    1985-01-01

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  15. Explosion containment device

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  16. Novel high explosive compositions

    DOEpatents

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  17. Destruction of peroxide explosives.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Huang, Jiaorong; Luo, Wei

    2009-09-01

    Chemicals containing multiple peroxide functionalities, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), diacetone diperoxide (DADP), or hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), can be explosive. They are impractical and are not used by legitimate military groups because they are shock and heat sensitive compared to military explosives. They are attractive to terrorists because synthesis is straightforward, requiring only a few easily obtained ingredients. Physical removal of these synthesis products is highly hazardous. This paper discusses methods to degrade peroxide explosives chemically, at room temperature. A number of mixtures containing metals (e.g., zinc, copper) and metal salts (e.g., zinc sulfate, copper chloride) were found effective, some capable of destroying TATP solutions in a few hours. Strong acids proved useful against solid peroxide materials; however, on a 1 g scale, addition of concentrated sulfuric acid caused TATP to detonate. Thus, this technique should only be used to destroy small-laboratory quantities. PMID:19737243

  18. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C.

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  19. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

    2012-10-01

    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices.

  20. Brontides: natural explosive noises.

    PubMed

    Gold, T; Soter, S

    1979-04-27

    Episodes of explosive noises of natural origin, or brontides, have been well documented, often in association with seismic activity and in a few cases as precursors to major earthquakes. Ground-to-air acoustic transmission from shallow earthquakes can account for many of these episodes, but not for all, and other causes, such as the sudden eruption of gas from high-pressure sources in the ground may at times have been responsible. Confusion with distant thunder or artillery at times of anomalous sound propagation complicates the analysis, and more recently the greatly increased frequency of artificial explosive noises and sonic booms has tended to mask the recognition of natural brontides. PMID:17757998

  1. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, D.; Hiskey, M. A.; Kramer, J. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Harry, H. H.; Son, S. F.; Sullivan, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is

  2. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

  3. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, T.G.

    1999-06-29

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever. 2 figs.

  4. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... supersedes the List of Explosives Materials dated September 20, 2012 (Docket No. ATF 47N, 77 FR 58410... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. ] Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver....

  5. Confined explosive joining of tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Technique uses explosive ribbon to join and seal tubes hermetically while totally confining explosive products, such as smoke, light, and sound. Only click is audible. Process yields joints of the same strengths as parent metal.

  6. The combustion of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S. F.

    2001-01-01

    The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The! search also continues for more well behaved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions, This work presents a viiw of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed.

  7. The First Nova Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarita; Gil-Pons, Pilar

    2007-06-01

    Classical novae are stellar explosions with an energy release that is only overcome by supernovae and γ-ray bursts. Theoretical and observational evidence suggests that these cataclysmic events are major sources of the Galactic 15N, 17O, and 13C, and contribute to the abundances of 7Li, and 26Al, with a likely nucleosynthetic endpoint around Ca. However, there are reasons to believe that these nuclear signatures have changed during the overall Galactic history. In this Letter, the first that addresses the nature of nova explosions in the most primitive, low-metallicity binaries, we show that primordial novae eject more massive envelopes and display a larger nuclear activity than classical novae, leading to a new type of explosion, halfway between a supernova and a nova. The ejected shells from the most violent, massive primordial novae yield large excesses of Ti and a likely nucleosynthetic endpoint around Cu-Zn, signatures never before associated with a nova-like explosion. We conclude that the chemical abundance pattern of the nova ejecta is strongly modified at low metallicities and suggest that primordial novae are a possible birthplace of a rare variety of presolar grains whose origin remains uncertain.

  8. The Combustion of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, S. F.

    2002-07-01

    The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The search also continues for improved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Currently, the most significant uncertainties are in the processes immediately following ignition. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions. This paper presents a view of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed. Novel materials may yield insight into the mechanisms involved with rapid deflagration processes.

  9. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29 CFR 1910.109 (36 FR 10553-10562). OSHA based the... revisions to the standard (37 FR 6577, 57 FR 6356, and 63 FR 33450). On July 29, 2002, the Institute of... revision (72 FR 18792). On July 17, 2007, however, OSHA closed the comment period, stating that it...

  10. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  11. Managing the data explosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, Richard P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    1993-01-01

    The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

  12. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  13. New explosive seam welding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

  14. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  15. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  16. Whole body vibration: unsupervised training or combined with a supervised multi-purpose exercise for fitness?

    PubMed

    Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of an unsupervised whole body vibration (WBV) training and two different supervised multi-purpose exercise programmes, with and without WBV, on body composition, functional fitness and self-reported well-being in middle-aged adults. Fifty-four healthy participants (age 48.6 ± 6.7 years) were randomly assigned to a vibration group (VG), a multi-purpose exercise group (MG) and a multi-purpose exercise with vibration group (VMG) and trained 3 days a week for 4 months. VG performed a standardised unsupervised WBV protocol, MG a supervised multi-purpose exercise and VMG a multi-purpose exercise including vibration. After training, drop out was significantly higher in VG group (P = 0.016) when compared to VMG group. In both MG and VMG, body composition, sit-up, push-up, sit and reach, agility test, hopping test and self-reported general health significantly improved (P < 0.05). No additive effects were generated by the vibration stimulus. Percentage of body fat and agility test in VG had a significant opposite trend compared to VMG group (P < 0.05). In summary, an unsupervised WBV training should not be chosen for training protocol. However, positive effects on physical fitness and the best results in adherence could be achieved integrating WBV practice into a multi-purpose exercise training.

  17. Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint

  18. Human resources for maternal health: multi-purpose or specialists?

    PubMed Central

    Fauveau, Vincent; Sherratt, Della R; de Bernis, Luc

    2008-01-01

    A crucial question in the aim to attain MDG5 is whether it can be achieved faster with the scaling up of multi-purpose health workers operating in the community or with the scaling up of professional skilled birth attendants working in health facilities. Most advisers concerned with maternal mortality reduction concur to promote births in facilities with professional attendants as the ultimate strategy. The evidence, however, is scarce on what it takes to progress in this path, and on the 'interim solutions' for situations where the majority of women still deliver at home. These questions are particularly relevant as we have reached the twentieth anniversary of the safe motherhood initiative without much progress made. In this paper we review the current situation of human resources for maternal health as well as the problems that they face. We propose seven key areas of work that must be addressed when planning for scaling up human resources for maternal health in light of MDG5, and finally we indicate some advances recently made in selected countries and the lessons learned from these experiences. Whilst the focus of this paper is on maternal health, it is acknowledged that the interventions to reduce maternal mortality will also contribute to significantly reducing newborn mortality. Addressing each of the seven key areas of work – recommended by the first International Forum on 'Midwifery in the Community', Tunis, December 2006 – is essential for the success of any MDG5 programme. We hypothesize that a great deal of the stagnation of maternal health programmes has been the result of confusion and careless choices in scaling up between a limited number of truly skilled birth attendants and large quantities of multi-purpose workers with short training, fewer skills, limited authority and no career pathways. We conclude from the lessons learnt that no significant progress in maternal mortality reduction can be achieved without a strong political decision to

  19. Human resources for maternal health: multi-purpose or specialists?

    PubMed

    Fauveau, Vincent; Sherratt, Della R; de Bernis, Luc

    2008-09-30

    A crucial question in the aim to attain MDG5 is whether it can be achieved faster with the scaling up of multi-purpose health workers operating in the community or with the scaling up of professional skilled birth attendants working in health facilities. Most advisers concerned with maternal mortality reduction concur to promote births in facilities with professional attendants as the ultimate strategy. The evidence, however, is scarce on what it takes to progress in this path, and on the 'interim solutions' for situations where the majority of women still deliver at home. These questions are particularly relevant as we have reached the twentieth anniversary of the safe motherhood initiative without much progress made. In this paper we review the current situation of human resources for maternal health as well as the problems that they face. We propose seven key areas of work that must be addressed when planning for scaling up human resources for maternal health in light of MDG5, and finally we indicate some advances recently made in selected countries and the lessons learned from these experiences. Whilst the focus of this paper is on maternal health, it is acknowledged that the interventions to reduce maternal mortality will also contribute to significantly reducing newborn mortality. Addressing each of the seven key areas of work--recommended by the first International Forum on 'Midwifery in the Community', Tunis, December 2006--is essential for the success of any MDG5 programme. We hypothesize that a great deal of the stagnation of maternal health programmes has been the result of confusion and careless choices in scaling up between a limited number of truly skilled birth attendants and large quantities of multi-purpose workers with short training, fewer skills, limited authority and no career pathways. We conclude from the lessons learnt that no significant progress in maternal mortality reduction can be achieved without a strong political decision to empower

  20. Emission reduction by multipurpose buffer strips on arable fields.

    PubMed

    Sloots, K; van der Vlies, A W

    2007-01-01

    In the area managed by Hollandse Delta, agriculture is under great pressure and the social awareness of the agricultural sector is increasing steadily. In recent years, a stand-still has been observed in water quality, in terms of agrochemicals, and concentrations even exceed the standard. To improve the waterquality a multi-purpose Field Margin Regulation was drafted for the Hoeksche Waard island in 2005. The regulation prescribes a crop-free strip, 3.5 m wide, alongside wet drainage ditches. The strip must be sown with mixtures of grasses, flowers or herbs. No crop protection chemicals or fertilizer may be used on the strips. A total length of approximately 200 km of buffer strip has now been laid. Besides reducing emissions, the buffer strips also stimulate natural pest control methods and encourage local tourism. Finally, the strips should lead to an improvement in the farmers' image. The regulation has proved to be successful. The buffer strips boosted both local tourism and the image of the agricultural sector. Above all, the strips provided a natural shield for emission to surface water, which will lead to an improvement of the water quality and raise the farmers' awareness of water quality and the environment.

  1. Real Time Gnss-Sp Network: a Multipurpose Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monico, J. G.; Camargo, P. D.; Alves, D. B.; Sapucci, L. F.; Grupo de Estudos em Geodésia Espacial

    2013-05-01

    São Paulo State GNSS Network (GNSS-SP) is one of the densest networks at South Hemisphere. Most of the stations is equipped with meteorological PTU devices. Nowadays it is streaming real time GNSS data, providing support to RTK Network applications, real time TEC (Total Electron Contents) and ZTD/IWV (Zenithal Tropospheric Delay/Integrated Water Vapor) computations. Few stations also provide data to the IGS real time (IGSRT) service. Therefore, such network is characterized as a multipurpose infrastructure, having its data being used either for research in the field of Geodesy or Atmosphere, as well as to support operational applications. In the field of Geodesy it provides support for research related to positioning and reference system realization, detection of deformation, etc. Concerning the atmosphere, fields like Space Weather and Meteorology can take advantage of the derived TEC and ZTD/IWV products. In this presentation, we will show the status of the network, few results concerning the products provided by such infrastructure, besides the plans for the future of the network.

  2. A Multi-purpose Brain-Computer Interface Output Device

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, David E; Huggins, Jane E

    2012-01-01

    While brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising alternative access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments, many BCI systems are designed as standalone communication and control systems, rather than as interfaces to existing systems built for these purposes. While an individual communication and control system may be powerful or flexible, no single system can compete with the variety of options available in the commercial assistive technology (AT) market. BCIs could instead be used as an interface to these existing AT devices and products, which are designed for improving access and agency of people with disabilities and are highly configurable to individual user needs. However, interfacing with each AT device and program requires significant time and effort on the part of researchers and clinicians. This work presents the Multi-Purpose BCI Output Device (MBOD), a tool to help researchers and clinicians provide BCI control of many forms of AT in a plug-and-play fashion, i.e. without the installation of drivers or software on the AT device, and a proof-of-concept of the practicality of such an approach. The MBOD was designed to meet the goals of target device compatibility, BCI input device compatibility, convenience, and intuitive command structure. The MBOD was successfully used to interface a BCI with multiple AT devices (including two wheelchair seating systems), as well as computers running Windows (XP and 7), Mac and Ubuntu Linux operating systems. PMID:22208120

  3. World: A multipurpose GPS-network computer package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafarend, Erik W.; Lindlohr, Wolfgang

    WORLD is a multipurpose package to compute geodetic positions in geometry and gravity space. Here undifferenced GPS carrier beat phase observations are processed in the free network mode, namely by the prototype program called PUMA. Within two alternative model formulations, the classical Gauß-Markov Model and the so-called Mixed Model, simultaneously estimated / predicted parameters are those of type (i) Cartesian ground station coordinates (geodetic positioning), (ii) Cartesian satellite coordinates (orbit determination), (iii) receiver- and satellite-specific bias terms, (iv) initial epoch ambiguities and (v) proportional tropospheric corrections. The Mixed Model parameters appear from linearization as a point of stochastic prior information. Namely the weight matrices of stochastic prior information, e.g. for orbit parameters, is assumed to be known. Estimators of type BLUE and predictors of type inhom BLIP and hom BLUP are used. Chapter four discusses in all detail the real analysis of GPS satellite networks of free type. Most notable are the estimated bias terms α, β, γ, in a twofold classification model. The operability of PUMA is demonstrated by the use of multistation phase observations (Wild-Magnavox WM 101-receivers) in a local Berlin network (six station network). It is documented that in spite of the advanced phase observation modelling an internal relative baseline accuracy (utmost length 30 km) of the order of 3 to 5 ppm is achievable. In addition, the influence of orbital prior information on ground station measures, point position as well as accuracy, is demonstrated.

  4. Multipurpose Power Converter for Non-Grid-Connected Microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovos, Panagis N.; Georgakas, Konstantinos G.

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a multipurpose converter, appropriate for non-grid-connected microsystems, which are prone to harmonic distortion. The converter suppresses harmonics by injecting mirror harmonics in the modulation stage. An important property is that it continuously monitors and significantly reduces the harmonic content without the use of active or passive low-frequency filters. This is under constant switching frequency, no matter if the harmonics are mainly created by the source, the loads or even its own operation. The converter is regulating output voltage using typical fuzzy control. The two types of control (harmonic and voltage) do not seem to affect each other during operation. Furthermore, it can supply either dc or ac loads from a dc source. The versatility of the converter is a useful property for remote or mobile micropower systems, where neither sources nor loads are of a single type. The converter has been tested successfully for a combination of harmonic-injecting electric appliances and various load step changes.

  5. Multi-purpose hydrogen isotopes separation plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Boniface, H.A.; Gnanapragasam, N.V.; Ryland, D.K.; Suppiah, S.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    There is a potential interest at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories to remove tritium from moderately tritiated light water and to reclaim tritiated, downgraded heavy water. With only a few limitations, a single CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process configuration can be designed to remove tritium from heavy water or light water and upgrade heavy water. Such a design would have some restrictions on the nature of the feed-stock and tritium product, but could produce essentially tritium-free light or heavy water that is chemically pure. The extracted tritium is produced as a small quantity of tritiated heavy water. The overall plant capacity is fixed by the total amount of electrolysis and volume of catalyst. In this proposal, with 60 kA of electrolysis a throughput of 15 kg*h{sup -1} light water for detritiation, about 4 kg*h{sup -1} of heavy water for detritiation and about 27 kg*h{sup -1} of 98% heavy water for upgrading can be processed. Such a plant requires about 1,000 liters of AECL isotope exchange catalyst. The general design features and details of this multi-purpose CECE process are described in this paper, based on some practical choices of design criteria. In addition, we outline the small differences that must be accommodated and some compromises that must be made to make the plant capable of such flexible operation. (authors)

  6. MYRRHA: A multipurpose accelerator driven system for research & development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abderrahim, H. Aı̈t; Kupschus, P.; Malambu, E.; Benoit, Ph; Van Tichelen, K.; Arien, B.; Vermeersch, F.; D'hondt, P.; Jongen, Y.; Ternier, S.; Vandeplassche, D.

    2001-05-01

    SCK·CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, in partnership with IBA s.a., Ion Beam Applications, is designing an ADS prototype, MYRRHA, and is conducting an associated R&D programme. The project focuses primarily on research on structural materials, nuclear fuel, liquid metals and associated aspects, on subcritical reactor physics and subsequently on applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, radioisotope production and safety research on sub-critical systems. The MYRRHA system is intended to be a multipurpose R&D facility and is expected to become a new major research infrastructure for the European partners presently involved in the ADS Demo development. Ion Beam Applications is performing the accelerator development. Currently the preliminary conceptual design of the MYRRHA system is under way and an intensive R&D programme is assessing the points of greatest risk in the present design. This work will define the final choice of characteristics of the facility. In this paper, we will report on the status of the pre-design study as of June 2000 as well as on the methods and results of the R&D programme.

  7. A multi-purpose brain-computer interface output device.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David E; Huggins, Jane E

    2011-10-01

    While brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising alternative access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments, many BCI systems are designed as stand-alone communication and control systems, rather than as interfaces to existing systems built for these purposes. An individual communication and control system may be powerful or flexible, but no single system can compete with the variety of options available in the commercial assistive technology (AT) market. BCls could instead be used as an interface to these existing AT devices and products, which are designed for improving access and agency of people with disabilities and are highly configurable to individual user needs. However, interfacing with each AT device and program requires significant time and effort on the part of researchers and clinicians. This work presents the Multi-Purpose BCI Output Device (MBOD), a tool to help researchers and clinicians provide BCI control of many forms of AT in a plug-and-play fashion, i.e., without the installation of drivers or software on the AT device, and a proof-of-concept of the practicality of such an approach. The MBOD was designed to meet the goals of target device compatibility, BCI input device compatibility, convenience, and intuitive command structure. The MBOD was successfully used to interface a BCI with multiple AT devices (including two wheelchair seating systems), as well as computers running Windows (XP and 7), Mac and Ubuntu Linux operating systems.

  8. Multipurpose Logistics Module, Leonardo, Rests in Discovery's Payload Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This in-orbit close up shows the Italian Space Agency-built multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), Leonardo, the primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, resting in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight and NASA's 103rd overall flight, STS-102 launched March 8, 2001 for an almost 13 day mission.

  9. STS-102 Onboard Photograph Inside Multipurpose Logistics Module, Leonardo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Pilot James M. Kelly (left) and Commander James D. Wetherbee for the STS-102 mission, participate in the movement of supplies inside Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). In this particular photograph, the two are handling a film magazine for the IMAX cargo bay camera. The primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, the Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight, the STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  10. Spherical chamber effective solution for multipurpose nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelicon, P.; Simčič, J.; Jakšić, M.; Medunić, Z.; Naab, F.; McDaniel, F. D.

