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Sample records for multirresistencia drogas mdr1

  1. Inhibition of the MDR1 transporter by new phenothiazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kónya, Attila; Andor, Attila; Sátorhelyi, Péter; Németh, Klára; Kurucz, István

    2006-07-21

    The MDR1 transporter mediated efflux of different xenobiotics out of the cells serves as the most important mechanisms of the multidrug resistance in cancer cells, thus inhibition of the MDR1 transporter may increase the efficiency of anticancer drugs in the therapy. Here we describe some new phenothiazine derivatives, which possess strong in vitro MDR1 inhibitory activity. The effectiveness of the compounds on the MDR1 mediated calcein-AM efflux, ATPase activity, and colchicine resistance was proven by microplate assays and flow cytometry using recombinant and control cell lines. Some of these derivatives were more active than verapamil and one of them was at least as active as cyclosporin A. According to our results the new structural elements built in these phenothiazine type compounds increased their MDR1 inhibitory activity, which may serve as a basis of the development of an effective MDR1 inhibitor drug.

  2. In Vivo Imaging of Human MDR1 Transcription in the Brain and Spine of MDR1-Luciferase Reporter Mice.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kazuto; Cline, Cynthia; Lin, Yvonne S; Scheib, Rachel; Ganguly, Samit; Thirumaran, Ranjit K; Chaudhry, Amarjit; Kim, Richard B; Schuetz, Erin G

    2015-11-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) [the product of the MDR1 (ABCB1) gene] at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits central nervous system (CNS) entry of many prescribed drugs, contributing to the poor success rate of CNS drug candidates. Modulating Pgp expression could improve drug delivery into the brain; however, assays to predict regulation of human BBB Pgp are lacking. We developed a transgenic mouse model to monitor human MDR1 transcription in the brain and spinal cord in vivo. A reporter construct consisting of ∼10 kb of the human MDR1 promoter controlling the firefly luciferase gene was used to generate a transgenic mouse line (MDR1-luc). Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the MDR1-luciferase transgene on chromosome 3. Reporter gene expression was monitored with an in vivo imaging system following D-luciferin injection. Basal expression was detectable in the brain, and treatment with activators of the constitutive androstane, pregnane X, and glucocorticoid receptors induced brain and spinal MDR1-luc transcription. Since D-luciferin is a substrate of ABCG2, the feasibility of improving D-luciferin brain accumulation (and luciferase signal) was tested by coadministering the dual ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibitor elacridar. The brain and spine MDR1-luc signal intensity was increased by elacridar treatment, suggesting enhanced D-luciferin brain bioavailability. There was regional heterogeneity in MDR1 transcription (cortex > cerebellum) that coincided with higher mouse Pgp protein expression. We confirmed luciferase expression in brain vessel endothelial cells by ex vivo analysis of tissue luciferase protein expression. We conclude that the MDR1-luc mouse provides a unique in vivo system to visualize MDR1 CNS expression and regulation.

  3. In Vivo Imaging of Human MDR1 Transcription in the Brain and Spine of MDR1-Luciferase Reporter Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Kazuto; Cline, Cynthia; Lin, Yvonne S.; Scheib, Rachel; Ganguly, Samit; Thirumaran, Ranjit K.; Chaudhry, Amarjit; Kim, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) [the product of the MDR1 (ABCB1) gene] at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits central nervous system (CNS) entry of many prescribed drugs, contributing to the poor success rate of CNS drug candidates. Modulating Pgp expression could improve drug delivery into the brain; however, assays to predict regulation of human BBB Pgp are lacking. We developed a transgenic mouse model to monitor human MDR1 transcription in the brain and spinal cord in vivo. A reporter construct consisting of ∼10 kb of the human MDR1 promoter controlling the firefly luciferase gene was used to generate a transgenic mouse line (MDR1-luc). Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the MDR1-luciferase transgene on chromosome 3. Reporter gene expression was monitored with an in vivo imaging system following D-luciferin injection. Basal expression was detectable in the brain, and treatment with activators of the constitutive androstane, pregnane X, and glucocorticoid receptors induced brain and spinal MDR1-luc transcription. Since D-luciferin is a substrate of ABCG2, the feasibility of improving D-luciferin brain accumulation (and luciferase signal) was tested by coadministering the dual ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibitor elacridar. The brain and spine MDR1-luc signal intensity was increased by elacridar treatment, suggesting enhanced D-luciferin brain bioavailability. There was regional heterogeneity in MDR1 transcription (cortex > cerebellum) that coincided with higher mouse Pgp protein expression. We confirmed luciferase expression in brain vessel endothelial cells by ex vivo analysis of tissue luciferase protein expression. We conclude that the MDR1-luc mouse provides a unique in vivo system to visualize MDR1 CNS expression and regulation. PMID:26281846

  4. Effects of 12 Ca2+ antagonists on multidrug resistance, MDR1-mediated transport and MDR1 mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Takara, Kohji; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Tanigawara, Yusuke; Nishiguchi, Kohshi; Ohmoto, Nobuko; Horinouchi, Masanori; Komada, Fusao; Ohnishi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Teruyoshi; Okumura, Katsuhiko

    2002-08-01

    The effects of 12 Ca(2+) antagonists on MDR1 were examined by two independent models: the inhibitory effect on MDR1-mediated transport of [(3)H]digoxin using MDR1-overexpressing LLC-GA5-COL150 cell monolayers and the reversal effect on cytotoxicity of vinblastine or paclitaxel using MDR1-overexpressing Hvr100-6 cells. The inhibitory effects on [(3)H]digoxin transport were assessed as the 50% inhibitory concentration during 4 h exposure, and the values were the lowest for nicardipine (4.54 microM), manidipine (4.65 microM) and benidipine (4.96 microM), followed by bepridil (10.6 microM), barnidipine (12.6 microM), efonidipine (13.0 microM), verapamil (13.2 microM) and nilvadipine (18.0 microM). The reversal effect on cytotoxicity was assessed by the 50% growth inhibitory concentration after 3 days exposure, and the resistance to vinblastine or paclitaxel in Hvr100-6 cells was reversed by manidipine, verapamil, benidipine, barnidipine, and nicardipine, in that order. Bepridil, barnidipine, efonidipine, verapamil and nilvadipine showed similar inhibitory effects on [(3)H]digoxin transport, but barnidipine and verapamil showed a stronger effect in reversal of cytotoxicity. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay indicated a decrease in MDR1 mRNA expression by barnidipine and verapamil. It is concluded that Ca(2+) antagonists cannot only be direct inhibitors of MDR1 but that some may at the same time act as inhibitors of expression of MDR1 via down-regulation of MDR1 mRNA.

  5. MDR1 transporter protects against paraquat-induced toxicity in human and mouse proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xia; Gibson, Christopher J; Yang, Ill; Buckley, Brian; Goedken, Michael J; Richardson, Jason R; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2014-10-01

    Paraquat is a herbicide that is highly toxic to the lungs and kidneys following acute exposures. Prior studies have demonstrated that the organic cation transporter 2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 contribute to the urinary secretion of paraquat in the kidneys. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/Mdr1, ABCB1, or P-glycoprotein) also participates in the removal of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against renal injury. Paraquat transport and toxicity were quantified in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) that endogenously express MDR1, HEK293 cells overexpressing MDR1, and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. In RPTEC cells, reduction of MDR1 activity using the antagonist PSC833 or siRNA transfection increased the cellular accumulation of paraquat by 50%. Reduced efflux of paraquat corresponded with enhanced cytotoxicity in PSC833-treated cells. Likewise, stable overexpression of the human MDR1 gene in HEK293 cells reduced intracellular levels of paraquat by 50%. In vivo studies assessed the renal accumulation and subsequent nephrotoxicity of paraquat (10 or 30 mg/kg ip) in wild-type and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. At 4 h after paraquat treatment, renal concentrations of paraquat in the kidneys of Mdr1a/1b knockout mice were 750% higher than wild-type mice. By 72 h, paraquat-treated Mdr1a/1b knockout mice had more extensive tubular degeneration and significantly greater mRNA expression of kidney injury-responsive genes, including kidney injury molecule-1, lipocalin-2, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, MDR1/Mdr1 participates in the elimination of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against subsequent toxicity.

  6. Detection of MDR1 mRNA expression with optimized gold nanoparticle beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiumei; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-03-01

    MDR1 (multidrug resistance gene) mRNA expression is a promising biomarker for the prediction of doxorubicin resistance in clinic. However, the traditional technical process in clinic is complicated and cannot perform the real-time detection mRNA in living single cells. In this study, the expression of MDR1 mRNA was analyzed based on optimized gold nanoparticle beacon in tumor cells. Firstly, gold nanoparticle (AuNP) was modified by thiol-PEG, and the MDR1 beacon sequence was screened and optimized using a BLAST bioinformatics strategy. Then, optimized MDR1 molecular beacons were characterized by transmission electron microscope, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. The cytotoxicity of MDR1 molecular beacon on L-02, K562 and K562/Adr cells were investigated by MTT assay, suggesting that MDR1 molecular beacon was low inherent cytotoxicity. Dark field microscope was used to investigate the cellular uptake of hDAuNP beacon assisted with ultrasound. Finally, laser scanning confocal microscope images showed that there was a significant difference in MDR1 mRNA expression in K562 and K562/Adr cells, which was consistent with the results of q-PCR measurement. In summary, optimized MDR1 molecular beacon designed in this study is a reliable strategy for detection MDR1 mRNA expression in living tumor cells, and will be a promising strategy for in guiding patient treatment and management in individualized medication.

  7. Evidence for altered ion transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing human MDR 1 protein.

    PubMed

    Fritz, F; Howard, E M; Hoffman, M M; Roepe, P D

    1999-03-30

    Recently [Hoffman, M. M., and Roepe, P. D. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 11153-11168] we presented evidence for a novel Na+- and Cl--dependent H+ transport process in LR73/hu MDR 1 CHO transfectants that likely explains pHi, volume, and membrane potential changes in eukaryotic cells overexpressing the hu MDR 1 protein. To further explore this process, we have overexpressed human MDR 1 protein in yeast strain 9.3 following a combination of approaches used previously [Kuchler, K., and Thorner, J. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 2302-2306; Ruetz, S., et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 11588-11592]. Thus, a truncated hu MDR 1 cDNA was cloned behind a tandem array of sterile 6 (Ste6) and alchohol dehydrogenase (Adh) promoters to create the yeast expression vector pFF1. Valinomycin resistance of intact cells and Western blot analysis with purified yeast plasma membranes confirmed the overexpression of full length, functional, and properly localized hu MDR 1 protein in independently isolated 9.3/pFF1 colonies. Interestingly, relative valinomycin resistance and growth of the 9.3/hu MDR 1 strains are found to strongly depend on the ionic composition of the growth medium. Atomic absorption reveals significant differences in intracellular K+ for 9.3/hu MDR 1 versus control yeast. Transport assays using [3H]tetraphenylphosphonium ([3H]TPP+) reveal perturbations in membrane potential for 9.3/hu MDR 1 yeast that are stimulated by KCl and alkaline pHex. ATPase activity of purified plasma membrane fractions from yeast strains and LR73/hu MDR 1 CHO transfectants constructed previously [Hoffman, M. M., et al. (1996) J. Gen. Physiol. 108, 295-313] was compared. MDR 1 ATPase activity exhibits a higher pH optimum and different salt dependencies, relative to yeast H+ ATPase. Inside-out plasma membrane vesicles (ISOV) fabricated from 9.3/hu MDR 1 and control strains were analyzed for formation of H+ gradients +/- verapamil. Similar pharmacologic profiles are found for

  8. Tryptanthrin inhibits MDR1 and reverses doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.-T.; Chen, T.-M.; Tseng, S.-Y.; Chen, Y.-H. . E-mail: tcyhchen@ntu.edu.tw

    2007-06-22

    Development of agents to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) is important in cancer chemotherapy. Up to date, few chemicals have been reported to down-regulate MDR1 gene expression. We evaluated the effect of tryptanthrin on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated MDR in a breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Tryptanthrin could depress overexpression of MDR1 gene. We observed reduction of P-gp protein in parallel with decreases in mRNA in MCF-7/adr cells treated with tryptanthrin. Tryptanthrin suppressed the activity of MDR1 gene promoter. Tryptanthrin also enhanced interaction of the nuclear proteins with the negatively regulatory CAAT region of MDR1 gene promoter in MCF-7/adr. It might result in suppression of MDR1 gene. In addition, tryptanthrin decreased the amount of mutant p53 protein with decreasing mutant p53 protein stability. It might contribute to negative regulation of MDR1 gene. In conclusion, tryptanthrin exhibited MDR reversing effect by down-regulation of MDR1 gene and might be a new adjuvant agent for chemotherapy.

  9. Dioscin enhances methotrexate absorption by down-regulating MDR1 in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Qi; Meng, Qiang; Sun, Huijun; Huo, Xiaokui; and others

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the enhancing effect of dioscin on the absorption of methotrexate (MTX) and clarify the molecular mechanism involved in vivo and in vitro. Dioscin increased MTX chemosensitivity and transepithelial flux in the absorptive direction, significantly inhibiting multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) mRNA and protein expression and MDR1 promoter and nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) activities in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) degradation was inhibited by dioscin. Dioscin enhanced the intracellular concentration of MTX by down-regulating MDR1 expression through a mechanism that involves NF-κB signaling pathway inhibition in Caco-2 cells. Dioscin strengthened MTX absorption by inhibiting MDR1 expression in rat intestine. In addition, even though MTX is absorbed into the enterocytes, there was no increase in toxicity observed, and that, in fact, decreased toxicity was seen. - Highlights: • Dioscin raised MTX concentration by inhibiting MDR1 in Caco-2 cells. • Dioscin suppresses MDR1 by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway in Caco-2 cells. • Dioscin can enhance MTX absorption via inhibiting MDR1 in vivo and in vitro. • Dioscin did not increase MTX-induced gastrointestinal mucosal toxicity.

  10. A synonymous polymorphism in a common MDR1 (ABCB1) haplotype shapes protein function

    PubMed Central

    Fung, King Leung; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    The MDR1 (ABCB1) gene encodes a membrane-bound transporter that actively effluxes a wide range of compounds from cells. The overexpression of MDR1 by multidrug-resistant cancer cells is a serious impediment to chemotherapy. MDR1 is expressed in various tissues to protect them from the adverse effect of toxins. The pharmacokinetics of drugs that are also MDR1 substrates also influence disease outcome and treatment efficacy. Although MDR1 is a well conserved gene, there is increasing evidence that its polymorphisms affect substrate specificity. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occur frequently and have strong linkage, creating a common haplotype at positions 1236C>T (G412G), 2677G>T (A893S) and 3435C>T (I1145I). The frequency of the synonymous 3435C>T polymorphism has been shown to vary significantly according to ethnicity. Existing literature suggests that the haplotype plays a role in response to drugs and disease susceptibility. This review summarizes recent findings on the 3435C>T polymorphism of MDR1 and the haplotype to which it belongs. A possible molecular mechanism of action by ribosome stalling that can change protein structure and function by altering protein folding is discussed. PMID:19285158

  11. [Resistance to therapy in primary nephrotic syndrome: effect of MDR1 gene activity].

    PubMed

    Stachowski, J; Zanker, C B; Runowski, D; Zaniew, M; Peszko, A; Medyńska, A; Zwolińska, D; Rogowska-Kalisz, A; Hyla-Klekot, L; Szprygner, K; Weglarska, J; Sieniawska, M; Musiał, W; Maciejewski, J; Baldamus, C A

    2000-04-01

    MDR1 gene encodes for a transmembranous glycoprotein, gp-170, which acts as a drug export pump and is also a cyclosporine(CsA)-binding protein. This study aimed at evaluating MDR1 expression in NS sensitive(S) and resistant(R) to therapy (steroids/S/, cyclophosphamide/C/, CsA) patients. Twenty six boys, 13 girls aged 3-8 years were included to the study. MDR1 was analysed using: 1) evaluation of gp-170 activity according to DiC2/3/ [3,3-Diethyloxa-carbocyanine Iodide] by means of flow cytometry and as 2) mRNA expression of MDR1 determined by RT-PCR. The analysis was performed in the lymphocyte subset CD4/CD45RA presenting suppressor-inducer activity. Negative control, Jurkat-T-cell line, not expressing the MDR1 phenotype, was transfected with viral expression vector containing a full-length cDNA for the human MDR1 gene. We found that: in SR-NS the high expression of MDR1 was associated mainly with the suppressor-inducer T-cells (CD45RA+CD4+) and was subsequently enhanced during an ineffective treatment with C and/or CsA. C-R-NS and CsA-R-NS were partially reversible by S- and R-Verapamil; this was in vitro confirmed by inhibition of export pump activity, gp-170. SS-NS, C-S-NS and CsA-S-NS presented the low expression and activity of MDR1 comparing to R-children (p < 0.001) and healthy controls (p < 0.00001). Resistance to therapy in NS patients seems to be resulted from the enhanced expression of MDR1 gene and subsequent high activity of export pump P-gp-170. Calcium channel blockers may reverse the MRD1-related resistance in the therapy of NS. Analysis of MDR1 may help to detect of suspected therapy resistance in NS.

  12. Silencage du gene MDR1 et resensibilisation des cellules MCF-7 MDR a la doxorubicine en utilisant les nanoparticules chitosane/MDR1-siARN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ariss, Mohamad

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Canada and is responsible for about 30% of all deaths in the country.[1] It is estimated that by 2015, one in four Canadians (24% women and 29% men) will die from cancer. In the world and only for 2012, 14 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths from the disease were reported.[2] The worst is yet to come because, according to World Health Organization, the number of new cases is expected to increase by about 70% over the next two decades. The high mortality associated with cancer is partly explained by the acquisition of drug resistance that make patients refractory to chemotherapy. In fact, cancer cells exposed to a cytotoxic agent during chemotherapy, may develop a resistance to this agent as well as various agents sharing structural or functional similarities. These cancer cells are known for multidrug resistance ("Multiple Drug resistant cells"). The development of resistance to chimiodrogues is a major public health problem that presents an obstacle for the development of new cancer treatments. MCF-7 MDR are established cell lines of human breast cancer that have developed resistance to chimiodrogues such as doxorubicin. MCF-7 MDR have the particularity to over-express P-gp protein that is responsible for the detoxification of cells by reflux of chimiodrogues. The purpose of this study was therefore to reduce the expression of P-gp, encoded by the MDR1 gene (also called gene ABCB1) in cancer cells MCF-7, and re-sensitize MCF-7 MDR cells to anti-cancer treatments. In order to modify MDR1 gene expression, we used small RNAi called siRNA that are specific to the MDR1 gene. In total, 4 duplexes of siRNA have been used: siRNA_1, siRNA_1M, siRNA_2 and siRNA_2M. Each of the duplexes strands is consists of 21 nucleic acids and has two protruding nucleic acids (overhangs) at the 3' end. siRNA_1 and siRNA_1M are complementary to the nucleic acid sequence (577-595 nucleic acids ) of the MDR1 gene, whereas siARN_2 and si

  13. Validation of a P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) Humanized Mouse Model by Integrating Selective Absolute Quantification of Human MDR1, Mouse Mdr1a and Mdr1b Protein Expressions with In Vivo Functional Analysis for Blood-Brain Barrier Transport

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Muhammad Waqas; Uchida, Yasuo; Hoshi, Yutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish a useful validation method for newly generated humanized mouse models. The novel approach of combining our established species-specific protein quantification method combined with in vivo functional studies is evaluated to validate a humanized mouse model of P-gp/MDR1 efflux transporter. The P-gp substrates digoxin, verapamil and docetaxel were administered to male FVB Mdr1a/1b(+/+) (FVB WT), FVB Mdr1a/1b(-/-) (Mdr1a/1b(-/-)), C57BL/6 Mdr1a/1b(+/+) (C57BL/6 WT) and humanized C57BL (hMDR1) mice. Brain-to-plasma total concentration ratios (Kp) were measured. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomic (QTAP) analysis was used to selectively quantify the protein expression levels of hMDR1, Mdr1a and Mdr1b in the isolated brain capillaries. The protein expressions of other transporters, receptors and claudin-5 were also quantified. The Kp for digoxin, verapamil, and docetaxel were 20, 30 and 4 times higher in the Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice than in the FVB WT controls, as expected. The Kp for digoxin, verapamil and docetaxel were 2, 16 and 2-times higher in the hMDR1 compared to the C57BL/6 WT mice. The hMDR1 mice had 63- and 9.1-fold lower expressions of the hMDR1 and Mdr1a proteins than the corresponding expression of Mdr1a in C57BL/6 WT mice, respectively. The protein expression levels of other molecules were almost consistent between C57BL/6 WT and hMDR1 mice. The P-gp function at the BBB in the hMDR1 mice was smaller than that in WT mice due to lower protein expression levels of hMDR1 and Mdr1a. The combination of QTAP and in vivo functional analyses was successfully applied to validate the humanized animal model and evaluates its suitability for further studies. PMID:25932627

  14. Validation of a P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) Humanized Mouse Model by Integrating Selective Absolute Quantification of Human MDR1, Mouse Mdr1a and Mdr1b Protein Expressions with In Vivo Functional Analysis for Blood-Brain Barrier Transport.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Muhammad Waqas; Uchida, Yasuo; Hoshi, Yutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish a useful validation method for newly generated humanized mouse models. The novel approach of combining our established species-specific protein quantification method combined with in vivo functional studies is evaluated to validate a humanized mouse model of P-gp/MDR1 efflux transporter. The P-gp substrates digoxin, verapamil and docetaxel were administered to male FVB Mdr1a/1b(+/+) (FVB WT), FVB Mdr1a/1b(-/-) (Mdr1a/1b(-/-)), C57BL/6 Mdr1a/1b(+/+) (C57BL/6 WT) and humanized C57BL (hMDR1) mice. Brain-to-plasma total concentration ratios (Kp) were measured. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomic (QTAP) analysis was used to selectively quantify the protein expression levels of hMDR1, Mdr1a and Mdr1b in the isolated brain capillaries. The protein expressions of other transporters, receptors and claudin-5 were also quantified. The Kp for digoxin, verapamil, and docetaxel were 20, 30 and 4 times higher in the Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice than in the FVB WT controls, as expected. The Kp for digoxin, verapamil and docetaxel were 2, 16 and 2-times higher in the hMDR1 compared to the C57BL/6 WT mice. The hMDR1 mice had 63- and 9.1-fold lower expressions of the hMDR1 and Mdr1a proteins than the corresponding expression of Mdr1a in C57BL/6 WT mice, respectively. The protein expression levels of other molecules were almost consistent between C57BL/6 WT and hMDR1 mice. The P-gp function at the BBB in the hMDR1 mice was smaller than that in WT mice due to lower protein expression levels of hMDR1 and Mdr1a. The combination of QTAP and in vivo functional analyses was successfully applied to validate the humanized animal model and evaluates its suitability for further studies.

  15. Loss of TLR2 Worsens Spontaneous Colitis in MDR1A Deficiency through Commensally Induced Pyroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ey, Birgit; Eyking, Annette; Klepak, Magdalena; Salzman, Nita H.; Göthert, Joachim R.; Rünzi, Michael; Schmid, Kurt W.; Gerken, Guido; Podolsky, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Variants of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1/ABCB1) have been associated with increased susceptibility to severe ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we investigated the role of TLR/IL-1R signaling pathways including the common adaptor MyD88 in the pathogenesis of chronic colonic inflammation in MDR1A deficiency. Double- or triple-null mice lacking TLR2, MD-2, MyD88, and MDR1A were generated in the FVB/N background. Deletion of TLR2 in MDR1A deficiency resulted in fulminant pancolitis with early expansion of CD11b+ myeloid cells and rapid shift toward TH1-dominant immune responses in the lamina propria. Colitis exacerbation in TLR2/MDR1A double-knockout mice required the unaltered commensal microbiota and the LPS coreceptor MD-2. Blockade of IL-1β activity by treatment with IL-1R antagonist (IL-1Ra; Anakinra) inhibited colitis acceleration in TLR2/MDR1A double deficiency; intestinal CD11b+Ly6C+-derived IL-1β production and inflammation entirely depended on MyD88. TLR2/MDR1A double-knockout CD11b+ myeloid cells expressed MD-2/TLR4 and hyperresponded to nonpathogenic Escherichia coli or LPS with reactive oxygen species production and caspase-1 activation, leading to excessive cell death and release of proinflammatory IL-1β, consistent with pyroptosis. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species–mediated lysosome degradation suppressed LPS hyperresponsiveness. Finally, active UC in patients carrying the TLR2-R753Q and MDR1-C3435T polymorphisms was associated with increased nuclear expression of caspase-1 protein and cell death in areas of acute inflammation, compared with active UC patients without these variants. In conclusion, we show that the combined defect of two UC susceptibility genes, MDR1A and TLR2, sets the stage for spontaneous and uncontrolled colitis progression through MD-2 and IL-1R signaling via MyD88, and we identify commensally induced pyroptosis as a potential innate immune effector in severe UC pathogenesis. PMID:23636052

  16. Expression of PXR, CYP3A and MDR1 genes in liver of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bresolin, Taise; de Freitas Rebelo, Mauro; Celso Dias Bainy, Afonso

    2005-01-01

    The Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor involved in the transcriptional regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. In mammals, many xenobiotics induce the expression of cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) and the multiple drug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes via the PXR pathway. Little attention has been given to studies about the identification and biological function of PXR homologues in non-mammalian species. Zebrafish is being widely used and accepted as model for toxicological and pharmacological studies to understand the mechanisms of human diseases and identify conserved signaling pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo expression of PXR, CYP3A and MDR1 genes in liver of zebrafish treated with the synthetic steroid pregnenolone 16alpha-carboninitrile (PCN), the antimycotic clotrimazole (CTZ) and the antianginal drug nifedipine (NIF). The liver of fish treated with PCN showed a 1.9-fold induction in the PXR followed by 1.8-fold induction in the CYP3A and 1.6-fold induction in the MDR1 mRNA. CTZ and NIF did not affect statistically the expression of PXR, CYP3A and MDR1. The similar pattern of mRNA expression of PXR, CYP3A and MDR1 genes found in fish treated with different PXR inducers suggests that the intrinsic association between these three genes is conserved in zebrafish.

  17. Expression of MDR1 (multidrug resistance) gene and its protein in normal human kidney.

    PubMed

    Ernest, S; Rajaraman, S; Megyesi, J; Bello-Reuss, E N

    1997-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), the product of the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene overexpressed in cancer cells, is present also in normal tissues. In the kidney, MDR1 Pgp has been found in the proximal tubule and in cultured mesangial cells. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the complete nephronal localization of MDR mRNA and its product, Pgp, in the human kidney. MDR mRNA expression was studied with the use of nonradioactive in situ MDR RNA probes. MDR1 Pgp was immunolocalized using the specific monoclonal antibody MRK16. The presence of MDR mRNA was confirmed in proximal tubules and mesangium, and demonstrated as well in thick limb of Henle's loops and in collecting ducts. MDR1 Pgp colocalized in the same nephronal segments. This suggests that, in addition to secreting xenobiotics, Pgp may play a role in the transport of endogenous substrates or in the regulation of Cl- channels.

  18. Temozolomide induces the production of epidermal growth factor to regulate MDR1 expression in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Jessian L; Rodriguez-Cruz, Vivian; Greco, Steven J; Nagula, Vipul; Scotto, Kathleen W; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) commonly resists the frontline chemotherapy treatment temozolomide. The multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) and its protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), are associated with chemoresistance. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying MDR1-mediated resistance by GBM to temozolomide. P-gp trafficking was studied by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. MDR1 expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and reporter gene assays. AP-1 interaction with MDR1 was studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. EGF production was analyzed by ELISA, EGFR signaling was determined by Western blot analysis, and in vivo response to erlotinib and/or temozolomide was studied in nude mice. During the early phase of temozolomide treatment, intracellular P-gp was trafficked to the cell membrane, followed by conformational change into active P-gp. At the later phase, gene transcription of MDR1 was induced by temozolomide-mediated production of EGF. EGF activated ERK1/2-JNK-AP-1 cofactors (c-jun and c-fos). An inhibitor of EGFR kinase (erlotinib) given to nude mice with GBM prevented temozolomide-induced resistance. The results identified an essential role for activated EGFR in the resistance of GBM to temozolomide. Temozolomide resistance occurred through a biphasic response; first, by a conformational change in P-gp into the active form and, second, by releasing EGF, which caused autocrine stimulation of GBM cells to induce MDR1. Pharmacologic inhibition of EGFR kinase blunted the ability of GBM cells to resist temozolomide. These findings may explain reports on the common occurrence of mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII) and EGFR expansion in the resistance of GBM cells.

  19. MDR1 overexpression inhibits chemotherapy-induced toxicity of granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Sana M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To protect granulosa cells from chemotherapy-induced toxicity by retrovirus-mediated multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) transfection. DESIGN Laboratory study. SETTING Academic research laboratory in a university hospital. INTERVENTION(S) KK15 immortalized murine granulosa cell line was transiently transduced with sf91m3 retrovirus vector carrying MDR1 cDNA that encodes P-glycoprtoein (P-gp). Transduced cells were selected with colchicine and treated with doxorubicin or paclitaxel for 24–72 hours. The expression and function of MDR1 and the mRNA expression of selected steroidogenesis enzymes were evaluated by flow cytometry, cell viability assays, Western blot, and RT-PCR. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) Viability of sf91m3-transduced KK15 cells after treatment with doxorubicin and paclitaxel. RESULT(S) sf91m3-transduced KK15 demonstrated high expression of biologically active MDR1 as shown by flow cytometry analysis and immunoblotting using P-gp monoclonal antibody and Rhodamine 123 efflux assays. sf91m3-transduced KK15 exhibited significant resistance to toxicity of 10uM paclitaxel(p≤0.001). MDR1-transduced KK15 cells were also protected from doxorubicin toxicity (10nM to 2.5uM) as shown by cell viability assay (p≤0.02). Both flow cytometry and cell viability assay showed that the protection of KK15 from doxorubicin toxicity was lost at 5 uM of doxorubicin; equivalent to 500 times LD50 (p≥0.05). sf91m3-transduced KK15 showed normal mRNA expression of a panel of selected steroidogenesis enzymes. CONCLUSION(S) Retroviral gene delivery of human MDR1 inhibited chemotherapy- induced granulosa cell toxicity and offered chemoprotection in an in vitro model. PMID:21316663

  20. Tuberous sclerosis associated with MDR1 gene expression and drug-resistant epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lazarowski, A; Sevlever, G; Taratuto, A; Massaro, M; Rabinowicz, A

    1999-10-01

    Intractable seizures are the most common manifestation in severe cases of tuberous sclerosis. Multidrug resistance type 1 (MDR1) gene expression is directly linked to the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy as the major cause of treatment failure, but it has not been reported in tuberous sclerosis cells nor has the relationship between the MDR1 gene and antiepileptic drugs been described. A 4-month-old female is described with poorly controlled seizures secondary to tuberous sclerosis. The patient was treated with antiepileptic drugs, including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and lorazepam, without improvement of symptoms. Phenytoin blood levels were invariably subtherapeutic and ranged from 0.45 to 3.55 microg/mL, despite several consecutive intravenous loading doses. Surgical treatment with total resection of the brain lesions was performed as a last resort. Immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tissues revealed high levels of P-glycoprotein 170 expression, the product of the MDR1 gene. Both MDR1 gene expression and persistently low phenytoin levels likely share a common pathway liable to induce drug-resistant epilepsy.

  1. Binding properties of monoclonal antibodies recognizing external epitopes of the human MDR1 P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, A H; Arceci, R J; Smit, J J; Wagenaar, E; Baas, F; Dollé, M; Tsuruo, T; Mechetner, E B; Roninson, I B; Borst, P

    1993-09-30

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing external epitopes of the human MDR1 P-glycoprotein have been used both for the detection of multidrug-resistant cells and as specific inhibitors of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance. Using a panel of recently developed transfected or transgenic cell lines containing variants of the human MDR1 and MDR3 P-glycoproteins, we have compared the specificity and binding properties of the previously isolated MAbs MRK16, HYB-241, UIC2 and 4E3, and of the newly isolated MAb 7G4. The removal of 1, 2 or all 3 of the N-glycosylation sites present in the first extracellular loop of MDR1 P-glycoprotein did not significantly affect the binding of these MAbs. In contrast, 20 amino acid deletion in the first extracellular loop of MDR1 P-glycoprotein completely abolished binding of UIC2, whereas the binding of all other MAbs was hardly affected. None of the MAbs tested bound detectably to cell lines containing a high level of the human MDR3 P-glycoprotein. The differences in the binding specificity between UIC2 and the other tested antibodies parallel the reported functional differences in the ability of these antibodies to inhibit P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux.

  2. MDR1 Polymorphisms and Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome in Slovak Children: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Cizmarikova, Martina; Podracka, Ludmila; Klimcakova, Lucia; Habalova, Viera; Boor, Andrej; Mojzis, Jan; Mirossay, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of the multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1 or ABCB1) gene polymorphisms 1236T>C, 2677T>G, and 3435T>C was studied in relation to susceptibility, demographics, and pathological characteristics, as well as their role in the therapeutic response (TR) to prednisone treatment in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). Material/Methods The polymorphisms were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 46 children with INS and in 100 healthy controls. Different genetic models (codominant, dominant, recessive, and overdominant) were used for testing of associations between polymorphisms and phenotypes. Results Statistical analysis showed a significantly increased chance of TR in children carrying 3435TC genotype (OR=5.13, 95% CI=1.18–22.25; overdominant model). Moreover, INS patients under 6 years of age had significantly decreased frequencies of MDR1 1236CC (7.7% vs. 35%, p=0.029) or 2677GG (3.8% vs. 30.0%, p=0.033) genotypes. We also observed that patients with minimal change in disease and patients under 6 years of age at the onset of INS were initial responders more frequently when compared with children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and patients ≥6 years old at the onset (p=0.0001, p=0.027, respectively). Conclusions These data suggest that prednisone TR may be influenced by histology, age at the onset of INS, and MDR1 3435T>C polymorphism. The MDR1 1236T>C and 2677T>G polymorphisms were significantly associated with age at onset. Larger multicenter studies and studies across other ethnic groups are needed to elucidate the contradictory implications of MDR1 polymorphisms with INS in children. PMID:25559283

  3. Cross-talk between signalling pathways and the multidrug resistant protein MDR-1

    PubMed Central

    Ding, S; Chamberlain, M; McLaren, A; Goh, L-b; Duncan, I; Wolf, C R

    2001-01-01

    The multidrug resistant protein MDR-1 has been associated with the resistance to a wide range of anti-cancer drugs. Taxol is a substrate for this transporter system and is used in the treatment of a wide range of human malignancies including lung, breast and ovarian cancer. We have generated a series of ovarian cell lines resistant to this compound, all of which overexpress MDR-1 through gene amplification. We present novel evidence that a constitutive activation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway was also observed although the level of active JNK and p38 remained unchanged. Inhibition of the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway using UO126 or PD098059 re-sensitised the Taxol resistant cells at least 20-fold. Importantly, when Mdr-1 cDNA was stably expressed in the wild-type cell line to generate a highly Taxol-resistant sub-line, 1847/MDR5, ERK1/2 MAP kinases again became activated. This result demonstrated that the increased activity of the signalling pathway in the Taxol-resistant lines was directly attributable to MDR-1 overexpression and was not due to the effects of Taxol itself. Additionally, we demonstrated that inhibition of the P13K pathway with LY294002 sensitised the MDR-1-expressing 1847/TX0.5 cells and 1847/MDR5 cells at least 10-fold but had no effect in the wild-type cells. This finding suggests a possible role for this pathway, also, in the generation of resistance to Taxol. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710832

  4. An MDR1 promoter allele with higher promoter activity is common in clinically isolated strains of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Bruzual, Igor

    2013-01-01

    In the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans, up-regulation of MDR1, encoding an efflux transporter, leads to increased resistance to the antifungal drug fluconazole. Antifungal resistance has been linked to several types of genetic change in C. albicans, including changes in genome structure, genetic alteration of the drug target, and overexpression of transporters. High-level over-expression of MDR1 is commonly mediated by mutation in a trans-acting factor, Mrr1p. This report describes a second mechanism that contributes to up-regulation of MDR1 expression. By analyzing the sequence of the MDR1 promoter region in fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible strains, we identified sequence polymorphisms that defined two linkage groups, corresponding to the two alleles in the diploid genome. One of the alleles conferred higher MDR1 expression compared with the other allele. Strains in which both alleles were of the higher activity type were common in collections of clinically isolated strains while strains carrying only the less active allele were rare. As increased expression of MDR1 confers higher resistance to drugs, strains with the more active MDR1 promoter allele may grow or survive longer when exposed to drugs or other selective pressures, providing greater opportunity for mutations that confer high-level drug resistance to arise. Through this mechanism, higher activity alleles of the MDR1 promoter could promote the development of drug resistance. PMID:21972105

  5. Nanolipoparticles-mediated MDR1 siRNA delivery reduces doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells and silences MDR1 expression in xenograft model of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Mahnaz; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Lage, Hermann; Abnous, Khalil; mosaffa, Fatemeh; Badiee, Ali; Behravan, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux protein, the overexpression of which has been associated with multidrug resistance in various cancers. Although siRNA delivery to reverse P-gp expression may be promising for sensitizing of tumor cells to cytotoxic drugs, the therapeutic use of siRNA requires effective carriers that can deliver siRNA intracellularly with minimal toxicity on target cells. We investigated a special class of PEGylated lipid-based nanoparticles (NP), named nanolipoparticles (NLPs), for siRNA-mediated P-gp downregulation. Materials and Methods: NLPs were prepared based on low detergent dialysis method. After characterization, we evaluated the effect of NLPs on siRNA delivery, and P-gp downregulation compared to oligofectamine™ (OFA) in vitro and in vivo. Results: Our results showed a significant decrease in P-gp expression and subsequent enhancement of chemosensitivity to doxorubicin in vitro. Although the effectiveness of NLPs for in vitro siRNA delivery compared to OFA was limited, the results of in vivo studies showed noticeable effectiveness of NLPs for systemic siRNA delivery. siRNA delivery using NLPs could downregulate MDR1 in tumor cells more than 80%, while OFA had a reverse effect on MDR1 expression in vivo. Conclusion: The results indicated that the prepared NLPs could be suitable siRNA delivery systems for tumor therapy. PMID:26019802

  6. Berry anthocyanins and anthocyanidins exhibit distinct affinities for the efflux transporters BCRP and MDR1

    PubMed Central

    Dreiseitel, A; Oosterhuis, B; Vukman, KV; Schreier, P; Oehme, A; Locher, S; Hajak, G; Sand, PG

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dietary anthocyanins hold great promise in the prevention of chronic disease but factors affecting their bioavailability remain poorly defined. Specifically, the role played by transport mechanisms at the intestinal and blood–brain barriers (BBB) is currently unknown. Experimental approach: In the present study, 16 anthocyanins and anthocyanidins were exposed to the human efflux transporters multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), using dye efflux, ATPase and, for BCRP, vesicular transport assays. Key results: All test compounds interacted with the BCRP transporter in vitro. Of these, seven emerged as potential BCRP substrates (malvidin, petunidin, malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside) and 12 as potential inhibitors of BCRP (cyanidin, peonidin, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, malvidin, pelargonidin, delphinidin, petunidin, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside, malvidin-3-galactoside). Malvidin, malvidin-3-galactoside and petunidin exhibited bimodal activities serving as BCRP substrates at low concentrations and, at higher concentrations, as BCRP inhibitors. Effects on MDR1, in contrast, were weak. Only aglycones exerted mild inhibitory activity. Conclusions and implications: Although the anthocyanidins under study may alter pharmacokinetics of drugs that are BCRP substrates, they are less likely to interfere with activities of MDR1 substrates. The present data suggest that several anthocyanins and anthocyanidins may be actively transported out of intestinal tissues and endothelia, limiting their bioavailability in plasma and brain. PMID:19922539

  7. Rapid activation of MDR1 gene expression in human metastatic sarcoma after in vivo exposure to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Abolhoda, A; Wilson, A E; Ross, H; Danenberg, P V; Burt, M; Scotto, K W

    1999-11-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a multidrug transporter encoded by the MDR1 gene, is associated with chemoresistance in some human solid tumor malignancies. To date, analyses of MDR1 levels in solid tumors have examined constitutive increases in expression at relapse. In the present study, we have evaluated the acute induction of MDR1 gene expression in a solid human tumor as a function of time in response to in vivo exposure to chemotherapy. Five patients with unresectable sarcoma pulmonary metastases underwent isolated single lung perfusion with doxorubicin. Relative MDR1 gene expression was measured in metastatic tumor nodules and normal lung specimens after initiation of chemoperfusion. In four of five patients, a 3-15-fold (median, 6.8) increase in MDR1 RNA levels was detected in tumors at 50 min after administration of doxorubicin. In contrast, normal lung samples had very low levels of MDR1 RNA prior to perfusion, and no acute increases were observed after therapy. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that MDR1 gene expression can be rapidly activated in human tumors after transient in vivo exposure to cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  8. CTLA-4 and MDR1 polymorphisms increase the risk for ulcerative colitis: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jia-Jun; Wang, Di; Yao, Hui; Sun, Da-Wei; Li, Hong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the correlations between cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes polymorphisms with ulcerative colitis (UC) risk. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CBM databases, Springerlink, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Wanfang database, VIP database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Weipu Journal databases were exhaustively searched using combinations of keywords relating to CTLA-4, MDR1 and UC. The published studies were filtered using our stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, the quality assessment for each eligible study was conducted using Critical Appraisal Skill Program and the resultant high-quality data from final selected studies were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) software. The correlations between SNPs of CTLA-4 gene, MDR1 gene and the risk of UC were evaluated by OR at 95%CI. Z test was carried out to evaluate the significance of overall effect values. Cochran’s Q-statistic and I2 tests were applied to quantify heterogeneity among studies. Funnel plots, classic fail-safe N and Egger’s linear regression test were inspected for indication of publication bias. RESULTS: A total of 107 studies were initially retrieved and 12 studies were eventually selected for meta-analysis. These 12 case-control studies involved 1860 UC patients and 2663 healthy controls. Our major result revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CTLA-4 gene rs3087243 G > A and rs231775 G > A may increase the risk of UC (rs3087243 G > A: allele model: OR = 1.365, 95%CI: 1.023-1.822, P = 0.035; dominant model: OR = 1.569, 95%CI: 1.269-1.940, P < 0.001; rs231775 G > A: allele model: OR = 1.583, 95%CI: = 1.306-1.918, P < 0.001; dominant model: OR = 1.805, 95%CI: 1.393-2.340, P < 0.001). In addition, based on our result, SNPs of MDR1 gene rs1045642 C > T might also confer a significant increases for the risk of UC (allele model: OR = 1.389, 95%CI: 1

  9. Reversal of multi-drug resistance by pSUPER-shRNA-mdr1 in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Guang-Dong; Yang, Jian-Qing; Yan, Lv-Nan; Chu, Guang-Ping; Liu, Qiang; Xiao, Yi; Yuan, Lin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of reversing multi-drug resistance (MDR) to HepG2/mdr1 in vitro and in vivo with RNA interference (RNAi). METHODS: HepG2/mdr1 was obtained by cloning the whole gene mdr1 into HepG2 cells. shRNA targeting sequence was designed to be homologous to the P-gp encoding MDR1 mRNA consensus sequence. pSUPER-shRNA/mdr1 was constructed using the enzyme-digested technique. HepG2/mdr1 cells were transfected with vectors of pSUPER-shRNA/mdr1 to measure their efficacy by real-time PCR for mdr1 mRNA, flow cytometry (FCM) for P-gp expression, and Rhodamine efflux, MTT method for HepG2/mdr1 function, respectively. In vivo, mice tumors were treated by injecting pSUPER-shRNA/mdr1 in situ and into intra-abdominal cavity. Tumors were collected to create cell suspension and cryosections after chemothearpy with adiramycin and mytomycin. The cell suspension was incubated in RPMI-1640 supplemented with G418 to screen stable cells for appreciating the reversal of MDR. Cryosections were treated with immunohistochemistry technique to show the effectiveness of transfection and the expression of P-gp. RESULTS: pSUPER-shRNA/mdr1 was successfully constructed, which was confirmed by sequencing. The MDR phenotype of HepG2/mdr1 was decreased significantly in vitro transfection. HepG2/mdr1 showing its MDR was reversed notably in P-gp expression (11.0% vs 98.2%, P < 0.01). Real-time PCR showed that mRNA/mdr1 was lower in test groups than in control groups (18.73 ± 1.33 vs 68.03 ± 2.21, P < 0.001). Compared with HepG2, the sensitivity of HepG2/mdr1 and HepG2/mdr1-dsRNA cells to ADM was decreased by 1.64 times and 15.6 times, respectively. The accumulation of DNR in positive groups was decreased evidently. In vivo, the p-gp expression in positive groups was significantly lower than that in control groups (65.1% vs 94.1%, P < 0.05). The tumor suppressing rate in test groups was 57.8%. After chemotherapy, the growth rate in test groups was lower than that in control

  10. Structurally diverse MDM2–p53 antagonists act as modulators of MDR-1 function in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Zhao, Y; Halliday, G C; Berry, P; Rousseau, R F; Middleton, S A; Nichols, G L; Del Bello, F; Piergentili, A; Newell, D R; Lunec, J; Tweddle, D A

    2014-01-01

    Background: A frequent mechanism of acquired multidrug resistance in human cancers is overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporters such as the Multi-Drug Resistance Protein 1 (MDR-1). Nutlin-3, an MDM2–p53 antagonist, has previously been reported to be a competitive MDR-1 inhibitor. Methods: This study assessed whether the structurally diverse MDM2–p53 antagonists, MI-63, NDD0005, and RG7388 are also able to modulate MDR-1 function, particularly in p53 mutant neuroblastoma cells, using XTT-based cell viability assays, western blotting, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Verapamil and the MDM2–p53 antagonists potentiated vincristine-mediated growth inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner when used in combination with high MDR-1-expressing p53 mutant neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations that did not affect the viability of cells when given alone. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses showed that verapamil, Nutlin-3, MI-63 and NDD0005, but not RG7388, led to increased intracellular levels of vincristine in high MDR-1-expressing cell lines. Conclusions: These results show that in addition to Nutlin-3, other structurally unrelated MDM2–p53 antagonists can also act as MDR-1 inhibitors and reverse MDR-1-mediated multidrug resistance in neuroblastoma cell lines in a p53-independent manner. These findings are important for future clinical trial design with MDM2–p53 antagonists when used in combination with agents that are MDR-1 substrates. PMID:24921920

  11. Physiological oxygen tensions modulate expression of the mdr1b multidrug-resistance gene in primary rat hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch-Ernst, K I; Kietzmann, T; Ziemann, C; Jungermann, K; Kahl, G F

    2000-01-01

    P-Glycoprotein transporters encoded by mdr1 (multidrug resistance) genes mediate extrusion of an array of lipophilic xenobiotics from the cell. In rat liver, mdr transcripts have been shown to be expressed mainly in hepatocytes of the periportal region. Since gradients in oxygen tension (pO(2)) may contribute towards zonated gene expression, the influence of arterial and venous pO(2) on mRNA expression of the mdr1b isoform was examined in primary rat hepatocytes cultured for up to 3 days. Maximal mdr1b mRNA levels (100%) were observed under arterial pO(2) after 72 h, whereas less than half-maximal mRNA levels (40%) were attained under venous pO(2). Accordingly, expression of mdr protein and extrusion of the mdr1 substrate rhodamine 123 were maximal under arterial pO(2) and reduced under venous pO(2). Oxygen-dependent modulation of mdr1b mRNA expression was prevented by actinomycin D, indicating transcriptional regulation. Inhibition of haem synthesis by 25 microM CoCl(2) blocked mdr1b mRNA expression under both oxygen tensions, whereas 80 microM desferrioxamine abolished modulation by O(2). Haem (10 microM) increased mdr1b mRNA levels under arterial and venous pO(2). In hepatocytes treated with 50 microM H(2)O(2), mdr1b mRNA expression was elevated by about 1.6-fold at venous pO(2) and 1.5-fold at arterial pO(2). These results support the conclusion that haem proteins are crucial for modulation of mdr1b mRNA expression by O(2) in hepatocyte cultures and that reactive oxygen species may participate in O(2)-dependent signal transduction. Furthermore, the present study suggests that oxygen might be a critical modulator for zonated secretion of mdr1 substrates into the bile. PMID:10947958

  12. Does maternal MDR1 C1236T polymorphism have an effect on placental arsenic levels?

    PubMed

    Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Doğan, Derya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2016-01-01

    To detect whether maternal MDR1 C1236T polymorphism has an effect on placental arsenic levels, 112 mother-placenta pairs were examined. Venous blood samples from mothers were collected to investigate the C1236T polymorphism which was detected by standard PCR-RFLP technique. Placentas were collected to measure arsenic levels by GF-AAS. The MDR1 C1236T genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 30.3% homozygote typical (CC), 51.8% heterozygote (CT) and 17.9% homozygote atypical (TT). The mean placental arsenic level was 62.36±30.43 μg/kg. It was observed that the placental arsenic concentrations were higher in mothers with TT genotype than those with CC and CT genotypes, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.702). This finding was indicated that fetuses of mothers with TT genotype may be more susceptible to arsenic toxicity as compared to those of with CC and CT genotypes. We believe that this difference warrant further studies with larger study subjects.

  13. The influence of DNA polymorphism of multidrug resistant 1 (MDR1) on the effect of midazolam pretreatment in children

    PubMed Central

    Byon, Hyo-Jin; Park, Keun-Suk; Park, Yong-Hee; Kim, Jin-Tae; Jung, Chul-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients showed a different response following intravenous midazolam injection. Some children showed irritability or were not sedated by midazolam. We hypothesized that there may be genetic variations of the MDR1 gene, based on the response to midazolam. Methods One hundred and ninety-three pediatric patients were recruited in this study. Midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) was injected intravenously before surgery. Anxiety score (activity, vocalizations, emotional expressivity, state of apparent arousal) was checked before and 5 minutes after midazolam injection. In addition, other manifestations after midazolam injection were recorded. After anesthesia, 2 ml of blood was sampled. Children were genotyped MDR1. Haplotype was analyzed using the software package PHASE, version 2.0. Results The observed frequencies of MDR1 haplotype of TTT, TGC, CAC, CGC were 0.334, 0.205, 0.182 and 0.225, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the response of midazolam and the MDR1 haplotype of TTT, TGC, CAC or CGC (P = 0.98). Conclusions Genotyping of MDR1 may not be related to the response of midazolam in children. PMID:22558499

  14. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-{alpha} in hepatitis-B-virus X protein-mediated MDR1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hyo-Kyung; Han, Chang Yeob; Cheon, Eun-Pa; Lee, Jaewon; Kang, Keon Wook . E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-06-01

    The transition from chemotherapy-responsive cancer cells to chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells is mainly accompanied by the increased expression of multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1). We found that hepatitis-B-virus X protein (HBx) increases the transcriptional activity and protein level of MDR1 in a hepatoma cell line, H4IIE. In addition, HBx overexpression made H4IIE cells more resistant to verapamil-uptake. HBx stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and induced the nuclear translocation of C/EBP{beta}. Reporter gene analyses showed that HBx increased the reporter activity in the cells transfected with the reporter containing MDR1 gene promoter. Moreover, the luciferase reporter gene activity was significantly inhibited by HIF-1{alpha} siRNA but not by overexpression of C/EBP dominant negative mutant. These results imply that HBx increases the MDR1 transporter activity through the transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene with HIF-1{alpha} activation, and suggest HIF-1{alpha} for the therapeutic target of HBV-mediated chemoresistance.

  15. Regulation of MDR1 gene expression in multidrug-resistant cancer cells is independent from YB-1.

    PubMed

    Kaszubiak, Alexander; Kupstat, Annette; Müller, Ursula; Hausmann, Romy; Holm, Per Sonne; Lage, Hermann

    2007-05-25

    The MDR1 gene encoded transmembrane ABC-transporter MDR1/P-glycoprotein can mediate the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR), a major obstacle in the clinical management of cancer patients. It was hypothesized that YB-1 is a fundamental regulatory factor of the MDR1 gene in tumor cells and can therewith enhance drug resistance. To analyze the potential impact of YB-1 in MDR cancer cells, two specific anti-YB-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were designed for transient triggering the gene-silencing RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the MDR cell lines EPG85-257RDB and EPP85-181RDB as well as in their drug-sensitive counterparts EPG85-257P and EPP85-181P. Since both siRNAs showed biological activity, for stable inhibition of YB-1 corresponding tetracycline-inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-encoding expression vectors were designed. By treatment of the cancer cells with these constructs, the expression of the targeted YB-1 encoding mRNA and protein was completely inhibited following tetracycline exposure. These gene-silencing effects were not accompanied by modulation of the MDR1 expression or by reversal of the drug-resistant phenotype. In conclusion, the data demonstrate the utility of the analyzed RNAs as powerful laboratory tools and indicate that YB-1 is not involved in the regulation of the MDR1 gene or the development of the drug-resistant phenotype in MDR cancer cells.

  16. Differential requirement of the transcription factor Mcm1 for activation of the Candida albicans multidrug efflux pump MDR1 by its regulators Mrr1 and Cap1.

    PubMed

    Mogavero, Selene; Tavanti, Arianna; Senesi, Sonia; Rogers, P David; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-05-01

    Overexpression of the multidrug efflux pump Mdr1 causes increased fluconazole resistance in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. The transcription factors Mrr1 and Cap1 mediate MDR1 upregulation in response to inducing stimuli, and gain-of-function mutations in Mrr1 or Cap1, which render the transcription factors hyperactive, result in constitutive MDR1 overexpression. The essential MADS box transcription factor Mcm1 also binds to the MDR1 promoter, but its role in inducible or constitutive MDR1 upregulation is unknown. Using a conditional mutant in which Mcm1 can be depleted from the cells, we investigated the importance of Mcm1 for MDR1 expression. We found that Mcm1 was dispensable for MDR1 upregulation by H2O2 but was required for full MDR1 induction by benomyl. A C-terminally truncated, hyperactive Cap1 could upregulate MDR1 expression both in the presence and in the absence of Mcm1. In contrast, a hyperactive Mrr1 containing a gain-of-function mutation depended on Mcm1 to cause MDR1 overexpression. These results demonstrate a differential requirement for the coregulator Mcm1 for Cap1- and Mrr1-mediated MDR1 upregulation. When activated by oxidative stress or a gain-of-function mutation, Cap1 can induce MDR1 expression independently of Mcm1, whereas Mrr1 requires either Mcm1 or an active Cap1 to cause overexpression of the MDR1 efflux pump. Our findings provide more detailed insight into the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in this important human fungal pathogen.

  17. Constituents of Carpobrotus edulis inhibit P-glycoprotein of MDR1-transfected mouse lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, A; Vasas, A; Schelz, Zs; Viveiros, M; Molnár, J; Hohmann, J; Amaral, L

    2010-03-01

    A bioassay-guided separation protocol, including the testing of the extracts, fractions and pure compounds for their ability to inhibit P-glycoprotein (the efflux pump responsible for the multidrug resistance of the used cell line) of mouse lymphoma cells containing the human efflux pump gene MDR1, led to the isolation of seven compounds from the chloroform and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the methanolic extract of Carpobrotus edulis. The compounds were identified by 1D, 2D NMR and MS investigations as triterpens (beta-amyrin, uvaol and oleanolic acid), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin B5. Uvaol was the most effective and promising compound in the reversal of multidrug resistance in MDR mouse lymphoma cell line.

  18. MiR-138 indirectly regulates the MDR1 promoter by NF-κB/p65 silencing.

    PubMed

    Requenez-Contreras, J L; López-Castillejos, E S; Hernández-Flores, R; Moreno-Eutimio, M A; Granados-Riveron, J T; Martinez-Ruiz, G U; Aquino-Jarquin, G

    2017-03-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing in the cytoplasm and recent evidence indicates that may also possess nuclear roles in regulating gene expression. A previous study showed that miR-138 is involved in the multidrug resistance of leukemia cells through down-regulation of the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the protein encoded by the human multidrug-resistant ABCB1/MDR1 gene. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. To deepen the description of the mechanism of transcriptional gene silencing on the MDR1 promoter, we initially performed a bioinformatics search for potential miR-138 binding sites in the MDR1 gene promoter sequence. Interestingly, we did not find miR-138 binding sites in this region, suggesting an indirect regulation. From six representative transcriptional factors involved in MDR1 gene regulation, an in silico analysis revealed that NF-κB/p65 has a specific binding site for miR-138. The results of luciferase reporter assay, western blot and flow cytometry shown here suggest that miR-138 might modulate the human MDR1 expression by inhibiting NF-κB/p65 as an indirect mechanism of MDR1 regulation. Furthermore, employing the human macrophage-like cell line U937 we observed comparable results with NF-κB/p65 down-regulation and we also observed a significant reduction in the IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA, as well as in their secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines following miR-138 expression, suggesting that canonical NF-κB target genes might also be potential targets for miR-138 in leukemia cells.

  19. Associations between MDR1 gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia and therapeutic response to olanzapine in female schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Bozina, Nada; Kuzman, Martina Rojnic; Medved, Vesna; Jovanovic, Nikolina; Sertic, Jadranka; Hotujac, Ljubomir

    2008-01-01

    Multidrug resistant protein (MDR1) gene, which codes for P-glycoprotein and functions as an efflux transporter in different cells, is widely localized in normal tissues including the gastrointestinal tract, blood cells, biliary tract, kidney and brain and plays a major role in absorption, distribution and elimination of various xenobiotics. Therefore, MDR1 gene variants were proposed as potential susceptibility factors for diseases and as determinants of treatment response to various drugs. We investigated the relationships between exon 21 G2677T and exon 26 C3435T genetic variants of MDR1 gene with susceptibility and treatment response in female schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two steps. We first compared allele, genotype and haplotype distributions between 117 female schizophrenic patients and 123 control female subjects. Afterwards, we studied treatment response to olanzapine, in 87 out of 117 previously unmedicated female patients. Overall, we found lower representation of G2677/C3435 haplotype in schizophrenic female patients compared to controls. Test result for linkage disequilibrium between loci was found to be significant. Furthermore, we found significant associations between MDR1 exon 21 G2677T genotypes and treatment response measured with positive PANSS percentage changes, with T allele and TT genotype being associated with significantly better treatment response. A borderline, non-significant statistical association was found between MDR1 exon 26 C3435T genotypes and treatment response, with TT genotype being associated with better treatment response. Our data support functional importance of the MDR1 mutations for the susceptibility and treatment response in female schizophrenic patients.

  20. Brain penetration of WEB 2086 (Apafant) and dantrolene in Mdr1a (P-glycoprotein) and Bcrp knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Holger; Kishimoto, Wataru; Gansser, Dietmar; Tanswell, Paul; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-10-01

    Transporter gene knockout rat models are attracting increasing interest for mechanistic studies of new drugs as transporter substrates or inhibitors in vivo. However, limited data are available on the functional validity of such models at the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, the present study evaluated Mdr1a [P-glycoprotein (P-gp)], Bcrp, and combined Mdr1a/Bcrp knockout rat strains for the influence of P-gp and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transport proteins on brain penetration of the selective test substrates [(14)C]WEB 2086 (3-[4-(2-chlorophenyl)-9-methyl-6H-thieno[3,2-f][1,2,4]triazolo-[4,3-a][1,4]-diazepin-2-yl]-1-(4-morpholinyl)-1-propanon) for P-gp and dantrolene for BCRP. Brain-to-plasma concentration ratios (BPR) were measured after intravenous coinfusions of 5.5 µmol/kg per hour [(14)C]WEB 2086 and 2 µmol/kg per hour dantrolene for 2 hours in groups of knockout or wild-type rats. Compared with wild-type controls, mean BPR of [(14)C]WEB 2086 increased 8-fold in Mdr1a knockouts, 9.5-fold in double Mdr1a/Bcrp knockouts, and 7.3-fold in zosuquidar-treated wild-type rats, but was unchanged in Bcrp knockout rats. Mean BPR of dantrolene increased 3.3-fold in Bcrp knockouts and 3.9-fold in double Mdr1a/Bcrp knockouts compared with wild type, but was unchanged in the Mdr1a knockouts. The human intestinal CaCo-2 cell bidirectional transport system in vitro confirmed the in vivo finding that [(14)C]WEB 2086 is a substrate of P-gp but not of BCRP. Therefore, Mdr1a, Bcrp, and combined Mdr1a/Bcrp knockout rats provide functional absence of these efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier and are a suitable model for mechanistic studies on the brain penetration of drug candidates.

  1. The process behind the expression of mdr-1/P-gp and mrp/MRP in human leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masao

    2009-04-01

    There is a controversy over the link between phenotypes of multidrug resistance (MDR) and clinical outcome in leukemia/lymphoma patients. This may be because the process behind the induction and loss of expression of genotypes and phenotypes by which MDR develops and the role of MDR in fresh cells of human leukemia/lymphoma are not clearly defined. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) increased and decreased along with mdr-1 expression in three cell lines out of five vincristine (VCR)-resistant cell lines. MRP appeared with increased mrp expression in the other two cell lines. After the drug was removed from the culture system, mdr-1/P-gp changed in parallel with the level of VCR resistance, although mrp and MRP did not. It was concluded that P-gp is directly derived from mdr-1 and that mdr-1/P-gp supports the VCR-resistance but mrp/MRP is not directly linked to the VCR-resistance. These results should contribute to a better understanding of MDR phenomenon in cancer.

  2. Contribution of mdr1b-type P-glycoprotein to okadaic acid resistance in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ritz, V; Marwitz, J; Sieder, S; Ziemann, C; Hirsch-Ernst, K I; Quentin, I; Steinfelder, H J

    1999-08-01

    Okadaic acid as well as other, structurally different, inhibitors of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A induce apoptosis in pituitary GH3 cells. Incubation with stepwise raised concentrations of okadaic acid resulted in the isolation of cells that were increasingly less sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of this agent. After about 18 months cells were selected that survived at 300 nM okadaic acid, which is about 30 times the initially lethal concentration. This study revealed that a major pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying cell survival was the development of a P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The increase in mRNA levels of the mdr1b P-glycoprotein isoform correlated with the extent of drug resistance. Functional assays revealed that increasing drug resistance was paralleled by a decreased accumulation of rhodamine 123, a fluorescent dye which is a substrate of mdr1-mediated efflux activity. Resistance could be abolished by structurally different chemosensitizers of P-glycoprotein function like verapamil and reserpine but not by the leukotriene receptor antagonist MK571 which is a modulator of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). Okadaic acid resistance included cross-resistance to other cytotoxic agents that are substrates of mdr1-type P-glycoproteins, like doxorubicin and actinomycin D, but not to non-substrates of mdr1, e.g. cytosine arabinoside. Thus, functional as well as biochemical features support the conclusion that okadaic acid is a substrate of the mdr1-mediated efflux activity in rat pituitary GH3 cells. Maintenance of resistance after withdrawal of okadaic acid as well as metaphase spreads of 100 nM okadaic acid-resistant cells suggested a stable MDR genotype without indications for the occurrence of extrachromosomal amplifications, e.g. double minute chromosomes.

  3. With no interaction, knockdown of Apollon and MDR1 reverse the multidrug resistance of human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562/ADM cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Ru; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Hong; Yi, Ying-Jie; Li, You-Jie

    2017-03-29

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment method for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and has achieved marked results. However, the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR) has seriously affected the quality of life and survival rate of patients. The overexpression of the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the two main causes of MDR. Apollon and MDR1 are the most important and representative members, respectively, among the IAPs and ABC transporters. In the present study, we investigated the role of Apollon and MDR1 in chemotherapy resistance and their mechanism of interaction. We respectively knocked down the expression of Apollon and MDR1 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in adriamycin (ADM) resistant human CML K562 cells and examined the drug sensitivity, the consequences with regard to ADM accumulation and the alterations in the expression of Apollon and MDR1. The expression levels of Apollon and MDR1 mRNA were higher in the K562/ADM cells compared with the parental K562 cells as determined by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The plasmids of Apollon and MDR1 shRNA were respectively stably transfected into K562/ADM cells using Lipofectamine 2000. The transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay revealed that Apollon or MDR1 knockdown significantly increased the chemosensitivity of the K562/ADM cells to ADM. Flow cytometric assay revealed that K562/ADM/shMDR1 cells exhibited a significantly increased intracellular accumulation of ADM, and that changes were not found in the K562/ADM/shApollon cells. Compared with the parental K562/ADM cells, a significantly decreased expression of Apollon mRNA and protein was determined in the K562/ADM/shApollon cells without affecting the expression of MDR1 as determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. Likewise, the expression levels of MDR1 m

  4. C-Phycocyanin inhibits 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced expression of MDR1 in mouse macrophage cells: ROS mediated pathway determined via combination of experimental and In silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Karnati R; Arunasree, Kalle M; Dhoot, Amit; Aparna, Rachamallu; Reddy, Gorla Venkateswara; Vali, Shireen; Reddanna, Pallu

    2007-03-15

    We studied the effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis on the 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)-induced expression of MDR1, encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene, in mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). Our experimental and In silico studies revealed a significant inhibition of 2-AAF-induced expression of MDR1 protein in C-PC treated mouse macrophage cell line. MDR1 induction by 2-AAF was dependent on ROS (reactive oxygen species)-Akt (protein kinase B)-NF-kappaB (Nuclear factor kappa B) signaling pathway. Generation of ROS, phosphorylation of Akt and corresponding nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, the events that play a major role in the induction of MDR1 expression, were decreased significantly in C-PC treated cells. NADPH oxidase inhibitor, DPI (Diphenyl iodide), and pharmacological inhibitor of Akt, Akt inhibitor IV, also showed a reduction in MDR1 expression, although not to the same extent as C-PC mediated inhibition of MDR1 expression. To further understand the mechanism, we created a computational model of the detailed ROS-Akt-NF-kappaB pathway. C-PC was modeled purely as a ROS scavenger and this representation matched the experimental trends accurately. Also the ROS levels determined through In silico investigation showed that C-PC was more effective in reduction of MDR1 expression than inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and Akt. Our experimental and In silico studies collectively suggest that 2-AAF induces MDR1 by ROS dependent pathway and C-PC is a potential negative regulator of MDR1 expression. This down regulation of MDR1 expression, induced by xenobiotics such as 2-AAF, suggests C-PC's usefulness in overcoming the drug resistance in cellular systems.

  5. MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoqian; lyer, Arun K.; Singh, Amit; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost universal phenomenon in patients with ovarian cancer, and this severely limits the ultimate success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Overexpression of the MDR1 gene and corresponding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best known MDR mechanisms. MDR1 siRNA based strategies were proposed to circumvent MDR, however, systemic, safe, and effective targeted delivery is still a major challenge. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) targeted hyaluronic acid (HA) based nanoparticle has been shown to successfully deliver chemotherapy agents or siRNAs into tumor cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of HA-PEI/HA-PEG to deliver MDR1 siRNA and the efficacy of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA with paclitaxel to suppress growth of ovarian cancer. We observed that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles can efficiently deliver MDR1 siRNA into MDR ovarian cancer cells, resulting in down-regulation of MDR1 and Pgp expression. Administration of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles followed by paclitaxel treatment induced a significant inhibitory effect on the tumor growth, decreased Pgp expression and increased apoptosis in MDR ovarian cancer mice model. Our findings suggest that CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles can serve as a therapeutic tool with great potentials to circumvent MDR in ovarian cancer. PMID:25687880

  6. MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoqian; Lyer, Arun K.; Singh, Amit; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-02-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost universal phenomenon in patients with ovarian cancer, and this severely limits the ultimate success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Overexpression of the MDR1 gene and corresponding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best known MDR mechanisms. MDR1 siRNA based strategies were proposed to circumvent MDR, however, systemic, safe, and effective targeted delivery is still a major challenge. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) targeted hyaluronic acid (HA) based nanoparticle has been shown to successfully deliver chemotherapy agents or siRNAs into tumor cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of HA-PEI/HA-PEG to deliver MDR1 siRNA and the efficacy of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA with paclitaxel to suppress growth of ovarian cancer. We observed that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles can efficiently deliver MDR1 siRNA into MDR ovarian cancer cells, resulting in down-regulation of MDR1 and Pgp expression. Administration of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles followed by paclitaxel treatment induced a significant inhibitory effect on the tumor growth, decreased Pgp expression and increased apoptosis in MDR ovarian cancer mice model. Our findings suggest that CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles can serve as a therapeutic tool with great potentials to circumvent MDR in ovarian cancer.

  7. Multi-drug resistance gene (MDR-1) and risk of brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Eno, Michele L.; Ahn, Edward H.; Shahzad, Mian M.K.; Im, Dwight D.; Rosenshein, Neil B.; Sood, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate risk factors that predict brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer. Methods All patients with FIGO stage I to IV who underwent initial cytoreductive surgery between January 1995 and January 2009 were evaluated. The tumor samples were evaluated for 7 markers including multi-drug resistance gene (MDR-1), DNA aneuploidity and S-phase fraction, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53 mutation, epidermal growth factor receptor, and CD31. Biomarker expression was evaluated as a predictor of hematogenous metastasis to the following locations: (i) liver and spleen, (ii) lung, and (iii) brain. Results There were 309 cases identified during the period. Of those, five (1.6%, 95%CI 0.2-3.0%) women developed brain metastasis. Time to onset of brain metastasis was significantly longer than for other recurrent sites (median time to recurrence after initial cytoreduction, brain vs lung vs liver, 21.4 vs 12.6 vs 11.0 months, p<0.05). Significantly increased expression of MDR-1 was seen in tumors from women who developed brain metastasis (brain vs non-brain sites, 80% vs 4.2-24.3%, p=0.004). In multivariate analysis, MDR-1 was the only significant variable associated with the risk of brain metastasis. MDR-1 expression predicted brain metastasis (Receiver-operator-characteristic curve analysis, AUC 0.808, p=0.018), and with a 10% positive expression of MDR-1 as the cutoff value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy of prediction of brain metastasis were 80%, 86.1%, 15.4%, 99.3%, and 85.9%, respectively (odds ratio 24.7, 95%CI 2.64-232, p=0.002). Conclusions Increased expression of MDR-1 in the tumor tissue obtained at initial cytoreduction is associated with increased risk of developing brain metastases in women with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer. PMID:20921883

  8. Functional Characterization Of Peptide Transporters In MDCKII -MDR1 Cell line As A Model For Oral Absorption Studies

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sheetal; Jain, Ritesh; Pal, Dhananjay; K.Mitra, Ashim

    2007-01-01

    MDCKII-MDR1 cell line has been extensively selected as a model to study P-gp-mediated drug efflux. Recently, investigators have employed this cell line for studying influx of peptide prodrug derivatives of parent compounds which are P-gp substrates. Therefore, the objective of this study is to functionally characterize the peptide mediated uptake and transport of [3H] Glycylsarcosine ([3H] Gly-Sar), a model peptide substrate across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. [3H] Gly-Sar uptake from apical (AP) and basolateral (BL) membranes was found to be time dependent and saturable. Michaelis-Menten (Km) constants of [3H] Gly-Sar uptake across the AP and BL directions in MDCKII-MDR1 cell line were found to be 457 ± 37 μM and 464 ± 85 μM respectively. Vmax values in AP and BL directions for the peptide transporters in MDCKII-MDR1 cell line were calculated to be 0.035 ± 0.001 and 0.35 ± 0.034 pmol/min/mg protein respectively. Uptake of [3H] Gly-Sar was significantly inhibited in the presence of aminocephalosporins and ACE-Inhibitors, known substrates for peptide transporters in both the AP and BL directions. Permeability of [3H] Gly-Sar in the BL direction was maximal at pH 4 as compared to pH 5, 6 and 7.4 whereas such permeability in the AP direction was optimal at pH 7.4. Transepithelial transport of [3H] Gly-Sar in the AP-BL direction was significantly lower than from BL-AP direction at all observed pHs. No statistical difference was observed in the transepithelial permeability of [3H] Gly-Sar across both AP and BL directions over 4–10 days of growth period. The present study indicates that peptide transporters are effectively involved in the bidirectional transport of Gly-Sar across MDCKII-MDR1 cell line; the BL peptide transporter can transport Gly-Sar at a greater rate as compared to the AP peptide transporter. Results from these studies suggest the application of MDCKII-MDR1 cell line as a rapid effective tool to study peptide mediated influx of compounds that may be

  9. Genotype variability and haplotype profile of ABCB1 (MDR1) gene polymorphisms in Macedonian population.

    PubMed

    Naumovska, Zorica; Nestorovska, Aleksandra K; Sterjev, Zoran; Filipce, Ana; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Suturkova, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the most common ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein) polymorphisms in the population of R. Macedonia and compare the allele and haplotype frequencies with the global geographic data reported from different ethnic populations. The total of 107 healthy Macedonian individuals from the general population was included. Genotypes for the ABCB1 for three polymorphisms C1236T [rs1128503], G2677A/T [rs2032582] and C3435T [rs1045642] were analyzed by Real-Time PCR. Obtained allele frequencies for these three SNPs were similar to those observed in other European Caucasians. The detected genotype frequencies were 33.6% for 1236CC, 44.9% for 1236CT and 21.5% for 1236TT in exon 12; 32.7%, 44.9% and 22.4% for 2677GG, 2677GT and 2677GT consecutively in exon 21; and 25.2% for 3435CC, 52.3% for 3435CT and 22.5% for 3435TT in exon 26.Strong LD was observed in our study among all three SNPs with the highest association confirmed for C1236T and G2677T ((D'=0.859, r2=0.711). Eight different haplotypes were identified and the most prominent was the CGC haplotype (45.3%). Our study was the first to have documented the distribution of ABCB1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes in the population of R. Macedonia. The obtained results can help in the prediction of different response to the drugs that are P-glycoprotein substrates. Additionally, in the era of individualized medicine the determination of the P-glycoprotein genotype might be a good predictive marker for determination of the subpopulations with higher risk to certain diseases.