    2005-04-01

    Vacuum chambers for multipurpose nuclear microprobes must provide for the installation and servicing of several detection systems operating simultaneously, as well as sample visual control and mechanical manipulation. Detectors for X-rays, scattered ions, nuclear reaction products, secondary electrons, secondary luminescence and optical microscopes are mounted at the angles preferably larger than 120° with respect to the beam direction. Their positioning should not increase the space in the region between the ion lens and the focal point of the microprobe. Spherical chambers presented here effectively solve this problem and offer, at the same time, ports for gamma-ray detector, annular microscope, easy manual access in the sample region, ports for vertical and horizontal sample positioning and manipulation, as well as STIM and ERDA detectors at forward scattering angles and the Faraday cup. The basic construction, resulting in the three different but similar chamber designs at three nuclear microprobes worldwide, are presented. Current installation details, comments on the performance and suggested improvements are given.

  11. Explosion depths for phreatomagmatic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Graettinger, Alison H.; Sonder, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions can result from the interaction of ascending magma with groundwater. Experiments over a wide range of energies show that for a given energy there is a depth below which an explosion will be contained within the subsurface (not erupt), and there is a corresponding shallower depth that will optimize ejecta dispersal. We combine these relationships with constraints on the energies of phreatomagmatic explosions at maar-diatreme volcanoes and show that most eruptions are likely sourced by explosions in the uppermost ~200 m, and even shallower ones (<100 m) are likely to dominate deposition onto tephra rings. Most explosions below ~200 m will not erupt but contribute to formation of, and to the vertical mixing of materials within, a diatreme (vent structure), with only rare very high energy explosions between ~200 and 500 m erupting. Similar constraints likely apply at other volcanoes that experience phreatomagmatic explosions.

  12. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  13. High explosive compound

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Theodore C.

    1976-01-01

    1. A low detonation velocity explosive consisting essentially of a particulate mixture of ortho-boric acid and trinitrotoluene, said mixture containing from about 25 percent to about 65 percent by weight of ortho-boric acid, said ortho-boric acid comprised of from 60 percent to 90 percent of spherical particles having a mean particle size of about 275 microns and 10 percent to 40 percent of spherical particles having a particle size less than about 44 microns.

  14. Dust cluster explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Vikrant; Avinash, K.; Sen, A.

    2012-09-15

    A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

  15. Explosives signatures and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.

    2008-04-01

    The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

  16. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  17. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  18. Comparative evaluation of multi-purpose solutions in the stabilization of tear lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Barniak, Vicki L; Burke, Susan E; Venkatesh, Srini

    2010-12-01

    The range and extent of tear proteins removed by various multi-purpose solutions has been investigated, but there is little information in the literature about their ability to prevent denaturation of tear proteins, particularly lysozyme. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Bausch+Lomb Biotrue™ multi-purpose solution and other care solutions to affect denaturation of lysozyme using a lysozyme activity assay. The test solutions used were: Biotrue multi-purpose solution, Bausch+Lomb renu(®) fresh™, formerly ReNu MultiPlus(®), Alcon OPTI-FREE RepleniSH, Alcon OPTI-FREE EXPRESS, CIBA VISION AQuify, and AMO COMPLETE Multi-Purpose Solution Easy Rub Formula. A phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution served as a control. The test and control solutions containing lysozyme were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a known denaturant of the enzyme. The assay was based on digestion of the cell wall of Micrococcus luteus in a suspension, a substrate sensitive to active lysozyme. Enzymatic activity against M. luteus was used to assess activity of lysozyme. The decrease in the turbidity of the cell wall suspension, a measure of relative enzyme activity, was determined by following the decrease in absorbance (at 450nm) over time using a spectrophotometer. Statistically significant greater stabilization of lysozyme was observed with Biotrue multi-purpose solution and renu fresh than with OPTI-FREE RepleniSH, OPTI-FREE EXPRESS, AQuify, COMPLETE Multi-Purpose Solution Easy Rub Formula, and a PBS control. The lysozyme activity assay revealed that Biotrue multi-purpose solution and renu fresh have the ability to stabilize lysozyme under conditions that typically denature the protein.

  19. Powdery Emulsion Explosive: A New Excellent Industrial Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ouqi; Zhang, Kaiming; Yu, Zhengquan; Tang, Shujuan

    2012-07-01

    Powdery emulsion explosive (PEE), a new powdery industrial explosive with perfect properties, has been made using an emulsification-spray drying technique. PEE is composed of 91-92.5 wt% ammonium nitrate (AN), 4.5-6 wt% organic fuels, and 1.5-1.8 wt% water. Due to its microstructure as a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion and low water content, it has excellent detonation performance, outstanding water resistance, reliable safety, and good application compared with other industrial explosives, such as ammonite, emulsion explosives, and ANFO.

  20. Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhov, M. N.

    2004-07-01

    Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes "re-freezing" the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge prevents the secondary heating of products to the "re-freezing" temperature and rules out a change in their composition. Filling of calorimetric bomb cavity before explosion with an inert gas produces an effect similar to that of charge casing. The value of explosion heat, measured under conditions that preclude "re-freezing" of explosion products can serve as a measure of the energy content of high explosive. With the use of this parameter a simple method for predicting explosive performance in Cylinder Test has been developed. The method is based on the assumption that the coefficient of conversion of the chemical energy to the kinetic energy depends on the volumetric mole number of gaseous products.

  1. A multipurpose reduced chemical-kinetic mechanism for methanol combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Tarrazo, Eduardo; Sánchez-Sanz, Mario; Sánchez, Antonio L.; Williams, Forman A.

    2016-07-01

    A multipurpose reduced chemical-kinetic mechanism for methanol combustion comprising 8 overall reactions and 11 reacting chemical species is presented. The development starts by investigating the minimum set of elementary reactions needed to describe methanol combustion with reasonable accuracy over a range of conditions of temperature, pressure, and composition of interest in combustion. Starting from a 27-step mechanism that has been previously tested and found to give accurate predictions of ignition processes for these conditions, it is determined that the addition of 11 elementary reactions taken from its basis (San Diego) mechanism extends the validity of the description to premixed-flame propagation, strain-induced extinction of non-premixed flames, and equilibrium composition and temperatures, giving results that compare favourably with experimental measurements and also with computations using the 247-step detailed San Diego mechanism involving 50 reactive species. Specifically, premixed-flame propagation velocities and extinction strain rates for non-premixed counterflow flames calculated with the 38-step mechanism show departures from experimental measurements and detailed-chemistry computations that are roughly on the order of 10%, comparable with expected experimental uncertainties. Similar accuracy is found in comparisons of autoignition times over the range considered, except at very high temperatures, under which conditions the computations tend to overpredict induction times for all of the chemistry descriptions tested. From this 38-step mechanism, the simplification is continued by introducing steady-state approximations for the intermediate species CH3, CH4, HCO, CH3O, CH2OH, and O, leading to an 8-step reduced mechanism that provides satisfactory accuracy for all conditions tested. The flame computations indicate that thermal diffusion has a negligible influence on methanol combustion in all cases considered and that a mixture-average species

  2. Open-pit explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Dannenberg, J.

    1982-07-01

    This paper explains how mine operators are taking a closer look at the power of explosives and how primary breakage affects other open-pit mining costs. Slurries have overcome most of the disadvantages attributed to them in their early years and may replace Anfo. Effective blasting is the key to an efficient, low-cost mining operation. Reviews are presented on research in crater studies, computer-aided design, the expanding gas theory, and high-speed motion picture cameras that show the importance of shock energy in fracturing the rock interfaces throughout the burden. The paper concludes with MSHA-approved courses in blasting offered throughout the US.

  3. Explosive scabbling of structural materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Bonzon, Lloyd L.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

  4. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  5. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOEpatents

    Dinegar, Robert H.; Kirkham, John

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  6. Controlled by Distant Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow

  7. Explosive blast neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Ling, Geoffrey; Bandak, Faris; Armonda, Rocco; Grant, Gerald; Ecklund, James

    2009-06-01

    Explosive blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the more serious wounds suffered by United States service members injured in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Some military medical treatments for blast TBI that have been introduced successfully in the war theater include decompressive craniectomy, cerebral angiography, transcranial Doppler, hypertonic resuscitation fluids, among others. Stateside neurosurgery, neuro-critical care, and rehabilitation for these patients have similarly progressed. With experience, military physicians have been able to clinically describe blast TBI across the entire severity spectrum. One important clinical finding is that a significant number of severe blast TBI victims develop pseudoaneurysms and vasospasm, which can lead to delayed decompensation. Another is that mild blast TBI shares clinical features with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Observations suggest that the mechanism by which explosive blast injures the central nervous system may be more complex than initially assumed. Rigorous study at the basic science and clinical levels, including detailed biomechanical analysis, is needed to improve understanding of this disease. A comprehensive epidemiological study is also warranted to determine the prevalence of this disease and the factors that contribute most to the risk of developing it. Sadly, this military-specific disease has significant potential to become a civilian one as well.

  8. Laser machining of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  9. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  10. 50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.63 Does an agency have to allocate... in multipurpose projects and facilities. A grant-funded project or facility is multipurpose if...

  11. 50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.63 Does an agency have to allocate... in multipurpose projects and facilities. A grant-funded project or facility is multipurpose if...

  12. 50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.63 Does an agency have to allocate... in multipurpose projects and facilities. A grant-funded project or facility is multipurpose if...

  13. 50 CFR 80.63 - Does an agency have to allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.63 Does an agency have to allocate... in multipurpose projects and facilities. A grant-funded project or facility is multipurpose if...

  14. Effects of explosive explosion shockwave pretreatment on sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dayong; Yang, Jun

    2012-09-01

    The potential benefits and mechanism of explosive explosion shockwave pretreatment on sludge dewatering treatments were investigated in this study. Water content of sludge cake after centrifugation was used to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Particle size, viscosity, turbidity, and micrograph were determined to explain the observed changes in the pretreatment process. The results indicated that the optimal pretreatment condition, generating the lowest water content of sludge cake, was 25 g explosive and 96.7% original sludge water content. This condition resulted in the reduced particle size and viscosity as well as increased turbidity. Particle size and viscosity significantly contributed to enhance sludge dewaterability. Micrograph investigation indicated that explosive explosion shockwave pretreatment could rupture sludge flocs, release physically bound water, and extracellular substances into the solution, consequently enhancing sludge dewaterability.

  15. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Explosive Materials dated November 17, 2010 (Docket No. ATF 42N, 75 FR 70291). Notice of List of Explosive.... Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric acid (manufactured as an explosive). Picryl... gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate explosive. Potassium nitrate explosive...

  16. Tear cytokine response to multipurpose solutions for contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Kalsow, Carolyn M; Reindel, William T; Merchea, Mohinder M; Bateman, Kirk M; Barr, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An increased risk of corneal infiltrative events has been noted with the use of certain contact lenses and multipurpose solutions (MPS). This study was designed to evaluate tear cytokine assay as a sensitive, objective, and quantitative measure of the ocular surface response to contact lens/MPS and to consider the assay’s clinical relevance in the context of other measures of ocular surface response. Methods Two MPS, ReNu® Fresh™ (RNF) and Opti-Free® RepleniSH (OFR), were used with daily wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses in a randomized, prospective crossover study involving 26 subjects. Clinical data collection (conjunctival hyperemia, ocular surface sensitivity, solution induced corneal staining (SICS) test score, and subjective responses) and tear cytokine assays were conducted masked. Responses were tracked as change from baseline throughout the experimental schedule. Results Similar response patterns for several inflammatory cytokines were seen throughout both phases: subjects who received OFR in Phase I had mean tear concentrations that were generally higher than those of the RNF Phase I group. OFR Phase I subjects had significant (P < 0.01) increases over baseline at day 1 and/or following washout for 13 cytokines (cc chemokine ligands [CCL] 3, CCL5, CCL11, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], interferon [INF]-γ, interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α). These changes were not observed in RNF Phase I subjects, even though SICS test scores increased. Phase I OFR subjects also had increased dryness, while RNF Phase I subjects had decreased bulbar hyperemia. No changes were detected with respect to limbal hyperemia or surface sensitivity thresholds. Conclusion The tear cytokine assay can detect and differentiate contact lens/MPS induced increases in inflammatory cytokines. Changes in cytokine levels were consistent with measurement of hyperemia and dryness but not with

  17. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, Sergei M.; Gorlov, Evgeny V.; Zharkov, Victor I.; Panchenko, Yury N.

    2016-06-01

    The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexogen (RDX), trotyl-hexogen (Comp B), octogen (HMX), and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  18. Nonterrorist suicidal deaths involving explosives.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, Donna M; Hunsaker, John C; Humbert, Karl A

    2003-06-01

    Suicidal deaths involving explosives unconnected to terrorism are rare. The investigation of deaths from explosive devices requires a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, as demonstrated in this study. Reported are 2 cases of nonterrorist suicidal explosive-related deaths with massive craniocerebral destruction. The first case involves a 20-year-old man who was discovered in the basement apartment of his father's home seconds after an explosion. At the scene investigators recovered illegal improvised power-technique explosive devices, specifically M-100s, together with the victim's handwritten suicide note. The victim exhibited extensive craniofacial injuries, which medicolegal officials attributed to the decedent's intentionally placing one of these devices in his mouth. The second case involves a 46-year-old man who was found by his wife at his home. In the victim's facial wound, investigators recovered portions of a detonator blasting cap attached to electrical lead wires extending to his right hand. A suicide note was discovered at the scene. The appropriate collection of physical evidence at the scene of the explosion and a detailed examination of the victim's history is as important as documentation of injury patterns and recovery of trace evidence at autopsy. A basic understanding of the variety of explosive devices is also necessary. This investigatory approach greatly enhances the medicolegal death investigator's ability to reconstruct the fatal event as a means of separating accidental and homicidal explosive-related deaths from this uncommon form of suicide.

  19. The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-05

    We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

  20. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  1. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  2. Explosion proof battery

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A. S.

    1985-07-16

    Apparatus for eliminating the possibility of propagation of gas ignition from the outside to the interior of wet cell batteries such as those used in autos, boats, tractors and the like. The invention in its simplest form is characterized by a set of chambers attached to or incorporated with the structure of a wet cell battery to form a single compact explosion proof battery assembly. The chambers contain non flammable liquid through which gases traveling to and from the interior of the battery pass and thereby create a barrier to the propagation of ignition from the outside of the battery to the interior of the battery. Supporting inventive means are provided to make the apparatus fully functional and practical. Such supporting means include an injection fill means, a liquid level indicator and a pressure release tube for conducting gases safely away from the apparatus.

  3. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  4. Watersheds and Explosive percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans J.; Araujo, Nuno A. M.

    The recent work by Achlioptas, D'Souza, and Spencer opened up the possibility of obtaining a discontinuous (explosive) percolation transition by changing the stochastic rule of bond occupation. Despite the active research on this subject, several questions still remain open about the leading mechanism and the properties of the system. We review the largest cluster and the Gaussian models recently introduced. We show that, to obtain a discontinuous transition it is solely necessary to control the size of the largest cluster, suppressing the growth of a cluster di_ering significantly, in size, from the average one. As expected for a discontinuous transition, a Gaussian cluster-size distribution and compact clusters are obtained. The surface of the clusters is fractal, with the same fractal dimension of the watershed line.

  5. Assessing nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joseph V.

    The all-Union session on the Geophysical and Geochemical Consequences of Nuclear Explosions at the 1983 AGU Fall Meeting attracted a large audience, and many were unable to find a seat or standing room. The speakers and questioners emphasized the complexity of the processes and the need to extend the computer models. In particular, the global-circulation models presented byscientists from the National Center for Atmospheric Research showed that smoke/dust clouds should cause major changes in the weather systems with great contrast between the temperature perturbations over oceanic, coastal, and continental regions. Important developments in the models and conclusions can be expected over the next few years as AGU members from many disciplines contribute their skills.

  6. Direct imaging of explosives.

    PubMed

    Knapp, E A; Moler, R B; Saunders, A W; Trower, W P

    2000-01-01

    Any technique that can detect nitrogen concentrations can screen for concealed explosives. However, such a technique would have to be insensitive to metal, both encasing and incidental. If images of the nitrogen concentrations could be captured, then, since form follows function, a robust screening technology could be developed. However these images would have to be sensitive to the surface densities at or below that of the nitrogen contained in buried anti-personnel mines or of the SEMTEX that brought down Pan Am 103, approximately 200 g. Although the ability to image in three-dimensions would somewhat reduce false positives, capturing collateral images of carbon and oxygen would virtually assure that nitrogenous non-explosive material like fertilizer, Melmac dinnerware, and salami could be eliminated. We are developing such an instrument, the Nitrogen Camera, which has met experimentally these criteria with the exception of providing oxygen images, which awaits the availability of a sufficiently energetic light source. Our Nitrogen Camera technique uses an electron accelerator to produce photonuclear reactions whose unique decays it registers. Clearly if our Nitrogen Camera is made mobile, it could be effective in detecting buried mines, either in an active battlefield situation or in the clearing of abandoned military munitions. Combat operations require that a swathe the width of an armored vehicle, 5 miles deep, be screened in an hour, which is within our camera's scanning speed. Detecting abandoned munitions is technically easier as it is free from the onerous speed requirement. We describe here our Nitrogen Camera and show its 180 pixel intensity images of elemental nitrogen in a 200 g mine simulant and in a 125 g stick of SEMTEX. We also report on our progress in creating a lorry transportable 70 MeV electron racetrack microtron, the principal enabling technology that will allow our Nitrogen Camera to be deployed in the field.

  7. On the violence of thermal explosion in solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S.K.; Tarver, C.M.; Green, L.G.; Urtiew, P.A.

    1997-07-01

    Heavily confined cylinders of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were heated at rates varying from 2 C/min to 3.3 C/h. Fourteen of the cylinders were hollow, and inner metallic liners with small heaters attached were used to produce uniform temperatures just prior to explosion. A complex thermocouple pattern was used to measure the temperature history throughout the charge and to determine the approximate location where the runaway exothermic reaction first occurred. The violence of the resulting explosion was measured using velocity pin arrays placed inside and outside of the metal confinement cylinders, flash x-rays, overpressure gauges, and fragment collection techniques. Five cylinders were intentionally detonated for violence comparisons. The measured temperature histories, times to explosion, and the locations of first reaction agreed closely with those calculated by a two-dimensional heat transfer code using multistep chemical decomposition models. The acceleration of the confining metal cylinders by the explosion process was accurately simulated using a two-dimensional pressure dependent deflagration reactive flow hydrodynamic mode. The most violent HMX thermal explosions gradually accelerated their outer cases to velocities approaching those of intentional detonations approximately 120 {micro}m after the onset of explosion. The measured inner cylinder collapse velocities from thermal explosions were considerably lower than those produced by detonations. In contrast to the HMX thermal reactions, no violent thermal explosions were produced by the TATB-based explosive LX-17. A heavily confined, slowly heated LX-17 test produced sufficient pressure to cause a 0.1 cm bend in a 2 cm thick steel plate.

  8. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  9. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.64 How does an agency allocate costs... project or facility. The agency must describe the method used to allocate costs in multipurpose...

  10. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.64 How does an agency allocate costs... project or facility. The agency must describe the method used to allocate costs in multipurpose...