  10. MDR-1 and MRP2 Gene Polymorphisms in Mexican Epileptic Pediatric Patients with Complex Partial Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Escalante-Santiago, David; Feria-Romero, Iris Angélica; Ribas-Aparicio, Rosa María; Rayo-Mares, Dario; Fagiolino, Pietro; Vázquez, Marta; Escamilla-Núñez, Consuelo; Grijalva-Otero, Israel; López-García, Miguel Angel; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Although the Pgp efflux transport protein is overexpressed in resected tissue of patients with epilepsy, the presence of polymorphisms in MDR1/ABCB1 and MRP2/ABCC2 in patients with antiepileptic-drugs resistant epilepsy (ADR) is controversial. The aim of this study was to perform an exploratory study to identify nucleotide changes and search new and reported mutations in patients with ADR and patients with good response (CTR) to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a rigorously selected population. We analyzed 22 samples In Material and Methods, from drug-resistant patients with epilepsy and 7 samples from patients with good response to AEDs. Genomic DNA was obtained from leukocytes. Eleven exons in both genes were genotyped. The concentration of drugs in saliva and plasma was determined. The concentration of valproic acid in saliva was lower in ADR than in CRT. In ABCB1, five reported SNPs and five unreported nucleotide changes were identified; rs2229109 (GA) and rs2032582 (AT and AG) were found only in the ADR. Of six SNPs associated with the ABCC2 that were found in the study population, rs3740066 (TT) and 66744T > A (TG) were found only in the ADR. The strongest risk factor in the ABCB1 gene was identified as the TA genotype of rs2032582, whereas for the ABCC2 gene the strongest risk factor was the T allele of rs3740066. The screening of SNPs in ACBC1 and ABCC2 indicates that the Mexican patients with epilepsy in this study display frequently reported ABCC1 polymorphisms; however, in the study subjects with a higher risk factor for drug resistance, new nucleotide changes were found in the ABCC2 gene. Thus, the population of Mexican patients with AED-resistant epilepsy (ADR) used in this study exhibits genetic variability with respect to those reported in other study populations; however, it is necessary to explore this polymorphism in a larger population of patients with ADR. PMID:25346718

  11. MDR-1 and MRP2 Gene Polymorphisms in Mexican Epileptic Pediatric Patients with Complex Partial Seizures.

    PubMed

    Escalante-Santiago, David; Feria-Romero, Iris Angélica; Ribas-Aparicio, Rosa María; Rayo-Mares, Dario; Fagiolino, Pietro; Vázquez, Marta; Escamilla-Núñez, Consuelo; Grijalva-Otero, Israel; López-García, Miguel Angel; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Although the Pgp efflux transport protein is overexpressed in resected tissue of patients with epilepsy, the presence of polymorphisms in MDR1/ABCB1 and MRP2/ABCC2 in patients with antiepileptic-drugs resistant epilepsy (ADR) is controversial. The aim of this study was to perform an exploratory study to identify nucleotide changes and search new and reported mutations in patients with ADR and patients with good response (CTR) to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a rigorously selected population. We analyzed 22 samples In Material and Methods, from drug-resistant patients with epilepsy and 7 samples from patients with good response to AEDs. Genomic DNA was obtained from leukocytes. Eleven exons in both genes were genotyped. The concentration of drugs in saliva and plasma was determined. The concentration of valproic acid in saliva was lower in ADR than in CRT. In ABCB1, five reported SNPs and five unreported nucleotide changes were identified; rs2229109 (GA) and rs2032582 (AT and AG) were found only in the ADR. Of six SNPs associated with the ABCC2 that were found in the study population, rs3740066 (TT) and 66744T > A (TG) were found only in the ADR. The strongest risk factor in the ABCB1 gene was identified as the TA genotype of rs2032582, whereas for the ABCC2 gene the strongest risk factor was the T allele of rs3740066. The screening of SNPs in ACBC1 and ABCC2 indicates that the Mexican patients with epilepsy in this study display frequently reported ABCC1 polymorphisms; however, in the study subjects with a higher risk factor for drug resistance, new nucleotide changes were found in the ABCC2 gene. Thus, the population of Mexican patients with AED-resistant epilepsy (ADR) used in this study exhibits genetic variability with respect to those reported in other study populations; however, it is necessary to explore this polymorphism in a larger population of patients with ADR.

  12. Association between the MDR1 gene variant C3435T and risk of leukaemia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B-B; Xuan, C; Deng, K-F; Wu, N; Lun, L-M

    2013-09-01

    Although a number of genetic studies have attempted to link the multidrug resistance (MDR1) C3435T polymorphism to risk of leukaemia, the results were often inconsistent. The present study aimed at investigating the pooled association using a meta-analysis on the published studies. 1933 cases and 2215 controls of 11 published studies in English before June 2012 were involved in the updated meta-analysis. Furthermore, subgroup analysis was performed in different ethnic and leukaemia subtype groups. This meta-analysis suggests that the MDR1 C3435T polymorphism associate with risk of leukaemia. The effect of the variant on the expression levels and the possible functional role of the variant in leukaemia should be addressed in further studies.

  13. Quinone derivatives isolated from the endolichenic fungus Phialocephala fortinii are Mdr1 modulators that combat azole resistance in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fei; Chang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Ming; Li, Ying; Li, Wei; Shi, Hongzhuo; Zheng, Sha; Lou, Hongxiang

    2016-01-01

    One of the main azole-resistance mechanisms in Candida pathogens is the upregulation of drug efflux pumps, which compromises the efficacy of azoles and results in treatment failure. The combination of azole-antifungal agents with efflux pump inhibitors represents a promising strategy to combat fungal infection. High-throughput screening of 150 extracts obtained from endolichenic fungal cultures led to the discovery that the extract of Phialocephala fortinii exhibits potent activity for the reversal of azole resistance. From P. fortinii cultures, a total of 15 quinone derivatives, comprising 11 new derivatives and 4 known compounds, were obtained. Among these compounds, palmarumycin P3 (3) and phialocephalarin B (8) specifically modulate the expression of MDR1 to inhibit the activity of drug efflux pumps and therefore reverse azole resistance. The present study revealed Mdr1 targeting as an alternative mechanism for the discovery of new agents to fight antifungal drug resistance. PMID:27650180

  14. Genetic analysis of coding SNPs in blood-brain barrier transporter MDR1 in European Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Funke, Claudia; Soehn, Anne S; Tomiuk, Juergen; Riess, Olaf; Berg, Daniela

    2009-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions (Lewy bodies). Iron, which is elevated in the substantia nigra of PD patients, seems to be of pivotal importance, because of its capacity to enhance the amplification of reactive oxygen species. As iron enters and exits the brain via transport proteins in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), these proteins may represent candidates for a genetic susceptibility to PD. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one important efflux pump in the BBB. There is evidence that the function of P-gp is impaired in PD patients. In the current study we examined ten coding single nucleotide polymorphisms in the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) encoding P-gp to assess whether certain genotypes are associated with PD. However, genotyping of 300 PD patients and 302 healthy controls did not reveal a significant association between coding MDR1 gene polymorphisms and PD.

  15. Preferential cytotoxicity of bortezomib toward highly malignant human liposarcoma cells via suppression of MDR1 expression and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yamei; Wang, Lingxian; Wang, Lu; Wu, Xuefeng; Wu, Xudong; Gu, Yanhong; Shu, Yongqian; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qiang

    2015-02-15

    Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma with a high risk of relapse. Few therapeutic options are available for the aggressive local or metastatic disease. Here, we report that the clinically used proteasome inhibitor bortezomib exhibits significantly stronger cytotoxicity toward highly malignant human liposarcoma SW872-S cells compared with its parental SW872 cells, which is accompanied by enhanced activation of apoptotic signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of cells with Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP60015 or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide ameliorated this enhanced apoptosis. Bortezomib inhibited MDR1 expression and function more effectively in SW872-S cells than in SW872 cells, indicating that the increased cytotoxicity relies on the degree of proteasome inhibition. Furthermore, the pharmacological or genetic inhibition of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA) 2, which is highly expressed in SW872-S cells, resulted in partial reversal of cell growth inhibition and increase of MDR1 expression in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. These results show that bortezomib exhibits preferential cytotoxicity toward SW872-S cells possibly via highly expressed SERCA2-associated MDR1 suppression and suggest that bortezomib may serve as a potent agent for treating advanced liposarcoma. - Highlights: • We compare the cytotoxicity of different drugs between SW872-S and SW872 cells. • Highly malignant liposarcoma cells SW872-S show hypersensitivity to bortezomib. • Apoptotic signaling is robustly enhanced in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. • Bortezomib has strong suppression on MDR1 expression and function in SW872-S cells. • Inhibition of SERCA2 protects SW872-S cells from bortezomib.

  16. MDR1 C3435T polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on 39 case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiaojing; Zhang, Limei; Tong, Na; Luo, Dewei; Wang, Meilin; Xu, Min; Zhang, Zhengdong

    2012-07-01

    Multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene encodes the ATP-dependent cellular efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which efflux of a variety of substances across the membrane. P-gp could serve a role in cancer etiology based on its physiological role of protecting cells from xenobiotics or metabolites. The C3435T (rs1045642) polymorphism of the MDR1 gene which could influence the P-gp expression and function have been implicated in the cancer risk. However, the results from the published studies on the association between this polymorphism and cancer risk are conflicting. To drive a more precise estimation of this association, we performed a meta-analysis of 39 case-control studies, including a total of 9,265 cancer cases and 13,502 controls. We used odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. Overall, individuals with the MDR1 3435TT genotype were associated with an increased cancer risk than those with the CC (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10-1.51) or CT/CC (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04-1.34) genotypes, similar to the CT or CT/TT compared with the CC genotype. In the stratified analyses, the increased risks were more pounced among hematologic malignances (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.10-1.46, P (heterogeneity) = 0.415), breast cancer (1.42, 1.04-1.94, 0.018), renal cancer (1.77, 1.28-2.46, 0.307), Caucasians (1.21, 1.07-1.38, 0.000) and population-based studies (1.20, 1.05-1.36, 0.000) in a dominant model. The results suggested that the MDR1 C3435T polymorphism may contribute to cancer risk.

  17. Purification and characterization of NF-R1 that regulates the expression of the human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, M; Takatori, T; Tsuruo, T

    1992-01-01

    We have purified a protein, NF-R1, that specifically binds to two unrelated motifs--the ATTCAGTCA motif and the GC-box motif--on the MDR1 proximal promoter. Purified NF-R1 has been confirmed by southwestern blotting to be a 110-kDa protein. Methylation interference analysis revealed that the nucleotides were in close contact with purified NF-R1 on the ATTCAGTCA and GC-box motifs. The nucleotides were required for the binding of NF-R1, as seen by competition gel mobility shift assay using point mutated oligonucleotides. In a CAT expression assay using the corresponding point-mutated MDR1 promoter fused to a CAT gene, binding inhibition of NF-R1 to the promoter resulted in 2- to 3-fold increases of CAT activity, as compared to the intact promoter in Adriamycin-resistant K562 cells. Thus NF-R1 has a relation to the negative regulation of the MDR1 gene transcription. Images PMID:1360648

  18. Sinomenine Sensitizes Multidrug-Resistant Colon Cancer Cells (Caco-2) to Doxorubicin by Downregulation of MDR-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Chang, Jiu-Yang; Zhang, Zhi-feng; Chu, Rui; Li, Yu-Ling; Dai, Ke-Hang; Mo, Guang-quan; Chang, Qing-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Chemoresistance in multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells over expressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by the MDR1 gene, is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Previous studies have indicated that sinomenine can enhance the absorption of various P-gp substrates. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sinomenine on the chemoresistance in colon cancer cells and explored the underlying mechanism. We developed multidrug-resistant Caco-2 (MDR-Caco-2) cells by exposure of Caco-2 cells to increasing concentrations of doxorubicin. We identified overexpression of COX-2 and MDR-1 genes as well as activation of the NF-κB signal pathway in MDR-Caco-2 cells. Importantly, we found that sinomenine enhances the sensitivity of MDR-Caco-2 cells towards doxorubicin by downregulating MDR-1 and COX-2 expression through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings provide a new potential strategy for the reversal of P-gp-mediated anticancer drug resistance. PMID:24901713

  19. Ursolic acid sensitized colon cancer cells to chemotherapy under hypoxia by inhibiting MDR1 through HIF-1α*

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jian-zhen; Xuan, Yan-yan; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Jian-jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the efficacy of ursolic acid in sensitizing colon cancer cells to chemotherapy under hypoxia and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Three colon cancer cell lines (RKO, LoVo, and SW480) were used as in vitro models. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin were used as chemotherapeutic drugs. Cell viability and apoptosis were tested to evaluate the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to chemotherapy. The transcription and expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1), and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting. Cycloheximide and MG132 were used to inhibit protein synthesis and degradation, respectively. In vitro tube formation assay was used to evaluate angiogenesis. Results: We demonstrated the chemosensitizing effects of ursolic acid with 5-FU and oxaliplatin in three colon cancer cell lines under hypoxia. This effect was correlated to its inhibition of MDR1 through HIF-1α. Moreover, ursolic acid was capable of inhibiting HIF-1α accumulation with little effects on its constitutional expression in normoxia. In addition, ursolic acid also down-regulated VEGF and inhibited tumor angiogenesis. Conclusions: Ursolic acid exerted chemosensitizing effects in colon cancer cells under hypoxia by inhibiting HIF-1α accumulation and the subsequent expression of the MDR1 and VEGF. PMID:27604859

  20. Globally prevalent PfMDR1 mutations modulate Plasmodium falciparum susceptibility to artemisinin-based combination therapies

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, M. Isabel; Dhingra, Satish K.; Henrich, Philipp P.; Straimer, Judith; Gnädig, Nina; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Martin, Rowena E.; Lehane, Adele M.; Fidock, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chemotherapy, globally reliant on artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), is threatened by the spread of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Here we use zinc-finger nucleases to genetically modify the multidrug resistance-1 transporter PfMDR1 at amino acids 86 and 184, and demonstrate that the widely prevalent N86Y mutation augments resistance to the ACT partner drug amodiaquine and the former first-line agent chloroquine. In contrast, N86Y increases parasite susceptibility to the partner drugs lumefantrine and mefloquine, and the active artemisinin metabolite dihydroartemisinin. The PfMDR1 N86 plus Y184F isoform moderately reduces piperaquine potency in strains expressing an Asian/African variant of the chloroquine resistance transporter PfCRT. Mutations in both digestive vacuole-resident transporters are thought to differentially regulate ACT drug interactions with host haem, a product of parasite-mediated haemoglobin degradation. Global mapping of these mutations illustrates where the different ACTs could be selectively deployed to optimize treatment based on regional differences in PfMDR1 haplotypes. PMID:27189525

  1. Downregulation of mdr1 and abcg2 genes is a mechanism of inhibition of efflux pumps mediated by polymeric amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Castillo, Amalia I; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mathet, Verónica L

    2012-11-01

    The ability of cells to acquire resistance to multiple pharmaceuticals, namely multidrug resistance (MDR), is often mediated by the over-expression of efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily; for example P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP or ABCG2), and multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1. ABCs pump drug molecules out of cells against a concentration gradient, reducing their intracellular concentration. The ability of polymeric amphiphiles to inhibit ABCs as well as the cellular pathways involved in the inhibition has been extensively investigated. This work investigated for the first time the effect of branched poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamines) on the levels of mRNA encoding for MDR1, BCRP and MRP1, in a human hepatoma cell line (Huh7). Copolymers with a broad range of molecular weights and hydrophilic-lipophilic balances were assayed. Results confirmed the down-regulation of mdr1 and abcg2 genes. Conversely, the mrp1 gene was not affected. These findings further support the versatility of these temperature- and pH-responsive copolymers to overcome drug resistance in cancer and infectious diseases.

  2. Functional Characterization of Sodium-dependent Multivitamin Transporter (SMVT) in MDCK-MDR1 cells and its Utilization as a Target for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuanghui; Kansara, Viral S.; Zhu, Xiaodong; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is to characterize a sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) in MDCK-MDR1 cells (Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene) and to investigate the feasibility of utilizing MDCK-MDR1 cell line as an in vitro model to study the permeability of biotin-conjugated prodrugs of anti-HIV protease inhibitors. Mechanism of [3H] biotin uptake and transport was delineated. Transepithelial permeability of the biotin conjugated prodrug i.e. biotin-saquinavir was also studied. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to confirm the existence of SMVT in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Biotin uptake was Na+, pH, and temperature dependent, but energyindependent. Transepithelial transport studies of biotin-saquinavir in MDCK-MDR1, wild type MDCK, and Caco-2 cells revealed that permeability of biotin-saquinavir was similar in all three cell lines. A band of SMVT mRNA at 862 bp was identified by RT-PCR. A sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter, SMVT, responsible for biotin uptake and transport, was identified and functionally characterized in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Therefore, MDCK-MDR1 cell line may be utilized as an in vitro model to study the permeability of biotin conjugated prodrugs such as HIV protease inhibitors. PMID:16749865

  3. Enhanced efflux of (/sup 3/H)vinblastine from Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with a full-length complementary DNA clone for the mdr1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, J.R.; Johnstone, R.M.; Gros, P.

    1989-07-15

    Multidrug-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell clones stably transfected with, and overexpressing, the mouse mdr1 complementary DNA clone along with drug-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary control cells were characterized for their capacities to accumulate and retain (/sup 3/H)vinblastine. Multidrug-resistant mdr1 transfectants show a 3-4-fold decrease in (/sup 3/H)vinblastine accumulation, compared to their drug-sensitive counterparts. After ATP depletion, this difference in (/sup 3/H)vinblastine accumulation between mdr1 transfectants and control cells effectively disappears. This ATP-dependent decreased drug accumulation is paralleled in mdr1 transfectants by an enhanced capacity of these cells to extrude the drug in an ATP-dependent manner. In medium containing glucose and glutamine, the mdr1 transfectants release preloaded drug at a rate five times that of control, drug-sensitive cells. In ATP-depleted control and mdr1-transfected cells, there is little difference in the rate or extent of (/sup 3/H)vinblastine release. The observation that the mdr1 transfectants show a decreased (/sup 3/H)vinblastine accumulation and an increased vinblastine release, both of which are abolished when cellular ATP levels are reduced, provides a direct demonstration that the product of the transfected mdr1 gene is responsible for a mechanism controlling cellular drug levels in an ATP-dependent manner. However, attempts to establish competition for (/sup 3/H)vinblastine transport by vincristine, daunomycin, and actinomycin D were only partly successful in mdr1 transfectants.

  4. Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in MDR1-transfected versus wildtype cell lines affect P-glycoprotein mediated drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Kuteykin-Teplyakov, Konstantin; Luna-Tortós, Carlos; Ambroziak, Kamila; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux assays are widely used to identify Pgp substrates. The kidney cell lines Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-II and LLC-PK1, transfected with human MDR1 (ABCB1) are used to provide recombinant models of drug transport. Endogenous transporters in these cells may contribute to the activities of recombinant transporters, so that drug transport in MDR1-transfected cells is often corrected for the transport obtained in parental (wildtype) cells. However, expression of endogenous transporters may vary between transfected and wildtype cells, so that this correction may cause erroneous data. Here, we have measured the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in transfected and wildtype MDCK-II or LLC cells and the consequences for Pgp-mediated drug transport. Experimental approach: Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we determined the expression of endogenous Mdr1 mRNA and other efflux transporters in wildtype and MDR1-transfected MDCK-II and LLC cells. Transcellular transport was measured with the test substrate vinblastine. Key results: In MDR1-transfected MDCK cells, expression of endogenous (canine) Mdr1 and Mrp2 (Abcc2) mRNA was markedly lower than in wildtype cells, whereas MDR1-transfected LLC cells exhibited comparable Mdr1 but strikingly higher Mrp2 mRNA levels than wildtype cells. As a consequence, transport of vinblastine by human Pgp in efflux experiments was markedly underestimated when transport in MDR1-transfected MDCK cells was corrected for transport obtained in wildtype cells. This problem did not occur in LLC cells. Conclusions and implications: Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters between transfected and wildtype MDCK cells provide a potential bias for in vitro studies on Pgp-mediated drug transport. PMID:20590635

  5. BPR1K653, a Novel Aurora Kinase Inhibitor, Exhibits Potent Anti-Proliferative Activity in MDR1 (P-gp170)-Mediated Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio; Lin, Wen-Hsing; Hsu, John Tsu-An; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Yeh, Teng-Kuang; Ko, Shengkai; Lien, Tzu-Wen; Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj; Liu, Jin-Fen; Lai, Wen-Yang; Shiao, Hui-Yi; Lee, Tian-Ren; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang; Chang, Jang-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Background Over-expression of Aurora kinases promotes the tumorigenesis of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the preclinical profile of a novel pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor, BPR1K653, as a candidate for anti-cancer therapy. Since expression of the drug efflux pump, MDR1, reduces the effectiveness of various chemotherapeutic compounds in human cancers, this study also aimed to determine whether the potency of BPR1K653 could be affected by the expression of MDR1 in cancer cells. Principal Findings BPR1K653 specifically inhibited the activity of Aurora-A and Aurora-B kinase at low nano-molar concentrations in vitro. Anti-proliferative activity of BPR1K653 was evaluated in various human cancer cell lines. Results of the clonogenic assay showed that BPR1K653 was potent in targeting a variety of cancer cell lines regardless of the tissue origin, p53 status, or expression of MDR1. At the cellular level, BPR1K653 induced endo-replication and subsequent apoptosis in both MDR1-negative and MDR1-positive cancer cells. Importantly, it showed potent activity against the growth of xenograft tumors of the human cervical carcinoma KB and KB-derived MDR1-positive KB-VIN10 cells in nude mice. Finally, BPR1K653 also exhibited favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. Conclusions and Significance BPR1K653 is a novel potent anti-cancer compound, and its potency is not affected by the expression of the multiple drug resistant protein, MDR1, in cancer cells. Therefore, BPR1K653 is a promising anti-cancer compound that has potential for the management of various malignancies, particularly for patients with MDR1-related drug resistance after prolonged chemotherapeutic treatments. PMID:21887256

  6. CD30 Downregulation, MMAE Resistance, and MDR1 Upregulation Are All Associated with Resistance to Brentuximab Vedotin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Robert; Hou, Jessie; Newman, Edward; Kim, Young; Donohue, Cecile; Liu, Xueli; Thomas, Sandra H; Forman, Stephen J; Kane, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an antibody-drug conjugate that specifically delivers the potent cytotoxic drug monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) to CD30-positive cells. BV is FDA approved for treatment of relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL); however, many patients do not achieve complete remission and develop BV-resistant disease. We selected for BV-resistant Hodgkin lymphoma (L428) and ALCL (Karpas-299) cell lines using either constant (ALCL) or pulsatile (Hodgkin lymphoma) exposure to BV. We confirmed drug resistance by MTS assay and analyzed CD30 expression in resistant cells by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. We also measured drug exporter expression, MMAE resistance, and intracellular MMAE concentrations in BV-resistant cells. In addition, tissue biopsy samples from 10 Hodgkin lymphoma and 5 ALCL patients who had relapsed or progressed after BV treatment were analyzed by immunohistocytochemistry for CD30 expression. The resistant ALCL cell line, but not the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line, demonstrated downregulated CD30 expression compared with the parental cell line. In contrast, the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line, but not the ALCL cell line, exhibited MMAE resistance and increased expression of the MDR1 drug exporter compared with the parental line. For both Hodgkin lymphoma and ALCL, samples from patients relapsed/resistant on BV persistently expressed CD30 by immunohistocytochemistry. One Hodgkin lymphoma patient sample expressed MDR1 by immunohistocytochemistry. Although loss of CD30 expression is a possible mode of BV resistance in ALCL in vitro models, this has not been confirmed in patients. MMAE resistance and MDR1 expression are possible modes of BV resistance for Hodgkin lymphoma both in vitro and in patients.

  7. CD30 downregulation, MMAE resistance, and MDR1 upregulation are all associated with resistance to brentuximab vedotin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Robert; Hou, Jessie; Newman, Edward; Kim, Young; Donohue, Cecile; Liu, Xueli; Thomas, Sandra H.; Forman, Stephen J.; Kane, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an antibody-drug conjugate that specifically delivers the potent cytotoxic drug MMAE to CD30-positive cells. BV is FDA-approved for treatment of relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL); however, many patients do not achieve complete remission and develop BV resistant disease. We selected for BV-resistant HL (L428) and ALCL (Karpas-299) cell lines using either constant (ALCL) or pulsatile (HL) exposure to BV. We confirmed drug resistance by MTS assay, and analyzed CD30 expression in resistant cells by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. We also measured drug exporter expression, MMAE resistance, and intracellular MMAE concentrations in BV-resistant cells. Additionally, tissue biopsy samples from 10 HL and 5 ALCL patients who had relapsed or progressed after BV treatment were analyzed by immunohistocytochemistry for CD30 expression. The resistant ALCL cell line, but not the HL cell line, demonstrated downregulated CD30 expression compared to the parental cell line. In contrast, the HL cell line, but not the ALCL cell line, exhibited MMAE resistance and increased expression of the MDR1 drug exporter compared to the parental line. For both HL and ALCL, samples from patients relapsed/resistant on BV persistently expressed CD30 by immunohistocytochemistry. One HL patient sample expressed MDR1 by immunohistocytochemistry. Although loss of CD30 expression is a possible mode of BV resistance in ALCL in vitro models, this has not been confirmed in patients. MMAE resistance and MDR1 expression are possible modes of BV resistance for HL both in vitro and in patients. PMID:25840583

  8. Selective Toxicity of NSC 73306 in MDR1-positive cells as a New Strategy to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Joseph A.; Martin, Scott E.; Chu, Benjamin F.; Cardarelli, Carol; Sauna, Zuben E.; Caplen, Natasha J.; Fales, Henry M.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Weinstein, John N.

    2006-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins include the best known mediators of resistance to anticancer drugs. In particular, ABCB1 (MDR1/P-gp) extrudes many types of drugs from cancer cells, thereby conferring resistance to those agents. Attempts to overcome P-gp-mediated drug resistance using specific inhibitors of P-gp has had limited success, and has faced many therapeutic challenges. As an alternative approach to using P-gp inhibitors, we characterize a thiosemicarbazone derivative (NSC73306) identified in a generic screen as a compound that exploits, rather than suppresses, P-gp function to induce cytotoxicity. Cytotoxic activity of NSC73306 was evaluated in vitro using human epidermoid, ovarian, and colon cancer cell lines expressing various levels of P-gp. Our findings suggest that cells become hypersensitive to NSC73306 in proportion to the increased P-gp function and multidrug resistance (MDR). Abrogation of both sensitivity to NSC73306 and resistance to P-gp substrate anticancer agents occurred with specific inhibition of P-gp function using either a P-gp inhibitor (PSC833, XR9576) or RNA interference (RNAi), suggesting that cytotoxicity was linked to MDR1 function, not to other, nonspecific factors arising during the generation of resistant or transfected cells. Molecular characterization of cells selected for resistance to NSC73306 revealed loss of P-gp expression and consequent loss of the MDR phenotype. Although hypersensitivity to NSC73306 required functional expression of P-gp, biochemical assays revealed no direct interaction between NSC73306 and P-gp. This work demonstrates that NSC73306 kills cells with intrinsic or acquired P-gp-induced MDR and indirectly acts to eliminate resistance to MDR1 substrates. PMID:16651436

  9. Expression polymorphism of the blood-brain barrier component P-glycoprotein (MDR1) in relation to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Furuno, Taku; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Ceroni, Mauro; Caporaso, Neil; Bernucci, Ilaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Martignoni, Emilia; Schaeffeler, Elke; Eichelbaum, Michel; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M

    2002-10-01

    Because drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein, the product of the multidrug resistance (MDR1 ) gene, contribute to the function of the blood-brain barrier, we hypothesized that differences in their expression could affect the uptake of neurotoxic xenobiotics, thereby modulating interindividual susceptibility for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In a pilot case-control study comprising 95 Parkinson's disease patients (25 early-onset patients with onset age < or = 45 years) and 106 controls we analysed the three common polymorphisms, 3435C >T in exon 26, 2677G > T,A in exon 21, and -129T > C in exon 1b. There were no statistically significant associations between any of these polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease. However, a distribution pattern consistent with our hypothesis was observed in that the frequency of the 3435T/T genotype, which had previously been associated with decreased P-glycoprotein expression and function, was highest in the early-onset Parkinson's disease group (36.0%), second-highest in the late-onset Parkinson's disease group (22.9%), and lowest in the control group (18.9%). Furthermore, we confirmed that the MDR1 exon 21 and exon 26 polymorphisms are in significant linkage disequilibrium since the [2677G, 3435C] and [2677T, 3435T] haplotypes were far more frequently observed than expected. In conclusion, MDR1 and other drug transporters represent plausible candidates as Parkinson's disease risk genes. Larger studies are required to confirm this role in the etiology of Parkinson's disease.

  10. Relative neurotoxicity of ivermectin and moxidectin in Mdr1ab (-/-) mice and effects on mammalian GABA(A) channel activity.

    PubMed

    Ménez, Cécile; Sutra, Jean-François; Prichard, Roger; Lespine, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The anthelmintics ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) display differences in toxicity in several host species. Entrance into the brain is restricted by the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter, while toxicity is mediated through the brain GABA(A) receptors. This study compared the toxicity of IVM and MOX in vivo and their interaction with GABA(A) receptors in vitro. Drug toxicity was assessed in Mdr1ab(-/-) mice P-gp-deficient after subcutaneous administration of increasing doses (0.11-2.0 and 0.23-12.9 µmol/kg for IVM and MOX in P-gp-deficient mice and half lethal doses (LD(50)) in wild-type mice). Survival was evaluated over 14-days. In Mdr1ab(-/-) mice, LD(50) was 0.46 and 2.3 µmol/kg for IVM and MOX, respectively, demonstrating that MOX was less toxic than IVM. In P-gp-deficient mice, MOX had a lower brain-to-plasma concentration ratio and entered into the brain more slowly than IVM. The brain sublethal drug concentrations determined after administration of doses close to LD(50) were, in Mdr1ab(-/-) and wild-type mice, respectively, 270 and 210 pmol/g for IVM and 830 and 740-1380 pmol/g for MOX, indicating that higher brain concentrations are required for MOX toxicity than IVM. In rat α1β2γ2 GABA channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, IVM and MOX were both allosteric activators of the GABA-induced response. The Hill coefficient was 1.52±0.45 for IVM and 0.34±0.56 for MOX (p<0.001), while the maximum potentiation caused by IVM and MOX relative to GABA alone was 413.7±66.1 and 257.4±40.6%, respectively (p<0.05), showing that IVM causes a greater potentiation of GABA action on this receptor. Differences in the accumulation of IVM and MOX in the brain and in the interaction of IVM and MOX with GABA(A) receptors account for differences in neurotoxicity seen in intact and Mdr1-deficient animals. These differences in neurotoxicity of IVM and MOX are important in considering their use in humans.

  11. C-Phycocyanin inhibits MDR1 through reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase-2 mediated pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Nishanth, Reddy P; Ramakrishna, B S; Jyotsna, Radhika G; Roy, Karnati R; Reddy, Gorla V; Reddy, Pratap K; Reddanna, Pallu

    2010-12-15

    The effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis on the regulation of multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1), a poly glycoprotein in human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2 were reported. The results revealed that a significant down regulation of MDR1 expression in C-PC treated HepG2 cells was through reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mediated pathways. C-PC in a concentration dependent manner increased the accumulation of doxorubicin in HepG2 cells and enhanced sensitivity of the cells to doxorubicin by 5 folds. The induction of MDR1 expression by PGE₂ and its down regulation by C-PC and DPI (Diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor) or by COX-2 knockdown suggest that the enhanced sensitivity of HepG2 cells to doxorubicin by C-PC is mediated by the down regulation of MDR1 expression. Further studies reveal the involvement of NF-κB and AP-1 in the C-PC induced down regulation of MDR1. Also the inactivation of the signal transduction pathways involving Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 by C-PC was observed. The present study thus demonstrates the efficacy of C-PC in overcoming the MDR1 mediated drug resistance in HepG2 cells by the down regulation of reactive oxygen species and COX-2 pathways via the involvement of NF-κB and AP-1.

  12. Identification of trichlormethiazide as a Mdr1a/b gene expression enhancer via a dual secretion-based promoter assay

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Sarina; Reinhardt, Sven; Freese, Christian; Schmitt, Ulrich; Endres, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family such as MDR1 play a pivotal role in persistence of brain homeostasis by contributing to the strict permeability properties of the blood–brain barrier. This barrier on one hand compromises treatment of central nervous system diseases by restricting access of drugs; on the other hand, an impaired or altered function of barrier building cells has been described in neurological disorders. The latter might contribute to increased vulnerability of the brain under pathological conditions or even enforce pathogenesis. Here, we present a novel approach for a systematic examination of drug impact on Mdr1 gene expression by establishing a dual reporter gene assay for the murine upstream core promoters of Mdr1a and b. We validated the time-resolved assay in comparison with single reporter gene constructs and applied it to analyze effects of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library consisting of 627 substances. The chemo-preventive synthetic dithiolethione oltipraz was reidentified with our assay as an already known inducer of Mdr1 gene expression. Together with two newly characterized modifiers – gemcitabine and trichlormethiazide – we prove our findings in a blood–brain barrier culture model as well as in wild-type and Mdr1 knockout mice. In sum, we could demonstrate that our dual reporter gene assay delivers results, which also persist in the living animal and consequently is applicable for further analysis and prediction of Mdr1 regulation in vivo. PMID:25692026

  13. Genetic variation in MDR1, LPL and eNOS genes and the response to atorvastatin treatment in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Anjana

    2012-11-01

    Statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events by lowering the blood cholesterol. Many genes involved in the pharmacodynamic pathway of statins have been part of pharmacogenetic research in patients with hypercholesterolemia, with an emphasis on genes involved in the cholesterol pathway. The present study was carried out with an aim to evaluate the association between the genetic variants of lipoprotein lipase gene [HindIII (+/+)/HindIII (-/-)], multiple drug resistance gene (C3435T) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (4a/4b) with clinical outcome including an increased risk of recurrent stroke or death in ischemic stroke patients on atorvastatin therapy. 525 stroke patients and 500 healthy controls were involved in the study. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with patients post-event to determine stroke outcome. Blood samples were collected and genotypes determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction digestion technique. A significant association of MDR1 and LPL gene variants with bad outcome in stroke patients on atorvastatin therapy was found. However, there was no significant association of 27 bp VNTR polymorphism of eNOS gene with outcome. MDR analysis was carried out to analyze gene-gene interaction involving these gene variants contributing to clinical outcome of patients on stratin therapy but no significant interaction between these variants was observed. In conclusion the individuals with HindIII (-/-) genotype of LPL and CC genotype of MDR1 gene would benefit more from atorvastatin therapy.

  14. Modulation of mdr1 expression by cytokines in human colon carcinoma cells: an approach for reversal of multidrug resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, U.; Walther, W.; Shoemaker, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    Reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) may offer a means of increasing the effectiveness of tumour chemotherapy. A variety of recent evidence indicates that cytokines may be particularly useful in this endeavour. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which cytokines may sensitise multidrug-resistant colon carcinoma cells, HCT15 and HCT116, to treatment with MDR-related drugs, we evaluated the effects of the human cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN gamma) on mdr1 gene expression at the mRNA level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and at the protein level with monoclonal antibodies by immuno flow cytometry. P-glycoprotein function was examined after accumulation of the fluorescent drug, doxorubicin, by flow cytometry. Chemosensitivity to doxorubicin and vincristine was analysed using the XTT assay. All three cytokines were found to modulate the MDR characteristics on mdr1 expression levels, P-glycoprotein function and measured chemosensitivity to MDR-associated anti-cancer drugs. This cytokine-induced reversal of MDR was strongly time dependent, with maximal effects after 48 and 72 h of cytokine treatment. If similar modulation of MDR phenotype can be obtained in in vivo models, it may be possible to verify the time course for modulation by cytokine treatment and to design appropriate clinical trials of this strategy for MDR reversal. Images Figure 1 PMID:8912533

  15. Helicobacter bilis Infection Accelerates and H. hepaticus Infection Delays the Development of Colitis in Multiple Drug Resistance-Deficient (mdr1a−/−) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maggio-Price, Lillian; Shows, Donna; Waggie, Kim; Burich, Andrew; Zeng, Weiping; Escobar, Sabine; Morrissey, Phil; Viney, Joanne L.

    2002-01-01

    mdr1a-deficient mice lack P-glycoprotein and spontaneously develop colitis with age. Helicobacter spp. are gram-negative organisms that have been associated with colitis in certain mouse strains, but Helicobacter spp. have been excluded as contributing to the spontaneous colitis that develops in mdr1a−/− mice. We wished to determine whether infection with either H. bilis or H. hepaticus would accelerate the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in mdr1a−/− mice. We found that H. bilis infection induced diarrhea, weight loss, and IBD in mdr1a−/− mice within 6 to 17 weeks post-inoculation and before the expected onset of spontaneous IBD. Histopathology of H. bilis-induced IBD included crypt hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltrates, crypt abscesses, and obliteration of normal gut architecture. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Taqman analysis from colonic tissue showed increased transcripts for interferon-γ and interleukin-10 from H. bilis-infected colitic mdr1a−/− mice. Additionally, mesenteric lymph nodes had increased cellularity with expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and B cells and increased proliferation to soluble H. bilis antigens with elaboration of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10. In contrast, H. hepaticus infection of mdr1a−/− mice did not accelerate disease but rather delayed the onset of spontaneous colitis which was milder in severity. mdr1a−/− mice infected with Helicobacter spp. may provide a useful tool to explore the pathogenesis of microbial-induced IBD in a model with a presumed epithelial cell “barrier” defect. PMID:11839595

  16. New invMED1 element cis-activates human multidrug-related MDR1 and MVP genes, involving the LRP130 protein

    PubMed Central

    Labialle, Stéphane; Dayan, Guila; Gayet, Landry; Rigal, Dominique; Gambrelle, Joël; Baggetto, Loris G.

    2004-01-01

    The MDR1 gene is a key component of the cytotoxic defense network and its overexpression results in the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the MDR1 gene and coordinate multiple MDR-related genes expression are poorly understood. In a previous study, we identified a new 12 bp cis-activating region in the 5′-flanking region of the human MDR1 gene, which we called inverted MED1. In the present study, we characterized the precise binding element, which we named invMED1, and revealed the presence of the LRP130 protein as the nuclear factor. Its binding intensity increases with the endogenous MDR1 geneexpression and with the MDR level of CEM leukemia cells. Interestingly, the LRP130 level did not vary with the chemoresistance level. We observed the involvement of LRP130 in the transcriptional activity of the MDR1 gene promoter, and moreover, in that of the MDR-related, invMED1-containing, MVP gene promoter. We used siRNAs and transcriptional decoys in two unrelated human cancer cell lines to show the role of the invMED1/LRP130 couple in both MDR1 and MVP endogenous genes activities. We showed that invMED1 was localized in the −105/−100 and −148/−143 regions of the MDR1 and MVP gene promoters, respectively. In addition, since the invMED1 sequence is primarily located in the −160/−100 bp region of mammalian MDR-related genes, our results present the invMED1/LRP130 couple as a potential central regulator of the transcription of these genes. PMID:15272088

  17. Dual Infection with Helicobacter bilis and Helicobacter hepaticus in P-Glycoprotein-Deficient mdr1a−/− Mice Results in Colitis that Progresses to Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Maggio-Price, Lillian; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Treuting, Piper; Iritani, Brian M.; Zeng, Weiping; Nicks, Andrea; Tsang, Mark; Shows, Donna; Morrissey, Phil; Viney, Joanne L.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for developing high-grade dysplasia and colorectal cancer. Animal IBD models that develop dysplasia and neoplasia may help elucidate the link between inflammation and colorectal cancer. Mdr1a−/− mice lack the membrane efflux pump p-glycoprotein and spontaneously develop IBD that can be modulated by infection with Helicobacter sp: H. bilis accelerates development of colitis while H. hepaticus delays disease. In this study, we determined if H. hepaticus infection could prevent H. bilis-induced colitis. Unexpectedly, a proportion of dual-infected mdr1a−/− mice showed IBD with foci of low- to high-grade dysplasia. A group of dual-infected mdr1a−/− animals were maintained long term (39 weeks) by intermittent feeding of medicated wafers to model chronic and relapsing disease. These mice showed a higher frequency of high-grade crypt dysplasia, including invasive adenocarcinoma, possibly because H. hepaticus, in delaying the development of colitis, allows time for transformation of epithelial cells. Colonic epithelial preparations from co-infected mice showed increased expression of c-myc (5- to 12-fold) and interleukin-1α/β (600-fold) by real-time polymerase chain reaction relative to uninfected wild-type and mdr1a−/− animals. This animal model may have particular relevance to human IBD and colorectal cancer because certain human MDR1 polymorphisms have been linked to ulcerative colitis and increasedrisk for colorectal cancer. PMID:15920164

  18. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppressed the over-expression of HSP 70 and MDR1 induced by heat shock in SGC 7901.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, You-Qing

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the expression of HSP 70 and MDR 1. SGC-7901 cells were cultured with RPMI 1640 medium. The single or combined effects of EGCG (0.1, 1, 10, 20, and 40 micromol/L) and heat shock were examined by MTT assay. The expression of HSP 70 and MDR 1 was semi-quantified by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry method (SP staining). EGCG suppressed cell proliferation at a time- and dose-dependent manner. The effects of combined treatment with EGCG and heat shock on the growth of SGC-7901 cells were stronger than single effects of EGCG. After using EGCG for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, the IC50s were 112.5 micromol/l, 21.41 micromol/l and 5.24 micromol/l, respectively. Heat shock stimulated the over-expression of HSP 70, especially after heat shock for 8 h, as well as MDR1 after heat shock for 24 h. But EGCG suppressed the over-expression induced by heat shock. The authors conclude that EGCG inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901, and EGCG combined with heat shock strengthened the effects. Heat shock weakened the over-expression of HSP 70 and MDR1; however, EGCG suppressed the over-expression of HSP 70 and MDR1 induced by heat shock. EGCG combined with heat shock may enhance the sensitivity of drugs to tumors.

  19. Involvement of CjMDR1, a plant multidrug-resistance-type ATP-binding cassette protein, in alkaloid transport in Coptis japonica

    PubMed Central

    Shitan, Nobukazu; Bazin, Ingrid; Dan, Kazuyuki; Obata, Kazuaki; Kigawa, Koji; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Sato, Fumihiko; Forestier, Cyrille; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2003-01-01

    Alkaloids comprise one of the largest groups of plant secondary metabolites. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is preferentially accumulated in the rhizome of Coptis japonica, a ranunculaceous plant, whereas gene expression for berberine biosynthetic enzymes has been observed specifically in root tissues, which suggests that berberine synthesized in the root is transported to the rhizome, where there is high accumulation. We recently isolated a cDNA encoding a multidrug-resistance protein (MDR)-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (Cjmdr1) from berberine-producing cultured C. japonica cells, which is highly expressed in the rhizome. Functional analysis of Cjmdr1 by using a Xenopus oocyte expression system showed that CjMDR1 transported berberine in an inward direction, resulting in a higher accumulation of berberine in Cjmdr1-injected oocytes than in the control. Typical inhibitors of ABC proteins, such as vanadate, nifedipine, and glibenclamide, as well as ATP depletion, clearly inhibited this CjMDR1-dependent berberine uptake, suggesting that CjMDR1 functioned as an ABC transporter. Conventional membrane separation methods showed that CjMDR1 was localized in the plasma membrane of C. japonica cells. In situ hybridization indicated that Cjmdr1 mRNA was expressed preferentially in xylem tissues of the rhizome. These findings strongly suggest that CjMDR1 is involved in the translocation of berberine from the root to the rhizome. PMID:12524452

  20. Association between multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene polymorphisms and therapeutic response to bromperidol in schizophrenic patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Saito, Manabu; Nakagami, Taku; Kaneda, Ayako; Tateishi, Tomonori; Kaneko, Sunao

    2006-03-01

    The drug-transporting P-glycoprotein transports drugs against a concentration gradient across the blood-brain barrier back into the plasma and thereby reduces the bioavailability in the brain. Polymorphisms in the MDR1 gene regulating P-glycoprotein expression can be associated with differences in drug disposition in the brain. The present study was therefore designed to examine whether the major polymorphisms of MDR1 gene, C3435T and G2677T/A are related to therapeutic response to neuroleptics in the treatment of schizophrenia. Subjects consisted of 31 acutely exacerbated schizophrenic inpatients treated with bromperidol (6-18 mg/day). Plasma drug concentrations were monitored and clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) before and 3 weeks after the treatment. The C3435T and G2677T/A genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction method. Schizophrenic symptoms were allocated into 5 clusters: positive, excitement, cognitive, negative, and anxiety-depression symptoms. Patients were C/C in 12, C/T in 12 and T/T in 7 cases for C3435T genotype and G/G in 3, G/T or A in 17 and T or A/T or A in 11 cases for G2677T/A genotype. There were a tendency of difference, but not statistically different, in the percentage improvement or the improved scores of 5 sub-grouped symptoms after the 3-week treatment between C3435T genotypes and between G2677T/A genotypes. Multiple regression analyses including age, body weight, gender and drug concentration showed significant correlations between the percentage improvement and the improved scores of cognitive symptoms and C3435T genotypes. The present results suggest that the C3435T polymorphism is associated with some therapeutic response to bromperidol in schizophrenic patients, possibly by different drug concentration in the brain.

  1. pHluorin enables insights into the transport mechanism of antiporter Mdr1: R215 is critical for drug/H+ antiport.

    PubMed

    Redhu, Archana Kumari; Khandelwal, Nitesh Kumar; Banerjee, Atanu; Moreno, Alexis; Falson, Pierre; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-10-01

    Multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) is a member of the major facilitator superfamily that contributes to MDR of Candida albicans This antiporter belongs to the drug/H(+) antiporter 1 family, pairing the downhill gradient of protons to drug extrusion. Hence, drug efflux from cytosol to extracellular space and the parallel import of H(+) towards cytosol are inextricably linked processes. For monitoring the drug/H(+) antiporter activity of Mdr1p, we developed a new system, exploiting a GFP variant pHluorin, which changes its fluorescence properties with pH. This enabled us to measure the cytosolic pH correlated to drug efflux. Since protonation of charged residues is a key step in proton movement, we explored the role of all charged residues of the 12 transmembrane segments (TMSs) of Mdr1p in drug/H(+) transport by mutational analysis. This revealed that the conserved residue R(215), positioned close to the C-terminal end of TMS-4, is critical for drug/H(+) antiport, allowing protonation over a range of pH, in contrast with its H(215) or K(215) variants that failed to transport drugs at basic pH. Mutation of other residues of TMS-4 highlights the role of this TMS in drug transport, as confirmed by in silico modelling of Mdr1p and docking of drugs. The model points to the importance of R(215) in proton transport, suggesting that it may adopt two main conformations, one oriented towards the extracellular face and the other towards the centre of Mdr1p. Together, our results not only establish a new system for monitoring drug/H(+) transport, but also unveil a positively charged residue critical to Mdr1p function.

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors Serve as Substrates for Multidrug Transporter Proteins MDR1 and MRP1 but Retain Antiviral Efficacy in Cell Lines Expressing These Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Ranga V.; Middlemas, David; Flynn, Pat; Fridland, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs)—saquinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, and indinavir—interact with the ABC-type multidrug transporter proteins MDR1 and MRP1 in CEM T-lymphocytic cell lines. Calcein fluorescence was significantly enhanced in MDR1+ CEM/VBL100 and MRP1+ CEM/VM-1-5 cells incubated in the presence of various HIV PIs and calcein acetoxymethyl ester. HIV PIs also enhanced the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin, a known substrate for MDR1 and MRP1, in both VBL100 and VM-1-5 CEM lines. Saquinavir, ritonavir, and nelfinavir enhanced doxorubicin toxicity in CEM/VBL100 cells by approximately three- to sevenfold. Saquinavir and ritonavir also enhanced doxorubicin toxicity in CEM/VM-1-5 cells. HIV-1 replication was effectively inhibited by the various PIs in all of the cell lines, and the 90% inhibitory concentration for a given compound was comparable between the different cell types. Therefore, overexpression of MDR1 or MRP1 by T lymphocytes is not likely to limit the antiviral efficacy of HIV PI therapy. PMID:9835508

  3. Characterization of gastrointestinal absorption of digoxin involving influx and efflux transporter in rats: application of mdr1a knockout (-/-) rats into absorption study of multiple transporter substrate.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motoya; Komura, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Tomonori; Enya, Seiji; Nagao, Akemi; Takubo, Hiroaki; Kogayu, Motohiro

    2014-11-01

    1.  This study was aimed to characterize gastrointestinal absorption of digoxin using wild-type (WT) and multidrug resistance protein 1a [mdr1a; P-glycoprotein (P-gp)] knockout (-/-) rats. 2.  In WT rats, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of oral digoxin increased after oral pretreatment with quinidine at 30 mg/kg compared with non-treatment, but the increasing ratio tended to decrease at a high dose of 100 mg/kg. In mdr1a (-/-) rats, however, quinidine pretreatment caused a dose-dependent decrease in the AUC. 3.  Quinidine pretreatment did not alter the hepatic availability of digoxin, indicating that the changes in the digoxin AUC were attributable to inhibition of the absorption process by quinidine; i.e. inhibition of influx by quinidine in mdr1a (-/-) rats and inhibition of efflux and influx by quinidine in WT rats. 4.  An in situ rat intestinal closed loop study using naringin implied that organic anion transporting peptide (Oatp) 1a5 may be a responsible transporter in the absorption of digoxin. 5.  These findings imply that the rat absorption behavior of digoxin is possibly governed by Oatp1a5-mediated influx and P-gp-mediated efflux. The mdr1a (-/-) rat is therefore a useful in vivo tool to investigate drug absorption associated with multiple transporters including P-gp.

  4. The influence of 5-HT(2C) and MDR1 genetic polymorphisms on antipsychotic-induced weight gain in female schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Kuzman, Martina Rojnic; Medved, Vesna; Bozina, Nada; Hotujac, Ljubomir; Sain, Ivica; Bilusic, Hrvoje

    2008-09-30

    We investigated the relationships between functional genetic variants of the 5-HT(2C) receptor and multidrug-resistant protein (MDR1), coding for P-glycoprotein, and second generation antipsychotic (SDA)-induced weight gain among 108 female schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine or risperidone for up to 4 months. No significant differences in -759C/T allelic and genotype variants of 5-HT(2C) were found between patients who gained more than 7% of their initial weight compared with those who gained less. Haplotype-based analysis of two MDR1 loci, exon 21 G2677T and exon 26 C3435T, revealed a slightly lower representation of the G2677/C3435 haplotype in the >or=7% group. In the subgroup of patients treated with risperidone, we found borderline overrepresentation of 2677T, significant overrepresentation of 3435T variant and borderline overrepresentation of 2677T/3435T haplotype the >or=7% group, whereas G2677/C3435 haplotype was found to be less represented in the >or=7% group. Our data indicate a nonsignificant role of 759C/T 5-HT(2C) in SDA-induced weight gain, and a stronger influence of the MDR1 G2677T and C3435T polymorphisms on risperidone-induced weight gain in female schizophrenic patients. 3435T and 2677T MDR1 variants, both associated with lower P-gp function, might predispose to higher risperidone accessibility to the brain that would lead to stronger effects, including weight gain.

  5. Assessment of the Disposition of Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Female mdr 1a/b Knockout versus Wild-type Mice Using Multivariate Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Lulek, Janina; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in the environment as complex mixtures, which make it challenging to identify PCB congeners that may be subject to active transport processes. Here we employ a transgenic mouse model in combination with multivariate analyses to investigate if chiral PCBs 91, 95, 132, 136, 149, 174, 176 and 183 are subject to active (enantioselective) transport by multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters. A synthetic PCB mixture containing these congeners was administered orally to female FVB or mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Due to the short half-life of chiral PCB congeners, mice were euthanized after 24 hours and PCB concentrations and enantiomeric fractions were determined in selected tissues and excreta. Principal component analysis did not reveal differences between wild-type and mdr1a/1b knockout mice. However, Hotelling T2-test revealed significantly lower PCB concentrations and a more pronounced enantiomeric enrichment in the adipose tissue of mdr1a/1b knockout mice. These differences are due to higher body weights and higher fecal fat contents of mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Analysis of the enantiomeric fractions of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149 and 174 showed a significant enantiomeric enrichment for all five congeners in wild-type and mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Overall, by studying a PCB mixture in a transgenic mouse model in combination with a multivariate data reduction approach, PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149 and 174 could be excluded as substrates of multidrug resistance transporters 1a/b. PMID:19923000

  6. AEG-1 is associated with hypoxia-induced hepatocellular carcinoma chemoresistance via regulating PI3K/AKT/HIF-1alpha/MDR-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yong; Zhong, De-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common characteristic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with reduced response to chemotherapy, thus increasing the probability of tumor recurrence. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) has been involved in a wide array of cancer progression including proliferation, chemoresistance, angiogenesis and metastasis, but its effect on HCC chemoresistance induced by hypoxia is unclear. In this study, expression of AEG-1 and multiple drug resistance (MDR-1) were examined in HCC using immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR. Furthermore, their expression levels were detected in HCC HepG2 cells in normoxia or hypoxia via RT-PCR and Western blot assays. Specific shRNAs were used to silence AEG-1 expression in HepG2 cells. Results showed AEG-1 and MDR-1 expression were higher in HCC tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. Incubation of HepG2 cells in hypoxia increased expression of AEG-1 and MDR-1, compared to incubation in normoxia. Exposure to hypoxia blunted sensitivity of HepG2 cells to Adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil and cis-platinum, as evidenced by modest alterations in cell viability and apoptosis rate, however the sensitivity was elevated with AEG-1 knockdown. PI3K/AKT/HIF-1/MDR-1 pathway was attenuated following AEG-1 knockdown in hypoxia. Based on these data, it was suggested that AEG-1 is associated with hypoxia-induced hepatocellular carcinoma chemoresistance via regulating PI3K/AKT/HIF-1/MDR-1 pathway. This study uncovered a novel potential target for development of an effective therapy against hypoxia-induced HCC chemoresistance.

  7. Drug transporter, P-glycoprotein (MDR1), is an integrated component of the mammalian blood-testis barrier§

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Cheng, Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout spermatogenesis, leptotene spermatocytes traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium for continued development. At the same time, the integrity of the BTB, which is constituted by co-existing tight junctions (TJ), basal ectoplasmic specializations (basal ES) and desmosome-like junctions, must be maintained since a breach in barrier function can result in spermatogenic arrest and infertility. There is evidence to suggest that drug transporters may function at the BTB, but little is known about how they contribute to spermatogenesis. In this study, we investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug efflux pump, in BTB dynamics. A survey by RT-PCR revealed several transport proteins to be expressed by the testis, including Mdr1 (gene symbol for P-gp), Mrp1, Abcc5 and Slc15a1. It was also demonstrated that P-gp localizes to the BTB in all stages of the epithelial cycle in the adult rat testis, as well as to the Sertoli cell elongated spermatid interface in stages VII–VIII. We continued our study by examining the levels of several transporters in the testis following oral administration of Adjudin, a compound known to affect Sertoli-germ cell adhesion. In this experiment, the steady-state levels of P-gp, MRP1, ABCG1 and SLC15A1 were all found to increase by several-fold within hours of Adjudin treatment during junction restructuring. More importantly, an increase in P-gp association with TJ proteins (e.g., occludin, claudin-11 and JAM-A) was noted when testis lysates from Adjudin-treated rats were used for co-immunoprecipitation experiments, suggesting that P-gp may enhance BTB function during Sertoli-germ cell junction restructuring. PMID:19720156

  8. Cell-specific activity of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter of the mouse multidrug resistance gene mdr1.

    PubMed

    Raymond, M; Gros, P

    1990-11-01

    To define cis-acting elements implicated in transcriptional regulation of the mouse multidrug resistance gene mdr1, we have cloned and characterized the 5' end of the gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified TATA, GGGCGG, and CCAAT consensus sequence elements at positions -27, -47, and -83, respectively. The transcriptional activities of 5' deletion fragments from the promoter linked to a reporter gene were tested in mouse cell lines of different tissue origins shown to express different levels of endogenous mdr1 RNA. Sequences located between nucleotides -93 and +84 were able to confer basal promoter activity and cell specificity to the reporter gene. The addition to the basal promoter of sequences upstream of position -141 was found to up or down regulate the basal level of expression of the reporter gene in a cell-specific manner.

  9. P-glycoprotein gene MDR1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in Guangxi population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Liu, Yanqiong; Zhao, Jiangyang; Xu, Juanjuan; Li, Shan; Qin, Xue

    2017-04-01

    The multidrug resistance 1 gene (MDR1) encodes for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which plays a pathophysiological role in the development of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we aimed to investigate the relationship between MDR1 gene polymorphisms and SLE susceptibility in the Chinese Guangxi population. The genotypes of rs1128503 and rs1045642 in MDR1 gene were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 283 SLE patients and 247 healthy controls from Guangxi. Direct sequencing method was used to verify the results. Binary logistic regression analyses adjusting for gender and age indicated that subjects carrying the rs1128503 T-allele and TT genotype were at increased risk of SLE when compared to carriers of the C allele and CC genotype, with adjusted ORs of 1.36 (95% CI 1.07-1.74; P = 0.014) and 1.77 (95% CI 1.08-2.88; P = 0.022), respectively. In addition, the risk allele T had a recessive effect (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04-2.14, P = 0.029). Subgroup analyses revealed effect modification by age for the presence of the rs1128503 T allele, yielding a significant positive association with SLE in older (≥40 years) subjects (T vs. C allele: OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.96; P = 0.041; TT vs. CC genotype: OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.07-2.79; P = 0.021). For the first time, we demonstrated that MDR1 rs1128503 polymorphisms were associated with SLE susceptibility in Chinese Guangxi population.

  10. Dioscin strengthens the efficiency of adriamycin in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells through autophagy induction: More than just down-regulation of MDR1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changyuan; Huo, Xiaokui; Wang, Lijuan; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Zhihao; Liu, Qi; Sun, Huijun; Sun, Pengyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Kexin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of dioscin on activity of adriamycin (ADR) in ADR-sensitive (MCF-7) and ADR-resistant (MCF-7/ADR) human breast cancer cells and to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved. Antiproliferation effect of ADR was enhanced by dioscin in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. Dioscin significantly inhibited MDR1 mRNA and protein expression and MDR1 promoter and nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) activity in MCF-7/ADR cells. Additionally, inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) degradation was inhibited by dioscin. Moreover, dioscin induced the formation of vacuoles in the cytoplasm and protein level of LC3-II in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. Autophagy inhibitor 3-MA abolished the effect of dioscin on ADR cytotoxicity. Dioscin inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt, resulting in upregulation of LC3-II expression. In conclusion, dioscin increased ADR chemosensitivity by down-regulating MDR1 expression through NF-κB signaling inhibition in MCF-7/ADR cells. Autophagy was induced by dioscin to ameliorate the cytotoxicity of ADR via inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathways in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. These findings provide evidence in support of further investigation into the clinical application of dioscin as a chemotherapy adjuvant. PMID:27329817

  11. Design of a hairpin polyamide, ZT65B, for targeting the inverted CCAAT box (ICB) site in the multidrug resistant (MDR1) gene.

    PubMed

    Buchmueller, Karen L; Taherbhai, Zarmeen; Howard, Cameron M; Bailey, Suzanna L; Nguyen, Binh; O'Hare, Caroline; Hochhauser, Daniel; Hartley, John A; Wilson, W David; Lee, Moses

    2005-12-01

    A novel hairpin polyamide, ZT65B, containing a 3-methylpicolinate moiety was designed to target the inverted CCAAT box (ICB) of the human multidrug resistance 1 gene (MDR1) promoter. Binding of nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) to the ICB site upregulates MDR1 gene expression and is, therefore, a good target for anticancer therapeutic agents. However, it is important to distinguish amongst different promoter ICB sites so that only specific genes will be affected. All ICB sites have the same sequence but they differ in the sequence of the flanking base pairs, which can be exploited in the design of sequence-specific polyamides. To test this hypothesis, ten ICB-containing DNA hairpins were designed with different flanking base pairs; the sequences ICBa and ICBb were similar to the 3'-ICB site of MDR1 (TGGCT). Thermal-denaturation studies showed that ZT65B effectively targeted ICBa and ICBb (DeltaTM=6.5 and 7.0 degrees C) in preference to the other DNA hairpins (<3.5 degrees C), with the exception of ICBc (5.0 degrees C). DNase I-footprinting assays were carried out with the topoisomerase IIalpha-promoter sequence, which contains five ICB sites; of these, ICB1 and ICB5 are similar to the ICB site of MDR1. ZT65B was found to selectively bind ICB1 and ICB5; footprints were not observed with ICB2, ICB3, or ICB4. A strong, positive induced ligand band at 325 nm in CD studies confirmed that ZT65B binds in the DNA minor groove. The selectivity of ZT65B binding to hairpins that contained the MDR1 ICB site compared to one that did not (ICBd) was confirmed by surface-plasmon studies, and equilibrium constants of 5x10(6)-1x10(7) and 4.6x10(5) M-1 were obtained with ICB1, ICB5,and ICB2 respectively. ZT65B and the previously published JH37 (J. A. Henry, et al. Biochemistry 2004, 43, 12 249-12 257) serve as prototypes for the design of novel polyamides. These can be used to specifically target the subset of ubiquitous gene elements known as ICBs, and thereby affect the expression of one or

  12. Associations of MDR1, TBXA2R, PLA2G7, and PEAR1 genetic polymorphisms with the platelet activity in Chinese ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ling-ling; Zhao, Yuan-qi; Zhou, Zi-yi; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Min; Chen, Xin-meng; Chen, Ling-yan; Cai, Ye-feng; Li, Jia-li; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aspirin resistance has an incidence of 5%–65% in patients with ischemic stroke, who receive the standard dose of aspirin, but the platelet function is inadequately inhibited, thereby leading to thrombotic events. Numerous evidence shows that thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2 receptor, encoded by TBXA2R), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2, encoded by PLA2G7) and platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1, encoded by PEAR1) are crucial in regulating platelet activation, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by MDR1) influences the absorption of aspirin in the intestine. In this study we examined the correlation between MDR1, TBXA2R, PLA2G7, PEAR1 genetic polymorphisms and platelet activity in Chinese ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy. Methods: A total of 283 ischemic stroke patients receiving 100 mg aspirin for 7 d were genotyped for polymorphisms in MDR1 C3435T, TBXA2R (rs1131882), PLA2G7 (rs1051931, rs7756935), and PEAR1 (rs12566888, rs12041331). The platelet aggregation response was measured using an automatic platelet aggregation analyzer and a commercially available TXB2 ELISA kit. Results: Thirty-three patients (11.66%) were insensitive to aspirin treatment. MDR1 3435TT genotype carriers, whose arachidonic acid (AA) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was lower than that of CC+CT genotype carriers, were less likely to suffer from aspirin resistance (odds ratio=0.421, 95% CI: 0.233–0.759). The TBXA2R rs1131882 CC genotype, which was found more frequently in the aspirin-insensitive group (81.8% vs 62.4%) than in the sensitive group, was identified as a risk factor for aspirin resistance (odds ratio=2.712, 95% CI: 1.080–6.810) with a higher level of AA-induced platelet aggregation. Due to the combined effects of PLA2G7 rs1051931 and rs7756935, carriers of the AA-CC haplotype had a higher level of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and were at considerably higher risk of aspirin resistance than

  13. No influence of the P-glycoprotein polymorphisms MDR1 G2677T/A and C3435T on the virological and immunological response in treatment naïve HIV-positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Winzer, Ralf; Langmann, Peter; Zilly, Michael; Tollmann, Franz; Schubert, Jörg; Klinker, Hartwig; Weissbrich, Benedikt

    2005-01-01

    Background In a retrospective study of HIV-infected patients, we investigated the influence of the MDR1 genotype (G2677T/A and C3435T) on the virological and immunological response of treatment naïve patients. Methods The MDR1 genotype was analysed from 72 patients in whom antiretroviral therapy was initiated between 1998 and 2004. Data were obtained at week 4, 12, 24 and 48 and were analysed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results During the first 48 weeks of antiretroviral therapy, there were no significant differences in the virological and immunological response with respect to the MDR1 2677 and 3435 genotypes and the 2677/3435 haplotype. Conclusions In view of different results from several studies concerning the influence of MDR1 polymorphisms on the immunological and virological response to antiretroviral therapy, further studies with larger patient groups and longer follow-up are necessary in order to resolve conflicting issues. PMID:15659247

  14. Decreased expression of nucleophosmin/B23 increases drug sensitivity of adriamycin-resistant Molt-4 leukemia cells through mdr-1 regulation and Akt/mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyan; Chen, Buyuan; Lin, Minhui; Cao, Yanqin; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Xinji; Liu, Tingbo; Hu, Jianda

    2015-03-01

    Nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM) is a nuclear protein with prosurvival and ribosomal RNA processing functions. However, the potential role of NPM involved in drug-resistance in leukemia has not been investigated clearly. In this study, we generated an adriamycin (ADM)-resistant lymphoblastic cell line Molt-4/ADR (MAR) by stepwise induction. Cell proliferation, sensitivity to chemotherapy agents and expressions of drug resistance related molecules were assessed. The IC50 of Molt-4 cells were 0.58±0.11μmol/L and MAR cells were 22.56±1.94μmol/L, meaning MAR cells were 38.63 fold resistant to Molt-4 cells. Furthermore, MAR cells gained an expression of mdr-1 (P-gp) and a higher expression of NPM compared to Molt-4 cells. Knockdown of NPM by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed the viability of both Molt-4 and MAR cells. After NPM RNAi, the IC50 of MAR and Molt-4 cells were 3.83±0.38μmol/L and 0.19±0.02μmol/L respectively. Both of them revealed an increase of drug sensitivity with down-regulation of mdr-1 and Akt/mTOR signaling. Knockdown of mdr-1 could also reverse the drug resistance, with no change in NPM expression. It could be concluded that knockdown of NPM reversed the drug resistance by down-regulating P-gp and Akt/mTOR signal pathway, indicating that NPM may serve as a potential modulator in drug resistance.

  15. Relative Neurotoxicity of Ivermectin and Moxidectin in Mdr1ab (−/−) Mice and Effects on Mammalian GABA(A) Channel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ménez, Cécile; Sutra, Jean-François; Prichard, Roger; Lespine, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The anthelmintics ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) display differences in toxicity in several host species. Entrance into the brain is restricted by the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter, while toxicity is mediated through the brain GABA(A) receptors. This study compared the toxicity of IVM and MOX in vivo and their interaction with GABA(A) receptors in vitro. Drug toxicity was assessed in Mdr1ab(−/−) mice P-gp-deficient after subcutaneous administration of increasing doses (0.11–2.0 and 0.23–12.9 µmol/kg for IVM and MOX in P-gp-deficient mice and half lethal doses (LD50) in wild-type mice). Survival was evaluated over 14-days. In Mdr1ab(−/−) mice, LD50 was 0.46 and 2.3 µmol/kg for IVM and MOX, respectively, demonstrating that MOX was less toxic than IVM. In P-gp-deficient mice, MOX had a lower brain-to-plasma concentration ratio and entered into the brain more slowly than IVM. The brain sublethal drug concentrations determined after administration of doses close to LD50 were, in Mdr1ab(−/−) and wild-type mice, respectively, 270 and 210 pmol/g for IVM and 830 and 740–1380 pmol/g for MOX, indicating that higher brain concentrations are required for MOX toxicity than IVM. In rat α1β2γ2 GABA channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, IVM and MOX were both allosteric activators of the GABA-induced response. The Hill coefficient was 1.52±0.45 for IVM and 0.34±0.56 for MOX (p<0.001), while the maximum potentiation caused by IVM and MOX relative to GABA alone was 413.7±66.1 and 257.4±40.6%, respectively (p<0.05), showing that IVM causes a greater potentiation of GABA action on this receptor. Differences in the accumulation of IVM and MOX in the brain and in the interaction of IVM and MOX with GABA(A) receptors account for differences in neurotoxicity seen in intact and Mdr1-deficient animals. These differences in neurotoxicity of IVM and MOX are important in considering their use in humans. PMID:23133688

  16. The effect of MDR1 C3435T polymorphism on the eradication rate of H. pylori infection in PPI-based triple therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Li, Taijie; Guo, Shihui; Liang, Hongjie; Jiang, Dunke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several studies have reported that multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) C3435T polymorphism was associated with the rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy. However, the conclusions were inconsistent. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of MDR1 C3435T polymorphism on H. pylori eradication by PPI-based triple therapy. Methods: Seven eligible studies published up to August 2016 and including 1019 patients were identified by searching the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, Wan fang, PubMed, and the Web of Science electronic databases. Consequently, a meta-analysis was conducted with STATA software, using summary odds ratios (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Overall, there was no significant difference between MDR1 C3435T polymorphism and the eradication rate of H. pylori in the entire genetic model, irrespective of the PPI used. Furthermore, in Asian populations, the TT genotype decreased H. pylori eradication (TT vs CT+CC: OR=0.411, 95% CI = 0.280–0.602, P = 0.000). In addition, a significantly low eradication rate was observed in a recessive model, in which either lansoprazole (TT vs CT+CC: OR = 0.305, 95% CI = 0.184–0.504, P = 0.000) or omeprazole (TT vs CT+CC: OR = 0.229, 95% CI = 0.069–0.763, P = 0.016) was taken, in a subanalysis of individual PPIs. In the analyses that were stratified by disease type, no significant difference was observed in the peptic ulcer group and the combined diseases subgroup. Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicated that the TT genotype of the MDR1 C3435T polymorphism decreased H. pylori eradication in Asian populations and was also associated with a low cure rate of H. pylori in patients taking lansoprazole- and omeprazole-based triple therapies. However, future studies using larger sample sizes are required. PMID:28353592

  17. Notch-1 Confers Chemoresistance in Lung Adenocarcinoma to Taxanes through AP-1/microRNA-451 Mediated Regulation of MDR-1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiayuan; Chen, Yitian; Li, Junyang; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Jing; Chen, Dongqin; Feng, Bing; Song, Haizhu; Feng, Jifeng; Wang, Rui; Chen, Longbang

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that expression of Notch-1 is associated with poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) patients. The aim of this study is to reveal whether Notch-1 was associated with Taxanes-resistant LAD and, the underlying mechanisms. We collected 39 patients of advanced LAD treated with Taxanes and found that positive Notch-1 expression is closely related to LAD lymph node metastasis, recurrence and poorer prognosis, and Notch-1 acts as an independent poor prognostic factor in LAD by multivariate analysis with Cox regression model. Then, by using the Docetaxel (DTX)-resistant LAD cell lines that we established previously, we found that Notch-1 contributes to resistance of LAD cells to DTX in vitro, and inhibition of Notch-1 sensitizes LAD to DTX in vivo. We further demonstrated that Notch-1 mediates chemoresistance response and strengthens proliferation capacity in LAD cells partially through negative regulation of miR-451 by transcription factor AP-1. Moreover, we found that MDR-1 is a direct target of miR-451 and influences chemoresistance of LAD cells. Taken together, our data revealed a novel Notch-1/AP-1/miR-451/MDR-1 signaling axis, and suggested a new therapeutic strategy of combining DTX with Notch inhibitors to treat DTX-resistant LAD.

  18. Influence of borneol and muscone on geniposide transport through MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cells as blood-brain barrier in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Zhen; Lu, Yang; Du, Shou-Ying; Shang, Ke-Xin; Cai, Cheng-Bo

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was (1) to characterize geniposide transport through MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cell lines to confirm its transport mechanism and (2) to evaluate the effect of borneol and muscone as enhancers of geniposide transport in the BBB models so as to explore the enhancement mechanism. Transport studies of geniposide were performed in both directions, from apical to basolateral and from basolateral to apical sides. Drug concentrations were analyzed by HPLC. Geniposide showed relatively poor absorption in MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cells, apparent permeability coefficients ranging from 0.323×10(-6) to 0.422×10(-6) cm/s. The in vitro experiments showed that geniposide transport in both directions was not concentration dependent and saturable, indicating purely passive diffusion. The efflux ratio of geniposide was less than 2 in the two cell models, which suggested that geniposide was not P-gp substrates. Geniposide transport in both directions significantly increased when co-administrated with increasing concentrations of borneol and muscone. Actin staining results indicated that borneol and muscone increased geniposide transport in the BBB models may attribute to disassembly effect on tight junction integrity.

  19. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K.; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb–drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation. PMID:25377539

  20. Inhibition of MDR1 gene expression and enhancing cellular uptake for effective colon cancer treatment using dual-surface–functionalized nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Mingzhen; Viennois, Emilie; Zhang, Yuchen; Wei, Na; Baker, Mark T.; Jung, Yunjin; Merlin, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine options for colon cancer therapy have been limited by the lack of suitable carriers capable of delivering sufficient drug into tumors to cause lethal toxicity. To circumvent this limitation, we fabricated a camptothecin (CPT)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle (NP) with dual-surface functionalization—Pluronic F127 and chitosan—for inhibiting multi-drug resistant gene 1 (MDR1) expression and enhancing tumor uptake. The resultant spherical NPs-P/C had a desirable particle size (~268 nm), slightly positive zeta-potential, and the ability to efficiently down-regulate the expression of MDR1. In vitro cytotoxicity tests revealed that the 24 and 48 h IC50 values of NPs-P/C1 were 2.03 and 0.67 µM, respectively, which were much lower than those for free CPT and other NPs. Interestingly, NPs-P/C1 showed the highest cellular uptake efficiency (approximately 85.5%) among the different drug formulations. Most importantly, treatment of colon tumor-bearing mice with various drug formulations confirmed that the introduction of Pluronic F127 and chitosan to the NP surface significantly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of CPT, induced tumor cell apoptosis, and reduced systemic toxicity. Collectively, these findings suggest that our one-step–fabricated, dual-surface–functionalized NPs may hold promise as a readily scalable and effective drug carrier with clinical potential in colon cancer therapy. PMID:25701040

  1. Minor compensatory changes in SAGE Mdr1a (P-gp), Bcrp, and Mrp2 knockout rats do not detract from their utility in the study of transporter-mediated pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J; Goldstein, Keith M; Paulman, April; Baker, Thomas K; Ryan, Timothy P

    2013-06-01

    Mdr1a-, Bcrp-, and Mrp2-knockout rats are a more practical species for absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies than murine models and previously demonstrated expected alterations in the pharmacokinetics of various probe substrates. At present, gene expression and pathology changes were systematically studied in the small intestine, liver, kidney, and brain tissue from male SAGE Mdr1a, Bcrp, and Mrp2 knockout rats versus wild-type Sprague-Dawley controls. Gene expression data supported the relevant knockout genotype. As expected, Mrp2 knockout rats were hyperbilirubinemic and exhibited upregulation of hepatic Mrp3. Overall, few alterations were observed within 112 ADME-relevant genes. The two potentially most consequential changes were upregulation of intestinal carboxylesterase in Mdr1a knockouts and catechol-O-methyltransferase in all tissues of Bcrp knockout rats. Previously reported upregulation of hepatic Mdr1b P-glycoprotein in proprietary Wistar Mdr1a knockout rats was not observed in the SAGE counterpart investigated herein. Relative liver and kidney weights were 22-53% higher in all three knockouts, with microscopic increases in hepatocyte size in Mdr1a and Mrp2 knockout rats and glomerular size in Bcrp and Mrp2 knockouts. Increased relative weight of clearing organs is quantitatively consistent with reported increases in the clearance of drugs that are not substrates of the knocked-out transporter. Overall, SAGE knockout rats demonstrated modest compensatory changes, which do not preclude their general application to study transporter-mediated pharmacokinetics. However, until future studies elucidate the magnitude of functional change, caution is warranted in rare instances of extensive metabolism by catechol-O-methyltransferase in Bcrp knockouts and intestinal carboxylesterase in Mdr1a knockout rats, specifically for molecules with free catechol groups and esters subject to gut-wall hydrolysis.

  2. Resveratrol induces AMPK-dependent MDR1 inhibition in colorectal cancer HCT116/L-OHP cells by preventing activation of NF-κB signaling and suppressing cAMP-responsive element transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Long; Ni, Zhenhua; Sun, Jian; Gao, Hong; Cheng, Zhuoan; Xu, Jianhua; Yin, Peihao

    2015-12-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound found in foods and beverages, has attracted increasing attention in recent years because of its potent chemopreventive and anti-tumor effects. In this study, the effects of resveratrol on the expression of P-glycoprotein/multi-drug resistance protein 1 (P-gp/MDR1), and the underlying molecular mechanisms, were investigated in oxaliplatin (L-OHP)-resistant colorectal cancer cells (HCT116/L-OHP). Resveratrol downregulated MDR1 protein and mRNA expression levels and reduced MDR1 promoter activity. It also enhanced the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123, suggesting that resveratrol can reverse multi-drug resistance by downregulating MDR1 expression and reducing drug efflux. Resveratrol treatment also reduced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, reduced phosphorylation levels of IκBα, and reduced nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65. Moreover, downregulation of MDR1 expression and promoter activity was mediated by resveratrol-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. The inhibitory effects of resveratrol on MDR1 expression and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were reversed by AMPKα siRNA transfection. We found that the transcriptional activity of cAMP-responsive element (CRE) was inhibited by resveratrol. These results demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on MDR1 expression in HCT116/L-OHP cells were closely associated with the inhibition of NF-κB signaling and CREB activation in an AMPK-dependent manner.

  3. Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp2 combination knockout mice: altered disposition of the dietary carcinogen PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and its genotoxic metabolites.