  11. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.64 How does an agency allocate costs... project or facility. The agency must describe the method used to allocate costs in multipurpose...

  12. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.64 How does an agency allocate costs... project or facility. The agency must describe the method used to allocate costs in multipurpose...

  13. APPLICATION OF A MULTIPURPOSE UNEQUAL-PROBABILITY STREAM SURVEY IN THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified random sample with unequal-probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for data from the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of un...

  14. Breeding status of tung tree (Vernicia sp.) in China, a multipurpose oilseed crop with industrial uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a developing country with the world’s largest population, China faces a serious challenge in satisfying its continuously increasing energy demands. Tung trees (Vernicia sp., especially V. fordii and V. montana), are multipurpose, perennial plants belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The unique ...

  15. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants…

  16. Multipurpose panel, phase 1, study report. [display utilizing multiplexing and digital techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkin, W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a multipurpose panel which provides a programmable electronic display for changeable panel nomenclature, multiplexes similar indicator display signals to the signal display, and demultiplexes command signals is examined. Topics discussed include: electronic display technology, miniaturized electronic and memory devices, and data management systems which employ digital address and multiplexing.

  17. 77 FR 38766 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... comprehensive information collection will cover all aspects of an international organization's life-cycle with... International Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose Forms, previously titled Export Assistance Center Internet Web... inclusive and flexible client life-cycle information collection. The proposed categories of questions...

  18. Multipurpose electric furnace system. [for use in Apollo-Soyuz Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazelsky, R.; Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Johnson, R. A.; Mchugh, J. P.; Foust, H. C.; Piotrowski, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    A multipurpose electric furnace system of advanced design for space applications was developed and tested. This system is intended for use in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program. It consists of the furnace, control package and a helium package for rapid cooldown.

  19. MFOX-Technology, transceiver design and performance. [Multipurpose Fiber Optic Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Channin, Donald J.

    1987-01-01

    The multipurpose fiber optic transceiver (MFOX) family of fiber-optic transceivers will provide standard, military-qualified off-the-shelf transmitters and receivers for ground-based tactical fiber-optic communications. The author describes these units and their capabilities for diverse military applications.

  20. Engineering a Multi-Purpose Test Collection for Web Retrieval Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Peter; Craswell, Nick; Hawking, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes a test collection that was developed as a multi-purpose testbed for experiments on the Web in distributed information retrieval, hyperlink algorithms, and conventional ad hoc retrieval. Discusses inter-server connectivity, integrity of server holdings, inclusion of documents related to a wide spread of likely queries, and distribution of…

  1. Evaluation of the North Carolina Multi-Purpose Occupational Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurado, Eugene A.; Wolff, Warren W.

    A study assessed North Carolina's Multi-Purpose Occupational Information System (MPOIS). Evaluated during the study were various dimensions of the MPOIS, including its content, efficiency, operations, training, and outcomes. In addition, the development of the system was examined in terms of how it addresses both the technical and non-technical…

  2. The Multi-Purpose Center for Curriculum Improvement. End of Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzzuoli, David A.; Wholley, Peter J.

    The report for the 8-county West Virginia Multi-Purpose Center for Curriculum Improvement, funded under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, represents a comprehensive evaluation of the numerous activities with which the center was involved. The first section of the document presents general characteristics of the project area,…

  3. Multipurpose Pressure Vessel Scanner and Photon Doppler Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Tayera

    2015-01-01

    Critical flight hardware typically undergoes a series of nondestructive evaluation methods to screen for defects before it is integrated into the flight system. Conventionally, pressure vessels have been inspected for flaws using a technique known as fluorescent dye penetrant, which is biased to inspector interpretation. An alternate method known as eddy current is automated and can detect small cracks better than dye penetrant. A new multipurpose pressure vessel scanner has been developed to perform internal and external eddy current scanning, laser profilometry, and thickness mapping on pressure vessels. Before this system can be implemented throughout industry, a probability of detection (POD) study needs to be performed to validate the system's eddy current crack/flaw capabilities. The POD sample set will consist of 6 flight-like metal pressure vessel liners with defects of known size. Preparation for the POD includes sample set fabrication, system operation, procedure development, and eddy current settings optimization. For this, collaborating with subject matter experts was required. This technical paper details the preparation activities leading up to the POD study currently scheduled for winter 2015/2016. Once validated, this system will be a proven innovation for increasing the safety and reliability of necessary flight hardware. Additionally, testing of frangible joint requires Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) and Digital Image Correlation instrumentation. There is often noise associated with PDV data, which necessitates a frequency modulation (FM) signal-to-noise pre-test. Generally, FM radio works by varying the carrier frequency and mixing it with a fixed frequency source, creating a beat frequency which is represented by audio frequency that can be heard between about 20 to 20,000 Hz. Similarly, PDV reflects a shifted frequency (a phenomenon known as the Doppler Effect) from a moving source and mixes it with a fixed source frequency, which results in

  4. Multipurpose Pressure Vessel Scanner and Photon Doppler Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Tayera

    2015-01-01

    Critical flight hardware typically undergoes a series of nondestructive evaluation methods to screen for defects before it is integrated into the flight system. Conventionally, pressure vessels have been inspected for flaws using a technique known as fluorescent dye penetrant, which is biased to inspector interpretation. An alternate method known as eddy current is automated and can detect small cracks better than dye penetrant. A new multipurpose pressure vessel scanner has been developed to perform internal and external eddy current scanning, laser profilometry, and thickness mapping on pressure vessels. Before this system can be implemented throughout industry, a probability of detection (POD) study needs to be performed to validate the system’s eddy current crack/flaw capabilities. The POD sample set will consist of 6 flight-like metal pressure vessel liners with defects of known size. Preparation for the POD includes sample set fabrication, system operation, procedure development, and eddy current settings optimization. For this, collaborating with subject matter experts was required. This technical paper details the preparation activities leading up to the POD study currently scheduled for winter 2015/2016. Once validated, this system will be a proven innovation for increasing the safety and reliability of necessary flight hardware.Additionally, testing of frangible joint requires Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) and Digital Image Correlation instrumentation. There is often noise associated with PDV data, which necessitates a frequency modulation (FM) signal-to-noise pre-test. Generally, FM radio works by varying the carrier frequency and mixing it with a fixed frequency source, creating a beat frequency which is represented by audio frequency that can be heard between about 20 to 20,000 Hz. Similarly, PDV reflects a shifted frequency (a phenomenon known as the Doppler Effect) from a moving source and mixes it with a fixed source frequency, which results in

  5. Shock desensitizing of solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William C

    2010-01-01

    Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shockwave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in support of these ideas.

  6. Shock desensitizing of solid explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William C

    2010-01-01

    Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shock wave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in testing these ideas.

  7. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, William B.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Phelan, James M.; Woodfin, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  8. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  9. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading. PMID:10794911

  10. Noise From Shallow Underwater Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloway, Alexander G.

    Naval activities such as ordnance disposal, demolition and requisite training, can involve detonation of small explosive charges in shallow water that have the potential to harm nearby marine life. Measurements of the underwater sound generated by sub-surface explosions were collected as part of a naval training exercise. In this thesis the noise levels from these explosions will be investigated using peak pressure, sound exposure level and energy spectral density. Measurements of very-low frequency Scholte interface waves will also be presented and used to investigate elastic parameters in the sediment.

  11. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  12. Donor free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  13. Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

    2007-11-01

    Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

  14. Explosive actuated valves

    DOEpatents

    Cobb, Jr., Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a generally tubular housing having an end portion forming a chamber to receive the sensitive portion of an explosive squib, a plunger within said housing having an end portion exposed to said chamber, squib retaining means for engaging said housing and a said squib to releasably maintain the squib in close proximity to said plunger end portion including a retaining ring of fusible material spaced outwardly from and encircling at least part of a said squib and part of its sensitive portion for reception of heat from an external source prior to appreciable reception thereof by the sensitive portion of the squib, an annular compression spring bearing at one end against said housing for urging at least a portion of the squib retaining means and a said squib away from said housing and from said plunger end portion upon subjection of the fusible material to heat sufficient to melt at least a portion thereof, and guide means for said spring to maintain even expansion thereof as a said squib is being urged away from said housing.

  15. Explosive actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Kenneth G.

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means.

  16. Explosive Contagion in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J.; Lotero, L.; Taraskin, S. N.; Pérez-Reche, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of social phenomena such as behaviors, ideas or products is an ubiquitous but remarkably complex phenomenon. A successful avenue to study the spread of social phenomena relies on epidemic models by establishing analogies between the transmission of social phenomena and infectious diseases. Such models typically assume simple social interactions restricted to pairs of individuals; effects of the context are often neglected. Here we show that local synergistic effects associated with acquaintances of pairs of individuals can have striking consequences on the spread of social phenomena at large scales. The most interesting predictions are found for a scenario in which the contagion ability of a spreader decreases with the number of ignorant individuals surrounding the target ignorant. This mechanism mimics ubiquitous situations in which the willingness of individuals to adopt a new product depends not only on the intrinsic value of the product but also on whether his acquaintances will adopt this product or not. In these situations, we show that the typically smooth (second order) transitions towards large social contagion become explosive (first order). The proposed synergistic mechanisms therefore explain why ideas, rumours or products can suddenly and sometimes unexpectedly catch on.

  17. Explosive Contagion in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J.; Lotero, L.; Taraskin, S. N.; Pérez-Reche, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of social phenomena such as behaviors, ideas or products is an ubiquitous but remarkably complex phenomenon. A successful avenue to study the spread of social phenomena relies on epidemic models by establishing analogies between the transmission of social phenomena and infectious diseases. Such models typically assume simple social interactions restricted to pairs of individuals; effects of the context are often neglected. Here we show that local synergistic effects associated with acquaintances of pairs of individuals can have striking consequences on the spread of social phenomena at large scales. The most interesting predictions are found for a scenario in which the contagion ability of a spreader decreases with the number of ignorant individuals surrounding the target ignorant. This mechanism mimics ubiquitous situations in which the willingness of individuals to adopt a new product depends not only on the intrinsic value of the product but also on whether his acquaintances will adopt this product or not. In these situations, we show that the typically smooth (second order) transitions towards large social contagion become explosive (first order). The proposed synergistic mechanisms therefore explain why ideas, rumours or products can suddenly and sometimes unexpectedly catch on. PMID:26819191

  18. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Joshua David

    2015-08-05

    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  19. Explosive Contagion in Networks.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Lotero, L; Taraskin, S N; Pérez-Reche, F J

    2016-01-01

    The spread of social phenomena such as behaviors, ideas or products is an ubiquitous but remarkably complex phenomenon. A successful avenue to study the spread of social phenomena relies on epidemic models by establishing analogies between the transmission of social phenomena and infectious diseases. Such models typically assume simple social interactions restricted to pairs of individuals; effects of the context are often neglected. Here we show that local synergistic effects associated with acquaintances of pairs of individuals can have striking consequences on the spread of social phenomena at large scales. The most interesting predictions are found for a scenario in which the contagion ability of a spreader decreases with the number of ignorant individuals surrounding the target ignorant. This mechanism mimics ubiquitous situations in which the willingness of individuals to adopt a new product depends not only on the intrinsic value of the product but also on whether his acquaintances will adopt this product or not. In these situations, we show that the typically smooth (second order) transitions towards large social contagion become explosive (first order). The proposed synergistic mechanisms therefore explain why ideas, rumours or products can suddenly and sometimes unexpectedly catch on. PMID:26819191

  20. The Cambrian explosion.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2015-10-01

    The sudden appearance of fossils that marks the so-called 'Cambrian explosion' has intrigued and exercised biologists since Darwin's time. In On the Origin of Species, Darwin made it clear that he believed that ancestral forms 'lived long before' their first fossil representatives. While he considered such an invisible record necessary to explain the level of complexity already seen in the fossils of early trilobites, Darwin was at a loss to explain why there were no corresponding fossils of these earlier forms. In chapter 9 of the Origin, entitled 'On the imperfection of the geological record', he emphasized the 'poorness of our palaeontological collections' and stated categorically that 'no organism wholly soft can be preserved'. Fortunately much has been discovered in the last 150 years, not least multiple examples of Cambrian and Precambrian soft-bodied fossils. We now know that the sudden appearance of fossils in the Cambrian (541-485 million years ago) is real and not an artefact of an imperfect fossil record: rapid diversification of animals coincided with the evolution of biomineralized shells. And although fossils in earlier rocks are rare, they are not absent: their rarity reflects the low diversity of life at this time, as well as the low preservation potential of Precambrian organisms (see Primer by Butterfield, in this issue). PMID:26439348

  1. The challenge of improvised explosives

    DOE PAGES

    Maienschein, Jon L.

    2012-06-14

    Energetic materials have been developed for decades, and indeed centuries, with a common set of goals in mind. Performance (as a detonating explosive, a propellant, or a pyrotechnic) has always been key, equally important have been the attributes of safety, stability, and reproducibility. Research and development with those goals has led to the set of energetic materials commonly used today. In the past few decades, the adoption and use of improvised explosives in attacks by terrorists or third-world parties has led to many questions about these materials, e.g., how they may be made, what threat they pose to the intendedmore » target, how to handle them safely, and how to detect them. The unfortunate advent of improvised explosives has opened the door for research into these materials, and there are active programs in many countries. I will discuss issues and opportunities facing research into improvised explosives.« less

  2. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  3. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  4. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Explosives characterization in terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestrojuán, I.; Palacios, I.; Etayo, D.; Iriarte, J. C.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

    2011-11-01

    A Thz spectral characterization of the behaviour of different explosives is presented in this paper. This characterization will be done in the frequency range from 20 GHz to 4 THz using a Teraview Spectra 3000. This system has a capacity of measuring from 20 GHz to 4 THz fed by a laser source. With the Teraview Spectra 3000 equipment will be possible to calculate the refractive index, the absorbance and other important parameters of the explosive samples. With this study it will be possible to characterize some of the most common used explosives, i.e., gun explosive, gunpowder mine, pent, TNT, RDX, etc, and it will allow to determine their electromagnetic peculiarities in order to design a future imaging system that allow detecting them in security and defense sectors.

  6. Explosive Spot Joining of Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for wire splicing using an explosive joining process. The apparatus consists of a prebend, U-shaped strap of metal that slides over prepositioned wires. A standoff means separates the wires from the strap before joining. An adhesive means holds two ribbon explosives in position centered over the U-shaped strap. A detonating means connects to the ribbon explosives. The process involves spreading strands of each wire to be joined into a flat plane. The process then requires alternating each strand in alignment to form a mesh-like arrangement with an overlapped area. The strap slides over the strands of the wires. and the standoff means is positioned between the two surfaces. The detonating means then initiates the ribbon explosives that drive the strap to accomplish a high velocity. angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding resulting in electron-sharing linkups.

  7. The challenge of improvised explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, Jon L.

    2012-06-14

    Energetic materials have been developed for decades, and indeed centuries, with a common set of goals in mind. Performance (as a detonating explosive, a propellant, or a pyrotechnic) has always been key, equally important have been the attributes of safety, stability, and reproducibility. Research and development with those goals has led to the set of energetic materials commonly used today. In the past few decades, the adoption and use of improvised explosives in attacks by terrorists or third-world parties has led to many questions about these materials, e.g., how they may be made, what threat they pose to the intended target, how to handle them safely, and how to detect them. The unfortunate advent of improvised explosives has opened the door for research into these materials, and there are active programs in many countries. I will discuss issues and opportunities facing research into improvised explosives.

  8. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  9. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... configuration of the launch site follows its explosive site plan, and the licensee's explosive site...

  10. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  11. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  12. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  13. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  14. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  15. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  16. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  18. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  19. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  1. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... configuration of the launch site follows its explosive site plan, and the licensee's explosive site...

  2. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  3. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  4. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  5. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  6. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  7. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  9. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  11. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  12. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  13. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  14. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  15. Shock Response of Several Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, G. T.; Ashwell, K. D.; O'Connor, J. H.; Baker, R. N.; Lemar, E. R.

    1995-08-01

    Multiple in situ manganin gauge experiments were performed on explosive compositions IRX-1, IRX-3A, PBXN-111 (PBXW-115), and PBXN-110 (PBXW-113). For most explosives, stress-time profiles show substantial reaction. These profiles are compared to those measured in other explosives and plans are discussed for future reactive rate modeling involving these explosives.

  16. Shock Response of Several Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, G. T.; Ashwell, K. D.; O'Connor, J. H.; Baker, R. N.; Lemar, E. R.

    1996-05-01

    Multiple in situ manganin gauge experiments were performed on explosive compositions IRX-1, IRX-3A, PBXN-111 (PBXW-115), and PBXN-110 (PBXW-113). For most explosives, stress-time profiles show substantial reaction. These profiles are compared to those measured in other explosives and plans are discussed for future reactive rate modeling involving these explosives.

  17. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.306 Section 7.306 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber...

  18. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.306 Section 7.306 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber...

  19. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.306 Section 7.306 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber...

  20. Explosion modelling for complex geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehzat, Naser

    A literature review suggested that the combined effects of fuel reactivity, obstacle density, ignition strength, and confinement result in flame acceleration and subsequent pressure build-up during a vapour cloud explosion (VCE). Models for the prediction of propagating flames in hazardous areas, such as coal mines, oil platforms, storage and process chemical areas etc. fall into two classes. One class involves use of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD). This approach has been utilised by several researchers. The other approach relies upon a lumped parameter approach as developed by Baker (1983). The former approach is restricted by the appropriateness of sub-models and numerical stability requirements inherent in the computational solution. The latter approach raises significant questions regarding the validity of the simplification involved in representing the complexities of a propagating explosion. This study was conducted to investigate and improve the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code EXPLODE which has been developed by Green et al., (1993) for use on practical gas explosion hazard assessments. The code employs a numerical method for solving partial differential equations by using finite volume techniques. Verification exercises, involving comparison with analytical solutions for the classical shock-tube and with experimental (small-scale, medium and large-scale) results, demonstrate the accuracy of the code and the new combustion models but also identify differences between predictions and the experimental results. The project has resulted in a developed version of the code (EXPLODE2) with new combustion models for simulating gas explosions. Additional features of this program include the physical models necessary to simulate the combustion process using alternative combustion models, improvement to the numerical accuracy and robustness of the code, and special input for simulation of different gas explosions. The present code has the capability of

  1. System for analysis of explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.

    2010-06-29

    A system for analysis of explosives. Samples are spotted on a thin layer chromatography plate. Multi-component explosives standards are spotted on the thin layer chromatography plate. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in a solvent mixture and chromatography is allowed to proceed. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 1. The thin layer chromatography plate is heated. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 2.

  2. Quantitative understanding of explosive stimulus transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmel, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanisms of detonation transfer across hermetically sealed interfaces created by necessary interruptions in high explosive trains, such as at detonators to explosive columns, field joints in explosive columns, and components of munitions fuse trains are demostrated. Reliability of detonation transfer is limited by minimizing explosive quantities, the use of intensitive explosives for safety, and requirements to propagate across gaps and angles dictated by installation and production restraints. The major detonation transfer variables studied were: explosive quanity, sensitivity, and thickness, and the separation distances between donor and acceptor explosives.

  3. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  4. The Explosion of Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Una

    2005-10-01

    The 330 year old Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A offers a uniquely detailed look at the supernova ejecta formed during its explosion through current X-ray and optical observations, including a deep 1Ms observation with the Chandra Observatory. The explosively synthesized ejecta are distributed in small-scale knots and filaments with an overall bipolar symmetry and X-ray spectra dominated by emission lines of Si, S, Ar, and Ca, with some Fe, except in Fe-rich regions of the remnant where the Fe lines are very strong. The displacement of the compact stellar remnant relative to the optically determined explosion center indicates that the birth kick of the neutron star had a component perpendicular to the polar axis of the ejecta. From modelling the X-ray spectra, we learn that the explosion energy was distributed aspherically, that the progenitor underwent substantial mass loss, and that the ejecta along the polar axes originated as ``jets'' during the explosion rather than being shaped by the progenitor's pre-supernova mass loss. The energetics of Cas A's explosion indicates that it was probably formed as a slightly energetic supernova.

  5. Microbial remediation of explosive waste.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljinder; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

    2012-05-01

    Explosives are synthesized globally mainly for military munitions. Nitrate esters, such as GTN and PETN, nitroaromatics like TNP and TNT and nitramines with RDX, HMX and CL20, are the main class of explosives used. Their use has resulted in severe contamination of environment and strategies are now being developed to clean these substances in an economical and eco-friendly manner. The incredible versatility inherited in microbes has rendered these explosives as a part of the biogeochemical cycle. Several microbes catalyze mineralization and/or nonspecific transformation of explosive waste either by aerobic or anaerobic processes. It is likely that ongoing genetic adaptation, with the recruitment of silent sequences into functional catabolic routes and evolution of substrate range by mutations in structural genes, will further enhance the catabolic potential of bacteria toward explosives and ultimately contribute to cleansing the environment of these toxic and recalcitrant chemicals. This review summarizes information on the biodegradation and biotransformation pathways of several important explosives. Isolation, characterization, utilization and manipulation of the major detoxifying enzymes and the molecular basis of degradation are also discussed. This may be useful in developing safer and economic microbiological methods for clean up of soil and water contaminated with such compounds. The necessity of further investigations concerning the microbial metabolism of these substances is also discussed.

  6. 75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... 31, 2008 (Docket No. ATF 28N, 73 FR 80428). Notice of List of Explosive Materials Pursuant to 18 U.S... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T) AGENCY: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), Department of...

  7. Nonclinical safety evaluation of boric acid and a novel borate-buffered contact lens multi-purpose solution, Biotrue™ multi-purpose solution.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, David M; Cavet, Megan E; Richardson, Mary E

    2010-12-01

    Multipurpose solutions (MPS) often contain low concentrations of boric acid as a buffering agent. Limited published literature has suggested that boric acid and borate-buffered MPS may alter the corneal epithelium; an effect attributed to cytotoxicity induced by boric acid. However, this claim has not been substantiated. We investigated the effect of treating cells with relevant concentrations of boric acid using two cytotoxicity assays, and also assessed the impact of boric acid on corneal epithelial barrier function by measuring TEER and immunostaining for tight junction protein ZO-1 in human corneal epithelial cells. Boric acid was also assessed in an in vivo ocular model when administered for 28 days. Additionally, we evaluated Biotrue multi-purpose solution, a novel borate-buffered MPS, alone and with contact lenses for ocular compatibility in vitro and in vivo. Boric acid passed both cytotoxicity assays and did not alter ZO-1 distribution or corneal TEER. Furthermore, boric acid was well-tolerated on-eye following repeated administration in a rabbit model. Finally, Biotrue multi-purpose solution demonstrated good ocular biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. This MPS was not cytotoxic and was compatible with the eye when administered alone and when evaluated with contact lenses. We demonstrate that boric acid and a borate-buffered MPS is compatible with the ocular environment. Our findings provide evidence that ocular effects reported for some borate-buffered MPS may be incorrectly attributed to boric acid and are more likely a function of the unique combination of ingredients in the MPS formulation tested.

  8. The Quiet Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    A European-led team of astronomers are providing hints that a recent supernova may not be as normal as initially thought. Instead, the star that exploded is now understood to have collapsed into a black hole, producing a weak jet, typical of much more violent events, the so-called gamma-ray bursts. The object, SN 2008D, is thus probably among the weakest explosions that produce very fast moving jets. This discovery represents a crucial milestone in the understanding of the most violent phenomena observed in the Universe. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 23a/08 A Galaxy and two Supernovae These striking results, partly based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, will appear tomorrow in Science Express, the online version of Science. Stars that were at birth more massive than about 8 times the mass of our Sun end their relatively short life in a cosmic, cataclysmic firework lighting up the Universe. The outcome is the formation of the densest objects that exist, neutron stars and black holes. When exploding, some of the most massive stars emit a short cry of agony, in the form of a burst of very energetic light, X- or gamma-rays. In the early afternoon (in Europe) of 9 January 2008, the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift telescope discovered serendipitously a 5-minute long burst of X-rays coming from within the spiral galaxy NGC 2770, located 90 million light-years away towards the Lynx constellation. The Swift satellite was studying a supernova that had exploded the previous year in the same galaxy, but the burst of X-rays came from another location, and was soon shown to arise from a different supernova, named SN 2008D. Researchers at the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), ESO, and at various other institutions have observed the supernova at great length. The team is led by Paolo Mazzali of INAF's Padova Observatory and MPA. "What made this event very interesting," says Mazzali, "is that the X-ray signal was very

  9. The Economic Benefits Of Multipurpose Reservoirs In The United States- Federal Hydropower Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Witt, Adam M.; Stewart, Kevin M.; Bonnet Acosta, Marisol; Mobley, Miles

    2015-09-01

    The United States is home to over 80,000 dams, of which approximately 3% are equipped with hydroelectric generating capabilities. When a dam serves as a hydropower facility, it provides a variety of energy services that range from clean, reliable power generation to load balancing that supports grid stability. In most cases, the benefits of dams and their associated reservoirs go far beyond supporting the nation s energy demand. As evidenced by the substantial presence of non-powered dams with the ability to store water in large capacities, the primary purpose of a dam may not be hydropower, but rather one of many other purposes. A dam and reservoir may support navigation, recreation, flood control, irrigation, and water supply, with each multipurpose benefit providing significant social and economic impacts on a local, regional, and national level. When hydropower is one of the services provided by a multipurpose reservoir, it is then part of an integrated system of competing uses. Operating rules, management practices, consumer demands, and environmental constraints must all be balanced to meet the multipurpose project s objectives. When federal dams are built, they are authorized by Congress to serve one or more functions. Legislation such as the Water Resources Development Act regulates the operation of the facility in order to coordinate the authorized uses and ensure the dam s intended objectives are being met. While multipurpose reservoirs account for billions of dollars in contributions to National Economic Development (NED) every year, no attempt has been made to evaluate their benefits on a national scale. This study is an on-going work conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to estimate the economic benefits of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs in the United States. Given the important role that federal hydropower plays in the U.S., the first focus of this research will target the three main federal hydropower owners Tennessee Valley

  10. Recycled ejecta modulating Strombolian explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capponi, Antonio; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Palladino, Danilo M.

    2016-02-01

    Two main end-members of eruptive regimes are identified from analyses of high-speed videos collected at Stromboli volcano (Italy), based on vent conditions: one where the vent is completely clogged by debris, and a second where the vent is open, without any cover. By detailing the vent processes for each regime, we provide the first account of how the presence of a cover affects eruptive dynamics compared to open-vent explosions. For clogged vents, explosion dynamics are controlled by the amount and grain size of the debris. Fine-grained covers are entirely removed by explosions, favouring the generation of fine ash plumes, while coarse-grained covers are only partially removed by the explosions, involving minor amounts of ash. In both fine- and coarse-grained cases, in-vent ground deformation of the debris reflect variations in the volumetric expansion of gas in the conduit, with rates of change of the deformation comparable to ground inflation related to pre-burst conduit pressurization. Eruptions involve the ejection of relatively slow and cold bombs and lapilli, and debris is observed to both fall back into the vent after each explosion and to gravitationally accumulate between explosions by rolling down the inner crater flanks to produce the cover itself. Part of this material may also contribute to the formation of a more degassed, crystallized and viscous magma layer at the top of the conduit. Conversely, open-vent explosions erupt with hotter pyroclasts, with higher exit velocity and with minor or no ash phase involved.

  11. Phase transformation behavior in a multipurpose dental casting gold alloy during continuous heating.

    PubMed

    Kim, H I; Seol, H J; Hisatsune, K; Htain-Winn; Sakrana, A A; Takuma, Y; Kawasaki, K

    2000-01-01

    Phase transformation in a multipurpose dental casting gold alloy during continuous heating was studied by electrical resistivity measurements, hardness tests, X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The behavior can be explained by the following reaction sequences in the nodule: alpha1(fcc) + alpha2(L1(2)) --> alpha1(fcc) + alpha2(L1(2)) + beta(L1(0)), where fcc is face centred cubic. A discontinuous precipitation with very fine nodules contributed to the hardening and the growth produced the softening. This multipurpose gold alloy is characterized by the introduction of a PtZn ordered phase with L1(0) structure instead of a CuAu I phase.

  12. Disinfecting action of a new multi-purpose disinfection solution for contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, R A; Bell, W M; Abshire, R

    1999-01-01

    The disinfection activity of a new multipurpose disinfection solution (OPTI-FREE Express with ALDOX) was compared to several other contact lens disinfecting solutions. The new solution is preserved with polyquaternium-1 and myristamidopropyl dimethylamine. The other solutions included 3% hydrogen peroxide systems and multipurpose solutions (MPS) preserved with polyhexamethylene biguanide. The products were tested for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, and Aspergillus fumigatus. OPTI-FREE Express provided a broader range of antimicrobial activity than the MPS. It provided activity similar to that demonstrated by 3% hydrogen peroxide systems, but unlike the hydrogen peroxide system tested, it also prevented re growth of the organisms during extended storage. PMID:16303414

  13. Zone Management of Multi-Purpose Use of Groundwater Via Spatial Variability Analysis of Water Quality and Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C. P.; Chen, C. F.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is comprehensively used for irrigation, aquaculture and public water supply in Pingtung plain. Establishing a sound management plan of multi-purpose groundwater utilization in Pingtung plain is imperial for water resources sustainability. When extracting groundwater for such multi-purpose use, the major concerns are to assure the meets for the different water quality standards for various water use sectors demand and minimizing the pumping impacts on aquifers. The groundwater quality and hydrogeological conditions play important roles in multi-purpose groundwater utilization. Management and effective use of groundwater typically face great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study combines the variability of groundwater quality and hydrological condition to propose zonal management of multi-purpose use of groundwater in Pingtung plain. Based on the water quality standards for various groundwater utilization sectors, the integration of hydrochemical parameters are used to delineate most appropriate zones of various groundwater utilization sectors. For evaluation of hydrogeological condition, transmissivity which represents the ability of water transmitted in aquifer is adopted to determine the most suitable zones of groundwater extraction. Based on the analytical results of the water quality parameters and transmissivity in combination with actual groundwater utilization, a zonal management plan of multi-purpose groundwater utilization is established. The framework in this project can provide an effective tool for government administrator establishing a zonal management of multi-purpose groundwater utilization in Pingtung plain.

  14. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 ×25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ≥ Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As. PMID:26230506

  15. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 ×25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ≥ Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As.

  16. Shock Initiation of Heterogeneous Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2004-05-10

    The fundamental picture that shock initiation in heterogeneous explosives is caused by the linking of hot spots formed at inhomogeneities was put forward by several researchers in the 1950's and 1960's, and more recently. Our work uses the computer hardware and software developed in the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the U.S. Department of Energy to explicitly include heterogeneities at the scale of the explosive grains and to calculate the consequences of realistic although approximate models of explosive behavior. Our simulations are performed with ALE-3D, a three-dimensional, elastic-plastic-hydrodynamic Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler finite-difference program, which includes chemical kinetics and heat transfer, and which is under development at this laboratory. We developed the parameter values for a reactive-flow model to describe the non-ideal detonation behavior of an HMX-based explosive from the results of grain-scale simulations. In doing so, we reduced the number of free parameters that are inferred from comparison with experiment to a single one - the characteristic defect dimension. We also performed simulations of the run to detonation in small volumes of explosive. These simulations illustrate the development of the reaction zone and the acceleration of the shock front as the flame fronts start from hot spots, grow, and interact behind the shock front. In this way, our grain-scale simulations can also connect to continuum experiments directly.

  17. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L

    2009-10-16

    Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

  18. Multi-Purpose, Application-Centric, Scalable I/O Proxy Application

    2015-06-15

    MACSio is a Multi-purpose, Application-Centric, Scalable I/O proxy application. It is designed to support a number of goals with respect to parallel I/O performance testing and benchmarking including the ability to test and compare various I/O libraries and I/O paradigms, to predict scalable performance of real applications and to help identify where improvements in I/O performance can be made within the HPC I/O software stack.

  19. The International Space Station's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, Thermal Performance of the First Five Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Cho, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Logistics Module is the primary carrier for transport of pressurized payload to the International Space Station. Performing five missions within a thirteen month span provided a unique opportunity to gather a great deal of information toward understanding and verifying the orbital performance of the vehicle. This paper will provide a brief overview of the hardware history and design capabilities followed by a summary of the missions flown, resource requirements and possibilities for the future.

  20. Component Analysis of Multipurpose Contact Lens Solutions To Enhance Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Leo; Kim, Janie; Chen, Hope; Kowalski, Regis; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    More than 125 million people wear contact lenses worldwide, and contact lens use is the single greatest risk factor for developing microbial keratitis. We tested the antibacterial activity of multipurpose contact lens solutions and their individual component preservatives against the two most common pathogens causing bacterial keratitis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus The in vitro antibacterial activity of five multipurpose contact lens solutions (Opti-Free GP, Boston Simplus, Boston Advance, Menicare GP, and Lobob) was assayed by the standard broth dilution method. Synergy between the preservative components found in the top performing solutions was assayed using checkerboard and time-kill assays. The ISO 14729 criteria and the standard broth dilution method were used to define an optimized contact lens solution formulation against a clinical panel of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains. Preservatives with the biguanide function group, chlorhexidine and polyaminopropylbiguanide (PAPB), had the best antistaphylococcal activity, while EDTA was the best antipseudomonal preservative. The combination of chlorhexidine and EDTA had excellent synergy against P. aeruginosa A solution formulation containing chlorhexidine (30 ppm), PAPB (5 ppm), and EDTA (5,000 ppm) had three to seven times more antipseudomonal activity than anything available to consumers today. A multipurpose contact lens solution containing a combination of chlorhexidine, PAPB, and EDTA could help to reduce the incidence of microbial keratitis for contact lens users worldwide. PMID:27139484

  1. Instrument safety in explosive atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Bossert, J A

    1975-01-01

    The current "Energy Crisis" has dramatically increased our potential need for coal, the worlds most abundant fossil fuel. This will probably lead to a greater use of automation and instrumentation in the coal mining industry. The presence of methane in coal mines and in the coal itself plus the presence of coal dust, both of which can form an explosive atmosphere in air, means that the possibility of a gas or coal dust ignition must be considered when designing, purchasing and installing new equipment in this industry. In addition, many metallurgical processes involve the use of potentially explosive substances against which similar safety precautions must be taken. This paper outlines the various methods of protection currently in use and proposed for electrical instruments in explosive atmospheres, with particular emphasis on the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission.

  2. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  3. Explosive evaporation in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a simple analytical model for the phenomenon of 'explosive evaporation' driven by nonthermal electron heating in solar flares. The model relates the electron energy flux and spectrum, plus details of the preflare atmosphere, to the time scale for explosive evaporation to occur, the maximum pressure and temperature to be reached, rough estimates for the UV pulse emission flux and duration, and the evolution of the blueshifted component of the soft X-ray lines. An expression is given for the time scale for buildup to maximum pressures and the onset of rapid motion of the explosively evaporating plasma. This evaporation can excite a rapid response of UV line and continuum emission. The emission lines formed in the plasma approach a given emissivity-weighted blueshift speed.

  4. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Mcgrane, Shawn D; Greenfield, Margo T; Scharff, R J; Rabitz, Herschel A; Roslund, J

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  5. Evidence for nearby supernova explosions.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Narciso; Maíz-Apellániz, Jesús; Canelles, Matilde

    2002-02-25

    Supernova (SN) explosions are one of the most energetic---and potentially lethal---phenomena in the Universe. We show that the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, a group of young stars currently located at approximately 130 pc from the Sun, has generated 20 SN explosions during the last 11 Myr, some of them probably as close as 40 pc to our planet. The deposition on Earth of (60)Fe atoms produced by these explosions can explain the recent measurements of an excess of this isotope in deep ocean crust samples. We propose that approximately 2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction.

  6. The Most Powerful Stellar Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Heger, Alexander; Woosley, Stan; Almgren, Ann; Zhang, Weiqun

    2013-04-01

    We present the results from our 3D simulations of thermonuclear supernovae from the stars with initial masses above 80 solar masses by using CASTRO, a new, massively parallel, multidimensional Eulerian, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), radiation-hydrodynamics code. We first use Kepler, a one-dimensional spherically-symmetric Lagrangian code to model the possible explosions beyond hypernovae. These extreme explosions include two types of electron/positron production instability supernovae and one type of general relativity instability supernovae. The resulting 1D presupernova profiles are mapped onto 3D grids of CASTRO as initial conditions. We simulate the explosion in 3D and resolve the emergent fluid instabilities. In this talk, we will discuss the energetics, nucleosynthesis, and possible observational signatures of these supernovae.

  7. Coulomb explosion of "hot spot"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Oreshkin, E. V.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Artyomov, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed, and the estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

  8. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, Jack L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Von Holle, William G.

    1994-01-01

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

  9. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, J.L.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.G.

    1994-01-04

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124 is described. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124. 3 figures.

  10. Explosive coalescence of magnetic islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.-I.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation results from both the EM collisionless particle code and the MHD particle code reveal an explosive reconnection process associated with nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability. The explosive coalescence is a self-similar process of magnetic collapse, and ensuing amplitude oscillations in the magnetic and electrostatic energies and temperatures are modeled by an equation of motion for the scale factor in the Sagdeev potential. This phenomenon may explain the rapid energy release of a certain class of solar flares during their impulsive phase.