    PubMed

    Vlaming, Maria L H; Teunissen, Sebastiaan F; van de Steeg, Evita; van Esch, Anita; Wagenaar, Els; Brunsveld, Luc; de Greef, Tom F A; Rosing, Hilde; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2014-03-01

    The multidrug transporters breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MDR1), and multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 and 3 eliminate toxic compounds from tissues and the body and affect the pharmacokinetics of many drugs and other potentially toxic compounds. The food-derived carcinogen PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) is transported by BCRP, MDR1, and MRP2. To investigate the overlapping functions of Bcrp1, Mdr1a/b, and Mrp2 in vivo, we generated Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp2(-/-) mice, which are viable and fertile. These mice, together with Bcrp1;Mrp2;Mrp3(-/-) mice, were used to study the effects of the multidrug transporters on the pharmacokinetics of PhIP and its metabolites. Thirty minutes after oral or intravenous administration of PhIP (1 mg/kg), the PhIP levels in the small intestine were reduced 4- to 6-fold in Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp2(-/) (-) and Bcrp1;Mrp2;Mrp3(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Fecal excretion of PhIP was reduced 8- to 20-fold in knockouts. Biliary PhIP excretion was reduced 41-fold in Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp2(-/-) mice. Biliary and small intestine levels of PhIP metabolites were reduced in Bcrp1;Mrp2-deficient mice. Furthermore, in both knockout strains, kidney levels and urinary excretion of genotoxic PhIP-metabolites were significantly increased, suggesting that reduced biliary excretion of PhIP and PhIP metabolites leads to increased urinary excretion of these metabolites and increased systemic exposure. Bcrp1 and Mdr1a limited PhIP brain accumulation. In Bcrp1;Mrp2;Mrp3(-/-), but not Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp(-/-) mice, the carcinogenic metabolites N2-OH-PhIP (2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and PhIP-5-sulfate (a genotoxicity marker) accumulated in liver tissue, indicating that Mrp3 is involved in the sinusoidal secretion of these compounds. We conclude that Bcrp1, Mdr1a/b, Mrp2, and Mrp3 significantly affect tissue disposition and biliary and fecal elimination of Ph

  4. Activity of a sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) in MDCK-MDR1 cells and mechanism of ascorbate uptake

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuanghui; Wang, Zhiying; Kansara, Viral; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to functionally characterize sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) in MDCK-MDR1 cells and to study the effect of substituted benzene derivatives on the intracellular accumulation of ascorbic acid (AA). Mechanism of AA uptake and transport was delineated. Uptake of [14C]ascorbic acid ([14C]AA) was studied in the absence and presence of excess unlabelled AA, anion transporter inhibitors, and a series of mono- and di- substituted benzenes. Transepithelial transport of [14C]AA across polarized cell membrane has been studied for the first time. Role of cellular protein kinase mediated pathways on the regulation of AA uptake has been investigated. The cellular localizations of SVCTs were observed using confocal microscopy. Uptake of AA was found to be saturable with a Km of 83.2 μM and Vmax of 94.2 pmol/min/mg protein for SVCT1. The process was pH, sodium, temperature, and energy dependent. It was under the regulation of cellular protein kinase C (PKC) and Ca2+/CaM mediated pathways. [14C]AA uptake was significantly inhibited in the presence of excess unlabelled AA and a series of electron-withdrawing group i.e. halogen- and nitro- substituted benzene derivatives. AA appears to translocate across polarized cell membrane from apical to basal side (A−B) as well as basal to apical side (B−A) at a similar permeability. It appears that SVCT1 was mainly expressed on the apical side and SVCT2 may be located on both apical and basal sides. In conclusion, SVCT has been functionally characterized in MDCK-MDR1 cells. The interference of a series of electrophile substituted benzenes on the AA uptake process may be explained by their structural similarity. SVCT may be targeted to facilitate the delivery of drugs with low bioavailability by conjugating with AA and its structural analogs. MDCK-MDR1 cell line may be utilized as an in vitro model to study the permeability of AA conjugated prodrugs. PMID:18417304

  5. Suppression of MAPK Signaling and Reversal of mTOR-Dependent MDR1-Associated Multidrug Resistance by 21α-Methylmelianodiol in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aldonza, Mark Borris Docdoc; Hong, Ji-Young; Bae, Song Yi; Song, Jayoung; Kim, Won Kyung; Oh, Jedo; Shin, Yoonho; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Sang Kook

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and remains the most prevalent. Interplay between PI3K/AMPK/AKT and MAPK pathways is a crucial effector in lung cancer growth and progression. These signals transduction protein kinases serve as good therapeutic targets for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which comprises up to 90% of lung cancers. Here, we described whether 21α-Methylmelianodiol (21α-MMD), an active triterpenoid derivative of Poncirus trifoliate, can display anticancer properties by regulating these signals and modulate the occurrence of multidrug resistance in NSCLC cells. We found that 21α-MMD inhibited the growth and colony formation of lung cancer cells without affecting the normal lung cell phenotype. 21α-MMD also abrogated the metastatic activity of lung cancer cells through the inhibition of cell migration and invasion, and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest with increased intracellular ROS generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. 21α-MMD regulated the expressions of PI3K/AKT/AMPK and MAPK signaling which drove us to further evaluate its activity on multidrug resistance (MDR) in lung cancer cells by specifying on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/MDR1-association. Employing the established paclitaxel-resistant A549 cells (A549-PacR), we further found that 21α-MMD induced a MDR reversal activity through the inhibition of P-gp/MDR1 expressions, function, and transcription with regained paclitaxel sensitivity which might dependently correlate to the regulation of PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, the mechanistic evaluation in vitro of 21α-MMD displaying growth-inhibiting potential with influence on MDR reversal in human lung cancer cells. PMID:26098947

  6. Inhibitory effect of phospholipids on P-glycoprotein: cellular studies in Caco-2, MDCKII mdr1 and MDCKII wildtype cells and P-gp ATPase activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Simon, S; Schubert, R

    2012-09-01

    Phospholipids are widely used excipients for pharmaceutical formulations, such as for preparing biphasic systems or to solubilize or encapsulate poorly soluble drugs. The present study investigates a new property of this class of substance: its ability to inhibit the efflux transporter Pglycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp is expressed in the intestinal epithelium, thereby significantly impairing the systemic absorption of various pharmaceutically active substances. The phospholipid screening performed in this study involved derivatives with different headgroups and fatty acid residues and a number of experimental parameters. For in vitro studies we carried out transport experiments and calcein accumulation assays in Caco-2- and MDCKII mdr1 and wildtype cell lines. The three compounds which displayed significant P-gp inhibition in both assays and in Caco-2 as well as in MDCKII mdr1, consisted of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and either two saturated fatty acid residues of eight (8:0 PC) or ten carbon atoms (10:0 PC), or of two unsaturated docosahexaeonic acid residues (cis-22:6 PC).Supported by P-gp ATPase activity measurements, 8:0 and 10:0 PC were assumed to function as direct P-gp inhibitors interacting with the transporter probably in their monomeric state, whereas a different, as yet unknown mechanism of action applied for cis-22:6 PC.Because of their proven ability to significantly inhibit P-gp in vitro, these phospholipids shall further be elucidated in vivo, whether they may truly serve to increase the bioavailability of orally applied drugs with a P-gp substrate character.

  7. Mitochondrial genome depletion dysregulates bile acid- and paracetamol-induced expression of the transporters Mdr1, Mrp1 and Mrp4 in liver cells

    PubMed Central

    Perez, MJ; Gonzalez-Sanchez, E; Gonzalez-Loyola, A; Gonzalez-Buitrago, JM; Marin, JJG

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Mitochondria are involved in the toxicity of several compounds, retro-control of gene expression and apoptosis activation. The effect of mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) depletion on changes in ABC transporter protein expression in response to bile acids and paracetamol was investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Hepa 1-6 mouse hepatoma cells with 70% decrease in 16S/18S rRNA ratio (Rho cells) were obtained by long-term treatment with ethidium bromide. KEY RESULTS Spontaneous apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were decreased in Rho cells. Following glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) or paracetamol, Rho cells generated less ROS and were more resistant to cell death. Apoptosis induced by GCDCA and Fas was also reduced. The basal expression of Mdr1 was significantly enhanced, but this was not further stimulated by GCDCA or paracetamol, as observed in wild-type (WT) cells. Basal expression of Mrp1 and Mrp4 was similar in WT and Rho cells, whereas they were up-regulated only in WT cells after GCDCA or paracetamol, along with the transcription factors Shp and Nrf2, but not Fxr or Pxr. Increased expression of Nrf2 was accompanied by its enhanced nuclear translocation. Glycoursodeoxycholic acid failed to cause any of the effects observed for GCDCA or paracetamol. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The Nrf2-mediated pathway is partly independent of ROS production. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 is insufficient to up-regulate Mdr1, Mrp1 and Mrp4, which requires the participation of other regulatory element(s) whose activation in response to GCDCA and paracetamol is impaired in Rho cells and hence probably sensitive to ROS. PMID:21175587

  8. Fast and simple detection methods for the 4-base pair deletion of canine MDR1/ ABCB1 gene by PCR and isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Stiedl, Cathrin P; Weber, Karin

    2017-03-01

    Dogs with a 4-bp deletion in the MDR1 (or ABCB1) gene show intolerance to certain drugs routinely used in veterinary medicine, such as ivermectin, vincristine, and doxorubicin. The mutation leads to a dysfunctional P-glycoprotein drug transporter, which results in drug accumulation in the brain and severe neurotoxicity. A rapid and accurate in-house test to determine the genotype of patients in cases of acute neurotoxic signs or in tumor patients is desirable. We describe a cost-effective detection method with simple technical equipment for veterinary practice. Two allele-specific methods are presented, which allow discrimination of all genotypes, require little hands-on time, and show the results within ~1 h after DNA sampling. DNA from buccal swabs of 115 dogs with known genotype (no mutation, n = 54; heterozygous for the mutation, n = 37; homozygous for the mutation, n = 24) was extracted either by using a column-based extraction kit or by heating swabs in a simple NaOH-Tris buffer. Amplification was performed either by allele-specific fast polymerase chain reaction or by allele-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Analysis was done either on agarose gels, by simple endpoint visualization using ultraviolet light, or by measuring the increase of fluorescence and time to threshold crossing. Commercial master mixes reduced the preparation time and minimized sources of error in both methods. Both methods allowed the discrimination of all 3 genotypes, and the results of the new methods matched the results of the previous genotyping. The presented methods could be used for fast individual MDR1/ ABCB1 genotyping with less equipment than existing methods.

  9. Modulation of the Cellular Accumulation and Intracellular Activity of Daptomycin towards Phagocytized Staphylococcus aureus by the P-Glycoprotein (MDR1) Efflux Transporter in Human THP-1 Macrophages and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Tulkens, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1), a major efflux transporter, recognizes various antibiotics and is present in macrophages. We have examined its effect on the modulation of the intracellular accumulation and activity of daptomycin towards phagocytized Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) in human THP-1 macrophages, in comparison with MDCK epithelial cells (wild type and MDCK-MDR1 overexpressing P-gp; the bulk of the protein was immunodetected at the surface of all three cell types). Daptomycin displayed concentration-dependent intracellular activity (Hill equation pattern) in THP-1 and MDCK cells with (i) 50% effective drug extracellular concentration (EC50; relative potency) and static concentrations at 9 to 10 times the MIC and (ii) maximal efficacy (Emax; CFU decrease at infinite extracellular drug concentration) at 1.6 to 2 log compared to that of the postphagocytosis inoculum. Verapamil (100 μM) and elacridar (GF 120918; 0.5 μM), two known inhibitors of P-gp, decreased daptomycin EC50 (about threefold) in THP-1 and MDCK cells without affecting Emax. Daptomycin EC50 was about three- to fourfold higher and accumulation in MDCK-MDR1 commensurately lower than in wild-type cells. In THP-1 macrophages, (i) verapamil and ATP depletion increased, and ouabain (an inducer of mdr1 [the gene encoding P-gp] expression) decreased the accumulation of daptomycin in parallel with that of DiOC2 (a known substrate of P-gp); (ii) silencing mdr1 with duplex human mdr1 siRNAs reduced the cell content in immunoreactive P-gp to 15 to 30% of controls and caused an eight- to 13-fold increase in daptomycin accumulation. We conclude that daptomycin is subject to efflux from THP-1 macrophages and MDCK cells by P-gp, which reduces its intracellular activity against phagocytized S. aureus. PMID:17548493

  10. Induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf through constitutive androstane receptor- and pregnane X receptor-mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Wang, Qi; Yao, Xiaomin; Li, Yan

    2010-08-25

    The herbal products baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf have multiple pharmacological effects and are extensively used in alternative and/or complementary therapies. The present study investigated whether baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf induced the expression of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes through the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor pathways. Real time PCR, western blotting, and a luminescent assay were used to assess the induction of gene expression and activity of CYP3A4 and MDR1 by the test compounds. The interactions of baicalein/chlorogenic acid/ginsenoside Rf with constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor were evaluated using luciferase reporter and gel shift assays. Baicalein induced the expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 mRNA by activating pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. Chlorogenic acid and ginsenoside Rf showed a relatively weak effect on CYP3A4 promoter activation only in HepG2 cells cotransfected with constitutive androstane receptor and demonstrated no effects on MDR1 via either the constitutive androstane receptor or pregnane X receptor pathway. Baicalin had no effect on either CYP3A4 or MDR1 gene expression. In conclusion, baicalein has the potential to up-regulate CYP3A4 and MDR1 through the direct activation of the constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor pathways. Chlorogenic acid and ginsenoside Rf only induced constitutive androstane receptor-mediated CYP3A4 expression.

  11. By inhibiting Src, verapamil and dasatinib overcome multidrug resistance via increased expression of Bim and decreased expressions of MDR1 and survivin in human multidrug-resistant myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Komai, Makiko; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Shimaoka, Hirotaka; Takeda, Tomoya; Ogawa, Naoki; Mashimo, Kenji; Fujiwara, Daiichiro; Mukai, Junji; Sakaguchi, Katsuhiko; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

    2014-01-01

    The calcium channel blocker verapamil inhibits the transport function of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Although verapamil acts to reverse MDR in cancer cells, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of reversing MDR by verapamil in anti-cancer drug-resistant multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines. We found that verapamil suppresses MDR1 and survivin expressions and increases Bim expression via suppression of Src activation. Furthermore, dasatinib reversed the drug-resistance of the drug-resistant cell lines. These findings suggest that Src inhibitors are potentially useful as an anti-MDR agent for the treatment of malignant tumor cells.

  12. Quantitative and Mechanistic Assessment of Model Lipophilic Drugs in Micellar Solutions in the Transport Kinetics Across MDR1-MDCK Cell Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Norman F H; Nielsen, James; Peterson, Michelle; Burton, Philip S

    2016-02-01

    An approach to characterizing P-glycoprotein (Pgp) interaction potential for sparingly water-soluble compounds was developed using bidirectional transport kinetics in MDR1-MDCK cell monolayers. Paclitaxel, solubilized in a dilute polysorbate 80 (PS80) micellar solution, was used as a practical example. Although the passage of paclitaxel across the cell monolayer was initially governed by the thermodynamic activity of the micelle-solubilized drug solution, Pgp inhibition was sustained by the thermodynamic activity (i.e., critical micelle concentration) of the PS80 micellar solution bathing the apical (ap) membrane. The mechanistic understanding of the experimental strategies and treatment of data was supported by a biophysical model expressed in the form of transport events occurring at the ap and basolateral (bl) membranes in series whereas the vectorial directions of the transcellular kinetics were accommodated. The derived equations permitted the stepwise quantitative delineation of the Pgp efflux activity (inhibited and uninhibited by PS80) and the passive permeability coefficient of the ap membrane, the passive permeability at the bl membrane and, finally, the distinct coupling of these with efflux pump activity to identify the rate-determining steps and mechanisms. The Jmax/KM(∗) for paclitaxel was in the order of 10(-4) cm/s and the ap- and bl-membrane passive permeability coefficients were asymmetric, with bl-membrane permeability significantly greater than ap.

  13. IL-17A exacerbates cisplatin-based resistance of OVCA via upregulating the expression of ABCG2 and MDR1 through Gli1-mediated Hh signaling.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiulong; Liu, Wenxing; Wang, Yue; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Zhijun; Li, Hongzhao; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Deng, Weimin

    2016-07-18

    The major obstacle of the tumor chemotherapy, including ovarian cancer (OVCA), is drug resistance. However, the relevance of IL-17A with drug-resistance of OVCA has been poorly elaborated. In this study, we used 2 human OVCA cell lines to investigate the effects of IL-17A on cisplatin (CDDP or DDP)-based resistance in OVCA cells and the underlying mechanisms. Meanwhile, IL-17A-deficient mice and ID8 were used to verify the IL-17A's effects on OVCA chemo-resistance in vivo. Moreover, the relationship between IL-17A level and relevant indices were primarily assessed in ovarian specimens from 55 patients with OVCA. We found that rhIL-17A exacerbated DDP-based resistance of OVCA cells via up-regulating the expression of ABCG2 and MDR1 through Gli1-mediated Hh signal pathway. Animal experiment demonstrated that IL-17A significantly recede DDP-based treatment for ID8 tumor. Similar results were observed in preliminary clinical investigation. Our findings suggest that inhibiting IL-17A/IL-17RA-Gli1 signal may improve the resistance of OVCA to DDP.

  14. FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD influence the expression of MDR-1, MRP-1, and BCRP mRNA but not LRP mRNA assessed with RQ-PCR method in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nasilowska-Adamska, Barbara; Solarska, Iwona; Paluszewska, Monika; Malinowska, Iwona; Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw W; Warzocha, Krzysztof

    2014-04-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) and mixed-lineage leukemia gene-partial tandem duplication (MLL-PTD) are aberrations associated with leukemia which indicate unsatisfactory prognosis. Downstream regulatory targets of FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD are not well defined. We have analyzed the expression of MDR-1, multidrug resistant protein-1 (MRP-1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and lung resistance protein (LRP) messenger RNA (mRNA) in relation to the mutational status of FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD in 185 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) adult patients. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was performed to assess the expression of the MDR-1, MRP-1, BCRP, and LRP mRNA, and the results were presented as coefficients calculated using an intermediate method according to Pfaffl's rule. Significantly higher expressions of MDR-1 mRNA were found in patients who did not harbor FLT3-ITD (0.20 vs. 0.05; p = 0.0001) and MRP-1 mRNA in patients with this mutation (0.96 vs. 0.70; p = 0.002) and of BCRP mRNA in patients with MLL-PTD (0.61 vs. 0.38; p = 0.03). In univariate analysis, the high expression of MDR-1 mRNA (≥0.1317) negatively influenced the outcome of induction therapy (p = 0.05), whereas the high expression of BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) was associated with a high relapse rate (RR) (p = 0.013). We found that the high expression of MDR-1 (≥0.1317), MRP-1 (≥0.8409), and BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) significantly influenced disease-free survival (DFS; p = 0.059, 0.032, and 0.009, respectively) and overall survival (0.048, 0.014, and 0.059, respectively). Moreover, a high expression of BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) proved to be an independent prognostic factor for RR (p = 0.01) and DFS (p = 0.002) in multivariate analysis. The significant correlation between the expression of MDR-1, MRP-1, and BCRP mRNA and FLT3-ITD or MLL-PTD in AML patients requires further investigation.

  15. Evaluation of 309 molecules as inducers of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP1A2, OATP1B1, OCT1, MDR1, MRP2, MRP3 and BCRP in cryopreserved human hepatocytes in sandwich culture.

    PubMed

    Badolo, Lassina; Jensen, Bente; Säll, Carolina; Norinder, Ulf; Kallunki, Pekka; Montanari, Dino

    2015-02-01

    1. Regulation of hepatic metabolism or transport may lead to increase in drug clearance and compromise efficacy or safety. In this study, cryopreserved human hepatocytes were used to assess the effect of 309 compounds on the activity and mRNA expression (using qPCR techniques) of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, as well as mRNA expression of six hepatic transport proteins: OATP1B1 (SCLO1B1), OCT1 (SLC22A1), MDR1 (ABCB1), MRP2 (ABCC2), MRP3 (ABCC3) and BCRP (ABCG2). 2. The results showed that 6% of compounds induced CYP1A2 activity (1.5-fold increase); 30% induced CYP2B6 while 23% induced CYP3A4. qPCR data identified 16, 33 or 32% inducers of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 or CYP3A4, respectively. MRP2 was induced by 27 compounds followed by MDR1 (16)>BCRP (9)>OCT1 (8)>OATP1B1 (5)>MRP3 (2). 3. CYP3A4 appeared to be down-regulated (≥2-fold decrease in mRNA expression) by 53 compounds, 10 for CYP2B6, 6 for OCT1, 4 for BCRP, 2 for CYP1A2 and OATP1B1 and 1 for MDR1 and MRP2. 4. Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 inducers are bulky lipophilic molecules with a higher number of heavy atoms and a lower number of hydrogen bond donors. Finally, a strategy for testing CYP inducers in drug discovery is proposed.

  16. The putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan does not affect the transcellular permeability and cellular uptake of the calcium channel antagonist verapamil in the P-glycoprotein expressing cell line MDCK II MDR1

    PubMed Central

    Saaby, Lasse; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Brodin, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Verapamil is used in high doses for the treatment of cluster headache. Verapamil has been described as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) substrate. We wished to evaluate in vitro whether co administration of a P-gp inhibitor with verapamil could be a feasible strategy for increasing CNS uptake of verapamil. Fluxes of radiolabelled verapamil across MDCK II MDR1 monolayers were measured in the absence and presence of the putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan (a clinically approved drug compound). Verapamil displayed a vectorial basolateral-to-apical transepithelial efflux across the MDCK II MDR1 monolayers with a permeability of 5.7 × 10−5 cm sec−1 compared to an apical to basolateral permeability of 1.3 × 10−5 cm sec-1. The efflux could be inhibited with the P-gp inhibitor zosuquidar. Zosuquidar (0.4 μmol/L) reduced the efflux ratio (PB-A/PA-B) for verapamil 4.6–1.6. The presence of telmisartan, however, only caused a slight reduction in P-gp-mediated verapamil transport to an efflux ratio of 3.4. Overall, the results of the present in vitro approach indicate, that clinical use of telmisartan as a P-gp inhibitor may not be an effective strategy for increasing brain uptake of verapamil by co-administration with telmisartan. PMID:26171231

  17. Elucidation of Transport Mechanism of Paeoniflorin and the Influence of Ligustilide, Senkyunolide I and Senkyunolide A on Paeoniflorin Transport through Mdck-Mdr1 Cells as Blood-Brain Barrier in Vitro Model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng-Yi; Liu, Dan; Zheng, Qin; Wu, Qing; Tang, Yu; Yang, Ming

    2016-03-02

    The objectives of the present investigation were to: (1) elucidate the transport mechanism of paeoniflorin (PF) across MDCK-MDR1 monolayers; and (2) evaluate the effect of ligustilide (LIG), senkyunolide I (SENI) and senkyunolide A (SENA) on the transport of PF through blood-brain barrier so as to explore the enhancement mechanism. Transport studies of PF were performed in both directions, from apical to basolateral side (A→B) and from basolateral to apical sides (B→A). Drug concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. PF showed relatively poor absorption in MDCK-MDR1 cells, apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) ranging from 0.587 × 10(-6) to 0.705 × 10(-6) cm/s. In vitro experiments showed that the transport of PF in both directions was concentration dependent and not saturable. The B→A/A→B permeability ER of PF was more than 2 in the MDCK-MDR1 cells, which indicated that the transport mechanism of PF might be passive diffusion as the dominating process with the active transportation mediated mechanism involved. The increased Papp of PF in A→B direction by EDTA-Na₂ suggested that PF was absorbed via the paracellular route. The P-gp inhibitor verapamil could significantly increase the transport of PF in A→B direction, and ER decreased from 2.210 to 0.690, which indicated that PF was P-gp substance. The transport of PF in A→B direction significantly increased when co-administrated with increasing concentrations of LIG, SENI and SENA. An increased cellular accumulation of Rho 123 and Western blot analysis indicated that LIG, SENI and SENA had increased the transport of PF in the BBB models attribute to down-regulate P-gp expression. A decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) during the permeation experiment can be explained by the modulation and opening of the tight junctions caused by the permeation enhancer LIG, SENI and SENA.

  18. Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles induce apoptotic cell death through regulation of the function of MDR1 and reactive oxygen species in cisplatin-resistant CAR human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pei-Ying; Peng, Shu-Fen; Lee, Chao-Ying; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Wu, Tian-Shung; Tu, Ming-Gene; Chen, Michael Yuanchien; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2013-10-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound which possesses anticancer potential. It has been shown to induce cell death in a variety of cancer cells, however, its effect on CAL27‑cisplatin-resistant human oral cancer cells (CAR cells) has not been elucidated to date. The low water solubility of curcumin which leads to poor bioavailability, however, has been highlighted as a major limiting factor. In this study, we utilized water-soluble PLGA curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-NPs), and investigated the effects of Cur-NPs on CAR cells. The results showed Cur-NPs induced apoptosis in CAR cells but exhibited low cytotoxicity to normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and normal human oral keratinocytes (OKs). Cur-NPs triggered DNA concentration, fragmentation and subsequent apoptosis. Compared to untreated CAR cells, a more detectable amount of Calcein-AM accumulation was found inside the treated CAR cells. Cur-NPs suppressed the protein and mRNA expression levels of MDR1. Both the activity and the expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were elevated in the treated CAR cells. The Cur-NP-triggered apoptosis was blocked by specific inhibitors of pan-caspase (z-VAD-fmk), caspase-3 (z-DEVD-fmk), caspase-9 (z-LEHD-fmk) and antioxidant agent (N-acetylcysteine; NAC). Cur-NPs increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, upregulated the protein expression levels of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-9, cytochrome c, Apaf-1, AIF, Bax and downregulated the protein levels of Bcl-2. Our results suggest that Cur-NPs triggered the intrinsic apoptotic pathway through regulating the function of multiple drug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CAR cells. Cur-NPs could be potentially efficacious in the treatment of cisplatin-resistant human oral cancer.

  19. Antitumor effect of BPR-DC-2, a novel synthetic cyclic cyanoguanidine derivative, involving the inhibition of MDR-1 expression and down-regulation of p-AKT and PARP-1 in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Lai; Huang, Chia-Hsin; Lin, Chih-Chan; Huang, Zih-Ning; Chern, Jyh-Haur; Lien, Hsiao-Yin; Wu, Yong-Yi; Cheng, Chia-Hui; Chang, Chia-Yu; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2011-04-01

    In our previous study, a series of novel cyclic cyanoguanidine compounds, eg. 5-substituted 2-cyanoimino-4-imidazodinone and 2-cyanoimino-4- pyrimidinone derivatives have been successfully synthesized and showed remarkable cytotoxicity in several cancer cell lines. In this present study, it is our aim to screen more potential candidates among the cyclic pyridyl cyanoguanidine compounds (BPR-DC-1, 2, 3) by in vitro and in vivo studies for the therapy of lung cancer, alternatively. Our results showed that BPR-DC-2 significantly inhibited proliferation of tumor cells with an IC50 of 3.60 ± 1.27 and 14.81 ± 4.23 μM in human lung carcinoma cells, H69 and A549, respectively by the MTT assay at 48 hr; BPR-DC-2 also obviously suppressed the tumor proliferation and MDR-1 gene expression, even induced cell apoptosis in the ex vivo histocultured lung tumor. We further demonstrated that, in the nude mouse model of metastatic lung cancer, BPR-DC-2 could diminish the tumor mass, retard the progression of metastasis, and prolong the survival time. In addition, it was found that BPR-DC-2 exerted its anti-tumor effects through the inhibition of MDR-1 gene expression and down-regulation of tumor anti-apoptosis signals (activated p-AKT and over-expression of PARP-1) by western blotting analysis. In conclusion, in this present study we have demonstrated that BPR-DC-2, derived from a series of novel synthetic cyclic cyanoguanidine compounds, has proved its potential as an anti-tumor drug candidate in treating lung cancer.

  20. Central nervous system pharmacokinetics of the Mdr1 P-glycoprotein substrate CP-615,003: intersite differences and implications for human receptor occupancy projections from cerebrospinal fluid exposures.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, Karthik; Tseng, Elaine; Nelson, Frederick R; Rollema, Hans; French, Jonathan L; Kaplan, Irina V; Horner, Weldon E; Gibbs, Megan A

    2007-08-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) distribution and transport mechanisms of the investigational drug candidate CP-615,003 (N-[3-fluoro-4-[2-(propylamino)ethoxy]phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-4-oxo-1H-indole-3-carboxamide) and its active metabolite CP-900,725 have been characterized. Brain distribution of CP-615,003 and CP-900,725 was low in rats and mice (brain-to-serum ratio < 0.2). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-serum ratios of CP-615,003 were 6- to 8-fold lower than the plasma unbound fraction in rats and dogs. In vitro, CP-615,003 displayed quinidine-like efflux in MDR1-expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells. The brain-to-serum ratio of CP-615,003 in mdr1a/1b (-/-) mice was approximately 7 times that in their wild-type counterparts, confirming that impaired CNS distribution was explained by P-gp efflux transport. In contrast, P-gp efflux did not explain the impaired CNS penetration of CP-900,725. Intracerebral microdialysis was used to characterize rat brain extracellular fluid (ECF) distribution. Interestingly, the ECF-to-serum ratio of the P-gp substrate CP-615,003 was 7-fold below the CSF-to-serum ratio, whereas this disequilibrium was not observed for CP-900,725. In a clinical study, steady-state CSF exposures were measured after administration of 100 mg of CP-615,003 b.i.d. The human CSF-to-plasma ratios of CP-615,003 and CP-900,725 were both approximately 10-fold below their ex vivo plasma unbound fractions, confirming impaired human CNS penetration. Preliminary estimates of CNS receptor occupancy from human CSF concentrations were sensitive to assumptions regarding the magnitude of the CSF-ECF gradient for CP-615,003 in humans. In summary, this case provides an example of intersite differences in CNS pharmacokinetics of a P-gp substrate and potential implications for projection of human CNS receptor occupancy of transporter substrates from CSF pharmacokinetic data when direct imaging-based approaches are not feasible.

  1. Determination of loperamide in mdr1a/1b knock-out mouse brain tissue using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and comparison with quantitative electrospray-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young G; Dong, Teresa; Chou, Bilin; Menghrajani, Kapil

    2011-11-01

    Recently matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) imaging has been used to analyze small molecule pharmaceutical compounds directly on tissue sections to determine spatial distribution within target tissue and organs. The data presented to date usually indicate relative amounts of drug within the tissue. The determination of absolute amounts is still done using tissue homogenization followed by traditional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this study, the quantitative determination of loperamide, an antidiarrheal agent and a P-glycoprotein substrate, in mdr1a/1b (-/-) mouse brain tissue sections using MALDI MS on a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry is described. 5 mg/mL α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid in 50% acetonitrile with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and 0.5 μM reserpine was used as the MALDI matrix. The calibration curve constructed by the peak intensities of standard samples from MALDI MS was linear from 0.025 to 0.5 μM with r² = 0.9989. The accuracy of calibration curve standards was 78.3-105.9% and the percent deviation was less than 25%. Comparison between direct MALDI tissue analysis and conventional tissue analysis using homogenization followed by electrospray LC-MS/MS was also explored.

  2. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts.

  3. Rolling Circle Transcription of Ribozymes Targeted to ras and mdr-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    ssDNA) to direct transcription of an tion-PCR, and recyclization were carried out to optimize active hammerhead ribozyme in E. coli cells. transcription...transcription I hammerhead ribozyme I in vitro selection and 12.5 units/ml RNase inhibitor (Promega), in a total reaction volume of 15 tk1. After a...sequence encoding a ssDNA, and splint ssDNA were ethanol-precipitated and used as hammerhead ribozyme . templates to begin the next round of in vitro

  4. Characterization of human colorectal cancer MDR1/P-gp Fab antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Gao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the peptide sized 21 kDa covering P-gp transmembrane region was first prepared for generating a novel mouse monoclonal antibody Fab fragment with biological activity against multiple drug resistance protein P-gp21 by phage display technology. Phage-displayed antibody library prepared from mice spleen tissues was selected against the recombinant protein P-gp21 with five rounds of panning. A number of clones expressing Fab bound to P-gp21, showing neutralized activity in vitro, were isolated and screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on its recognition properties to P-gp21 and human colorectal cancer tissue homogenate, resulting in identification of an optimal recombinant Fab clone (Number 29). Further characterization by recloning number 29 into an expression vector showed significant induction of the Fab antibody in the clone number 29 by Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). After purified by HiTrap Protein L, the specificity of the Fab antibody to P-gp21 was also confirmed. Not only was the targeted region of this monoclonal Fab antibody identified as a 16-peptide epitope (ALKDKKELEGSGKIAT) comprising residues 883-898 within the transmembrane (TM) domain of human P-gp, but also the binding ability with it was verified. The clinical implication of our results for development of personalized therapy of colorectal cancer will be further studied.

  5. Plasmodium falciparum mdr1 mutations and in vivo chloroquine resistance in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Saladín, E; Fryauff, D J; Taylor, W R; Laksana, B S; Susanti, A I; Purnomo; Subianto, B; Richie, T L

    1999-08-01

    Mutations in the Pfmdr1 gene are reported to be associated with chloroquine resistance in some Plasmodium falciparum isolates. A polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used for the detection of Pfmdr1 mutations in chloroquine-resistant field isolates of P. falciparum collected in Irian Jaya. The frequency of Pfmdr1 mutations was significantly higher in chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum parasites than background frequencies observed in the same location. The 7G8 mutation was identified in some parasites although always in a mixed genotype status. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum specimens were characterized using the World Health Organization 28-day criteria, supplemented by demonstrating adequate chloroquine absorption and genetic analysis.

  6. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  7. Multiple Origins of Mutations in the mdr1 Gene—A Putative Marker of Chloroquine Resistance in P. vivax

    PubMed Central

    Schousboe, Mette L.; Ranjitkar, Samir; Rajakaruna, Rupika S.; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H.; Morales, Francisco; Pearce, Richard; Ord, Rosalyn; Leslie, Toby; Rowland, Mark; Gadalla, Nahla B.; Konradsen, Flemming; Bygbjerg, Ib C.; Roper, Cally; Alifrangis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Chloroquine combined with primaquine has been the recommended antimalarial treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria infections for six decades but the efficacy of this treatment regimen is threatened by chloroquine resistance (CQR). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the multidrug resistance gene, Pvmdr1 are putative determinants of CQR but the extent of their emergence at population level remains to be explored. Objective In this study we describe the prevalence of SNPs in the Pvmdr1 among samples collected in seven P. vivax endemic countries and we looked for molecular evidence of drug selection by characterising polymorphism at microsatellite (MS) loci flanking the Pvmdr1 gene. Methods We examined the prevalence of SNPs in the Pvmdr1 gene among 267 samples collected from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Sudan, São Tomé and Ecuador. We measured and diversity in four microsatellite (MS) markers flanking the Pvmdr1 gene to look evidence of selection on mutant alleles. Results SNP polymorphism in the Pvmdr1 gene was largely confined to codons T958M, Y976F and F1076L. Only 2.4% of samples were wildtype at all three codons (TYF, n = 5), 13.3% (n = 28) of the samples were single mutant MYF, 63.0% of samples (n = 133) were double mutant MYL, and 21.3% (n = 45) were triple mutant MFL. Clear geographic differences in the prevalence of these Pvmdr mutation combinations were observed. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) between Pvmdr1 and MS alleles was found in populations sampled in Ecuador, Nepal and Sri Lanka, while significant LD between Pvmdr1 and the combined 4 MS locus haplotype was only seen in Ecuador and Sri Lanka. When combining the 5 loci, high level diversity, measured as expected heterozygosity (He), was seen in the complete sample set (He = 0.99), while He estimates for individual loci ranged from 0.00–0.93. Although Pvmdr1 haplotypes were not consistently associated with specific flanking MS alleles, there was significant differentiation between geographic sites which could indicate directional selection through local drug pressure. Conclusions Our observations suggest that Pvmdr1 mutations emerged independently on multiple occasions even within the same population. In Sri Lanka population analysis at multiple sites showed evidence of local selection and geographical dispersal of Pvmdr1 mutations between sites. PMID:26539821

  8. ABCB1 (MDR1)-type P-glycoproteins at the blood-brain barrier modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system: implications for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marianne B; Keck, Martin E; Binder, Elisabeth B; Kresse, Adelheid E; Hagemeyer, Thomas P; Landgraf, Rainer; Holsboer, Florian; Uhr, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type P-glycoproteins (ABCB1-type P-gps) protect the brain against the accumulation of many toxic xenobiotics and drugs. We recently could show that the access of the endogenous glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol to the brain are regulated by ABCB1-type P-gps in vivo. ABCB1-type P-gp function, therefore, is likely to exert a profound influence on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Hyperactivity of the HPA system is frequently observed in human affective disorder, and a considerable amount of evidence has been accumulated suggesting that normalization of the HPA system might be the final step necessary for stable remission of the disease. To examine whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) function influences neuroendocrine regulation, we investigated HPA system activity in abcb1ab (-/-) mice under basal conditions and following stress. Abcb1ab (-/-) mice showed consistently lower plasma ACTH levels and lower evening plasma corticosterone levels. CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was decreased and pituitary POMC mRNA expressing cells were significantly reduced in number in abcb1ab (-/-) mutants; however, they showed a normal activation of the HPA system following CRH stimulation. Lower doses of dexamethasone were required to suppress plasma corticosterone levels in mutants. Our data thus provide evidence for a sustained suppression of the HPA system at the hypothalamic level in abcb1ab (-/-) mice, suggesting that BBB function significantly regulates HPA system activity. Whether naturally occurring polymorphisms in the human ABCB1 gene might result in persistent changes in the responsiveness and regulation of the HPA system will be the subject of future investigations, correlating both genetic information with individual characteristics of the neuroendocrine phenotype.

  9. Escuelas sin Drogas. Como Actuar. Edicion 1992. (Schools without Drugs. What Works. 1992 Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Across the United States, schools and communities have found ways to turn the tide in the battle against drugs. This guidebook describes the methods they have used and the actions they have taken. The first section, "Children and Drugs" outlines the nature and extent of the drug problem and summarizes the latest research on the effects of drugs on…

  10. Inmunoterapias para las adicciones a las drogas Immunotherapies for Drug Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Iván D.

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapies in the form of vaccines (active immunization) or monoclonal antibodies (passive immunization) appear safe and a promising treatment approaches for some substance-related disorders. The mechanism of action of the antibody therapy is by preventing the rapid entry of drugs of abuse into the central nervous system. In theory, immunotherapies could have several clinical applications. Monoclonal antibodies may be useful to treat drug overdoses and prevent the neurotoxic effects of drugs by blocking the access of drugs to the brain. Vaccines may help to prevent the development of addiction, initiate drug abstinence in those already addicted to drugs, or prevent drug use relapse by reducing the pharmacological effects and rewarding properties of the drugs of abuse on the brain. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies has been investigated for cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, and phencyclidine (PCP). Active immunization with vaccines has been studied for cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and nicotine. These immunotherapies seem promising therapeutic tools and are at different stages in their development before they can be approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of substance-related disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the current immunotherapy approaches with emphasis on the risks and benefits for the treatment of these disorders. PMID:18551223

  11. Evaluation of Near Infrared Dyes as Markers of P-Glycoprotein Activity in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Semenenko, Inessa; Portnoy, Emma; Aboukaoud, Mohammed; Guzy, Serge; Shmuel, Miriam; Itzhak, Gal; Eyal, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1; P-glycoprotein) has been associated with efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from tumor cells and with poor patient prognosis. This study evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive, non-radioactive near infrared (NIR) imaging methodology for detection of MDR1 functional activity in tumors. Methods: Initial accumulation assays were conducted in MDR1-overexpressing MDCK cells (MDCK-MDR1) and control MDCK cells (MDCK-CT) using the NIR dyes indocyanine green (ICG), IR-783, IR-775, rhodamine 800, XenoLight DiR, and Genhance 750, at 0.4 μM–100 μM. ICG and IR-783 were also evaluated in HT-29 cells in which MDR1 overexpression was induced by colchicine (HT-29-MDR1) and their controls (HT-29-CT). In vivo optical imaging studies were conducted using immunodeficient mice bearing HT-29-CT and HT-29-MDR1 xenografts. Results: ICG’s emission intensity was 2.0- and 2.2-fold higher in control versus MDR1-overexpressing cells, in MDCK and HT-29 cell lines, respectively. The respective IR-783 control:MDR1 ratio was 1.4 in both MDCK and HT-29 cells. Optical imaging of mice bearing HT-29-CT and HT-29-MDR1 xenografts revealed a statistically non-significant, 1.7-fold difference (p > 0.05) in ICG emission intensity between control and MDR1 tumors. No such differences were observed with IR-783. Conclusion: ICG and IR-783 appear to be weak MDR1 substrates. In vivo, low sensitivity and high between-subject variability impair the ability to use the currently studied probes as markers of tumor MDR1 activity. The results suggest that, for future use of this technology, additional NIR probes should be screened as MDR1 substrates. PMID:27895581

  12. Is Ciprofloxacin a Substrate of P-glycoprotein?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Miki Susanto; Okochi, Hideaki; Benet, Leslie Z

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Studies using MDCKII and LLC-PK1 cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA indicate that ciprofloxacin is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein. However, our data has shown that transport studies done using different P-gp overexpressing cell lines (MDCKI-MDR1, MDCKII-MDR1 and L-MDR1), could lead to contradictory conclusion on whether a compound is a substrate of P-gp. The aim of our study was to determine if ciprofloxacin is indeed not a P-glycoprotein substrate using MDCKI cells transfected with human MDR1 cDNA. Methods Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the mRNA level of MDR1 while Western blot was performed to determine the protein expression level of P-gp, MRP1 and MRP2 in various cells. Ciprofloxacin bidirectional transport studies were performed in MDCKI, MDCKI-MDR1, MDCKII, MDCKII-MDR1, MDCKII-MRP2, LLC-PK1, L-MRP1 and L-MDR1 cells. Results Ciprofloxacin showed net secretion in MDCKI-MDR1 but net absorption in MDCKI cells. Various P-gp inhibitors decreased the B to A and increased the A to B transport of ciprofloxacin in MDCKI-MDR1 cells while having no effect in MDCKI cells. The B to A transport of ciprofloxacin in MDCKI-MDR1 cells was not affected by non-P-gp inhibitors. In the presence of indomethacin, ciprofloxacin showed net secretion instead of net absorption in MDCKI cells while in the presence of probenecid and sulfinpyrazone, there was no net secretion and absorption. There was no difference in ciprofloxacin transport between MDCKII and MDCKII-MDR1, LLC-PK1 and L-MDR1, LLC-PK1 and L-MRP1 and MDCKII and MDCKII-MRP2. Conclusions Transport data in MDCKI and MDCKI-MDR1 cells indicate that ciprofloxacin is a substrate of P-gp but data from MDCKII, MDCKII-MDR1, LLC-PK1 and L-MDR1 cells indicate that ciprofloxacin is not a substrate of P-gp. Vinblastine, a well-known P-gp substrate, also did not show differences between LLC-PK1 and L-MDR1 cells. Further studies need to be performed to characterize these P-gp overexpressing cell lines and the

  13. Creciendo Sin Drogas: Guia de Prevencion para Padres (Growing Up Drug-Free: A Parent's Guide to Prevention).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Safe and Drug Free Schools Program.

    This publication is part of the Department of Education's ongoing effort to provide information to emerging populations in their native language on how to create and maintain drug-free and safe schools across the nation. Throughout the publication are personal stories and artwork of elementary and secondary school students that promote the message…

  14. Targeting glucosylceramide synthase induction of cell surface globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in acquired cisplatin-resistance of lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Andreas; Johansson, Anders; Karlsson, Terese; Gudey, Shyam Kumar; Brännström, Thomas; Grankvist, Kjell; Behnam-Motlagh, Parviz

    2015-08-01

    Background: Acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment is a caveat when treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Ceramide increases in response to chemotherapy, leading to proliferation arrest and apoptosis. However, a tumour stress activation of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) follows to eliminate ceramide by formation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), the functional receptor of verotoxin-1. Ceramide elimination enhances cell proliferation and apoptosis blockade, thus stimulating tumor progression. GSLs transactivate multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) expression which further prevents ceramide accumulation and stimulates drug efflux. We investigated the expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 in NSCLC and MPM cells with acquired cisplatin resistance, and if GCS activity or MDR1 pump inhibitors would reduce their expression and reverse cisplatin-resistance. Methods: Cell surface expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 and intracellular expression of MDR1 and MRP1 was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy on P31 MPM and H1299 NSCLC cells and subline cells with acquired cisplatin resistance. The effect of GCS inhibitor PPMP and MDR1 pump inhibitor cyclosporin A for 72 h on expression and cisplatin cytotoxicity was tested. Results: The cisplatin-resistant cells expressed increased cell surface Gb3. Cell surface Gb3 expression of resistant cells was annihilated by PPMP whereas cyclosporin A decreased Gb3 and MDR1 expression in H1299 cells. No decrease of MDR1 by PPMP was noted in using flow cytometry, whereas a decrease of MDR1 in H1299 and H1299res was indicated with confocal microscopy. No certain co-localization of Gb3 and MDR1 was noted. PPMP, but not cyclosporin A, potentiated cisplatin cytotoxicity in all cells. Conclusions: Cell surface Gb3 expression is a likely tumour biomarker for acquired cisplatin

  15. 78 FR 28701 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Nicolas), c/o DEPOSITO POPULAR DE DROGAS S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/ o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA... (Colombia) (individual) . 6. FERNANDEZ LUNA, Tiberio, c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR S.A., Bogota... DROGAS CONDOR S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o COINTERCOS S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o FIDUSER LTDA.,...

  16. Differential involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and P-glycoprotein in tissue distribution and excretion of grepafloxacin in mice.

    PubMed

    Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukio; Suzuki, Takashi; Itose, Minoru; Miyamoto, Gohachiro; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2004-08-01

    The involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1) and P-glycoprotein (mdr1) in the tissue distribution and excretion of grepafloxacin (GPFX), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was investigated using gene-deficient mice [mdr1a(-/-), mdr1a/1b(-/-), and mrp1(-/-)]. The plasma concentration-time profile of GPFX in mrp1(-/-) was nearly identical to that in mrp1(+/+), whereas that in mdr1a/1b(-/-) was higher than that in mdr1a/1b(+/+). The urinary clearance of GPFX in mdr1a/1b(-/-) was lower than that in mdr1a/1b(+/+), suggesting that the urinary excretion of GPFX is at least partially mediated by mdr1. The tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios during the beta-phase (K(p beta),) was significantly higher in the heart, trachea, kidney, spleen, and brown fat of mrp1(-/-) than those in mrp1(+/+). In MRP1-transfected LLC-PK1 cells, the efflux of GPFX after preloading into the cells was higher than that observed in the parent cell lines. These results suggest that GPFX is a substrate of MRP1 and that its distribution to these tissues might be limited by Mrp1. On the other hand, a higher K(p beta), and of GPFX in mdr1a(-/-) mdr1a/1b(-/-) compared with mdr1a/1b(+/+) was observed only in the brain. GPFX was efficiently distributed to the lung parenchyma cells and pulmonary airspaces, including the epithelial lining fluid and macrophages that are the pharmacological target of GPFX, although the contribution of Mdr1 and Mrp1 to such distribution seems to be minor. Thus, the present findings reveal that the disposition of GPFX is at least in part governed by these two ABC transporters and that both Mrp1 and Mdr1 are involved in the limited distribution of GPFX to the distinct tissues, including pharmacological and/or toxicological targets by an active efflux mechanism.

  17. Tips for Parents on Keeping Children Drug Free = Consejos para Los Padres Sobre Como Mantener a Los Hijos Libres de La Droga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Research shows that recent trends in youth drug use have stabilized; however, the rates of use remain at high levels. It has been shown that the earlier drug use is initiated, the more likely a person is to develop drug problems later in life. Youth substance abuse may lead to many other problems that affect not only the child, but also the…

  18. Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.

    This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

  19. Effect of multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein on the hypoxia-induced multidrug resistance of human laryngeal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Zhou, Liang; Huang, Jiameng; Xiao, Xiyan

    2016-08-01

    In a previous study, it was demonstrated that hypoxia upregulated the multidrug resistance (MDR) of laryngeal cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, with multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression also being upregulated. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of MDR1/P-gp on hypoxia-induced MDR in human laryngeal carcinoma cells. The sensitivity of laryngeal cancer cells to multiple drugs and cisplatin-induced apoptosis was determined by CCK-8 assay and Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining analysis, respectively. The accumulation of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in the cells served as an estimate of drug accumulation and was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). MDR1/P-gp expression was inhibited using interference RNA, and the expression of the MDR1 gene was analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. As a result, the sensitivity to multiple chemotherapeutic agents and the apoptosis rate of the hypoxic laryngeal carcinoma cells increased following a decrease in MDR1/P-gp expression (P<0.05). Additionally, FCM analysis of fluorescence intensity indicated that the downregulated expression of MDR1/P-gp markedly increased intracellular Rh123 accumulation (P<0.05). Such results suggest that MDR1/P-gp serves an important role in regulating hypoxia-induced MDR in human laryngeal carcinoma cells through a decrease in intracellular drug accumulation.

  20. Multidrug resistance 1 gene variants, pesticide exposure, and increased risk of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Huang; Wu, Man-Tzu Marcie; Chou, Chia-Hsuan; Huang, Chia-Chen; Tseng, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Fang-Yu; Li, Ying-Ti; Tsai, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Tsung-Shing; Wong, Ruey-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR)1 gene, extrudes fat-soluble compounds to the extracellular environment. However, the DNA damage of pesticides in subjects with genetic variation in MDR1 has not been investigated. In this study, the comet assay was applied to examine the extent of DNA damage in the peripheral blood of 195 fruit growers who had been exposed to pesticides and 141 unexposed controls. The MDR1 polymorphisms were identified. Questionnaires were administered to obtain demographic data and occupational history. Results showed subjects experiencing high (2.14 μm/cell, P < 0.01) or low pesticide exposure (2.18 μm/cell, P < 0.01) had a significantly greater DNA tail moment than controls (1.28 μm/cell). Compared to the MDR1 T-129C (rs3213619) TC/CC carriers, the TT carriers had increased DNA tail moment in controls (1.30 versus 1.12 μm/cell, P < 0.01). Similar results were observed in the high and low pesticide-exposed groups. Combined analysis revealed that pesticide-exposed fruit growers with MDR1 -129 TT genotype had the greatest DNA damage in the subjects with the combinations of pesticide exposure and MDR1 -129 genotypes. In conclusion, pesticide exposed individuals with susceptible MDR1 -129 genotypes may experience increased risk of DNA damage.

  1. Facial Layer-by-Layer Engineering of Upconversion Nanoparticles for Gene Delivery: Near-Infrared-Initiated Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Tracking and Overcoming Drug Resistance in Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min; Gao, Yan; Diefenbach, Thomas J; Shen, Jacson K; Hornicek, Francis J; Park, Yong Il; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian; Amiji, Mansoor; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2017-03-08

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) contributes to the majority of treatment failures in clinical chemotherapy. We report facial layer-by-layer engineered upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) for near-infrared (NIR)-initiated tracking and delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to enhance chemotherapy efficacy by silencing the MDR1 gene and resensitizing resistant ovarian cancer cells to drug. Layer-by-layer engineered UCNPs were loaded with MDR1 gene-silencing siRNA (MDR1-siRNA) by electrostatic interaction. The delivery vehicle enhances MDR1-siRNA cellular uptake, protects MDR1-siRNA from nuclease degradation, and promotes endosomal escape for silencing the MDR gene. The intrinsic photon upconversion of UCNPs provides an unprecedented opportunity for monitoring intracellular attachment and release of MDR1-siRNA by NIR-initiated fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurs between donor UCNPs and acceptor fluorescence dye-labeled MDR1-siRNA. Enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy in vitro was demonstrated by cell viability assay. The developed delivery vehicle holds great potential in delivery and imaging-guided tracking of therapeutic gene targets for effective treatment of drug-resistant cancers.

  2. Regulation and expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) transcripts in the intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Li, M; Hurren, R; Zastawny, R L; Ling, V; Buick, R N

    1999-01-01

    A paucity of information exists on the regulation of gene expression in the undifferentiated intestine. The intestinal epithelium is one of the few normal tissues expressing the multidrug resistance (MDR) genes that confer the multidrug resistant phenotype to a variety of tumours. Expression of mdr1a has been observed in the primitive rat intestinal epithelial cell line, IEC-18. It is hypothesized that characterization of MDR gene expression in IEC-18 cells will provide insight into gene regulation in undifferentiated intestinal cells. A series of hamster mdr1a promoter deletion constructs was studied in IEC-18 and a region with 12–13-fold enhancer activity was identified. This region was shown to function in an orientation- and promoter context-independent manner, specifically in IEC-18 cells. Unexpectedly, Northern probing revealed a greater expression of mdr1b than mdr1a in IEC-18 cells. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to compare the relative expression of MDR genes in IEC cells, fetal intestine, and in the undifferentiated and differentiated components of adult intestinal epithelium. MDR transcript levels in IEC cells were found to resemble those of fetal intestine and small intestinal crypts, where a conversion from mixed mdr1a/mdr1b to predominantly mdr1a expression occurs as cells mature. This work describes two contributions to the field of gene regulation in the undifferentiated intestine – first, the initial characterization of a putative mdr1a enhancer region with specificity for primitive intestinal cells and secondly, the first report of mdr1b detection in the intestine and its expression in primitive cell types. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10376961

  3. MDRl/P-Glycoprotein Function. II. Effect of Hypotonicity and Inhibitors on Cl- Efflux and Volume Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    shown recently (5) that, in the MDR1 , HYPOTONICITY. CL- EFFLUX. AND VOLUME REGULATION C1459 NIH /3T3 parental and MDR cell lines , DIDS and We are grateful...carried out patch-clamp experiments Resistance to anti-tumor drugs can be mediated by overexpres- on the same transfected NIH /3T3 cell lines used...above sion of the multidrug resistance 1 ( MDR1 ) protein (P- on the sm ase e N 3ell inused aove glycoprotein). In three MDR1 -transfected cell lines (Gill

  4. Predicting the Toxicity of Adjuvant Breast Cancer Drug Combination Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    transport studying docetaxel pharmacokinetics in wild-type FVB and Mdr1a/ b constitutive knockout (KO) mice. For all tissues in both the FVB and KO...16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b ...the role of PGP in drug PK. Dose mdr1a/ b knockout mice with LAPATINIB, DOCETAXEL, DOXORUBICIN, combination LAPATINIB and DOCETAXEL, and combination

  5. Importance of inducible multidrug resistance 1 expression in HL-60 cells resistant to gemtuzumab ozogamicin.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Taichi; Jimi, Shiro; Hara, Shuuji; Takamatsu, Yasushi; Suzumiya, Junji; Tamura, Kazuo

    2012-07-01

    Resistance to gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) hampers the effective treatment of refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To clarify the mechanism of resistance to GO, HL-60 cells were persistently exposed to GO in order to establish GO-resistant HL-60 (HL-60/GOR) cells. Multidrug resistance 1 (MDR-1) was strongly expressed in HL-60/GOR cells, but not in HL-60 cells. Although withdrawal of GO after the chronic exposure of HL-60/GOR cells to this compound gradually decreased MDR-1 expression to trace levels, reintroducing GO restored high MDR-1 expression in HL-60/GOR cells, but not in HL-60 cells. These results indicate that HL-60/GOR cells acquired the ability to induce MDR-1 expression in response to GO. U0126, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, prevented GO-inducible MDR-1 expression and abrogated GO resistance in HL-60/GOR cells. These results suggest that in the clinical use of GO, inducible MDR-1 expression in tumor cells should be investigated before treatment with GO. If the cells are positive then MEK1/2 inhibitors may be effective in overcoming resistance to GO.

  6. P-glycoprotein inhibition by the agricultural pesticide propiconazole and its hydroxylated metabolites: Implications for pesticide-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Christopher S; Marchitti, Satori A; Zastre, Jason

    2015-01-05

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) functions as an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure assessment because of their use as both pesticides and drugs. Propiconazole is an agricultural pesticide undergoing evaluation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. In this study, the P-gp interaction of propiconazole and its hydroxylated metabolites were evaluated using MDR1-expressing membrane vesicles and NIH-3T3/MDR1 cells. Membrane vesicle assays demonstrated propiconazole (IC50,122.9μM) and its metabolites (IC50s, 350.8μM, 366.4μM, and 456.3μM) inhibited P-gp efflux of a probe substrate, with propiconazole demonstrating the strongest interaction. P-gp mediated transport of propiconazole in MDR1-expressed vesicles was not detected indicating propiconazole interacts with P-gp as an inhibitor rather than a substrate. In NIH-3T3/MDR1 cells, propiconazole (1 and 10μM) led to decreased cellular resistance (chemosensitization) to paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic drug and known MDR1 substrate. Collectively, these results have pharmacokinetic and risk assessment implications as P-gp interaction may influence pesticide toxicity and the potential for pesticide-drug interactions.

  7. Synthetic Organotellurium Compounds Sensitize Drug-Resistant Candida albicans Clinical Isolates to Fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Reis de Sá, L F; Toledo, F T; Gonçalves, A C; Sousa, B A; Dos Santos, A A; Brasil, P F; Duarte da Silva, V A; Tessis, A C; Ramos, J A; Carvalho, M A; Lamping, E; Ferreira-Pereira, A

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Candida albicans infections are a serious health threat for immunocompromised individuals. Fluconazole is most commonly used to treat these infections, but resistance due to the overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps is of grave concern. This study evaluated the ability of five synthetic organotellurium compounds to reverse the fluconazole resistance of C. albicans clinical isolates. Compounds 1 to 4, at <10 μg/ml, ameliorated the fluconazole resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing the major C. albicans multidrug efflux pumps Cdr1p and Mdr1p, whereas compound 5 only sensitized Mdr1p-overexpressing strains to fluconazole. Compounds 1 to 4 also inhibited efflux of the fluorescent substrate rhodamine 6G and the ATPase activity of Cdr1p, whereas all five of compounds 1 to 5 inhibited Nile red efflux by Mdr1p. Interestingly, all five compounds demonstrated synergy with fluconazole against efflux pump-overexpressing fluconazole-resistant C. albicans clinical isolates, isolate 95-142 overexpressing CDR1 and CDR2, isolate 96-25 overexpressing MDR1 and ERG11, and isolate 12-99 overexpressing CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, and ERG11 Overall, organotellurium compounds 1 and 2 were the most promising fluconazole chemosensitizers of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates. Our data suggest that these novel organotellurium compounds inhibit pump efflux by two very important and distinct families of fungal multidrug efflux pumps: the ATP-binding cassette transporter Cdr1p and the major facilitator superfamily transporter Mdr1p.

  8. Minocycline and riluzole brain disposition: interactions with p-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Milane, Aline; Fernandez, Christine; Vautier, Sarah; Bensimon, Gilbert; Meininger, Vincent; Farinotti, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative fatal disease. The only drug recognized to increase the survival time is riluzole(RLZ). In animal models, minocycline (MNC) delayed the onset of the disease and increased the survival time (in combination with RLZ). The objective of our work was to study the interactions between RLZ, MNC and the efflux pump p-glycoprotein (p-gp) at the blood-brain barrier. We investigated these two drugs as: (i) p-gp substrates by comparing their brain uptake in CF1 mdr1a (-/-) and mdr1a (+/+) mice, (ii) p-gp modulators by studying their effect on the cerebral uptake of digoxin. mdr1a (-/-) mice showed higher brain uptake of MNC and RLZ than mdr1a (+/+) (in a 1.6- and 1.4-fold, respectively); and in mdr1a (+/+) mice pre-treated with repeated doses of MNC, brain uptake of digoxin was increased. When both drugs were administrated to mdr1a (+/+) mice, MNC increased the brain uptake of RLZ in a 2.1-fold. In conclusion, MNC and RLZ are both p-gp substrates. MNC is also a p-gp inhibitor and increases the brain diffusion of RLZ. In vitro experiments with the GPNT cell line confirmed these results. These interactions should be taken into account in the design of future clinical trials.

  9. Neuroinflammation activates efflux transport by NFκB

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanhui; Argyropoulos, George; Zhang, Yan; Kastin, Abba J.; Hsuchou, Hung; Pan, Weihong

    2009-01-01

    Background/aims Although it is known that drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be hampered by efflux transport activity of the multidrug resistance (mdr) gene product P-glycoprotein, it is not clear how inflammation regulates efflux transporters. In rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells of BBB origin, the proinflammatory cytokine TNF mainly induces transcriptional upregulation of mdr1b, and to a lesser extent mdr1a, resulting in greater efflux of the substrates (Yu C et al., Cell Physiol Biochem, 2007). This study further determined the mechanisms by which TNF activates mdr1b promoter activity. Methods/Results Luciferase reporter assays and DNA binding studies show that (a) maximal basal promoter activity was conferred by a 476 bp sequence upstream to the mdr1b transcriptional initiation site; (2) TNF induced upregulation of promoter activity by NFkB nuclear translocation; and (3) the NFκB binding site of the mdr1b promoter was solely responsible for basal and TNF-activated gene transcription, whereas the p53 binding site was not involved. Binding of the p65 subunit of NFκB to nuclear DNA from RBE4 cells was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Conclusion Thus, NFκB mediated TNF-induced upregulation of mdr1b promoter activity, illustrating how inflammation activates BBB efflux transport. PMID:19088456

  10. Impact of genetic deficiencies of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein on pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Yasuhisa; Sano, Tomokazu; Oda, Kazuo; Kawamura, Akio; Usui, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    1. We investigated how deficiencies in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) affect the pharmacokinetics of atypical antipsychotics aripiprazole and its active metabolite (dehydroaripiprazole) using normal Friend leukemia virus strain B (FVB) mice, BCRP knockout (Bcrp[-/-]) mice, and P-gp and BCRP triple knockout (Mdr1a/1b[-/-]Bcrp[-/-]) mice. 2. While plasma concentrations of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole after oral administration were slightly higher in both Bcrp(-/-) and Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice than in normal FVB mice, the difference was not marked. The increase in absolute bioavailability (F) compared with normal mice (approximately 1.3-fold increase) was comparable between Bcrp(-/-) and Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice. This finding suggests that BCRP may be involved in the intestinal absorption of aripiprazole in mice, albeit with minimal contribution to absorption at best. 3. In contrast, the brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,brain) for aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole after oral administration was significantly higher in Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice than in normal mice, whereas Bcrp(-/-) mice exhibited Kp,brain values similar to those in normal mice. In addition, the Kp,brain values in Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice were not drastically different from those previously reported in Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice, suggesting that brain penetration of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole can be affected by P-gp, but with little synergistic effect of BCRP.

  11. 75 FR 21153 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ..., Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA., Bogota, Colombia; DOB 5 Feb 1953; Cedula No. 19194691... DROGAS CONDOR S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o COOPCREAR, Bogota, Colombia; DOB 2 Dec 1954; Cedula...

  12. 77 FR 54949 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... LABORATORIOS KRESSFOR DE COLOMBIA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA., Bogota... DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR S.A., Bogota, Colombia; DOB 03 Nov 1962; Cedula No. 19494919...

  13. 77 FR 74918 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ...) . 12. GONZALEZ QUINTERO, Melba Patricia, c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o...) (individual) . 13. IDARRAGA ORTIZ, Jaime, c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA., Bogota, Colombia;...

  14. 75 FR 54696 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ..., Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA., Bogota, Colombia; DOB 26 Feb 1947; Cedula No. 14938700....A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA., Bogota, Colombia; c/o...

  15. 78 FR 62948 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... LTDA.; Linked To: DEPOSITO POPULAR DE DROGAS S.A.; Linked To: LABORATORIOS KRESSFOR DE COLOMBIA S.A... DROGAS CONDOR LTDA.; Linked To: D'CACHE S.A.; Linked To: LABORATORIOS Y COMERCIALIZADORA DE...

  16. 75 FR 79445 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... DE DROGAS LA REBAJA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o LABORATORIOS KRESSFOR DE COLOMBIA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o RADIO UNIDAS FM S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA., Bogota, Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA MIGIL LTDA., Cali, Colombia; c/o DEPOSITO POPULAR DE DROGAS S.A.,...

  17. P-Glycoprotein Is a Major Determinant of Norbuprenorphine Brain Exposure and Antinociception

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sarah M.; Campbell, Scott D.; Crafford, Amanda; Regina, Karen J.; Holtzman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Norbuprenorphine is a major metabolite of buprenorphine and potent agonist of μ, δ, and κ opioid receptors. Compared with buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine causes minimal antinociception but greater respiratory depression. It is unknown whether the limited antinociception is caused by low efficacy or limited brain exposure. Norbuprenorphine is an in vitro substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Mdr1), but the role of P-glycoprotein in norbuprenorphine transport in vivo is unknown. This investigation tested the hypothesis that limited norbuprenorphine antinociception results from P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and limited brain access. Human P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in vitro of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and their respective glucuronide conjugates was assessed by using transfected cells. P-glycoprotein-mediated norbuprenorphine transport and consequences in vivo were assessed by using mdr1a(+/+) and mdr1a(−/−) mice. Antinociception was determined by hot-water tail-flick assay, and respiratory effects were determined by unrestrained whole-body plethysmography. Brain and plasma norbuprenorphine and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide were quantified by mass spectrometry. In vitro, the net P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux ratio for norbuprenorphine was nine, indicating significant efflux. In contrast, the efflux ratio for buprenorphine and the two glucuronide conjugates was unity, indicating absent transport. The norbuprenorphine brain/plasma concentration ratio was significantly greater in mdr1a(−/−) than mdr1a(+/+) mice. The magnitude and duration of norbuprenorphine antinociception were significantly increased in mdr1a(−/−) compared with mdr1a(+/+) mice, whereas the reduction in respiratory rate was similar. Results show that norbuprenorphine is an in vitro and in vivo substrate of P-glycoprotein. P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux influences brain access and antinociceptive, but not the respiratory, effects of norbuprenorphine. PMID

  18. Characterization of multidrug transporter-mediated efflux of avermectins in human and mouse neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Abigail M; Mistry, Pratibha; Wright, Jayne; Williams, Faith M; Brown, Colin D A

    2015-06-15

    ABC transporters play an important role in the disposition of avermectins in several animal species. In this study the interactions of three key avermectins, abamectin, emamectin and ivermectin, with human and mouse homologues of MDR1 (ABCB1/Abcb1a) and MRP (ABCC/Abcc), transporters endogenously expressed by human SH-SY5Y and mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells were investigated. In both cell lines, retention of the fluorescent dye H33342 was found to be significantly increased in the presence of avermectins and cyclosporin A. These effects were shown to be unresponsive to the BCRP inhibitor Ko-143 and therefore MDR1/Mdr1-dependent. Avermectins inhibited MDR1/Mdr1a-mediated H33342 dye efflux, with apparent Ki values of 0.24±0.08 and 0.18±0.02μM (ivermectin); 0.60±0.07 and 0.56±0.02μM (emamectin) and 0.95±0.08 and 0.77±0.25μM (abamectin) in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, respectively. There were some apparent affinity differences for MDR1 and Mdr1a within each cell line (affinity for ivermectin>emamectin≥abamectin, P<0.05 by One-Way ANOVA), but importantly, the Ki values for individual avermectins for human MDR1 or mouse Mdr1a were not significantly different. MK571-sensitive retention of GSMF confirmed the expression of MRP/Mrp efflux transporters in both cell lines. Avermectins inhibited MRP/Mrp-mediated dye efflux with IC50 values of 1.58±0.51 and 1.94±0.72μM (ivermectin); 1.87±0.57 and 2.74±1.01μM (emamectin) and 2.25±0.01 and 1.68±0.63μM (abamectin) in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, respectively. There were no significant differences in IC50 values between individual avermectins or between human MRP and mouse Mrp. Kinetic data for endogenous human MDR1/MRP isoforms in SH-SY5Y cells and mouse Mdr1a/b/Mrp isoforms in N2a cells are comparable for the selected avermectins. All are effluxed at concentrations well above 0.05-0.1μM ivermectin detected in plasma (Ottesen and Campbell, 1994; Ottesen and Campbell, 1994) This is an important finding in the light of

  19. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by CD44 antibody-targeted nanocomplexes for short hairpin RNA-encoding plasmid DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jijin; Fang, Xiaoling; Hao, Junguo; Sha, Xianyi

    2015-03-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the major reasons for the reductions in efficacy of many chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy. As a classical MDR phenotype of human malignancies, the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC)-transporter P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp) is an efflux protein with aberrant activity that has been linked to multidrug resistance in cancer. For the reversal of MDR by RNA interference (RNAi) technology, an U6-RNA gene promoter-driven expression vector encoding anti-MDR1/P-gp short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules was constructed (abbreviated pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA). This study explored the feasibility of using Pluronic P123-conjugated polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimer (P123-PPI) as a carrier for pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA to overcome tumor drug resistance in breast cancer cells. P123-PPI functionalized with anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody (CD44 receptor targeting ligand) (anti-CD44-P123-PPI) can efficiently condense pDNA into nanocomplexes to achieve efficient delivery of pDNA, tumor specificity and long circulation. The in vitro studies methodically evaluated the effect of P123-PPI and anti-CD44-P123-PPI on pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA delivery and P-gp downregulation. Our in vitro results indicated that the P123-PPI/pDNA and anti-CD44-P123-PPI/pDNA nanocomplexes with low cytotoxicity revealed higher transfection efficiency compared with the PPI/pDNA nanocomplexes and Lipofectamine™ 2000 in the presence of serum. The nanocomplexes loaded with pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA against P-gp could reverse MDR accompanied by the suppression of MDR1/P-gp expression at the mRNA and protein levels and improve the internalization and cytotoxicity of Adriamycin (ADR) in the MCF-7/ADR multidrug-resistant cell line. BALB/c nude mice bearing MCF-7/ADR tumor were utilized as a xenograft model to assess antitumor efficacy in vivo. The results demonstrated that the administration of anti-CD44-P123-PPI/pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA nanocomplexes combined with ADR could inhibit tumor growth more

  20. Turning Awareness into Action: What Your Community Can Do about Drug Use in America = De La Toma de Conciencia a la Accion: Que Puede Hacer la Comunidad Respecto al Consumo de Drogas en America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This booklet gives examples of successful community drug abuse prevention programs, as well as guidelines for finding out more about a community's prevention needs and taking action. The first section discusses taking action against drug abuse. It presents examples which illustrate the different approaches communities have taken. Ten steps to help…

  1. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches To Preventing Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use [and] La Prevencion Positiva: Metodos que han tenido exito en la prevencion del uso de drogas y alcohol entre la juventud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The United States has the highest rate of youthful drug abuse of any industrialized country in the world. There is a growing awareness that drug and alcohol use are closely connected to other problems such as teenage suicide, adolescent pregnancy, traffic fatalities, juvenile delinquency, poor school performance, runaways, and dropouts. Youthful…

  2. Generacion de Nuevas Capacidades en el Ejercito de Guatemala para el Combate al Trafico de Drogas y Delitos Conexos (Generating New Capacities within the Guatemalan Army in Order to Combat Drug Trafficking and Related Crimes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    actividades en el estado mexicano de Tamaulipas, extendiéndose luego, a todo el país utilizando una estructura de tipo militar. Con la captura de Osiel...servicios de seguridad o en las encargadas de impartir justicia. 2. Estructura jerárquica. El Crimen Organizado en nuestro medio tiene una...organización jerárquica (normalmente familiar) o de grandes relaciones de afinidad que les permite una estructura jerárquica sólida para planificar y definir

  3. Expression of a multidrug-resistance gene in human tumors and tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Fojo, A.T.; Ueda, K.; Slamon, D.J.; Poplack, D.G.; Gottesman, M.M.; Pastan, I.

    1987-01-01

    The identification and cloning of a segment of a human multidrug resistance gene (mdr1) was reported recently. To examine, the molecular basis of one type of multidrug resistance, the authors have prepared RNA from human tumors and normal tissues and measured their content of mdr1 RNA. They find that the mdr1 gene is expressed at a very high level in the adrenal gland; at a high level in the kidney; at intermediate levels in the lung, liver, lower jejunum, colon, and rectum; and at low levels in many other tissues. The mdr1 gene is also expressed in several human tumors, including many but not all tumors derived from the adrenal gland and the colon. In addition, increased expression was detected in a few tumors at the time of relapse following initial chemotherapy. Although controlled clinical studies will be required, the results suggest that measurement of mdr1 RNA may prove to be a valuable tool in the design of chemotherapy protocols.

  4. A gene encoding multidrug resistance (MDR)-like protein is induced by aluminum and inhibitors of calcium flux in wheat.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Ezaki, Bunichi; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2002-02-01

    A cDNA clone exclusively induced by aluminum (Al) was isolated from root apices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by the differential display method. The predicted amino acid sequence exhibited homology to the multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins that is known as a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily. Thus this gene was named TaMDR1 (Triticum aestivum MDR). TaMDR1 was induced as a function of Al concentration in the range from 5 to 50 microM, which is in the range of Al content in natural acid soil environment. The concentration required for the induction was lower in the Al-sensitive cultivar than in the Al-tolerant cultivar, indicating that the accumulation of TaMDR1 mRNA was associated with the events caused by Al toxicity rather than Al tolerance. TaMDR1 was significantly induced by the exposure to lanthanum, gadolinium and ruthenium red, which are known as inhibitors of calcium channels. Furthermore, decreasing of calcium ion in growth medium caused stimulation of the gene expression. These results suggested that the induction of TaMDR1 is caused by the breaking of calcium homeostasis which occurred at early stage of Al toxicity.

  5. Brain permeability of inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Arya, Vikram; Issar, Manish; Wang, Yaning; Talton, James D; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the permeability of inhaled corticosteroids entering the brain is reduced and if P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporters are involved. Currently employed inhaled corticosteroids were given intravenously and intratracheally to rats at a dose of 100 microg kg-1. An ex-vivo receptor binding assay was used to monitor over 12 h the glucocorticoid receptor occupancy in the brain and a systemic reference organ (kidney). The involvement of P-gp in the brain permeability of triamcinolone acetonide was assessed in wild-type mice and mdr1a(-/-) knockout mice (mice lacking the gene for expressing P-gp). After both forms of administration, the average brain receptor occupancies were 20-56% of those of the reference organ, with the more lipophilic drugs showing a more pronounced receptor occupation. While the receptor occupancies in the liver of wild-type and mdr1a(-/-) mice were similar after administration of triamcinolone acetonide, brain receptor occupancies in mdr1a(-/-) mice were significantly greater (mdr1a(-/-): 47.6%, 40.2-55.0%, n=14; 2; wild-type: 11.5+/-33.0%, n=14; 3). Penetration into the brain for inhaled corticosteroids (especially those of lower lipophilicity) is reduced. Experiments in mdr1a(-/-) mice confirmed the involvement of P-gp transporters. Further studies are needed to assess whether potential drug interactions at the transporter level are of pharmacological significance.

  6. Multidrug resistance-1 in T lymphocytes and natural killer cells of adults with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: effect of prednisone treatment.

    PubMed

    López-Karpovitch, Xavier; Graue, Gerardo; Crespo-Solís, Erick; Piedras, Josefa

    2008-07-01

    High P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance-1 (P-gp/MDR1) activity in lymphocytes from idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patients may affect disease outcome. ITP treatment includes glucocorticoids that are substrates of P-gp; hence, P-gp functional activity and antigenic expression were assessed by flow cytometry in T and natural killer (NK) cells from ITP patients before and after prednisone therapy. Herein, patients' T and NK cells did not show increased MDR1 functional activity, whereas P-gp antigenic expression was significantly enhanced in both therapy-free and prednisone-treated patients. Prednisone treatment did not significantly modify the function and expression of MDR1 in T and NK cells of ITP patients.