  11. Studies in combustion and explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, Gregory I.

    1999-10-31

    The objective of the proposed research is to investigate the influence of various aerodynamical, diffusive-thermal, radiative and reaction-rate factors on certain fundamental phenomena concerning combustion and explosion of gaseous premixtures. Different modeling techniques will be employed to reduce the study of pertinent physical systems to simple approximate problems tractable either analytically or numerically. Specifically the authors plan to study: (1) fluid dynamical aspects of flame anchoring by solid bodies; (2) fluid dynamical aspects of thermal explosion and fire flashover; (3) fluid dynamical aspects of fuel leakage in near-limit-flames; (4) reduced models for gaseous detonation.

  12. Lightning Protection for Explosive Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M

    2001-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory funds construction of lightning protection systems to protect explosive processing and storage facilities. This paper provides an intuitive understanding of the lighting risks and types of lightning protection available. Managers can use this information to decide if limited funds should be spent constructing a lightning protection system for their own facilities. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Why do you need lightning protection systems? (2) How do lightning protection systems work? and (3) Why are there no documented cases of lightning problems at existing explosive facilities?

  13. Detonation wave profiles in HMX based explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, R.L.; Sheffield, S.A.; Alcon, R.R.

    1997-11-01

    Detonation wave profiles have been measured in several HMX based plastic bonded explosives including PBX9404, PBX9501, and EDC-37, as well as two HMX powders (coarse and fine) pressed to 65% of crystal density. The powders had 120 and 10 {micro}m average grain sizes, respectively. Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with projectiles launched in a 72-mm bore gas gun. Impactors, impact velocity, and explosive thickness were chosen so that the run distance to detonation was always less than half the explosive thickness. For the high density plastic bonded explosives, particle velocity wave profiles were measured at an explosive/window interface using two VISAR interferometers. PMMA windows with vapor deposited aluminum mirrors were used for all experiments. Wave profiles for the powdered explosives were measured using magnetic particle velocity gauges. Estimates of the reaction zone parameters were obtained from the profiles using Hugoniots of the explosive and window.

  14. Apparatus for monitoring linear explosive performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques provide performance monitoring standard for acceptance, lot qualification, and comparison testing of devices. Exhibit high degree of simplicity, accuracy, and reproducibility. Apparatus simultaneously measures explosive pressure stimulus energy, explosive cutting, or rupturing, ability, and detonation propagation rate.

  15. Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

  16. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  17. Soft container for explosive nuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, D. C.; Drummond, W. E.; Miller, G.

    1981-01-01

    Flexible fabric fits over variety of assembly shapes to contain debris produced by detonations or safety tests. Bag material is woven multifilament polyamide or aramid. Belt loops hold bag to clamp. Ring supports explosive nut structure and detonator wires, and after nut is mounted, bag and clamp are slipped over ring and fastened.

  18. Measuring explosive non-ideality

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C

    1999-02-17

    The sonic reaction zone length may be measured by four methods: (1) size effect, (2) detonation front curvature, (3) crystal interface velocity and (4) in-situ gauges. The amount of data decreases exponentially from (1) to (4) with there being almost no gauge data for prompt detonation at steady state. The ease and clarity of obtaining the reaction zone length increases from (1) to (4). The method of getting the reaction zone length, , is described for the four methods. A measure of non-ideality is proposed: the reaction zone length divided by the cylinder radius. N = /R{sub o}. N = 0 for true ideality. It also decreases with increasing radius as it should. For N < 0.10, an equilibrium EOS like the JWL may be used. For N > 0.10, a time-dependent description is essential. The crystal experiment, which measures the particle velocity of an explosive-transparent material interface, is presently rising in importance. We examine the data from three experiments and apply: (1) an impedance correction that transfers the explosive C-J particle velocity to the corresponding value for the interface, and (2) multiplies the interface time by 3/4 to simulate the explosive speed of sound. The result is a reaction zone length comparable to those obtained by other means. A few explosives have reaction zones so small that the change of slope in the particle velocity is easily seen.

  19. Numerical Simulations of Thermobaric Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B

    2007-05-04

    A Model of the energy evolution in thermobaric explosions is presented. It is based on the two-phase formulation: conservation laws for the gas and particle phases along with inter-phase interaction terms. It incorporates a Combustion Model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields. The Model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the fuel (Al or TNT detonation products) with air. Numerical simulations were performed for 1.5-g thermobaric explosions in five different chambers (volumes ranging from 6.6 to 40 liters and length-to-diameter ratios from 1 to 12.5). Computed pressure waveforms were very similar to measured waveforms in all cases - thereby proving that the Model correctly predicts the energy evolution in such explosions. The computed global fuel consumption {mu}(t) behaved as an exponential life function. Its derivative {dot {mu}}(t) represents the global rate of fuel consumption. It depends on the rate of turbulent mixing which controls the rate of energy release in thermobaric explosions.

  20. Mound calorimetry for explosive surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Shockey, G.C.; Rodenburg, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    Heat of reaction determinations of pyrotechnics and explosives is made at MRC-Mound by bomb calorimetry. Energy releases from ten calories to 94 kilocalories have been measured accurately using four different calorimeter systems. Each system is described and some heat of reaction results are given. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Lead-free primary explosives

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  2. Experimental Investigations of Multiphase Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Joel R.; Lightstone, James M.; McGrath, Thomas P.

    2009-12-01

    The addition of solid fuel particles to explosive formulations generally reduces the detonation velocity, but can enhance the blast performance if prompt combustion of the particles occurs in the detonation products and surrounding air early enough to support the shock. The degree to which fuel particles burn heavily depends on their dispersal throughout the explosion field and access to oxidizers. To distinguish the factors affecting the dispersal of fuel particles from those controlling their combustion, we began by analyzing the dispersal of equivalent mock inert particles. Solid glass spheres embedded in detonating small explosive charges were tracked using high-speed digital shadowgraphy. Two different particle sizes, 3 and 30 μm, and different mass fractions in the explosive compositions were considered. Shadowgraphs and pressure measurements were compared to the predictions of a newly developed multiphase numerical model. Reactive aluminum particles in the range of 1 to 120 μm in diameter were also analyzed. During the first 50 μs of the expansion, the general trend for both reactive and inert particles is for the smaller particles to expand near or beyond the leading shock wave to a greater extent than the larger particles. Expansion beyond the initial shock from the detonation is presumed to occur when particles agglomerate. The results are consistent with the predictions of the numerical models, highlighting the role of simple factors such as particle size and density in the early time expansion and mixing of fuels for enhanced blast applications.

  3. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  4. Shock response of several plastic bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, G.T.; Ashwell, K.D.; OConnor, J.H.; Baker, R.N.; Lemar, E.R.

    1996-05-01

    Multiple {ital in situ} manganin gauge experiments were performed on explosive compositions IRX-1, IRX-3A, PBXN-111 (PBXW-115), and PBXN-110 (PBXW-113). For most explosives, stress-time profiles show substantial reaction. These profiles are compared to those measured in other explosives and plans are discussed for future reactive rate modeling involving these explosives. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Explosives for Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Explosive charges of various sizes were investigated for use in lunar seismic studies. Program logistics, and the specifications for procurement of bulk explosives are described. The differential analysis, thermal properties, and detonation velocity measurements on HNS/Teflon 7C 90/10 are reported along with the field tests of the hardware. It is concluded that nearly all large explosive charges crack after fabrication, from aging or thermal shock. The cracks do not affect the safety, or reliability of the explosives.

  6. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  7. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  8. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  9. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  10. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... the configuration of the launch site is in accordance with an explosive site plan, and that...

  11. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-522)....

  12. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  13. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179. ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound...

  14. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-522)....

  15. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179. ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound...

  16. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179. ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound...

  17. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... the configuration of the launch site is in accordance with an explosive site plan, and that...

  18. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  19. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  20. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound...

  1. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179. ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound...

  2. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  3. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... the configuration of the launch site is in accordance with an explosive site plan, and that...

  4. Thermally stable, plastic-bonded explosives

    DOEpatents

    Benziger, Theodore M.

    1979-01-01

    By use of an appropriate thermoplastic rubber as the binder, the thermal stability and thermal stress characteristics of plastic-bonded explosives may be greatly improved. In particular, an HMX-based explosive composition using an oil-extended styrene-ethylenebutylene-styrene block copolymer as the binder exhibits high explosive energy and thermal stability and good handling safety and physical properties.

  5. Doping explosive materials for neutron radiographic enhancement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of studies relating to the selection of doping materials of high neutron absorption usable for enhancing the neutron radiographic imaging of explosive mixtures, without interfering with the proper chemical reaction of the explosives. The results of the studies show that gadolinium oxide is an excellent material for doping explosive mixtures to enhance the neutron radiographic image.

  6. Analysis of Picattiny Sample for Trace Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Klunder, G; Whipple, R; Carman, L; Spackman, P E; Reynolds, J; Alcaraz, A

    2008-05-23

    The sample received from Picatinny Arsenal was analyzed for trace amounts of high explosives (HE). A complete wash of the surface was performed, concentrated, and analyzed using two sensitive analysis techniques that are capable of detecting numerous types of explosives. No explosives were detected with either test.

  7. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  8. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  9. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Identification of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive materials,...

  10. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  11. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  12. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  13. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive...

  14. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive...

  15. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  16. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  17. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  18. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  19. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  20. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  1. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  2. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Identification of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive materials,...

  3. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  4. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  5. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  6. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive...

  7. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain.

  8. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain. PMID:27343131

  9. Effects of microgravity on muscular explosive power of the lower limbs in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonutto, G.; Capelli, C.; Giradis, M.; Zamparo, P.; di Prampero, P. E.

    The maximal explosive power of the lower limbs of one astronaut has been measured before launch, and 2, 6 and 11 days after re-entry from 31 days on the IIR. Station (EUROMIR '94). The subject, sitting on the carriage-seat of a Multipurpose Ergometer-Dynamometer (MED) constructed ad hoc in our laboratory, pushed maximally with both feet on two force platforms (knees angle 110 °). The carriage was free to move backwards on two rails inclined 20 ° upwards. The force (F) of the lower limbs and the speed of the carriage (v) were recorded and the instantaneous mechanical power (ẇ) was calculated as ẇ = F ∗ v. The average value mechanical power (ẇ max) throughout the explosive effort was then obtained. The overall duration of the push was on the average about 0.3 s. It was observed that, at day R + 2, mean force, maximal velocity, maximal power (mean and peak), maximal acceleration and overall mechanical work, were all reduced between 60 and 80% of pre-flight values. However, the recovery was remarkably fast, since all these parameters attained about 90% of pre-flight values by day R + 11.

  10. Explosive events on the Sun.

    PubMed

    Harra, Louise K

    2002-12-15

    I describe two of the most dynamic and highly energetic phenomena in the Solar System--the explosive flares that can occur when plasma is confined by magnetic fields and the large-scale ejections of material known as 'coronal mass ejections'. These explosive events are poorly understood and yet occur in a variety of contexts in the Universe, ranging from planetary magnetospheres to active galactic nuclei. Understanding why flares and coronal mass ejections occur is a major goal across a wide range of space physics and astrophysics. Although explosive events from the Sun have dramatic effects on Earth, flares in other stars, for example, can be vastly more energetic and have an even more profound effect on their environment. We are now in the unprecedented position of having access to a number of space observatories dedicated to the Sun: the Yohkoh spacecraft, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. These cover a wide wavelength range from white light to gamma rays with both spectroscopy and imaging, and allow huge progress to be made in understanding the processes involved in such large explosions. The high-resolution data show dramatic and complex explosions of material on all spatial scales on the Sun. They have revealed that the Sun is constantly changing everywhere on its surface--something that was never imagined before. One of the mechanisms that has been proposed to account for the large energy release is magnetic reconnection. Recent observations from space increasingly support this view. This article will discuss those observations that support this model and also those that suggest different processes. The current space missions have given us an excellent insight into the actual explosive processes in the Sun. However, they have provided us with only a tantalizing glimpse of what causes the elusive trigger. Future missions such as Solar-B (the follow-on to

  11. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  12. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives.

    PubMed

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-04-30

    The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  13. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  14. The Multi-Purpose Detector for NICA heavy-Ion Collider at JINR

    SciTech Connect

    Rogachevsky, O. V.

    2012-05-15

    The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. Its main components located inside a superconducting solenoid are a tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber, a time-of-flight system for particle identification and a barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. A zero degree hadron calorimeter is designed specifically to measure the energy of spectators. In this paper, all parts of the apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

  15. Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dallas; Glasgow, Shaun; Reagan, Shawn; Presson, Keith; Howard, David; Smith, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The STS-121/ULF1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the Programmable Thermostat Module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a Data Recorder Module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This paper will discuss the hardware design, development, test and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

  16. Multi-purpose grating spectrograph for the 4-meter European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; Collados, M.; Feller, A.; Gelly, B.; Grauf, B.; Hirzberger, J.; López Ariste, A.; Lopez, R. L.; Mein, P.; Sayéde, F.

    2012-09-01

    This communication presents a family of spectrographs designed for the European Solar Telescope. They can operate in four different configurations: a long slit standard spectrograph (LsSS), two devices based on subtractive double pass (TUNIS and MSDP) and one based on an integral field, multi-slit, multi-wavelength configuration. The combination of them composes the multi-purpose grating spectrograph of EST, focused on supporting the different science cases of the solar photosphere and chromosphere in the spectral range from 3900 Å to 23000 Å. The different alternatives are made compatible by using the same base spectrographs and different selectable optical elements corresponding to specific subsystems of each configuration.

  17. Multi-purpose extraocular forceps for small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Elias; Chun, Dal W; Gurley, Kiersten

    2012-01-01

    A multi-purpose titanium forceps has been developed for small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy surgery. These forceps were designed to provide the vitreoretinal surgeon with a single tool for the extraocular manipulations that are necessary for the placement and removal of 23- and 25-gauge trochars for small-incision, sutureless pars plana vitrectomy surgery. The forceps has been designed to allow for the atraumatic manipulation of the conjunctiva, measurement of distance from the limbus, and a strong purchase of the trochar for both its fixation and removal.

  18. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

  19. Printable sensors for explosive detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Matthew J. Cooling, Nathan A.; Elkington, Daniel C.; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.; Muller, Elmar

    2014-10-06

    Here, we report the development of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based on printable solution processed polymers and employing a quantum tunnelling composite material as a sensor to convert the pressure wave output from detonation transmission tubing (shock tube) into an inherently amplified electronic signal for explosives initiation. The organic electronic detector allows detection of the signal in a low voltage operating range, an essential feature for sites employing live ordinances that is not provided by conventional electronic devices. We show that a 30-fold change in detector response is possible using the presented detector assembly. Degradation of the OTFT response with both time and repeated voltage scans was characterised, and device lifetime is shown to be consistent with the requirements for on-site printing and usage. The integration of a low cost organic electronic detector with inexpensive shock tube transmission fuse presents attractive avenues for the development of cheap and simple assemblies for precisely timed initiation of explosive chains.

  20. Ranchero Explosive Pulsed Power Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goforth, J.H.; Atchison, W.L.; Deninger, W.J.; Fowler, C.M.; Herrera, D.H.; King, J.C.; Lopez, E.A.; Oona, H.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Stokes, J.L.; Sena, F.C.; Tabaka, L.J.; Tasker, D.G.; Torres, D.T.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Taylor, A.J.; Rodriguez, G.; Oro, D.M.; Garcia, O.F.; parker, J.V.; Broste, W.B.

    1999-06-27

    The authors are developing the Ranchero high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system to power cylindrically imploding solid-density liners for hydrodynamics experiments. The near-term goal is to conduct experiments in the regime pertinent to the Atlas Capacitor bank. That is, they will attempt to implode liners of {approximately}50 g mass at velocities approaching 15 km/sec. The basic building block of the HEPP system is a coaxial generator with a 304.8 mm diameter stator, and an initial armature diameter of 152 mm. The armature is expanded by a high explosive (HE) charge detonated simultaneously along its axis. They have reported a variety of experiments conducted with generator modules 43 cm long and have presented an initial design for hydrodynamic liner experiments. In this paper they give a synopsis of their first system test, and a status report on the development of a generator module that is 1.4 m long.

  1. Liquids and homemade explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenbogen, Michael; Bijjani, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Excerpt from the US Transportation Security Agency website: "The ban on liquids, aerosols and gels was implemented on August 10 after a terrorist plot was foiled. Since then, experts from around the government, including the FBI and our national labs have analyzed the information we now have and have conducted extensive explosives testing to get a better understanding of this specific threat." In order to lift the ban and ease the burden on the flying public, Reveal began an extensive effort in close collaboration with the US and several other governments to help identify these threats. This effort resulted in the successful development and testing of an automated explosive detection system capable of resolving these threats with a high probability of detection and a low false alarm rate. We will present here some of the methodology and approach we took to address this problem.

  2. Stellar explosions, instabilities, and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Miles, A. R.; Muthsam, H. J.; Plewa, T.

    2009-04-15

    It has become very clear that the evolution of structure during supernovae is centrally dependent on the pre-existing structure in the star. Modeling of the pre-existing structure has advanced significantly, leading to improved understanding and to a physically based assessment of the structure that will be present when a star explodes. It remains an open question whether low-mode asymmetries in the explosion process can produce the observed effects or whether the explosion mechanism somehow produces jets of material. In any event, the workhorse processes that produce structure in an exploding star are blast-wave driven instabilities. Laboratory experiments have explored these blast-wave-driven instabilities and specifically their dependence on initial conditions. Theoretical work has shown that the relative importance of Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities varies with the initial conditions and does so in ways that can make sense of a range of astrophysical observations.

  3. Explosives detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  4. Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; Cawkwell, Marc J.

    2015-04-14

    Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, and an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.

  5. Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives

    DOE PAGES

    Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; Cawkwell, Marc J.

    2015-04-14

    Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, andmore » an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.« less

  6. Fluid Instabilities inside Astrophysical Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Zheng, Weiqun

    2014-11-01

    We present our results from the simulations of fluid instabilities inside supernovae with a new radiation-hydrodynamic code, CASTRO. Massive stars are ten times more massive than Sun. Observational and theoretical studies suggest that these massive stars tend to end their lives with energetic explosions, so-called supernovae. Many fluid instabilities occur during the supernova explosions. The fluid instabilities can be driven by hydrodynamics, nuclear burning, or radiation. In this talk, we discuss about the possible physics of fluid instabilities found in our simulations and how the resulting mixing affects the observational signatures of supernovae. This work was supported by the DOE HEP Program under contract DE-SC0010676; the National Science Foundation (AST 0909129) and the NASA Theory Program (NNX14AH34G).

  7. Applying NASA's explosive seam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.

    1991-01-01

    The status of an explosive seam welding process, which was developed and evaluated for a wide range of metal joining opportunities, is summarized. The process employs very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration to accelerate a long-length, narrow area of sheet stock into a high-velocity, angular impact against a second sheet. At impact, the oxide films of both surface are broken up and ejected by the closing angle to allow atoms to bond through the sharing of valence electrons. This cold-working process produces joints having parent metal properties, allowing a variety of joints to be fabricated that achieve full strength of the metals employed. Successful joining was accomplished in all aluminum alloys, a wide variety of iron and steel alloys, copper, brass, titanium, tantalum, zirconium, niobium, telerium, and columbium. Safety issues were addressed and are as manageable as many currently accepted joining processes.