  7. Pharmacoproteomics-based reconstruction of in vivo P-glycoprotein function at blood-brain barrier and brain distribution of substrate verapamil in pentylenetetrazole-kindled epilepsy, spontaneous epilepsy, and phenytoin treatment models.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasuo; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate experimentally that alterations of in vivo transporter function at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in disease and during pharmacotherapy can be reconstructed from in vitro data based on our established pharmacoproteomic concept of reconstructing in vivo function by integrating intrinsic transport activity per transporter molecule and absolute protein expression level at the BBB. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled and spontaneous model of epilepsy (EL) mice were used as models of chemically induced and spontaneous epilepsy, respectively. A mouse model of antiepileptic drug treatment was prepared by consecutive 5-week administration of phenytoin (PHT). Quantitative targeted absolute proteomic analysis of 31 membrane proteins showed that P-glycoprotein (P-gp/mdr1a) protein expression levels were significantly increased in brain capillaries of PTZ (129%), EL (143%), and PHT mice (192%) compared with controls. The brain-to-plasma concentration ratios (Kp brain) of P-gp/mdr1a substrate verapamil were 0.563, 0.394, 0.432, and 0.234 in control, PTZ, EL, and PHT mice, respectively. In vivo P-gp/mdr1a function at the BBB was reconstructed from the measured P-gp/mdr1a protein expression levels and intrinsic transport activity for verapamil per P-gp/mdr1a previously reported by our group. Then, the reconstructed P-gp/mdr1a functional activities were integrated with unbound fractions of verapamil in plasma and brain to reconstruct Kp brain of verapamil. In all mice, reconstructed Kp brain values agreed well with the observed values within a 1.21-fold range. These results demonstrate that altered P-gp functions at the BBB in epilepsy and during pharmacotherapy can be reconstructed from in vitro data by means of our pharmacoproteomic approach.

  8. Pro-inflammatory human Th17 cells selectively express P-glycoprotein and are refractory to glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Radha; Kozhaya, Lina; McKevitt, Kelly; Djuretic, Ivana M; Carlson, Thaddeus J; Quintero, Maria A; McCauley, Jacob L; Abreu, Maria T; Unutmaz, Derya; Sundrud, Mark S

    2014-01-13

    IL-17A-expressing CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells) are generally regarded as key effectors of autoimmune inflammation. However, not all Th17 cells are pro-inflammatory. Pathogenic Th17 cells that induce autoimmunity in mice are distinguished from nonpathogenic Th17 cells by a unique transcriptional signature, including high Il23r expression, and these cells require Il23r for their inflammatory function. In contrast, defining features of human pro-inflammatory Th17 cells are unknown. We show that pro-inflammatory human Th17 cells are restricted to a subset of CCR6(+)CXCR3(hi)CCR4(lo)CCR10(-)CD161(+) cells that transiently express c-Kit and stably express P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/multi-drug resistance type 1 (MDR1). In contrast to MDR1(-) Th1 or Th17 cells, MDR1(+) Th17 cells produce both Th17 (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22) and Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines upon TCR stimulation and do not express IL-10 or other anti-inflammatory molecules. These cells also display a transcriptional signature akin to pathogenic mouse Th17 cells and show heightened functional responses to IL-23 stimulation. In vivo, MDR1(+) Th17 cells are enriched and activated in the gut of Crohn's disease patients. Furthermore, MDR1(+) Th17 cells are refractory to several glucocorticoids used to treat clinical autoimmune disease. Thus, MDR1(+) Th17 cells may be important mediators of chronic inflammation, particularly in clinical settings of steroid resistant inflammatory disease.

  9. Establishment of optimized MDCK cell lines for reliable efflux transport studies.

    PubMed

    Gartzke, Dominik; Fricker, Gert

    2014-04-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with human MDR1 gene (MDCK-MDR1) encoding for P-glycoprotein (hPgp, ABCB1) are widely used for transport studies to identify drug candidates as substrates of this efflux protein. Therefore, it is necessary to rely on constant and comparable expression levels of Pgp to avoid false negative or positive results. We generated a cell line with homogenously high and stable expression of hPgp through sorting single clones from a MDCK-MDR1 cell pool using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To obtain control cell lines for evaluation of cross-interactions with endogenous canine Pgp (cPgp) wild-type cells were sorted with a low expression pattern of cPgp in comparison with the MDCK-MDR1. Expression of other transporters was also characterized in both cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Pgp function was investigated applying the Calcein-AM assay as well as bidirectional transport assays using (3) H-Digoxin, (3) H-Vinblastine, and (3) H-Quinidine as substrates. Generated MDCK-MDR1 cell lines showed high expression of hPgp. Control MDCK-WT cells were optimized in showing a comparable expression level of cPgp in comparison with MDCK-MDR1 cell lines. Generated cell lines showed higher and more selective Pgp transport compared with parental cells. Therefore, they provide a significant improvement in the performance of efflux studies yielding more reliable results.

  10. Functional dissection of a Candida albicans zinc cluster transcription factor, the multidrug resistance regulator Mrr1.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sabrina; Popp, Christina; Rogers, P David; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-08-01

    The overexpression of the MDR1 gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, is a frequent cause of resistance to the widely used antimycotic agent fluconazole and other toxic compounds in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. The zinc cluster transcription factor Mrr1 controls MDR1 expression in response to inducing chemicals, and gain-of-function mutations in MRR1 are responsible for the constitutive MDR1 upregulation in fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains. To understand how Mrr1 activity is regulated, we identified functional domains of this transcription factor. A hybrid protein consisting of the N-terminal 106 amino acids of Mrr1 and the transcriptional activation domain of Gal4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitutively induced MDR1 expression, demonstrating that the DNA binding domain is sufficient to target Mrr1 to the MDR1 promoter. Using a series of C-terminal truncations and systematic internal deletions, we could show that Mrr1 contains multiple activation and inhibitory domains. One activation domain (AD1) is located in the C terminus of Mrr1. When fused to the tetracycline repressor TetR, this distal activation domain induced gene expression from a TetR-dependent promoter. The deletion of an inhibitory region (ID1) located near the distal activation domain resulted in constitutive activity of Mrr1. The additional removal of AD1 abolished the constitutive activity, but the truncated Mrr1 still could activate the MDR1 promoter in response to the inducer benomyl. These results demonstrate that the activity of Mrr1 is regulated in multiple ways and provide insights into the function of an important mediator of drug resistance in C. albicans.

  11. Genes amplified and overexpressed in human multidrug-resistant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Van der Bliek, A M; Baas, F; Van der Velde-Koerts, T; Biedler, J L; Meyers, M B; Ozols, R F; Hamilton, T C; Joenje, H; Borst, P

    1988-11-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is associated with overproduction of Mr 170,000 membrane proteins (P-glycoproteins) caused by either gene amplification, transcriptional activation, or both. In rodents the amplified domain comprises genes that encode P-glycoproteins and at least five unrelated genes, one of which encodes the calcium-binding protein sorcin. The amplification and increased expression of these genes always includes one P-glycoprotein-encoding gene (pgp1 in hamsters, homologous to mdr1 in humans). In human MDR cells only elevated mdr1 expression has been shown thusfar, although another P-glycoprotein encoding gene (mdr3, homologous to hamster pgp3) is closely linked. Here we show that the human homolog of the hamster sorcin gene resides on chromosome 7 like the P-glycoprotein-encoding genes. Furthermore, gene classes designated 4, 5, and 6 are coamplified with mdr1 and mdr3 in the human ovarian carcinoma cell line 2780AD, which strongly suggests that the overall structure of the human MDR domain is the same as in rodents. Class 6 was moderately and mdr1 was highly overexpressed in this cell line. Four other human MDR cell lines also have much higher mdr1 overexpression than expected from the relatively low levels (2- to 30-fold) of gene amplification. This contrasts with the results of previous work with rodent MDR cells, in which the increase in P-glycoprotein mRNA levels usually parallels the increase in gene copy number. Although four of the five human MDR cell lines have coamplified mdr3, its expression was undetectable. Our results confirm the central role of the mdr1 (pgp1) gene in MDR and suggest that different cross-resistance patterns are not due to differential expression of different P-glycoprotein genes.

  12. Differential effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on cellular drug transporters and their implications for using epigenetic modifiers in combination chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Benigno C.; Li, Yang; Murray, David; Brammer, Jonathan E.; Liu, Yan; Hosing, Chitra; Nieto, Yago; Champlin, Richard E.; Andersson, Borje S.

    2016-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors, DNA alkylators and nucleoside analogs are effective components of combination chemotherapy. To determine a possible mechanism of their synergism, we analyzed the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of drug transporters which export DNA alkylators. Exposure of PEER lymphoma T-cells to 15 nM romidepsin (Rom) resulted in 40%-50% reduction in mRNA for the drug transporter MRP1 and up to ~500-fold increase in the MDR1 mRNA within 32-48 hrs. MRP1 protein levels concomitantly decreased while MDR1 increased. Other HDAC inhibitors − panobinostat, belinostat and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) − had similar effects on these transporters. The protein level of MRP1 correlated with cellular resistance to busulfan and chlorambucil, and Rom exposure sensitized cells to these DNA alkylators. The decrease in MRP1 correlated with decreased cellular drug export activity, and increased level of MDR1 correlated with increased export of daunorubicin. A similar decrease in the level of MRP1 protein, and increase in MDR1, were observed when mononuclear cells derived from patients with T-cell malignancies were exposed to Rom. Decreased MRP1 and increased MDR1 expressions were also observed in blood mononuclear cells from lymphoma patients who received SAHA-containing chemotherapy in a clinical trial. This inhibitory effect of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of MRP1 suggests that their synergism with DNA alkylating agents is partly due to decreased efflux of these alkylators. Our results further imply the possibility of antagonistic effects when HDAC inhibitors are combined with anthracyclines and other MDR1 drug ligands in chemotherapy. PMID:27564097

  13. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 may be involved in pregnane x receptor-activated overexpression of multidrug resistance 1 gene during acquired multidrug resistant

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Ma, Zhiqiang; Liu, Haiyan; Liu, Pinghua; Xiao, Yu; Jiang, Xuehua; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pregnane x receptor (PXR) - activated overexpression of the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene is an important way for tumor cells to acquire drug resistance. However, the detailed mechanism still remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether protein arginine methyl transferase 1(PRMT1) is involved in PXR - activated overexpression of MDR1 during acquired multidrug resistant. Experimental Design Arginine methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (AMI-1) was used to pharmacologically block PRMT1 in resistant breast cancer cells (MCF7/adr). The mRNA and protein levels of MDR1 were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. Immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation were used to investigate the physical interaction between PXR and PRMT1. Then, 136 candidate compounds were screened for PRMT1 inhibitors. Lastly, luciferase reporter gene and nude mice bearing resistant breast cancer xenografts were adopted to investigate the anti-tumor effect of PRMT1 inhibitors when combined with adriamycin. Results AMI-1 significantly suppressed the expression of MDR1 in MCF7/adr cells and increased cells sensitivity of MCF7/adr to adriamycin. Physical interaction between PRMT1 and PXR exists in MCF7/adr cells, which could be disrupted by AMI-1. Those results suggest that PRMT1 may be involved in PXR-activated overexpression of MDR1 in resistant breast cancer cells, and AMI-1 may suppress MDR1 by disrupting the interaction between PRMT1 and PXR. Then, five compounds including rutin, isoquercitrin, salvianolic acid A, naproxen, and felodipline were identified to be PRMT1 inhibitors. Finally, those PRMT1 inhibitors were observed to significantly decrease MDR1 promoter activity in vitro and enhance the antitumor effect of adriamycin in nude mice that bearing resistant breast cancer xenografts. Conclusions PRMT1 may be an important co-activator of PXR in activating MDR1 gene during acquired resistance, and PRMT1 inhibitor combined with

  14. Roles of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein in transporting para-aminosalicylic acid and its N-acetylated metabolite in mice brain

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lan; Xu, Cong; O'Neal, Stefanie; Bi, Hui-chang; Huang, Min; Zheng, Wei; Zeng, Su

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) is effective in the treatment of manganism-induced neurotoxicity (manganism). In this study we investigated the roles of P-glycoprotein (MDR1a) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) in transporting PAS and its N-acetylated metabolite AcPAS through blood-brain barrier. Methods: MDR1a-null or wild-type mice were intravenously injected with PAS (200 mg/kg). Thirty minutes after the injection, blood samples and brains were collected, and the concentrations of PAS and AcPAS in brain capillaries and parenchyma were measured using HPLC. Both MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP1 cells that overexpressed P-gp and MRP1, respectively, were used in two-chamber Transwell transport studies in vitro. Results: After injection of PAS, the brain concentration of PAS was substantially higher in MDR1a-null mice than in wild-type mice, but the brain concentration of AcPAS had no significant difference between MDR1a-null mice and wild-type mice. Concomitant injection of PAS with the MRP-specific inhibitor MK-571 (50 mg/kg) further increased the brain concentration of PAS in MDR1a-null mice, and increased the brain concentration of AcPAS in both MDR1a-null mice and wild-type mice. Two-chamber Transwell studies with MDCK-MDR1 cells demonstrated that PAS was not only a substrate but also a competitive inhibitor of P-gp, while AcPAS was not a substrate of P-gp. Two-chamber Transwell studies with the MDCK-MRP1 cells showed that MRP1 had the ability to transport both PAS and AcPAS across the BBB. Conclusion: P-gp plays a major role in the efflux of PAS from brain parenchyma into blood in mice, while MRP1 is involved in both PAS and AcPAS transport in the brain. PMID:25418377

  15. 77 FR 41479 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... REPRESENTACIONES S.A., Quito, Ecuador; c/o INVERSIONES ARA LTDA., Cali, Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS LA REBAJA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o DROGAS LA REBAJA BOGOTA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o DEPOSITO POPULAR DE DROGAS S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/o D'CACHE S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/o PRODUCCIONES CARNAVAL DEL...

  16. Alterations in cellular pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of elvitegravir in response to ethanol exposure in HIV-1 infected monocytic (U1) cells

    PubMed Central

    Midde, Narasimha M.; Sinha, Namita; Lukka, Pradeep B.; Meibohm, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol consumption is negatively associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and general health in HIV positive individuals. Previously, we demonstrated ethanol-mediated alterations to metabolism of elvitegravir (EVG) in human liver microsomes. In the current study, we investigated ethanol influence on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of EVG in HIV infected monocytic (U1) cells. U1 cells were treated with 5 μM EVG, 2 μM Cobicistat (COBI), a booster drug, and 20 mM ethanol for up to 24 hours. EVG, HIV p24 levels, alterations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, MRP1, and MDR1 protein expressions were measured. Presence of ethanol demonstrated a significant effect on the total exposures of both EVG and EVG in combination with COBI. Ethanol also increased the HIV replication despite the presence of drugs and this elevated HIV replication was reduced in the presence of MRP1 and MDR1 inhibitors. Consequently, a slight increase in EVG concentration was observed in the presence of MRP1 inhibitor but not with MDR1 inhibitor. Furthermore, CYP3A4, MRP1 and MDR1 protein levels were significantly induced in treatment groups which included ethanol compared to those with no treatment. In summary, these findings suggest that Ethanol reduces intra cellular EVG exposure by modifying drug metabolism and transporter protein expression. This study provides valuable evidence for further investigation of ethanol effects on the intracellular concentration of EVG in ex vivo or in vivo studies. PMID:28231276

  17. P-Glycoprotein in skin contributes to transdermal absorption of topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Yamazaki, Erina; Oikawa, Masashi; Masuo, Yusuke; Schinkel, Alfred H; Kato, Yukio

    2017-04-15

    ATP binding cassette transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), are expressed in skin, but their involvement in transdermal absorption of clinically used drugs remains unknown. Here, we examined their role in transdermal absorption of corticosteroids. Skin and plasma concentrations of dexamethasone after dermal application were reduced in P-gp and BCRP triple-knockout (Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp(-/-)) mice. The skin concentration in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp(-/-) mice was reduced in the dermis, but not in the epidermis, indicating that functional expression of these transporters in skin is compartmentalized. Involvement of these transporters in dermal transport of dexamethasone was also supported by the observation of a higher epidermal concentration in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp(-/-) than wild-type mice during intravenous infusion. Transdermal absorption after dermal application of prednisolone, but not methylprednisolone or ethinyl estradiol, was also lower in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp(-/-) than in wild-type mice. Transport studies in epithelial cell lines transfected with P-gp or BCRP showed that dexamethasone and prednisolone are substrates of P-gp, but are minimally transported by BCRP. Thus, our findings suggest that P-gp is involved in transdermal absorption of at least some corticosteroids in vivo. P-gp might be available as a target for inhibition in order to deliver topically applied drugs and cosmetics in a manner that minimizes systemic exposure.

  18. Intestinal and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Ginkgolides and Bilobalide: In Vitro and In Vivo Approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study intestinal and blood brain barrier (BBB) transport of ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, isolated from Ginkgo biloba (Family-Ginkgoaceae), was evaluated in Caco-2 and MDR1-MDCK cell monolayer models. Transepithelial transport was examined for 2 hours in both absorptive and secretor...

  19. Gray mold populations in german strawberry fields are resistant to multiple fungicides and dominated by a novel clade closely related to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Leroch, Michaela; Plesken, Cecilia; Weber, Roland W S; Kauff, Frank; Scalliet, Gabriel; Hahn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to fruit and vegetable production. Strawberry fields usually receive several fungicide treatments against Botrytis per season. Gray mold isolates from several German strawberry-growing regions were analyzed to determine their sensitivity against botryticides. Fungicide resistance was commonly observed, with many isolates possessing resistance to multiple (up to six) fungicides. A stronger variant of the previously described multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype MDR1, called MDR1h, was found to be widely distributed, conferring increased partial resistance to two important botryticides, cyprodinil and fludioxonil. A 3-bp deletion mutation in a transcription factor-encoding gene, mrr1, was found to be correlated with MDR1h. All MDR1h isolates and the majority of isolates with resistance to multiple fungicides were found to be genetically distinct. Multiple-gene sequencing confirmed that they belong to a novel clade, called Botrytis group S, which is closely related to B. cinerea and the host-specific species B. fabae. Isolates of Botrytis group S genotypes were found to be widespread in all German strawberry-growing regions but almost absent from vineyards. Our data indicate a clear subdivision of gray mold populations, which are differentially distributed according to their host preference and adaptation to chemical treatments.

  20. Fluconazole Susceptibility in Cryptococcus gattii Is Dependent on the ABC Transporter Pdr11

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mai Lee; Uhrig, John; Vu, Kiem; Singapuri, Anil; Dennis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii isolates from the Pacific Northwest have exhibited higher fluconazole MICs than isolates from other sites. The mechanism of fluconazole resistance in C. gattii is unknown. We sought to determine the role of the efflux pumps Mdr1 and Pdr11 in fluconazole susceptibility. Using biolistic transformation of the parent isolate, we created a strain lacking Mdr1 (mdr1Δ) and another strain lacking Pdr11 (pdr11Δ). Phenotypic virulence factors were assessed by standard methods (capsule size, melanin production, growth at 30 and 37°C). Survival was assessed in an intranasal murine model of cryptococcosis. Antifungal MICs were determined by the M27-A3 methodology. No differences in key virulence phenotypic components were identified. Fluconazole susceptibility was unchanged in the Mdr1 knockout or reconstituted isolates. However, fluconazole MICs decreased from 32 μg/ml for the wild-type isolate to <0.03 μg/ml for the pdr11Δ strain and reverted to 32 μg/ml for the reconstituted strain. In murine models, no difference in virulence was observed between wild-type, knockout, or reconstituted isolates. We conclude that Pdr11 plays an essential role in fluconazole susceptibility in C. gattii. Genomic and expression differences between resistant and susceptible C. gattii clinical isolates should be assessed further in order to identify other potential mechanisms of resistance. PMID:26643330

  1. Patterns of Proteins that Associate with p53 or with p53 Binding Sites Present in the Ribosomal Gene Cluster and MDM2 (P2) Promoter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    factor receptor (efr) (Ludes-Meyers, et al., 1996), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pCna) (Deb et al., 1992), the multi drug resistant gene (mdr-1...by the HlV -LTR (Subler et al., 1994; Gualberto and Baldwin, 1995). 4 Mutant p53 proteins may activate transcription of the HIV-LTR by cooperation

  2. Fluconazole Susceptibility in Cryptococcus gattii Is Dependent on the ABC Transporter Pdr11.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mai Lee; Uhrig, John; Vu, Kiem; Singapuri, Anil; Dennis, Michael; Gelli, Angie; Thompson, George R

    2015-12-07

    Cryptococcus gattii isolates from the Pacific Northwest have exhibited higher fluconazole MICs than isolates from other sites. The mechanism of fluconazole resistance in C. gattii is unknown. We sought to determine the role of the efflux pumps Mdr1 and Pdr11 in fluconazole susceptibility. Using biolistic transformation of the parent isolate, we created a strain lacking Mdr1 (mdr1Δ) and another strain lacking Pdr11 (pdr11Δ). Phenotypic virulence factors were assessed by standard methods (capsule size, melanin production, growth at 30 and 37 °C). Survival was assessed in an intranasal murine model of cryptococcosis. Antifungal MICs were determined by the M27-A3 methodology. No differences in key virulence phenotypic components were identified. Fluconazole susceptibility was unchanged in the Mdr1 knockout or reconstituted isolates. However, fluconazole MICs decreased from 32 μg/ml for the wild-type isolate to <0.03 μg/ml for the pdr11Δ strain and reverted to 32 μg/ml for the reconstituted strain. In murine models, no difference in virulence was observed between wild-type, knockout, or reconstituted isolates. We conclude that Pdr11 plays an essential role in fluconazole susceptibility in C. gattii. Genomic and expression differences between resistant and susceptible C. gattii clinical isolates should be assessed further in order to identify other potential mechanisms of resistance.

  3. Transgenic Mice that Express the Human Multidrug-Resistance Gene in Bone Marrow Enable a Rapid Identification of Agents that Reverse Drug Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickisch, Gerald H.; Merlino, Glenn T.; Galski, Hanan; Gottesman, Michael M.; Pastan, Ira

    1991-01-01

    The development of preclinical models for the rapid testing of agents that circumvent multidrug resistance in cancer is a high priority of research on drug resistance. A common form of multidrug resistance in human cancer results from expression of the MDR1 gene, which encodes a M_r 170,000 glycoprotein that functions as a plasma membrane energy-dependent multidrug efflux pump. We have engineered transgenic mice that express this multidrug transporter in their bone marrow and demonstrated that these animals are resistant to leukopenia by a panel of anticancer drugs including anthracyclines, vinca alkaloids, etoposide, taxol, and actinomycin D. Differential leukocyte counts indicate that both neutrophils and lymphocytes are protected. Drugs such as cisplatin, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil, which are not handled by the multidrug transporter, produce bone marrow suppression in both normal and transgenic mice. The resistance conferred by the MDR1 gene can be circumvented in a dose-dependent manner by simultaneous administration of agents previously shown to be inhibitors of the multidrug transporter in vitro, including verapamil isomers, quinidine, and quinine. Verapamil and quinine, both at levels suitable for human trials that produced only partial sensitization of the MDR1-transgenic mice, were fully sensitizing when used in combination. We conclude that MDR1-transgenic mice provide a rapid and reliable system to determine the bioactivity of agents that reverse multidrug resistance in animals.

  4. Interaction of BDE-47 and its Hydroxylated Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and BCRP: Considerations for Human Exposure and Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also known as MDR1, ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; also known as ABCG2), are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular efflux of xenobiotics as an important defense against chemic...

  5. P-glycoprotein Inhibition by the Agricultural Pesticide Propiconazole and Its Hydroxylated Metabolites: Implications for Pesticide-Drug Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) functions an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure ass...

  6. P-glycoprotein Inhibition by the Agricultural Pesticide Propiconazole and Its Hydroxylated Metabolites: Implications for Pesticide-Drug Interactions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1) functions an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure ass...

  7. Rhodamine Inhibitors of P-glycoprotein: An Amide/Thioamide “Switch” for ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Michael K.; Holt, Jason J.; Bennett, Stephanie M.; Wetzel, Bryan R.; Loo, Tip W.; Bartlett, M. Claire; Clarke, David M.; Sawada, Geri A.; Higgins, J. William; Tombline, Gregory; Raub, Thomas J.; Detty, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    We have examined 46 tetramethylrosamine/rhodamine derivatives with structural diversity in the heteroatom of the xanthylium core, the amino substituents of the 3- and 6-positions, and the alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl group at the 9-substituent. These compounds were examined for affinity and ATPase stimulation in isolated MDR3 CL P-gp and human P-gp-His10, for their ability to promote uptake of calcein AM and vinblastine in multidrug-resistant MDCKII-MDR1 cells, and for transport in monolayers of MDCKII-MDR1 cells. Thioamide 31-S gave KM of 0.087 μM in human P-gp. Small changes in structure among this set of compounds affected affinity as well as transport rate (or flux) even though all derivatives examined were substrates for P-gp. With isolated protein, tertiary amide groups dictate high affinity and high stimulation while tertiary thioamide groups give high affinity and inhibition of ATPase activity. In MDCKII-MDR1 cells, the tertiary thioamide-containing derivatives promote uptake of calcein AM and have very slow passive, absorptive, and secretory rates of transport relative to transport rates for tertiary amide-containing derivatives. Thioamide 31-S promoted uptake of calcein AM and inhibited efflux of vinblastine with IC50’s of ~2 μM in MDCKII-MDR1 cells. PMID:19402665

  8. Effects of natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitors on anticancer drug efflux transporter human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Hiroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Uwai, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein plays an important role in cancer chemotherapy. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factors play critical roles in development and progression of cancer. In this study, the effects of natural compounds that can inhibit NF-κB activation on the function of P-glycoprotein were investigated using human MDR1 gene-transfected KB/MDR1 cells. The accumulation of daunorubicin or rhodamine 123, fluorescent substrates of P-glycoprotein, in KB/MDR1 cells increased in the presence of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE), licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, lupeol, zerumbone, thymoquinone, emodin, and anethol had no effects. The ATPase activities of P-glycoprotein were stimulated by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulated NF-κB activation was inhibited by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, and xanthohumol. KB/MDR1 cells were sensitized to vinblastine cytotoxicity by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol, showing that these natural NF-κB inhibitors reverse multidrug resistance. These results suggest that natural compounds, such as CAPE, licochalcone A, and anacardic acid, have dual inhibitory effects on the anticancer drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein and NF-κB activation, and may become useful to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  9. Comparison of 3 assay systems using a common probe substrate, calcein AM, for studying P-gp using a selected set of compounds.

    PubMed

    Szerémy, Péter; Pál, Akos; Méhn, Dóra; Tóth, Beáta; Fülöp, Ferenc; Krajcsi, Péter; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina

    2011-01-01

    The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) transporter is the most abundantly investigated adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter protein. Multiple assay systems were developed to study MDR1-mediated transport and possible drug-drug interactions. Yet, as different probe substrates are used in these assays, it is difficult to directly compare the results. In this study, a common probe substrate was applied in 3 assay systems developed to study MDR1: the cellular dye efflux assay, the ATPase assay, and the vesicular transport assay. This probe substrate is calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein AM), the acetoxymethyl ester derivative of the fluorescent dye, calcein. Using a common probe allows the investigation of the effect of passive permeability on the result obtained by testing various compounds. In this study, 22 compounds with different logP values were tested in the above-mentioned 3 assay systems. The vesicular transport assay proved most sensitive, detecting 18 of 22 interactions with the protein. The ATPase assay detected 15 interactions, whereas the cellular dye efflux assay was the least sensitive with only 10 hits. A correlation was found between the hydrophobicity of the compound and the ratio of cellular and vesicular transport IC(50) values, indicating the effect of passive permeability on the result. Based on hydrophobicity, the current study provides guidelines on applying the most correct tool for studying MDR1 interactions.

  10. 4-Isoxazolyl-1,4-dihydropyridines exhibit binding at the multidrug-resistance transporter.

    PubMed

    Hulubei, Victoria; Meikrantz, Scott B; Quincy, David A; Houle, Tina; McKenna, John I; Rogers, Mark E; Steiger, Scott; Natale, N R

    2012-11-15

    The 4-isoxazolyl-dihydropyridines (IDHPs) exhibit inhibition of the multidrug-resistance transporter (MDR-1), and exhibit an SAR distinct from their activity at voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC). Among the four most active IDHPs, three were branched at C-5 of the isoxazole, including the most active analog, 1k.

  11. Recovery of motor spontaneous activity after intranasal delivery of human recombinant erythropoietin in a focal brain hypoxia model induced by CoCl2 in rats.

    PubMed

    Merelli, Amalia; Caltana, Laura; Girimonti, Patricia; Ramos, Alberto Javier; Lazarowski, Alberto; Brusco, Alicia

    2011-08-01

    Stroke is a major human health problem inducing long-term disability without any efficient therapeutic option being currently available. Under hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activates several genes as erythropoietin receptor (Epo-R) related with O(2) supply, and the multidrug-resistance gene (MDR-1) related with drug-refractory phenotype. Brain cortical injection of CoCl(2) produces focal hypoxia-like lesion with neuronal and glial alterations, as well as HIF-1α stabilization and MDR-1 overexpression. Intranasal (IN) drug delivery can by-pass blood-brain barrier (BBB) where MDR-1 is normally expressed. We evaluated the effects of IN-rHu-Epo administration on spontaneous motor activity (SMA) and the brain pattern expression of HIF-1α, MDR-1, and Epo-R in our cobalt-induced hypoxia model. Adult male Wistar rats were injected by stereotaxic surgery in frontoparietal cortex, with CoCl(2) (2 μl-50 mM; n = 20) or saline (controls; n = 20). Ten rats of each group were treated with IN-rHu-Epo 24 U or IN-saline. In addition, erythropoietic stimulation was evaluated by reticulocytes (Ret) account during three consecutive days, after intraperitoneal (i.p.)-recombinant-human Epo (rHu-Epo) (950 U; n = 6) or IN-rHu-Epo (24 U; n = 6) administration. SMA was evaluated by open field and rotarod tests, before and after surgical procedures during five consecutive days. Histological and immunostaining studies of HIF-1α, MDR-1, and Epo-R were performed on brain slides. A significant difference in SMA was observed in the hypoxic rats of IN-rHu-Epo-administered group as compared with Co-Saline-treated subjects and controls (p < 0.001). HIF-1α, EPO-R, and MDR-1 were overexpressed in the hypoxic cortex areas, while in contralateral hemisphere or controls, they were negatives. Reticulocytes were only increased in intraperitoneal (i.p.)-rHu-Epo-administered group. In spite of MDR-1 overexpression being detected in neurons, the coexpression of Epo-R could

  12. [Reversal of adriamycin resistance by digoxin in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/adriamycin and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Li, Bai-He; Yuan, Lei; Shi, Ran-Ran; Wang, Jian-Guo

    2015-12-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of digoxin on the chemoresistance of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/adriamycin (ADR) and its underlying mechanism. MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells were designated as control and ADR groups, respectively. MCF-7/ADR cells in ADR + digoxin group received 48 h of digoxin (10 nmol/L) treatment; MCF-7/ADR cells transfected with pLKO.1-shHIF-1α and pLKO.1-shcontrol plasmids were named shHIF-1α and shcontrol groups, respectively. CCK-8 assay was employed to detect the cytotoxic effect of ADR on MCF-7/ADR cells, and IC50 value and resistance index were calculated according to CCK-8. RT-PCR was used to measure the mRNA levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1). Western blot was used to analyze the protein levels of HIF-1α and MDR1. Flow cytometry was used to determine the apoptosis. The result showed that the resistance index of MCF-7/ADR cells was 115.6, and it was reduced to 47.2 under the action of digoxin (P < 0.05). In comparison with control group, ADR groups showed increased protein and mRNA levels of HIF-1α and MDR1 (P < 0.05). Digoxin reduced the protein levels of HIF-1α and MDR1, as well as the mRNA level of MDR1, but did not affect the mRNA level of HIF-1α. After HIF-1α gene was silenced, the protein levels of HIF-1α and MDR1 were down-regulated (P < 0.05), and the pro-apoptotic effect of ADR on MCF-7/ADR cells was enhanced. Although it was also observed that digoxin promoted cell apoptosis in both shcontrol and shHIF-1α groups, the difference between the two groups was not significant. In conclusion, the results suggest that digoxin may partially reverse the ADR resistance in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADR by means of down-regulating the expression levels of HIF-1α and MDR1 and promoting apoptosis via HIF-1α-independent pathway.

  13. Interactions of bilastine, a new oral H₁ antihistamine, with human transporter systems.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Maria Luisa; Gonzalo, Ana; Ganza, Alvaro; Leal, Nerea; Soengas, Itziar; Ioja, Eniko; Gedey, Szilvia; Jahic, Mirza; Bednarczyk, Dallas

    2012-06-01

    Membrane transporters play a significant role in facilitating transmembrane drug movement. For new pharmacological agents, it is important to evaluate potential interactions (e.g., substrate specificity and/or inhibition) with human transporters that may affect their pharmacokinetics, efficacy, or toxicity. Bilastine is a new nonsedating H₁ antihistamine indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. The in vitro inhibitory effects of bilastine were assessed on 12 human transporters: four efflux [multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) or P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2), and bile salt export pump) and eight uptake transporters (sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, organic cation transporter (OCT)1, organic anion transporter (OAT)1, OAT3, OCT2, OATP2B1, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3). Only mild inhibition was found for MDR1-, OCT1-, and OATP2B1-mediated transport of probe substrates at the highest bilastine concentration assayed (300 μM; half-maximal inhibitory concentration: ≥300 μM). Bilastine transport by MDR1, BCRP, OAT1, OAT3, and OCT2 was also investigated in vitro. Only MDR1 active transport of bilastine was relevant, whereas it did not appear to be a substrate of OCT2, OAT1, or OAT3, nor was it transported substantially by BCRP. Drug-drug interactions resulting from bilastine inhibition of drug transporters that would be generally regarded as clinically relevant are unlikely. Additionally, bilastine did not appear to be a substrate of human BCRP, OAT1, OAT3, or OCT2 and thus is not a potential victim of inhibitors of these transporters. On the other hand, based on in vitro evaluation, clinically relevant interactions with MDR1 inhibitors are anticipated.

  14. TLR signaling modulates side effects of anticancer therapy in the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Magdalena; Hennenberg, Eva Maria; Eyking, Annette; Rünzi, Michael; Gerken, Guido; Scott, Paul; Parkhill, Julian; Walker, Alan W.; Cario, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal mucositis represents the most common complication of intensive chemotherapy, which has a severe adverse impact on quality of life of cancer patients. However, the precise pathophysiology remains to be clarified and there is so far no successful therapeutic intervention. Here, we investigated the role of innate immunity through TLR signaling in modulating genotoxic chemotherapy-induced small intestinal injury in vitro and in vivo. Genetic deletion of TLR2, but not MD-2, in mice resulted in severe chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis in the proximal jejunum with villous atrophy, accumulation of damaged DNA, CD11b+-myeloid cell infiltration and significant gene alterations in xenobiotic metabolism, including a decrease in ABCB1/MDR1 p-glycoprotein (p-gp) expression. Functionally, stimulation of TLR2 induced synthesis and drug efflux activity of ABCB1/MDR1 p-gp in murine and human CD11b+-myeloid cells, thus inhibiting chemotherapy-mediated cytotoxicity. Conversely, TLR2 activation failed to protect small intestinal tissues genetically deficient in MDR1A against DNA-damaging drug-induced apoptosis. Gut microbiota depletion by antibiotics led to increased susceptibility to chemotherapy-induced mucosal injury in wildtype mice, which was suppressed by administration of a TLR2 ligand, preserving ABCB1/MDR1 p-gp expression. Findings were confirmed in a preclinical model of human chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis using duodenal biopsies, by demonstrating that TLR2 activation limited the toxic-inflammatory reaction and maintained assembly of the drug transporter p-gp. In conclusion, this study identifies a novel molecular link between innate immunity and xenobiotic metabolism. TLR2 acts as a central regulator of xenobiotic defense via the multidrug transporter ABCB1/MDR1 p-gp. Targeting TLR2 may represent a novel therapeutic approach in chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis. PMID:25589072

  15. Molecular mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in Candida parapsilosis isolates from a U.S. surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Nina T; Pham, Cau D; Cleveland, Angela A; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2015-02-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the second or third most common cause of candidemia in many countries. The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends fluconazole as the primary therapy for C. parapsilosis candidemia. Although the rate of fluconazole resistance among C. parapsilosis isolates is low in most U.S. institutions, the resistance rate can be as high as 7.5%. This study was designed to assess the mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in 706 incident bloodstream isolates from U.S. hospitals. We sequenced the ERG11 and MRR1 genes of 122 C. parapsilosis isolates with resistant (30 isolates; 4.2%), susceptible dose-dependent (37 isolates; 5.2%), and susceptible (55 isolates) fluconazole MIC values and used real-time PCR of RNA from 17 isolates to investigate the regulation of MDR1. By comparing these isolates to fully fluconazole-susceptible isolates, we detected at least two mechanisms of fluconazole resistance: an amino acid substitution in the 14-α-demethylase gene ERG11 and overexpression of the efflux pump MDR1, possibly due to point mutations in the MRR1 transcription factor that regulates MDR1. The ERG11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found in 57% of the fluconazole-resistant isolates and in no susceptible isolates. The MRR1 SNPs were more difficult to characterize, as not all resulted in overexpression of MDR1 and not all MDR1 overexpression was associated with an SNP in MRR1. Further work to characterize the MRR1 SNPs and search for overexpression of other efflux pumps is needed.

  16. Mitochondria of a human multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell line constitutively express inducible nitric oxide synthase in the inner membrane.

    PubMed

    Fantappiè, Ornella; Sassoli, Chiara; Tani, Alessia; Nosi, Daniele; Marchetti, Serena; Formigli, Lucia; Mazzanti, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in pathways of stress conditions. They can be transported from one cell to another, bringing their features to the cell where they are transported. It has been shown in cancer cells overexpressing multidrug resistance (MDR) that mitochondria express proteins involved in drug resistance such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistant protein and multiple resistance protein-1. The MDR phenotype is associated with the constitutive expression of COX-2 and iNOS, whereas celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2 activity, reverses drug resistance of MDR cells by releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria. It is possible that COX-2 and iNOS are also expressed in mitochondria of cancer cells overexpressing the MDR phenotype. This study involved experiments using the human HCC PLC/PRF/5 cell line with and without MDR phenotype and melanoma A375 cells that do not express the MDR1 phenotype but they do iNOS. Western blot analysis, confocal immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy showed that iNOS is localized in mitochondria of MDR1-positive cells, whereas COX-2 is not. Low and moderate concentrations of celecoxib modulate the expression of iNOS and P-gp in mitochondria of MDR cancer cells independently from inhibition of COX-2 activity. However, A375 cells that express iNOS also in mitochondria, were not MDR1 positive. In conclusion, iNOS can be localized in mitochondria of HCC cells overexpressing MDR1 phenotype, however this phenomenon appears independent from the MDR1 phenotype occurrence. The presence of iNOS in mitochondria of human HCC cells phenotype probably concurs to a more aggressive behaviour of cancer cells.

  17. ABC- and SLC-Transporters in Murine and Bovine Mammary Epithelium - Effects of Prochloraz

    PubMed Central

    Yagdiran, Yagmur; Oskarsson, Agneta; Knight, Christopher H.; Tallkvist, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Some chemicals are ligands to efflux transporters which may result in high concentrations in milk. Limited knowledge is available on the influence of maternal exposure to chemicals on the expression and function of transporters in the lactating mammary gland. We determined gene expression of ABC and SLC transporters in murine mammary tissue of different gestation and lactation stages, in murine mammary cells (HC11) featuring resting and secreting phenotypes and in bovine mammary tissue and cells (BME-UV). Effects on transporter expression and function of the imidazole fungicide prochloraz, previously reported to influence BCRP in mammary cells, was investigated on transporter expression and function in the two cell lines. Transporters studied were BCRP, MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5/OATP1A2, OCTN1 and OCT1. Gene expressions of BCRP and OCT1 in murine mammary glands were increased during gestation and lactation, whereas MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5 and OCTN1 were decreased, compared to expressions in virgins. All transporters measured in mammary glands of mice were detected in bovine mammary tissue and in HC11 cells, while only MDR1 and MRP1 were detected in BME-UV cells. Prochloraz treatment induced MDR1 gene and protein expression in both differentiated HC11 and BME-UV cells and increased protein function in HC11 cells, resulting in decreased accumulation of the MDR1 substrate digoxin. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that murine (HC11) and bovine (BME-UV) mammary epithelial cells can be applied to characterize expression and function of transporters as well as effects of contaminants on the mammary transporters. An altered expression, induced by a drug or toxic chemical, on any of the transporters expressed in the mammary epithelial cells during lactation may modulate the well-balanced composition of nutrients and/or secretion of contaminants in milk with potential adverse effects on breast-fed infants and dairy consumers. PMID:27028005

  18. 78 FR 21495 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant To Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... PLASTICOS CONDOR LTDA., Cali, Colombia; c/o LABORATORIOS KRESSFOR DE COLOMBIA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o... REPRESENTACIONES S.A., Quito, Ecuador; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA., Bogota, Colombia; c/o... DE COLOMBIA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/ o TOBOGON, Cali, Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS...

  19. Drug-Trafficking and Police Corruption: A Comparison of Colombia and Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    AND ACRONYMS AFI Agencia Federal de Investigaciones /Federal Investigative Police CENDRO Centro de Planeación para el Control de Drogas /National...related police corruption, plaza system, Partido Revolucionario Institucional, Federal Preventative Police (PFP), Agencia Federal de Investigaciones ...Nacional para el Combate a las Drogas /National Institute to Combat Drugs INCLE International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement program Los Pepes

  20. Targeting SVCT for enhanced drug absorption: Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a novel vitamin C conjugated prodrug of saquinavir

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuanghui; Wang, Zhiying; Patel, Mitesh; Khurana, Varun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim. K.

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve oral absorption, a novel prodrug of saquinavir (Saq), ascorbyl-succinic-saquinavir (AA-Su-Saq) targeting sodium dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) was synthesized and evaluated. Aqueous solubility, stability and cytotoxicity were determined. Affinity of AA-Su-Saq towards effluxpump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and recognition of AA-Su-Saq by SVCT were studied. Transepithelial permeability across polarized MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells were determined. Metabolic stability of AA-Su-Saq in rat liver microsomes was investigated. AA-Su-Saq appears to be fairly stable in both DPBS and Caco-2 cells with half lives of 9.65 and 5.73 h, respectively. Uptake of [3H]Saquinavir accelerated by 2.7 and 1.9 fold in the presence of 50 μM Saq and AA-Su-Saq in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Cellular accumulation of [14C]AA diminished by about 50–70% relative to control in the presence of 200 μM AA-Su-Saq in MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. Uptake of AA-Su-Saq was lowered by 27% and 34% in the presence of 5 mM AA in MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells, respectively. Absorptive permeability of AA-Su-Saq was elevated about 4-5 fold and efflux index reduced by about 13-15 fold across the polarized MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. Absorptive permeability of AA-Su-Saq decreased 44% in the presence of 5 mM AA across MDCK-MDR1 cells. AA-Su-Saq was devoid of cytotoxicity over the concentration range studied. AA-Su-Saq significantly enhanced the metabolic stability but lowered the affinity towards CYP3A4. In conclusion, prodrug modification of Saq through conjugation to AA via a linker significantly raised the absorptive permeability and metabolic stability. Such modification also caused significant evading of P-gp mediated efflux and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism. SVCT targeted prodrug approach can be an attractive strategy to enhance the oral absorption and systemic bioavailability of anti-HIV protease inhibitors. PMID:21571053

  1. Both P-gp and MRP2 mediate transport of Lopinavir, a protease inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sheetal; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Polarized epithelial non-human (canine) cell lines stably transfected with human or murine complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding for various efflux transporters (P-gp/MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and Bcrp1) were used to study transepithelial transport of Lopinavir (LVR) and compare results with the MDCKII-Wild type cells. These transmembrane proteins cause multidrug resistance by decreasing the total intracellular accumulation of drugs. Lopinavir efflux was directional and was completely inhibited by MK-571, a selective MRP family inhibitor in the MDCKII-MRP2 cell line. Similarly, LVR efflux was also inhibited by P-gp inhibitors P-gp 4008 and GF120918 in the MDCKII-MDR1 cell line. The efflux ratios (Efflux rate/ Influx rate) of LVR in the absence of any efflux inhibitors in the MDCK-Wild type, MDCKII-MDR1, MDCKII-MRP1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cell monolayers were 1.32, 4.91, 1.26 and 2.89 respectively. The MDCKII-MDR1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cells have significantly increased LVR efflux ratio relative to the parental cells due to the apically directed transport by MDR1 and MRP2 respectively. The efflux ratios in MRP2 and MDR1 transfected cell lines were close to unity in the presence of MK-571 and P-gp 4008 respectively; indicating that LVR efflux by MRP2 and P-gp was completely inhibited by their selective inhibitors. MDCKII-MRP1 cells did not exhibit a significant reduction in the LVR efflux relative to the parental cells, indicating that LVR is not a good substrate for MRP1. Transport studies across MDCKII-Bcrp1 cells indicated that LVR is not transported by Bcrp1 and is not a substrate for this efflux protein. In conclusion, this study presents direct evidence that LVR is effluxed by both P-gp and MRP2 which may contribute to its poor oral bioavailability and limited penetration into the CNS. PMID:17451894

  2. Absence of P-glycoprotein transport in the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of the herbicide paraquat.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Sarah E; Gremaud, Julia N; Skagen, Kasse; Steed, Emily; Dalton, Rachel; Sugden, Kent D; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Sherwin, Catherine M T; Woodahl, Erica L

    2014-02-01

    Genetic variation in the multidrug resistance gene ABCB1, which encodes the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), has been associated with Parkinson disease. Our goal was to investigate P-gp transport of paraquat, a Parkinson-associated neurotoxicant. We used in vitro transport models of ATPase activity, xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity, transepithelial permeability, and rhodamine-123 inhibition. We also measured paraquat pharmacokinetics and brain distribution in Friend leukemia virus B-type (FVB) wild-type and P-gp-deficient (mdr1a(-/-)/mdr1b(-/-)) mice following 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg oral doses. In vitro data showed that: 1) paraquat failed to stimulate ATPase activity; 2) resistance to paraquat-induced cytotoxicity was unchanged in P-gp-expressing cells in the absence or presence of P-gp inhibitors GF120918 [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide] and verapamil-37.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 33.2-41.4], 46.2 (42.5-50.2), and 34.1 µM (31.2-37.2)-respectively; 3) transepithelial permeability ratios of paraquat were the same in P-gp-expressing and nonexpressing cells (1.55 ± 0.39 and 1.39 ± 0.43, respectively); and 4) paraquat did not inhibit rhodamine-123 transport. Population pharmacokinetic modeling revealed minor differences between FVB wild-type and mdr1a(-/-)/mdr1b(-/-) mice: clearances of 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.52] and 0.78 l/h (0.58-0.98), respectively, and volume of distributions of 1.77 (95% CI: 1.50-2.04) and 3.36 liters (2.39-4.33), respectively; however, the change in clearance was in the opposite direction of what would be expected. It is noteworthy that paraquat brain-to-plasma partitioning ratios and total brain accumulation were the same across doses between FVB wild-type and mdr1a(-/-)/mdr1b(-/-) mice. These studies indicate that paraquat is not a P-gp substrate. Therefore, the association between ABCB1 pharmacogenomics and

  3. Interactions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder therapeutic agents with the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hao-Jie; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Donovan, Jennifer L.; Jiang, Yan; Gibson, Bryan B.; DeVane, C. Lindsay; Markowitz, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential interactions of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) therapeutic agents atomoxetine — and the individual isomers of methylphenidate, amphetamine, and modafinil utilizing established in vitro assay. An initial ATPase assay indicated that both d- and l-methylphenidate have weak affinity for P-glycoprotein. The intracellular accumulation of P-glycoprotein substrates doxorubicin and rhodamine123 in the P-glycoprotein overexpressing cell line LLC-PK1/MDR1 was determined to evaluate potential inhibitory effects on P-glycoprotein. The results demonstrated that all compounds, except both modafinil isomers, significantly increased doxorubicin and rhodamine123 accumulation in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells at higher concentrations. To investigate the P-glycoprotein substrate properties, the intracellular concentrations of the tested compounds in LLC-PK1/MDR1 and P-glycoprotein negative LLC-PK1 cells were measured in the presence and absence of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor PSC833. The results indicate that the accumulation of d-methylphenidate in LLC-PK1 cells was 32.0% higher than in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells. Additionally, coadministration of PSC833 leads to 52.9% and 45.6% increases in d-modafinil and l-modafinil accumulation, respectively, in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells. Further studies demonstrated that l-modafinil transport across LLC-PK1/MDR1 cell monolayers in the basolateral-to-apical (B–A) direction was significantly higher than in the apical-to-basolateral (A–B) direction. PSC833 treatment significantly decreased the transport of l-modafinil in B–A direction. In conclusion, our results suggest that all tested agents with the exception of modafinil isomers are relatively weak P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Furthermore, P-glycoprotein may play a minor role in the transport of d-methylphenidate, d-modafinil, and l-modafinil. PMID:17963743

  4. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  5. Aliskiren toxicity in juvenile rats is determined by ontogenic regulation of intestinal P-glycoprotein expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Peter; Beckman, David; McLean, Lee Anne; Yan, Jing-He

    2014-02-15

    Juvenile rat toxicity studies with the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren were initiated to support treatment in the pediatric population. In Study 1, aliskiren was administered orally to juvenile rats at doses of 0, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg/day with repeated dosing from postpartum day (PPD) 8 to PPD 35/36. In-life, clinical pathology, anatomic pathology, and toxicokinetics evaluations were performed. In Study 2, single oral doses of aliskiren (0, 100 or 300 mg/kg) were given to 14-, 21-, 24-, 28-, 31- or 36-day-old rats; in-life data and toxicokinetics were evaluated. Study 3 was a single dose (3 mg/kg i.v.) pharmacokinetic study in juvenile rats on PPD 8, 14, 21 and 28. In Study 4, naïve rats were used to investigate ontogenic changes of the multidrug-resistant protein 1 (MDR1) and the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) mRNA in several organs. Oral administration of aliskiren at 100 and 300 mg/kg caused unexpected mortality and severe morbidity in 8-day-old rats. Aliskiren plasma and tissue concentrations were increased in rats aged 21 days and younger. Expression of MDR1 and OATP mRNA in the intestine, liver and brain was significantly lower in very young rats. In conclusion, severe toxicity and increased exposure in very young rats after oral administration of aliskiren are considered to be the result of immature drug transporter systems. Immaturity of MDR1 in enterocytes appears to be the most important mechanism responsible for the high exposure. - Highlights: • Aliskiren was orally administered to juvenile rats. • Unexpected severe toxicity and acute mortality occurred in rats aged 8 days. • Toxicity was associated with increased aliskiren plasma and tissue exposure. • Developmental changes of exposure correlated with ontogeny of transporters. • Immaturity of MDR1 in enterocytes causes increased exposure in very young rats.

  6. Mechanisms of Chemoresistance in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    ceramide production (4,7). Drugs that induce cellular ceramide generation include anthracyclines (Adriamycin), Vinca alkaloids, etoposide (VP-16...and promotes an apoptotic cascade directly (9,10) . Our group showed that increased cellular capacity for ceramide glycosylation, catalyzed by...reinforce the results obtained with PPMP and to confirm that changes in MCF-7-AdrR/asGCS cellular MDR1 expression were not due to clonal artifacts, we

  7. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of rebamipide in healthy Korean subjects with the characterization of atypical complex absorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Lien; Yoo, Hee-Doo; Tran, Phuong; Cho, Hea-Young; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2017-03-18

    In this study, the population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of rebamipide (Reba) in healthy male Korean subjects was analyzed using the nonlinear mixed effects modeling method. The possible effects of physiological covariates and the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene 3435C>T polymorphism on PK parameters were also investigated. Data were collected from a bioequivalence study, in which 26 subjects who participated in the study were administered a single oral dose of 100 mg Reba; only data from the reference formulation were used. Reba showed a relatively large inter-individual variability (from 2.6- to 3.3-fold) in the PK parameters with double peaks or the concentration plateau after the peak concentration in its serum concentration-time profiles. The population PKs of Reba was best described by a one-compartment model with three fraction absorption processes followed a single Weibull-type function and two first-order kinetics, and lag times. The study suggests that the efflux transporter MDR1 3435C>T allele affects the substantial inter-individual variability in the absorption of Reba according to genetic polymorphism. A significant difference was found in the absorption rate ka 1 among the MDR1 3435C>T genotype groups (P < 0.05) (CT group, 79.8% increase; and TT group, 115% increase). The use of combined MDR1 3435C>T and body mass index as covariates for ka 1 exerted a more significant effect (P < 0.05). In addition, body surface area significantly affected the apparent total clearance (P < 0.05).

  8. Identification of the hepatic efflux transporters of organic anions using double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells expressing human organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, OATP1B1/multidrug resistance 1, and OATP1B1/breast cancer resistance protein.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Soichiro; Maeda, Kazuya; Kondo, Chihiro; Hirano, Masaru; Sasaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2005-09-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that the transport of various organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane was mainly mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2). However, a number of new reports have shown that some organic anions are also substrates of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and/or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), implying MDR1 and BCRP could also be involved in the biliary excretion of organic anions in humans. In the present study, we constructed new double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells expressing organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)/MDR1 and OATP1B1/BCRP, and we investigated the transcellular transport of four kinds of organic anions, estradiol-17beta-d-glucuronide (EG), estrone-3-sulfate (ES), pravastatin (PRA), and cerivastatin (CER), to identify which efflux transporters mediate the biliary excretion of compounds using double-transfected cells. We observed the vectorial transport of EG and ES in all the double transfectants. MRP2 showed the highest efflux clearance of EG among these efflux transporters, whereas BCRP-mediated clearance of ES was the highest in these double transfectants. In addition, two kinds of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, CER and PRA, were also substrates of all these efflux transporters. The rank order of the efflux clearance of PRA mediated by each transporter was the same as that of EG, whereas the contribution of MDR1 to the efflux of CER was relatively greater than for PRA. This experimental system is very useful for identifying which transporters are involved in the biliary excretion of organic anions that cannot easily penetrate the plasma membrane.

  9. Characterisation of human tubular cell monolayers as a model of proximal tubular xenobiotic handling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Colin D.A. Sayer, Rachel; Windass, Amy S.; Haslam, Iain S.; Broe, Marc E. de; D'Haese, Patrick C.; Verhulst, Anja

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether primary human tubular cell monolayers could provide a powerful tool with which to investigate the renal proximal tubular handling of xenobiotics. Human proximal and distal tubule/collecting duct cells were grown as monolayers on permeable filter supports. After 10 days in culture, proximal tubule cells remained differentiated and expressed a wide palette of transporters at the mRNA level including NaPi-IIa, SGLT1, SGLT2, OCT2, OCTN2, OAT1, OAT3, OAT4, MDR1, MRP2 and BCRP. At the protein level, the expression of a subset of transporters including NaPi-IIa, OAT1 and OAT3 was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the expression of the ATP binding cassette efflux pumps MDR1, MRP2 and BCRP confirmed their apical membrane localisation. At the functional level, tubule cell monolayers retain the necessary machinery to mediate the net secretion of the prototypic substrates; PAH and creatinine. PAH secretion across the monolayer consisted of the uptake of PAH across the basolateral membrane by OAT1 and OAT3 and the apical exit of PAH by a probenecid and MK571-sensitive route consistent with actions of MRP2 or MRP4. Creatinine secretion was by OCT2-mediated uptake at the basolateral membrane and via MDR1 at the apical membrane. Functional expression of MDR1 and BCRP at the apical membrane was also demonstrated using a Hoechst 33342 dye. Similarly, measurement of calcein efflux demonstrated the functional expression of MRP2 at the apical membrane of cell monolayers. In conclusion, human tubular cell monolayers provide a powerful tool to investigate renal xenobiotic handling.

  10. Cellular localization and functional significance of CYP3A4 in the human epileptic brain

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chaitali; Marchi, Nicola; Desai, Nirav K.; Puvenna, Vikram; Hossain, Mohammed; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Alexopoulos, Andreas V.; Janigro, Damir

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose Compelling evidence supports the presence of P450 enzymes (CYPs) in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little information is available on the localization and function of CYPs in the drug-resistant epileptic brain. We have evaluated the pattern of expression of the specific enzyme CYP3A4 and studied its co-localization with MDR1. We also determined whether an association exists between CYP3A4 expression and cell survival. Methods Brain specimens were obtained from eight patients undergoing resection to relieve drug-resistant seizures or to remove a cavernous angioma. Each specimen was partitioned for either immunostaining or primary culture of human endothelial cells and astrocytes. Immunostaining was performed using anti-CYP3A4, MDR1, GFAP, or NeuN antibodies. High performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis was used to quantify carbamazepine (CBZ) metabolism by these cells. CYP3A4 expression was correlated to DAPI condensation, a marker of cell viability. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells were transfected with CYP3A4 to further evaluate the link between CYP3A4 levels, CBZ metabolism, and cell viability. Key Findings CYP3A4 was expressed by blood–brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells and by the majority of neurons (75 ± 10%). Fluorescent immunostaining showed coexpression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in endothelial cells and neurons. CYP3A4 expression inversely correlated with DAPI nuclear condensation. CYP3A4 overexpression in HEK cells conferred resistance to cytotoxic levels of carbamazepine. CYP3A4 levels positively correlated with the amount of CBZ metabolized. Significance CYP3A4 brain expression is not only associated with drug metabolism but may also represent a cytoprotective mechanism. Coexpression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 may be involved in cell survival in the diseased brain. PMID:21294720

  11. Piperine activates human pregnane X receptor to induce the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yue-Ming; Lin, Wenwei; Chai, Sergio C.; Wu, Jing; Ong, Su Sien; Schuetz, Erin G.; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-10-01

    Activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and subsequently its target genes, including those encoding drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, while playing substantial roles in xenobiotic detoxification, might cause undesired drug-drug interactions. Recently, an increased awareness has been given to dietary components for potential induction of diet–drug interactions through activation of PXR. Here, we studied, whether piperine (PIP), a major component extracted from the widely-used daily spice black pepper, could induce PXR-mediated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Our results showed that PIP activated human PXR (hPXR)-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression in human hepatocytes, intestine cells, and a mouse model; PIP activated hPXR by recruiting its coactivator SRC-1 in both cellular and cell-free systems; PIP bound to the hPXR ligand binding domain in a competitive ligand binding assay in vitro. The dichotomous effects of PIP on induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression observed here and inhibition of their activity reported elsewhere challenges the potential use of PIP as a bioavailability enhancer and suggests that caution should be taken in PIP consumption during drug treatment in patients, particularly those who favor daily pepper spice or rely on certain pepper remedies. - Highlights: • Piperine induces PXR-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression. • Piperine activates PXR by binding to PXR and recruiting coactivator SRC-1. • Piperine induces PXR activation in vivo. • Caution should be taken in piperine consumption during drug treatment.

  12. Ontogeny of Human Hepatic and Intestinal Transporter Gene Expression during Childhood: Age Matters

    PubMed Central

    Mooij, Miriam G.; Schwarz, Ute I.; de Koning, Barbara A. E.; Leeder, J. Steven; Gaedigk, Roger; Samsom, Janneke N.; Spaans, Edwin; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Tibboel, Dick; Kim, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Many drugs prescribed to children are drug transporter substrates. Drug transporters are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular uptake or efflux of drugs and are important to drug absorption and elimination. Very limited data are available on the effect of age on transporter expression. Our study assessed age-related gene expression of hepatic and intestinal drug transporters. Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), and OATP1B3 expression was determined in postmortem liver samples (fetal n = 6, neonatal n = 19, infant n = 7, child n = 2, adult n = 11) and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) expression in 61 pediatric liver samples. Intestinal expression of MDR1, MRP2, and OATP2B1 was determined in surgical small bowel samples (neonates n = 15, infants n = 3, adults n = 14). Using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, we measured fetal and pediatric gene expression relative to 18S rRNA (liver) and villin (intestines), and we compared it with adults using the 2−∆∆Ct method. Hepatic expression of MRP2, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 in all pediatric age groups was significantly lower than in adults. Hepatic MDR1 mRNA expression in fetuses, neonates, and infants was significantly lower than in adults. Neonatal intestinal expressions of MDR1 and MRP2 were comparable to those in adults. Intestinal OATP2B1 expression in neonates was significantly higher than in adults. We provide new data that show organ- and transporter-dependent differences in hepatic and intestinal drug transporter expression in an age-dependent fashion. This suggests that substrate drug absorption mediated by these transporters may be subject to age-related variation in a transporter dependent pattern. PMID:24829289

  13. [Cytological Study in vitro on Co-delivery of siRNA and Paclitaxel within Solid Lipid Nanoparticles to Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Tumors].

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Yao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuan; Sun, Xun; Lin, Yunzhu

    2016-02-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains the major obstacle to the success of clinical cancer chemotherapy. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the MDR1, is an important part with complex mechanisms associated with the MDR. In order to overcome the MDR of tumors, we in the present experimental design incorporated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting MDR1 gene and anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) into the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to achieve the combinational therapeutic effects of genetherapy and chemotherapy. In this study, siRNA-PTX-SLNs were successfully prepared. The cytotoxicity of blank SLNs and siRNA-PTX-SLNs in MCF-7 cells and MCF-7/ADR cells were detected by MTT; and the uptake efficiency of PTX in MCF-7/ADR cells were detected via HPLC method; quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry were performed to investigate the silencing effect of siRNA-PTX- SLNs on MDR1 gene in MCF-7/ADR cells. The results showed that PTX loaded SLNs could significantly inhibit the growth of tumor cells, and more importantly, the MDR tumor cells treated with siRNA-PTX-SLNs showed the lowest viability. HPLC study showed that SLNs could enhance the cellular uptake for PTX. Meanwhile, siRNA delivered by SLNs significantly decreased the P-gp expression in MDR tumor cells, thus increased the cellular accumulation of rhodamine123 as a P-gp substrate. In conclusion, the MDR1 gene could be silenced by siRNA-PTX-SLNs, which could promote the growth inhibition efficiency of PTX on tumor cells, leading to synergetic effect on MDR tumor therapy.

  14. Impact of Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic and intestinal mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and drug transporters, and on the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Devreese, Mathias; De Baere, Siegrid; Martel, An; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2017-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) drug biotransformation enzymes and multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins may influence drug disposition processes. The first part of the study aimed to evaluate the effect of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and/or fumonisins (FBs), at contamination levels approaching European Union guidance levels, on intestinal and hepatic CYP450 enzymes and MDR proteins gene expression in broiler chickens. mRNA expression of genes encoding CYP450 enzymes (CYP3A37, CYP1A4 and CYP1A5) and drug transporters (MDR1/ABCB1 and MRP2/ABCC2) was determined using qRT-PCR. A significant up-regulation of CYP1A4 (P = 0.037) and MDR1 (P = 0.036) was observed in the jejunum of chickens fed a diet contaminated with FBs. The second part of this study aimed to investigate the impact of feeding a FBs contaminated diet on the oral absorption of enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg BW), a MDR1 substrate. A significant (P = 0.045), however small, decreased area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-48 h, mean ± SD) was observed for enrofloxacin in chickens fed the FBs contaminated diet compared to the control group, 16.28 ± 1.82 h μg/mL versus 18.27 ± 1.79 h μg/mL. These findings suggest that concurrent administration of drugs with FBs contaminated feed might alter the pharmacokinetic characteristics of CYP1A4 substrate drugs and MDR1 substrates, such as enrofloxacin.

  15. Bile acid transport in sister of P-glycoprotein (ABCB11) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ping; Wang, Renxue; Ling, Victor

    2005-09-20

    In vertebrates, bile flow is essential for movement of water and solutes across liver canalicular membranes. In recent years, the molecular motor of canalicular bile acid secretion has been identified as a member of the ATP binding cassette transporter (ABC) superfamily, known as sister of P-glycoprotein (Spgp) or bile salt export pump (Bsep, ABCB11). In humans, mutations in the BSEP gene are associated with a very low level of bile acid secretion and severe cholestasis. However, as reported previously, because the spgp(-)(/)(-) knockout mice do not express severe cholestasis and have substantial bile acid secretion, we investigated the "alternative transport system" that allows these mice to be physiologically relatively normal. We examined the expression levels of several ABC transporters in spgp(-)(/)(-) mice and found that the level of multidrug resistance Mdr1 (P-glycoprotein) was strikingly increased while those of Mdr2, Mrp2, and Mrp3 were increased to only a moderate extent. We hypothesize that an elevated level of Mdr1 in the spgp(-)(/)(-) knockout mice functions as an alternative pathway to transport bile acids and protects hepatocytes from bile acid-induced cholestasis. In support of this hypothesis, we showed that plasma membrane vesicles isolated from a drug resistant cell line expressing high levels of P-glycoprotein were capable of transporting bile acids, albeit with a 5-fold lower affinity compared to Spgp. This finding is the first direct evidence that P-glycoprotein (Mdr1) is capable of transporting bile acids.

  16. Overcoming doxorubicin resistance of cancer cells by Cas9-mediated gene disruption

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jong Seong; Byun, Juyoung; Ahn, Dae-Ro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Cas9 system was employed to down-regulate mdr1 gene for overcoming multidrug resistance of cancer cells. Disruption of the MDR1 gene was achieved by delivery of the Cas9-sgRNA plasmid or the Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complex using a conventional gene transfection agent and protein transduction domain (PTD). Doxorubicin showed considerable cytotoxicity to the drug-resistant breast cancer cells pre-treated with the RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN) systems, whereas virtually non-toxic to the untreated cells. The potency of drug was enhanced in the cells treated with the protein-RNA complex as well as in those treated with plasmids, suggesting that mutation of the mdr1 gene by intracellular delivery of Cas9-sgRNA complex using proper protein delivery platforms could recover the drug susceptibility. Therefore, Cas9-mediated disruption of the drug resistance-related gene can be considered as a promising way to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer cells. PMID:26961701

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of Crmdr1, a novel MDR-type ABC transporter gene from Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hongbin; Liu, Donghui; Zuo, Kaijing; Gong, Yifu; Miao, Zhiqi; Chen, Yuhui; Ren, Weiwei; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2007-08-01

    A novel gene encoding a MDR-like ABC transporter protein was cloned from Catharanthus roseus, a medicinal plant with more than 120 kinds of secondary metabolites, through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). This gene (named as Crmdr1; GenBank accession no.: DQ660356) had a total length of 4395 bp with an open reading frame of 3801 bp, and encoded a predicted polypeptide of 1266 amino acids with a molecular weight of 137.1 kDa. The CrMDR1 protein shared 59.8, 62.5, 60.0 and 58.2% identity with other MDR proteins isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana (AAD31576), Coptis japonica (CjMDR), Gossypium hirsutum (GhMDR) and Triticum aestivum (TaMDR) at amino acid level, respectively. Southern blot analysis showed that Crmdr1 was a low-copy gene. Expression pattern analysis revealed that Crmdr1 constitutively expressed in the root, stem and leaf, but with lower expression in leaf. The domains analysis showed that CrMDR1 protein possessed two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) arranging in "TMD1-NBD1-TMD2-NBD2" direction, which is consistent with other MDR transporters. Within NBDs three characteristic motifs common to all ABC transporters, "Walker A", "Walker B" and C motif, were found. These results indicate that CrMDR1 is a MDR-like ABC transporter protein that may be involved in the transport and accumulation of secondary metabolites.

  18. [Effect of mPGES-1 inhibitor MK886 on apoptosis and drug resistance of HL-60/A cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Qing; Yin, Song-Mei; Nie, Da-Nian; Xie, Shuang-Feng; Ma, Li-Ping; Wang, Xiu-Ju; Wu, Yu-Dan

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of MK886, a mPGES-1 inhibitor, on apoptosis and drug resistance of leukemia HL-60/A cell line. Expression of mPGES-1 was assayed by QT-PCR and Western blot. The effect of MK886 on HL-60/A cell proliferation was assayed by CCK-8 method, and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. The expression of Akt and P-Akt was detected by Western blot. PGE2 was measured by ELISA. Effect of MK886 (10 µmol/L) on the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of HL-60/A cells and expression of mdr-1 mRNA and P170 protein were investigated too. The results indicated the expression of mPGES-1 was higher in HL-60/A cells. MK886 inhibited HL-60/A cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Expression of mPGES-1 and P-Akt and synthesis of PGE2 decreased significantly. MK886 reduced expression of mdr-1 and P170 protein and enhanced the sensitivity of HL-60/A cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. It is concluded that MK886 can inhibit HL-60/A cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and enhance sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, the mechanism of which possibly associates to down-regulation of mPGES-1/PGE2 synthesis, reduction P-Akt expression and decreasing mdr-1 and P170 protein expression.

  19. mRNA overexpression of BAALC: A novel prognostic factor for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    AZIZI, ZAHRA; RAHGOZAR, SOHEILA; MOAFI, ALIREZA; DABAGHI, MOHAMMAD; NADIMI, MOTAHAREH

    2015-01-01

    BAALC is a novel molecular marker in leukemia that is highly expressed in patients with acute leukemia. Increased expression levels of BAALC are known as poor prognostic factors in adult acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the BAALC gene expression levels in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its association with MDR1. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the mRNA expression levels of BAALC and MRD1 were measured in bone marrow samples of 28 new diagnosed childhood ALL patients and 13 children without cancer. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was measured one year after the initiation of the chemotherapy using the RT-qPCR method. The high level expression of BAALC had a significant association with the pre-B-ALL subtype, leukocytosis and positive MRD after one year of treatment in leukemic patients. In addition, a positive correlation between BAALC and MDR1 mRNA expression was shown in this group. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the increase of BAALC expression as a poor prognostic factor for childhood ALL is shown for the first time. Additionally, the correlation between BAALC and MDR1 in mRNA expression levels can aid for an improved understanding of the mechanism through which BAALC may function in ALL and multidrug resistance. PMID:26137238

  20. mRNA overexpression of BAALC: A novel prognostic factor for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Zahra; Rahgozar, Soheila; Moafi, Alireza; Dabaghi, Mohammad; Nadimi, Motahareh

    2015-05-01

    BAALC is a novel molecular marker in leukemia that is highly expressed in patients with acute leukemia. Increased expression levels of BAALC are known as poor prognostic factors in adult acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the BAALC gene expression levels in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its association with MDR1. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the mRNA expression levels of BAALC and MRD1 were measured in bone marrow samples of 28 new diagnosed childhood ALL patients and 13 children without cancer. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was measured one year after the initiation of the chemotherapy using the RT-qPCR method. The high level expression of BAALC had a significant association with the pre-B-ALL subtype, leukocytosis and positive MRD after one year of treatment in leukemic patients. In addition, a positive correlation between BAALC and MDR1 mRNA expression was shown in this group. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the increase of BAALC expression as a poor prognostic factor for childhood ALL is shown for the first time. Additionally, the correlation between BAALC and MDR1 in mRNA expression levels can aid for an improved understanding of the mechanism through which BAALC may function in ALL and multidrug resistance.

  1. The expression of P-glycoprotein is causally related to a less aggressive phenotype in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Scotlandi, K; Manara, M C; Serra, M; Benini, S; Maurici, D; Caputo, A; De Giovanni, C; Lollini, P L; Nanni, P; Picci, P; Campanacci, M; Baldini, N

    1999-01-21

    The relationship between P-glycoprotein expression and malignancy is controversial. We have recently found that, in osteosarcoma, multidrug resistance (MDR) is associated with a less aggressive behavior, both in vitro and in clinical settings. In this study, we evaluated whether P-glycoprotein overexpression has a cause-effect relationship with the reduced metastatic potential of MDR cells, or rather reflects a more complex phenotype. MDR1 gene-transfected osteosarcoma cell clones, showing different levels of P-glycoprotein expression, were analysed for their in vitro characteristics and their tumorigenic and metastatic ability in athymic mice. Apart from the different levels of P-glycoprotein, no significant change in the expression of surface antigens or in the differentiative features were observed in the MDR1 gene transfectants compared to the parental cell lines or control clones, obtained by transfection with neo gene alone. In contrast to controls, however, MDR1 transfectants showed a significantly lower ability to grow in semi-solid medium and were completely unable to grow and give lung metastases in athymic mice. These findings indicate that P-glycoprotein overexpression is causally associated with a low malignant potential of osteosarcoma cells, and open new insights on the role and functions of P-glycoprotein activity.

  2. Differential regulation of c-Jun protein plays an instrumental role in chemoresistance of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Yang, Weiwei; Bu, Wen; Ji, Haitao; Zhao, Xueqiang; Zheng, Yanhua; Lin, Xin; Li, Yi; Lu, Zhimin

    2013-07-05

    The chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP)) is widely used in the treatment of human cancers. However, the mechanism underlying intrinsic tumor resistance to CDDP remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that treatment with CDDP resulted in down-regulation of c-Jun expression via caspase-9-dependent cleavage of c-Jun at Asp-65 and MEKK1-mediated ubiquitylation and degradation of c-Jun in CDDP-sensitive cancer cells. In contrast, activation of JNK2 (but not JNK1) phosphorylated and up-regulated the expression of c-Jun in CDDP-resistant cells. Activated c-Jun bound to the promoter regions of the MDR1 gene and promoted the expression of MDR1. Expression of a cleavage-resistant c-Jun mutant (D65A) suppressed CDDP-induced apoptosis of CDDP-sensitive cells, whereas depletion of JNK2, c-Jun, or MDR1 in CDDP-resistant cancer cells promoted apoptosis upon CDDP treatment. In addition, mammary gland tumors induced by polyomavirus middle T antigen in JNK2(-/-) mice were more sensitive to CDDP compared with those in JNK2(+/+) mice. These findings highlight the instrumental role of c-Jun in the resistance of tumors to treatment with CDDP and indicate that c-Jun is a molecular target for improving cancer therapy.

  3. Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression

    SciTech Connect

    Shabbir, Arsalan; DiStasio, Susan; Zhao, Jingbo; Cardozo, Christopher P.; Wolff, Mary S.; Caplan, Avrom J. . E-mail: avrom.caplan@mssm.edu

    2005-03-01

    1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  4. CCR9 Antagonists in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bekker, Pirow; Ebsworth, Karen; Walters, Matthew J.; Berahovich, Robert D.; Ertl, Linda S.; Charvat, Trevor T.; Punna, Sreenivas; Powers, Jay P.; Campbell, James J.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Jaen, Juan C.; Schall, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    While it has long been established that the chemokine receptor CCR9 and its ligand CCL25 are essential for the movement of leukocytes into the small intestine and the development of small-intestinal inflammation, the role of this chemokine-receptor pair in colonic inflammation is not clear. Toward this end, we compared colonic CCL25 protein levels in healthy individuals to those in patients with ulcerative colitis. In addition, we determined the effect of CCR9 pharmacological inhibition in the mdr1a−/− mouse model of ulcerative colitis. Colon samples from patients with ulcerative colitis had significantly higher levels of CCL25 protein compared to healthy controls, a finding mirrored in the mdr1a−/− mice. In the mdr1a−/− mice, CCR9 antagonists significantly decreased the extent of wasting and colonic remodeling and reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon. These findings indicate that the CCR9:CCL25 pair plays a causative role in ulcerative colitis and suggest that CCR9 antagonists will provide a therapeutic benefit in patients with colonic inflammation. PMID:26457007

  5. Targeted inhibition of HDAC8 increases the doxorubicin sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells via up regulation of miR-137.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Wang, Guoliang; Bai, Hongmin; Li, Tiandong; Gong, Fanghe; Yang, Huan; Wen, Jinchong; Wang, Weimin

    2017-02-20

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been suggested to be potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. Recent studies revealed that HDAC8 expression was associated with poor prognostic markers and poor overall survival rate of neuroblastoma (NB). Our present study revealed that among the four members of class I HDACs, HDAC8 is significantly over expressed in NB cells as compared with the normal fibroblast 3T3 cells or primary normal human astrocytes (NHA) cells. Targeted inhibition of HDAC8 by its specific siRNA (si-HDAC8) can inhibit the in vitro growth of NB cells. Furthermore, si-HDAC8 significantly increases the sensitivity of NB cells to doxorubicin (Dox). Silencing of HDAC8 can increase the expression of miR-137, which has been suggested to mediate the Dox sensitivity of NB cells. Knockdown of miR-137 can attenuate si-HDAC8 enhanced Dox sensitivity. Further, si-HDAC8 can also inhibit the expression of multi-drug resistance gene 1 (MDR1). While knockdown of miR-137 can attenuate si-HDAC8 induced down regulation of MDR1. Collectively, our data revealed that targeted inhibition of HDAC8 can suppress the growth of NB cells and increase Dox sensitivity via up regulation of miR-137 and suppression of MDR1. Therefor, combination of HDAC8 inhibitor will be helpful to elevate the treatment outcome of NB patients.