  8. Photographic laboratory studies of explosions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamel, M. M.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a series of cinematographic studies of explosions made with a high-speed rotating-mirror streak camera which uses a high-frequency stroboscopic ruby laser as the light source. The results obtained mainly concern explosions initiated by focused laser irradiation from a pulsed neodymium laser in a detonating gas consisting essentially of an equimolar mixture of acetylene and oxygen at an initial pressure of 100 torr at room temperature. Among the most significant observations were observations of a spherical blast wave preceded by a Chapman-Jouguet detonation which is stabilized immediately after initiation, the merging of a spherical flame with a shock front of the blast wave in which the flame is propagating, the division of a spherical detonation front into a shock wave and flame, and the generation of shock waves by a network of spherical flames.

  9. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  10. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  11. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L

    2010-03-12

    We investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from condensed explosive charges. These states are often modeled with a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function. However, the JWL function is not a Fundamental Equation of Thermodynamics, and therefore cannot give a complete specification of such states. We use the Cheetah code of Fried to study the loci of states of the expanded detonation products gases from C-4 charges, and their combustion products air. In the Le Chatelier Plane of specific-internal-energy versus temperature, these loci are fit with a Quadratic Model function u(T), which has been shown to be valid for T < 3,000 K and p < 1k-bar. This model is used to derive a Fundamental Equation u(v,s) for C-4. Given u(v,s), one can use Maxwell's Relations to derive all other thermodynamic functions, such as temperature: T(v,s), pressure: p(v,s), enthalpy: h(v,s), Gibbs free energy: g(v,s) and Helmholz free energy: f(v,s); these loci are displayed in figures for C-4. Such complete equations of state are needed for numerical simulations of blast waves from explosive charges, and their reflections from surfaces.

  12. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  13. Energy transfer in solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C.M.; Fried, L.E.; Ruggiero, A.J.; Calef, D.F.

    1993-07-01

    The nonequilibrium Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring theory of detonation in solid explosives is extended to include recent nanosecond and picosecond experimental and theoretical results on each of the four main regions of the reaction zone. The first region is the three-dimensional, Mach stem dominated leading shock front which excites the phonon modes of the explosive molecules in less than a picosecond. The second region is the multiphonon up-pumping process in which the excited phonons anharmonically couple to the low frequency (doorway) vibrational modes which in turn equilibrate with the higher frequency modes by internal vibrational redistribution. This process may require on the order of tens of picoseconds. The third region is the chemical reconstitution region in which the vibrationally equilibrated transition state decomposes in a series of chain reaction steps into highly vibrationally excited diatomic and triatomic molecules in approximately one nanosecond. The fourth region is dominated by vibrational deexcitation and solid species formation as chemical and thermal equilibrium is approached. This is the region measured by current nanosecond resolution techniques and can last from nanoseconds to microseconds depending on the oxygen balance of the solid explosive.

  14. Determination of Nanogram Microparticles from Explosives after Real Open-Air Explosions by Confocal Raman Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Explosives are increasingly being used for terrorist attacks to cause devastating explosions. The detection of their postblast residues after an explosion is a high challenge, which has been barely investigated, particularly using spectroscopic techniques. In this research, a novel methodology using confocal Raman microscopy has been developed for the analysis of postblast residues from 10 open-air explosions caused by 10 different explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP, HMTD, dynamite, black powder, ANFO, chloratite, and ammonal) commonly used in improvised explosive devices. The methodology for the determination of postblast particles from explosives consisted of examining the samples surfaces with both the naked eye, first, and microscopically (10× and 50×), immediately afterward; and finally, analyzing the selected residues by confocal Raman spectroscopy in order to identify the postblast particles from explosives. Interestingly, confocal Raman microscopy has demonstrated to be highly suitable to rapidly, selectively, and noninvasively analyze postblast microscopic particles from explosives up to the nanogram range. PMID:27281604

  15. Determination of Nanogram Microparticles from Explosives after Real Open-Air Explosions by Confocal Raman Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Explosives are increasingly being used for terrorist attacks to cause devastating explosions. The detection of their postblast residues after an explosion is a high challenge, which has been barely investigated, particularly using spectroscopic techniques. In this research, a novel methodology using confocal Raman microscopy has been developed for the analysis of postblast residues from 10 open-air explosions caused by 10 different explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP, HMTD, dynamite, black powder, ANFO, chloratite, and ammonal) commonly used in improvised explosive devices. The methodology for the determination of postblast particles from explosives consisted of examining the samples surfaces with both the naked eye, first, and microscopically (10× and 50×), immediately afterward; and finally, analyzing the selected residues by confocal Raman spectroscopy in order to identify the postblast particles from explosives. Interestingly, confocal Raman microscopy has demonstrated to be highly suitable to rapidly, selectively, and noninvasively analyze postblast microscopic particles from explosives up to the nanogram range.

  16. Data base of chemical explosions in Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect

    Demin, V.N.; Malahova, M.N.; Martysevich, P.N.; Mihaylova, N.N.; Nurmagambetov, A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F. D.; Edomin, V.I.

    1996-12-01

    Within the bounds of this report, the following works were done: (1) Information about explosion quarries, located in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kasakstan was summarized. (2) The general information about seismicity of areas of location of explosion quarries was adduced. (3) The system of observation and seismic apparatus, recording the local earthquakes and quarry explosions at the territory of Kazakstan were described. (4) Data base of quarry explosions, that were carried out in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kazakstan during 1995 and first half of 1996 year was adduced. (5) Upon the data of registration of explosions in Southern Kazakstan the correlative dependences between power class of explosions and summary weight of charge were constructed. (6) Seismic records of quarry explosions were adduced. It is necessary to note, that the collection of data about quarry explosions in Kazakstan in present time is very difficult task. Organizations, that makes these explosions, are always suffering reorganizations and sometimes it is actually impossible to receive all the necessary information. Some quarries are situated in remote, almost inaccessible regions, and within the bounds of supplier financing not the every quarry was in success to visit. So the present data base upon the chemical explosions for 1995 is not full and in further it`s expansion is possible.

  17. Totally confined explosive welding. [apparatus to reduce noise level and protect personnel during explosive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and associated apparatus for confining the undesirable by-products and limiting noise of explosive welding are discussed. The apparatus consists fo a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and within which the explosion occurs. The shape of the enclosure, the placement of the explosive, and the manner in which the enclosure is placed upon the material to be welded determine the force of the explosion transmitted to the proposed bond area. The explosion is totally confined within the enclosure thus reducing the noise level and preventing debris from being strewn about to contaminate the weld area or create personnel hazards.

  18. Development of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coatings for multipurpose mechanical pump seals.

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalchenko, A. M.; Elam, J. W.; Erdemir, A.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Libera, J. A.; Pellin, M. J.; Gruen, D. M.; Hryn, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and performance of silicon carbide (SiC) shaft seals on multipurpose mechanical pumps are improved by applying a protective coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). UNCD exhibits extreme hardness (97 GPa), low friction (0.1 in air) and outstanding chemical resistance. Consequently, the application of UNCD coatings to multipurpose mechanical pump seals can reduce frictional energy losses and eliminate the downtime and hazardous emissions from seal failure and leakage. In this study, UNCD films were prepared by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition utilizing an argon/methane gas mixture. Prior to coating, the SiC seals were subjected to mechanical polishing using different grades of micron-sized diamond powder to produce different starting surfaces with well-controlled surface roughnesses. Following this roughening process, the seals were seeded by mechanical abrasion with diamond nanopowder, and subsequently coated with UNCD. The coated seals were subjected to dynamic wear testing performed at 3600 RPM and 100 psi for up to 10 days during which the seals were periodically removed and inspected. The UNCD-coated seals were examined using Raman microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and adhesion testing before and after the wear testing. These analyses revealed that delamination of the UNCD films was prevented when the initial SiC seal surface had an initial roughness >0.1 {micro}m. In addition, the UNCD surfaces showed no measurable wear as compared to approximately 0.2 {micro}m of wear for the untreated SiC surfaces.

  19. Basic evaluation of cast joining for electroformed coping using multi-purpose alloys.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Shiota, Makoto; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding interface and bonding strength of electroformed coping when cast joining was used with a multi-purpose alloy. The multi-purpose alloy was cast at a mold temperature of 700, 750 or 800 degrees C. A high noble alloy tab was also soldered onto an electroformed coping as a control. Sectioned surfaces of cast joining and soldered specimens were observed using a scanning electron microscope and analyzed using an electron probe micro analyzer. Shear bonding strength of specimens cast at 750 degrees C and that of soldered specimens were determined. The edge of the cast joining alloy was round, but this improved as temperature increased. Diffusion of elements from the cast joining alloy and electroformed coping was detected at the interface, which contributed to a significantly higher bonding strength in the cast joining specimen than in the soldered specimen. These results suggested that the cast joining could be potentially employed for electroformed copings.

  20. A self-timed multipurpose delay sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs).

    PubMed

    Osuna, Carlos Gómez; Ituero, Pablo; López-Vallejo, Marisa

    2013-12-20

    This paper presents a novel self-timed multi-purpose sensor especially conceived for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The aim of the sensor is to measure performance variations during the life-cycle of the device, such as process variability, critical path timing and temperature variations. The proposed topology, through the use of both combinational and sequential FPGA elements, amplifies the time of a signal traversing a delay chain to produce a pulse whose width is the sensor's measurement. The sensor is fully self-timed, avoiding the need for clock distribution networks and eliminating the limitations imposed by the system clock. One single off- or on-chip time-to-digital converter is able to perform digitization of several sensors in a single operation. These features allow for a simplified approach for designers wanting to intertwine a multi-purpose sensor network with their application logic. Employed as a temperature sensor, it has been measured to have an error of  ±0.67 °C, over the range of 20-100 °C, employing 20 logic elements with a 2-point calibration.

  1. Background-Oriented Schlieren Characterization of Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo, Cynthia; Hargather, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing the energy release from large explosions is a difficult process using traditional point-pressure gages. The background oriented schlieren technique is used here to provide large-field-of-view visualization of the shock wave propagation from large-scale explosions. This technique is used to allow field-measurements of blast wave properties instead of traditional point-wise measurements. By analyzing the shock wave propagation Mach number the peak overpressure and overpressure duration are estimated for different explosions. The technique is applied to the visualization of encased explosions, including car bombs, to estimate the amount of shock energy lost to the fragmentation and acceleration of the casing. Comparisons are made to un-encased explosions. The optically measured data is compared to experimental data recorded using piezoelectric pressure transducers. Scaling relationships are examined to determine scalability of encased explosions.

  2. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-07-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium.

  3. Explosive Vapor Detection Using Microcantilever Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George

    2007-01-01

    Explosive-based terrorism is an eminent threat to a civilized and free society. Accurate and cost-effective explosive sensors are, therefore, essential for combating the terrorist threat. Some of the main performance characteristics for explosive sensors include sensitivity, selectivity, and real-time fast operation. As the vapor pressures of commonly used explosives are extremely small, highly sensitive sensors are essential for detecting trace quantities of explosives. Moreover, the sensors should have high selectivity to have an acceptable rate of false positives. Also, these sensors should have the capability of mass deployment because of the breadth of terrorist threats involving explosives [1]. Finally, these sensors should have fast detection and regeneration time for fast operation. Currently available sensors are unable to satisfy these requirements.

  4. Eigenvalue Detonation of Combined Effects Aluminized Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellos, Christos; Baker, Ernest; Balas, Wendy; Nicolich, Steven; Stiel, Leonard

    2007-06-01

    This paper reports on the development of theory and performance for recently developed combined effects aluminized explosives. Traditional high energy explosives used for metal pushing incorporate high loading percentages of HMX or RDX, whereas blast explosives incorporate some percentage of aluminum. However, the high blast explosives produce increased blast energies, with reduced metal pushing capability due to late time aluminum reaction. Metal pushing capability refers to the early volume expansion work produced during the first few volume expansions associated with cylinder wall velocities and Gurney energies. Our Recently developed combined effects aluminized explosives (PAX-29C, PAX-30, PAX-42) are capable of achieving excellent metal pushing and high blast energies. Traditional Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory does not explain the observed detonation states achieved by these combined effects explosives. This work demonstrates, with the use of cylinder expansion data and thermochemical code calculations (JAGUAR and CHEETAH), that eigenvalue detonation theory explains the observed behavior.

  5. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  6. Sensor-trigger device for explosion barrier.

    PubMed

    Liebman, I; Duda, F; Conti, R

    1979-11-01

    A flame sensor-trigger device was developed for use with barriers to suppress coal dust explosions in undergound mines. Principal feature of the device is a dual infrared flame sensor combined with a pressure-arming element. This combination prevents false and premature triggering of the barrier. With minor modifications, the device can also be used with barriers for protection in other facilities against gas explosions and explosions involving dusts other than coal.

  7. Wireless sensor for detecting explosive material

    DOEpatents

    Lamberti, Vincent E; Howell, Jr., Layton N; Mee, David K; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting explosive devices. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon absorption of vapor from an explosive material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The explosive device is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  8. Scaling explosive activity at Stromboli Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    marchetti, emanuele; ripepe, maurizio

    2013-04-01

    Ordinary explosive activity at Stromboli volcano is sometimes interrupted by Paroxysms and more often by Major Explosions. Major explosion represent a primary element of risk, given the large amount of material ejected, able to reach Pizzo Sopra la Fossa and the other summit trails, and the frequency of occurrence (2.1 events/year). However, while paroxysms are easy to be identified and there is a general consensous on their occurrence this does not necessarily hold for Major Explosions. Generally, Major Explosions are defined as based on the amount of material emitted and on the area covered by the ejecta dispersal, as well as on the properties of material emitted, but this is not always possible nor suitable for a near-real time information delivery to Civil Defence Authorities. With this purpose we have analyzed the seismic, tilt and infrasonic data collected at Stromboli since 2008 for a total database >400000 events to provide a geophysical classification of major explosions. We assumed that seismic (in the VLP band), ground tilt, and the acoustic excess pressure are efficient signals to discriminate different explosive energy. We show how ordinary activity is confined below a seismic VLP ground displacement of 8x10-6 m, a deformation of 0.25 μrad and an infrasonic excess pressure of 100 Pa. A separate cluster of events, characterized by tilt and seismic displacement significantly larger than these threshold are defined as Major Explosions. Here we propose these threshold can be used to quantitatively discriminate between ordinary activity and Major explosions. While above these precise threshold we have several explosions which can be considered as Major Explosions, the two paroxysms are associated to orders of magnitude (ground displacement of 10-3 m and tilt of 10 μrad) larger ground tilt and seismic VLP displacement. Besides our classification is suggesting the existence of a possible energy gap between Major and Paroxysms explosive dynamics which has

  9. Explosibility of Victorian brown coal dust

    SciTech Connect

    Woskoboenko, F.

    1987-04-01

    The explosibility of Victorian brown coal dusts has been investigated in a wide range of equipment, including the 1.2 dm/sup 3/ Hartmann bomb and the 20 litre spherical bomb. The Hartmann bomb seriously underestimates the severity of brown coal dust explosions and empirical relations between Hartmann bomb and Spherical bomb results cited in the literature are not valid for brown coal. Explosibility increases with decreasing moisture content and particle size and increases with increasing volatile matter content.

  10. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  11. Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.

  12. Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.

  13. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  14. Explosion Welding for Hermetic Containerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgin, Benjamin; Sanok, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    A container designed for storing samples of hazardous material features a double wall, part of which is sacrificed during an explosion-welding process in which the container is sealed and transferred to a clean environment. The major advantage of this container sealing process is that once the samples have been sealed inside, the outer wall of what remains of the container is a clean surface that has not come into contact with the environment from which the samples were taken. Thus, there is no need to devise a decontamination process capable of mitigating all hazards that might be posed by unanticipated radioactive, chemical, and/or biological contamination of the outside of the container. The container sealing method was originally intended to be used to return samples from Mars to Earth, but it could also be used to store samples of hazardous materials, without the need to decontaminate its outer surface. The process stages are shown. In its initial double-wall form, the volume between the walls is isolated from the environment; in other words, the outer wall (which is later sacrificed) initially serves to protect the inner container from contamination. The sample is placed inside the container through an opening at one end, then the container is placed into a transfer dock/lid. The surfaces that will be welded together under the explosive have been coated with a soft metallic sacrificial layer. During the explosion, the sacrificial layer is ejected, and the container walls are welded together, creating a strong metallic seal. The inner container is released during the same event and enters the clean environment.

  15. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ..., 75 FR 1085). Notice of List of Explosive Materials Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 841(d) and 27 CFR 555.23, I... . ] Pellet powder. Penthrinite composition. Pentolite. Perchlorate explosive mixtures. Peroxide...

  16. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ..., 76 FR 64974). Notice of List of Explosive Materials Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 841(d) and 27 CFR 555.23, I... . Pellet powder. Penthrinite composition. Pentolite. Perchlorate explosive mixtures. Peroxide...

  17. Evaluation of surface storage facilities for explosives, blasting agents and other explosive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, J.

    1983-06-01

    The histories of recent and past magazine explosions were reviewed; present explosive storage conditions and practices were observed; and existing Federal regulations on explosive storage were examined. A recent increase in magazine explosion frequency must be attributed to a large increase in deliberate explosions; fires of various origins account for the remaining explosions of the past decade. During 1884-1926 several lightning generated explosions occurred in nonmetal magazines. It appears that the contents of a well constructed metal magazine are immune to direct lightning strikes, regardless of whether the magazine is grounded or not. Grounding a metal magazine cannot be harmful, but it maywell be superfluous. Mine Safety and Health Administration and Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms standards on explosive storage appear to cover safety aspects adequately. Certain revisions are recommended to clarify some of the standards and to reduce inconsistencies in their enforcement.

  18. A suicidal death by explosives.

    PubMed

    Varga, M; Csabai, G

    1992-01-01

    A 23-year-old man committed suicide by detonating an explosive substance clutched to his abdomen. The face was singed, the hands were lacerated and the chest and the upper part of abdomen were badly mutilated. The death was due to the destruction of several vital organs. The injuries had a directional nature. Only the consideration of all the facts of the case in relation to the situation, nature, distribution and extent of wounds and the preceding medical and social history allowed a reconstruction of the circumstances.

  19. Overall characterization of cork dust explosion.

    PubMed

    Pilão, R; Ramalho, E; Pinho, C

    2006-05-20

    Explosibility and ignitability studies of air/cork dust mixtures were conducted in a near-spherical 22.7 L explosibility test chamber using pyrotechnic ignitors and in a furnace of 1.23 L. The suspension dust burned as air-dispersed dust clouds and the uniformity of the dispersion inside the chamber was evaluated through optical dust probes. The range of tested particle sizes went from a mass median diameter of 47.4 to 438.3 microm and the covered dust cloud concentration was up to 700-800 g/m(3). Measured explosion parameters included minimum explosible concentration, maximum explosion pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise and minimum autoignition temperature. The effect of dust particle size on flammability was evaluated and it was found that the minimum explosible concentration is around 40 g/m(3) and it is relatively independent of particle size below 180 microm. Maximum explosion pressure of 7.2 bar and maximum rate of pressure rise of 179 bar/s were detected for the smallest tested sizes. The limitations on the rates of devolatilization of the solid particles became rate controlling at high burning velocities, at high dust loadings and for large particle sizes. The effect of initial pressure on the characteristic parameters of the explosion was studied by varying the initial absolute pressure from 0.9 bar to 2.2 bar, and it was found that as initial pressure increases, there is a proportional increase of minimum explosion limit, maximum explosion pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise. The influence of the intensity of the ignition energy on the development of the explosion was evaluated using ignition energies of 1000 J, 2500 J and 5000 J, and the experimental data showed that the value of 2500 J is the most convenient to use in the determination of minimum explosion concentration. The behavior of the cork dust explosion in hybrid methane air mixtures was studied for atmospheres with 2% and 3.5% (v/v) of methane. The effect of methane content on the

  20. Method and apparatus for detecting explosives

    DOEpatents

    Moore, David Steven

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus is provided for detecting explosives by thermal imaging. The explosive material is subjected to a high energy wave which can be either a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave which will initiate a chemical reaction in the explosive material which chemical reaction will produce heat. The heat is then sensed by a thermal imaging device which will provide a signal to a computing device which will alert a user of the apparatus to the possibility of an explosive device being present.

  1. Momentum transfer in indirect explosive drive

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.E.; Warnes, R.H.; Cherry, C.R.; Cherry, C.R. Jr.; Fischer, S.H.

    1996-07-01

    Material which is not in direct contact with detonating explosives may still be driven by the explosion through impact by driven material or by attachment to driven material. In such circumstances the assumption of inelastic collision permits estimation of the final velocity of an assemblage. Examples of the utility of this assumption are demonstrated through use of Gurney equations. The inelastic collision calculation may also be used for metal parts which are driven by explosives partially covering the metal. We offer a new discounting angle to account for side energy losses from laterally unconfined explosive charges in cases where the detonation wave travels parallel to the surface which is driven.

  2. Overall characterization of cork dust explosion.

    PubMed

    Pilão, R; Ramalho, E; Pinho, C

    2006-05-20

    Explosibility and ignitability studies of air/cork dust mixtures were conducted in a near-spherical 22.7 L explosibility test chamber using pyrotechnic ignitors and in a furnace of 1.23 L. The suspension dust burned as air-dispersed dust clouds and the uniformity of the dispersion inside the chamber was evaluated through optical dust probes. The range of tested particle sizes went from a mass median diameter of 47.4 to 438.3 microm and the covered dust cloud concentration was up to 700-800 g/m(3). Measured explosion parameters included minimum explosible concentration, maximum explosion pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise and minimum autoignition temperature. The effect of dust particle size on flammability was evaluated and it was found that the minimum explosible concentration is around 40 g/m(3) and it is relatively independent of particle size below 180 microm. Maximum explosion pressure of 7.2 bar and maximum rate of pressure rise of 179 bar/s were detected for the smallest tested sizes. The limitations on the rates of devolatilization of the solid particles became rate controlling at high burning velocities, at high dust loadings and for large particle sizes. The effect of initial pressure on the characteristic parameters of the explosion was studied by varying the initial absolute pressure from 0.9 bar to 2.2 bar, and it was found that as initial pressure increases, there is a proportional increase of minimum explosion limit, maximum explosion pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise. The influence of the intensity of the ignition energy on the development of the explosion was evaluated using ignition energies of 1000 J, 2500 J and 5000 J, and the experimental data showed that the value of 2500 J is the most convenient to use in the determination of minimum explosion concentration. The behavior of the cork dust explosion in hybrid methane air mixtures was studied for atmospheres with 2% and 3.5% (v/v) of methane. The effect of methane content on the

  3. The Safety Aspects of Handling Primary Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Neha; Oyler, Karl; Cheng, Gartung

    2013-06-01

    Primary Explosives, unlike secondary explosives, show a very rapid transition from deflagration to detonation and are considerably sensitive to small stimuli, such as impact,friction, electrostatic discharge, and heat. Primary explosives generate either a large amount of heat or a shockwave which makes the transfer of the detonation to a less sensitive propellant or secondary explosive possible. Primary explosives are key components in detonators and primers, which are the initiating elements to many military items such as small, medium and large caliber munitions, mortars, artilleries, warheads, etc. The two most common military primary explosives are lead azide and lead styphnate. Lead based compounds such as these are well-established hazards to health and the environment. To overcome these concerns, we are seeking to replace lead azide in common U.S. Army detonators and primers with DBX-1. Further, in order to minimize the dangers to personnel and equipment associated with synthesizing and handling primary explosives, we have developed a dedicated, remote-operated facility for the synthesis and testing of primary explosives. This paper will present the characterization capabilities and testing methods of primary explosives safe, along with the automation process developed.

  4. Design of a multi-purpose titanium bottle for uncontaminated sampling of carbon monoxide and potentially of other analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, K. W.; Taylor, C. D.; Zafiriou, O. C.

    2003-03-01

    The design, construction, and performance of a non-contaminating titanium sampler for carbon monoxide (CO) are described. In light of the favorable properties of titanium and the minimal contact of O-rings with samples, this multi-purpose design is expected to excel at a broad range of other uses: sampling gases, organic compounds, some trace metals, and living and dead particles.

  5. 77 FR 38582 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle... information collection will cover all aspects of a U.S. organization's life-cycle with CS. CS is mandated by... services and trade events to U.S. organizations. The Domestic Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose...

  6. Innovation in Management of Primary School Construction: Multi-Purpose Primary School Buildings in Bangladesh. Educational Building Report 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinos, Fecadu

    This report deals with school building construction utilizing technology carried out by the Lutheran World Service/Rangpur Dinajpur Rehabilitation Service in Bangladesh. The purpose was to develop an alternative design for primary school constructions. The design, construction, and multipurpose use of the school buildings are described. Appended…

  7. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REGULATION OF PRODUCTS SUBJECT TO OTHER ACTS UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children... the Consumer Product Safety Act any risks of injury associated with the fact that...

  8. The Design of Multi-Purpose Science Laboratories for Lower Second Level Schools in Asia. Study No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderberg, B. H.

    The small size of many schools in the Asian Region would cause separate laboratories for chemistry and biology to be underutilized. In many larger schools the curricula include "general science," with contents from biology, physics, and chemistry. This paper describes multipurpose spaces for science activities sufficient for science teaching and…

  9. Evaluation for School Improvement: A Multi-Level, Multi-Purpose Model. Project: Multi-Level Evaluation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Joan L.

    A model for a comprehensive, multi-purpose, multi-user evaluation system is presented to facilitate educational decision making and to support school improvement and renewal. The model is school district-based but oriented to meet state-, school-, and classroom-level needs as well. The model emphasizes the usefulness of common or compatible…

  10. Evaluation Report for the ESEA Title III Project, South Bronx Multi-Purpose Supplementary Educational Center (SOMPSEC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Robert D.

    This is a report of an evaluation of the South Bronx Multi-Purpose Supplementary Educational Center (SOMPSEC). The primary objectives of SOMPSEC, funded under Title III, Elementary and Secondary Education Act were: (1) to enhance the self-image of minority-group students, (2) to encourage development of their artistic talent, and (3) to increase…

  11. 27 CFR 555.28 - Stolen explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Stolen explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.28 Stolen explosive materials. No person shall receive, conceal, transport,...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  13. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Explosives magazine..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and Permits § 555.63 Explosives magazine changes. (a) General. (1) The requirements of this section are...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in... explosives or blasting agents taken to an underground loading area shall not exceed the amount estimated...

  15. 27 CFR 555.28 - Stolen explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stolen explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.28 Stolen explosive materials. No person shall receive, conceal, transport,...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  17. 27 CFR 555.28 - Stolen explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stolen explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.28 Stolen explosive materials. No person shall receive, conceal, transport,...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  19. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Explosives magazine changes..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and Permits § 555.63 Explosives magazine changes. (a) General. (1) The requirements of this section are applicable to...

  20. 27 CFR 555.28 - Stolen explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stolen explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.28 Stolen explosive materials. No person shall receive, conceal, transport,...

  1. 27 CFR 555.23 - List of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true List of explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.23 List of explosive materials. The Director shall compile a list of...

  2. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Explosives magazine changes..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and Permits § 555.63 Explosives magazine changes. (a) General. (1) The requirements of this section are applicable to...

  3. 27 CFR 555.23 - List of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false List of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.23 List of explosive materials. The Director shall compile a list of...

  4. 27 CFR 555.23 - List of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false List of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.23 List of explosive materials. The Director shall compile a list of...

  5. 27 CFR 555.28 - Stolen explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Stolen explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.28 Stolen explosive materials. No person shall receive, conceal, transport,...

  6. 27 CFR 555.23 - List of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false List of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.23 List of explosive materials. The Director shall compile a list of...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  9. 27 CFR 555.23 - List of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true List of explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.23 List of explosive materials. The Director shall compile a list of...

  10. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explosives magazine..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and Permits § 555.63 Explosives magazine changes. (a) General. (1) The requirements of this section are...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in... explosives or blasting agents taken to an underground loading area shall not exceed the amount estimated...

  12. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Explosives magazine..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and Permits § 555.63 Explosives magazine changes. (a) General. (1) The requirements of this section are...

  13. Estimation of explosive charge mass used for explosions on concrete surface for the forensic purpose.

    PubMed

    Bjelovuk, Ivana D; Jaramaz, Slobodan; Mickovic, Dejan

    2012-03-01

    The method of choice used by most terrorists for achieving political goals remains the utilization of explosive devices and there is always visible evidence at a crime scene after the deployment of such devices. Given favorable circumstances, forensic analysis can determine the cause of the explosion - the type of the explosive device, the means of detonation, the type and mass of the explosive charge that has been used and perhaps provide information to lead to the identity of the individual who may have constructed or deployed the explosive device, etc. Evidence of an explosion may take the form of a crater or other damage which may provide some information facilitating and estimating the mass of explosive material used. This paper reports the findings obtained by performing experimental explosions of known charges on a concrete surface, in order to establish the correlation between the charge weight and the effects of the explosion. Known masses of explosives were fired and the dimensions of craters made by explosions were measured. Five empirical equations for estimation of the explosive charge mass from crater dimensions were used.

  14. Explosive double salts and preparation

    DOEpatents

    Cady, Howard H.; Lee, Kien-yin

    1984-01-01

    Applicants have discovered a new composition of matter which is an explosive addition compound of ammonium nitrate (AN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) in a 50:50 molar ratio. The compound is stable over extended periods of time only at temperatures higher than 46.degree. C., decomposing to a fine-grained eutectic mixture (which is also believed to be new) of AN and DETN at temperatures lower than 46.degree. C. The compound of the invention has an x-ray density of 1.61 g/cm.sup.3, explodes to form essentially only gaseous products, has higher detonation properties (i.e., detonation velocity and pressure) than those of any mechanical mixture having the same density and composition as the compound of the invention, is a quite insensitive explosive material, can be cast at temperatures attainable by high pressure steam, and is prepared from inexpensive ingredients. Methods of preparing the compound of the invention and the fine-grained eutectic composition of the invention are given.

  15. [Update: blast and explosion trauma].

    PubMed

    van de Weyer, P S; Praetorius, M; Tisch, M

    2011-08-01

    In recent decades, acoustic shock and explosion traumas have increased in frequency in the general population. Beside the use of fireworks and firearms, airbag ignitions and explosions caused by terror or suicidal acts are also relevant. Depending on duration and strength of the sound pressure affecting the human ear, isolated inner ear damage or additional ear drum perforation and interruption of the middle ear ossicle chain can result. By means of otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, measurement of otoacoustic emissions, and other neurootological examinations, the severity of the trauma can be determined. With prompt and adequate therapy, permanent hearing loss can be minimized. In particular, the measurement of otoacoustic emissions allows conclusions to be made on the functionality of the outer hair cells which are damaged first in most cases. Histological investigations on noise-exposed cochleas show extensive damage to the outer hair cells in the frequency range between 1.0 and 4.0 kHz, which correlates well with audiometric measurements.

  16. High temperature two component explosive

    DOEpatents

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  17. Analysis of thermohydraulic explosion energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, Ralf; Zimanowski, Bernd; Mohrholz, Chris-Oliver; Kümmel, Reiner

    2005-08-01

    Thermohydraulic explosion, caused by direct contact of hot liquids with cold water, represent a major danger of volcanism and in technical processes. Based on experimental observations and nonequilibrium thermodynamics we propose a model of heat transfer from the hot liquid to the water during the thermohydraulic fragmentation process. The model was validated using the experimentally observed thermal energy release. From a database of more than 1000 experimental runs, conducted during the last 20 years, a standardized entrapment experiment was defined, where a conversion of 1 MJ/kg of thermal energy to kinetic energy within 700μs is observed. The results of the model calculations are in good agreement with this value. Furthermore, the model was found to be robust with respect to the material properties of the hot melt, which also is observed in experiments using different melt compositions. As the model parameters can be easily obtained from size and shape properties of the products of thermohydraulic explosions and from material properties of the hot melt, we believe that this method will not only allow a better analysis of volcanic eruptions or technical accidents, but also significantly improve the quality of hazard assessment and mitigation.

  18. Subsurface Explosions in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Shuyue; Houim, Ryan; Oran, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Numerical simulations of coupled gas-granular flows are used to study properties of shock formation and propagation in media, such as sand or regolith on the moon, asteroids, or comets. The simulations were performed with a multidimensional fully compressible model, GRAF, which solves two sets of coupled Navier-Stokes equations, one for the gas and one for the granular medium. The specific case discussed here is for a subsurface explosion in a granular medium initiated by an equivalent of 200g of TNT in depths ranging from 0.1m to 3m. The background conditions of 100K, 10 Pa and loose initial particle volume fraction of 25% are consistent with an event on a comet. The initial blast creates a cavity as a granular shock expands outwards. Since the gas-phase shock propagates faster than the granular shock in loose, granular material, some gas and particles are ejected before the granular shock arrives. When the granular shock reaches the surface, a cap-like structure forms. This cap breaks and may fall back on the surface and in this process, relatively dense particle clusters form. At lower temperatures, the explosion timescales are increased and entrained particles are more densely packed.

  19. [Update: blast and explosion trauma].

    PubMed

    van de Weyer, P S; Praetorius, M; Tisch, M

    2011-08-01

    In recent decades, acoustic shock and explosion traumas have increased in frequency in the general population. Beside the use of fireworks and firearms, airbag ignitions and explosions caused by terror or suicidal acts are also relevant. Depending on duration and strength of the sound pressure affecting the human ear, isolated inner ear damage or additional ear drum perforation and interruption of the middle ear ossicle chain can result. By means of otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, measurement of otoacoustic emissions, and other neurootological examinations, the severity of the trauma can be determined. With prompt and adequate therapy, permanent hearing loss can be minimized. In particular, the measurement of otoacoustic emissions allows conclusions to be made on the functionality of the outer hair cells which are damaged first in most cases. Histological investigations on noise-exposed cochleas show extensive damage to the outer hair cells in the frequency range between 1.0 and 4.0 kHz, which correlates well with audiometric measurements. PMID:21769579

  20. Cosmic Explosions in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Peter; Kumar, Pawan; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2004-12-01

    Introduction: 3-D Explosions: a meditation on rotation (and magnetic fields) J. C. Wheeler; Part I. Supernovae: Observations Today: 1. Supernova explosions: lessons from spectropolarimetry L. Wang; 2. Spectropolarimetric observations of Supernovae A. Filippenko and D. C. Leonard; 3. Observed and physical properties of type II plateau supernovae M. Hamuy; 4. SN1997B and the different types of Type Ic Supernovae A. Clocchiatti, B. Leibundgut, J. Spyromilio, S. Benetti, E. Cappelaro, M. Turatto and M. Phillips; 5. Near-infrared spectroscopy of stripped-envelope Supernovae C. L. Gerardy, R. A. Fesen, G. H. Marion, P. Hoeflich and J. C. Wheeler; 6. Morphology of Supernovae remnants R. Fesen; 7. The evolution of Supernova remnants in the winds of massive stars V. Dwarkadas; 8. Types for the galactic Supernovae B. E. Schaefer; Part II. Theory of Thermonuclear Supernovae: 9. Semi-steady burning evolutionary sequences for CAL 83 and CAL 87: supersoft X-ray binaries are Supernovae Ia progenitors S. Starrfield, F. X. Timmes, W. R. Hix, E. M. Sion, W. M. Sparks and S. Dwyer; 10. Type Ia Supernovae progenitors: effects of the spin-up of the white dwarfs S.-C. Yoon and N. Langer; 11. Terrestrial combustion: feedback to the stars E. S. Oran; 12. Non-spherical delayed detonations E. Livne; 13. Numerical simulations of Type Ia Supernovae: deflagrations and detonations V. N. Gamezo, A. M. Khokhlov and E. S. Oran; 14. Type Ia Supernovae: spectroscopic surprises D. Branch; 15. Aspherity effects in Supernovae P. Hoeflich, C. Gerardy and R. Quimby; 16. Broad light curve SneIa: asphericity or something else? A. Howell and P. Nugent; 17. Synthetic spectrum methods for 3-D SN models R. Thomas; 18. A hole in Ia' spectroscopic and polarimetric signatures of SN Ia asymmetry due to a companion star D. Kasen; 19. Hunting for the signatures of 3-D explosions with 1-D synthetic spectra E. Lentz, E. Baron and P. H. Hauschildt; 20. On the variation of the peak luminosity of Type Ia J. W. Truran, E

  1. Cosmic Explosions in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Peter; Kumar, Pawan; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2011-08-01