  6. Consecutive salinomycin treatment reduces doxorubicin resistance of breast tumor cells by diminishing drug efflux pump expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Hermawan, Adam; Wagner, Ernst; Roidl, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Chemoresistance is a major challenge for the successful therapy of breast cancer. The discovery of salinomycin as an anticancer stem cell drug provides progress in overcoming chemoresistance. However, it remains to be elucidated whether salinomycin treatment is able to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. In the present study, we consecutively treated epithelial MCF-7 and BT-474 breast cancer cells as well as mesenchymal MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 436 cells with salinomycin, and analyzed the gene expression of the two prominent multiple drug resistance (MDR) genes, MDR1 and BCRP1. We found that repeated treatment with salinomycin generated resistance against this drug in all cell lines and increased the chemosensitivity towards doxorubicin. Drug efflux pump gene expression and pump activity of MDR1 and BCRP1 were downregulated in almost all cell lines, except for MDR1 in the MDA-MB 231 cells. Consequently, the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation was increased compared to the respective parental cells. Our findings suggest a novel treatment option for MDR tumors by sensitizing these tumors via salinomycin pretreatment.

  7. The correlation of virulence, pathogenicity, and itraconazole resistance with SAP activity in Candida albicans strains.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenli; Yang, Jing; Pan, Yanwei; Xi, Zhiqin; Qiao, Zusha; Ma, Yan

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between SAP2 activity and drug resistance in Candida albicans was investigated by using itraconazole-resistant and itraconazole-sensitive C. albicans isolates. The precipitation zones were measured to analyze SAP2 activity. Mice were classified into itraconazole-resistant and -sensitive C. albicans isolate groups, and a control group, with their survival and mortality rate being observed over 30 days. The relative expression levels of CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, and SAP2 were measured using RT-PCR. It was found that the secreted aspartyl proteinase activity of itraconazole-resistant C. albicans strains was significantly higher than that of itraconazole-sensitive C. albicans strains (P < 0.001). A significantly higher mortality rate was recorded for mice treated with itraconazole-resistant C. albicans than for mice treated with itraconazole-sensitive C. albicans. In regards to the CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 genes, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups of mice. Positive correlations between SAP2 and MDR1 and between CDR1 and CDR2 were found. The high expression level of SAP2 may relate to the virulence, pathogenicity, and resistance of C. albicans.

  8. Pharmacokinetic role of P-glycoprotein in oral bioavailability and intestinal secretion of grepafloxacin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Yano, Ikuko; Saito, Hideyuki; Inui, Ken-ichi

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the contribution of P-glycoprotein to the bioavailability and intestinal secretion of grepafloxacin and levofloxacin in vivo. Plasma concentrations of grepafloxacin and levofloxacin after intravenous and intraintestinal administration were increased by cyclosporin A, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, in rats. The total body clearance and volume of distribution at steady state of grepafloxacin were significantly decreased to 60 and 63% of the corresponding control values by cyclosporin A. The apparent oral clearance of grepafloxacin was decreased to 33% of the control, and the bioavailability of grepafloxacin was increased to 95% by cyclosporin A from 53% in the controls. Intestinal clearance of grepafloxacin and levofloxacin were decreased to one-half and one-third of the control, respectively, and biliary clearance of grepafloxacin was also decreased to one-third with cyclosporin A in rats. Intestinal secretion of grepafloxacin in mdr1a/1b (-/-) mice, which lack mdr1-type P-glycoproteins, was significantly decreased compared with wild-type mice, although the biliary secretion was similar. Intestinal secretion of grepafloxacin in wild-type mice treated with cyclosporin A was comparable to those in mdr1a/1b (-/-) mice with or without cyclosporin A, indicating that cyclosporin A completely inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated intestinal transport of grepafloxacin. In conclusion, our results indicated that P-glycoprotein mediated the intestinal secretion of grepafloxacin and limited the bioavailability of this drug in vivo.

  9. Enhancement of placental antioxidative function and P-gp expression by sodium ferulate mediated its protective effect on rat IUGR induced by prenatal tobacco/alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yan, You-E; Wang, Hui

    2011-11-01

    This study was aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of sodium ferulate (SF) on rats with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and then to clarify the corresponding mechanism. Pregnant rats were divided into normal group, tobacco/alcohol exposure group, and tobacco/alcohol+SF groups. Fetal developmental indices, placental weight, histological alteration, oxidative and antioxidative-function (e.g. MDA, SOD, CAT) and Mdr1 levels were assayed. Results showed exposure to tobacco/alcohol resulted in reduced fetal developmental indices and placental histological alteration, as well as the increased MDA content, decreased SOD and CAT activities and decreased Mdr1a level. After SF treatment, fetal developmental indices, and placental weight, histological alteration, oxidative and antioxidative-function and mdr1a levels were reversed. Our study indicated SF may be effective in reversing IUGR production, and its underlying mechanism may be due to enhanced placental antioxidative function and P-gp expression, which may be related to IUGR formation by tobacco/alcohol exposure.

  10. Sotalol permeability in cultured-cell, rat intestine and PAMPA system

    PubMed Central

    LIU, WEI; OKOCHI, HIDEAKI; BENET, LESLIE Z.; ZHAI, SUO-DI

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To clarify sotalol’s classification in the BCS versus BDDCS systems through cellular, rat everted sac and PAMPA permeability studies. Methods Studies were carried out in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and MDR1-transfected MDCK (MDCK-MDR1) cell lines, rat everted gut sacs and the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) system. Three-hour transport studies were conducted in MDCK cell lines (with apical pH changes) and MDCK-MDR1 cells (with and without the P-glycoprotein inhibitor GG918); male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 ~ 350 g) were used to prepare everted sacs. In the PAMPA studies, drug solutions at different pH’s were dosed in each well and incubated for 5 hours. Samples were measured by LC-MS/MS, or liquid scintillation counting and apparent permeability (Papp) was calculated. Results Sotalol showed low permeability in all of the cultured-cell lines, everted sacs and PAMPA systems. It might be a border line P-glycoprotein substrate. The PAMPA study showed that sotalol’s permeability increased with a higher apical pH, while much less change was found in MDCK cells. Conclusion The low permeability rate for sotalol correlates with its Class 3 BDDCS assignment and lack of in vivo metabolism. PMID:22350803

  11. Interactions between riluzole and ABCG2/BCRP transporter.

    PubMed

    Milane, Aline; Vautier, Sarah; Chacun, Hélène; Meininger, Vincent; Bensimon, Gilbert; Farinotti, Robert; Fernandez, Christine

    2009-03-06

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative fatal disease. Drugs used in this disease need to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only riluzole is approved for ALS treatment. We have investigated riluzole as a breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) substrate by studying its brain transport in CF1 mdr1a (-/-) mice and its intracellular uptake on BeWo cells (human placental choriocarcinoma cell line). We have also investigated the effect of riluzole on BCRP expression level and on its activity using the prazocin as a test probe for brain transport and intracellular uptake. Assays on mdr1a (-/-) mice and BeWo cells showed a higher uptake of riluzole when pretreated with a BCRP inhibitor. After repeated doses of riluzole, BCRP activity was increased in CF1 mdr1a (-/-) mice, riluzole uptake was decrease and both BCRP expression and activity were increased in BeWo cells. In conclusion, we report in this study that riluzole is transported by BCRP at the BBB level and can enhance its function. These results taken with our previous studies on riluzole and P-glycoprotein show that drug-drug interactions between riluzole and efflux transporters substrates may occur at the BBB level and should be taken into account in future clinical trial design in ALS.

  12. A robust and versatile signal-on fluorescence sensing strategy based on SYBR Green I dye and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huazhang; Wu, Namei; Zheng, Yanjie; Chen, Min; Weng, Shaohuang; Chen, Yuanzhong; Lin, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    A robust and versatile signal-on fluorescence sensing strategy was developed to provide label-free detection of various target analytes. The strategy used SYBR Green I dye and graphene oxide as signal reporter and signal-to-background ratio enhancer, respectively. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) gene and mercury ion (Hg(2+)) were selected as target analytes to investigate the generality of the method. The linear relationship and specificity of the detections showed that the sensitive and selective analyses of target analytes could be achieved by the proposed strategy with low detection limits of 0.5 and 2.2 nM for MDR1 gene and Hg(2+), respectively. Moreover, the strategy was used to detect real samples. Analytical results of MDR1 gene in the serum indicated that the developed method is a promising alternative approach for real applications in complex systems. Furthermore, the recovery of the proposed method for Hg(2+) detection was acceptable. Thus, the developed label-free signal-on fluorescence sensing strategy exhibited excellent universality, sensitivity, and handling convenience.

  13. P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter in inflammatory bowel diseases: More questions than answers

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Elke

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal barrier is constantly exposed to numerous environmental substrates that are foreign and potentially harmful. These xenobiotics can cause shifts in the intestinal microbiota composition, affect mucosal immune responses, disturb tissue integrity and impair regeneration. The multidrug transporter ABCB1/MDR1 p-glycoprotein (p-gp) plays a key role at the front line of host defence by efficiently protecting the gastrointestinal barrier from xenobiotic accumulation. This Editorial discusses how altered expression and function of ABCB1/MDR1 p-gp may contribute to the development and persistence of chronic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Recent evidence implies multiple interactions between intestinal microbiota, innate immunity and xenobiotic metabolism via p-gp. While decreased efflux activity may promote disease susceptibility and drug toxicity, increased efflux activity may confer resistance to therapeutic drugs in IBD. Mice deficient in MDR1A develop spontaneously chronic colitis, providing a highly valuable murine IBD model for the study of intestinal epithelial barrier function, immunoregulation, infectious co-triggers and novel therapeutic approaches. Possible associations of human ABCB1 gene polymorphisms with IBD susceptibility have been evaluated, but results are inconsistent. Future studies must focus on further elucidation of the pathophysiological relevance and immunological functions of p-gp and how its ambiguous effects could be therapeutically targeted in IBD. PMID:28321153

  14. Interactions of Pluronic Block Copolymers on P-gp Efflux Activity: Experience With HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    SHAIK, NAVEED; PAN, GUOYU; ELMQUIST, WILLIAM F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the influence of Pluronic block-copolymers on the interaction between the drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein and HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs). The ATPase assay determined the effect of various Pluronics on PI-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity. Cellular accumulation studies were conducted using MDCKII and LLC-PK1 cells transfected with human MDR1 to assess Pluronic modulation of PI efflux. Pluronic P85 inhibited both basal and nelfinavir-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity, while Pluronic F127 had no effect. In cell accumulation studies, Pluronic P85 restored the accumulation of nelfinavir in MDCKII-MDR1 cells while Pluronic F127 and F88 had no effect. Pluronic P85 increased saquinavir accumulation in wild-type and MDR1-transfected cells in both the MDCKII and LLC-PK1 cell models, suggesting inhibition of multiple transporters, including MRPs. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that a block-copolymer, Pluronic P85, effectively inhibits the interaction of P-gp with nelfinavir and saquinavir. These data indicate that effective inhibition of HIV-1 PI efflux by Pluronic P85 may influence the distribution of antiretroviral agents to sites protected by efflux mechanisms, such as the blood–brain barrier, and possibly increase the brain exposure of these drugs resulting in suppression of viral replication and reduction in the incidence of drug resistant mutants. PMID:18393290

  15. Cell Type Dependent Regulation of Multidrug Resistance-1 Gene Expression by AML1-ETO

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Robert; Boyapati, Anita; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2007-01-01

    The AML1-ETO fusion protein is generated from the 8;21 chromosome translocation that is commonly identified in acute myeloid leukemia. AML1-ETO is a DNA binding transcription factor and has been demonstrated to play a critical role in promoting leukemogenesis. Therefore, it is important to define the molecular mechanism of AML1-ETO in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we report that the effect of AML1-ETO on the promoter of multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1) gene, a known AML1-ETO target, is highly cell type specific. Besides observing repression of the MDR1 promoter in C33A and CV-1 cells as reported previously, AML1-ETO strongly activated the promoter in K562 and B210 cells. More importantly, this activation required both the AML1 and ETO portions of the fusion protein, but did not depend on the AML1 binding site in MDR1 promoter. Furthermore, results from promoter deletion analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that this activation effect was likely through the influence of the general transcription machinery rather than promoter-specific factors. Based on these data, we propose that AML1-ETO may have opposing effects on gene expression depending on the various conditions of the cellular environment. PMID:17590361

  16. Vincristine-induced central neurotoxicity in a collie homozygous for the ABCB1Δ mutation.

    PubMed

    Krugman, L; Bryan, J N; Mealey, K L; Chen, A

    2012-03-01

    A six-year-old, neutered, female collie was presented to an oncology specialty service after developing tetraparesis and self-mutilation that progressively worsened while receiving chemotherapy for lymphoma. Neurologic examination revealed ataxia, paresis and diminished conscious proprioception in all limbs with entire spinal reflexes. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord was normal. Electromyography of the limbs ruled out a vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and cerebrospinal fluid and serum testing for Neospora and Toxoplasma were normal. Results of MDR1 genotyping revealed that the dog was homozygous for the ABCB1-1Δ (MDR1) mutation. This clinical presentation strongly resembled the effects seen from inadvertent intrathecal administration of vincristine in humans. Dogs that are homozygous for the ABCB1-1Δ (MDR1) mutation should not receive standard dosages of chemotherapy drugs known to be eliminated by P-glycoprotein, the gene product of ABCB1. Testing for this mutation is strongly recommended before chemotherapy initiation for at-risk breeds.

  17. Polymorphisms in the human organic cation transporter and the multidrug resistance gene: correlation with imatinib levels and clinical course in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vine, Jacob; Cohen, Sara Bar; Ruchlemer, Rosa; Goldschmidt, Neta; Levin, Moshe; Libster, Diana; Gural, Alexander; Gatt, Moshe E; Lavie, David; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Rund, Deborah

    2014-11-01

    The optimal tyrosine kinase inhibitor for any individual patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is not predictable. Pharmacogenetic parameters and trough levels of imatinib (IM) have each been independently correlated with response. We therefore studied the human organic cation transporter (hOCT1) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and correlated these with IM levels and major molecular response (MMR) (3-log reduction) in 84 patients with CML, the first such study performed in Caucasians. We studied MDR1 G2677T and C3435T, and for hOCT1, C480G and A1222G. IM levels varied significantly with dose (< or > 400 mg/day) (p = 0.038) and were significantly lower in 20 patients who lost MMR (p = 0.042). Adjusting for dose, trough IM levels were not significantly correlated with SNPs. Patients with MDR1 3435 TT had significantly longer times to MMR compared to CC/CT genotypes (p = 0.047). Genotypes did not predict treatment failure when controlling for IM levels. We conclude that IM levels, but not the SNPs studied here, determine IM failure.

  18. Effect of tacrolimus on activity and expression of P-glycoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporter A5 (ABCA5) proteins in hematoencephalic barrier cells.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Claudia Andrea; Garrido, Wallys Ximena; González-Oyarzún, Mauricio Alejandro; Rauch, María Cecilia; Salas, Mónica Roxana; San Martín, Rody Enrique; Claude, Alejandro Andrés; Yañez, Alejandro Javier; Slebe, Juan Carlos; Cárcamo, Juan Guillermo

    2008-10-01

    Tacrolimus is an agent used in clinical immunosuppressive drug therapies. A wide spectrum of adverse effects has been reported in association with this immunosuppressor, including neurotoxic effect. The upper limit of therapeutic blood concentrations of tacrolimus has been described as 30 ng/ml in immunosuppressed patients. We investigated the effect of this therapeutic dose of tacrolimus on the expression and activity of the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1 or Pgp, P-glycoprotein) and ATP-binding cassette transporters A5 (ABCA5) in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), derived from Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) endothelium, these being the most predominantly expressed transcripts in these cells. The expression and activity of MDR1 transporter decreased with 30 ng/ml tacrolimus. The cell viability was not changed with the therapeutic dose used. By contrast, ABCA5 transcripts, of unknown role as yet, increased their expression at this concentration. We propose that the secondary cytotoxic effects of this immunosuppressor on CSN, besides the functional blockade related to multidrug resistance proteins, such as MDR1, and probably ABCA5, could be linked to variations in the expression levels of these proteins at the BBB.

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-mediated regulation of multidrug resistance 2 (Mdr2) expression and function in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Tineke; Bloks, Vincent W; Wolters, Henk; Havinga, Rick; Jansen, Peter L M; Staels, Bart; Kuipers, Folkert

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a nuclear receptor that controls expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and is activated by fatty acids and hypolipidaemic fibrates. Fibrates induce the hepatic expression of murine multidrug resistance 2 ( Mdr2 ), encoding the canalicular phospholipid translocator. The physiological role of PPARalpha in regulation of Mdr2 and other genes involved in bile formation is unknown. We found no differences in hepatic expression of the ATP binding cassette transporter genes Mdr2, Bsep (bile salt export pump), Mdr1a / 1b, Abca1 and Abcg5 / Abcg8 (implicated in cholesterol transport), the bile salt-uptake systems Ntcp (Na(+)-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide gene) and Oatp1 (organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1 gene) or in bile formation between wild-type and Ppar alpha((-/-)) mice. Upon treatment of wild-type mice with ciprofibrate (0.05%, w/w, in diet for 2 weeks), the expression of Mdr2 (+3-fold), Mdr1a (+6-fold) and Mdr1b (+11-fold) mRNAs was clearly induced, while that of Oatp1 (-5-fold) was reduced. Mdr2 protein levels were increased, whereas Bsep, Ntcp and Oatp1 were drastically decreased. Exposure of cultured wild-type mouse hepatocytes to PPARalpha agonists specifically induced Mdr2 mRNA levels and did not affect expression of Mdr1a / 1b. Altered transporter expression in fibrate-treated wild-type mice was associated with a approximately 400% increase in bile flow: secretion of phospholipids and cholesterol was increased only during high-bile-salt infusions. No fibrate effects were observed in Ppar alpha((-/-)) mice. In conclusion, our results show that basal bile formation is not affected by PPARalpha deficiency in mice. The induction of Mdr2 mRNA and Mdr2 protein levels by fibrates is mediated by PPARalpha, while the induction of Mdr1a / 1b in vivo probably reflects a secondary phenomenon related to chronic PPARalpha activation. PMID:12381268

  20. Effects of standard chemotherapy on tumor growth and regulation of multidrug resistance genes and proteins in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Guido; Warmann, Steven W; Vokuhl, Christian O; Heitmann, Heike; Treuner, Claudia; Leuschner, Ivo; Fuchs, Jörg

    2007-05-01

    The prognosis of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in advanced stages is still sobering. Therapy is limited due to local tumor recurrence, development of metastases and multidrug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of multidrug resistance in cell lines and in xenografts of alveolar and embryonal RMS treated according to the German Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study (CWS). Alveolar and embryonal RMS cell lines were treated with Vincristine, Topotecan, Carboplatin, Actinomycin D, or Ifosfamide. Expression levels of resistance-associated genes were assessed using Real time-PCR. Nude mice (NMRI nu/nu, n = 10 per group) underwent xenotransplantation of human embryonal or alveolar RMS. Animals were treated with standard chemotherapeutic drugs Vincristine, Topotecan, Carboplatin, Actinomycin D, or Ifosfamide according to treatment schedules of the CWS-study. Tumor sizes were measured and relative tumor volumes were calculated. Animals were sacrificed after 20 days and standard histology, Real-time-PCR for MDR1-, MRP-, LRP- and MDM2-gene as well as immunohistochemistry for MDR1-, LRP-, and MRP-protein were performed. In the cell lines, an up-regulation of MDR-1 gene was found in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. In embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, an up-regulation of LRP and MRP was found. Standard chemotherapy of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth (P < 0.05) in all groups. In embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma strongest effects were found after treatment with Ifosfamide, Vincristine and Carboplatin (P < 0.05). RT-PCR revealed a MDR1-dependent mechanism in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. In embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, MDR1 occurred to a lower degree. Immunohistochemistry revealed correlating expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated proteins. The use of established chemotherapy on human RMS in vivo had strong effects on xenografts compared to their controls. In all cases, there was only a reduction of tumor growth, but not a

  1. Saturable Active Efflux by P-Glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein at the Blood-Brain Barrier Leads to Nonlinear Distribution of Elacridar to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Sane, Ramola; Agarwal, Sagar; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate factors that affect the central nervous system (CNS) distribution of elacridar. Elacridar inhibits transport mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and has been used to study the influence of transporters on brain distribution of chemotherapeutics. Adequate distribution of elacridar across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and into the brain parenchyma is necessary to target tumor cells in the brain that overexpress transporters and reside behind an intact BBB. We examined the role of P-gp and Bcrp on brain penetration of elacridar using Friend leukemia virus strain B wild-type, Mdr1a/b(−/−), Bcrp1(−/−), and Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice. Initially, the mice were administered 2.5 mg/kg of elacridar intravenously, and the plasma and brain concentrations were determined. The brain-to-plasma partition coefficient of elacridar in the wild-type mice was 0.82, as compared with 3.5 in Mdr1a/b(−/−) mice, 6.6 in Bcrp1(−/−) mice, and 15 in Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice, indicating that both P-gp and Bcrp limit the brain distribution of elacridar. The four genotypes were then administered increasing doses of elacridar, and the CNS distribution of elacridar was determined. The observed and model predicted maximum brain-to-plasma ratios (Emax) at the highest dose were not significantly different in all genotypes. However, the ED50 was lower for Mdr1a/b(−/−) mice compared with Bcrp1(−/−) mice. These findings correlate with the relative expression of P-gp and Bcrp at the BBB in these mice and demonstrate the quantitative enhancement in elacridar CNS distribution as a function of its dose. Overall, this study provides useful concepts for future applications of elacridar as an adjuvant therapy to improve targeting of chemotherapeutic agents to tumor cells in the brain parenchyma. PMID:23397054

  2. Altered MRP is associated with multidrug resistance and reduced drug accumulation in human SW-1573 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Eijdems, E. W.; Zaman, G. J.; de Haas, M.; Versantvoort, C. H.; Flens, M. J.; Scheper, R. J.; Kamst, E.; Borst, P.; Baas, F.

    1995-01-01

    We have analysed the contribution of several parameters, e.g. drug accumulation, MDR1 P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and topoisomerase (topo) II, to drug resistance in a large set of drug-resistant variants of the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line SW-1573 derived by selection with low concentrations of doxorubicin or vincristine. Selection with either drug nearly always resulted in MDR clones. The resistance of these clones could be explained by reduced drug accumulation and was associated with a decrease rather than an increase in the low MDR1 mRNA level. To test whether a decrease in MDR1 mRNA indirectly affected resistance in these cells, we introduced a MDR1-specific hammerhead ribozyme into wild-type SW-1573 cells. Although this led to a substantial reduction in MDR1 mRNA, it did not result in resistance. In all resistant clones we found an altered form of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), migrating slightly slower during SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis than MRP in parental cells. This altered MRP was also present in non-P-gp MDR somatic cell hybrids of the SW-1573 cells, demonstrating a clear linkage with the MDR phenotype. Treatment of crude cellular membrane fractions with N-glycanase, endoglycosidase H or neuraminidase showed that the altered migration of MRP on SDS-PAGE is due to a post-translational modification. There was no detectable difference in sialic acid content. In most but not all doxorubicin-selected clones, this MDR phenotype was accompanied by a reduction in topo II alpha mRNA level. No reduction was found in the clones selected with vincristine. We conclude from these results that selection of the SW-1573 cell line for low levels of doxorubicin or vincristine resistance, predominantly results in MDR with reduced drug accumulation associated with the presence of an altered MRP protein. This mechanism can be accompanied by other resistance mechanisms, such as reduced topo

  3. ABCC10/MRP7 is associated with vinorelbine resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Bessho, Yuji; Oguri, Tetsuya; Ozasa, Hiroaki; Uemura, Takehiro; Sakamoto, Hideo; Miyazaki, Mikinori; Maeno, Ken; Sato, Shigeki; Ueda, Ryuzo

    2009-01-01

    The non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells SK-LC6 and NCI-H23 were continuously exposed to vinorelbine (VNB), and the VNB-resistant clones, SK-LC6/VNB and H23/VNB were selected. Since SK-LS6/VNB and H23/VNB cells showed cross-resistance to certain anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel and docetaxel, we examined the gene expression levels of drug efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family. We found that the gene expression of ABCB1/MDR1 and ABCC10/MRP7 in SK-LC6/VNB and H23/VNB cells was increased compared with that in SK-LS6 and NCI-H23 cells, whereas the expression of ABCC1/MRP1, ABCC2/MRP2, ABCC3/MRP3 and ABCG2/BCRP did not change among these cells. Treatment with ABCB1/MDR1 inhibitor verapamil and ABCC10/MRP7 inhibitor sulfin-pyrazone altered the sensitivity of SK-LC6/VNB cells to vinorelbine. To confirm the ABCC10/MRP7 activity, we transfected small interfering RNA against ABCC10/MRP7 to ABCC10/MRP7-expressing RERF-LC-AI cells resulting in the decrease of ABCC10/MRP7 expression concomitant with the alteration of VNB cytotoxicity. Moreover, we detected the expression of ABCC10/MRP7 in 12 of 17 NSCLC cells, whereas ABCB1/MDR1 was detected in only 3 of 17 NSCLC cells. These results indicate that ABCC10/MRP7 may confer VNB resistance in NSCLC.

  4. Folic acid-conjugated graphene oxide as a transporter of chemotherapeutic drug and siRNA for reversal of cancer drug resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiufen; Feng, Fuli; Wang, Yinsong; Yang, Xiaoying; Duan, Hongquan; Chen, Yongshen

    2013-10-01

    Functionalized graphene oxide (GO) with folic acid-conjugated chitosan oligosaccharide (FACO) containing quaternary ammonium groups (GO-FACO+) was successfully prepared. The formation and composition of GO-FACO+ were confirmed by FTIR, UV-Vis, AFM, TGA, and zeta-potential. Cell experiments show that cellular uptake of fluorescein FAM-labeled DNA sequence (FAM-DNA) delivered by GO-FACO+ exhibits higher efficiency in doxorubicin chloride (Dox)-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (MCF-7/Dox) with folate receptor overexpressed than that delivered by chitosan oligosaccharide (CO)-functionalized graphene oxides (GO-CO+) without folic acid modification and in human lung cancer A549 cells with folate receptor negatively expressed. The loading efficiency of Dox on GO-FACO+ was 568.4 μg mg-1 at the initial Dox concentration of 0.5 mg mL-1, and in vitro release of Dox showed strong pH dependence. MDR1 siRNA transfected by GO-FACO+ could efficiently knockdown the MDR1 mRNA and P-gp expression levels in MCF-7/Dox cells. GO-FACO+ shows no obvious toxicity even at 500 μg mL-1. The sequential deliveries of MDR1 siRNA and Dox by GO-FACO+ exhibited much higher cytotoxicity against MCF-7/Dox cells than only delivery of Dox by GO-FACO+ when Dox concentration is lower than 25 μg mL-1, while excess 80 % cells were killed in the two cases when Dox concentration is higher than 30 μg mL-1. Taken together, this functionalized GO has potential applications for targeted intracellular delivery of anti-tumor drugs and genes.

  5. Inhibition of the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and BCRP by the BDE-47 Hydroxylated Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47: Considerations for Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Marchitti, Satori A; Mazur, Christopher S; Dillingham, Caleb M; Rawat, Swati; Sharma, Anshika; Zastre, Jason; Kenneke, John F

    2017-01-01

    High body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in infants and young children have led to increased concern over their potential impact on human development. PBDE exposure can alter the expression of genes involved in thyroid homeostasis, including those of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which mediate cellular xenobiotic efflux. However, little information exists on how PBDEs interact with ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactions of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and its hydroxylated metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with P-gp and BCRP, using human MDR1- and BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles and stably transfected NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells. In P-gp membranes, BDE-47 did not affect P-gp activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 inhibited P-gp activity at low µM concentrations (IC50 = 11.7 µM). In BCRP membranes, BDE-47 inhibited BCRP activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 was a stronger inhibitor [IC50 = 45.9 µM (BDE-47) vs. IC50 = 9.4 µM (6-OH-BDE-47)]. Intracellular concentrations of known P-gp and BCRP substrates [((3)H)-paclitaxel and ((3)H)-prazosin, respectively] were significantly higher (indicating less efflux) in NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells in the presence of 6-OH-BDE-47, but not BDE-47. Collectively, our results indicate that the BDE-47 metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 is an inhibitor of both P-gp and BCRP efflux activity. These findings suggest that some effects previously attributed to BDE-47 in biological systems may actually be due to 6-OH-BDE-47. Considerations for human exposure are discussed.

  6. Improvement of Transmembrane Transport Mechanism Study of Imperatorin on P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Drug Transport.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-Gen; Tang, Tao; Guan, Xue-Jing; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Yang, Ming; Liang, Xin-Li

    2016-11-24

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects the transport of many drugs; including puerarin and vincristine. Our previous study demonstrated that imperatorin increased the intestinal absorption of puerarin and vincristine by inhibiting P-gp-mediated drug efflux. However; the underlying mechanism was not known. The present study investigated the mechanism by which imperatorin promotes P-gp-mediated drug transport. We used molecular docking to predict the binding force between imperatorin and P-gp and the effect of imperatorin on P-gp activity. P-gp efflux activity and P-gp ATPase activity were measured using a rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) accumulation assay and a Pgp-Glo™ assay; respectively. The fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) was used to assess cellular membrane fluidity in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Western blotting was used to analyze the effect of imperatorin on P-gp expression; and P-gp mRNA levels were assessed by qRT-PCR. Molecular docking results demonstrated that the binding force between imperatorin and P-gp was much weaker than the force between P-gp and verapamil (a P-gp substrate). Imperatorin activated P-gp ATPase activity; which had a role in the inhibition of P-gp activity. Imperatorin promoted Rh-123 accumulation in MDCK-MDR1 cells and decreased cellular membrane fluidity. Western blotting demonstrated that imperatorin inhibited P-gp expression; and qRT-PCR revealed that imperatorin down-regulated P-gp (MDR1) gene expression. Imperatorin decreased P-gp-mediated drug efflux by inhibiting P-gp activity and the expression of P-gp mRNA and protein. Our results suggest that imperatorin could down-regulate P-gp expression to overcome multidrug resistance in tumors.

  7. Activity of Isavuconazole and Other Azoles against Candida Clinical Isolates and Yeast Model Systems with Known Azole Resistance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Coste, Alix T.

    2015-01-01

    Isavuconazole is a novel, broad-spectrum, antifungal azole. In order to evaluate its interactions with known azole resistance mechanisms, isavuconazole susceptibility among different yeast models and clinical isolates expressing characterized azole resistance mechanisms was tested and compared to those of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the Candida albicans and C. glabrata ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters (CDR1, CDR2, and CgCDR1), major facilitator (MDR1), and lanosterol 14-α-sterol-demethylase (ERG11) alleles with mutations were used. In addition, pairs of C. albicans and C. glabrata strains from matched clinical isolates with known azole resistance mechanisms were investigated. The expression of ABC transporters increased all azole MICs, suggesting that all azoles tested were substrates of ABC transporters. The expression of MDR1 did not increase posaconazole, itraconazole, and isavuconazole MICs. Relative increases of azole MICs (from 4- to 32-fold) were observed for fluconazole, voriconazole, and isavuconazole when at least two mutations were present in the same ERG11 allele. Upon MIC testing of azoles with clinical C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates with known resistance mechanisms, the MIC90s of C. albicans for fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole were 128, 2, 1, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively, while in C. glabrata they were 128, 2, 4, 4, and 16 μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the effects of azole resistance mechanisms on isavuconazole did not differ significantly from those of other azoles. Resistance mechanisms in yeasts involving ABC transporters and ERG11 decreased the activity of isavuconazole, while MDR1 had limited effect. PMID:26482310

  8. Role of miR-27a, miR-181a and miR-20b in gastric cancer hypoxia-induced chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Danza, Katia; Silvestris, Nicola; Simone, Giovanni; Signorile, Michele; Saragoni, Luca; Brunetti, Oronzo; Monti, Manlio; Mazzotta, Annalisa; De Summa, Simona; Mangia, Anita; Tommasi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the search for new therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer (GC), there is much evidence of progression due to resistance to chemotherapy. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the ability of cancer cells to survive after exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. The involvement of miRNAs in the development of MDR has been well described but miRNAs able to modulate the sensitivity to chemotherapy by regulating hypoxia signaling pathways have not yet been fully addressed in GC. Our aim was to analyze miR-20b, miR-27a and miR-181a expression with respect to (epirubicin/oxaliplatin/capecitabine (EOX)) chemotherapy regimen in a set of GC patients, in order to investigate whether miRNAs deregulation may influence GC MDR also via hypoxia signaling modulation. Cancer biopsy were obtained from 21 untreated HER2 negative advanced GC patients, retrospectively analyzed. All patients received a first-line chemotherapy (EOX) regimen. MirWalk database was used to identify miR-27a, miR-181a and miR-20b target genes. The expression of miRNAs and of HIPK2, HIF1A and MDR1 genes were detected by real-time PCR. HIPK2 localization was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Our data showed the down-regulation of miR-20b, miR-27a, miR-181a concomitantly to higher levels of MDR1, HIF1A and HIPK2 genes in GC patients with a progressive disease respect to those with a disease control rate. Moreover, immunohistochemistry assay highlighted a higher cytoplasmic HIPK2 staining, suggesting a different role for it. We showed that aberrant expression of miR-20b, miR27a and miR-181a was associated with chemotherapeutic response in GC through HIF1A, MDR1 and HIPK2 genes modulation, suggesting a possible novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:26793992

  9. Role of miR-27a, miR-181a and miR-20b in gastric cancer hypoxia-induced chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Danza, Katia; Silvestris, Nicola; Simone, Giovanni; Signorile, Michele; Saragoni, Luca; Brunetti, Oronzo; Monti, Manlio; Mazzotta, Annalisa; De Summa, Simona; Mangia, Anita; Tommasi, Stefania

    2016-04-02

    Despite the search for new therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer (GC), there is much evidence of progression due to resistance to chemotherapy. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the ability of cancer cells to survive after exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. The involvement of miRNAs in the development of MDR has been well described but miRNAs able to modulate the sensitivity to chemotherapy by regulating hypoxia signaling pathways have not yet been fully addressed in GC. Our aim was to analyze miR-20b, miR-27a and miR-181a expression with respect to (epirubicin/oxaliplatin/capecitabine (EOX)) chemotherapy regimen in a set of GC patients, in order to investigate whether miRNAs deregulation may influence GC MDR also via hypoxia signaling modulation. Cancer biopsy were obtained from 21 untreated HER2 negative advanced GC patients, retrospectively analyzed. All patients received a first-line chemotherapy (EOX) regimen. MirWalk database was used to identify miR-27a, miR-181a and miR-20b target genes. The expression of miRNAs and of HIPK2, HIF1A and MDR1 genes were detected by real-time PCR. HIPK2 localization was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Our data showed the down-regulation of miR-20b, miR-27a, miR-181a concomitantly to higher levels of MDR1, HIF1A and HIPK2 genes in GC patients with a progressive disease respect to those with a disease control rate. Moreover, immunohistochemistry assay highlighted a higher cytoplasmic HIPK2 staining, suggesting a different role for it. We showed that aberrant expression of miR-20b, miR27a and miR-181a was associated with chemotherapeutic response in GC through HIF1A, MDR1 and HIPK2 genes modulation, suggesting a possible novel therapeutic strategy.

  10. MicroRNA-93-5p increases multidrug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma cells by downregulating cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Jun; Cao, Yun-Fei; Yang, Zu-Qing; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan; Cai, Bin; Guo, Jiao; Zhang, Sen; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Gao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) impedes successful chemotherapy in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRs) are involved in the development of MDR. In the present study, the role of miR-93-5p in the modulation of drug resistance in CRC was investigated using HCT-8 and MDR HCT-8/vincristine (VCR) cell lines. The results demonstrated upregulated expression of miR-93-5p and MDR protein 1 (MDR1) in HCT-8/VCR cells, compared with the parental HCT-8 cells. Furthermore, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) was identified as a potential target of miR-93-5p using miR target analysis tools, including PicTar, TargetScan and miRanda. In addition, inhibition of miR-93-5p expression in HCT-8/VCR cells markedly downregulated MDR1 gene expression, upregulated CDKN1A gene expression and induced cell cycle arrest in G1. Conversely, the overexpression of miR-93-5p in HCT-8/VCR cells upregulated MDR1 gene expression, downregulated CDKN1A gene expression and promoted G1/S transition. Furthermore, the in vitro drug sensitivity assay performed suggested that downregulation of miR-93-5p enhanced the sensitivity of HCT-8/VCR cells to VCR, while the upregulation of miR-93-5p decreased the sensitivity of HCT-8 cells to VCR. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that miR-93-5p serves a role in the development of MDR through downregulating CDKN1A gene expression in CRC.

  11. mRNA expression profile of multidrug-resistant genes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children, a prognostic value for ABCA3 and ABCA2.

    PubMed

    Rahgozar, Soheila; Moafi, Alireza; Abedi, Marjan; Entezar-E-Ghaem, Mansureh; Moshtaghian, Jamal; Ghaedi, Kamran; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Montazeri, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an important cause of treatment failure in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The ABC family of membrane transporters is proposed, albeit with controversy, to be involved in this process. The present study aims to investigate the mRNA expression profile of several genes of this family, including ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, MRP3/ABCC3, ABCG2/BCRP, and the intracellular transporter MVP/LRP, in childhood ALL, and to evaluate their association with response to therapy. Some genes in the present research are being studied for the first time in Iran. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated 27 children with ALL at diagnosis and 15 children with normal bone marrow. The status of response to therapy was assessed one year after the onset of therapy through investigating the IgH/TCRγ gene rearrangements. Our findings indicate a considerable and direct relationship between mRNA expression levels of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive minimal residual disease (MRD) measured after one year of treatment. Statistical analysis revealed that expression of these genes higher than the cutoff point will raise the risk of MRD by 15-, 6.25-, 12-, and 9-fold, respectively. No relationship was found between of MVP/LRP, MRP3 and ABCG2 genes expression and ALL prognoses. Considering the direct and significant relationship between the increased expression of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive risk of MRD in children with ALL, evaluating the expression profile of these genes on diagnosis may identify high risk individuals and help plan a more efficient treatment strategy.

  12. mRNA expression profile of multidrug-resistant genes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children, a prognostic value for ABCA3 and ABCA2

    PubMed Central

    Rahgozar, Soheila; Moafi, Alireza; Abedi, Marjan; Entezar-e-ghaem, Mansureh; Moshtaghian, Jamal; Ghaedi, Kamran; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Montazeri, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an important cause of treatment failure in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The ABC family of membrane transporters is proposed, albeit with controversy, to be involved in this process. The present study aims to investigate the mRNA expression profile of several genes of this family, including ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, MRP3/ABCC3, ABCG2/BCRP, and the intracellular transporter MVP/LRP, in childhood ALL, and to evaluate their association with response to therapy. Some genes in the present research are being studied for the first time in Iran. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated 27 children with ALL at diagnosis and 15 children with normal bone marrow. The status of response to therapy was assessed one year after the onset of therapy through investigating the IgH/TCRγ gene rearrangements. Our findings indicate a considerable and direct relationship between mRNA expression levels of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive minimal residual disease (MRD) measured after one year of treatment. Statistical analysis revealed that expression of these genes higher than the cutoff point will raise the risk of MRD by 15-, 6.25-, 12-, and 9-fold, respectively. No relationship was found between of MVP/LRP, MRP3 and ABCG2 genes expression and ALL prognoses. Considering the direct and significant relationship between the increased expression of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive risk of MRD in children with ALL, evaluating the expression profile of these genes on diagnosis may identify high risk individuals and help plan a more efficient treatment strategy. PMID:24145140

  13. Shear stress activation of nuclear receptor PXR in endothelial detoxification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Fang, Xi; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Zhen; Zhao, Beilei; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Ao; Li, Yi-Shuan J; Shyy, John Y-J; Guan, Youfei; Chien, Shu; Wang, Nanping

    2013-08-06

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly exposed to xenobiotics and endobiotics or their metabolites, which perturb EC function, as well as to shear stress, which plays a crucial role in vascular homeostasis. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor and a key regulator of the detoxification of xeno- and endobiotics. Here we show that laminar shear stress (LSS), the atheroprotective flow, activates PXR in ECs, whereas oscillatory shear stress, the atheroprone flow, suppresses PXR. LSS activation of PXR in cultured ECs led to the increased expression of a PXR target gene, multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1). An in vivo study using rats showed that the expression of MDR1 was significantly higher in the endothelium from the descending thoracic aorta, where flow is mostly laminar, than from the inner curvature of aortic arch, where flow is disturbed. Functionally, LSS-activated PXR protects ECs from apoptosis triggered by doxorubicin via the induction of MDR1 and other detoxification genes. PXR also suppressed the expression of proinflammatory adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion in response to TNF-α and lipopolysaccharide. Overexpression of a constitutively active PXR in rat carotid arteries potently attenuated proinflammatory responses. In addition, cDNA microarray revealed a large number of the PXR-activated endothelial genes whose products are responsible for major steps of detoxification, including phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and transporters. These detoxification genes in ECs are induced by LSS in ECs in a PXR-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that PXR represents a flow-activated detoxification system to protect ECs against damage by xeno- and endobiotics.

  14. Cloning and characterization of a second member of the mouse mdr gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Gros, P; Raymond, M; Bell, J; Housman, D

    1988-01-01

    The mammalian mdr gene family comprises a small number of closely related genes. Previously, we have shown that one member, mdr1, has the capacity to convey multidrug resistance to drug-sensitive recipient cells in a gene transfer protocol. However, the functional characteristics of other members of this gene family have not been examined. In this report, we characterize a second member of the mdr gene family which we designated mdr2. We determined the nucleotide sequence corresponding to the complete coding region of this mdr2 transcript. The predicted amino acid sequence of this protein (1,276 amino acids) showed that it is a membrane glycoprotein highly homologous to mdr1 (85%), strongly suggesting that both genes originate from a common ancestor. Regions of divergence between mdr1 and mdr2 proteins are concentrated in two discrete segments of the predicted polypeptides, each approximately 100 residues in length. The mdr2 protein appears to be formed by the duplication of a structural unit which encodes three putative transmembrane loops and a predicted nucleotide-binding fold and is highly homologous to bacterial transport proteins such as hlyB. This strong homology suggests that mdr2 also participates in an energy-dependent membrane transport process. However, the direct relationship, if any, of this new member of the mdr family to multidrug resistance remains to be established. Knowledge of the complete nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence of the mdr2 gene product will enable the preparation of gene-specific probes and antibodies necessary to study the functional role of this gene in multidrug resistance and normal physiological processes. PMID:3405218

  15. Psoralen reverses the P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in human breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingru; Wang, Xiaohong; Cheng, Kai; Zhao, Wanzhong; Hua, Yitong; Xu, Chengfeng; Yang, Zhenlin

    2016-06-01

    The resistance of cancer to chemotherapeutic agents is a major obstacle during chemotherapy. Clinical multidrug resistance (MDR) is commonly mediated by membrane drug efflux pumps, including ATP‑binding cassette subfamily B member 1, also termed P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp is a membrane transporter encoded by the MDR1 gene. The current study aimed to investigate the impact of psoralen on the expression and function of P‑gp. The 10% inhibitory concentration (IC10) of psoralen, and its capacity to reduce MDR in adriamycin (ADR)‑resistant MCF‑7/ADR cells were determined using MTT assay. The ability of psoralen to modulate the transport activity of P‑gp in MCF‑7/ADR cells was evaluated by measuring the accumulation and efflux of rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) and adriamycin with flow cytometry. The present study evaluated the mRNA level of MDR1 in MCF‑7 and MCF‑7/ADR cells treated with psoralen using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression level of P‑gp was examined by western blot analysis. The current study demonstrated that the IC10 of psoralen in MCF‑7/ADR cells was 8 µg/ml. At 8 µg/ml, psoralen reduced MDR and the sensitivity of the MCF‑7/ADR cells to ADR compared with untreated cells. Additionally, psoralen significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of ADR and Rh 123. However, the IC10 of psoralen did not affect the protein expression levels of P‑gp or mRNA levels of MDR1 (P>0.05). Psoralen reduces MDR by inhibiting the efflux function of P‑gp, which may be important for increasing the efficiency of chemotherapy and improving the clinical protocols aiming to reverse P-gp-mediated MDR.

  16. Synergistic effect of fluconazole and doxycycline against Candida albicans biofilms resulting from calcium fluctuation and downregulation of fluconazole-inducible efflux pump gene overexpression.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Hui; Liu, Shuyuan; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Shujuan

    2014-07-01

    Candida albicans biofilms are intrinsically resistant to antimicrobial agents. Previous work demonstrated that the antifungal activity of fluconazole against C. albicans biofilms is notably enhanced by doxycycline. In order to explore the synergistic mechanism of fluconazole and doxycycline, we investigated the changes of efflux pump gene expression, intracellular calcium concentration and cell cycle distribution after drug intervention in this study. The expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1 were determined by real-time PCR, and the results showed that fluconazole alone could stimulate the high expression of CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1, and the combination of doxycycline and fluconazole downregulated the gene overexpression induced by fluconazole. Intracellular calcium concentration was determined using Fluo-3/AM by observing the fluorescence with flow cytometry. A calcium fluctuation, which started 4 h and peaked 8 h after the treatment with fluconazole, was observed. The combined drugs also initiated a calcium fluctuation after 4 h treatment and showed a peak at 16 h, and the peak was higher than that stimulated by fluconazole alone. The cell cycle was measured using flow cytometry. Fluconazole alone and the combined drugs both induced a reduction in the percentages of S-phase cells and an elevation in the percentages of cells in the G2/M phase. The results of this research showed that the synergism of fluconazole and doxycycline against C. albicans biofilms is associated with blockade of the efflux pump genes CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1, and stimulation of high intracellular calcium concentration. The findings of this study are of great significance in the search for new antifungal mechanisms.

  17. Carfilzomib and oprozomib synergize with histone deacetylase inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma models of acquired resistance to proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yan; Kirk, Christopher J; Johnson, Daniel E

    2014-09-01

    Acquired resistance to proteasome inhibitors represents a considerable impediment to their effective clinical application. Carfilzomib and its orally bioavailable structural analog oprozomib are second-generation, highly-selective, proteasome inhibitors. However, the mechanisms of acquired resistance to carfilzomib and oprozomib are incompletely understood, and effective strategies for overcoming this resistance are needed. Here, we developed models of acquired resistance to carfilzomib in two head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, UMSCC-1 and Cal33, through gradual exposure to increasing drug concentrations. The resistant lines R-UMSCC-1 and R-Cal33 demonstrated 205- and 64-fold resistance, respectively, relative to the parental lines. Similarly, a high level of cross-resistance to oprozomib, as well as paclitaxel, was observed, whereas only moderate resistance to bortezomib (8- to 29-fold), and low level resistance to cisplatin (1.5- to 5-fold) was seen. Synergistic induction of apoptosis signaling and cell death, and inhibition of colony formation followed co-treatment of acquired resistance models with carfilzomib and the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) vorinostat. Synergism was also seen with other combinations, including oprozomib plus vorinostat, or carfilzomib plus the HDACi entinostat. Synergism was accompanied by upregulation of proapoptotic Bik, and suppression of Bik attenuated the synergy. The acquired resistance models also exhibited elevated levels of MDR-1/P-gp. Inhibition of MDR-1/P-gp with reversin 121 partially overcame carfilzomib resistance in R-UMSCC-1 and R-Cal33 cells. Collectively, these studies indicate that combining carfilzomib or oprozomib with HDAC or MDR-1/P-gp inhibitors may be a useful strategy for overcoming acquired resistance to these proteasome inhibitors.

  18. Effects of resveratrol on P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A in vitro and on pharmacokinetics of oral saquinavir in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiapeng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jingru; Yu, Xiaotong; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Libo

    2016-01-01

    Background The intestinal cytochrome P450 3A (CYP 3A) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) present a barrier to the oral absorption of saquinavir (SQV). Resveratrol (RESV) has been indicated to have modulatory effects on P-gp and CYP 3A. Therefore, this study was to investigate the effects of RESV on P-gp and CYP 3A activities in vitro and in vivo on oral SQV pharmacokinetics in rats. Methods In vitro, intestinal microsomes were used to evaluate RESV effect on CYP 3A-mediated metabolism of SQV; MDR1-expressing Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCKII-MDR1) cells were employed to assess the impact of RESV on P-gp-mediated efflux of SQV. In vivo effects were studied using 10 rats randomly assigned to receive oral SQV (30 mg/kg) with or without RESV (20 mg/kg). Serial blood samples were obtained over the following 24 h. Concentrations of SQV in samples were ascertained using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Results RESV (1–100 μM) enhanced residual SQV (% of control) in a dose-dependent manner after incubation with intestinal microsomes. RESV (1–100 μM) reduced the accumulation of SQV in MDCKII-MDR1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A double peaking phenomenon was observed in the plasma SQV profiles in rats. The first peak of plasma SQV concentration was increased, but the second peak was reduced by coadministration with RESV. The mean AUC0–∞ of SQV was slightly decreased, with no statistical significance probably due to the high individual variation. Conclusion RESV can alter the plasma SQV concentration profiles, shorten the Tmax of SQV. RESV might also cause a slight decrease tendency in the SQV bioavailability in rats. PMID:27895462

  19. Oxycodone induces overexpression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and affects paclitaxel's tissue distribution in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hazem E; Myers, Alan L; Lee, Insong J; Coop, Andrew; Eddington, Natalie D

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulates the PK/PD of many compounds including opioid agonists and chemotherapeutic agents. The objective of this study was to assess the P-gp affinity status of oxycodone, the P-gp expression, and the paclitaxel's tissue distribution in oxycodone-treated rats. P-gp ATPase assay, Caco-2 transepithelial permeability studies, and mdr1a/b (-/-) mice were used to assess the P-gp affinity status of oxycodone. P-gp expression was determined by Western blot analysis while [(14)C] paclitaxel's distributions in the liver, kidney, brain, and plasma tissues were determined by liquid scintillation counter. Oxycodone stimulated the P-gp ATPase activity in a concentration-dependant manner. The Caco-2 secretory transport of oxycodone was reduced from 3.64 x 10(-5) to 1.96 x 10(-5) cm/s (p < 0.05) upon preincubation with the P-gp inhibitor, verapamil. The brain levels of oxycodone in mdr1a/b (+/+) were not detectable (<15 ng/mL) while in mdr1a/b (-/-) the average levels were 115 +/- 39 ng/mL. The P-gp protein levels were increased by 1.3-4.0 folds while paclitaxel's tissue distributions were decreased by 38-90% (p < 0.05) in oxycodone-treated rats. These findings display that oxycodone is a P-gp substrate, induces overexpression of P-gp, and affects paclitaxel's tissue distribution in a manner that may influence its chemotherapeutic activity.

  20. Fluoxetine pretreatment effects pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ECSTASY) in rat.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D

    2008-04-01

    Fluoxetine has been shown to provide protection from MDMA induced long term neurotoxicity. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the pharmacokinetic drug interaction between MDMA and fluoxetine and also to determine the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on mediating drug-drug interactions with MDMA. Bi-directional transport studies were conducted across MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 monolayers. MDMA brain and plasma levels were measured in P-gp deficient [mdr1a(-/-)] and normal [mdr1a(+/+)] mice after a 5 mg/kg i.p. dose of MDMA. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with fluoxetine (4 days, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline followed by MDMA (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and brain and plasma samples were collected over 10 h. MDMA and its active metabolite MDA were quantified using a HPLC method with fluorescence detection. In transport studies MDMA exhibited high permeability with essentially unpolarized transport. No significant difference in MDMA and MDA brain levels were seen in P-gp deficient versus normal mice. Pretreatment of rats with fluoxetine resulted in an increase in MDMA (1.4-fold) and MDA (1.5-fold) exposure in both brain and plasma. Elimination half-life was increased for MDMA (2.4 vs. 4.9 h) and MDA (1.8 vs. 8.2 h) with fluoxetine pretreatment. P-gp does not play a physiologically relevant role in absorption and distribution of MDMA, hence this transporter may not have a role in drug-drug interactions with MDMA. Fluoxetine pretreatment to provide protection from MDMA induced long term neurotoxicity decreases elimination of MDMA and MDA and may lead to enhanced risk of MDMA acute toxic effects. Overall, our results indicate that caution need to be practiced when recommending fluoxetine as an agent to provide protection from MDMA induced long term neurotoxicity.

  1. Estradiol and progesterone-mediated regulation of P-gp in P-gp overexpressing cells (NCI-ADR-RES) and placental cells (JAR).

    PubMed

    Coles, Lisa D; Lee, Insong J; Voulalas, Pamela J; Eddington, Natalie D

    2009-01-01

    The effect of progesterone and estrogen treatment on the expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was evaluated in JAR cells and a P-gp overexpressing cell line, NCI-ADR-RES. Western blot analysis and real-time Q-PCR were used to evaluate P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA expression respectively in the cells following incubation with progesterone (P4) and/or beta-estradiol (E2). Cellular uptake studies of the P-gp substrates, saquinavir and paclitaxel, were performed to evaluate function. Treatment with either E2 or P4 resulted in a significant increase in P-gp protein levels in the NCI-ADR-RES cells at concentrations of or greater than 100 nM or 10 nM, respectively. JAR cells also had increased levels of P-gp with 100 nM of P4 but were much more sensitive to E2 showing increased P-gp at a concentration of 1 nM. Furthermore, E2 or P4 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in cellular uptake of the P-gp substrates tested in these cells lines. Based on mRNA quantitation, a transient increase (2-fold) in MDR1 levels was observed at 8 h postincubation with either E2 or P4, while MDR1 levels remained high in the JAR cells treated with E2 for 72 h postincubation. The addition of actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor negated the increase in P-gp by P4 and E2. P4 and E2 increase P-gp expression and function in NCI-ADR-RES and JAR cells with the ERalpha-expressing cells (JAR) much more sensitive to E2. Furthermore, transcriptional regulation by E2 and P4 likely contributes to the modulation of P-gp levels.

  2. A peptide derived from phage display library exhibits anti-tumor activity by targeting GRP78 in gastric cancer multidrug resistance cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jianqin; Zhao, Guohong; Lin, Tao; Tang, Shanhong; Xu, Guanghui; Hu, Sijun; Bi, Qian; Guo, Changcun; Sun, Li; Han, Shuang; Xu, Qian; Nie, Yongzhan; Wang, Biaoluo; Liang, Shuhui; Ding, Jie; Wu, Kaichun

    2013-10-10

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a significant challenge to the clinical treatment of gastric cancer (GC). In the present study, using a phage display approach combined with MTT assays, we screened a specific peptide GMBP1 (Gastric cancer MDR cell-specific binding peptide), ETAPLSTMLSPY, which could bind to the surface of GC MDR cells specifically and reverse their MDR phenotypes. Immunocytochemical staining showed that the potential receptor of GMBP1 was located at the membrane and cytoplasm of MDR cells. In vitro and in vivo drug sensitivity assays, FACS analysis and Western blotting confirmed that GMBP1 was able to re-sensitize MDR cells to chemical drugs. Western blotting and proteomic approaches were used to screen the receptor of GMBP1, and GRP78, a MDR-related protein, was identified as a receptor of GMBP1. This result was further supported by immunofluoresence microscopy and Western blot. Additionally, Western blotting demonstrated that pre-incubation of GMBP1 in MDR cells greatly diminished MDR1, Bcl-2 and GRP78 expression but increased the expression of Bax, whereas downregulation of GRP78, function as a receptor and directly target for GMBP1, only inhibited MDR1 expression. Our findings suggest that GMBP1 could re-sensitize GC MDR cells to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents and this role might be mediated partly through down-regulating GRP78 expression and then inhibiting MDR1 expression. These findings indicate that peptide GMBP1 likely recognizes a novel GRP78 receptor and mediates cellular activities associated with the MDR phenotype, which provides new insight into research on the management of MDR in gastric cancer cells.

  3. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P < 0.05). The growth of stem and H460 cells treated with a combination of T. chinensis var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P < 0.05). Rh-123 was significantly accumulated in the intracellular region and showed delayed efflux in stem cells treated with T. chinensis var. (P < 0.05), compared to those treated with verapamil. T. chinensis var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P < 0.05) compared to H460 cells. Thus, T. chinensis var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  4. Interspecies variability in expression of hepatobiliary transporters across human, dog, monkey, and rat as determined by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Prasad, Bhagwat; Salphati, Laurent; Chu, Xiaoyan; Gupta, Anshul; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Evers, Raymond; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2015-03-01

    We quantified, by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, transporter protein expression of BSEP, MATE1, MRP3, MRP4, NTCP, and OCT1 in our human liver bank (n = 55) and determined the relationship between protein expression and sex, age and genotype. These data complement our previous work in the same liver bank where we quantified the protein expression of OATPs, BCRP, MDR1, and MRP2. In addition, we quantified and compared the interspecies differences in expression of the hepatobiliary transporters, corresponding to the above human transporters, in liver tissue and hepatocytes of male beagle dogs, cynomolgus monkeys, Sprague-Dawley rats, and Wistar rats. In all the species, the sinusoidal OATPs/Oatps were the most abundant hepatic transporters. However, there were notable interspecies differences in the relative abundance of the remaining transporters. For example, the next most abundant transporter in humans and monkeys was OCT1/Oct1, whereas it was Mrp2 and Ntcp in dogs/Wistar rats and Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. In contrast, the protein expression of the efflux transporters BCRP/Bcrp, MDR1/Mdr1, MRP3/Mrp3, MRP4/Mrp4, and MATE1/Mate1 was much lower across all the species. For most transporters, the expression in the liver tissues was comparable to that in the unplated cryopreserved hepatocytes. These data on human liver transporter protein expression complete the picture of the expression of major human hepatobiliary transporters important in drug disposition and toxicity. In addition, the data on expression of the corresponding hepatobiliary transporters in preclinical species will be helpful in interpreting and extrapolating pharmacokinetic, pharmacological, and toxicological results from preclinical studies to humans.

  5. Distribution of Gefitinib to the Brain Is Limited by P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (ABCG2)-Mediated Active Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sagar; Sane, Ramola; Gallardo, Jose L.; Ohlfest, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Gefitinib is an orally active inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor approved for use in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non–small cell lung cancer. It has also been evaluated in several clinical trials for treatment of brain tumors such as high-grade glioma. In this study, we investigated the influence of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on distribution of gefitinib to the central nervous system. In vitro studies conducted in Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells indicate that both P-gp and BCRP effectively transport gefitinib, limiting its intracellular accumulation. In vivo studies demonstrated that transport of gefitinib across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is significantly limited. Steady-state brain-to-plasma (B/P) concentration ratios were 70-fold higher in the Mdr1a/b(−/−) Bcrp1(−/−) mice (ratio of approximately 7) compared with wild-type mice (ratio of approximately 0.1). The B/P ratio after oral administration increased significantly when gefitinib was coadministered with the dual P-gp and BCRP inhibitor elacridar. We investigated the integrity of tight junctions in the Mdr1a/b(−/−) Bcrp1(−/−) mice and found no difference in the brain inulin and sucrose space between the wild-type and Mdr1a/b(−/−) Bcrp1(−/−) mice. This suggested that the dramatic enhancement in the brain distribution of gefitinib is not due to a leakier BBB in these mice. These results show that brain distribution of gefitinib is restricted due to active efflux by P-gp and BCRP. This finding is of clinical significance for therapy in brain tumors such as glioma, where concurrent administration of a dual inhibitor such as elacridar can increase delivery and thus enhance efficacy of gefitinib. PMID:20421331

  6. Overexpression of survivin via activation of ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB plays a central role in vincristine resistance in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Takeda, Tomoya; Ogawa, Naoki; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Shimaoka, Hirotaka; Fujita, Arisa; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

    2015-04-01

    The acquisition of anti-cancer drug resistance is a major limitation of chemotherapy for multiple myeloma (MM) and it is thus important to identify the mechanisms by which MM cells develop such drug resistance. In a previous study, we showed that multidrug resistance (MDR) involves the overexpression of MDR1 and survivin in vincristine-resistant RPMI8226/VCR cells. However, the underlying mechanism of MDR remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of MDR in RPMI8226/VCR cells, and found that RPMI8226/VCR cells exhibit increased levels of activated ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB, while the levels of activated mTOR, p38MAPK, and JNK do not differ between RPMI8226/VCR cells and their vincristine-susceptible counterparts. In addition, the inhibition of ERK1/2, Akt, or NF-κB by inhibitors reversed the drug-resistance of RPMI8226/VCR cells via the suppression of survivin expression, but did not affect MDR1 expression; RNA silencing of survivin expression completely reversed vincristine resistance, while MDR1 silencing only weakly suppressed vincristine resistance in RPMI8226/VCR cells. These results indicate that enhanced survivin expression via the activation of ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB plays a critical role in vincristine resistance in RPMI8226/VCR cells. Our findings suggest that ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB inhibitors are potentially useful as anti-MDR agents for the treatment of vincristine-resistant MM.

  7. Chemoresistance of CD133(+) colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133(+) colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133(-) cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133(+) and siRNA-induced CD133(-) cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133(+) cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133(+) cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133(+) cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133(+) cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133(+) colon cancer.

  8. Shear stress activation of nuclear receptor PXR in endothelial detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Fang, Xi; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Zhen; Zhao, Beilei; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Ao; Li, Yi-Shuan J.; Shyy, John Y.-J.; Guan, Youfei; Chien, Shu; Wang, Nanping

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly exposed to xenobiotics and endobiotics or their metabolites, which perturb EC function, as well as to shear stress, which plays a crucial role in vascular homeostasis. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor and a key regulator of the detoxification of xeno- and endobiotics. Here we show that laminar shear stress (LSS), the atheroprotective flow, activates PXR in ECs, whereas oscillatory shear stress, the atheroprone flow, suppresses PXR. LSS activation of PXR in cultured ECs led to the increased expression of a PXR target gene, multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1). An in vivo study using rats showed that the expression of MDR1 was significantly higher in the endothelium from the descending thoracic aorta, where flow is mostly laminar, than from the inner curvature of aortic arch, where flow is disturbed. Functionally, LSS-activated PXR protects ECs from apoptosis triggered by doxorubicin via the induction of MDR1 and other detoxification genes. PXR also suppressed the expression of proinflammatory adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion in response to TNF-α and lipopolysaccharide. Overexpression of a constitutively active PXR in rat carotid arteries potently attenuated proinflammatory responses. In addition, cDNA microarray revealed a large number of the PXR-activated endothelial genes whose products are responsible for major steps of detoxification, including phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and transporters. These detoxification genes in ECs are induced by LSS in ECs in a PXR-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that PXR represents a flow-activated detoxification system to protect ECs against damage by xeno- and endobiotics. PMID:23878263

  9. Oral Serum-Derived Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Has Immunomodulatory Effects on the Colon of Mice that Spontaneously Develop Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Maijó, Mònica; Polo, Javier; Campbell, Joy M.; Russell, Louis; Crenshaw, Joe D.; Weaver, Eric; Moretó, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Dietary immunoglobulin concentrates prepared from animal plasma can modulate the immune response of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Previous studies have revealed that supplementation with serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) ameliorates colonic barrier alterations in the mdr1a-/- genetic mouse model of IBD. Here, we examine the effects of SBI on mucosal inflammation in mdr1a-/- mice that spontaneously develop colitis. Wild type (WT) mice and mice lacking the mdr1a gene (KO) were fed diets supplemented with either SBI (2% w/w) or milk proteins (Control diet), from day 21 (weaning) until day 56. Leucocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and in lamina propria were determined, as was mucosal cytokine production. Neutrophil recruitment and activation in MLN and lamina propria of KO mice were increased, but were significantly reduced in both by SBI supplementation (p < 0.05). The increased neutrophil recruitment and activation observed in KO mice correlated with increased colon oxidative stress (p < 0.05) and SBI supplementation reduced this variable (p < 0.05). The Tact/Treg lymphocyte ratios in MLN and lamina propria were also increased in KO animals, but SBI prevented these changes (both p < 0.05). In the colon of KO mice, there was an increased production of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2 (2-fold), IL-6 (26-fold) and IL-17 (19-fold), and of chemokines MIP-1β (4.5-fold) and MCP-1 (7.2-fold). These effects were significantly prevented by SBI (p < 0.05). SBI also significantly increased TGF-β secretion in the colon mucosa, suggesting a role of this anti-inflammatory cytokine in the modulation of GALT and the reduction of the severity of the inflammatory response during the onset of colitis. PMID:27139220

  10. Treatment strategy based on targeting P-glycoprotein on peripheral lymphocytes in patients with systemic autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Shizuyo; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2012-02-01

    Although corticosteroids, immunosuppressants and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are widely used in the treatment of various systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we often experience patients with systemic autoimmune diseases who are resistant to these treatments. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) of membrane transporters, a product of the multiple drug resistance (MDR)-1 gene, is known to play a pivotal role in the acquisition of drug resistance to chemotherapy in malignancy. However, the relevance of MDR-1 and P-gp to resting and activated lymphocytes, which are the major target in the treatment of systemic autoimmune diseases, remains unclear. Studies from our laboratories found surface expression of P-gp on peripheral lymphocytes in patients with SLE and a significant correlation between the expression level and disease activity. Such expression is induced not only by genotoxic stresses but also by various stimuli including cytokines, resulting in active efflux of drugs from the cytoplasm of lymphocytes, resulting in drug-resistance and high disease activity. However, the use of both P-gp antagonists (e.g., cyclosporine) and inhibition of P-gp synthesis with intensive immunosuppressive therapy successfully reduces the efflux of corticosteroids from lymphocytes in vitro, suggesting that P-gp antagonists and P-gp synthesis inhibitors could be used to overcome drug-resistance in vivo and improve outcome. In conclusion, lymphocytes activated by various stimuli in patients with highly active disease apparently acquire MDR-1-mediated multidrug resistance against corticosteroids and probably some DMARDs, which are substrates of P-gp. Inhibition/reduction of P-gp could overcome such drug resistance. The expression of P-gp on lymphocytes is a promising marker of drug resistance and a suitable target to combat drug resistance in patients with active systemic autoimmune diseases.

  11. [Decitabine inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of all-trans retinoid acid-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4-R2 cell line].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Mu-Jun; Xiao, Ruo-Zhi; Chen, Yan; Chen, Jia-Jie; Long, Zi-Jie; Wu, Xing; Lin, Dong-Jun

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the proliferation-inhibitory and inducing apoptotic effects of decitabine (DAC) on acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4-R2 cells. Cell inhibitory rate was determined by cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay (WST-1 assay) after NB4-R2 cells were treated with 0.01 - 0.5 µmol/L DAC for 24, 48 and 72 h. Apoptosis of NB4-R2 cells treated with 0.05 - 5 µmol/L DAC for 48 h was detected by flow cytometry with PI staining and AnnexinV/PI staining. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA expression level of MDR1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The results indicated that DAC (0.01 - 0.5 µmol/L) inhibited the proliferation of NB4-R2 cells in both time- and concentration-dependent manners. The IC(50) of DAC on the viability of NB4-R2 cells after treatment for 48 and 72 h were 0.089 and 0.064 µmol/L respectively. DAC (0.05 - 5 µmol/L) induced NB4-R2 cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manner with down-regulation of MDR 1 gene expression. It is concluded that a low concentration of DAC (< 0.5 µmol/L) inhibits cell proliferation, while higher concentration of DAC (1 or 5 µmol/L) induces apoptosis on NB4-R2 cells, accompanied with reduction of MDR1 levels.

  12. Chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133{sup +} colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133{sup −} cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133{sup +} and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133{sup +} cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133{sup +} cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133{sup +} cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133{sup +} cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133{sup +} colon cancer. - Highlights: • We evaluate the role of CD133 in chemoresistance of colon cancer. • We compared the chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} cells and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells. • CD133 had little to no effect on MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. • Survivin expression and chemoresistance were increased in CD133{sup +} colon cancer cells.

  13. Variability in P-glycoprotein inhibitory potency (IC₅₀) using various in vitro experimental systems: implications for universal digoxin drug-drug interaction risk assessment decision criteria.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Joe; O'Connor, Michael P; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Coleman, Joann; Lee, Caroline; Palm, Johan; Pak, Y Anne; Perloff, Elke S; Reyner, Eric; Balimane, Praveen; Brännström, Marie; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hanna, Imad; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Hillgren, Kate; Li, Libin; Hollnack-Pusch, Evelyn; Jamei, Masoud; Lin, Xuena; Mason, Andrew K; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Patel, Aarti; Podila, Lalitha; Plise, Emile; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Sands, Eric; Taub, Mitchell E; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Xia, Cindy Q; Xiao, Guangqing; Yabut, Jocelyn; Yamagata, Tetsuo; Zhang, Lei; Ellens, Harma

    2013-07-01

    A P-glycoprotein (P-gp) IC₅₀ working group was established with 23 participating pharmaceutical and contract research laboratories and one academic institution to assess interlaboratory variability in P-gp IC₅₀ determinations. Each laboratory followed its in-house protocol to determine in vitro IC₅₀ values for 16 inhibitors using four different test systems: human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2; eleven laboratories), Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA (MDCKII-MDR1; six laboratories), and Lilly Laboratories Cells--Porcine Kidney Nr. 1 cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA (LLC-PK1-MDR1; four laboratories), and membrane vesicles containing human P-glycoprotein (P-gp; five laboratories). For cell models, various equations to calculate remaining transport activity (e.g., efflux ratio, unidirectional flux, net-secretory-flux) were also evaluated. The difference in IC₅₀ values for each of the inhibitors across all test systems and equations ranged from a minimum of 20- and 24-fold between lowest and highest IC₅₀ values for sertraline and isradipine, to a maximum of 407- and 796-fold for telmisartan and verapamil, respectively. For telmisartan and verapamil, variability was greatly influenced by data from one laboratory in each case. Excluding these two data sets brings the range in IC₅₀ values for telmisartan and verapamil down to 69- and 159-fold. The efflux ratio-based equation generally resulted in severalfold lower IC₅₀ values compared with unidirectional or net-secretory-flux equations. Statistical analysis indicated that variability in IC₅₀ values was mainly due to interlaboratory variability, rather than an implicit systematic difference between test systems. Potential reasons for variability are discussed and the simplest, most robust experimental design for P-gp IC₅₀ determination proposed. The impact of these findings on drug-drug interaction risk assessment is discussed in the companion article (Ellens

  14. [Investigation of mutations in transcription factors of efflux pump genes in fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains overexpressing the efflux pumps].

    PubMed

    Kalkandelen, Kemal Turan; Doluca Dereli, Mine

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, a significant rise in the number of immunocompromised patients have been observed due to cancer chemotherapy, organ transplantation and HIV infection. As a result of this, the frequency of Candida albicans infections in the clinics have been increased. Fluconazole, as being a well tolerated, easy to use drug with minor side effects, is often the first choice antifungal agent for this patient group, both for therapy and prophylaxis. Especially the long-term use of this drug, causes the selection of resistant strains and leads to the development of fluconazole resistance. The most frequently observed resistance mechanism against fluconazole in C.albicans strains is the transportation of the drug out of the cell via efflux pumps. The efflux pumps mainly involved are Cdr1, Cdr2 ve Mdr1 encoded by CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1 genes. It has been shown that, the overexpression of these efflux pump genes was caused by functional mutations in TAC1 and MRR1 genes which encode the transcription factors Tac1p and Mrr1p. This study was aimed to analyze TAC1 and MRR1 genes of 15 C.albicans strains which consist of six fluconazole-susceptible, four susceptible with trailing effect and five fluconazole-resistant isolates plus one resistant strain (DSY292), known to overexpress Mdr1 efflux pump due to P683H mutation in MRR1 gene and one fluconazole-sensitive ATCC 14053 C.albicans strain in terms of mutations with polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Two of the fluconazole-resistant isolates which had overexpression of Cdr1 and Cdr2 pumps known to have overexpression of TAC1 gene, revealed R673Q and A736V mutations. A P683H point mutation, that overexpressed the Mdr1 pump was detected in a fluconazole-resistant strain, which was known to cause MRR1 overexpression. In conclusion, mutations in the transcription factors of the efflux pump genes may play an important role in the resistance against fluconazole among our selected C.albicans strains.

  15. Influence of lansoprazole and rabeprazole on mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics one year after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Miura, Masatomo; Satoh, Shigeru; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Kagaya, Hideaki; Saito, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Toshio; Habuchi, Tomonori

    2008-02-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is a common complication after organ transplantation, and long-term administration of antiulcer agents is needed in many renal transplant recipients. Although several drug interactions with mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite of the prodrug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), have been reported, little is known about the interaction between MPA and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The present study investigated the drug interaction between MMF and lansoprazole or rabeprazole and the impact of cytochrome (CYP) 2C19, and multidrug resistance (MDR)1 C3435T polymorphisms on these drug interactions at 1 year after renal transplantation. Retrospectively, 61 recipients were divided into 3 groups: MMF and tacrolimus as combination immunosuppressive therapy, together with either 30 mg lansoprazole (n = 22) or 10 mg rabeprazole (n = 17), or without PPI (n = 22). One year after transplantation, plasma concentrations of MPA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean dose-unadjusted and -adjusted Cmax of MPA with 30 mg lansoprazole were significantly lower than those without PPI (11.8 vs. 17.8 microg/mL, P = 0.0197, and 22.6 vs. 33.1 ng/mL/mg MMF, P = 0.0222, respectively). In recipients having the CYP2C19 *1/*2+*1/*3 or MDR1 C3435T CC genotype, the mean dose-adjusted AUC0-12 of MPA with 30 mg lansoprazole was significantly smaller than that with 10 mg rabeprazole or without PPI. The plasma concentration of MPA was influenced by 30 mg lansoprazole but not 10 mg rabeprazole. Because of the greater gastric acid secretion-inhibitory effect of 30 mg lansoprazole in recipients having the CYP2C19 *1/*2+*1/*3 (intermediate metabolizer) or MDR1 C3435T CC genotype, the elution and hydrolysis of MMF might be decreased. Although the clinical relevance might be minor, the fact that administration of 30 mg lansoprazole in patients having the CYP2C19 *2 or *3 allele or the MDR1 C3435T CC genotype diminishes the absorption of MPA in the

  16. Pharmacokinetic Compatibility of Ginsenosides and Schisandra Lignans in Shengmai-san: From the Perspective of P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jingwei; Rao, Tai; Zhou, Lijun; Xing, Rong; Wang, Qian; Fu, Hanxu; Hao, Kun; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guangji

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytochemical-mediated alterations in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity may result in herb-drug interactions by altering drug pharmacokinetics. Shengmai-san, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine composed by Panax Ginseng, Ophiopogon Japonicus, and Schisandra Chinensis, is routinely being used for treating various coronary heart diseases. In our previous studies, Schisandra Lignans Extract (SLE) was proved as a strong P-gp inhibitor, and herein, the compatibility of Shengmai-san was studied by investigating the influence of SLE on the pharmacokinetics of the ginsenosides from the perspective of P-gp. Methodology Pharmacokinetic experiments were firstly performed based on in vitro uptake, efflux and transport experiments in Caco-2, LLC-PK1 wild-type and MDR1-overexpressing L-MDR1 cells. During the whole experiment, digoxin, a classical P-gp substrate, was used as a positive control drug to verify the cells used are the valid models. Meanwhile, the effects of SLE on the pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides were further investigated in rats after single-dose and multi-dose of SLE. Results and Conclusions The efflux ratios of ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 were found more than 3.5 in L-MDR1 cells and can be decreased significantly by verapamil (a classical P-gp inhibitor). Contrarily, the efflux ratios of other ginsenosides (Rh1, F1, Re, and Rg1) were lower than 2.0 and not affected by verapamil. Then, the effects of SLE on the uptake and transport of ginsenosides were investigated, and SLE was found can significantly enhance the uptake and inhibit the efflux ratio of ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 in Caco-2 and L-MDR1 cells. Besides, In vivo experiments showed that single-dose and multi-dose of SLE at 500 mg/kg could increase the area under the plasma concentration time curve of Rb2, Rc and Rd significantly without affecting terminal elimination half-time. In conclusion, SLE could enhance the exposure of ginsenosides Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and

  17. Brain Distribution of Cediranib Is Limited by Active Efflux at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianli; Agarwal, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    Cediranib is an orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor family. Because of its potent antiangiogenic and antitumor activities, cediranib has been evaluated for therapy in glioma, a primary brain tumor. This study investigated the influence of two important efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), on the delivery of cediranib to the central nervous system. In vitro studies indicated that cediranib is a dual substrate for both P-gp and Bcrp. It is noteworthy that in spite of the in vitro data the in vivo mouse disposition studies conclusively showed that P-gp was the dominant transporter restricting the brain distribution of cediranib. The brain-to-plasma partitioning (AUCbrain/AUCplasma, where AUC is area under the curve) and the steady-state brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of cediranib were approximately 20-fold higher in Mdr1a/b(−/−) and Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice compared with wild-type and Bcrp1(−/−) mice. Moreover, there was no significant difference in brain distribution of cediranib between wild-type and Bcrp1(−/−) mice and between Mdr1a/b(−/−) and Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice. These results show that, unlike other tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are dual substrates for P-gp and Bcrp, Bcrp does not restrict the distribution of cediranib across the blood-brain barrier. We also show that inhibition of P-gp using specific or nonspecific inhibitors resulted in significantly enhanced delivery of cediranib to the brain. Concurrent administration of cediranib with chemical modulators of efflux transporters can be used as a strategy to enhance delivery and thus efficacy of cediranib in the brain. These findings are clinically relevant to the efficacy of cediranib chemotherapy in glioma. PMID:22323823

  18. Probenecid Sensitizes Neuroblastoma Cancer Stem Cells to Cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Campos-Arroyo, Denise; Maldonado, Vilma; Bahena, Ivan; Quintanar, Valeria; Patiño, Nelly; Carlos Martinez-Lazcano, Juan; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We used both in vitro cultures of neuroblastoma cell lines and nude-mice xenotransplants to explore the effects of co-administration of cisplatin and probenecid. Probenecid sensitized neuroblastoma cells, including tumor cells with stem features, to the effects of cisplatin, both in vitro and in vivo. This effect was mediated by an increase in the apoptotic cell death and a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation. This effect is accompanied by modulation of the mRNA and protein of the drug efflux transporters MDR1, MRP2, and BCRP. The co-administration of probenecid with cisplatin should be explored as a possible therapeutic strategy.

  19. Multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein dampens SR-BI cholesteryl ester uptake from high density lipoproteins in human leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Spolitu, Stefano; Uda, Sabrina; Deligia, Stefania; Frau, Alessandra; Collu, Maria; Angius, Fabrizio; Batetta, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells are characterised by a high content of cholesterol esters (CEs), while tumor-bearing patients show low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). The origin and significance of high CE levels in cancer cell biology has not been completely clarified. Recent evidence that lymphoblastic cells selectively acquire exogenous CE from HDL via the scavenger receptor SR-BI has drawn attention to the additional membrane proteins involved in this pathway. P-glycopotein-MDR1 (P-gp) is a product of the MDR1 gene and confers resistance to antitumor drugs. Its possible role in plasma membrane cholesterol trafficking and CE metabolism has been suggested. In the present study this aspect was investigated in a lymphoblastic cell line selected for MDR1 resistance. CEM were made resistant by stepwise exposure to low (LR) and high (HR) doses of vincristine (VCR). P-gp activity (3H-vinblastine), CE content, CE and triglycerides (TG) synthesis (14C-oleate), neutral lipids and Dil-HDL uptake (fluorescence), SR-BI, ABCA1 and P-gp protein expression (western blotting) were determined. To better evaluate the relationship between CE metabolism and P-gp activity, the ACAT inhibitor Sandoz-58035 and the P-gp inhibitors progesterone, cyclosporine and verapamil were used. CE content and synthesis were similar in the parental and resistant cells. However, in the latter population, SR-BI protein expression increased, whereas CE-HDL uptake decreased. These changes correlated with the degree of VCR-resistance. As well as reverting MDR1-resistance, the inhibitors of P-gp activity induced the CE-HDL/SR-BI pathway by reactivating membrane cholesterol trafficking. Indeed, CE-HDL uptake, SRBI expression and CE content increased, whereas there was a decrease in cholesterol esterification. These results demonstrated that P-gp overexpression impairs anticancer drug uptake as well as the SR-BI mediated selective CE-HDL uptake. This suggests that these membrane proteins act in an opposite manner on

  20. Potential herb-drug interaction of shexiang baoxin pill in vitro based on drug metabolism/transporter

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhijie; Wang, Yingjie; Guo, Wei; Yao, Yili; Wang, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Many researches have proved functions of anti-oxidation, endothelial protection and pro-angiogenesis efficiency of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP). This study aims to investigate potential for metabolism-based interaction on CYP450s and transporter based interaction on OATP1B1, BRCP and MDR1. Human primary hepatocytes were used in this study. Probe substrates of cytochrome P450 enzymes were incubated in human liver microsomes (HLMs) with or without SBP and IC50 values were estimated. Inhibitive potential of SBP on activities of CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 was evaluated. Inducible potential of SBP on activities of CYP1A2, 2B6 and 3A4 was accessed. Inhibitive potential of SBP on human OATP1B1 was evaluated using cell-based assay. Inhibitive potential of SBP on human MDR1 and BCRP was also evaluated using vesicles assay. MDR1 and BCRP vesicle kit were used to determine ATP dependent uptake activity when incubated with SBP. SBP was a competitive inhibitor of CYP2B6, 2C19, while neither inhibitory nor inductive potentials toward other CYP450s were detected. No significant MDR1 inhibitory potential was estimated, while only high concentration of SBP (500 μg/ml) could inhibit activity of BCRP. Probe substrates Estradiol-17 β-glucuronide was incubated in HEK293-OATP1B1 and HEK293-MOCK cell system with different concentration of SBP and estimated IC50 was 179 μg/mL, which demonstrated a moderate inhibition potential against OATP1B1. In conclusion, outcome of this study suggests that SBP plays an important role in inhibition of CYP450 isozymes (including CYP2B6 and 2C9) and transporter OATP1B1. Therefore, precautions should be taken when using SBP for CYP and OATP-related herb-drug interactions. PMID:28078025

  1. Employment of the El Salvador Armed Forces for Internal Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    Factores que inciden en el consumo de drogas licitas e ilícitas” http://www.uees.edu.sv/crea2/1_factores.htm, (accessed November 15 2010). 10 La...Primerísima “Suma preocupación por consumo de droga ” June 29, 2008, http://www.radiolaprimerisima.com/noticias/32517, (accessed November 15 2010). 11 La...confirma n- investigacion -a-alto-jefe-policial-salvadoreno&catid=92:ultimas-noticias&Itemid=117, accessed January, 08 2011). 23 El Diario de Hoy

  2. Security of the Brazilian Amazon Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    A Marat)a t3 CruzeiroJ do Sul Pu :alpa Porto Velho 10 Riberaitabra co P G, Lima c Trindade Goicinia CuiabA B 0 L 8rasfti.- FIGURE 3 cl bN VON * 10 c...341HA Problemas no Combate ao TrAfico de Drogas", Foiha de S~o Paulo - 23 June 1991, 5. ’Constituiqdo do Brasil, Artigo no 144 - Pardcirafo 1...Combate ao TrAafico de Drogas". Folha de Sgo Paulo, 23 June 1991: 5. 94 Valente, Maury Gurgel; Coimbra, Carlos; Albuquerque Lima , Aforiso Augusto; et al

  3. In vitro moxifloxacin drug interaction with chemotherapeutics: implications for retinoblastoma management.

    PubMed

    Barot, Megha; Gokulgandhi, Mitan R; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2014-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a common malignant intraocular tumor primarily affecting children. Multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins (P-gp and MRPs) mediated chemoresistance have been considered as a major cause of treatment failure in treatment of RB. Ocular cells have shown good tolerability against moxifloxacin (MFX). Hence, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of moxifloxacin on the functionality of MDR proteins. Furthermore, we have also examined an interaction of MFX with anticancer agents (Topotecan, etoposide and vinblastine) for RB treatment. For interaction of MFX with efflux transporter, model cell lines transfected with the efflux transporters (MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP2) were used to perform uptake and bi-directional transport experiments. Modulation of anticancer induced cell cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) release and caspase-3 enzyme activity in presence of MFX was also evaluated. Result indicates that MFX is a substrate of both MDR1 and MRP2 efflux transporters. Furthermore elevation of anticancer uptake and bi-directional transport, reduction in IC50 cytotoxic value and modulation of antiproliferative and cytokines release in presence of MFX by anticancer agents was observed. Our results demonstrate that MFX may not only modulate the permeability of anticancer agents at efflux sites but it may also potentiate antiproliferative activity of anticancer agents in retinoblastoma cells. This study may be further extended to explore in vivo outcome of this finding.

  4. Nonlinear pharmacokinetics of oral quinidine and verapamil in healthy subjects: a clinical microdosing study.

    PubMed

    Maeda, K; Takano, J; Ikeda, Y; Fujita, T; Oyama, Y; Nozawa, K; Kumagai, Y; Sugiyama, Y

    2011-08-01

    Microdosing studies are effective in enabling the early identification of the pharmacokinetic properties of compounds administered to humans. However, the nonlinearity of the pharmacokinetics between microdose and therapeutic dose, attributable to the saturation of metabolic enzymes and transporters, is a major concern. Verapamil and quinidine are good substrates of both the multidrug resistance 1 transporter (MDR1) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 enzyme (CYP3A4). We investigated their dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. Four different doses of verapamil or quinidine were administered orally to each subject, and the plasma concentrations of the parent drugs and their major metabolites were measured. The dose-normalized area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) values of quinidine and verapamil increased in a dose-dependent manner and were 2.6- and 2.3-fold higher, respectively, at the therapeutic dose than at microdose. These results suggest that the nonlinear pharmacokinetics of these drugs is caused mainly by the saturation of MDR1 and/or CYP3A4 in the small intestine.

  5. Overexpression and mutation as a genetic mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans isolated from human immunodeficiency virus patients in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rosana, Yeva; Yasmon, Andi; Lestari, Delly Chipta

    2015-09-01

    Fluconazole is the standard treatment for oropharyngeal candidiasis, which is the third most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients in Indonesia. Overuse of this drug could lead to the emergence of resistance. The objective of this study was to analyse the role of ERG11, CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1 gene overexpression and mutations in the ERG11 gene as a genetic mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans isolated from HIV patients in Indonesia. Overexpression of ERG11, CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1 was analysed by real-time reverse transcription PCR, while ERG11 gene mutation analysis was performed using sequencing methods. Seventeen isolates out of 92 strains of C. albicans isolated from 108 HIV patients were found to be resistant to azole antifungals. The highest gene overexpression of ERG11 was found in C. albicans resistant to single fluconazole, while the highest gene overexpression of CDR2 was detected in all isolates of C. albicans resistant to multiple azoles. Amino acid substitutions were observed at six positions, i.e. D116E, D153E, I261V, E266D, V437I and V488I. The amino acid substitution I261V was identified in this study and was probably associated with fluconazole resistance. The combination of overexpression of CDR2 and ERG11 and mutation in the ERG11 gene was found to be a genetic mechanism of fluconazole resistance in C. albicans isolated from HIV patients in Indonesia.

  6. Inhibition of multixenobiotic resistance transporters (MXR) by silver nanoparticles and ions in vitro and in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Cambier, Sébastien; Serchi, Tommaso; Kruszewski, Marcin; Balachandran, Yekkuni L; Grysan, Patrick; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Ziebel, Johanna; Guignard, Cédric; Gutleb, Arno C; Murk, AlberTinka J

    2016-11-01

    The P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) and multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1), important members of the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters, protect cells and organisms via efflux of xenobiotics and are responsible for the phenomenon of multidrug or multixenobiotic resistance (MXR). In this study we first evaluated, in vitro, the interaction of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 20, 23 and 27nm), Ag 200nm particles and Ag ions (AgNO3) with MXR efflux transporters using MDCKII and the P-gp over-expressing MDCKII-MDR1 cells and calcein-AM as a substrate of the transporters. Next the in vivo modulation of MXR activity was studied in Daphnia magna juveniles with the model P-gp and MRP1 inhibitors verapamil-HCl and MK571, respectively. The common environmental contaminants perfluorooctane sulfonate and bisphenol A, previously observed to interfere with the P-gp in vitro, also inhibited the efflux of calcein in vivo. Small-sized Ag NPs (with biomolecules present on the surface) and AgNO3 inhibited the MXR activity in daphnids and MDCKII-MDR1 cells, but abcb1 gene expression remained unchanged. Both Ag NPs and dissolved ions contributed to the effects. This study provides evidence of the interference of Ag NPs and AgNO3 with the MXR activity both in vitro and in D. magna, and should be taken into account when Ag NP toxicity is assessed.

  7. Synonymous Mutations and Ribosome Stalling Can Lead to Altered Folding Pathways and Distinct Minima

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Sauna, Zuben E.; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Gottesman, Michael M.; Nussinov, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    How can we understand a case where a given amino acid sequence folds into structurally and functionally distinct molecules? Synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1 or ABCB1) gene involving frequent to rare codon substitutions lead to identical protein sequences. Remarkably these alternative sequences give a protein product with similar but different structures and functions. Here we propose that long-enough ribosomal pause time-scales may lead to alternate folding pathways and distinct minima on the folding free energy surface. While the conformational and functional differences between the native and alternate states may be minor, the MDR1 case illustrates that the barriers may nevertheless constitute sufficiently high hurdles in physiological time-scales, leading to kinetically trapped states with altered structures and functions. Different folding pathways leading to conformationally-similar trapped states may be due to swapping of (fairly symmetric) segments. Domain swapping is more likely in the no-pause case where the chain elongates and folds simulaneously; on the other hand, sufficiently long pause times between such segments may be expected to lessen the chances of swapping events. Here, we review the literature in this light. PMID:18722384

  8. Regulation of hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Simon; Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Fardel, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides constitute a major class of persistent and toxic organic pollutants, known to modulate drug-detoxifying enzymes. In the present study, OCs were demonstrated to also alter the activity and expression of human hepatic drug transporters. Activity of the sinusoidal influx transporter OCT1 (organic cation transporter 1) was thus inhibited by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, lindane, and dieldrine, but not by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane isomers, whereas those of the canalicular efflux pumps MRP2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) and BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein) were blocked by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, and chlordecone; this latter OC additionally inhibited the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity. OCs, except endosulfan, were next found to induce MDR1/P-gp and MRP2 mRNA expressions in hepatoma HepaRG cells; some of them also upregulated BCRP. By contrast, expression of sinusoidal transporters was not impaired (organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP2B1) or was downregulated (sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) and OCT1). Such regulations of drug transporter activity and expression, depending on the respective nature of OCs and transporters, may contribute to the toxicity of OC pesticides.

  9. Effects of paclitaxel with or without cremophor EL on cellular clonogenic survival and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Engblom, P; Pulkkinen, J O; Rantanen, V; Hirvonen, H; Kulmala, J; Grènman, R; Grènman, S

    1999-02-01

    Paclitaxel is currently formulated in a vehicle of 50% ethanol and 50% polyethoxylated surfactant cremophor EL. Cremophor EL has been reported to reverse P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) at doses which are clinically achievable. It has also been reported to have a cytotoxic effect per se. In this study we used two different methods to evaluate the survival of cells exposed to paclitaxel with or without cremophor EL and the vehicle alone. Two laryngeal SCC cell lines (UT-SCC-19A and UT-SCC-29) and two ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines (UT-OC-3 and UT-OC-5) established in our laboratory were investigated. Northern hybridisation was used to study the mdr-1 mRNA expression of the cell lines. With sensitive Northern analyses, these four lines yielded mdr-1 mRNA signals of the expected 4.5 kb size and of variable intensity, generally at higher levels than those in the positive control cell line KB. The 96-well plate clonogenic assay was used to obtain the fraction survival data and apoptosis was recorded by time-lapse video microscopy. Both methods indicate that cremophor EL alone has no effect on cellular survival. Consequently, paclitaxel without cremophor EL is as active as paclitaxel with cremophor EL in vitro.

  10. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: species distribution, fluconazole resistance and drug efflux pump gene overexpression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie-Yu; Liu, Jin-Hui; Liu, Fa-Di; Xia, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jing; Liu, Xi; Zhang, Zhi-Qin; Zhu, Na; Yan-Yan; Ying, Ying; Huang, Xiao-Tian

    2014-10-01

    The increasing incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and the emergence of fluconazole resistance are an indisputable fact. However, little information is available regarding the correlation between fluconazole resistance in vaginal Candida albicans and the expression of drug efflux pump genes. In this study, we investigated the species distribution, fluconazole susceptibility profiles and the mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in Candida strains. In total, 785 clinical Candida isolates were collected from patients with VVC. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species(n = 529) followed by C. glabrata (n = 164) and C. krusei (n = 57). Of all Candida isolates, 4.7% were resistant to fluconazole. We randomly selected 18 fluconazole resistant isolates of C. albicans to evaluate the expression of CDR1, CDR2, MDR1 and FLU1 genes. Compared with fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans isolates, CDR1 gene expression displayed 3.16-fold relative increase, which was statistically significant. CDR2, MDR1 and FLU1 overexpression was observed in several fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates, but statistical significance was not achieved. These results demonstrate a high frequency of non-albicans species (32.6%); however, C. albicans is the most common Candida species implicated in vaginitis, and this strain displays considerable fluconazole resistance. Meanwhile, our study further indicates that fluconazole resistance in C. albicans may correlate with CDR1 gene overexpression.

  11. The leukotriene LTD4 receptor antagonist MK571 specifically modulates MRP associated multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Gekeler, V; Ise, W; Sanders, K H; Ulrich, W R; Beck, J

    1995-03-08

    The multidrug resistant cell lines HL60/AR and GLC4/ADR show high overexpression of the gene encoding the multidrug resistance associated protein MRP compared to their drug sensitive parental counterparts. This and the virtual absence of mdr1/P-glycoprotein gene expression was proven by a complementary DNA polymerase chain reaction (cDNA-PCR) approach. Applying a 72-hour tetrazolium based colorimetric MTT-assay we demonstrate on both MDR sublines a dose-dependent modulation of drug resistances by the leukotriene LTD4 receptor antagonist MK571. A complete reversal of vincristine resistances was achieved at final MK571 concentrations of 30 microM (HL60/AR) or 50 microM (GLC4/ADR) which by itself did not disturb cellular proliferation. The drug resistance of a mdr1/P-gp overexpressing multidrug-resistant HL60 subline, in contrast, was not significantly affected by MK571. Similar effects were seen using the glutathione (GSH) synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Our results point to a relationship between MRP and a conjugate transporter and identify MK571 as a new tool structure for developing modulators specific for a MRP associated multidrug resistance.

  12. CLN3 Loss Disturbs Membrane Microdomain Properties and Protein Transport in Brain Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tecedor, Luis; Stein, Colleen S.; Schultz, Mark L.; Farwanah, Hany; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a fatal childhood-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in ceroid lipofuscinosis neuronal-3 (CLN3), a hydrophobic transmembrane protein of unresolved function. Previous studies indicate blood–brain barrier (BBB) defects in JNCL, and our earlier report showed prominent Cln3 expression in mouse brain endothelium. Here we find that CLN3 is necessary for normal trafficking of the microdomain-associated proteins caveolin-1, syntaxin-6, and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) in brain endothelial cells. Correspondingly, CLN3-null cells have reduced caveolae, and impaired caveolae- and MDR1-related functions including endocytosis, drug efflux, and cell volume regulation. We also detected an abnormal blood–brain barrier response to osmotic stress in vivo. Evaluation of the plasma membrane with fluorescent sphingolipid probes suggests microdomain destabilization and enhanced fluidity in CLN3-null cells. In further work we found that application of the glycosphingolipid lactosylceramide to CLN3-deficient cells rescues protein transport and caveolar endocytosis. Last, we show that CLN3 localizes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and partitions with buoyant microdomain fractions. We propose that CLN3 facilitates TGN-to-plasma membrane transport of microdomain-associated proteins. Insult to this pathway may underlie BBB dysfunction and contribute to JNCL pathogenesis. PMID:24227717

  13. The multixenobiotic resistance mechanism in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B. )

    1992-01-01

    Many aquatic organisms thrive and reproduce in polluted waters. This fact indicates that they are well equipped with a defense system(s) against several toxic xenobiotics simultaneously because water pollution is typically caused by a mixture of a number of pollutants. We have found that the biochemical mechanism underlying such multixenobiotic' resistance in freshwater and marine mussel, in several marine sponges, and in freshwater fish is similar to the mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) found in tumor cells that became refractory to treatment with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents. All these organisms possess a verapamil-sensitive potential to bind 2-acetylaminofluorene and vincristine onto membrane vesicles. They all express mRNA for mdr1 gene, and mdr1 protein product, the glycoprotein P170. Finally, in in vivo experiments, the accumulation of xenobiotics is enhanced in all investigated organisms in the presence of verapamil, the inhibitor of the P170 extrusion pump. The knowledge that the presence of one xenobiotic may block the pumping out, and hence accelerating accumulation, of others, may help us to understand and interpret our present and past data on different environmental parameters obtained using indicator organisms.99 references.

  14. Effluxing ABC Transporters in Human Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Mannermaa, Eliisa; Turner, Helen; Häkli, Marika; Wolosin, J. Mario; Tervo, Timo; Honkakoski, Paavo; Urtti, Arto

    2010-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are able to efflux their substrate drugs from the cells. We compared expression of efflux proteins in normal human corneal epithelial tissue, primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCEpiC), and corneal epithelial cell culture model (HCE model) based on human immortal cell line. Expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1–6 (MRP1–6) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) was studied using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Only MRP1, MRP5, and BCRP were expressed in the freshly excised human corneal epithelial tissue. Expression of MRP1 and MRP5 was localized predominantly in the basal cells of the central cornea and limbus. Functional efflux activity was shown in the cell models, but they showed over-expression of most efflux transporters compared to that of normal corneal epithelium. In conclusion, MRP1, MRP5, and BCRP are expressed in the corneal epithelium, but MDR1, MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, and MRP6 are not significantly expressed. HCE cell model and commercially available primary cells deviate from this expression profile. PMID:19623615

  15. Regulatory Mechanisms to Control Tissue α-Tocopherol

    PubMed Central

    Mustacich, Debbie J.; Vo, Anh T.; Elias, Valerie D.; Payne, Katie; Sullivan, Laura; Leonard, Scott W.; Traber, Maret G.

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that hepatic regulation of α-tocopherol metabolism would be sufficient to prevent over-accumulation of α-tocopherol in extrahepatic tissues and that administration of high doses of α-tocopherol would up-regulate extrahepatic xenobiotic pathways, rats received daily subcutaneous injections of either vehicle or 0.5, 1, 2, or 10 mg α-tocopherol/100 g body wt for 9 days. Liver α-tocopherol increased 15-fold in rats given 10 mg α-tocopherol/100 g body weight (mg/100 g) compared with controls. Hepatic α-tocopherol metabolites increased with increasing α-tocopherol doses, reaching 40-fold in rats given the highest dose. In rats injected with 10 mg/100 g, lung and duodenum α-tocopherol concentrations increased 3-fold, while α-tocopherol concentrations of other extrahepatic tissues increased 2-fold or less. With the exception of muscle, daily administration of less than 2 mg/100 g) failed to increase α-tocopherol concentrations in extrahepatic tissues. Lung cytochrome P450 3A and 1A levels were unchanged by administration of α-tocopherol at any dose. In contrast, lung P-glycoprotein (MDR-1) levels increased dose dependently and expression of this xenobiotic transport protein was correlated with lung α-tocopherol concentrations (R2 = 0.88, P < 0.05). Increased lung MDR1 may provide protection from exposure to environmental toxins by increasing alveolar space α-tocopherol. PMID:17640571

  16. In vitro moxifloxacin drug interaction with chemotherapeutics: implications for retinoblastoma management

    PubMed Central

    Barot, Megha; Gokulgandhi, Mitan R.; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2014-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a common malignant intraocular tumor primarily affecting children. Multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins (P-gp and MRPs) mediated chemoresistance have been considered as a major cause of treatment failure in treatment of RB. Ocular cells have shown good tolerability against moxifloxacin (MFX). Hence, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of moxifloxacin on the functionality of MDR proteins. Furthermore, we have also examined an interaction of MFX with anticancer agents (topotecane, etoposide and vinblastine) for RB treatment. For interaction of MFX with efflux transporter, model cell lines transfected with the efflux transporters (MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP2) were used to perform uptake and bi-directional transport experiments. Modulation of anticancer induced cell cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) release and caspase-3 enzyme activity in presence of MFX was also evaluated. Result indicates that MFX is a substrate of both MDR1 and MRP2 efflux transporters. Furthermore elevation of anticancer uptake and bi-directional transport, reduction in IC50 cytotoxic value and modulation of antiproliferative and cytokines release in presence of MFX by anticancer agents was observed. Our results demonstrate that MFX may not only modulate the permeability of anticancer agents at efflux sites but it may also potentiate antiproliferative activity of anticancer agents in retinoblastoma cells. This study may be further extended to explore in vivo outcome of this finding. PMID:24157270

  17. Targeted genome modification in mice using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Carbery, Iara D; Ji, Diana; Harrington, Anne; Brown, Victoria; Weinstein, Edward J; Liaw, Lucy; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2010-10-01

    Homologous recombination-based gene targeting using Mus musculus embryonic stem cells has greatly impacted biomedical research. This study presents a powerful new technology for more efficient and less time-consuming gene targeting in mice using embryonic injection of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), which generate site-specific double strand breaks, leading to insertions or deletions via DNA repair by the nonhomologous end joining pathway. Three individual genes, multidrug resistant 1a (Mdr1a), jagged 1 (Jag1), and notch homolog 3 (Notch3), were targeted in FVB/N and C57BL/6 mice. Injection of ZFNs resulted in a range of specific gene deletions, from several nucleotides to >1000 bp in length, among 20-75% of live births. Modified alleles were efficiently transmitted through the germline, and animals homozygous for targeted modifications were obtained in as little as 4 months. In addition, the technology can be adapted to any genetic background, eliminating the need for generations of backcrossing to achieve congenic animals. We also validated the functional disruption of Mdr1a and demonstrated that the ZFN-mediated modifications lead to true knockouts. We conclude that ZFN technology is an efficient and convenient alternative to conventional gene targeting and will greatly facilitate the rapid creation of mouse models and functional genomics research.

  18. Targeted Genome Modification in Mice Using Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Carbery, Iara D.; Ji, Diana; Harrington, Anne; Brown, Victoria; Weinstein, Edward J.; Liaw, Lucy; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination-based gene targeting using Mus musculus embryonic stem cells has greatly impacted biomedical research. This study presents a powerful new technology for more efficient and less time-consuming gene targeting in mice using embryonic injection of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), which generate site-specific double strand breaks, leading to insertions or deletions via DNA repair by the nonhomologous end joining pathway. Three individual genes, multidrug resistant 1a (Mdr1a), jagged 1 (Jag1), and notch homolog 3 (Notch3), were targeted in FVB/N and C57BL/6 mice. Injection of ZFNs resulted in a range of specific gene deletions, from several nucleotides to >1000 bp in length, among 20–75% of live births. Modified alleles were efficiently transmitted through the germline, and animals homozygous for targeted modifications were obtained in as little as 4 months. In addition, the technology can be adapted to any genetic background, eliminating the need for generations of backcrossing to achieve congenic animals. We also validated the functional disruption of Mdr1a and demonstrated that the ZFN-mediated modifications lead to true knockouts. We conclude that ZFN technology is an efficient and convenient alternative to conventional gene targeting and will greatly facilitate the rapid creation of mouse models and functional genomics research. PMID:20628038

  19. P-glycoprotein Mediates Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesion Formation by Enhancing Phosphorylation of the Chloride Channel-3

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lulu; Li, Qin; Lin, Guixian; Huang, Dan; Zeng, Xuxin; Wang, Xinwei; Li, Ping; Jin, Xiaobao; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Chunmei; Chen, Lixin; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shulin; Shao, Hongwei; Xu, Bin; Mao, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene and is well studied as a multi-drug resistance transporter. Peritoneal adhesion formation following abdominal surgery remains an important clinical problem. Here, we found that P-gp was highly expressed in human adhesion fibroblasts and promoted peritoneal adhesion formation in a rodent model. Knockdown of P-gp expression by intraperitoneal injection of MDR1-targeted siRNA significantly reduced both the peritoneal adhesion development rate and adhesion grades. Additionally, we found that operative injury up-regulated P-gp expression in peritoneal fibroblasts through the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway and histone H3 acetylation. The overexpression of P-gp accelerated migration and proliferation of fibroblasts via volume-activated Cl- current and cell volume regulation by enhancing phosphorylation of the chloride channel-3. Therefore, P-gp plays a critical role in postoperative peritoneal adhesion formation and may be a valuable therapeutic target for preventing the formation of peritoneal adhesions. PMID:26877779

  20. Involvement of P-glycoprotein in regulating cellular levels of Ginkgo flavonols: quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Cao, Jiang; Zeng, Su

    2005-06-01

    Quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were the most important flavonoid constituents in extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves. Transport studies of Ginkgo flavonols were performed in Caco-2 cell mono-layers. Their apparent permeability in absorptive and secretion directions was determined, and quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin displayed polarized transport, with the Papp,B-A being higher than the Papp,A-B (P<0.01 for quercetin, P<0.001 for kaempferol and isorhamnetin, Student's t-test). Bcap37/MDR1 cells, which were transfected with a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) gene construct, were treated with quercetin, kaempferol or isorhamnetin. The concentrations of Ginkgo flavonol in Bcap37/MDR1 cells were lower than those in parent cells (P<0.05 for quercetin, P<0.01 for isorhamnetin, Mann-Whitney U test). The concentrations of the flavonol in transfected cells increased when incubated with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil (P<0.05 for kaempferol, Mann-WhitneyU test). A colorometric assay for ATPase activity was applied to the detection of interaction of flavonol with P-gp. Quercetin and kaempferol inhibited the ATPase activity, and isorhamnetin stimulated the ATPase activity (P<0.05 for isorhamnetin, Mann Whitney U test). The results indicated that Ginkgo flavonols quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were substrates of P-gp. The P-gp type efflux pump might limit the bioavailability of Ginkgo flavonols.

  1. Establishment of in vitro P-glycoprotein inhibition assay and its exclusion criteria to assess the risk of drug-drug interaction at the drug discovery stage.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shin-ichi; Tachibana, Miho; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Amano, Nobuyuki; Moriwaki, Toshiya

    2011-09-01

    The decision tree to determine whether the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)-mediated drug-drug interaction (DDI) study is recommended has been proposed by the International Transporter Consortium. We, therefore, designed an in vitro P-gp inhibition assay and determined the appropriate risk criteria for P-gp-mediated DDI at the drug discovery stage. Effects of P-gp inhibitors on digoxin transport across a monolayer of MDR1-expressing cells were examined. The IC(50) (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) values generated from the efflux ratio (ER) were smaller than those generated from basolateral-to-apical directional apparent permeability. The difference in IC(50) values was kinetically described in a compartment model analysis. This analysis indicated that ER is a highly sensitive parameter that can be used for the degree of P-gp inhibition. Considering IC(50) values and the increase in digoxin exposure in clinical DDI studies, the risk criteria of [I(2)]/IC(50) = 30 ([I(2)], theoretically maximal gastrointestinal concentration) was the optimal cutoff value to predict a clinically relevant DDI. We also investigated whether the IC(50) value itself is applicable to assess the DDI risk. In conclusion, compounds with IC(50) values less than 2 μM exhibit high risk for P-gp-mediated DDIs. However, compounds with IC(50) values greater than or equal to 2 μM are inconclusive because clinical doses should be considered for the precise DDI risk assessment.

  2. Glucose deprivation induces chemoresistance in colorectal cancer cells by increasing ATF4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ya-Ling; Yin, Yuan; Liu, He-Yong; Feng, Yu-Yang; Bian, Ze-Hua; Zhou, Le-Yuan; Zhang, Ji-Wei; Fei, Bo-Jian; Wang, Yu-Gang; Huang, Zhao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in glucose deprivation (GD) induced colorectal cancer (CRC) drug resistance and the mechanism involved. METHODS: Chemosensitivity and apoptosis were measured under the GD condition. Inhibition of ATF4 using short hairpin RNA in CRC cells under the GD condition and in ATF4-overexpressing CRC cells was performed to identify the role of ATF4 in the GD induced chemoresistance. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of drug resistance gene 1 (MDR1), respectively. RESULTS: GD protected CRC cells from drug-induced apoptosis (oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil) and induced the expression of ATF4, a key gene of the unfolded protein response. Depletion of ATF4 in CRC cells under the GD condition can induce apoptosis and drug re-sensitization. Similarly, inhibition of ATF4 in the ATF4-overexpressing CRC cells reintroduced therapeutic sensitivity and apoptosis. In addition, increased MDR1 expression was observed in GD-treated CRC cells. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that GD promotes chemoresistance in CRC cells through up-regulating ATF4 expression. PMID:27468213

  3. Proteasome inhibitor-adapted myeloma cells are largely independent from proteasome activity and show complex proteomic changes, in particular in redox and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, G P; Besse, L; Li, N; Kraus, M; Besse, A; Meeuwenoord, N; Bader, J; Everts, B; den Dulk, H; Overkleeft, H S; Florea, B I; Driessen, C

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive resistance of myeloma to proteasome inhibition represents a clinical challenge, whose biology is poorly understood. Proteasome mutations were implicated as underlying mechanism, while an alternative hypothesis based on low activation status of the unfolded protein response was recently suggested (IRE1/XBP1-low model). We generated bortezomib- and carfilzomib-adapted, highly resistant multiple myeloma cell clones (AMO-BTZ, AMO-CFZ), which we analyzed in a combined quantitative and functional proteomic approach. We demonstrate that proteasome inhibitor-adapted myeloma cells tolerate subtotal proteasome inhibition, irrespective of a proteasome mutation, and uniformly show an 'IRE1/XBP1-low' signature. Adaptation of myeloma cells to proteasome inhibitors involved quantitative changes in >600 protein species with similar patterns in AMO-BTZ and AMO-CFZ cells: proteins involved in metabolic regulation, redox homeostasis, and protein folding and destruction were upregulated, while apoptosis and transcription/translation were downregulated. The quantitatively most upregulated protein in AMO-CFZ cells was the multidrug resistance protein (MDR1) protein ABCB1, and carfilzomib resistance could be overcome by MDR1 inhibition. We propose a model where proteasome inhibitor-adapted myeloma cells tolerate subtotal proteasome inhibition owing to metabolic adaptations that favor the generation of reducing equivalents, such as NADPH, which is supported by oxidative glycolysis. Proteasome inhibitor resistance may thus be targeted by manipulating the energy and redox metabolism. PMID:27118406

  4. Purine analogs sensitize the multidrug resistant cell line (NCI-H460/R) to doxorubicin and stimulate the cell growth inhibitory effect of verapamil.

    PubMed

    Pesić, Milica; Podolski, Ana; Rakić, Ljubisa; Ruzdijić, Sabera

    2010-08-01

    The resistant cell line NCI-H460/R and its counterpart NCI-H460 were used to investigate the ability of purine analogs to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) that seriously limit the efficacy of lung cancer regimens with chemotherapeutic agents. Two purine analogs, sulfinosine (SF) and 8-Cl-cAMP, exerted dose-dependent effects on cell growth in both parental and resistant cell lines. They significantly decreased mdr1 expression in NCI-H460/R cells. Low concentrations (1 microM) of SF and 8-Cl-cAMP in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) exerted synergistic growth inhibition in both cell lines. Pretreatment with SF and 8-Cl-cAMP improved the sensitivity to DOX more than verapamil (VER), the standard modulator of MDR. The increased accumulation of DOX observed after the treatment with SF and 8-Cl-cAMP was consistent with the results obtained with VER. VER stimulated the effect of 8-Cl-cAMP on DOX cytotoxicity and mdr1 expression. Combinations of either SF or 8-Cl-cAMP with VER at clinically acceptable concentrations exhibited synergistic effects on cell growth inhibition in the resistant cell line. SF and 8-Cl-cAMP modulated MDR in NCI-H460/R cells, especially when applied before DOX administration. This feature, together with their ability to reverse MDR, renders the purine analogs (in combination with VER) as potential candidates for improving the clinical activity of existing lung cancer therapeutics.

  5. The role of stereoselectivity of chemosensitizers in the reversal of multidrug resistance of mouse lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Szabó, D; Molnár, J

    1998-01-01

    The effect of three different stereoisomer pairs of CNS (central nervous system) active compounds was studied on the activity of human mdr1 p-glycoprotein. The methotrimeprazine, clopenthixol and butaclamol isomers had an antiproliferative effect (ID50) on the mdr1 expressing cells at 0.250 microgram/ml, while the parental cells were less sensitive having ID50 at 0.37-0.69 microgram/ml. Enantiomers of methotrimeprazine and clopenthixol had similar effectivity on the drug efflux of mdr cells. However, (-)butaclamol was found to inhibit mdr efflux-pump activity much more than the CNS active (+) isomer. Based on these results, tricyclic compounds does not seem to have stereoselectivity in methotrimeprazine and clopenthixol on the mdr reversal effect. In general, both active and inactive members of stereoisomers had a similar effect on the drug accumulation of the mdr cells. Therefore, hypothetically the CNS inactive member of stereoisomer pairs can be used as a resistance modifier without any risk in patients suffering from drug resistant cancer.

  6. [Antibibiotic resistance by nosocomial infections' causal agents].

    PubMed

    Salazar-Holguín, Héctor Daniel; Cisneros-Robledo, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la resistencia a antimicrobianos por agentes causales de infección nosocomial (IN) constituye un grave problemática global que involucra al HGR 1 del IMSS en Chihuahua, México; si bien con particularidades que requirieron especificarla y evaluarla, a fin de concretar una terapéutica eficaz. Métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo y prospectivo; se llevó a cabo mediante vigilancia activa durante 2014 para la detección de infecciones nosocomiales, su estudio epidemiológico, cultivo y antibiograma para identificar al agente causal y su resistencia a los antibióticos. Resultados: de 13527 egresos hospitalarios, 1079 presentaron IN (8 por 100 egresos) y de ellas destacaron: de líneas vasculares, quirúrgicas, neumonía y de vías urinarias; sumando dos tercios del total. Se realizó cultivo y antibiograma en 300 de ellas (27.8 %); identificando 31 especies bacterianas, siendo siete las principales (77.9 %): Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus y epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Enterobacter cloacae; mostrando multirresistencia a 34 antibióticos probados, excepto en siete con baja o nula resistencia: vancomicina, teicoplanina, linezolid, quinupristina-dalfopristina, piperacilina–tazobactam, amikacina y carbapenémicos. Conclusiones: al contrastar tales resultados ante las recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica, surgieron contradicciones; por lo que deben tomarse con reserva y ser probadas en cada hospital, mediante cultivos y antibiogramas en prácticamente todos los casos de infección nosocomial.

  7. Quest for Integrity: The Mexican-U.S. Drug Issue in the 1980s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Investigacion y Docencia Economicas, April-September 1985, pp. 20-28. Gonzalez, Guadalupe, and Marta Tienda (eds.), The Drug Connection in U.S...prevension del trafico y el abuso de drogas . University of California, San Diego, April 19, 1990. -61- Salinas de Gortari, Carlos, "Speech to U.S.-Mexico

  8. What You Need to Know about Drugs: GHB

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What You Need to Know About Drugs: GHB KidsHealth > For Kids > What You Need to Know About Drugs: GHB A A A en español Lo que necesitas saber sobre las drogas: El GHB What It Is: GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) is illegally ...

  9. JPRS Report, Latin America, Reference Aid, Glossary of Spanish and Portuguese Narcotics Terms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Me) any pill user 13 chochos chocolate chocolates chucho churo chutazo ciclopales cigarro grueso de marijuana cinco dölares de drogas...pisadores cocazo cocinero coco coco cöctel cohete cola (aspirar, inhalar, respirar) colgado colilla colo coloradas colorines comercializador

  10. What You Need to Know about Drugs: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray What You Need to Know About Drugs: Marijuana KidsHealth > For Kids > What You Need to Know About Drugs: Marijuana Print A A A en español Lo que ... sobre las drogas: La mariguana What It Is: Marijuana (say: mare-uh-WAH-nuh) is the most ...

  11. What You Need to Know About Drugs: Heroin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What You Need to Know About Drugs: Heroin KidsHealth > For Kids > What You Need to Know About Drugs: Heroin A A A en español Lo que necesitas ... sobre las drogas: La heroína What It Is: Heroin (say: HAIR-uh-win) comes from the opium ...

  12. The Business of Cocaine: Are US Efforts Focused for Success?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    launderer Maurico Vives Carrillo resulted in the DEA’s blocking over $60 million of Gacha’s funds.12 These seizures were very 5disruptive to Gacha’s...Control del Abuso do Drogas (CICAD), under the Organization of American States with US Department of Justice leadership. While in I its infancy, the inter

  13. Drug-induced trafficking of p-glycoprotein in human brain capillary endothelial cells as demonstrated by exposure to mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Noack, Andreas; Noack, Sandra; Hoffmann, Andrea; Maalouf, Katia; Buettner, Manuela; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Alms, Dana; Römermann, Kerstin; Naim, Hassan Y; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1/MDR1) is a major efflux transporter at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), restricting the penetration of various compounds. In other tissues, trafficking of Pgp from subcellular stores to the cell surface has been demonstrated and may constitute a rapid way of the cell to respond to toxic compounds by functional membrane insertion of the transporter. It is not known whether drug-induced Pgp trafficking also occurs in brain capillary endothelial cells that form the BBB. In this study, trafficking of Pgp was investigated in human brain capillary endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) that were stably transfected with a doxycycline-inducible MDR1-EGFP fusion plasmid. In the presence of doxycycline, these cells exhibited a 15-fold increase in Pgp-EGFP fusion protein expression, which was associated with an increased efflux of the Pgp substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123). The chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MMC) was used to study drug-induced trafficking of Pgp. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of single hCMEC/D3-MDR1-EGFP cells revealed that Pgp redistribution from intracellular pools to the cell surface occurred within 2 h of MMC exposure. Pgp-EGFP exhibited a punctuate pattern at the cell surface compatible with concentrated regions of the fusion protein in membrane microdomains, i.e., lipid rafts, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis of biotinylated cell surface proteins in Lubrol-resistant membranes. MMC exposure also increased the functionality of Pgp as assessed in three functional assays with Pgp substrates (Rho123, eFluxx-ID Gold, calcein-AM). However, this increase occurred with some delay after the increased Pgp expression and coincided with the release of Pgp from the Lubrol-resistant membrane complexes. Disrupting rafts by depleting the membrane of cholesterol increased the functionality of Pgp. Our data present the first direct evidence of drug-induced Pgp trafficking at the human BBB and indicate that Pgp has to be released from lipid

  14. Establishment of a human hepatoma multidrug resistant cell line in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Ling, Xian-Long; Li, Shi-Wei; Li, Xin-Qiang; Yan, Bin

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To establish a multidrug-resistant hepatoma cell line (SK-Hep-1), and to investigate its biological characteristics. METHODS: A highly invasive SK-Hep-1 cell line of human hepatocellular carcinoma, also known as malignant hepatoma was incubated with a high concentration of cisplatin (CDDP) to establish a CDDP-resistant cell subline (SK-Hep-1/CDDP). The 50% inhibitory dose (IC50) values and the resistance indexes [(IC50 SK-Hep-1/CDDP)/(IC50 SK-Hep-1)] for other chemotherapeutic agents and the growth curve of cells were all evaluated using cell counting kit-8 assays. The distribution of the cell cycles were detected by flow cytometry. Expression of acquired multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1) was compared with that in parent cells by Western blotting and immunofluorescence combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The SK-Hep-1/CDDP cells (IC50 = 70.61 ± 1.06 μg/mL) was 13.76 times more resistant to CDDP than the SK-Hep-1 cells (IC50 = 5.13 ± 0.09 μg/mL), and CDDP-resistant cells also demonstrated cross-resistance to many anti-tumor agents such as doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and vincristine. Similar morphologies were determined in both SK-Hep-1 and SK-Hep-1/CDDP groups. The cell cycle distribution of the SK-Hep-1/CDDP cell line exhibited a significantly increased percentage of cells in S (42.2% ± 2.65% vs 27.91% ± 2.16%, P < 0.01) and G2/M (20.67% ± 5.69% vs 12.14% ± 3.36%, P < 0.01) phases in comparison with SK-Hep-1 cells, while the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase decreased (37.5% ± 5.05% vs 59.83% ± 3.28%, P < 0.01). The levels of MDR1 and MRP1 were overexpressed in the SK-Hep-1/CDDP cells exhibiting the MDR phenotype. CONCLUSION: Multiple drug resistance of multiple drugs in the human hepatoma cell line SK-Hep-1/CDDP was closely related to the overexpression of MDR1 and MRP1. PMID:20458768

  15. CD44hiCD24lo mammosphere-forming cells from primary breast cancer display resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ping; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Shu-Jun; Ge, Hai-Liang; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Xu, Ying-Chun; Wang, Ying

    2016-06-01

    It has been widely suggested that mammosphere-forming cells from tumor cell lines or primary tumors represent the population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which is supposed to lead to the failure of routine chemotherapy and the recurrence of the disease. However, it is still difficult to obtain CSCs from primary breast cancer for further investigation. We performed a modified culture system to generate mammosphere-forming cells derived from freshly isolated human breast cancer samples and the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Cancer stem cell-like phenotypes such as CD44 and CD24 were measured by flow cytometry while alkaline phosphatase (AP) and mammaglobin (MGB1) expression was evaluated immunohistochemically. The expression levels of Klf4, Nanog, Oct4, Sox2 and mdr1 genes were analyzed by quantitative real‑time PCR. Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs was detected through the apoptosis assay upon drug treatments together with the detection of drug-resistant gene mdr1. The results revealed that we successfully obtained mammosphere‑forming cells from the primary breast cancer in conditioned medium after 14 days of culture. Mammosphere-forming cells from primary breast cancer displayed a CD44hiCD24lo phenotype as well as positive AP and MGB1 reactivity. Stem cell-related genes such as Klf4, Nanog and Oct4 were detectably expressed in these cells. These cells formed tumor-like structures in the lymph nodes of nude mice, which were morphologically and histologically similar to breast cancer. Compared to the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 or mammosphere-forming cells from MCF-7 cells, the mammosphere-forming cells from the primary breast cancer exhibited resistance to three of four first-line chemotherapeutic drugs investigated through the induction of apoptosis, which was largely associated with the increased expression of drug-resistant gene mdr1 upon drug treatment. In conclusion, mammosphere-forming cells generated from the primary breast cancer exhibit CSC

  16. Drug-Induced Trafficking of P-Glycoprotein in Human Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells as Demonstrated by Exposure to Mitomycin C

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Andreas; Noack, Sandra; Hoffmann, Andrea; Maalouf, Katia; Buettner, Manuela; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A.; Weksler, Babette; Alms, Dana; Römermann, Kerstin; Naim, Hassan Y.; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1/MDR1) is a major efflux transporter at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), restricting the penetration of various compounds. In other tissues, trafficking of Pgp from subcellular stores to the cell surface has been demonstrated and may constitute a rapid way of the cell to respond to toxic compounds by functional membrane insertion of the transporter. It is not known whether drug-induced Pgp trafficking also occurs in brain capillary endothelial cells that form the BBB. In this study, trafficking of Pgp was investigated in human brain capillary endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) that were stably transfected with a doxycycline-inducible MDR1-EGFP fusion plasmid. In the presence of doxycycline, these cells exhibited a 15-fold increase in Pgp-EGFP fusion protein expression, which was associated with an increased efflux of the Pgp substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123). The chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MMC) was used to study drug-induced trafficking of Pgp. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of single hCMEC/D3-MDR1-EGFP cells revealed that Pgp redistribution from intracellular pools to the cell surface occurred within 2 h of MMC exposure. Pgp-EGFP exhibited a punctuate pattern at the cell surface compatible with concentrated regions of the fusion protein in membrane microdomains, i.e., lipid rafts, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis of biotinylated cell surface proteins in Lubrol-resistant membranes. MMC exposure also increased the functionality of Pgp as assessed in three functional assays with Pgp substrates (Rho123, eFluxx-ID Gold, calcein-AM). However, this increase occurred with some delay after the increased Pgp expression and coincided with the release of Pgp from the Lubrol-resistant membrane complexes. Disrupting rafts by depleting the membrane of cholesterol increased the functionality of Pgp. Our data present the first direct evidence of drug-induced Pgp trafficking at the human BBB and indicate that Pgp has to be released from lipid

  17. Imipramine exploits histone deacetylase 11 to increase the IL-12/IL-10 ratio in macrophages infected with antimony-resistant Leishmania donovani and clears organ parasites in experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sandip; Mukherjee, Budhaditya; Mukhopadhyay, Rupkatha; Naskar, Kshudiram; Sundar, Shyam; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Roy, Syamal

    2014-10-15

    The efflux of antimony through multidrug resistance protein (MDR)-1 is the key factor in the failure of metalloid treatment in kala-azar patients infected with antimony-resistant Leishmania donovani (Sb(R)LD). Previously we showed that MDR-1 upregulation in Sb(R)LD infection is IL-10-dependent. Imipramine, a drug in use for the treatment of depression and nocturnal enuresis in children, inhibits IL-10 production from Sb(R)LD-infected macrophages (Sb(R)LD-Mϕs) and favors accumulation of surrogates of antimonials. It inhibits IL-10-driven nuclear translocation of c-Fos/c-Jun, critical for enhanced MDR-1 expression. The drug upregulates histone deacetylase 11, which inhibits acetylation of IL-10 promoter, leading to a decrease in IL-10 production from Sb(R)LD-Mϕs. It abrogates Sb(R)LD-mediated p50/c-Rel binding to IL-10 promoter and preferentially recruits p65/RelB to IL-12 p35 and p40 promoters, causing a decrease in IL-10 and overproduction of IL-12 in Sb(R)LD-Mϕs. Histone deacetylase 11 per se does not influence IL-12 promoter activity. Instead, a imipramine-mediated decreased IL-10 level allows optimal IL-12 production in Sb(R)LD-Mϕs. Furthermore, exogenous rIL-12 inhibits intracellular Sb(R)LD replication, which can be mimicked by the presence of Ab to IL-10. This observation indicated that reciprocity exists between IL-10 and IL-12 and that imipramine tips the balance toward an increased IL-12/IL-10 ratio in Sb(R)LD-Mϕs. Oral treatment of infected BALB/c mice with imipramine in combination with sodium stibogluconate cleared organ Sb(R)LD parasites and caused an expansion of the antileishmanial T cell repertoire where sodium stibogluconate alone had no effect. Our study deciphers a detailed molecular mechanism of imipramine-mediated regulation of IL-10/IL-12 reciprocity and its impact on Sb(R)LD clearance from infected hosts.

  18. Transfected MDCK cell line with enhanced expression of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as a model to study their role in drug transport and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Deep; Budda, Balasubramanyam; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-07-02

    The aim of this study was to characterize and utilize MDCK cell line expressing CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as an in vitro model for evaluating drug-herb and drug-drug of abuse interactions. MDCK cell line simultaneously expressing P-gp and CYP3A4 (MMC) was developed and characterized by using expression and activity studies. Cellular transport study of 200 μM cortisol was performed to determine their combined activity. The study was carried across MDCK-WT, MDCK-MDR1 and MMC cell lines. Similar studies were also carried out in the presence of 50 μM naringin and 3 μM morphine. Samples were analyzed by HPLC for drug and its CYP3A4 metabolite. PCR, qPCR and Western blot studies confirmed the enhanced expression of the proteins in the transfected cells. The Vivid CYP3A4 assay and ketoconazole inhibition studies further confirmed the presence of active protein. Apical to basal transport of cortisol was found to be 10- and 3-fold lower in MMC as compared to MDCK-WT and MDCK-MDR1 respectively. Higher amount of metabolite was formed in MMC than in MDCK-WT, indicating enhanced expression of CYP3A4. Highest cortisol metabolite formation was observed in MMC cell line due to the combined activities of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Transport of cortisol increased 5-fold in the presence of naringin in MMC and doubled in MDCK-MDR1. Cortisol transport in MMC was significantly lower than that in MDCK-WT in the presence of naringin. The permeability increased 3-fold in the presence of morphine, which is a weaker inhibitor of CYP3A4. Formation of 6β-hydroxy cortisol was found to decrease in the presence of morphine and naringin. This new model cell line with its enhanced CYP3A4 and P-gp levels in addition to short culture time can serve as an invaluable model to study drug-drug interactions. This cell line can also be used to study the combined contribution of efflux transporter and metabolizing enzymes toward drug-drug interactions.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus and Lipopolysaccharide Modulate Gene Expressions of Drug Transporters in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells Correlation to Inflammatory Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Yagdiran, Yagmur; Tallkvist, Jonas; Artursson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation in the mammary gland (mastitis) is the most common disease in dairy herds worldwide, often caused by the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Little is known about the effects of mastitis on drug transporters and the impact on transporter-mediated excretion of drugs into milk. We used murine mammary epithelial HC11 cells, after lactogenic differentiation into a secreting phenotype, and studied gene expressions of ABC- and SLC- transporters after treatment of cells with S. aureus and lipopolysaccharide, an endotoxin secreted by E. coli. The studied transporters were Bcrp, Mdr1, Mrp1, Oatp1a5, Octn1 and Oct1. In addition, Csn2, the gene encoding β-casein, was analyzed. As biomarkers of the inflammatory response, gene expressions of the cytokines Il6 and Tnfα and the chemokine Cxcl2 were determined. Our results show that S. aureus and LPS treatment of cells, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, induced an up-regulation of Mdr1 and of the inflammatory biomarkers, except that Tnfα was not affected by lipopolysaccharide. By simple regression analysis we could demonstrate statistically significant positive correlations between each of the transporters with each of the inflammatory biomarkers in cells treated with S. aureus. The coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.7–0.9 for all but one correlation. After treatment of cells with lipopolysaccharide, statistically significant correlations were only found between Mdr1 and the two parameters Cxcl2 and Il6. The expression of Csn2 was up-regulated in cells treated with S. aureus, indicating that the secretory function of the cells was not impaired. The strong correlation in gene expressions between transporters and inflammatory biomarkers may suggest a co-regulation and that the transporters have a role in the transport of cytokines and chemokines. Our results demonstrate that transporters in mammary cells can be affected by infection, which may have an impact on

  20. Non-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are direct agonists for the human pregnane-X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, and activate target gene expression in a tissue-specific manner

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Salman, Fadheela; Plant, Nick

    2012-08-15

    The polychlorinated biphenyl group possesses high environmental persistence, leading to bioaccumulation and a number of adverse effects in mammals. Whilst coplanar PCBs elicit their toxic effects through agonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; however, non-coplanar PCBs are not ligands for AhR, but may be ligands for members of the nuclear receptor family of proteins. To better understand the biological actions of non-coplanar PCBs, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of their ability to activate PXR and CAR-mediated effects. Cells were exposed to a range of non-coplanar PCBs (99, 138, 153, 180 and 194), or the coplanar PCB77: Direct activation of PXR and CAR was measured using a mammalian receptor activation assay in human liver cells, with rifampicin and CITCO used as positive controls ligands for PXR and CAR, respectively; activation of target gene expression was examined using reporter gene plasmids for CYP3A4 and MDR1 transfected into liver, intestine and lung cell lines. Several of the non-coplanar PCBs directly activated PXR and CAR, whilst the coplanar PCB77 did not. Non-coplanar PCBs were also able to activate PXR/CAR target gene expression in a substitution- and tissue-specific manner. Non-coplanar PCBs act as direct activators for the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR, and are able to elicit transcriptional activation of target genes in a substitution- and tissue-dependent manner. Chronic activation of PXR/CAR is linked to adverse effects and must be included in any risk assessment of PCBs. -- Highlights: ► Several Non-coplanar PCBs are able to directly activate both PXR and CAR in vitro. ► PCB153 is the most potent direct activator of PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. ► Non-coplanar PCB activation of CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes is structure-dependent. ► Non-coplanar PCB activate CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes in a tissue-dependent. ► PCB153 is the most potent activator of PXR/CAR target gene in all tissues.

  1. Transporter assays and assay ontologies: useful tools for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Zdrazil, Barbara; Chichester, Christine; Zander Balderud, Linda; Engkvist, Ola; Gaulton, Anna; Overington, John P

    2014-06-01

    Transport proteins represent an eminent class of drug targets and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) associated genes. There exists a large number of distinct activity assays for transport proteins, depending on not only the measurement needed (e.g. transport activity, strength of ligand–protein interaction), but also due to heterogeneous assay setups used by different research groups. Efforts to systematically organize this (divergent) bioassay data have large potential impact in Public-Private partnership and conventional commercial drug discovery. In this short review, we highlight some of the frequently used high-throughput assays for transport proteins, and we discuss emerging assay ontologies and their application to this field. Focusing on human P-glycoprotein (Multidrug resistance protein 1; gene name: ABCB1, MDR1), we exemplify how annotation of bioassay data per target class could improve and add to existing ontologies, and we propose to include an additional layer of metadata supporting data fusion across different bioassays.

  2. Phallusiasterols A and B: two new sulfated sterols from the Mediterranean tunicate Phallusia fumigata and their effects as modulators of the PXR receptor.

    PubMed

    Imperatore, Concetta; D'Aniello, Filomena; Aiello, Anna; Fiorucci, Stefano; D'Amore, Claudio; Sepe, Valentina; Menna, Marialuisa

    2014-04-03

    Purification of the apolar extracts of the marine ascidian Phallusia fumigata, afforded two new sulfated sterols, phallusiasterols A (1) and B (2). The structures of the new compounds have been elucidated using mass spectrometry and NMR experiments. The effects of phallusiasterols A and B as modulators of pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) have been investigated. These studies revealed that phallusiasterol A induces PXR transactivation in HepG2 cells and stimulates the expression of the PXR target genes CYP3A4 and MDR1 in the same cell line. Molecular docking calculations suggested the theoretical binding mode of phallusiasterol A with hPXR and revealed that phallusiasterol A fitted well in the LBD of PXR.

  3. Phallusiasterols A and B: Two New Sulfated Sterols from the Mediterranean Tunicate Phallusia fumigata and Their Effects as Modulators of the PXR Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Imperatore, Concetta; D’Aniello, Filomena; Aiello, Anna; Fiorucci, Stefano; D’Amore, Claudio; Sepe, Valentina; Menna, Marialuisa

    2014-01-01

    Purification of the apolar extracts of the marine ascidian Phallusia fumigata, afforded two new sulfated sterols, phallusiasterols A (1) and B (2). The structures of the new compounds have been elucidated using mass spectrometry and NMR experiments. The effects of phallusiasterols A and B as modulators of pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) have been investigated. These studies revealed that phallusiasterol A induces PXR transactivation in HepG2 cells and stimulates the expression of the PXR target genes CYP3A4 and MDR1 in the same cell line. Molecular docking calculations suggested the theoretical binding mode of phallusiasterol A with hPXR and revealed that phallusiasterol A fitted well in the LBD of PXR. PMID:24705503

  4. An outbreak of artemisinin resistant falciparum malaria in Eastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Imwong, Mallika; Jindakhad, Thantip; Kunasol, Chanon; Sutawong, Kreepol; Vejakama, Phisitt; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2015-11-30

    Artemisinin resistant falciparum malaria is an increasing problem in Southeast Asia, but has not been associated with increased transmission of the disease, yet. During a recent outbreak in 2014 in Ubon Ratchatani, Eastern Thailand, parasites from 101 patients with falciparum malaria were genotyped for antimalarial drug resistance markers. Mutations in the Kelch13 marker for artemisinin resistance were present in 93% of samples, mainly C580Y from 2 major clusters as identified by microsatellite typing. Resistance markers for antifolates and chloroquine were also highly prevalent. Most strains (91%) carried single copy number PfMDR1, suggesting sustained sensitivity to mefloquine, the partner drug in the local first-line artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). The high prevalence of artemisinin resistance in this recent malaria outbreak suggests but does not prove a causative role in increased transmission. Careful monitoring of ACT efficacy and additional genetic epidemiological studies are warranted to guide the public health response to the outbreak.

  5. Combined approach with therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacogenomics in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Manvizhi, S; Mathew, B S; Fleming, D H; Basu, G; John, G T

    2013-01-01

    In patients undergoing renal transplantation, dose individualization for tacrolimus is routinely achieved with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The patient started on 5.5 mg/day of tacrolimus had a significantly elevated tacrolimus trough concentration. The tacrolimus dose was regularly reduced following TDM at many time periods in the post transplant period but the tacrolimus concentration was consistently elevated. Genomic analysis done after four years revealed mutations in the genes encoding for CYP3A5 and MDR1 (2677G > T). Pharmacogenomics alongside TDM, will soon emerge as the backbone of dose individualization. But for genomics to be beneficial, it should be advocated in the pre-transplant or early post transplant period.

  6. Whole-genome characterization of chemoresistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Patch, Ann-Marie; Christie, Elizabeth L; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Garsed, Dale W; George, Joshy; Fereday, Sian; Nones, Katia; Cowin, Prue; Alsop, Kathryn; Bailey, Peter J; Kassahn, Karin S; Newell, Felicity; Quinn, Michael C J; Kazakoff, Stephen; Quek, Kelly; Wilhelm-Benartzi, Charlotte; Curry, Ed; Leong, Huei San; Hamilton, Anne; Mileshkin, Linda; Au-Yeung, George; Kennedy, Catherine; Hung, Jillian; Chiew, Yoke-Eng; Harnett, Paul; Friedlander, Michael; Quinn, Michael; Pyman, Jan; Cordner, Stephen; O'Brien, Patricia; Leditschke, Jodie; Young, Greg; Strachan, Kate; Waring, Paul; Azar, Walid; Mitchell, Chris; Traficante, Nadia; Hendley, Joy; Thorne, Heather; Shackleton, Mark; Miller, David K; Arnau, Gisela Mir; Tothill, Richard W; Holloway, Timothy P; Semple, Timothy; Harliwong, Ivon; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Idrisoglu, Senel; Bruxner, Timothy J C; Christ, Angelika N; Poudel, Barsha; Holmes, Oliver; Anderson, Matthew; Leonard, Conrad; Lonie, Andrew; Hall, Nathan; Wood, Scott; Taylor, Darrin F; Xu, Qinying; Fink, J Lynn; Waddell, Nick; Drapkin, Ronny; Stronach, Euan; Gabra, Hani; Brown, Robert; Jewell, Andrea; Nagaraj, Shivashankar H; Markham, Emma; Wilson, Peter J; Ellul, Jason; McNally, Orla; Doyle, Maria A; Vedururu, Ravikiran; Stewart, Collin; Lengyel, Ernst; Pearson, John V; Waddell, Nicola; deFazio, Anna; Grimmond, Sean M; Bowtell, David D L

    2015-05-28

    Patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) have experienced little improvement in overall survival, and standard treatment has not advanced beyond platinum-based combination chemotherapy, during the past 30 years. To understand the drivers of clinical phenotypes better, here we use whole-genome sequencing of tumour and germline DNA samples from 92 patients with primary refractory, resistant, sensitive and matched acquired resistant disease. We show that gene breakage commonly inactivates the tumour suppressors RB1, NF1, RAD51B and PTEN in HGSC, and contributes to acquired chemotherapy resistance. CCNE1 amplification was common in primary resistant and refractory disease. We observed several molecular events associated with acquired resistance, including multiple independent reversions of germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in individual patients, loss of BRCA1 promoter methylation, an alteration in molecular subtype, and recurrent promoter fusion associated with overexpression of the drug efflux pump MDR1.

  7. CYP2D6 poor metabolizer status might be associated with better response to risperidone treatment.

    PubMed

    Almoguera, Berta; Riveiro-Alvarez, Rosa; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Dorado, Pedro; Vaquero-Lorenzo, Concepción; Fernandez-Piqueras, José; Llerena, Adrián; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Baca-García, Enrique; Dal-Ré, Rafael; Ayuso, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The variability in the antipsychotic response is, to some extent, genetically determined. Several studies have attempted to establish a role for genetic variation in genes coding pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic targets, but to date, no definite genetic predictive marker has been identified. We aimed to explore the putative role of 19 genetic variants and risperidone clinical improvement in 76 White schizophrenic inpatients, measured as change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). CYP2D6 poor metabolism was significantly associated with greater clinical improvement in total PANSS and a trend was also found for MDR1 3435C>T to higher total PANSS scores in 3435T carriers. This study suggests the importance that genetic variability on pharmacokinetic factors may have in risperidone response and gives evidence for the need for further investigation in order to establish the actual predictive value and clinical utility that CYP2D6 genotyping might have in risperidone therapy management.

  8. Interaction between various resistance modifiers and apoptosis inducer 12H-benzo[alpha]phenothiazine.

    PubMed

    Mucsi, Ilona; Varga, Andreas; Kawase, Masami; Motohashi, Noboru; Molnar, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    The effect of some resistance modifiers on apoptosis induction by a benzo[alpha]phenothiazine derivative was studied on the L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells (parent) and its multidrug resistant (MDR) subline. For evaluation of apoptosis the cells were stained with FITC-labelled annexin V and propidium iodide and the results were analysed by flow cytometry. 12H-benzo[alpha]phenothiazine [M627] induced apoptosis both in the parent cells and in the MDR cells. The apoptosis induction by [M627] was not affected significantly by post- or pre-treatment with resistance modifiers, while in the cells treated by (+/-)-verapamil before and after apoptosis induction with [M627], the apoptosis was somewhat higher. The resistance modifier compounds alone also induced apoptosis and it was slightly higher in the parent cells than its MDR1/A gene-transformed subline.

  9. Novel dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes as potent modulators of human P-glycoprotein dependent multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Torres-Romero, David; Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2009-12-21

    P-Glycoprotein (Pgp) overexpression is one factor contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells and represents one drawback in the treatment of cancer. In an attempt to find more specific and less toxic anticancer MDR-reversal agents, we report herein the isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity of nine new (, and ) and seven known (, and ) dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes from the leaves of Celastrus vulcanicola. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, CD studies and biogenetic means. All the compounds were assayed on human MDR1-transfected NIH-3T3 cells, in order to determine their ability to reverse the MDR phenotype due to Pgp overexpression. Six compounds from these series (, , , , and ) showed an effectiveness that was similar to (or higher than) the classical Pgp reversal agent verapamil for the reversal of resistance to daunomycin and vinblastine. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  10. Novel topoisomerase I-targeting antitumor agents synthesized from the N,N,N-trimethylammonium derivative of ARC-111, 5H-2,3-dimethoxy-8,9-methylenedioxy-5-[(2-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)ethyl]dibenzo[c,h][1,6]naphthyridin-6-one iodide.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Satyanarayana, Mavurapu; Tsai, Yuan-Chin; Liu, Angela A; Liu, Leroy F; LaVoie, Edmond J

    2009-09-01

    Several new TOP1-targeting agents were prepared using as an intermediate the N,N,N-trimethyl quaternary ammonium salt 2 of ARC-111. Direct displacement of the quaternary ammonium group with hydroxide, cyclopropylamine, imidazole, 1H-1,2,3-triazole, alkylethylenediamines, ethanolamine, and polyhydroxylated alkylamines provides a convenient means for furthering insight into the structure-activity relationships within this series of non-camptothecin TOP1-targeting agents. The relative TOP1-targeting activities and cytotoxicities were evaluated in RPMI8402 and P388 cells and their camptothecin-resistant variants. Their potential to serve as substrates for the efflux transporters MDR1 and BCRP, which are associated with multidrug resistance, was also assessed.

  11. Novel topoisomerase I-targeting antitumor agents synthesized from the N,N,N-trimethylammonium derivative of ARC-111, 5H-2,3-dimethoxy-8,9-methylenedioxy-5-[(2-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)ethyl]dibenzo[c,h][1,6]-naphthyridin-6-one iodide

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Satyanarayana, Mavurapu; Tsai, Yuan-Chin; Liu, Angela A.; Liu, Leroy F.; LaVoie, Edmond J.

    2009-01-01

    Several new TOP1-targeting agents were prepared using as an intermediate the N,N,N-trimethyl quaternary ammonium salt 2 of ARC-111. Direct displacement of the quaternary ammonium group with hydroxide, cyclopropylamine, imidazole, 1H-1,2,3-triazole, alkylethylenediamines, ethanolamine, and polyhydroxylated alkylamines provides a convenient means for furthering insight into the structure–activity relationships within this series of non-camptothecin TOP1-targeting agents. The relative TOP1-targeting activities and cytotoxicities were evaluated in RPMI8402 and P388 cells and their camptothecin-resistant variants. Their potential to serve as substrates for the efflux transporters MDR1 and BCRP, which are associated with multidrug resistance, was also assessed. PMID:19299037

  12. Inhibition of Candida albicans virulence factors by novel levofloxacin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shafreen, Raja Mohamed Beema; Raja Mohamed, Beema Shafreen; Muthamil, Subramanian; Subramanian, Muthamil; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Shunmugiah, Karutha Pandian

    2014-08-01

    Candida albicans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen, responsible for biofilm associated infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibiofilm properties of novel levofloxacin derivatives on C. albicans biofilms. The levofloxacin derivatives at their Biofilm Inhibitory Concentrations (BIC) were able to inhibit the biofilms of C. albicans, the yeast-to-hyphal transition and were also able to disrupt their mature biofilms. Furthermore, Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of ergosterol biosynthesis pathway gene (ERG11) and the efflux pump-encoding genes (CDR1 and MDR1) was decreased upon treatment with the levofloxacin derivatives. The total ergosterol content quantified using UV spectrophotomer showed decrease in ergosterol in the presence of levofloxacin derivatives. Overall, levofloxacin derivatives (6a, 6c and 7d) are capable of inhibiting C. albicans virulence factors. Therefore, these compounds with potential therapeutic implications can be used as new strategy to treat biofilm-related candidal infections.

  13. Multidrug-resistance proteins are weak tumor associated antigens for colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a clinically, highly relevant phenomenon. Under chemotherapy many tumors show an increasing resistance towards the applied substance(s) and to a certain extent also towards other agents. An important molecular cause of this phenomenon is an increased expression of transporter proteins. The functional relationship between high expression levels and chemotherapy resistance makes these MDR and MRP (MDR related protein) proteins to interesting therapeutic targets. We here wanted to systematically analyze, whether these proteins are tumor specific antigens which could be targeted immunologically. Results Using the reverse immunology approach, 30 HLA-A2.1 restricted MDR and MRP derived peptides (MDP) were selected. Stimulated T cell lines grew well and mainly contained activated CD8+ cells. Peptide specificity and HLA-A2.1 restriction were proven in IFN-γ-ELISpot analyses and in cytotoxicity tests against MDP loaded target cells for a total of twelve peptides derived from MDR-1, MDR-3, MRP-1, MRP-2, MRP-3 and MRP-5. Of note, two of these epitopes are shared between MDR-1 and MDR-3 as well as MRP-2 and MRP-3. However, comparably weak cytotoxic activities were additionally observed against HLA-A2.1+ tumor cells even after upregulation of MDR protein expression by in vitro chemotherapy. Conclusions Taken together, these data demonstrate that human T cells can be sensitised towards MDPs and hence, there is no absolute immunological tolerance. However, our data also hint towards rather low endogenous tumor cell processing and presentation of MDPs in the context of HLA-A2.1 molecules. Consequently, we conclude that MDR and MRP proteins must be considered as weak tumor specific antigens-at least for colorectal carcinoma. Their direct contribution to therapy-failure implies however, that it is worth to further pursue this approach. PMID:21740599

  14. Multifunctional polyamidoamine-modified selenium nanoparticles dual-delivering siRNA and cisplatin to A549/DDP cells for reversal multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjing; Cao, Chengwen; Liu, Yanan; Yu, Qianqian; Zheng, Chuping; Sun, Dongdong; Ren, Xiaofan; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major barrier against effective cancer treatment. Dual-delivering a therapeutic small interfering RNA (siRNA) and chemotherapeutic agents has been developed to reverse drug resistance in tumor cells. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G5.NH2)-modified selenium nanoparticles (G5@Se NP) were synthesized for the systemic dual-delivery of mdr1 siRNA and cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum-(II), DDP), which was demonstrated to enhance siRNA loading, releasing efficiency and gene-silencing efficacy. When the mdr1 siRNA was conjugated with G5@Se NP via electrostatic interaction, a significant down-regulation of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein expression was observed; G5@Se-DDP-siRNA arrested A549/DDP cells at G1 phase and led to enhanced cytotoxicity in A549/DDP cells through induction of apoptosis involving the AKT and ERK signaling pathways. Interestingly, G5@Se-DDP NP were much less reactive than DDP in the reactions with both MT and GSH, indicating that loading of DDP in a nano-delivery system could effectively prevent cell detoxification. Furthermore, animal studies demonstrated that the new delivery system of G5@Se-DDP-siRNA significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect on tumor-bearing nude mice, with no appreciable abnormality in the major organs. These results suggest that G5@Se NP could be a potential platform to combine chemotherapy and gene therapy technology in the treatment of human disease.

  15. Transcriptional expression levels of cell stress marker genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to acute thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Farcy, Émilie; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    During the annual cycle, oysters are exposed to seasonal slow changes in temperature, but during emersion at low tide on sunny summer days, their internal temperature may rise rapidly, resulting in acute heat stress. We experimentally exposed oysters to a 1-h acute thermal stress and investigated the transcriptional expression level of some genes involved in cell stress defence mechanisms, including chaperone proteins (heat shock proteins Hsp70, Hsp72 and Hsp90 (HSP)), regulation of oxidative stress (Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, metallothionein (MT)), cell detoxification (glutathione S-transferase sigma, cytochrome P450 and multidrug resistance (MDR1)) and regulation of the cell cycle (p53). Gene mRNA levels were quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and expressed as their ratio to actin mRNA, used as a reference. Of the nine genes studied, HSP, MT and MDR1 mRNA levels increased in response to thermal stress. We compared the responses of oysters exposed to acute heat shock in summer and winter and observed differences in terms of magnitude and kinetics. A larger increase was observed in September, with recovery within 48 h, whereas in March, the increase was smaller and lasted more than 2 days. The results were also compared with data obtained from the natural environment. Though the functional molecule is the protein and information at the mRNA level only has limitations, the potential use of mRNAs coding for cell stress defence proteins as early sensitive biomarkers is discussed. PMID:19002605

  16. Effect of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone on cell cycle, apoptosis, and ABC transporter expression in human soft tissue sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Nadine; Rinner, Beate; Stuendl, Nicole; Kaltenegger, Heike; Wolf, Elisabeth; Kunert, Olaf; Boechzelt, Herbert; Leithner, Andreas; Bauer, Rudolf; Lohberger, Birgit

    2012-11-01

    Human soft tissue sarcomas represent a rare group of malignant tumours that frequently exhibit chemotherapeutic resistance and increased metastatic potential following unsuccessful treatment. In this study, we investigated the effects of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone, which have been isolated from Saussurea lappa using activity-guided isolation, on three soft tissue sarcoma cell lines of various origins. The effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis induction, and ABC transporter expression were analysed. Both compounds inhibited cell viability dose- and time-dependently. IC50 values ranged from 6.2 µg/mL to 9.8 µg/mL. Cells treated with costunolide showed no changes in cell cycle, little in caspase 3/7 activity, and low levels of cleaved caspase-3 after 24 and 48 h. Dehydrocostus lactone caused a significant reduction of cells in the G1 phase and an increase of cells in the S and G2/M phase. Moreover, it led to enhanced caspase 3/7 activity, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP indicating apoptosis induction. In addition, the influence of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone on the expression of ATP binding cassette transporters related to multidrug resistance (ABCB1/MDR1, ABCC1/MRP1, and ABCG2/BCRP1) was examined using real-time RT-PCR. The expressions of ABCB1/MDR1 and ABCG2/BCRP1 in liposarcoma and synovial sarcoma cells were significantly downregulated by dehydrocostus lactone. Our data demonstrate for the first time that dehydrocostus lactone affects cell viability, cell cycle distribution and ABC transporter expression in soft tissue sarcoma cell lines. Furthermore, it led to caspase 3/7 activity as well as caspase-3 and PARP cleavage, which are indicators of apoptosis. Therefore, this compound may be a promising lead candidate for the development of therapeutic agents against drug-resistant tumours.