    Introduction: 3-D Explosions: a meditation on rotation (and magnetic fields) J. C. Wheeler; Part I. Supernovae: Observations Today: 1. Supernova explosions: lessons from spectropolarimetry L. Wang; 2. Spectropolarimetric observations of Supernovae A. Filippenko and D. C. Leonard; 3. Observed and physical properties of type II plateau supernovae M. Hamuy; 4. SN1997B and the different types of Type Ic Supernovae A. Clocchiatti, B. Leibundgut, J. Spyromilio, S. Benetti, E. Cappelaro, M. Turatto and M. Phillips; 5. Near-infrared spectroscopy of stripped-envelope Supernovae C. L. Gerardy, R. A. Fesen, G. H. Marion, P. Hoeflich and J. C. Wheeler; 6. Morphology of Supernovae remnants R. Fesen; 7. The evolution of Supernova remnants in the winds of massive stars V. Dwarkadas; 8. Types for the galactic Supernovae B. E. Schaefer; Part II. Theory of Thermonuclear Supernovae: 9. Semi-steady burning evolutionary sequences for CAL 83 and CAL 87: supersoft X-ray binaries are Supernovae Ia progenitors S. Starrfield, F. X. Timmes, W. R. Hix, E. M. Sion, W. M. Sparks and S. Dwyer; 10. Type Ia Supernovae progenitors: effects of the spin-up of the white dwarfs S.-C. Yoon and N. Langer; 11. Terrestrial combustion: feedback to the stars E. S. Oran; 12. Non-spherical delayed detonations E. Livne; 13. Numerical simulations of Type Ia Supernovae: deflagrations and detonations V. N. Gamezo, A. M. Khokhlov and E. S. Oran; 14. Type Ia Supernovae: spectroscopic surprises D. Branch; 15. Aspherity effects in Supernovae P. Hoeflich, C. Gerardy and R. Quimby; 16. Broad light curve SneIa: asphericity or something else? A. Howell and P. Nugent; 17. Synthetic spectrum methods for 3-D SN models R. Thomas; 18. A hole in Ia' spectroscopic and polarimetric signatures of SN Ia asymmetry due to a companion star D. Kasen; 19. Hunting for the signatures of 3-D explosions with 1-D synthetic spectra E. Lentz, E. Baron and P. H. Hauschildt; 20. On the variation of the peak luminosity of Type Ia J. W. Truran, E

  2. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Pulse and Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J

    2011-02-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes prior work related to low frequency (< 100 Hz) EMP (ElectroMagnetic Pulse) observed from explosions. It focuses on how EMP signals might, or might not, be useful in monitoring underground nuclear tests, based on the limits of detection, and physical understanding of these signals. In summary: (1) Both chemical and nuclear explosions produce an EMP. (2) The amplitude of the EMP from underground explosions is at least two orders of magnitude lower than from above ground explosions and higher frequency components of the signal are rapidly attenuated due to ground conductivity. (3) In general, in the near field, that is distances (r) of less than 10s of kilometers from the source, the amplitude of the EMP decays approximately as 1/r{sup 3}, which practically limits EMP applications to very close (<{approx}1km) distances. (4) One computational model suggests that the EMP from a decoupled nuclear explosion may be enhanced over the fully coupled case. This has not been validated with laboratory or field data. (5) The magnitude of the EMP from an underground nuclear explosion is about two orders of magnitude larger than that from a chemical explosion, and has a larger component of higher frequencies. In principle these differences might be used to discriminate a nuclear from a chemical explosion using sensors at very close (<{approx}1 km) distances. (6) Arming and firing systems (e.g. detonators, exploding bridge wires) can also produce an EMP from any type of explosion. (7) To develop the understanding needed to apply low frequency EMP to nuclear explosion monitoring, it is recommended to carry out a series of controlled underground chemical explosions with a variety of sizes, emplacements (e.g. fully coupled and decoupled), and arming and firing systems.

  3. The Raffaello, a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, arrives at KSC aboard a Beluga super transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An Airbus Industrie A300-600ST 'Beluga' Super Transporter touches down at the Shuttle Landing Facility to deliver its cargo, the second Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS). One of Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, the MPLM, named Raffaello, is a reusable logistics carrier and the primary delivery system used to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Weighing nearly 4.5 tons, the module measures 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Raffaello will join Leonardo, the first Italian-built MPLM, in the Space Station Processing Facility for testing. NASA, Boeing, the Italian Space Agency and Alenia Aerospazio will provide engineering support.

  4. The Raffaello, a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, arrives at KSC aboard a Beluga super transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An Airbus Industrie A300-600ST 'Beluga' Super Transporter is reflected in the rain puddles as it taxis toward the mate/demate tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Beluga is carrying the Raffaello, the second Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS). One of Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, the MPLM is a reusable logistics carrier and the primary delivery system used to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Weighing nearly 4.5 tons, the module measures 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Raffaello will join Leonardo, the first Italian-built MPLM, in the Space Station Processing Facility for testing. NASA, Boeing, the Italian Space Agency and Alenia Aerospazio will provide engineering support.

  5. The Raffaello, a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, arrives at KSC aboard a Beluga super transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An Airbus Industrie A300-600ST 'Beluga' Super Transporter is reflected in the rain puddles as it comes to a stop at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Beluga is carrying the Raffaello, the second Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS). One of Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, the MPLM is a reusable logistics carrier and the primary delivery system used to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Weighing nearly 4.5 tons, the module measures 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Raffaello will join Leonardo, the first Italian-built MPLM, in the Space Station Processing Facility for testing. NASA, Boeing, the Italian Space Agency and Alenia Aerospazio will provide engineering support.

  6. The Raffaello, a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, arrives at KSC aboard a Beluga super transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An Airbus Industrie A300-600ST 'Beluga' Super Transporter lands in the rain at the Shuttle Landing Facility to deliver its cargo, the second Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS). One of Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, the MPLM, named Raffaello, is a reusable logistics carrier and the primary delivery system used to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Weighing nearly 4.5 tons, the module measures 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Raffaello will join Leonardo, the first Italian-built MPLM, in the Space Station Processing Facility for testing. NASA, Boeing, the Italian Space Agency and Alenia Aerospazio will provide engineering support.

  7. Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

  8. NASA AND ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, NASA and ESA made a decision to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Program until the end of 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid-2014. NASA and ESA considered a number of barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module and Spacecraft Adaptor for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter element with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its projected utilization for the global space exploration endeavour.

  9. Cleaning efficacy of single-purpose surfactant cleaners and multi-purpose solutions.

    PubMed

    Franklin, V J

    1997-01-01

    The initial stages of contact lens spoilation are rapid with respect to the deposition of tear components, in particular, lipids and proteins. In addition, extrinsic factors such as care solutions, cosmetics, skin lipids, drugs and tobacco smoke may all play an important part in the spoilation process. Care systems have different effects on this spoilation. Assessment of the relative cleaning efficacies of the single purpose and multipurpose cleaners which are now available in the UK (e.g. ReNu, Optifree, Complete), is of importance in understanding progressive contact lens-tear interactions. This paper furthers our understanding of the efficacies of these solutions in removing the deposition of tear components from the contact lens.

  10. Aquatic toxicity of the decontamination agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination solution. Final report, May-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Kurnas, C.W.; Chester, N.A.; Muse, W.T.

    1994-05-01

    A new formulation, Decontaminating Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution, is being considered as a replacement to the DS-2 decontaminating solution. The new formulation is composed of calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone. Since this is a new formulation little environmental data exists. To estimate potential impact to an aquatic environment, Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum (a luminescent marine bacterium) were exposed to the DAM solution and to the individual components (Calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone). The toxicity of the DAM solution to D. magna and P. phosphoreum was 5000 and 0.00053, respectively (highly toxic). The toxicity of calcium hypochlorite' and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone to daphnia was 0.04 mg/L (highly toxic) and 107 mg/L (moderately toxic), respectively.

  11. Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  12. Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  13. Vacuum excavation, hydraulics combined by consumers power in a do-everything multi-purpose vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D.

    1985-11-01

    A multi-purpose maintenance vehicle is described that is productive, efficient, mobile, flexible and economical. Three such vehicles are currently in operation in the Consumers Power system in Michigan. Some advantages are listed and include: only a twoman crew required; vehicles equipped for all types of repair and maintenance operations; safer because there is no moving boom; inconvenience to public/pedestrians/vehicles are minimized; and shoring is eliminated. Several tasks are listed which may be performed by the vehicle: cast iron pipe bell joint repair; leak clamp applications; service line abandonments; service line renewals; anode, test wire, and bond wire installations; curb box and valve box cleaning; and checking for and venting leaks.

  14. Controlling levonorgestrel binding and release in a multi-purpose prevention technology vaginal ring device.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Diarmaid J; Boyd, Peter; McCoy, Clare F; Kumar, Sandeep; Holt, Jonathon D S; Blanda, Wendy; Brimer, Andrew N; Malcolm, R Karl

    2016-03-28

    Despite a long history of incorporating steroids into silicone elastomers for drug delivery applications, little is presently known about the propensity for irreversible drug binding in these systems. In this study, the ability of the contraceptive progestin levonorgestrel to bind chemically with hydrosilane groups in addition-cure silicone elastomers has been thoroughly investigated. Cure time, cure temperature, levonorgestrel particle size, initial levonorgestrel loading and silicone elastomer type were demonstrated to be key parameters impacting the extent of levonorgestrel binding, each through their influence on the solubility of levonorgestrel in the silicone elastomer. Understanding and overcoming this levonorgestrel binding phenomenon is critical for the ongoing development of a number of drug delivery products, including a multi-purpose technology vaginal ring device offering simultaneous release of levonorgestrel and dapivirine - a lead candidate antiretroviral microbicide - for combination HIV prevention and hormonal contraception.

  15. A 60Co multipurpose radiation processing facility at Bahia Blanca, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    The aim of the project is to have a multipurpose facility which will enable us to show the techno-economic viability of the irradiation process applied to regional products, important from the economic point of view. The topics will fundamentally be connected with regional themes such as food preservation and the modification of polymer structures. This project will make it possible to carry out basic and applied studies related to radiation chemistry, dosimetry and engineering irradiation processes. The facility will operate in the Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS) with a maximum activity of 18.5 PBq of Co-60. The viability and design of the irradiation facility is supported by the Government of the Buenos Aires Province since it is interested in the socio-economic benefit of this technology at the regional level.

  16. Detection and dispersal of explosives by ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve; Faust, Anthony A.; Puckrin, Eldon; House, Andrew; Reynolds, Damon; McDougall, William; Asquini, Adam

    2009-05-01

    The ability of animals to detect explosives is well documented. Mammalian systems, insects and even single celled organisms have all been studied and in a few cases employed to detect explosives. This paper will describe the potential ability of ants to detect, disperse and possibly neutralize bulk explosives. In spring 2008 a team of DRDC and Itres scientists conducted experiments on detecting surface-laid and buried landmines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and their components. Measurements were made using state-of-the-art short wave and thermal infrared hyperspectral imagers mounted on a personnel lift. During one of the early morning measurement sessions, a wispy, long linear trail was seen to emanate several meters from piles of explosives that were situated on the ground. Upon close visual inspection, it was observed that ants had found the piles of explosives and were carrying it to their ant hill, a distance of almost 20 meters from the piles. Initial analysis of the hyperspectral images clearly revealed the trail to the ant hill of explosives, despite being present in quantities not visible to the unaided eye. This paper details these observations and discusses them in the context of landmine and IED detection and neutralization. Possible reasons for such behaviour are presented. A number of questions regarding the behaviour, many pertinent to the use of ants in a counter-landmine/IED role, are presented and possible methods of answering them are discussed. Anecdotal evidence from deminers of detection and destruction of explosives by ants are presented.

  17. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema

    Atkinson, David

    2016-07-12

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  18. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... loaded firearm (except as provided in 49 CFR 1544.219). (g) Fireworks that combine an explosive and a... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Forbidden explosives. 173.54 Section 173.54... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.54 Forbidden...

  19. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... loaded firearm (except as provided in 49 CFR 1544.219). (g) Fireworks that combine an explosive and a... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forbidden explosives. 173.54 Section 173.54... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.54 Forbidden...

  20. High-explosive driven crowbar switch

    DOEpatents

    Dike, Robert S.; Kewish, Jr., Ralph W.

    1976-01-13

    The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor.

  1. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  2. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... loaded firearm (except as provided in 49 CFR 1544.219). (g) Fireworks that combine an explosive and a... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forbidden explosives. 173.54 Section 173.54... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.54 Forbidden...

  3. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... loaded firearm (except as provided in 49 CFR 1544.219). (g) Fireworks that combine an explosive and a... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Forbidden explosives. 173.54 Section 173.54... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.54 Forbidden...

  4. Method for laser machining explosives and ordnance

    DOEpatents

    Muenchausen, Ross E.; Rivera, Thomas; Sanchez, John A.

    2003-05-06

    Method for laser machining explosives and related articles. A laser beam is directed at a surface portion of a mass of high explosive to melt and/or vaporize the surface portion while directing a flow of gas at the melted and/or vaporized surface portion. The gas flow sends the melted and/or vaporized explosive away from the charge of explosive that remains. The method also involves splitting the casing of a munition having an encased explosive. The method includes rotating a munition while directing a laser beam to a surface portion of the casing of an article of ordnance. While the beam melts and/or vaporizes the surface portion, a flow of gas directed at the melted and/or vaporized surface portion sends it away from the remaining portion of ordnance. After cutting through the casing, the beam then melts and/or vaporizes portions of the encased explosive and the gas stream sends the melted/vaporized explosive away from the ordnance. The beam is continued until it splits the article, after which the encased explosive, now accessible, can be removed safely for recycle or disposal.

  5. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... loaded firearm (except as provided in 49 CFR 1544.219). (g) Fireworks that combine an explosive and a... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forbidden explosives. 173.54 Section 173.54... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.54 Forbidden...

  6. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1993-01-01

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  7. Redundant, Confined-Explosive Severance Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    Noncontaminating, long, explosive joint with highly reliable separation capability invented for such applications as separation of rocket-motor stages of spacecraft from rockets or Space Shuttle. Two explosive cords housed in tubes held in place by two notched doublers and commercially available fasteners. When either cord fired, its tube expands, bending doublers and causing fracture at adjacent notch.

  8. Explosive Joining for Nuclear-Reactor Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In explosive joining technique, adapter flange from fuel channel machined to incorporate a V-notch interface. Ribbon explosive, 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) in width, drives V-notched wall of adapter into bellows assembly, producing atomic-level metallurgical bond. Ribbon charge yields joint with double parent metal strength.

  9. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assembly natural gas concentration just before ignition of each test. Each externally visible flame...) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber designed... tested. The chamber must be sufficiently darkened and provide viewing capabilities of the...

  10. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  11. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

  12. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.100 Section 7.100 Mineral... Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.100 Explosion tests. (a) Test procedures. (1) Prepare to test the diesel power package as follows: (i) Perform a detailed check of...

  13. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.100 Section 7.100 Mineral... Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.100 Explosion tests. (a) Test procedures. (1) Prepare to test the diesel power package as follows: (i) Perform a detailed check of...

  14. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.100 Section 7.100 Mineral... Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.100 Explosion tests. (a) Test procedures. (1) Prepare to test the diesel power package as follows: (i) Perform a detailed check of...

  15. The relation of batteries to explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, C.

    1980-09-01

    All batteries contain chemical materials which can be made to explode under certain conditions. This report defines applicable explosives terminology and discusses these definitions in terms of explosives, thermal runaway and fires associated with aqueous (Le Clanche, mercury, lead acid, nickel cadmium) and non-aqueous (lithium anode systems) batteries.

  16. Surface waves generated by shallow underwater explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falade, A.; Holt, M.

    1978-01-01

    Surface water waves generated by surface and near surface point explosions are calculated. Taking the impulse distribution imparted at the water surface by the explosion as the overriding mechanism for transferring energy of the explosive to surface wave motion, the linearized theory of Kranzer and Keller is used to obtain the wave displacement in the far field. The impulse distribution is obtained by integrating the pressure wave over an appropriate time interval on a horizontal surface just beneath the undisturbed water surface. For surface explosions, a modified form of the similarity method first used by Collins and Holt is used to obtain the flow field. In the case of submerged explosions, the flow field is estimated by making necessary modifications to Sedov's similarity solution to account for the venting that accompanies the interaction of the leading (blast) wave with the ocean surface. Surface waves generated by a charge at six depths of placement (0.15 m, 0.30 m, 0.61 m, 0.91 m, 1.37 m, 3.05 m) are considered in addition to surface explosions. The results seem to support the existence of an upper critical depth phenomenon (of the type already established for chemical explosions) for point (nuclear) explosions.

  17. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  18. Rational design of the column of a heavy multipurpose machining center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atapin, V. V.; Kurlaev, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose in the design of supporting constructions of heavy multipurpose machining center is the reduction of mass at the given precision and productivity of machining. Accomplish these ends the technology of rational design of supporting constructions is offered. This technology is based on the decomposition method and the finite elements method in the combination with optimization methods. The technology has four stages: 1) calculation of external forces and loads, 2) as a result the boundary conditions (force, kinematics) for individual supporting constructions are formed, 3) a problem about final optimal distribution of a material by the individual supporting constructions with the real cross-section is solved; 4) dynamic analysis. By the example of design of the column of a heavy multipurpose machining center the main stages of rational design of the individual supporting constructions are shown. At a design stage of the carrying system consisting of load-bearing structures with simplified geometry, optimum overall dimensions of the column are identified. For the admitted system of preferences, it is necessary to accept the fact that the carrying system with the column with the sizes of cross section of 1.8 m (along х axis) and 2.6 m (along y axis) is the best. The analysis of the work of the column under the torsion condition with the use of method of mechanics shows that the column with square cross sections = 2.46·2.46 m which rigidity on torsion is 26 % higher in comparison with a production version is the best. The results of calculation show that a production-release design of the column with longitudinal and transverse edges of rigidity is 24 % heavier than the column with the edges located on a diagonally at equal rigidity.

  19. Rational design of the column of a heavy multipurpose machining center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atapin, V. V.; Kurlaev, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose in the design of supporting constructions of heavy multipurpose machining center is the reduction of mass at the given precision and productivity of machining. Accomplish these ends the technology of rational design of supporting constructions is offered. This technology is based on the decomposition method and the finite elements method in the combination with optimization methods. The technology has four stages: 1) calculation of external forces and loads, 2) as a result the boundary conditions (force, kinematics) for individual supporting constructions are formed, 3) a problem about final optimal distribution of a material by the individual supporting constructions with the real cross-section is solved; 4) dynamic analysis. By the example of design of the column of a heavy multipurpose machining center the main stages of rational design of the individual supporting constructions are shown. At a design stage of the carrying system consisting of load-bearing structures with simplified geometry, optimum overall dimensions of the column are identified. For the admitted system of preferences, it is necessary to accept the fact that the carrying system with the column with the sizes of cross section of 1.8 m (along x axis) and 2.6 m (along y axis) is the best. The analysis of the work of the column under the torsion condition with the use of method of mechanics shows that the column with square cross sections = 2.46·2.46 m which rigidity on torsion is 26 % higher in comparison with a production version is the best. The results of calculation show that a production-release design of the column with longitudinal and transverse edges of rigidity is 24 % heavier than the column with the edges located on a diagonally at equal rigidity.

  20. Sensitivity of solid explosives: Minimum energy of a dangerous impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afanasyev, G. T.

    1986-01-01

    A method which uses initiating explosives for determining the sensitivity of solid explosives is described. The energy index of sensitivity is determined by the mechanical properties of the explosives. The results of the calculations are discussed.