  17. Development and Validation of an In-Cell Western for Quantifying P-Glycoprotein Expression in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial (hCMEC/D3) Cells.

    PubMed

    McInerney, Mitchell P; Pan, Yijun; Short, Jennifer L; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2017-01-05

    An in-cell western (ICW) protocol detecting the relative expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in human cerebro-microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) was developed and optimized, with the intention of improving throughput relative to western blotting (WB). For validation of the ICW protocol, hCMEC/D3 cells were incubated with known P-gp upregulators (10 μM rifampicin and 5 μM SR12813) and treated with siRNA targeted against MDR1, before measuring changes in P-gp expression, using both ICW and WB in parallel. To confirm a relationship between the detected P-gp expression and function, the uptake of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 was assessed following SR12813 treatment. Rifampicin and SR12813 significantly upregulated P-gp expression (1.5-fold and 1.9-fold, respectively) compared to control, as assessed by the ICW protocol. WB analysis of the same treatments revealed 1.4-fold and 1.5-fold upregulations. MDR1 siRNA reduced P-gp abundance by 20% and 35% when assessed by ICW and WB, respectively. SR12813 treatment reduced rhodamine-123 uptake by 18%, indicating that the observed changes in P-gp expression by ICW were associated with comparable functional changes. The correlation of P-gp upregulation by WB, rhodamine-123 uptake, and the ICW protocol provide validation of a new ICW method as an alternative method for quantification of P-gp in hCMEC/D3 cells.

  18. Effect of cigarette smoke extract on P-glycoprotein function in primary cultured and newly developed alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Takano, Mikihisa; Naka, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Nishimoto, Saori; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2016-12-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function in the distal lung is unclear. In this study, we first examined the expression and function of P-gp and the effect of CSE in rat primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells. The expression of P-gp protein was observed in type I-like cells, but not in type II cells. In type I-like cells, rhodamine 123 (Rho123) accumulation was enhanced by various P-gp inhibitors such as verapamil and cyclosporine A. In addition, the expression of P-gp mRNAs, mdr1a and mdr1b, as well as P-gp activity increased along with the transdifferentiation. When type I-like cells were co-incubated with CSE, P-gp activity was suppressed. Next, we attempted to clarify the effect of CSE on P-gp function in human-derived cultured alveolar epithelial cells. For this purpose, we isolated an A549 clone (A549/P-gp) expressing P-gp, because P-gp expression in native A549 cells was negligible. In A549/P-gp cells, P-gp was functionally expressed, and the inhibitory effect of CSE on P-gp was observed. These results suggested that smoking would directly suppress P-gp activity, and that A549/P-gp cell line should be a useful model to further study the effect of xenobiotics on P-gp function in the alveolar epithelial cells.

  19. Differential regulation of transport proteins in the periinfarct region following reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Dazert, P; Suofu, Y; Grube, M; Popa-Wagner, A; Kroemer, H K; Jedlitschky, G; Kessler, C

    2006-11-03

    Members of various transport protein families including ATP-binding cassette transporters and solute carriers were shown to be expressed in brain capillaries, choroid plexus, astrocytes or neurons, controlling drug and metabolite distribution to and from the brain. However, data are currently very limited on how the expression of these transport systems is affected by damage to the brain such as stroke. Therefore we studied the expression of four selected transporters, P-glycoprotein (Mdr1a/b; Abcb1a/b), Mrp5 (Abcc5), Bcrp (Abcg2), and Oatp2 (Slc21a5) in a rat model for stroke. Transporter expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the periinfarcted region and protein localization and cellular phenotyping were done by immunohistochemistry and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. After stroke, P-glycoprotein staining was detected in endothelial cells of disintegrated capillaries and by day 14 in newly generated blood vessels. There was no significant difference, however, in the Mdr1a mRNA amount in the periinfarcted region compared with the contralateral site. For Bcrp, a significant mRNA up-regulation was observed from days 3-14. This up-regulation was followed by the protein as confirmed by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Oatp2, located in the vascular endothelium, was also up-regulated at day 14. For Mrp5, an up-regulation was observed in neurons in the periinfarcted region (day 14). In conclusion, after stroke the transport proteins were up-regulated with a maximum at day 14, a time point that coincides with behavioral recuperation. The study further suggests Bcrp as a pronounced marker for the regenerative process and a possible functional role of Mrp5 in surviving neurons.

  20. Enhanced extracellular production of aspartyl proteinase, a virulence factor, by Candida albicans isolates following growth in subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Wu, T; Wright, K; Hurst, S F; Morrison, C J

    2000-05-01

    We examined the production of secreted aspartyl proteinase (Sap), a putative virulence factor of Candida albicans, by a series of 17 isolates representing a single strain obtained from the oral cavity of an AIDS patient before and after the development of clinical and in vitro resistance to fluconazole. Isolates were grown in Sap-inducing yeast carbon base-bovine serum albumin medium containing 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1 MIC of fluconazole, and cultures were sampled daily for 14 days to determine extracellular Sap activity by enzymatic degradation of bovine serum albumin. Extracellular Sap activity was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner for the most fluconazole-susceptible isolate (MIC, 1.0 microg/ml) and significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner for the most fluconazole-resistant isolate (MIC, >64 microg/ml). Enhanced extracellular Sap production could not be attributed to cell death or nonspecific release of Sap, because there was no reduction in the number of CFU and no significant release of enolase, a constitutive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. Conversely, intracellular Sap concentrations were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner in the most fluconazole-susceptible isolate and decreased in the most fluconazole-resistant isolate. Enhanced Sap production correlated with the overexpression of a gene encoding a multidrug resistance (MDR1) efflux pump occurring in these isolates. These data indicate that exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole can result in enhanced extracellular production of Sap by isolates with the capacity to overexpress MDR1 and imply that patients infected with these isolates and subsequently treated with suboptimal doses of fluconazole may experience enhanced C. albicans virulence in vivo.

  1. In vitro to in vivo evidence of the inhibitor characteristics of Schisandra lignans toward P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jingwei; Liu, Yanna; Guan, Tianye; Wang, Yu; Xing, Lu; Rao, Tai; Zhou, Lijun; Hao, Kun; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guang-ji

    2013-08-15

    Concomitant administration of herbal medicines with drugs that are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates may produce significant herb-drug interactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Schisandra lignans extract (SLE) on P-gp thoroughly in vitro and in vivo, and to investigate the possible P-gp-based herb-drug interactions. In the in vitro experiments, the effect of SLE on the uptake and transport for P-gp substrates in Caco-2, LLC-PK1 and L-MDR1 cells were carefully investigated. Verapamil, a known P-gp inhibitor, was used as a positive control drug. Results shown that, 10 μM verapamil and SLE (0.5, 2.0, and 10.0 μg/ml) were observed to significantly enhance the uptake and inhibit the efflux ratio of P-gp substrates in Caco-2 and L-MDR1 cells. In vivo experiments showed that single-dose SLE at 500 mg/kg could increase the area under the plasma concentration time curve of digoxin and vincrisine significantly without affecting terminal elimination half-time. Long-term treatment with SLE for continuous 10 days could also increase the absorption of P-gp substrates with greatly down regulation of P-gp expression in rat intestinal and brain tissues. In conclusion, SLE was a strong P-gp inhibitor, which indicated a potential herb-drug interaction when SLE was co-administered with P-gp substrate drugs.

  2. Effects of P-glycoprotein on the intestine and blood-brain barrier transport of YZG-331, a promising sedative-hypnotic compound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihao; Mi, Jiaqi; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Manman; Li, Yan; Sheng, Li

    2016-11-15

    YZG-331 is a synthetic adenosine analogue which exhibits the sedative and hypnotic effects by binding to the adenosine receptor. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on the intestine and brain distribution of YZG-331 in vitro and in vivo as well as related binding mechanisms. The activity of P-gp ATPase was both induced by YZG-331 and verapamil, a typical P-gp inhibitor, but affinity of YZG-331 for P-gp was lower than that of verapamil. The docking analyses further elucidated the binding relationship of YZG-331 and P-gp. The directional transport of YZG-331 was disappeared in Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cells when the P-gp activity was blocked. However, the penetration of digoxin, a P-gp known substrate, was not change in MDCK-MDR1 cells along with YZG-331. In the everted intestinal sac model, the influx of YZG-331 was significantly reduced in the presence of verapamil in all the segments except for the colon. In the in situ and in vivo study, the brain exposure of YZG-331 was promoted after co-administered of verapamil. Furthermore, the Kp value changed from 0.03 to 0.05 after drug combination. Taken together, these results indicated that YZG-331 is a substrate but may not an inhibitor of P-gp. The intestine and brain permeability of YZG-331 can be restricted, at least in part, by P-gp. The drug interactions should be awarded when YZG-331 and other P-gp-related drugs used together.

  3. P-glycoprotein in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    García-Carrasco, M; Mendoza-Pinto, C; Macias Díaz, S; Vera-Recabarren, M; Vázquez de Lara, L; Méndez Martínez, S; Soto-Santillán, P; González-Ramírez, R; Ruiz-Arguelles, A

    2015-07-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a transmembrane protein of 170 kD encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR-1) gene, localized on chromosome 7. More than 50 polymorphisms of the MDR-1 gene have been described; a subset of these has been shown to play a pathophysiological role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease, femoral head osteonecrosis induced by steroids, lung cancer and renal epithelial tumors. Polymorphisms that have a protective effect on the development of conditions such as Parkinson disease have also been identified. P-glycoprotein belongs to the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter superfamily and its structure comprises a chain of approximately 1280 aminoacid residues with an N-C terminal structure, arranged as 2 homologous halves, each of which has 6 transmembrane segments, with a total of 12 segments with 2 cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains. Many cytokines like interleukin 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha increase Pgp expression and activity. Pgp functions as an efflux pump for a variety of toxins in order to protect particular organs and tissues as the central nervous system. Pgp transports a variety of substrates including glucocorticoids while other drugs such as tacrolimus and cyclosporine A act as modulators of this protein. The most widely used method to measure Pgp activity is flow cytometry using naturally fluorescent substrates such as anthracyclines or rhodamine 123. The study of drug resistance and its association to Pgp began with the study of resistance to chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer and antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus; however, the role of Pgp in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis has been a focus of study lately and has emerged as an important mechanism by which treatment failure occurs. The present review analyzes the role of Pgp in these autoimmune diseases.

  4. Multiple Drug Transporters Are Involved in Renal Secretion of Entecavir

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi; Ma, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Sisi; Weng, Yayun; Lei, Hongmei; Zeng, Su

    2016-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) is a first-line antiviral agent for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Renal excretion is the major elimination path of ETV, in which tubular secretion plays the key role. However, the secretion mechanism has not been clarified. We speculated that renal transporters mediated the secretion of ETV. Therefore, the aim of our study was to elucidate which transporters contribute to the renal disposition of ETV. Our results revealed that ETV (50 μM) remarkably reduced the accumulation of probe substrates in MDCK cells stably expressing human multidrug and toxin efflux extrusion proteins (hMATE1/2-K), organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2), and carnitine/organic cation transporters (hOCTNs) and increased the substrate accumulation in cells transfected with multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (hMRP2) or multidrug resistance protein 1 (hMDR1). Moreover, ETV was proved to be a substrate of the above-described transporters. In transwell studies, the transport of ETV in MDCK-hOCT2-hMATE1 showed a distinct directionality from BL (hOCT2) to AP (hMATE1), and the cellular accumulation of ETV in cells expressing hMATE1 was dramatically lower than that of the mock-treated cells. The accumulation of ETV in mouse primary renal tubular cells was obviously affected by inhibitors of organic anion transporter 1/3 (Oat1/3), Oct2, Octn1/2, and Mrp2. Therefore, the renal uptake of ETV is likely mediated by OAT1/3 and OCT2 while the efflux is mediated by MATEs, MDR1, and MRP2, and OCTN1/2 may participate in both renal secretion and reabsorption. PMID:27503646

  5. Asparaginyl endopeptidase improves the resistance of microtubule-targeting drugs in gastric cancer through IQGAP1 modulating the EGFR/JNK/ERK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuehong; Li, Qian; Li, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hongshan; Chen, Weidong; Zhang, Shangmin; Cao, Jian; Liu, Tianshu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In recent years, understanding of the role of asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) in tumorigenesis has steadily increased. In this study, we investigated whether AEP expression correlates with sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs in gastric cancer and explored the mechanism. Patients and methods AEP expression in the serum of patients’ peripheral blood was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patient survival time was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation assays were utilized to discover proteins that interact with AEP. Gastric cancer cell lines were established, in which AEP was overexpressed or knocked out using lentiviral CRISPR. The proliferative abilities of these cell lines in response to chemotherapy agents were evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 method. Gene expression changes in these lines were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results Patients with low expression of AEP were significantly more likely to have a good prognosis and experience complete response or partial response after treatment with docetaxel/S-1 regimen. Mass spectrum analysis showed that several proteins in the focal adhesion and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways interacted with AEP. IQGAP1 was confirmed to be one of the proteins interacting with AEP, and its protein level increased when AEP was knocked out. AEP knockout decreased resistance to microtubule inhibitors, including paclitaxel, docetaxel, and T-DM1. The expression levels of MDR1, p-EGFR, p-JNK, p-ERK, and p-Rac1/cdc42 were decreased in AEP knockout gastric cancer cell lines, and inhibitors of both JNK and ERK could block AEP-induced expression of MDR1. Conclusion AEP was not only a prognostic factor but also a predictive marker. AEP knockout could inhibit the activity of the EGFR/JNK/ERK signaling pathway and improve sensitivity to microtubule inhibitors through interacting with IQGAP1. PMID

  6. ADME studies and preliminary safety pharmacology of LDT5, a lead compound for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Noël, F.; Nascimento-Viana, J.B.; Romeiro, L.A.S.; Silva, R.O.; Lemes, L.F.N.; Oliveira, A.S.; Giorno, T.B.S.; Fernandes, P.D.; Silva, C.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties and safety of LDT5, a lead compound for oral treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia that has previously been characterized as a multi-target antagonist of α1A-, α1D-adrenoceptors and 5-HT1A receptors. The preclinical characterization of this compound comprised the evaluation of its in vitro properties, including plasma, microsomal and hepatocytes stability, cytochrome P450 metabolism and inhibition, plasma protein binding, and permeability using MDCK-MDR1 cells. De-risking and preliminary safety pharmacology assays were performed through screening of 44 off-target receptors and in vivo tests in mice (rota-rod and single dose toxicity). LDT5 is stable in rat and human plasma, human liver microsomes and hepatocytes, but unstable in rat liver microsomes and hepatocytes (half-life of 11 min). LDT5 is highly permeable across the MDCK-MDR1 monolayer (Papp ∼32×10-6 cm/s), indicating good intestinal absorption and putative brain penetration. LDT5 is not extensively protein-bound and is a substrate of human CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 but not of CYP3A4 (half-life >60 min), and did not significantly influence the activities of any of the human cytochrome P450 isoforms screened. LDT5 was considered safe albeit new studies are necessary to rule out putative central adverse effects through D2, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B receptors, after chronic use. This work highlights the drug-likeness properties of LDT5 and supports its further preclinical development. PMID:27901175

  7. Resistant mechanisms of anthracyclines--pirarubicin might partly break through the P-glycoprotein-mediated drug-resistance of human breast cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Kubota, T; Furukawa, T; Tanino, H; Suto, A; Otan, Y; Watanabe, M; Ikeda, T; Kitajima, M

    2001-01-01

    Juliano and Ling initially reported the expression of a 170 kDa glycoprotein in the membrane of Chinese hamster ovarian cells in 1976, and named this glycoprotein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) based on its predicted role of causing "permeability" of the cell membrane. After much research on anthracycline-resistance, this P-gp was finally characterized as a multidrug-resistant protein coded by the mdr1 gene. Multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) was initially cloned from H69AR, a human small cell-lung carcinoma cell line which is resistant to doxorubicin (DXR) but does not express P-gp. MRP also excretes substrates through the cell membrane using energy from ATP catabolism. The substrate of MRP is conjugated with glutathione before active efflux from cell membrane. Recently, membrane transporter proteins were re-categorized as members of "ATP-Binding Cassette transporter"(ABC-transporter) superfamily, as shown at http://www.med.rug.nl/mdl/humanabc.htm and http://www.gene.ucl.ac.uk/nomenclature/genefamily/abc.html. A total of ABC transporters have been defined, and MDR1 and multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1) were reclassified as ABCB1 and ABCC1, respectively. Their associated superfamilies include 11 and 13 other protein, in addition to ABCB and ABCC, respectively. Lung resistance-related protein (LRP) is not a member of the superfamily of ABC transporter proteins, because it shows nuclear membrane expression and transports substrate between nucleus and cytoplasm. LRP was initially cloned from a non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line, SW1573/2R120 which is resistant to DXR, vincristine, etoposide and gramicidin D and does not express P-gp. The mechanisms of resistance remains unclear, and why some resistant cell lines express P-gp and others express MRP and/or LRP is likewise unclear.

  8. MicroRNA-873 mediates multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer cells by targeting ABCB1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di-di; Li, Xue-Song; Meng, Xiao-Na; Yan, Jing; Zong, Zhi-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is commonly treated with cisplatin and paclitaxel combination chemotherapy; however, ovarian cancer cells often develop resistance to these drugs. Increasingly, microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-873 have been implicated in drug resistance in many cancers, but the role of miR-873 in ovarian cancer remains unknown. MTT cell viability assays revealed that the sensitivities of ovarian cancer lines to cisplatin and paclitaxel increased following transfection with miR-873 (P < 0.05). After predicting the miR-873 binding region in the 3'-untranslated region of ABCB1, dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed this prediction. RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that MDR1 expression was significantly downregulated after transfection with miR-873 and upregulated after transfection with anti-miR-873 at both mRNA and protein levels compared to negative controls (P < 0.05). Experiments in a mouse xenograft model confirmed that intratumoral administration of miR-873 could enhance the efficacy of cisplatin in inhibiting tumor growth in ovarian cancer in vivo (P < 0.05). ABCB1 overexpression reduced sensitivities of ovarian cancer lines OVCAR3 and A2780 to cisplatin and paclitaxel, which can be reversed by miR-873 mimic transfection (P < 0.05). In summary, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-873 increased the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin and paclitaxel by targeting MDR1 expression. Our findings suggest that combination therapies with chemotherapy agents and miR-873 may suppress drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

  9. Expression of thirty-six drug transporter genes in human intestine, liver, kidney, and organotypic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hilgendorf, Constanze; Ahlin, Gustav; Seithel, Annick; Artursson, Per; Ungell, Anna-Lena; Karlsson, Johan

    2007-08-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively assess the mRNA expression of 36 important drug transporters in human jejunum, colon, liver, and kidney. Expression of these transporters in human organs was compared with expression in commonly used cell lines (Caco-2, HepG2, and Caki-1) originating from these organs to assess their value as in vitro transporter system models, and was also compared with data obtained from the literature on expression in rat tissues to assess species differences. Transporters that were highly expressed in the intestine included HPT1, PEPT1, BCRP, MRP2, and MDR1, whereas, in the liver, OCT1, MRP2, OATP-C, NTCP and BSEP were the main transporters. In the kidney, OAT1 was expressed at the highest levels, followed by OAT3, OAT4, MCT5, MDR1, MRP2, OCT2, and OCTN2. The best agreement between human tissue and the representative cell line was observed for human jejunum and Caco-2 cells. Expression in liver and kidney ortholog cell lines was not correlated with that in the associated tissue. Comparisons with rat transporter gene expression revealed significant species differences. Our results allowed a comprehensive quantitative comparison of drug transporter expression in human intestine, liver, and kidney. We suggest that it would be beneficial for predictive pharmacokinetic research to focus on the most highly expressed transporters. We hope that our comparison of rat and human tissue will help to explain the observed species differences in in vivo models, increase understanding of the impact of active transport processes on pharmacokinetics and distribution, and improve the quality of predictions from animal studies to humans.

  10. Natural product derivative Bis(4-fluorobenzyl)trisulfide inhibits tumor growth by modification of beta-tubulin at Cys 12 and suppression of microtubule dynamics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wanhong; Xi, Biao; Wu, Jieying; An, Haoyun; Zhu, Jenny; Abassi, Yama; Feinstein, Stuart C; Gaylord, Michelle; Geng, Baoqin; Yan, Huifang; Fan, Weimin; Sui, Meihua; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Xiao

    2009-12-01

    Bis(4-fluorobenzyl)trisulfide (BFBTS) is a synthetic molecule derived from a bioactive natural product, dibenzyltrisulfide, found in a subtropical shrub, Petiveria allieacea. BFBTS has potent anticancer activities to a broad spectrum of tumor cell lines with IC50 values from high nanomolar to low micromolar and showed equal anticancer potency between tumor cell lines overexpressing multidrug-resistant gene, MDR1 (MCF7/adr line and KBv200 line), and their parental MCF7 line and KB lines. BFBTS inhibited microtubule polymerization dynamics in MCF7 cells, at a low nanomolar concentration of 54 nmol/L, while disrupting microtubule filaments in cells at low micromolar concentration of 1 micromol/L. Tumor cells treated with BFBTS were arrested at G2-M phase, conceivably resulting from BFBTS-mediated antimicrotubule activities. Mass spectrometry studies revealed that BFBTS bound and modified beta-tubulin at residue Cys12, forming beta-tubulin-SS-fluorobenzyl. The binding site differs from known antimicrotubule agents, suggesting that BFBTS functions as a novel antimicrotubule agent. BFBTS at a dose of 25 mg/kg inhibited tumor growth with relative tumor growth rates of 19.91%, 18.5%, and 23.42% in A549 lung cancer, Bcap-37 breast cancer, and SKOV3 ovarian cancer xenografts, respectively. Notably, BFBTS was more potent against MDR1-overexpressing MCF7/adr breast cancer xenografts with a relative tumor growth rate of 12.3% than paclitaxel with a rate of 43.0%. BFBTS displays a novel antimicrotubule agent with potentials for cancer therapeutics.

  11. Effect of HEPES buffer on the uptake and transport of P-glycoprotein substrates and large neutral amino acids.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shuanghui; Pal, Dhananjay; Shah, Sujay J; Kwatra, Deep; Paturi, Kalyani D; Mitra, Ashim K

    2010-04-05

    HEPES has been widely employed as an organic buffer agent in cell culture medium as well as uptake and transport experiments in vitro. However, concentrations of HEPES used in such studies vary from one laboratory to another. In this study, we investigated the effect of HEPES on the uptake and bidirectional transport of P-gp substrates employing both Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cells. ATP-dependent uptake of glutamic acid was also examined. ATP production was further quantified applying ATP Determination Kit. An addition of HEPES to the growth and incubation media significantly altered the uptake and transport of P-gp substrates in both Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cells. Uptake of P-gp substrates substantially diminished as the HEPES concentration was raised to 25 mM. Bidirectional (A-B and B-A) transport studies revealed that permeability ratio of P(appB-A) to P(appA-B) in the presence of 25 mM HEPES was significantly higher than control. The uptake of phenylalanine is an ATP-independent process, whereas the accumulation of glutamic acid is ATP-dependent. While phenylalanine uptake remained unchanged, glutamic acid uptake was elevated with the addition of HEPES. Verapamil is an inhibitor of P-gp mediated uptake; elevation of cyclosporine uptake in the presence of 5 muM verapamil was compromised by the presence of 25 mM HEPES. The results of ATP assay indicated that HEPES stimulated the production of ATP. This study suggests that the addition of HEPES in the medium modulated the energy dependent efflux and uptake processes. The effect of HEPES on P-gp mediated drug efflux and transport may provide some mechanistic insight into possible reasons for inconsistencies in the results reported from various laboratories.

  12. Silencing of long non-coding RNA ANRIL inhibits the development of multidrug resistance in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wei-Guang; Xu, Dian-Hong; Xu, Chen; Ding, Chang-Ling; Ning, Fang-Ling; Zhou, Yan-Li; Ma, Long-Bo; Liu, Chang-Min; Han, Xia

    2016-07-01

    The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a crucial cause of therapy failure in gastric cancer, which results in disease recurrence and metastasis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proven to be critical in carcinogenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer. However, little is known about the roles of ANRIL (antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus) in gastric cancer MDR. The aim of our study is to identify the biological function of ANRIL in gastric cancer MDR. In our results, ANRIL was highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues of cisplatin-resistant and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant patients, and the same upregulation trends were observed in cisplatin-resistant cells (BGC823/DDP) and 5-FU-resistant cells (BGC823/5-FU). In addition, BGC823/DDP and BGC823/5-FU cells transfected with ANRIL siRNA and treated with cisplatin or 5-FU, respectively, exhibited significant lower survival rate, decreased invasion capability, and high percentage of apoptotic tumor cells. The influence of ANRIL knockdown on MDR was assessed by measuring IC50 of BGC823/DDP and BGC823/5-FU cells to cisplatin and 5-FU, the result showed that silencing ANRIL decreased the IC50 values in gastric cancer cells. Moreover, qRT-PCR and western blotting revealed that ANRIL knockdown decreased the expression of MDR1 and MRP1, both of which are MDR related genes; regression analysis showed that the expression of ANRIL positively correlated with the expression of MDR1 and MRP1, resprectively In summary, knockdown of lncRNA ANRIL in gastric cancer cells inhibits the development of MDR, suggesting an efficacious target for reversing MDR in gastric cancer therapy.

  13. Candida parapsilosis Resistance to Fluconazole: Molecular Mechanisms and In Vivo Impact in Infected Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Carolina R; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Pinhati, Henrique M S; Siqueira, Ricardo A; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2015-10-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the main non-albicans Candida species isolated from patients in Latin America. Mutations in the ERG11 gene and overexpression of membrane transporter proteins have been linked to fluconazole resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms in fluconazole-resistant strains of C. parapsilosis isolated from critically ill patients. The identities of the nine collected C. parapsilosis isolates at the species level were confirmed through molecular identification with a TaqMan qPCR assay. The clonal origin of the strains was checked by microsatellite typing. The Galleria mellonella infection model was used to confirm in vitro resistance. We assessed the presence of ERG11 mutations, as well as the expression of ERG11 and two additional genes that contribute to antifungal resistance (CDR1 and MDR1), by using real-time quantitative PCR. All of the C. parapsilosis (sensu stricto) isolates tested exhibited fluconazole MICs between 8 and 16 μg/ml. The in vitro data were confirmed by the failure of fluconazole in the treatment of G. mellonella infected with fluconazole-resistant strains of C. parapsilosis. Sequencing of the ERG11 gene revealed a common mutation leading to a Y132F amino acid substitution in all of the isolates, a finding consistent with their clonal origin. After fluconazole exposure, overexpression was noted for ERG11, CDR1, and MDR1 in 9/9, 9/9, and 2/9 strains, respectively. We demonstrated that a combination of molecular mechanisms, including the presence of point mutations in the ERG11 gene, overexpression of ERG11, and genes encoding efflux pumps, are involved in fluconazole resistance in C. parapsilosis.

  14. Thiazide-like diuretic drug metolazone activates human pregnane X receptor to induce cytochrome 3A4 and multidrug-resistance protein 1.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Monimoy; Chen, Taosheng

    2014-11-15

    Human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) regulates the expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and drug transporters such as multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MDR1). PXR can be modulated by small molecules, including Federal Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, thus altering drug metabolism and causing drug-drug interactions. To determine the role of FDA-approved drugs in PXR-mediated regulation of drug metabolism and clearance, we screened 1481 FDA-approved small-molecule drugs by using a luciferase reporter assay in HEK293T cells and identified the diuretic drug metolazone as an activator of hPXR. Our data showed that metolazone activated hPXR-mediated expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human hepatocytes and intestine cells and increased CYP3A4 promoter activity in various cell lines. Mammalian two-hybrid assays showed that hPXR recruits its co-activator SRC-1 upon metolazone binding in HepG2 cells, explaining the mechanism of hPXR activation. To understand the role of other commonly-used diuretics in hPXR activation and the structure-activity relationship of metolazone, thiazide and non-thiazide diuretics drugs were also tested but only metolazone activates hPXR. To understand the molecular mechanism, docking studies and mutational analysis were carried out and showed that metolazone binds in the ligand-binding pocket and interacts with mostly hydrophobic amino acid residues. This is the first report showing that metolazone activates hPXR. Because activation of hPXR might cause drug-drug interactions, metolazone should be used with caution for drug treatment in patients undergoing combination therapy.

  15. Antitubercular Agent Delamanid and Metabolites as Substrates and Inhibitors of ABC and Solute Carrier Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Masakazu; Hashizume, Kenta; Hamasako, Yusuke; Ohzone, Yoshihiro; Kashiyama, Eiji; Umehara, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Delamanid (Deltyba, OPC-67683) is the first approved drug in a novel class of nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazoles developed for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Patients with tuberculosis require treatment with multiple drugs, several of which have known drug-drug interactions. Transporters regulate drug absorption, distribution, and excretion; therefore, the inhibition of transport by one agent may alter the pharmacokinetics of another, leading to unexpected adverse events. Therefore, it is important to understand how delamanid affects transport activity. In the present study, the potencies of delamanid and its main metabolites as the substrates and inhibitors of various transporters were evaluated in vitro. Delamanid was not transported by the efflux ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1/ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), solute carrier (SLC) transporters, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, or organic cation transporter 1. Similarly, metabolite 1 (M1) was not a substrate for any of these transporters except P-gp. Delamanid showed no inhibitory effect on ABC transporters MDR1, BCRP, and bile salt export pump (BSEP; ABCB11), SLC transporters, or organic anion transporters. M1 and M2 inhibited P-gp- and BCRP-mediated transport but did so only at the 50% inhibitory concentrations (M1, 4.65 and 5.71 μmol/liter, respectively; M2, 7.80 and 6.02 μmol/liter, respectively), well above the corresponding maximum concentration in plasma values observed following the administration of multiple doses in clinical trials. M3 and M4 did not affect the activities of any of the transporters tested. These in vitro data suggest that delamanid is unlikely to have clinically relevant interactions with drugs for which absorption and disposition are mediated by this group of transporters. PMID:27021329

  16. Molecular mechanisms associated with Fluconazole resistance in clinical Candida albicans isolates from India.

    PubMed

    Mane, Arati; Vidhate, Pallavi; Kusro, Chanchal; Waman, Vaishali; Saxena, Vandana; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Risbud, Arun

    2016-02-01

    Resistance to azole antifungals is a significant problem in Candida albicans. An understanding of resistance at molecular level is essential for the development of strategies to tackle resistance and rationale design of newer antifungals and target-based molecular approaches. This study presents the first evaluation of molecular mechanisms associated with fluconazole resistance in clinical C.albicans isolates from India. Target site (ERG11) alterations were determined by DNA sequencing, whereas real-time PCRs were performed to quantify target and efflux pump genes (CDR1, CDR2, MDR1) in 87 [Fluconazole susceptible (n = 30), susceptible-dose dependent (n = 30) and resistant (n = 27)] C.albicans isolates. Cross-resistance to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole was observed in 74.1% isolates. Six amino acid substitutions were identified, including 4 (E116D, F145L, E226D, I437V) previously reported ones and 2 (P406L, Q474H) new ones. CDR1 over-expression was seen in 77.7% resistant isolates. CDR2 was exclusively expressed with CDR1 and their concomitant over-expression was associated with azole cross-resistance. MDR1 and ERG11 over-expression did not seem to be associated with resistance. Our results show that drug efflux mediated by Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporters, especially CDR1 is the predominant mechanism of fluconazole resistance and azole cross-resistance in C. albicans and indicate the need for research directed towards developing strategies to tackle efflux mediated resistance to salvage azoles.

  17. Radioprotection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-initiated colon cancer in rats using low-dose γ rays by modulating multidrug resistance-1, cytokeratin 20, and β-catenin expression.

    PubMed

    Nabil, H M; Hassan, B N; Tohamy, A A; Waaer, H F; Abdel Moneim, A E

    2016-03-01

    Ionizing radiation is a widely used therapy for solid tumors. However, high-dose ionizing radiation causes apoptosis, transforms normal cells into tumor cells, and impairs immune functions, leading to the defects in the removal of damaged or tumor cells. In contrast, low-dose radiation has been reported to exert various beneficial effects in cells. This experimental study investigated the effect of γ rays at low dose on the development of colorectal tumor in a 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer. Colorectal tumor model was induced in Wistar rats by subcutaneous injection of DMH (20 mg/kg) once a week for 15 weeks. Starting from zero day of DMH injection, a single low dose of whole-body γ irradiation of 0.5 Gy/week was applied to the rats. A significant reduction in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and elevation in the glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were observed after γ irradiation comparing with DMH group. Moreover, γ ray reduced the expressions of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), β-catenin, and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) those increased in DMH-treated rats. However, survivin did not change with γ ray treatment. A histopathological examination of the DMH-injected rats revealed ulcerative colitis, dysplasia, anaplasia, and hyperchromasia. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the colon of rats exposed to γ rays. In conclusion, the present results showed that low-dose γ ray significantly inhibited DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats by modulating CK20, MDR1, and β-catenin expression but not survivin expression.

  18. The augmented anti-tumor effects of Antrodia camphorata co-fermented with Chinese medicinal herb in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Lai; Huang, Zih-Ning; Hsieh, Hsiao-Hui; Yu, Wen-Chun; Tzeng, Win-Yu; Lee, Guo-Yang; Chen, Yi-Peng; Chang, Chia-Yu; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2009-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata, unique fungal specie, has been used as a folk medicine in Taiwan for many years. The purpose of this study was to compare the extracts from the solid-state culture of A. camphorata co-fermented with Chinese medicinal herb (AC-CF) with two other extracts from fruiting bodies (AC-FB) or solid-state culture (AC-SS), for their anti-tumor effects in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. We measured in vitro cell proliferation, percentage of apoptosis, population distribution of cell cycles, Western blot analysis of multiple drugs resistance-1 (MDR-1), and apoptosis-related proteins in HepG2 cells treated with three different preparations of A. camphorate extracts. Our results showed that AC-CF had better anti-proliferation effect on human hepatoma HepG2 cells than AC-FB or AC-SS dose-dependently. In addition, AC-CF in combination with anti-tumor agents (mitomycin C or methotrexate) showed better adjuvant anti-tumor effects than AC-FB or AC-SS. We further demonstrated the augmented adjuvant anti-tumor effects of AC-CF not only through down regulation of MDR-1 expression but also through a COX-2 dependent apoptosis pathway, involving down-regulation of COX-2 and p-AKT and up-regulation of PARP-1. In conclusion, in this study, we have demonstrated a novel strategy of fermenting A. camphorata with Chinese medicinal herb (AC-CF), which augmented their anti-tumor effects in human hepatoma HepG2 cells as compared to the traditional ones (AC-FB or AC-SS).

  19. Effect of dexamethasone treatment on the expression and function of transport proteins in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Turncliff, Ryan Z; Meier, Peter J; Brouwer, Kim L R

    2004-08-01

    Dexamethasone (DEX) is a well established inducer of CYP3A. These studies examined the influence of DEX treatment on transport protein expression and function in sandwich-cultured (SC) rat hepatocytes. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were cultured between two layers of gelled collagen and maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with DEX (0.1 microM, 0-48 h and 0.1-100 microM, 48-96 h). The expression of sinusoidal [(organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1), Oatp1a4, multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3), and Na(+)-dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp)] and canalicular [bile salt export pump (Bsep), multidrug resistance protein 1a/b (Mdr1a/b), and Mrp2] transport proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. The accumulation and biliary excretion index (BEI; percentage of accumulated substrate in canalicular networks) of the probe substrates taurocholate (TC; 1 microM, 10 min), rhodamine 123 (Rh123; 10 microM, 30 min), and carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (CDF; 10 microM, 10 min) were employed as measures of canalicular transport protein function in SC rat hepatocytes. DEX treatment increased CYP3A1/2, Oatp1a4, and Mrp2 expression, decreased the expression of Ntcp, and did not seem to alter the expression of Oatp1a1, Mrp3, Mdr1a/b, or Bsep. The BEI of CDF, an Mrp2 substrate, increased from 18 to 37% after DEX treatment (100 microM). The accumulation of TC, an Ntcp substrate, was reduced (<50% of control), whereas the BEI of TC, also a Bsep substrate, was unchanged. Treatment of SC rat hepatocytes with DEX resulted in alterations in the expression of CYP3A1/2 and some hepatic transport proteins. Modest alterations in hepatic transport protein function were consistent with changes in protein expression.

  20. Efficacy of PARP inhibitor rucaparib in orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts is limited by ineffective drug penetration into the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Karen E.; Cen, Ling; Murray, James; Calligaris, David; Kizilbash, Sani; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Carlson, Brett L.; Schroeder, Mark A.; Sludden, Julieann; Boddy, Alan V.; Agar, Nathalie Y.R.; Curtin, Nicola J.; Elmquist, William F.; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2015-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition can enhance the efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ) and prolong survival in orthotopic glioblastoma (GBM) xenografts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of the PARP inhibitor rucaparib with TMZ and to correlate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies with efficacy in patient-derived GBM xenograft models. The combination of rucaparib with TMZ was highly effective in vitro in short-term explant cultures derived from GBM12, and similarly, the combination of rucaparib and TMZ (dosed for 5 days every 28 days × 3 cycles) significantly prolonged the time to tumor regrowth by 40% in heterotopic xenografts. In contrast, the addition of rucaparib had no impact on the efficacy of TMZ in GBM12 or GBM39 orthotopic models. Using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells stably expressing murine BCRP1 or human MDR1, cell accumulation studies demonstrated that rucaparib is transported by both transporters. Consistent with the influence of these efflux pumps on central nervous system drug distribution, Mdr1a/b−/−Bcrp1−/− knockout mice had a significantly higher brain to plasma ratio for rucaparib (1.61 ± 0.25) than wild-type mice (0.11 ± 0.08). A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation after a single dose confirmed limited accumulation of rucaparib in the brain associated with substantial residual PARP enzymatic activity. Similarly, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging demonstrated significantly enhanced accumulation of drug in flank tumor compared to normal brain or orthotopic tumors. Collectively, these results suggest that limited drug delivery into brain tumors may significantly limit the efficacy of rucaparib combined with TMZ in GBM. PMID:26438157

  1. Enhanced Corneal Absorption of Erythromycin by Modulating P-Glycoprotein and MRP Mediated Efflux with Corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Sudharshan; Gunda, Sriram; Mishra, Gyan P.; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objectives were (i) to test in vivo functional activity of MRP2 on rabbit corneal epithelium and (ii) to evaluate modulation of P-gp and MRP2 mediated efflux of erythromycin when co-administered with corticosteroids. Methods Cultured rabbit primary corneal epithelial cells (rPCECs) was employed as an in vitro model for rabbit cornea. Cellular accumulation and bi-directional transport studies were conducted across Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing MDR1 and MRP2 proteins to delineate transporter specific interaction of steroids. Ocular pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in rabbits following a single-dose infusion of erythromycin in the presence of specific inhibitors and steroids. Results Bi-directional transport of erythromycin across MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP2 cells showed significant difference between BL-AP and AP-BL permeability, suggesting that erythromycin is a substrate for P-gp and MRP2. Cellular accumulation of erythromycin in rPCEC was inhibited by steroids in a dose dependent manner. MK571, a specific MRP inhibitor, modulated the aqueous humor concentration of erythromycin in vivo. Even, steroids inhibited P-gp and MRP2 mediated efflux with maximum increase in ka, AUC0−∞, Cmax and Clast values of erythromycin, observed with 6α-methyl prednisolone. Conclusion MRP2 is functionally active along with P-gp in effluxing drug molecules out of corneal epithelium. Steroids were able to significantly inhibit both P-gp and MRP2 mediated efflux of erythromycin. PMID:18958406

  2. Factors Influencing the CNS Distribution of a Novel MEK-1/2 Inhibitor: Implications for Combination Therapy for Melanoma Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Vaidhyanathan, Shruthi; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastases are a major cause of mortality in patients with advanced melanoma. Adequate brain distribution of targeted agents for melanoma will be critical for treatment success. Recently, improvement in overall survival led to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) inhibitors, vemurafenib and dabrafenib, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MEK)-1/2 inhibitor, trametinib. However, brain metastases and emergence of resistance remain a significant problem. MEK-1/2 is downstream of BRAF in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, making it an attractive target to combat resistance. The recently approved combination of dabrafenib and trametinib has shown improvement in progression-free survival; however, adequate brain distribution of both compounds is required to effectively treat brain metastases. In previous studies, we found limited brain distribution of dabrafenib. The purpose of the current study was to investigate factors influencing the brain distribution of trametinib. In vitro studies indicated that trametinib is a substrate for both P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Bcrp, efflux transporters found at the blood-brain barrier. In vivo studies in transgenic mouse models confirmed that P-gp plays an important role in restricting brain distribution of trametinib. The brain-to-plasma partition coefficient (AUCbrain/AUCplasma) was approximately 5-fold higher in Mdr1a/b(−/−) (P-gp knockout) and Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) (triple knockout) mice when compared with wild-type and Bcrp1(−/−) (Bcrp knockout) mice. The brain distribution of trametinib was similar between the wild-type and Bcrp knockout mice. These results show that P-gp plays an important role in limiting brain distribution of trametinib and may have important implications for use of trametinib as single agent or in combination therapy for treatment of melanoma brain metastases. PMID:24875464

  3. Mechanisms Limiting Distribution of the Threonine-Protein Kinase B-RaFV600E Inhibitor Dabrafenib to the Brain: Implications for the Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Vaidhyanathan, Shruthi; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z.

    2013-01-01

    Brain metastases are a common cause of death in stage IV metastatic melanoma. Dabrafenib is a BRAF (gene encoding serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf) inhibitor that has been developed to selectively target the valine 600 to glutamic acid substitution (BRAFV600E), which is commonly found in metastatic melanoma. Clinical trials with dabrafenib have shown encouraging results; however, the central nervous system distribution of dabrafenib remains unknown. Thus, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the brain distribution of dabrafenib in mice, and to see whether active efflux by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) restricts its delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In vitro accumulation studies conducted in Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells indicate that dabrafenib is an avid substrate for both P-gp and BCRP. Directional flux studies revealed greater transport in the basolateral to apical direction with corrected efflux ratios greater than 2 for both P-gp and Bcrp1 transfected cell lines. In vivo, the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)brain to AUCplasma (Kp) of dabrafenib after an i.v. dose (2.5 mg/kg) was 0.023, which increased by 18-fold in Mdr1 a/b−/−Bcrp1−/− mice to 0.42. Dabrafenib plasma exposure was ∼2-fold greater in Mdr1 a/b−/−Bcrp1−/− mice as compared with wild-type with an oral dose (25 mg/kg); however, the brain distribution was increased by ~10-fold with a resulting Kp of 0.25. Further, compared with vemurafenib, another BRAFV600E inhibitor, dabrafenib showed greater brain penetration with a similar dose. In conclusion, the dabrafenib brain distribution is limited in an intact BBB model, and the data presented herein may have clinical implications in the prevention and treatment of melanoma brain metastases. PMID:23249624

  4. Effect of HEPES buffer on the uptake and transport of P-glycoprotein substrates and large neutral amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuanghui; Pal, Dhananjay; Shah, Sujay J.; Kwatra, Deep; Paturi, Kalyani D.; Mitra, Ashim. K.

    2010-01-01

    HEPES has been widely employed as an organic buffer agent in cell culture medium as well as uptake and transport experiments in vitro. However, concentrations of HEPES used in such studies vary from one laboratory to another. In this study, we investigated the effect of HEPES on the uptake and bidirectional transport of P-gp substrates employing both Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cells. ATP-dependent uptake of glutamic acid was also examined. ATP production was further quantified applying ATP Determination Kit. An addition of HEPES to the cellular washing and incubation media significantly altered the uptake and transport of P-gp substrates in both Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cells. Uptake of P-gp substrates substantially diminished as the HEPES concentration was raised to 25 mM. Bidirectional (A-B and B-A) transport studies revealed that permeability ratio of PappB-A to PappA-B in the presence of 25 mM HEPES was significantly higher than control. The uptake of phenylalanine is an ATP-independent process, whereas the accumulation of glutamic acid is ATP-dependent. While phenylalanine uptake remained unchanged glutamic acid uptake was elevated with the addition of HEPES. Verapamil is an inhibitor of P-gp mediated uptake, elevation of cyclosporine uptake in the presence of 5 μM verapamil was compromised by the presence of 25 mM HEPES. The results of ATP assay indicated that HEPES stimulated the production of ATP. This study suggests that the addition of HEPES in the medium modulated the energy dependent efflux and uptake processes. The effect of HEPES on P-gp mediated drug efflux and transport may provide some mechanistic insight into possible reasons for inconsistencies in the results reported from various laboratories. PMID:20163160

  5. Multiparametric in situ mRNA hybridization analysis to predict disease recurrence in patients with colon carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kitadai, Y.; Ellis, L. M.; Tucker, S. L.; Greene, G. F.; Bucana, C. D.; Cleary, K. R.; Takahashi, Y.; Tahara, E.; Fidler, I. J.

    1996-01-01

    We examined the expression level of several genes that regulate different steps of metastasis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival specimens of primary human colon carcinomas from patients with at least 5 years of follow-up. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor, type IV collagenase, E-cadherin, and multidrug resistance (mdr-1) was examined by a colorimetric in situ mRNA hybridization technique concentrating on reactivity at the periphery of the neoplasms. The in situ hybridization technique revealed inter- and intratumor heterogeneity for expression of the metastasis-related genes. The expression of basic fibroblast growth factor, collagenase type IV, epidermal growth factor receptor, and mdr-1 mRNA was higher in Dukes's stage D than in Dukes' stage B tumors. Among the 22 Dukes' stage B neoplasms, 5 specimens exhibited a high expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and collagenase type IV. Clinical outcome data (5-year follow-up) revealed that all 5 patients with Dukes' stage B tumors developed distant metastasis (recurrent disease), whereas the other 17 patients with Dukes' stage B tumors expressing low levels of the metastasis-related genes were disease-free. Multivariate analysis identified high levels of expression of collagenase type IV and low levels of expression of E-cadherin as independent factors significantly associated with metastasis or recurrent disease. More specifically, metastatic or recurrent disease was associated with a high ratio (> 1.35) of expression of collagenase type IV to E-cadherin (specificity of 95%). Collectively, the data show that multiparametric in situ hybridization analysis for several metastasis-related genes may predict the metastatic potential, and hence the clinical outcome, of individual lymph-node-negative human colon cancers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8909244

  6. Role of ABC and Solute Carrier Transporters in the Placental Transport of Lamivudine

    PubMed Central

    Ceckova, Martina; Reznicek, Josef; Ptackova, Zuzana; Cerveny, Lukas; Müller, Fabian; Kacerovsky, Marian; Fromm, Martin F.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Lamivudine is one of the antiretroviral drugs of choice for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in HIV-positive women. In this study, we investigated the relevance of drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (MDR1 [ABCB1]), BCRP (ABCG2), MRP2 (ABCC2), and MATE1 (SLC47A1) for the transmembrane transport and transplacental transfer of lamivudine. We employed in vitro accumulation and transport experiments on MDCK cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters, in situ-perfused rat term placenta, and vesicular uptake in microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles isolated from human term placenta. MATE1 significantly accelerated lamivudine transport in MATE1-expressing MDCK cells, whereas no transporter-driven efflux of lamivudine was observed in MDCK-MDR1, MDCK-MRP2, and MDCK-BCRP monolayers. MATE1-mediated efflux of lamivudine appeared to be a low-affinity process (apparent Km of 4.21 mM and Vmax of 5.18 nmol/mg protein/min in MDCK-MATE1 cells). Consistent with in vitro transport studies, the transplacental clearance of lamivudine was not affected by P-gp, BCRP, or MRP2. However, lamivudine transfer across dually perfused rat placenta and the uptake of lamivudine into human placental MVM vesicles revealed pH dependency, indicating possible involvement of MATE1 in the fetal-to-maternal efflux of the drug. To conclude, placental transport of lamivudine does not seem to be affected by P-gp, MRP2, or BCRP, but a pH-dependent mechanism mediates transport of lamivudine in the fetal-to-maternal direction. We suggest that MATE1 might be, at least partly, responsible for this transport. PMID:27401571

  7. Candida parapsilosis Resistance to Fluconazole: Molecular Mechanisms and In Vivo Impact in Infected Galleria mellonella Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Ana Carolina R.; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Pinhati, Henrique M. S.; Siqueira, Ricardo A.; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F.

    2015-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the main non-albicans Candida species isolated from patients in Latin America. Mutations in the ERG11 gene and overexpression of membrane transporter proteins have been linked to fluconazole resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms in fluconazole-resistant strains of C. parapsilosis isolated from critically ill patients. The identities of the nine collected C. parapsilosis isolates at the species level were confirmed through molecular identification with a TaqMan qPCR assay. The clonal origin of the strains was checked by microsatellite typing. The Galleria mellonella infection model was used to confirm in vitro resistance. We assessed the presence of ERG11 mutations, as well as the expression of ERG11 and two additional genes that contribute to antifungal resistance (CDR1 and MDR1), by using real-time quantitative PCR. All of the C. parapsilosis (sensu stricto) isolates tested exhibited fluconazole MICs between 8 and 16 μg/ml. The in vitro data were confirmed by the failure of fluconazole in the treatment of G. mellonella infected with fluconazole-resistant strains of C. parapsilosis. Sequencing of the ERG11 gene revealed a common mutation leading to a Y132F amino acid substitution in all of the isolates, a finding consistent with their clonal origin. After fluconazole exposure, overexpression was noted for ERG11, CDR1, and MDR1 in 9/9, 9/9, and 2/9 strains, respectively. We demonstrated that a combination of molecular mechanisms, including the presence of point mutations in the ERG11 gene, overexpression of ERG11, and genes encoding efflux pumps, are involved in fluconazole resistance in C. parapsilosis. PMID:26259795

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yi; Chin Tan, Theresa May; Lim, Lee-Yong

    2008-08-01

    Piperine, a major component of black pepper, is used as spice and nutrient enhancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and prolonged piperine exposure on cellular P-gp expression and function in vitro and in vivo. Piperine at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, determined by MTT assay to be non-cytotoxic, was observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin across L-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell monolayers. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on piperine concentration, with abolishment of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin polarized transport attained at 50 {mu}M of piperine. In contrast, prolonged (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayers with piperine (50 and 100 {mu}M) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by a higher degree of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. Peroral administration of piperine at the dose of 112 {mu}g/kg body weight/day to male Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days also led to increased intestinal P-gp levels. However, there was a concomitant reduction in the rodent liver P-gp although the kidney P-gp level was unaffected. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when piperine is to be co-administered with drugs that are P-gp substrates, particularly for patients whose diet relies heavily on pepper.

  9. Renal xenobiotic transporters are differentially expressed in mice following cisplatin treatment.

    PubMed

    Aleksunes, Lauren M; Augustine, Lisa M; Scheffer, George L; Cherrington, Nathan J; Manautou, José E

    2008-09-04

    The goal of this study was to identify alterations in mRNA and protein expression of various xenobiotic transport proteins in mouse kidney during cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. For this purpose, male C57BL/6J mice received a single dose of cisplatin (18 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Four days later, tissues were collected for assessment of plasma BUN, histopathological analysis of renal lesions, and mRNA and Western blot analysis of renal transporters including organic anion and cation transporters (Oat, Oct), organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatp), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp), multidrug resistance proteins (Mdr), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (Mate). Cisplatin treatment caused necrosis of renal proximal tubules along with elevated plasma BUN and renal kidney injury molecule-1 mRNA expression. Cisplatin-induced renal injury increased mRNA and protein levels of the efflux transporters Mrp2, Mrp4, Mrp5, Mdr1a and Mdr1b. Uptake transporters Oatp2a1 and Oatp2b1 mRNA were also up-regulated following cisplatin. By contrast, expression of Oat1, Oat2, Oct2 and Oatp1a1 mRNA was reduced in cisplatin-treated mice. Expression of several uptake and efflux transporters was unchanged in cisplatin-treated mice. Apical staining of Mrp2 and Mrp4 proteins was enhanced in proximal tubules from cisplatin-treated mice. Collectively, these expression patterns suggest coordinated regulation of uptake and efflux pathways during cisplatin-induced renal injury. Reduced expression of basolateral and apical uptake transporters along with enhanced transcription of export transporters likely represents an adaptation to lower intracellular accumulation of chemicals, prevent their reabsorption and enhance urinary clearance.

  10. The role of multidrug transporters in drug availability, metabolism and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bodó, Adrienn; Bakos, Eva; Szeri, Flóra; Váradi, András; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2003-04-11

    Multidrug resistance is frequently observed when treating cancer patients with chemotherapeutic agents. A variety of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, localized in the cell membrane, cause this phenomenon by extruding a variety of chemotherapeutic agents from the tumor cells. However, the major physiological role of the multidrug transporters is the protection of our cells and tissues against xenobiotics, and these transporters play a key role in drug availability, metabolism and toxicity. Three major groups of ABC transporters are involved in multidrug resistance: the classical P-glycoprotein MDR1, the multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRP1, MRP2, and probably MRP3, MRP4 and MRP5), and the ABCG2 protein, an ABC half-transporter. All these proteins were shown to catalyze an ATP-dependent active transport of chemically unrelated compounds. MDR1 (P-glycoprotein) and ABCG2 preferentially extrude large hydrophobic, positively charged molecules, while the members of the MRP family can extrude both hydrophobic uncharged molecules and water-soluble anionic compounds. By examining the interactions of the multidrug transporters with pharmacological and toxic agents, a prediction for the cellular and tissue distribution of these compounds can be achieved. Oral bioavailability, entering the blood-brain and blood-CSF barrier, reaching the fetus through the placenta, liver and kidney secretion, cellular entry for affecting intracellular targets, are all questions, which can be addressed by basic in vitro studies on the multidrug resistance proteins. Investigation of the substrate interactions and modulation of multidrug transporters may pave the way for predictive toxicology and pharmacogenomics. Here we show that by using in vitro assay systems it is possible to measure the interactions of multidrug transporters with various drugs and toxic agents. We focus on the characterisation of the MRP1 and MRP3 proteins, their relevance in chemoresistance of cancer and in

  11. Moxidectin has a lower neurotoxic potential but comparable brain penetration in P-glycoprotein-deficient CF-1 mice compared to ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Janko, C; Geyer, J

    2013-06-01

    The anti-parasitic drugs ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) normally show limited brain penetration in vertebrates because of effective drug efflux at the blood-brain barrier by P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multi-drug resistance (MDR1) gene. However, dogs with homozygous nt230(del4) mutation in the MDR1 gene do not express a functionally active P-glycoprotein and show increased brain penetration of these drugs, resulting in neurological toxicity to different degrees. Thus, whereas IVM provokes neurological toxicity at 0.1 mg/kg, MOX is tolerated at this dosage. To investigate whether this difference is attributable to lower brain penetration of MOX in the absence of P-glycoprotein or to their neurotoxic potential, we applied IVM and MOX to P-glycoprotein-deficient CF-1 mice and comparatively analysed the absolute drug concentrations in the brain. Furthermore, we quantified drug-induced neurotoxicity by measuring the walking performance of the mice on a rotarod setup. We found that at a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg, representing 0.23 μmol/kg IVM and 0.31 μmol/kg MOX, the absolute drug concentrations in the brain were comparable with 100.8 pmol/g and 140.2 pmol/g, respectively. However, MOX induced the same degree of neurotoxicosis at the higher dosage of 1.09 μmol/kg (0.7 mg/kg) compared with IVM at 0.40 μmol/kg (0.35 mg/kg), demonstrating the 2.7-fold lower neurotoxic potential of MOX compared to IVM. This could be explained by a lower binding affinity or lower intrinsic activity of MOX at the relevant central nervous system receptors compared with IVM.

  12. Morphometric Analysis of Auxin-Mediated Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Daniel

    Auxin controls many aspects of plant development through its effects on growth. Its distribution is controlled by specific tissue and organ level polar transport streams. The responses to environmental cues such as gravity light, nutrient availability are largely controlled by coordinated regulation of distinct auxin transport streams. Many plant responses to the environment involve changes in shape. Much can be learned about the underlying processes controlling plant form if the response is measured with sufficient resolution. Computer-aided analysis of digital images or 'machine vision' can be used to greatly increase the speed and consistency of data from a morphometric study of plant form. Advances in image acquisition and analysis pioneered at UW-Madison have allowed unprecedented resolution of the growth and gravitropism of Arabidopsis. A reverse genetic analysis was used to determine if the MDR-like ABC transporters influence auxin distribution important for plant development and the response to environmental cues in Arabidopsis. Mutations in MDR1 (At3g28860) reduce acropetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with deviation from the vertical axis. Mutations in MDR4 (At2g47000) reduce basipetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with hypergravitropism. It was theorized that reduced transport whithin the elongation zone is responsible for the increased curvature. Flavanols were found to regulate gravitropism upstream of MDR4. The mdr1 mdr4 double mutant showed additive but not synergistic phenotypes, suggesting that the two auxin transport streams are more independent than interdependent. MDR proteins seem to enhance auxin transport in situations where PIN-type effux alone is insufficient.

  13. Effect of magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 and wogonin on the reversal of multidrug resistance in K562/A02 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jian; Cheng, Lin; Chen, Baoan; Xia, Guohua; Gao, Chong; Song, Huihui; Bao, Wen; Guo, Qinglong; Zhang, Haiwei; Wang, Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance is the main obstacle to the efficiency of systemic chemotherapy against hematologic malignancy. This study investigated the reversible effect of the copolymer wogonin and daunorubicin coloaded into Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, and the mechanism potentially involved. Methods The growth inhibition rate of K562/A02 cells was investigated by MTT assay, and apoptosis of cells and the intracellular daunorubicin concentration were detected by flow cytometry. Distribution of nanoparticles taken up by K562/A02 cells was observed under a transmission electron microscope and demonstrated by Prussian blue staining. The transcription level of MDR1 mRNA and expression of P-glycoprotein were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting assay, respectively. Results The reversible effect of daunorubicin-wogonin magnetic nanoparticles was 8.87-fold that of daunorubicin + wogonin and of daunorubicin magnetic nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy and Prussian blue staining revealed that the nanoparticles were located in the endosome vesicles of cytoplasm. Also, the apoptosis rate and accumulation of intracellular daunorubicin in the daunorubicin-wogonin magnetic nanoparticle group were significantly higher than that in the daunorubicin, daunorubicin + wogonin, and daunorubicin magnetic nanoparticle groups. Furthermore, transcription of MDR1 mRNA and expression of P-glycoprotein in K562/A02 cells were significantly downregulated in the daunorubicin-wogonin magnetic nanoparticle group compared with the other groups. Conclusion These findings suggest that the remarkable effects of the novel daunorubicin-wogonin magnetic nanoparticle formulation on multidrug resistant K562/A02 leukemia cells would be a promising strategy for overcoming multidrug resistance. PMID:22745547

  14. U.S. SECURITY POLICY IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE: Why Colombia, Why Now, and What Is To Be Done?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Centro de Investigaciones del Caribe y America Latina, Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico, 1986; Deputy Secretary of 33 State Kenneth Dam, speech...Informacion y educacion para la prevencion de abuso de drogas , 1990, pp. 301-321. For a similar, more recent, and thorough discussion of this issue, see...Colombia, Manuel Gonzalez, Mariano Bartolome, and Mario Baizan, eds., Buenos Aires: Instituto de investigacion sobre seguridad y crimen organizado, 1999

  15. Drug and Immigration Issues in the Mexico-US Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    April/93. EL FINANCIERO By Fernando Castillo. Clinton Administration Impasse on Drugs. 56 e. Money Laundering Mexican drug traffickers, like their US...the US-Mexican Relations. p 115. Also see Gral. Ar~valo Gardoqui, El Ejlrcito Mexicano , pp 12-13. "’ s 1990: International Narcotics Control. The... Sistema Estadistico Uniforme para el Control de Drogas. PGR. ൛S FBIS-LAT, 93-099, 25 MAY 93, p. 9. Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Voz de Honduras Network

  16. Empowering First Responders - Peer-to-Peer Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    across international boundaries. Peering Closer to Home This difference in language highlights America’s other neighbor, Mexico . Here too...venture merely means hitch hiking on traditional cooperative agreements and systems already in place.14 If adding Mexico makes sense, then adding...org/c3is/ccbm/mic.html. 14 Discussions with Special Agent Perla Garcia-Alcocer with the Mexican Instituto Nacional Para el Combate a las Drogas

  17. [Exposition to drugs of abuse in pregnancy and breastfed babies growth in CONIN Valparaíso, Chile].

    PubMed

    Piñuñuri, Raúl; Mardones, Constanza; Valenzuela, Carina; Estay, Pamela; Llanos, Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: Las consecuencias de la exposición fetal a drogas de abuso en niños han sido estudiadas extensamente. El presente estudio pretende describir la realidad chilena en esta materia, caracterizando el crecimiento de niños expuestos a drogas durante la vida fetal. Objetivo: Comparar la antropometría entre neonatos expuestos a drogas por consumo materno durante el embarazo y controles no expuestos, de los 0 a 6 meses de vida. Materiales y métodos: Se obtuvieron los datos antropométricos desde el nacimiento y hasta los 6 meses de vida de 74 individuos sanos atendidos en Centros de Salud de la comuna de Valparaíso, y de 61 individuos con antecedentes de consumo de drogas de la madre durante el embarazo, atendidos en la Corporación para la Nutrición Infantil (CONIN). Posteriormente se compararon las diferencias entre ambos grupos mediante (T-Student por grupos). Resultados: Según la edad gestacional hay diferencias en la proporción de individuos de pretérmino entre grupos de estudio, observándose una prevalencia de menos del 11% en el grupo no expuesto y superior al 25% en el grupo expuesto. En base a las curvas de los Dres. Pittaluga y Alarcón para crecimiento intrauterino, el grupo expuesto tuvo mayor cantidad de sujetos pequeños para la edad gestacional en ambos sexos, con 37% en CONIN y menos del 6% en el grupo no expuesto. El análisis estadístico muestra que existen diferencias significativas (p.

  18. Drug resistance features and S-phase fraction as possible determinants for drug response in a panel of human ovarian cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Kolfschoten, G M; Hulscher, T M; Pinedo, H M; Boven, E

    2000-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) and more specifically the expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) have been studied extensively in vitro. Unfortunately, it appears that the predictive value of MDR recognized in vitro is mostly an incorrect measure to determine the responsiveness of a particular tumour in the clinic. This misunderstood or overvalued role of MDR might explain the failure of strategies to reverse Pgp function by the use of modulators in solid tumours. To obtain more insight in in vivo drug resistance we investigated a panel of 15 human ovarian cancer xenografts consisting of the most common histological subtypes known in ovarian cancer patients. The response rate to cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin in the xenografts resembled the results of phase II trials with these agents in ovarian cancer patients. This resemblance justifies drug resistance studies in this experimental in vivo human tumour system. We determined the expression levels of MDR 1, MRP 1, LRP and topoisomerase IIα mRNA by the RNase protection assay and the presence of MRP1 and LRP proteins by immunohistochemistry. The S-phase fraction was investigated as a separate parameter by flow cytometry. In none of the 15 ovarian cancer xenografts was MDR 1 expression detectable. The expression levels of MRP 1 and LRP were low to moderate and resembled the presence of the MRP1 and LRP proteins. There was a weak, inverse relationship between the expression levels of LRP and sensitivity to cisplatin and cyclophosphamide (r = –0.44 and –0.45), but not to doxorubicin. The levels of topoisomerase IIα varied among the xenografts (0.73–2.66) and failed to correlate with doxorubicin resistance (r = 0.14). The S-phase fraction, however, showed a relation with the sensitivity to cisplatin (r = 0.66). Among the determinants studied in ovarian cancer in vivo, LRP mRNA and the S-phase fraction were the best predictive factors for drug response and most specifically for the activity of cisplatin.

  19. Do ATP-binding cassette transporters cause pharmacoresistance in epilepsy? Problems and approaches in determining which antiepileptic drugs are affected.

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang; Luna-Tortós, Carlos; Römermann, Kerstin; Fedrowitz, Maren

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to multiple antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a common problem in epilepsy, affecting at least 30% of patients. One prominent hypothesis to explain this resistance suggests an inadequate penetration or excess efflux of AEDs across the blood - brain barrier (BBB) as a result of overexpressed efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp), the encoded product of the multidrug resistance- 1 (MDR1, ABCB1) gene. Pgp and MDR1 are markedly increased in epileptogenic brain tissue of patients with AED-resistant partial epilepsy and following seizures in rodent models of partial epilepsy. In rodent models, AED-resistant rats exhibit higher Pgp levels than responsive animals; increased Pgp expression is associated with lower brain levels of AEDs; and, most importantly, co-administration of Pgp inhibitors reverses AED resistance. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that Pgp plays a significant role in mediating resistance to AEDs in rodent models of epilepsy - however, whether this phenomenon extends to at least some human refractory epilepsy remains unclear, particularly because it is still a matter of debate which AEDs, if any, are transported by human Pgp. The difficulty in determining which AEDs are substrates of human Pgp is mainly a consequence of the fact that AEDs are highly permeable compounds, which are not easily identified as Pgp substrates in in vitro models of the BBB, such as monolayer (Transwell(®)) efflux assays. By using a modified assay (concentration equilibrium transport assay; CETA), which minimizes the influence of high transcellular permeability, two groups have recently demonstrated that several major AEDs are transported by human Pgp. Importantly, it was demonstrated in these studies that Pgp-mediated transport highly depends on the AED concentration and may not be identified if concentrations below or above the therapeutic range are used. In addition to the efflux transporters, seizure-induced alterations in BBB integrity and activity of

  20. Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the

  1. Novel understanding of ABC transporters ABCB1/MDR/P-glycoprotein, ABCC2/MRP2, and ABCG2/BCRP in colorectal pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Vibeke; Svenningsen, Katrine; Knudsen, Lina Almind; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Holmskov, Uffe; Stensballe, Allan; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in colonic pathophysiology as they had recently been related to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. METHODS: Literature search was conducted on PubMed using combinations of the following terms: ABC transporters, ATP binding cassette transporter proteins, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative, colitis, Crohns disease, colorectal cancer, colitis, intestinal inflammation, intestinal carcinogenesis, ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp/CD243/MDR1), ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), Abcb1/Mdr1a, abcc2/Mrp2, abcg2/Bcrp, knock-out mice, tight junction, membrane lipid function. RESULTS: Recently, human studies reported that changes in the levels of ABC transporters were early events in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence leading to CRC. A link between ABCB1, high fat diet and gut microbes in relation to colitis was suggested by the animal studies. The finding that colitis was preceded by altered gut bacterial composition suggests that deletion of Abcb1 leads to fundamental changes of host-microbiota interaction. Also, high fat diet increases the frequency and severity of colitis in specific pathogen-free Abcb1 KO mice. The Abcb1 KO mice might thus serve as a model in which diet/environmental factors and microbes may be controlled and investigated in relation to intestinal inflammation. Potential molecular mechanisms include defective transport of inflammatory mediators and/or phospholipid translocation from one side to the other of the cell membrane lipid bilayer by ABC transporters affecting inflammatory response and/or function of tight junctions, phagocytosis and vesicle trafficking. Also, diet and microbes give rise to molecules which are potential substrates for the ABC transporters and which may additionally affect ABC transporter function through nuclear receptors and transcriptional regulation. Another critical role of ABCB1 was suggested by the finding that

  2. P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: In vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Cuiping Zhang, Tianhong Li, Zheng Xu, Liang Liu, Fei Ruan, Jinxiu Liu, Keliang Zhang, Zhenqing

    2013-12-15

    Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22 × 10{sup −5} to 2.85 × 10{sup −5} cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (C{sub max}) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC{sub 0–12} {sub h}) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug–drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. - Highlights: • Verapamil and cyclosporin A decreased the efflux of aconitine across Caco-2 cells. • Both inhibitors decreased the efflux of aconitine across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. • Co-perfusion with verapamil increased the intestinal permeability of aconitine. • Co-administration with verapamil sharply increased the C{sub max

  3. [Inhibitory effect of 14-3-3ζ on the proliferation of HL-60 cells and HL-60/VCR cells].

    PubMed

    Liang, Rong; Chen, Xie-Qun; Wang, Zhe; Xiong, Hua; Bai, Qing-Xian; Gao, Guang-Xun; Dong, Bao-Xia; Zhu, Hua-Feng

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the expression and role of 14-3-3ζ in the AML cell lines: sensitive HL-60 and drug-resistant HL-60/VCR cells. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot were respectively used to examine the expression of mdr1 mRNA and Pgp in AML cell lines to validate the results of microarray. Western blot was performed to investigate the expression of Pgp, 14-3-3ζ, and anti-apoptosis protein BCL-2, MCL-1 proteins. Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the subcellular location of 14-3-3ζ protein in HL-60 and HL-60/VCR cells by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Transduction with siRNA was used to silence 14-3-3ζ in AML cell lines. Cell count method and flow cytometry of cell cycle were used to analyze the changes of growth of AML cells. The results found that mdr1 mRNA and Pgp did not expressed in HL-60 cells, but significantly overexpressed in HL-60/VCR cells. Except 14-3-3σ, the expression of other subtypes of 14-3-3 was higher in HL-60/VCR cells than that in HL-60 cells, especially 14-3-3ζ. The higher expression of 14-3-3ζ, BCL-2, MCL-1 protein was observed in HL-60/VCR cells than that in HL-60 cells. These results were same results from gene chip. It was also noticed that 14-3-3ζ was located in the cytoplasma and nuclei of AML cell lines, especially over-expressed in HL-60/VCR cells. Furthermore, suppression of 14-3-3ζ by RNA interference resulted in inhibition of the proliferation of AML cells with decreased protein expression of BCL-2 and MCL-1, especially in HL-60/VCR cells. It is concluded that 14-3-3ζ plays an important role in proliferation of AML cells and associates with BCL-2 and MCL-1 expression. These results suggested that development of therapy targeting 14-3-3ζ may provide novel, effective strategies for refractory and relapsed AML.

  4. Nutritional status affects fluvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity and myopathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugatani, Junko; Sadamitsu, Satoshi; Kurosawa, Masatoshi; Ikushiro, Shin-ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Ikari, Akira; Miwa, Masao

    2010-10-01

    Rats that consumed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HF diet) developed hepatic steatosis. Treatment of HF diet-fed rats with fluvastatin (8 mg/kg) was lethal, followed by an elevation in levels of plasma aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase activities and skeletal muscle toxicity. This study was conducted to determine whether nutritional status affects statin-induced adverse effects in rats. Fluvastatin treatment of rats fed the HF diet led to an increase in systemic exposure, suggesting altered metabolism and elimination. In fact, although hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp) 2 and multidrug resistance (Mdr) 1b protein levels were not significantly changed by fluvastatin treatment for 8 days of rats fed a HF diet, the organic anion-transporting protein (Oatp) 1, Mrp3, CYP1A, CYP2C, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, and UGT1A5 protein levels were moderately decreased and the Oatp2, CYP3A, and UGT2B1 protein levels were markedly suppressed. No significant difference in the baseline level of Oatp1, Oatp2, Mrp2, Mrp3, Mdr1b, CYP1A, CYP2C, CYP3A, UGT1A1, UGT1A5, or UGT2B1 protein was found between the standard diet- and HF diet-fed groups. In addition, the mRNA levels of Oatp2, CYP2C11, and CYP3A1/2 were markedly decreased in HF diet-fed and fluvastatin-treated rats. There was no significant difference in the glucuronidation activities against fluvastatin among the four groups. In liver cell nuclei, levels of constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α proteins were decreased in fluvastatin-treated HF diet-fed rats, which correlated with the decrease in Oatp2, CYP2C, and CYP3A. Taken together, these results indicate that nutritional status may influence adverse effects of fluvastatin by increasing systemic exposure through modulation of hepatic uptake and elimination.

  5. Evaluation of the Transport, In Vitro Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics of Salvinorin A, a Potent Hallucinogen

    PubMed Central

    Teksin, Zeynep S.; Lee, Insong J.; Nemieboka, Noble N.; Othman, Ahmed A.; Upreti, Vijay V.; Hassan, Hazem E.; Syed, Shariq S.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Eddington, Natalie D.

    2009-01-01

    Salvinorin A is an unregulated potent hallucinogen isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum. It is the only known non-nitrogenous kappa-opioid selective agonist and rivals synthetic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in potency. This objective of this study was to characterize the in vitro transport, in vitro metabolism, and pharmacokinetic properties of Salvinorin A. The transport characteristics of Salvinorin A were assessed using MDCK-MDR1 cell monolayers. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affinity status was assessed by the P-gp ATPase assay. In vitro metabolism studies were performed with various specific human CYP450 isoforms and UGT2B7 to assess the metabolic characteristics of Salvinorin A. Cohorts (n=3) of male Sprague Dawley rats were used to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of Salvinorin A (10 mg/kg, intraperitonal (i.p.) over a 240 min period. A validated UV-HPLC and LC/MS/MS method was used to quantify the hallucinogen concentrations obtained from the in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. Salvinorin A displayed a high secretory transport in the MDCK-MDR1 cells (4.07±1.34 × 10-5 cm/s). Salvinorin A also stimulated the P-gp ATPase activity in a concentration (5-10 μm) dependent manner, suggesting that it may be a substrate of P-gp. A significant decrease in Salvinorin A concentration ranging from 14.7±0.80 % to 31.1±1.20 % was observed after incubation with CYP2D6, CYP1A1, CYP2C18, and CYP2E1, respectively. A significant decrease was also observed after incubation with UGT2B7. These results suggest that Salvinorin A may be a substrate of UGT2B7, CYP2D6, CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and CYP2C18. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study showed a relatively fast elimination with a half-life (t1/2) of 75 min and a clearance (Cl/F) of 26 L/h/kg. The distribution was extensive (Vd of 47.1 L/kg), however the brain to plasma ratio was 0.050. Accordingly, the brain half life was relatively short, 36 min. Salvinorin A is rapidly eliminated after i.p. dosing

  6. Evaluation of the transport, in vitro metabolism and pharmacokinetics of Salvinorin A, a potent hallucinogen.

    PubMed

    Teksin, Zeynep S; Lee, Insong J; Nemieboka, Noble N; Othman, Ahmed A; Upreti, Vijay V; Hassan, Hazem E; Syed, Shariq S; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Eddington, Natalie D

    2009-06-01

    Salvinorin A is an unregulated potent hallucinogen isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum. It is the only known non-nitrogenous kappa-opioid selective agonist, and rivals synthetic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in potency. The objective of this study was to characterize the in vitro transport, in vitro metabolism, and pharmacokinetic properties of Salvinorin A. The transport characteristics of Salvinorin A were assessed using MDCK-MDR1 cell monolayers. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affinity status was assessed by the P-gp ATPase assay. In vitro metabolism studies were performed with various specific human CYP450 isoforms and UGT2B7 to assess the metabolic characteristics of Salvinorin A. Cohorts (n = 3) of male Sprague Dawley rats were used to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of Salvinorin A (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) over a 240-min period. A validated UV-HPLC and LC/MS/MS method was used to quantify the hallucinogen concentrations obtained from the in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. Salvinorin A displayed a high secretory transport in the MDCK-MDR1 cells (4.07 +/- 1.34 x 10(-)5 cm/s). Salvinorin A also stimulated the P-gp ATPase activity in a concentration (5 and 10 microM)-dependent manner, suggesting that it may be a substrate of (P-gp). A significant decrease in Salvinorin A concentration ranging from 14.7 +/- 0.80% to 31.1 +/- 1.20% was observed after incubation with CYP2D6, CYP1A1, CYP2C18, and CYP2E1, respectively. A significant decrease was also observed after incubation with UGT2B7. These results suggest that Salvinorin A maybe a substrate of UGT2B7, CYP2D6, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP2C18. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study showed a relatively fast elimination with a half-life (t1/2) of 75 min and a clearance (Cl/F) of 26 L/h/kg. The distribution was extensive (Vd of 47.1 L/kg); however, the brain to plasma ratio was 0.050. Accordingly, the brain half-life was relatively short, 36 min. Salvinorin A is rapidly eliminated

  7. [Modulation on the P-glycoprotein in the jejunum by combined use of Glycyrrhiza inflata and Kansui].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Li, Guo-Feng; Tang, Zhong-Kun; Wu, Bing-Yi

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the modulation on the P-glycoprotein in the jejunum by combined use of Glycyrrhiza inflata and Kansui with ussing chamber and rt-pcr, Rhodamine 123 (R123), a P-gp substrate and fluorescein sodium (CF), a model drug of non-P-gp substrate transported by a passive diffusion were taken as investigational drugs. Because these two drugs can be easily assayed and widely used in various research fields. The permeability of R123 or CF via Wistar rat jejunum membranes was evaluated by in vitro ussing chamber after oral administration of four different decoctions of Glycyrrhiza inflata and Kansui for 1 week. And the concentration of R123 or CF was determined by the fluorospectrophotometry in the receiving solution. Meanwhile the expression of mdr1a in P-glycoprotein was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. After oral administration of combined decoction of the single drug, the absorptive directed permeability of R123 increased significantly (P < 0.01). On the other hand, Kansui and combine decoction of the two drugs also decrease the permeability of secretory directed transport (P < 0.05). No action of Glycyrrhiza inflata was found on the secretory transport of R123 [Papp = (2.56 +/- 0.38) x 10(-5), cm x s(-1)] across the jejunum tissues, while Papp of control group was found [Papp = (2.35 +/- 0.27) x 10(-5), cm x s(-1)]. After oral administration of Kansui decoction for 1 week and 2 weeks, the levels of mdr1a expression in Wistar rats were lower than that of the control group, but there were no significant difference in the results. Meanwhile, Glycyrrhiza inflata had no effect on transport of CF across the jejunum tissues, though the other three groups could decrease the permeability of CF, as compared with control group. Kansui may slightly inhibit P-glycoprotein function in the intestinal membrane. For another, some compositions in Kansui inhibit P-glycoprotein function, and some others strengthen the tight junction between cells in the

  8. Botrytis fragariae, a new species causing gray mold on strawberries, shows high frequencies of specific and efflux-based fungicide resistance.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Sabrina; Plesken, Cecilia; Rumsey, Sibylle; Dowling, Madeline; Schnabel, Guido; Weber, Roland W S; Hahn, Matthias

    2017-02-24

    Botrytis cinerea causes pre- and postharvest decay of many fruit and vegetable crops. A survey in German strawberry fields revealed Botrytis strains that differed from B. cinerea in diagnostic PCR markers and growth appearance. Phylogenetic analyses showed these strains to belong to an undescribed species in Botrytis clade 2, named Botrytis fragariae sp. nov. Isolates of B. fragariae were detected in strawberry fields throughout Germany, sometimes at similar frequencies as B. cinerea, and in the Southeastern United States. B. fragariae was isolated from overwintering strawberry tissue, but not from freshly infected fruit. B. fragariae invaded strawberry tissues with similar or lower efficiency than B. cinerea but showed poor colonization of inoculated non-host plant tissues. These data and its exclusive occurrence on strawberry indicate that B. fragariae is host-specific and has a different tissue preference than B. cinerea Various fungicide resistance patterns were observed in B. fragariae populations. Many B. fragariae strains showed resistance to one or several chemical classes of fungicides, and an efflux-based multidrug resistance (MDR1) phenotype previously described for B. cinerea Resistance-related mutations in B. fragariae were identical or similar to those of B. cinerea for carbendazim (E198A mutation in tubA), azoxystrobin (G143A in cytB), iprodione (G367A+V368F in bos1) and MDR1 (gain-of-function mutations in the transcription factor mrr1 gene, and overexpression of the drug efflux transporter gene atrB). The widespread occurrence of B. fragariae indicates that this species is adapted to fungicide-treated strawberry fields and may be of local importance as a gray mold pathogen alongside B. cinereaImportance Gray mold is the most important fruit rot on strawberries worldwide, and requires fungicide treatments for control. For a long time it was believed to be caused only by Botrytis cinerea, a ubiquitous pathogen with broad host range which quickly

  9. Grape seed procyanidin reversal of p-glycoprotein associated multi-drug resistance via down-regulation of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activity in A2780/T cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo-xin; Sun, Ya-bin; Wang, Sheng-qi; Duan, Lian; Huo, Qi-lu; Ren, Fei; Li, Guo-feng

    2013-01-01

    The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multi-drug resistance (MDR), leading chemotherapy failure of patients suffered with cancer. Grape seed procyanidin(GSP) is a natural polyphenol supplement with anti-inflammatory effect. Present study assessed a new use of GSP on the MDR reversal activity and its possible molecular mechanisms in MDR1-overpressing paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed GSP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and adriamycin in paclitaxel resistant A2780/T cells but its parental A2780 cells. Furthermore, GSP strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription, as well as, increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 in A2780/T cells. Nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) activity, IκB degradation level and NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) were markedly inhibited by pre-treatment with GSP. Meanwhile, GSP inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, resulting in reduced the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) activation with blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, the up-regulation of P-gp expression, the activation of AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway induced by LPS was attenuated by GSP administration. Compared with PDTC and U1026, inhibitor of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK respectively, GSP showed the same tendency of down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activities. Thus, GSP reverses P-gp associated MDR by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp through down-regulation of NF-κB activity and MAPK/ERK pathway mediated YB-1 nuclear translocation, offering insight into the mechanism of reversing MDR by natural polyphenol supplement compounds. GSP could be a new potential MDR reversal agent used for combination therapy with chemotherapeutics in clinic.

  10. Nanosilver particle effects on drug metabolism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lamb, John G; Hathaway, Laura B; Munger, Mark A; Raucy, Judy L; Franklin, Michael R

    2010-12-01

    Nanosilver particles are present in consumer and health care products. Their effects on human microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) activities and induction in luciferase reporter-engineered Caco-2 (MDR1.C) and HepG2 (DPX2 and 1A2DRE) cells have been investigated. The LD(50) values were ∼ 4 μg silver/ml for HepG2 and 5 μg/ml for Caco-2 cells. At silver concentrations that showed no decreased cell viability (<1 μg silver/ml), the pregnane X receptor (PXR)-driven 4.5-fold induction response of MDR1.C cells to 50 μM omeprazole was unaffected. In DPX2 cells, the PXR-driven 5.5- and 6.5-fold induction responses to omeprazole and 10 μM rifampicin were attenuated to 4- and 3.5-fold, respectively. Nanosilver particles alone showed no induction. In 1A2DRE cells, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-driven 5.5-fold induction response to omeprazole was attenuated to 4-fold. In 1A2DRE cells, nanosilver alone elicited slight induction at 1 μg/ml. The inhibition of human P450-selective activities by nanosilver particles in vitro was proportional to the silver/microsomal protein ratio. At a fixed (0.5 mg/ml) protein concentration, P450-selective activities differed in sensitivity (IC(50) value). Coumarin 7-hydroxylation and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-deethylation exhibited the highest IC(50) values (33.5 and 31.9 μM, respectively) and S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation exhibited the lowest (6.4 μM). Other IC(50) values were, in ascending order, 8.0 to 9.3 μM (testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, 7-benzyloxyquinoline debenzylation, and diclofenac 4-hydroxylation), 16.0 μM (chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation), 21.2 μM [7-methoxy-4-(aminomethyl)-coumarin O-demethylation], and 24.4 μM (7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylation). An investigation of 70 μM nanosilver particles showed that microsomal NADPH cytochrome c reductase activities were inhibited <12%. From our in vitro observations, we extrapolated that nanosilver particles reaching the liver may be a potential source of drug

  11. Effects of methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Wayana Amerindians contamination through fish consumption: mercury accumulation, metallothionein induction, gene expression variations, and role of the chemokine CCL2.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg(2+) has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the

  12. Expression of Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 5 (MRP5) on Cornea and Its Role in Drug Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Karla, Pradeep K.; Quinn, Tim L.; Herndon, Betty L.; Thomas, Priscilla; Pal, Dhananjay

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The purpose of this manuscript is to investigate the presence of nucleoside/nucleotide efflux transporter in cornea and to evaluate the role in ocular drug efflux. Methods RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis and immunostaining were employed to establish molecular presence of multidrug resistance associated protein 5 (MRP5) on cornea. Corneal efflux by MRP5 was studied with bis(POM)-PMEA and acyclovir using rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MRP5 over expressing cells (MDCKII-MRP5). Ex vivo studies using excised rabbit cornea and in vivo ocular microdialysis in male New Zealand white rabbits were used to further evaluate the role of MRP5 in conferring ocular drug resistance. Results RT-PCR confirms the expression of MRP5 in both rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis using a rat (M511–54) monoclonal antibody that reacts with human epitope confirms the expression of MRP5 protein in human corneal epithelial cells and MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunostaining performed on human cornea indicates the localization of this efflux pump on both epithelium and endothelium. Efflux studies reveal that depletion of ATP decreased PMEA efflux significantly. MRP5 inhibitors also diminished PMEA and acyclovir efflux. However, depletion of glutathione did not alter efflux. MDR1 and MRP2 did not contribute to PMEA efflux. However, MRP2 is involved in acyclovir efflux while MDR1 do not participate in this process. TLC/autoradiography suggested the conversion of bis(POM)-PMEA to PMEA in rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells. Two well known antiglaucoma drugs, bimatoprost and latanoprost were rapidly effluxed by MRP5. Ex vivo study on intact rabbit corneas demonstrated accumulation of PMEA in cornea in the presence of ATP-depleting medium. In vivo ocular pharmacokinetics also revealed a significant increase in maximum aqueous humor

  13. Overcoming cisplatin resistance by mTOR inhibitor in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunjing; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Feun, Lynn; Kuo, Marcus Tien; Robles, Carlos; Lampidis, Theodore; Savaraj, Niramol

    2005-01-01

    a weak MDR1 reversal agent. Thus, it is not a candidate to use in MDR1 or MRP1 overexpressing cells. PMID:16033649

  14. Impact of P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (ABCG2) on the Brain Distribution of a Novel BRAF Inhibitor: Vemurafenib (PLX4032)

    PubMed Central

    Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Vaidhyanathan, Shruthi; Sane, Ramola

    2012-01-01

    Vemurafenib [N-(3-{[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl]carbonyl}-2,4-difluorophenyl)propane-1-sulfonamide(PLX4032)] is a novel small-molecule BRAF inhibitor, recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma with a BRAFV600E mutation. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in the distribution of vemurafenib to the central nervous system. In vitro studies conducted in transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells show that the intracellular accumulation of vemurafenib is significantly restricted because of active efflux by P-gp and BCRP. Bidirectional flux studies indicated greater transport in the basolateral-to-apical direction than the apical-to-basolateral direction because of active efflux by P-gp and BCRP. The selective P-gp and BCRP inhibitors zosuquidar and (3S,6S,12aS)-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12a-octahydro-9-methoxy-6-(2-methylpropyl)-1,4-dioxopyrazino(1′,2′:1,6)pyrido(3,4-b)indole-3-propanoic acid-1,1-dimethylethyl ester (Ko143) were able to restore the intracellular accumulation and bidirectional net flux of vemurafenib. The in vivo studies revealed that the brain distribution coefficient (area under the concentration time profile of brain/area under the concentration time profile of plasma) of vemurafenib was 0.004 in wild-type mice. The steady-state brain-to-plasma ratio of vemurafenib was 0.035 ± 0.009 in Mdr1a/b(−/−) mice, 0.009 ± 0.006 in Bcrp1(−/−) mice, and 1.00 ± 0.19 in Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice compared with 0.012 ± 0.004 in wild-type mice. These data indicate that the brain distribution of vemurafenib is severely restricted at the blood-brain barrier because of active efflux by both P-gp and BCRP. This finding has important clinical significance given the ongoing trials examining the efficacy of vemurafenib in brain metastases of melanoma. PMID:22454535

  15. Solute Carrier Family of the Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides 1A2- Madin-Darby Canine Kidney II: A Promising In Vitro System to Understand the Role of Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 in Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Penetration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houfu; Yu, Na; Lu, Sijie; Ito, Sumito; Zhang, Xuan; Prasad, Bhagwat; He, Enuo; Lu, Xinyan; Li, Yang; Wang, Fei; Xu, Han; An, Gang; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Sahi, Jasminder

    2015-07-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1A2 has the potential to be a target for central nervous system drug delivery due to its luminal localization at the human blood-brain barrier and broad substrate specificity. We found OATP1A2 mRNA expression in the human brain to be comparable to breast cancer resistance protein and OATP2B1 and much higher than P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and confirmed greater expression in the brain relative to other tissues. The goal of this study was to establish a model system to explore OATP1A2-mediated transcellular transport of substrate drugs and the interplay with P-gp. In vitro (human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing Oatp1a4, the closest murine isoform) and in vivo (naïve and Oatp1a4 knock-out mice) studies with OATP1A2 substrate triptan drugs demonstrated that these drugs were not Oatp1a4 substrates. This species difference demonstrates that the rodent is not a good model to investigate the active brain uptake of potential OATP1A2 substrates. Thus, we constructed a novel OATP1A2 expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II wild type and an MDCKII-multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) system using BacMam virus transduction. The spatial expression pattern of OATP1A2 after transduction in MDCKII-MDR1 cells was superimposed to P-gp, confirming apical membrane localization. OATP1A2-mediated uptake of zolmitriptan, rosuvastatin, and fexofenadine across monolayers increased with increasing OATP1A2 protein expression. OATP1A2 counteracted P-gp efflux for cosubstrates zolmitriptan and fexofenadine. A three-compartment model incorporating OATP1A2-mediated influx was used to quantitatively describe the time- and concentration-dependent apical-to-basolateral transcellular transport of rosuvastatin across OATP1A2 expressing the MDCKII monolayer. This novel, simple and versatile experimental system is useful for understanding the contribution of OATP1A2-mediated transcellular transport across barriers, such as the blood

  16. JAB1 regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity through protein–protein interaction in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, Arata; Kugimiya, Naruji; Hosoyama, Toru; Enoki, Tadahiko; Li, Tao-Sheng; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3 in the nucleus. •JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF expressions. •Nuclear JAB1, but not nuclear STAT3, correlated with STAT3 DNA-binding activity. -- Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that unphosphorylated STAT3 forms a dimer, translocates to the nucleus, binds to the STAT3 binding site, and activates the transcription of STAT3 target genes, thereby playing an important role in oncogenesis in addition to phosphorylated STAT3. Among signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3, nuclear translocation and target DNA-binding are the critical steps for its activation. Therefore, elucidating the regulatory mechanism of these signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3 is a potential step in the discovery of a novel cancer drug. However, the mechanism of unphosphorylated STAT3 binding to the promoter of target genes remains unclear. In this study, we focused on Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) as a candidate protein that regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Initially, we observed that both unphosphorylated STAT3 and JAB1 existed in the nucleus of human colon cancer cell line COLO205 at the basal state (no cytokine stimulation). On the other hand, phosphorylated STAT3 did not exist in the nucleus of COLO205 cells at the basal state. Immunoprecipitation using nuclear extract of COLO205 cells revealed that JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3. To investigate the effect of JAB1 on unphosphorylated STAT3 activity, RNAi studies were performed. Although JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression, it significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Subsequently, JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased the expression levels of MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF, which are STAT3 target

  17. Emodin reverses gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in vitro

    PubMed Central

    LIU, DIAN-LEI; BU, HEQI; LI, HONG; CHEN, HUI; GUO, HONG-CHUN; WANG, ZHAO-HONG; TONG, HONG-FEI; NI, ZHONG-LIN; LIU, HAI-BIN; LIN, SHENG-ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Gemcitabine resistance is a common problem of pancreatic cancer chemotherapy, and how to reverse it plays an important role in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. This study investigated the effect of emodin on the gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990/Gem, and explored the potential mechanism of its action. SW1990/Gem was obtained by culture of the pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 in vitro by intermittently increasing the concentration of gemcitabine in the culture medium for 10 months, observing the morphology using inverted microscopy. SW1990/Gem cells were pretreated with emodin (10 μM) for different periods followed by treatment with gemcitabine (20 μM) for 48 h; cell proliferation was tested by MTT assay. SW1990/Gem cells were treated by emodin with different concentrations for 48 h, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of gene and protein, such as MDR-1 (P-gp), NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome-C (cytosol), caspase-9 and -3 were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The function of P-gp in SW1990/Gem cells was checked by FCM. The results showed that the SW1990/Gem cells changed greatly in morphology and the resistance index was 48.63. Emodin promoted cell apoptosis of the gemcitabine-resistant cell line SW1990/Gem in a dose-dependent manner. Emodin enhanced the SW1990/Gem cell sensitivity to gemcitabine in a time-dependent manner. Emodin monotherapy or combination with gemcitabine both decreased the gene and protein expression levels of MDR-1 (P-gp), NF-κB and Bcl-2 and inhibited the function of P-gp, but increased the expression levels of Bax, cytochrome-C (cytosol), caspase-9 and -3, and promoted cell apoptosis. This demonstrated that emodin had a reversing effect on the gemcitabine-resistant cell line SW1990/Gem, possibly via decreasing the function of P-gp and activating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in vitro. PMID:22159556

  18. Persistence to single-tablet regimen versus less-drug regimen in treatment experienced HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Galán, Rocio; Cantudo Cuenca, Maria-Rosa; Robustillo-Cortés, María Aguas; Borrego Izquierdo, Y; Almeida-Gonzalez, Carmen Victoria; Morillo-Verdugo, Ramón

    2016-06-01

    Objetivos: Analizar y comparar la persistencia entre las estrategias basadas en Single-Tablet Regimen (STR) y Less Drug Regimen (LDR) en pacientes VIH+. El objetivo secundario del estudio fue determinar factores predictores de persistencia. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo que incluyo los siguientes criterios: pacientes VIH+ con tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) con un regimen basado en STR o LDR. Se recogieron variables demograficas, factores de riesgo de adquisicion, consumo de drogas, presencia de algun trastorno psiquiatrico y coinfeccion por el virus de la hepatitis B o C. Para comparar la persistencia entre ambas estrategias se realizo un analisis de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meir y se aplico el metodo de log-rank. Se realizo un analisis de regresion de Cox para identificar los factores predictores de persistencia. Resultados: Se incluyeron 244 pacientes, 176 con STR y 68 con LDR. El 34,1% (n = 60) de los pacientes que recibieron un regimen STR abandonaron y en el LDR el 19,1% (n = 13). Los efectos adversos fueron la principal causa de abandono del tratamiento en los pacientes que recibieron STR y el fallo virologico en el regimen LDR. La persistencia de las estrategias STR y LDR fue similar, no encontrandose diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre ambas. El consumo de drogas fue el unico factor predictivo asociado con una menor persistencia (HR = 2,59; p = 0,005). Conclusiones: La persistencia entre los regimenes STR y LDR fue similar, no detectandose diferencias significativas entre ambos. El consumo de drogas fue el unico factor independiente asociado con una menor persistencia del tratamiento antirretroviral.

  19. The butter flavorant, diacetyl, exacerbates β-amyloid cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    More, Swati S; Vartak, Ashish P; Vince, Robert

    2012-10-15

    Diacetyl (DA), an ubiquitous butter-flavoring agent, was found to influence several aspects of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation--one of the two primary pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease. Thioflavin T fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic measurements revealed that DA accelerates Aβ¹⁻⁴² aggregation into soluble and ultimately insoluble β-pleated sheet structures. DA was found to covalently bind to Arg⁵ of Aβ¹⁻⁴² through proteolytic digestion-mass spectrometric experiments. These biophysical and chemical effects translated into the potentiation of Aβ¹⁻⁴² cytotoxicity by DA toward SH-SY5Y cells in culture. DA easily traversed through a MDR1-MDCK cell monolayer, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Additionally, DA was found not only to be resistant to but also inhibitory toward glyoxalase I, the primary initiator of detoxification of amyloid-promoting reactive dicarbonyl species that are generated naturally in large amounts by neuronal tissue. In light of the chronic exposure of industry workers to DA, this study raises the troubling possibility of long-term neurological toxicity mediated by DA.

  20. Proteasome inhibition reverses hedgehog inhibitor and taxane resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Steg, Adam D; Burke, Mata R; Amm, Hope M; Katre, Ashwini A; Dobbin, Zachary C; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Landen, Charles N

    2014-08-30

    The goal of this study was to determine whether combined targeted therapies, specifically those against the Notch, hedgehog and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways, could overcome ovarian cancer chemoresistance. Chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells were exposed to gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI-I, Compound E) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, alone and in combination with the hedgehog antagonist, LDE225. Bortezomib, alone and in combination with LDE225, was evaluated for effects on paclitaxel efficacy. Cell viability and cell cycle analysis were assessed by MTT assay and propidium iodide staining, respectively. Proteasome activity and gene expression were determined by luminescence assay and qPCR, respectively. Studies demonstrated that GSI-I, but not Compound E, inhibited proteasome activity, similar to bortezomib. Proteasome inhibition decreased hedgehog target genes (PTCH1, GLI1 and GLI2) and increased LDE225 sensitivity in vitro. Bortezomib, alone and in combination with LDE225, increased paclitaxel sensitivity through apoptosis and G2/M arrest. Expression of the multi-drug resistance gene ABCB1/MDR1 was decreased and acetylation of α-tubulin, a marker of microtubule stabilization, was increased following bortezomib treatment. HDAC6 inhibitor tubastatin-a demonstrated that microtubule effects are associated with hedgehog inhibition and sensitization to paclitaxel and LDE225. These results suggest that proteasome inhibition, through alteration of microtubule dynamics and hedgehog signaling, can reverse taxane-mediated chemoresistance.

  1. Reporter Dyes Demonstrate Functional Expression of Multidrug Resistance Proteins in the Marine Flatworm Macrostomum lignano: The Sponge-Derived Dye Ageladine A Is Not a Substrate of These Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Tietje, Kristin; Rivera-Ingraham, Georgina; Petters, Charlotte; Abele, Doris; Dringen, Ralf; Bickmeyer, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The marine plathyhelminth Macrostomum lignano was recently isolated from Adriatic shore sediments where it experiences a wide variety of environmental challenges, ranging from hypoxia and reoxygenation, feeding on toxic algae, to exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. As multidrug resistance transporters constitute the first line of defense against toxins and toxicants we have studied the presence of such transporters in M. lignano in living animals by applying optical methods and pharmacological inhibitors that had been developed for mammalian cells. Application of the MDR1 inhibitor Verapamil or of the MRP1 inhibitors MK571 or Probenecid increased the intracellular fluorescence of the reporter dyes Fura-2 am, Calcein am, Fluo-3 am in the worms, but did not affect their staining with the dyes Rhodamine B, CMFDA or Ageladine A. The marine sponge alkaloid Ageladine A remained intracellularly trapped for several days in the worms, suggesting that it does not serve as substrate of multidrug resistance exporters. In addition, Ageladine A did not affect multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-mediated dye export from M. lignano or the MRP1-mediated glutathione (GSH) export from cultured rat brain astrocytes. The data obtained demonstrate that life-imaging is a useful tool to address physiological drug export from intact marine transparent flatworms by using multiphoton scanning microscopy. PMID:24135911

  2. Activity of Pan-Class I Isoform PI3K/mTOR Inhibitor PF-05212384 in Combination with Crizotinib in Ovarian Cancer Xenografts and PDX.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Alice; Caiola, Elisa; Broggini, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    The Phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and c-Met signaling pathways are often deregulated in cancer. The two pathways are interconnected and at least c-Met has been implicated in drug resistance. The aim of the study was to assess in ovarian cancer preclinical models, the efficacy and tolerability of a dual PI3K mTOR inhibitor (PF-05212384 or gedatolisib) and a c-Met inhibitor (crizotinib) either as single agents or in combination. In vitro, both PF-05212384 and crizotinib showed a concentration dependent activity in the two ovarian cancer cell lines. The combination of the two did not result in synergistic activity. A subline resistant to gedatolisib was obtained and showed an increased expression of MDR-1 gene. In vivo results show that crizotinib alone did not display any activity in all the tumors investigated, while PF-05212384 alone had some marginal activity. The combination of the two resulted in all the experiments superior to single agents with a good tolerability. Considering that crizotinib did not show activity in the models used, the results indicate that crizotinib is able to potentiate the activity of PF-05212384. Although the activity of the combination was not striking in these three models of ovarian cancer, due to the good tolerability of the combination, the results would suggest the possibility to combine the two drugs in settings in which gedatolisib or crizotinib alone have already some significant activity.

  3. Positive feedback loop of IL-1β/Akt/RARα/Akt signaling mediates oncogenic property of RARα in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gui-Li; Liu, Yu; Shen, Jin-Xing; Zhou, Pan; Liu, Wen-Ming; Shen, Dong-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal expression and function of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) have been reported to be associated with various cancers including acute promyelocytic leukemia and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the role and the mechanism of RARα in gastric carcinoma (GC) were unknown. Here, the expression of RARα was frequently elevated in human GC tissues and cell lines, and its overexpression was closely correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis and clinical stages in GC patients. Moreover, RARα overexpression was related with pathological differentiation. Functionally, RARα knockdown inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of GC cells, as well as enhanced drug susceptibility both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, RARα knockdown suppressed GC progression through regulating the expression of cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion and drug resistance associated proteins, such as PCNA, CyclinB1, CyclinD2, CyclinE, p21, MMP9 and MDR1. Mechanistically, the above oncogenic properties of RARα in GC were closely associated with Akt signaling activation. Moreover, overexpression of RARα was induced by IL-1β/Akt signaling activation, which suggested a positive feedback loop of IL-1β/Akt/RARα/Akt signaling in GC. Taken together, we demonstrated that RARα was frequently elevated in GC and exerted oncogenic properties. It might be a potential molecular target for GC treatment. PMID:28035062

  4. Synthesis, molecular structure, and properties of a neutral Schiff base phenolic complex of magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, V.R.; Sharma, V.; Crankshaw, C.L.; Piwnica-Worms, D.

    1998-09-07

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer mediated by the MDR1 P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a 140--180 kDa plasma membrane protein, renders chemotherapeutic treatment ineffective by pumping a variety of natural product cytotoxic agents and xenobiotic compounds out of cancer cells. Pgp has been a major target for synthesis and development of both therapeutic antagonists that block its transport function and diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals that are transported by the protein for use in functional imaging of Pgp transport activity in tumors in vivo. Most, but not all, compounds that interact with Pgp are hydrophobic and cationic at physiological pH. To further understand the Pgp targeting properties, the authors sought to directly evaluate the effect of charge of the complex on Pgp interactions. This could be done by comparing the cytotoxicity profile of a neutral complex to that of an identical, but positively charged, complex in both drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, a neutral analogue of the Ga(III) and Fe(III) complexes was desired. Herein the authors describe the synthesis and structure of a novel neutral Schiff base Mg complex and evaluate its cytotoxic potency in human drug-sensitive KB-3-1 and multi-drug-resistant KB-8-5 tumor cells.

  5. Characterization of multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein transport function with an organotechnetium cation

    SciTech Connect

    Piwnica-Worms, D.; Vallabhaneni, V.R.; Kronauge, J.F.

    1995-09-26

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in mammalian cells and tumors is associated with overexpression of an {approximately}170 integral membrane efflux transporter, the MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Hexakis(2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile) technetium(I) (Tc-SESTAMIBI), a {gamma}-emitting lipophilic cationic metallopharmaceutical, has recently been shown to be a P-glycoprotein transport substrate. Exploiting the negligible lipid membrane adsorption properties of this organometallic substrate, we studied the transport kinetics, pharmacology, drug binding, and modulation of P-glycoprotein in cell preparations derived from a variety of species and selection strategies, including SW-1573, V79, Alex, and CHO drug-sensitive cells and in 77A, LZ-8, and Alex/A.5 MDR cells. Rapid cell accumulation (T{sub 1/2} {approx} 6 min) of the agent to a steady state was observed which was inversely proportional to immunodetectable levels of P-glycoprotein. Many MDR cytotoxic agents inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated Tc-SESTAMIBI efflux, thereby enhancing organometallic cation accumulation. 70 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Mechanistic role of p38 MAPK in gastric cancer dissemination in a rodent model peritoneal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Graziosi, Luigina; Mencarelli, Andrea; Santorelli, Chiara; Renga, Barbara; Cipriani, Sabrina; Cavazzoni, Emanuel; Palladino, Giuseppe; Laufer, Stefan; Burnet, Michael; Donini, Annibale; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2012-01-15

    Peritoneal dissemination is a highly frequent complication of poorly differentiated gastric cancers for which no effective therapies are available. Constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling cascades is recognized as a causative factor in the malignant transformation of several carcinoma cell types. In the present study we provide evidence that p38 MAPK inhibition protects against gastric cancer cells dissemination in a mouse model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Administering mice with ML3403 and SB203580, potent and selective p38 MAPK inhibitors, attenuate the formation of neoplastic foci induced by intraperitoneal inoculation of gastric cancer cells. By gene array analysis we found that such a protective effect correlates with a robust downregulation in the expression of CXC chemokine receptor-4, Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4), the non-receptor spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and the collagen α2(IV) (COL4A2) in neoplasic foci. Inhibition of p38 MAPK in vivo increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin and associated with a robust downregulation in the expression of the multidrug resistance (MDR)-1, a well defined marker of resistance to chemotherapy. In summary, p38 MAPK inhibition by a small molecule is beneficial in preventing the peritoneal dissemination of poorly differentiated gastric cancer cells by acting at multiple check-points in the process of attachment and diffusion of tumor cells in the peritoneum.

  7. Enhancement effect of P-gp inhibitors on the intestinal absorption and antiproliferative activity of bestatin.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xiaokui; Liu, Qi; Wang, Changyuan; Meng, Qiang; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; Ma, Xiaochi; Liu, Kexin

    2013-11-20

    Bestatin is an immunomodulator with antitumor activity. This study was performed to investigate the effect of P-gp on the intestinal absorption and antiproliferative activity of bestatin. Our results showed that P-gp inhibitors significantly increased rat intestinal absorption of bestatin in vivo and in vitro. The net efflux ratio of bestatin was 2.2 across mock-/MDR1-MDCK cell monolayers and was decreased by P-gp inhibitors, indicating bestatin was a substrate of P-gp. Furthermore, the IC50 values of bestatin on U937 and K562 cells were decreased dramatically and the intracellular concentrations of bestatin were increased by incubation of cells with verapamil or Cyclosporin A. K562/ADR cells exhibited a higher IC50 value and a lower intracellular level of bestatin. The bestatin level in K562/ADR cells was partially restored by incubation with doxorubicin. However, P-gp and APN mRNA levels were not changed by bestatin. These results suggested that the intestinal absorption and accumulation in cancer cells for bestatin were limited by P-gp-mediated efflux. Additional attention should be paid to the alternative exposure of bestatin when bestatin was coadministered with drugs as P-gp substrates in clinic.

  8. Differential levels of human leukocyte antigen-class I, multidrug-resistance 1 and androgen receptor expressions in untreated prostate cancer cells: the robustness of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Homma, Shigenori; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Harada, Mamoru; Saya, Hideyuki; Todo, Satoru; Itoh, Kyogo; Noguchi, Masanori

    2007-08-01

    Tumors are highly robust and maintain their proliferative potential against a wide range of both host-defense mechanisms and anticancer therapies. One of the approaches to overcome cancer robustness could be combined therapy in which each modality imposes independent selective pressures against the acquired mutation of cancer. To develop such a therapy, it is crucial to understand the magnitude of acquired mutations. In this study, we investigated the levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class I, multidrug-resistance 1 (MDR1), and androgen receptor (AR) expressions in untreated prostate cancers harvested by radical prostatectomy. The mean percentages of cancer cells expressing HLA-class I, MDR and AR among the 10 cancer samples were 41, 35 and 74%, respectively. In addition, double-staining of HLA and MDR revealed the four definite populations (HLA+/MDR+, HLA+/MDR-, HLA-/MDR+ and HLA-/MDR-) in cancer tissues from the majority of cancer patients tested, and the mean percentages of cells expressing these combinations were 13, 29, 22 and 38%, respectively. Similar results were obtained by double-staining of HLA and AR, except for 2 cases in which HLA-/AR+ cancer cells predominated. These results indicated that untreated prostate cancer cells acquired a wide range of genomic mutations, which may have been caused by internal host pressure to eliminate malignant cells, and would provide evidence of the robustness of untreated prostate cancer.

  9. Life-long diseases need life-long treatment: long-term safety of ciclosporin in canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Tim; Reece, Douglas; Roberts, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Ciclosporin (Atopica; Novartis Animal Health) has been licensed for canine atopic dermatitis (AD) since 2002. Adverse events (AEs) have been reported in 55 per cent of 759 dogs in 15 clinical trials, but are rare in pharmacovigilance data (71.81 AEs/million capsules sold). Gastrointestinal reactions were most common, but were mild and rarely required intervention. Other AEs were rare (≤1 per cent in clinical trials; <10/million capsules sold). Hirsutism, gingival hyperplasia and hyperplastic dermatitis were rarely significant and resolved on dose reduction. Ciclosporin decreases staphylococcal and Malassezia infections in AD, and at the recommended dose is not a risk factor for other infections, neoplasia, renal failure or hypertension. The impact on glucose and calcium metabolism is not clinically significant for normal dogs. Concomitant treatment with most drugs is safe. Effects on cytochrome P450 and MDR1 P-glycoprotein activity may elevate plasma ciclosporin concentrations, but short-term changes are not clinically significant. Monitoring of complete blood counts, urinalysis or ciclosporin levels is not justified except with higher than recommended doses and/or long-term concurrent immunosuppressive drugs. Ciclosporin is not a contraindication for killed (including rabies) vaccines, but the licensed recommendation is that live vaccination is avoided during treatment. In conclusion, ciclosporin has a positive risk-benefit profile for the long-term management of canine AD.

  10. Tumor endothelial expression of P-glycoprotein upon microvesicular transfer of TrpC5 derived from adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, YePing; Pan, QiongXi; Jiang, Li; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, FangFang; Liu, YanJun; Xing, Hui; Shi, Mei; Li, Jiao; Li, XiYuan; Zhu, YaoDan; Chen, Yun; Bruce, Iain C.; Jin, Jian Ma, Xin

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • TrpC5 was mainly accumulated in microvesicles of drug-resistant MCF-7/ADM cells. • Microvesicles from MCF-7/ADM transferred TrpC5 to endothelial cells. • TrpC5 inhibition reduced P-glycoprotein accumulation on tumor blood vessels in vivo. - Abstract: Treatment of carcinoma commonly fails due to chemoresistance. Studies have shown that endothelial cells acquire resistance via the tumor microenvironment. Microvesicle (MV) shedding from the cell membrane to the microenvironment plays an important role in communication between cells. The aim of the present study was to determine whether MCF-7 adriamycin-resistant cells (MCF-7/ADM) shed MVs that alter the characteristics of human microvessel endothelial cells (HMECs). MVs from tumor cells transferred a Ca{sup 2+}-permeable channel TrpC5 to HMECs, inducing the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by activation of the transcription factor NFATc3 (nuclear factor of activated T cells isoform c3). Expression of the mdr1 gene was blocked by the TrpC5-blocking antibody T5E3, and the production of P-gp in HMECs was reduced by blockade of TrpC5. Thus, we postulate that endothelial cells acquire the resistant protein upon exposure to TrpC5-containg MVs in the microenvironment, and express P-gp in the TrpC5–NFATc3 signal pathway.

  11. Evading P-glycoprotein mediated-efflux chemoresistance using Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Marco C; Pereira, Carolina; Kreutzer, Bruna; Gouveia, Luis F; Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Brito, Alexandra M; Videira, Mafalda

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR), whereby cancer cells become resistant to the cytotoxic effects of various structurally and mechanistically unrelated chemotherapeutic agents, is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cancer. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transmembrane protein responsible for drug efflux, which decreases drug intracellular bioavailability, consequently decreasing their efficacy against cancer. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) have not only the ability to protect the entrapped drug against proteolytic degradation, but also allow a selective intracellular targeting. Hypothetically, the entrapped drug enter the target cells by different uptake mechanisms, "nanocitose", as compared to the free drug and may evade efflux-transporters, like P-gp. The functional role of P-gp in limiting the permeability of the anticancer drug paclitaxel (Ptx) was assessed in MDA-MB-436 cells. The observed increase in the pharmacologic efficacy of drug entrapped in SLN relatively to the free drug indicates that this system is shielding the drug. Therefore, "blinding" the nanoparticle from the efflux transporters. The effect was confirmed by the decrease expression of P-gp with loaded-SLNs and through the impact on cellular MDR1 expression. Besides the ability to prevent MDR events, functionalization of SLN with a specific antibody against membrane receptors (anti-CD44v6) improves the nanoparticle capability to target selectively malignant cells. This results allow to anticipate that poor clinical outcomes related to tumour P-gp overexpression might be overcome in a near future.

  12. Distribution of genetic polymorphisms of genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes & drug transporters - a review with Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Kumar, Dhakchinamoorthi Krishna; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and drug transporters are involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism as well as elimination of many therapeutic agents, toxins and various pollutants. Presence of genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding these proteins has been associated with marked inter-individual variability in their activity that could result in variation in drug response, toxicity as well as in disease predisposition. The emergent field pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) is a promising discipline, as it predicts disease risk, selection of proper medication with regard to response and toxicity, and appropriate drug dosage guidance based on an individual's genetic make-up. Consequently, genetic variations are essential to understand the ethnic differences in disease occurrence, development, prognosis, therapeutic response and toxicity. For that reason, it is necessary to establish the normative frequency of these genes in a particular population before unraveling the genotype-phenotype associations. Although a fair amount of allele frequency data are available in Indian populations, the existing pharmacogenetic data have not been compiled into a database. This review was intended to compile the normative frequency distribution of the variants of genes encoding DMEs (CYP450s, TPMT, GSTs, COMT, SULT1A1, NAT2 and UGTs) and transporter proteins (MDR1, OCT1 and SLCO1B1) with Indian perspective. PMID:24604039

  13. Targeting ABCB1-mediated tumor multidrug resistance by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Li, Yong; Di, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yao; Wei, Meng-Ning; Huang, Jia-Rong; Wang, Kun; Shi, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic (CRISPR) in combination with a CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) nuclease system is a new rapid and precise technology for genome editing. In the present study, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target ABCB1 (also named MDR1) gene which encodes a 170 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein (P-glycoprotein/P-gp) transporting multiple types of chemotherapeutic drugs including taxanes, epipodophyllotoxins, vinca alkaloids and anthracyclines out of cells to contribute multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. Our data showed that knockout of ABCB1 by CRISPR/Cas9 system was succesfully archieved with two target sgRNAs in two MDR cancer cells due to the alteration of genome sequences. Knockout of ABCB1 by CRISPR/Cas9 system significantly enhances the sensitivity of ABCB1 substrate chemotherapeutic agents and the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin in MDR cancer cells. Although now there are lots of limitations to the application of CRISPR/Cas9 for editing cancer genes in human patients, our study provides valuable clues for the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the investigation and conquest of cancer MDR. PMID:27725879

  14. Drug Efflux Transporters Are Overexpressed in Short-Term Tamoxifen-Induced MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Krisnamurti, Desak Gede Budi; Louisa, Melva; Anggraeni, Erlia; Wanandi, Septelia Inawati

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen is the first line drug used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) to tamoxifen remains a major challenge in the treatment of cancer. One of the mechanisms related to MDR is decrease of drug influx via overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1), multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), or BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein). We aimed to investigate whether the sensitivity of tamoxifen to the cells is maintained through the short period and whether the expressions of several drug efflux transporters have been upregulated. We exposed MCF7 breast cancer cells with tamoxifen 1 μM for 10 passages (MCF7 (T)). The result showed that MCF7 began to lose their sensitivity to tamoxifen from the second passage. MCF7 (T) also showed a significant increase in all transporters examined compared with MCF7 parent cells. The result also showed a significant increase of CC50 in MCF7 (T) compared to that in MCF7 (97.54 μM and 3.04 μM, resp.). In conclusion, we suggest that the expression of several drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein, MRP2, and BCRP might be used and further studied as a marker in the development of tamoxifen resistance. PMID:26981116

  15. Development, Maintenance, and Reversal of Multiple Drug Resistance: At the Crossroads of TFPI1, ABC Transporters, and HIF1α

    PubMed Central

    Arnason, Terra; Harkness, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Early detection and improved therapies for many cancers are enhancing survival rates. Although many cytotoxic therapies are approved for aggressive or metastatic cancer; response rates are low and acquisition of de novo resistance is virtually universal. For decades; chemotherapeutic treatments for cancer have included anthracyclines such as Doxorubicin (DOX); and its use in aggressive tumors appears to remain a viable option; but drug resistance arises against DOX; as for all other classes of compounds. Our recent work suggests the anticoagulant protein Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 1α (TFPI1α) plays a role in driving the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR); but not maintenance; of the MDR state. Other factors; such as the ABC transporter drug efflux pumps MDR-1/P-gp (ABCB1) and BCRP (ABCG2); are required for MDR maintenance; as well as development. The patient population struggling with therapeutic resistance specifically requires novel treatment options to resensitize these tumor cells to therapy. In this review we discuss the development, maintenance, and reversal of MDR as three distinct phases of cancer biology. Possible means to exploit these stages to reverse MDR will be explored. Early molecular detection of MDR cancers before clinical failure has the potential to offer new approaches to fighting MDR cancer. PMID:26501324

  16. Asclepiasterol, a novel C21 steroidal glycoside derived from Asclepias curassavica, reverses tumor multidrug resistance by down-regulating P-glycoprotein expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Ma, Yan; Li, Wen-Xue; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Cai, Shao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major cause of cancer therapy failure. In this study, we identified a novel C21 steroidal glycoside, asclepiasterol, capable of reversing P-gp-mediated MDR. Asclepiasterol (2.5 and 5.0μM) enhanced the cytotoxity of P-gp substrate anticancer drugs in MCF-7/ADR and HepG-2/ADM cells. MDR cells were more responsive to paclitaxel in the presence of asclepiasterol, and colony formation of MDR cells was only reduced upon treatment with a combination of asclepiasterol and doxorubicin. Consistent with these findings, asclepiasterol treatment increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in MDR cells. Asclepiasterol decreased expression of P-gp protein without stimulating or suppressing MDR1 mRNA levels. Asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp suppression caused inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in two MDR cell types, and EGF, an activator of the MAPK/ERK pathway, reversed the P-gp down-regulation, implicating the MAPK/ERK pathway in asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp down-regulation. These results suggest that asclepiasterol could be developed as a modulator for reversing P-gp-mediated MDR in P-gp-overexpressing cancer variants. PMID:27129170

  17. Asclepiasterol, a novel C21 steroidal glycoside derived from Asclepias curassavica, reverses tumor multidrug resistance by down-regulating P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Rong-Rong; Wang, Jun; Ma, Yan; Li, Wen-Xue; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Cai, Shao-Hui

    2016-05-24

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major cause of cancer therapy failure. In this study, we identified a novel C21 steroidal glycoside, asclepiasterol, capable of reversing P-gp-mediated MDR. Asclepiasterol (2.5 and 5.0μM) enhanced the cytotoxity of P-gp substrate anticancer drugs in MCF-7/ADR and HepG-2/ADM cells. MDR cells were more responsive to paclitaxel in the presence of asclepiasterol, and colony formation of MDR cells was only reduced upon treatment with a combination of asclepiasterol and doxorubicin. Consistent with these findings, asclepiasterol treatment increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in MDR cells. Asclepiasterol decreased expression of P-gp protein without stimulating or suppressing MDR1 mRNA levels. Asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp suppression caused inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in two MDR cell types, and EGF, an activator of the MAPK/ERK pathway, reversed the P-gp down-regulation, implicating the MAPK/ERK pathway in asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp down-regulation. These results suggest that asclepiasterol could be developed as a modulator for reversing P-gp-mediated MDR in P-gp-overexpressing cancer variants.

  18. Synergistic Effect of Fluconazole and Calcium Channel Blockers against Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuyuan; Yue, Longtao; Gu, Wenrui; Li, Xiuyun; Zhang, Liuping; Sun, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Candidiasis has increased significantly recently that threatens patients with low immunity. However, the number of antifungal drugs on the market is limited in comparison to the number of available antibacterial drugs. This fact, coupled with the increased frequency of fungal resistance, makes it necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies. Combination drug therapy is one of the most widely used and effective strategy to alleviate this problem. In this paper, we were aimed to evaluate the combined antifungal effects of four CCBs (calcium channel blockers), amlodipine (AML), nifedipine (NIF), benidipine (BEN) and flunarizine (FNZ) with fluconazole against C. albicans by checkerboard and time-killing method. In addition, we determined gene (CCH1, MID1, CNA1, CNB1, YVC1, CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1) expression by quantitative PCR and investigated the efflux pump activity of resistant candida albicans by rhodamine 6G assay to reveal the potential mechanisms. Finally, we concluded that there was a synergy when fluconazole combined with the four tested CCBs against resistant strains, with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) <0.5, but no interaction against sensitive strains (FICI = 0.56 ~ 2). The mechanism studies revealed that fluconazole plus amlodipine caused down-regulating of CNA1, CNB1 (encoding calcineurin) and YVC1 (encoding calcium channel protein in vacuole membrane). PMID:26986478

  19. Comparison of In vitro Nanoparticles Uptake in Various Cell Lines and In vivo Pulmonary Cellular Transport in Intratracheally Dosed Rat Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yurong; Chiang, Po-Chang; Blom, Jason D.; Li, Na; Shevlin, Kimberly; Brayman, Timothy G.; Hu, Yiding; Selbo, Jon G.; Hu, Liangbiao George

    2008-09-01

    In present study, the potential drug delivery of nanoformulations was validated via the comparison of cellular uptake of nanoparticles in various cell lines and in vivo pulmonary cellular uptake in intratracheally (IT) dosed rat model. Nanoparticles were prepared by a bench scale wet milling device and incubated with a series of cell lines, including Caco-2, RAW, MDCK and MDCK transfected MDR1 cells. IT dosed rats were examined for the pulmonary cellular uptake of nanoparticles. The processes of nanoparticle preparation did not alter the crystalline state of the material. The uptake of nanoparticles was observed most extensively in RAW cells and the least in Caco-2 cells. Efflux transporter P-gp did not prevent cell from nanoparticles uptake. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles was also confirmed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cells and in bronchiolar epithelial cells, type II alveolar epithelial cells in the intratracheally administrated rats. The nanoparticles uptake in MDCK, RAW cells and in vivo lung epithelial cells indicated the potential applications of nanoformulation for poorly soluble compounds. The observed limited direct uptake of nanoparticles in Caco-2 cells suggests that the improvement in oral bioavailability by particle size reduction is via increased dissolution rate rather than direct uptake.

  20. Development of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model of the Rat Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Badhan, Raj K. Singh; Chenel, Marylore; Penny, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) drug disposition is dictated by a drug’s physicochemical properties and its ability to permeate physiological barriers. The blood–brain barrier (BBB), blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and centrally located drug transporter proteins influence drug disposition within the central nervous system. Attainment of adequate brain-to-plasma and cerebrospinal fluid-to-plasma partitioning is important in determining the efficacy of centrally acting therapeutics. We have developed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of the rat CNS which incorporates brain interstitial fluid (ISF), choroidal epithelial and total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments and accurately predicts CNS pharmacokinetics. The model yielded reasonable predictions of unbound brain-to-plasma partition ratio (Kpuu,brain) and CSF:plasma ratio (CSF:Plasmau) using a series of in vitro permeability and unbound fraction parameters. When using in vitro permeability data obtained from L-mdr1a cells to estimate rat in vivo permeability, the model successfully predicted, to within 4-fold, Kpuu,brain and CSF:Plasmau for 81.5% of compounds simulated. The model presented allows for simultaneous simulation and analysis of both brain biophase and CSF to accurately predict CNS pharmacokinetics from preclinical drug parameters routinely available during discovery and development pathways. PMID:24647103

  1. Air-stimulated ATP release from keratinocytes occurs through connexin hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Barr, Travis P; Albrecht, Phillip J; Hou, Quanzhi; Mongin, Alexander A; Strichartz, Gary R; Rice, Frank L

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous ATP release plays an important role in both epidermal stratification and chronic pain, but little is known about ATP release mechanisms in keratinocytes that comprise the epidermis. In this study, we analyzed ATP release from cultured human neonatal keratinocytes briefly exposed to air, a process previously demonstrated to trigger ATP release from these cells. We show that exposing keratinocytes to air by removing media for 15 seconds causes a robust, long-lasting ATP release. This air-stimulated ATP release was increased in calcium differentiated cultures which showed a corresponding increase in connexin 43 mRNA, a major component of keratinocyte hemichannels. The known connexin hemichannel inhibitors 1-octanol and carbenoxolone both significantly reduced air-stimulated ATP release, as did two drugs traditionally used as ABC transporter inhibitors (glibenclamide and verapamil). These same 4 inhibitors also prevented an increase in the uptake of a connexin permeable dye induced by air exposure, confirming that connexin hemichannels are open during air-stimulated ATP release. In contrast, activity of the MDR1 ABC transporter was reduced by air exposure and the drugs that inhibited air-stimulated ATP release had differential effects on this transporter. These results indicate that air exposure elicits non-vesicular release of ATP from keratinocytes through connexin hemichannels and that drugs used to target connexin hemichannels and ABC transporters may cross-inhibit. Connexins represent a novel, peripheral target for the treatment of chronic pain and dermatological disease.

  2. Redox Control of Multidrug Resistance and Its Possible Modulation by Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozben, Tomris; Saso, Luciano; De Luca, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Clinical efficacy of anticancer chemotherapies is dramatically hampered by multidrug resistance (MDR) dependent on inherited traits, acquired defence against toxins, and adaptive mechanisms mounting in tumours. There is overwhelming evidence that molecular events leading to MDR are regulated by redox mechanisms. For example, chemotherapeutics which overrun the first obstacle of redox-regulated cellular uptake channels (MDR1, MDR2, and MDR3) induce a concerted action of phase I/II metabolic enzymes with a temporal redox-regulated axis. This results in rapid metabolic transformation and elimination of a toxin. This metabolic axis is tightly interconnected with the inducible Nrf2-linked pathway, a key switch-on mechanism for upregulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and detoxifying systems. As a result, chemotherapeutics and cytotoxic by-products of their metabolism (ROS, hydroperoxides, and aldehydes) are inactivated and MDR occurs. On the other hand, tumour cells are capable of mounting an adaptive antioxidant response against ROS produced by chemotherapeutics and host immune cells. The multiple redox-dependent mechanisms involved in MDR prompted suggesting redox-active drugs (antioxidants and prooxidants) or inhibitors of inducible antioxidant defence as a novel approach to diminish MDR. Pitfalls and progress in this direction are discussed. PMID:26881027

  3. Deteriorating effect of fluvastatin on the cholestatic liver injury induced by bile duct ligation in rats.

    PubMed

    Lotková, Halka; Staňková, Pavla; Roušar, Tomáš; Kučera, Otto; Kohoutek, Lukáš; Mičuda, Stanislav; Brčáková, Eva; Kolouchová, Gabriela; Cervinková, Zuzana

    2011-03-01

    Antiinflammatory effect of statins mediated by the reduction of cytokine IL-6 in hepatocytes have been reported. Contrary to beneficial effect, statins can increase susceptibility to mitochondrial dysfunction. Extrahepatic biliary obstruction is associated with oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory response and hepatocyte mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of our study was to verify the effect of fluvastatin on cholestatic liver injury. Cholestasis was induced in Wistar rats by bile duct ligation. Fluvastatin (1 or 5 mg/kg) was administered after surgery and then daily for 7 days. The dose of 5 mg/kg led to the deterioration of hepatocellular injury. Despite lower production of IL-6, decrease in GSH content, rise of TGFß and inhibition of respiratory complex I in mitochondria were determined. The mRNA expressions of canalicular transporter Mdr1b and basolateral transporter Mrp3 increased in cholestatic liver. Fluvastatin administration then led to the attenuation of this change. Analogously, mRNA expression of conjugative enzyme Ugt1a1 was diminished by fluvastatin administration to cholestatic rats. We can conclude that decrease in the antioxidative status and mitochondrial dysfunction could at least in part participate on the deteriorating effect of fluvastatin. Whether these processes can be a consequence of the alteration in metabolism and transport of potentially toxic substances remains to verify.

  4. Bypassing P-Glycoprotein Drug Efflux Mechanisms: Possible Applications in Pharmacoresistant Schizophrenia Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hoosain, Famida G.; Choonara, Yahya E.; Tomar, Lomas K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Tyagi, Charu; du Toit, Lisa C.; Pillay, Viness

    2015-01-01

    The efficient noninvasive treatment of neurodegenerative disorders is often constrained by reduced permeation of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system (CNS). A vast majority of bioactive agents do not readily permeate into the brain tissue due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the associated P-glycoprotein efflux transporter. The overexpression of the MDR1 P-glycoprotein has been related to the occurrence of multidrug resistance in CNS diseases. Various research outputs have focused on overcoming the P-glycoprotein drug efflux transporter, which mainly involve its inhibition or bypassing mechanisms. Studies into neurodegenerative disorders have shown that the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter plays a vital role in the progression of schizophrenia, with a noted increase in P-glycoprotein function among schizophrenic patients, thereby reducing therapeutic outcomes. In this review, we address the hypothesis that methods employed in overcoming P-glycoprotein in cancer and other disease states at the level of the BBB and intestine may be applied to schizophrenia drug delivery system design to improve clinical efficiency of drug therapies. In addition, the current review explores polymers and drug delivery systems capable of P-gp inhibition and modulation. PMID:26491671

  5. Korean red ginseng extract enhances paclitaxel distribution to mammary tumors and its oral bioavailability by P-glycoprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin Kyung; Kim, You-Jin; Chae, Hee-Sung; Kim, Do Yeun; Choi, Han Seok; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2016-05-17

    1. Drug efflux by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a common resistance mechanism of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel, the primary chemotherapy in breast cancer. As a means of overcoming the drug resistance-mediated failure of paclitaxel chemotherapy, the potential of Korean red ginseng extract (KRG) as an adjuvant chemotherapy has been reported only in in vitro. Therefore, we assessed whether KRG alters P-gp mediated paclitaxel efflux, and therefore paclitaxel efficacy in in vitro and vivo models. 2. KRG inhibited P-gp protein expression and transcellular efflux of paclitaxel in MDCK-mdr1 cells, but KRG was not a substrate of P-gp ATPase. In female rats with mammary tumor, the combination of paclitaxel with KRG showed the greater reduction of tumor volumes, lower P-gp protein expression and higher paclitaxel distribution in tumors, and greater oral bioavailability of paclitaxel than paclitaxel alone. 3. From these results, KRG increased systemic circulation of oral paclitaxel and its distribution to tumors via P-gp inhibition in rats and under the current study conditions.

  6. Reference method for detection of Pgp mediated multidrug resistance in human hematological malignancies: a method validated by the laboratories of the French Drug Resistance Network.

    PubMed

    Huet, S; Marie, J P; Gualde, N; Robert, J

    1998-12-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with overexpression of the MDR1 gene and of its product, P-glycoprotein (Pgp), plays an important role in limiting cancer treatment efficacy. Many studies have investigated Pgp expression in clinical samples of hematological malignancies but failed to give definitive conclusion on its usefulness. One convenient method for fluorescent detection of Pgp in malignant cells is flow cytometry which however gives variable results from a laboratory to another one, partly due to the lack of a reference method rigorously tested. The purpose of this technical note is to describe each step of a reference flow cytometric method. The guidelines for sample handling, staining and analysis have been established both for Pgp detection with monoclonal antibodies directed against extracellular epitopes (MRK16, UIC2 and 4E3), and for Pgp functional activity measurement with Rhodamine 123 as a fluorescent probe. Both methods have been validated on cultured cell lines and clinical samples by 12 laboratories of the French Drug Resistance Network. This cross-validated multicentric study points out crucial steps for the accuracy and reproducibility of the results, like cell viability, data analysis and expression.

  7. Heterozygous MDR3 missense mutation associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: evidence for a defect in protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P H; Weerasekera, N; Linton, K J; Donaldson, O; Chambers, J; Egginton, E; Weaver, J; Nelson-Piercy, C; de Swiet, M; Warnes, G; Elias, E; Higgins, C F; Johnston, D G; McCarthy, M I; Williamson, C

    2000-05-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a liver disease of pregnancy with serious consequences for the mother and fetus. Two pedigrees have been reported with ICP in the mothers of children with a subtype of autosomal recessive progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) with raised serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT). Affected children have homozygous mutations in the MDR3 gene (also called ABCB4 ), and heterozygous mothers have ICP. More frequently, however, ICP occurs in women with no known family history of PFIC and the genetic basis of this disorder is unknown. We investigated eight women with ICP and raised serum gamma-GT, but with no known family history of PFIC. DNA sequence analysis revealed a C to A transversion in codon 546 in exon 14 of MDR3 in one patient, which results in the missense substitution of the wild-type alanine with an aspartic acid. We performed functional studies of this mutation introduced into MDR1, a closely related homologue of MDR3. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and western analysis indicated that this missense mutation causes disruption of protein trafficking with a subsequent lack of functional protein at the cell surface. The demonstration of a heterozygous missense mutation in the MDR3 gene in a patient with ICP with no known family history of PFIC, analysed by functional studies, is a novel finding. This shows that MDR3 mutations are responsible for the additional phenotype of ICP in a subgroup of women with raised gamma-GT.

  8. Acetylated deoxycholic (DCA) and cholic (CA) acids are potent ligands of pregnane X (PXR) receptor.

    PubMed

    Carazo, Alejandro; Hyrsova, Lucie; Dusek, Jan; Chodounska, Hana; Horvatova, Alzbeta; Berka, Karel; Bazgier, Vaclav; Gan-Schreier, Hongying; Chamulitrat, Waleé; Kudova, Eva; Pavek, Petr

    2017-01-04

    The Pregnane X (PXR), Vitamin D (VDR) and Farnesoid X (FXR) nuclear receptors have been shown to be receptors of bile acids controlling their detoxification or synthesis. Chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) and lithocholic (LCA) acids are ligands of FXR and VDR, respectively, whereas 3-keto and acetylated derivates of LCA have been described as ligands for all three receptors. In this study, we hypothesized that oxidation or acetylation at position 3, 7 and 12 of bile acids DCA (deoxycholic acid), LCA, CA (cholic acid), and CDCA by detoxification enzymes or microbiome may have an effect on the interactions with bile acid nuclear receptors. We employed reporter gene assays in HepG2 cells, the TR-FRET assay with recombinant PXR and RT-PCR to study the effects of acetylated and keto bile acids on the nuclear receptors activation and their target gene expression in differentiated hepatic HepaRG cells. We demonstrate that the DCA 3,12-diacetate and CA 3,7,12-triacetate derivatives are ligands of PXR and DCA 3,12-diacetate induces PXR target genes such as CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and ABCB1/MDR1. In conclusion, we found that acetylated DCA and CA are potent ligands of PXR. Whether the acetylated bile acid derivatives are novel endogenous ligands of PXR with detoxification or physiological functions should be further studied in ongoing experiments.

  9. Molecular profiling of prostate cancer derived exosomes may reveal a predictive signature for response to docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    Kharaziha, Pedram; Chioureas, Dimitris; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Baltatzis, George; Lennartsson, Lena; Fonseca, Pedro; Azimi, Alireza; Hultenby, Kjell; Zubarev, Roman; Ullén, Anders; Yachnin, Jeffrey; Nilsson, Sten; Panaretakis, Theocharis

    2015-01-01

    Docetaxel is a cornerstone treatment for metastatic, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) which remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, worldwide. The clinical usage of docetaxel has resulted in modest gains in survival, primarily due to the development of resistance. There are currently no clinical biomarkers available that predict whether a CRPC patient will respond or acquire resistance to this therapy. Comparative proteomics analysis of exosomes secreted from DU145 prostate cancer cells that are sensitive (DU145 Tax-Sen) or have acquired resistance (DU145 Tax-Res) to docetaxel, demonstrated significant differences in the amount of exosomes secreted and in their molecular composition. A panel of proteins was identified by proteomics to be differentially enriched in DU145 Tax-Res compared to DU145 Tax-Sen exosomes and was validated by western blotting. Importantly, we identified MDR-1, MDR-3, Endophilin-A2 and PABP4 that were enriched only in DU145 Tax-Res exosomes. We validated the presence of these proteins in the serum of a small cohort of patients. DU145 cells that have uptaken DU145 Tax-Res exosomes show properties of increased matrix degradation. In summary, exosomes derived from DU145 Tax-Res cells may be a valuable source of biomarkers for response to therapy. PMID:25844599

  10. Multidrug resistance protein gene expression in Trichoplusia ni caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Jason; D'Souza, Olivia; Rheault, Mark; Donly, Cam

    2013-02-01

    Many insect species exhibit pesticide-resistant phenotypes. One of the mechanisms capable of contributing to resistance is the overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter proteins. Here we describe the cloning of three genes encoding MDR proteins from Trichoplusia ni: trnMDR1, trnMDR2 and trnMDR3. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) detected trnMDR mRNA in the whole nervous system, midgut and Malpighian tubules of final instar T. ni caterpillars. To test whether these genes are upregulated in response to chemical challenge in this insect, qPCR was used to compare trnMDR mRNA levels in unchallenged insects with those of insects fed the synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrin. Only limited increases were detected in a single gene, trnMDR2, which is the most weakly expressed of the three MDR genes, suggesting that increased multidrug resistance of this type is not a significant part of the response to deltamethrin exposure.

  11. Pregnancy Represses Induction of Efflux Transporters in Livers of Type I Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Xu, Jialin; Lin, Eugenia; Wen, Xia; Goedken, Michael J.; Slitt, Angela L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether down-regulation of transcription factor signaling during pregnancy disrupts the induction of efflux transporters in type I diabetic mice. Methods Type I diabetes was induced in female C57BL/6 mice with multiple low dose intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ) at least 2 weeks prior to mating with normoglycemic male mice. On gestation day 14, livers were collected from vehicle- and STZ-treated non-pregnant and pregnant mice for quantification of efflux transporter and transcription factor signaling. Results STZ treatment up-regulated expression of Mrp1–5, Mdr1, Abcg5, Abcg8, Bcrp, and Bsep mRNA and/or protein in the livers of non-pregnant mice. Interestingly, little to no change in transporter expression was observed in STZ-treated mice that became pregnant. Enhanced PPARγ, Nrf2, and FXR transcription factor signaling, as quantified by nuclear binding and target gene regulation, was also observed in non-pregnant mice treated with STZ. Similar to efflux transporter expression, activation of these transcriptional pathways was diminished by pregnancy in STZ-treated mice. Conclusions This study demonstrates the opposing regulation of hepatobiliary efflux transporters in response to diabetes and pregnancy and points to PPARγ, Nrf2, and FXR as candidate pathways underlying the differential expression of transporters. PMID:23319174

  12. Life-long diseases need life-long treatment: long-term safety of ciclosporin in canine atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Tim; Reece, Douglas; Roberts, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ciclosporin (Atopica; Novartis Animal Health) has been licensed for canine atopic dermatitis (AD) since 2002. Adverse events (AEs) have been reported in 55 per cent of 759 dogs in 15 clinical trials, but are rare in pharmacovigilance data (71.81 AEs/million capsules sold). Gastrointestinal reactions were most common, but were mild and rarely required intervention. Other AEs were rare (≤1 per cent in clinical trials; <10/million capsules sold). Hirsutism, gingival hyperplasia and hyperplastic dermatitis were rarely significant and resolved on dose reduction. Ciclosporin decreases staphylococcal and Malassezia infections in AD, and at the recommended dose is not a risk factor for other infections, neoplasia, renal failure or hypertension. The impact on glucose and calcium metabolism is not clinically significant for normal dogs. Concomitant treatment with most drugs is safe. Effects on cytochrome P450 and MDR1 P-glycoprotein activity may elevate plasma ciclosporin concentrations, but short-term changes are not clinically significant. Monitoring of complete blood counts, urinalysis or ciclosporin levels is not justified except with higher than recommended doses and/or long-term concurrent immunosuppressive drugs. Ciclosporin is not a contraindication for killed (including rabies) vaccines, but the licensed recommendation is that live vaccination is avoided during treatment. In conclusion, ciclosporin has a positive risk-benefit profile for the long-term management of canine AD. PMID:24682696

  13. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling of 1-oxa-4-thiaspiro- and 1,4-dithiaspiro[4.5]decane derivatives as potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Silvia; Manasieva, Leda Ivanova; Sorbi, Claudia; Battisti, Umberto M; Fossa, Paola; Cichero, Elena; Denora, Nunzio; Iacobazzi, Rosa Maria; Cilia, Antonio; Pirona, Lorenza; Ronsisvalle, Simone; Aricò, Giuseppina; Brasili, Livio

    2017-01-05

    Recently, 1-(1,4-dioxaspiro[4,5]dec-2-ylmethyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (1) was reported as a potent 5-HT1AR agonist with a moderate 5-HT1AR selectivity. In an extension of this work a series of derivatives of 1, obtained by combining different heterocyclic rings with a more flexible amine chain, was synthesized and tested for binding affinity and activity at 5-HT1AR and α1 adrenoceptors. The results led to the identification of 14 and 15 as novel 5-HT1AR partial agonists, the first being outstanding for selectivity (5-HT1A/α1d = 80), the latter for potency (pD2 = 9.58) and efficacy (Emax = 74%). Theoretical studies of ADME properties shows a good profile for the entire series and MDCKII-MDR1 cells permeability data predict a good BBB permeability of compound 15, which possess a promising neuroprotective activity. Furthermore, in mouse formalin test, compound 15 shows a potent antinociceptive activity suggesting a new strategy for pain control.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells promote osteosarcoma cell survival and drug resistance through activation of STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shen; Wang, Lei; Fan, Qiming; Hao, Yongqiang; Fan, Cunyi; Tang, Ting-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in the development of drug resistant tumor cells. In this study, we tried to determine whether the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the tumor microenvironment contribute to the increased chemoresistance of osteosarcoma. We found that exposure of Saos-2 and U2-OS cells to MSCs conditioned medium (CM) increased the viable cells in the presence of therapeutic concentrations of doxorubicin or cisplatin. Meanwhile, the MSC CM-associated pro-proliferative effects were accompanied by reduced caspase 3/7 activity and Annexin V binding. We confirmed that STAT3 activation by IL-6 regulates MSCs-induced chemoresistance. Blockade of this signal re-sensitized drug-resistant Saos-2 cells to drug treatment. Using a osteosarcoma mouse model with co-injection of MSCs with Saos-2cells, we found that inhibition of STAT3 prolonged the survival time of tumor bearing mice by suppressing tumor growth and increasing the sensitivity of tumor cells to doxorubicin. Finally, we demonstrated that increased expression of p-STAT3, multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and P-glycoprotein (MDR-1) was associated with high chemotherapy resistance in clinical osteosarcoma samples. Collectively, our findings suggest that MSCs within the tumor microenvironment may represent a new target to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy in osteosarcoma patients. PMID:27340780

  15. Human multidrug resistance ABCB and ABCG transporters: participation in a chemoimmunity defense system.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi, Balázs; Homolya, László; Szakács, Gergely; Váradi, András

    2006-10-01

    In this review we give an overview of the physiological functions of a group of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, which were discovered, and still referred to, as multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters. Although they indeed play an important role in cancer drug resistance, their major physiological function is to provide general protection against hydrophobic xenobiotics. With a highly conserved structure, membrane topology, and mechanism of action, these essential transporters are preserved throughout all living systems, from bacteria to human. We describe the general structural and mechanistic features of the human MDR-ABC transporters and introduce some of the basic methods that can be applied for the analysis of their expression, function, regulation, and modulation. We treat in detail the biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology of the ABCB1 (MDR1/P-glycoprotein) and the ABCG2 (MXR/BCRP) proteins and describe emerging information related to additional ABCB- and ABCG-type transporters with a potential role in drug and xenobiotic resistance. Throughout this review we demonstrate and emphasize the general network characteristics of the MDR-ABC transporters, functioning at the cellular and physiological tissue barriers. In addition, we suggest that multidrug transporters are essential parts of an innate defense system, the "chemoimmunity" network, which has a number of features reminiscent of classical immunology.

  16. Salinomycin enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in multidrug resistant MCF-7/MDR human breast cancer cells via decreased efflux of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Youn; Kim, Sang-Hun; Yu, Sun-Nyoung; Park, Suel-Ki; Choi, Hyeun-Deok; Yu, Hak-Sun; Ji, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Young-Kyo; Ahn, Soon-Cheol

    2015-08-01

    Salinomycin is a monocarboxylic polyether antibiotic, which is widely used as an anticoccidial agent. The anticancer property of salinomycin has been recognized and is based on its ability to induce apoptosis in human multidrug resistance (MDR). The present study investigated whether salinomycin reverses MDR towards chemotherapeutic agents in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/MDR human breast cancer cells. The results demonstrated that doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly enhanced by salinomycin in the MCF-7/MDR cells, and this occurred in a dose-dependent manner. This finding was consistent with subsequent observations made under a confocal microscope, in which the doxorubicin fluorescence signals of the salinomycin-treated cells were higher compared with the cells treated with doxorubicin alone. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that salinomycin significantly increased the net cellular uptake and decreased the efflux of doxorubicin. The expression levels of MDR-1 and MRP-1 were not altered at either the mRNA or protein levels in the cells treated with salinomycin. These results indicated that salinomycin was mediated by its ability to increase the uptake and decrease the efflux of doxorubicin in MCF-7/MDR cells. Salinomycin reversed the resistance of doxorubicin, suggesting that chemotherapy in combination with salinomycin may benefit MDR cancer therapy.

  17. Molecular determinants of cancer cell sensitivity and resistance towards the sesquiterpene farnesol.

    PubMed

    Kuete, V; Efferth, T

    2013-07-01

    Farnesol is a non-cyclic sesquiterpene (isoprenoid) found in the essential oils of many plants. In cancer biology, farnesylation of mutated Ras oncoproteins allows the proteins to dock to the membrane and be functionalized. Therefore, farnesyltransferase is a target for drug development to inhibit Ras. Farnesol exhibits cytotoxic activity against tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, implying that novel treatment strategies may be devised independent of Ras farnesylation. Tumors frequently develop resistance towards standard chemotherapies, and thus novel agents are urgently required that bypass the cross-resistance evoked by established anticancer drugs. We investigated whether classical mechanisms of drug resistance such as ATP-binding cassette transporters (P-glycoprotein/MDR1, MRP1, BCRP), the tumor suppressor gene TP53, and the oncogene EGFR play a role in the response of tumor cells to farnesol. Remarkably, none of these genes conferred resistance to farnesol, indicating that this compound may be useful for the treatment of otherwise drug-resistant and refractory tumors expressing these mechanisms of resistance. Furthermore, we applied a pharmacogenomic approach to explore molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance to farnesol. Among the candidates were genes involved in apoptosis (STAB2, NUMBL), regulation of transcription (CDYL, FOXA2) and diverse other functional groups (INE1, CTRL, MRS2, NEB, LMO7, C9orf3, EHBP1). The fact that these genes are not associated with resistance to traditional anticancer drugs suggests farnesol may possess a novel mechanism of action, and consequently might bypass drug resistance to established chemotherapeutics.

  18. Competition between Plasmodium falciparum strains in clinical infections during in vitro culture adaptation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kexuan; Sun, Ling; Lin, Yingxue; Fan, Qi; Zhao, Zhenjun; Hao, Mingming; Feng, Guohua; Wu, Yanrui; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the dynamics of parasite populations during in vitro culture adaptation in 15 mixed Plasmodium falciparum infections, which were collected from a hypoendemic area near the China-Myanmar border. Allele types at the msp1 block 2 in the initial clinical samples and during subsequent culture were quantified weekly using a quantitative PCR method. All mixed infections carried two allele types based on the msp1 genotyping result. We also genotyped several polymorphic sites in the dhfr, dhps and mdr1 genes on day 0 and day 28, which showed that most of the common sites analyzed were monomorphic. Two of the three clinical samples mixed at dhps 581 remained stable while one changed to wild-type during the culture. During in vitro culture, we observed a gradual loss of parasite populations with 10 of the 15 mixed infections becoming monoclonal by day 28 based on the msp1 allele type. In most cases, the more abundant msp1 allele types in the clinical blood samples at the beginning of culture became the sole or predominant allele types on day 28. These results suggest that some parasites may have growth advantages and the loss of parasite populations during culture adaptation of mixed infections may lead to biased results when comparing the phenotypes such as drug sensitivity of the culture-adapted parasites.

  19. Exploring a natural MDR reversal agent: potential of medicinal food supplement Nerium oleander leaf distillate

    PubMed Central

    Kars, Meltem Demirel; Gündüz, Ufuk; Üney, Kamil; Baş, Ahmet Levent

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular effects of Nerium oleander leaf distillate on paclitaxel and vincristine resistant (MCF-7/Pac and MCF-7/Vinc) cells and sensitive (MCF-7/S) cell lines. Methods Nerium oleander (N. oleander) leaf extract was obtained by hydrodistillation method. The toxicological effects of N. oleander distillate, previously suggested as medicinal food supplement, on drug resistant cells were evaluated by XTT tests. MDR modulation potential of the plant material was evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Paclitaxel and vincristine were applied to the sublines in combination with N. oleander distillate. Results Fractional inhibitory indices show that N. oleander distillate did not increase the antiproliferative effects of anticancer drugs. N. oleander treatment in to MCF-7/Pac and MCF-7/Vinc did not inhibit P-gp activity and MDR1 gene expression level. Conclusions As a result it may be suggested that although N. oleander distillate has some medicinal effects as food supplement it may not be suitable as an MDR modulator for drug resistant breast cancer cells. PMID:23905023

  20. Low expression of NQO1 predicts pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients treated with TAC regimen.

    PubMed

    Grim, J; Jandík, P; Slánská, I; Doležalová-Brčáková, E; Fuksa, L; Ryška, A; Knížek, J; Petera, J; Mičuda, S; Hornychová, H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate preoperative tumour expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) along with other biological markers as potential predictors of pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide-containing (TAC) chemotherapy in patients with primary breast cancer. Sixty-one patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) with TAC regimen were enrolled in this prospective study. The pre- and post- NCT expression of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and 2 (EGFR and HER2), NQO1, Ki-67 proliferation index, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), p53 and BCL2 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The pCR was reached in 14 patients (23 % of the study group). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients with ER-, PR-, NQO1- negative, and Ki-67-positive tumours had a significantly higher chance to achieve pCR. Within the biological subtypes, the highest pCR rate (50 %) was seen in triple-negative (i.e. ER-, PR-, HER2-) tumours. Post-operative evaluation showed that in comparison to pre-operative tissue samples, NQO1 expression was significantly increased, while Ki-67 and HER2 decreased, in the residual tissue after NCT. In conclusion, the present data suggests that NQO1 expression may be a novel diagnostic biomarker for the prediction of positive response to NCT in patients with breast cancer.