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Sample records for multirresistencia drogas mdr1

  1. Inhibition of the MDR1 transporter by new phenothiazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kónya, Attila; Andor, Attila; Sátorhelyi, Péter; Németh, Klára; Kurucz, István

    2006-07-21

    The MDR1 transporter mediated efflux of different xenobiotics out of the cells serves as the most important mechanisms of the multidrug resistance in cancer cells, thus inhibition of the MDR1 transporter may increase the efficiency of anticancer drugs in the therapy. Here we describe some new phenothiazine derivatives, which possess strong in vitro MDR1 inhibitory activity. The effectiveness of the compounds on the MDR1 mediated calcein-AM efflux, ATPase activity, and colchicine resistance was proven by microplate assays and flow cytometry using recombinant and control cell lines. Some of these derivatives were more active than verapamil and one of them was at least as active as cyclosporin A. According to our results the new structural elements built in these phenothiazine type compounds increased their MDR1 inhibitory activity, which may serve as a basis of the development of an effective MDR1 inhibitor drug.

  2. In Vivo Imaging of Human MDR1 Transcription in the Brain and Spine of MDR1-Luciferase Reporter Mice.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kazuto; Cline, Cynthia; Lin, Yvonne S; Scheib, Rachel; Ganguly, Samit; Thirumaran, Ranjit K; Chaudhry, Amarjit; Kim, Richard B; Schuetz, Erin G

    2015-11-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) [the product of the MDR1 (ABCB1) gene] at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits central nervous system (CNS) entry of many prescribed drugs, contributing to the poor success rate of CNS drug candidates. Modulating Pgp expression could improve drug delivery into the brain; however, assays to predict regulation of human BBB Pgp are lacking. We developed a transgenic mouse model to monitor human MDR1 transcription in the brain and spinal cord in vivo. A reporter construct consisting of ∼10 kb of the human MDR1 promoter controlling the firefly luciferase gene was used to generate a transgenic mouse line (MDR1-luc). Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the MDR1-luciferase transgene on chromosome 3. Reporter gene expression was monitored with an in vivo imaging system following D-luciferin injection. Basal expression was detectable in the brain, and treatment with activators of the constitutive androstane, pregnane X, and glucocorticoid receptors induced brain and spinal MDR1-luc transcription. Since D-luciferin is a substrate of ABCG2, the feasibility of improving D-luciferin brain accumulation (and luciferase signal) was tested by coadministering the dual ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibitor elacridar. The brain and spine MDR1-luc signal intensity was increased by elacridar treatment, suggesting enhanced D-luciferin brain bioavailability. There was regional heterogeneity in MDR1 transcription (cortex > cerebellum) that coincided with higher mouse Pgp protein expression. We confirmed luciferase expression in brain vessel endothelial cells by ex vivo analysis of tissue luciferase protein expression. We conclude that the MDR1-luc mouse provides a unique in vivo system to visualize MDR1 CNS expression and regulation.

  3. In Vivo Imaging of Human MDR1 Transcription in the Brain and Spine of MDR1-Luciferase Reporter Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Kazuto; Cline, Cynthia; Lin, Yvonne S.; Scheib, Rachel; Ganguly, Samit; Thirumaran, Ranjit K.; Chaudhry, Amarjit; Kim, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) [the product of the MDR1 (ABCB1) gene] at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits central nervous system (CNS) entry of many prescribed drugs, contributing to the poor success rate of CNS drug candidates. Modulating Pgp expression could improve drug delivery into the brain; however, assays to predict regulation of human BBB Pgp are lacking. We developed a transgenic mouse model to monitor human MDR1 transcription in the brain and spinal cord in vivo. A reporter construct consisting of ∼10 kb of the human MDR1 promoter controlling the firefly luciferase gene was used to generate a transgenic mouse line (MDR1-luc). Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the MDR1-luciferase transgene on chromosome 3. Reporter gene expression was monitored with an in vivo imaging system following D-luciferin injection. Basal expression was detectable in the brain, and treatment with activators of the constitutive androstane, pregnane X, and glucocorticoid receptors induced brain and spinal MDR1-luc transcription. Since D-luciferin is a substrate of ABCG2, the feasibility of improving D-luciferin brain accumulation (and luciferase signal) was tested by coadministering the dual ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibitor elacridar. The brain and spine MDR1-luc signal intensity was increased by elacridar treatment, suggesting enhanced D-luciferin brain bioavailability. There was regional heterogeneity in MDR1 transcription (cortex > cerebellum) that coincided with higher mouse Pgp protein expression. We confirmed luciferase expression in brain vessel endothelial cells by ex vivo analysis of tissue luciferase protein expression. We conclude that the MDR1-luc mouse provides a unique in vivo system to visualize MDR1 CNS expression and regulation. PMID:26281846

  4. Effects of 12 Ca2+ antagonists on multidrug resistance, MDR1-mediated transport and MDR1 mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Takara, Kohji; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Tanigawara, Yusuke; Nishiguchi, Kohshi; Ohmoto, Nobuko; Horinouchi, Masanori; Komada, Fusao; Ohnishi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Teruyoshi; Okumura, Katsuhiko

    2002-08-01

    The effects of 12 Ca(2+) antagonists on MDR1 were examined by two independent models: the inhibitory effect on MDR1-mediated transport of [(3)H]digoxin using MDR1-overexpressing LLC-GA5-COL150 cell monolayers and the reversal effect on cytotoxicity of vinblastine or paclitaxel using MDR1-overexpressing Hvr100-6 cells. The inhibitory effects on [(3)H]digoxin transport were assessed as the 50% inhibitory concentration during 4 h exposure, and the values were the lowest for nicardipine (4.54 microM), manidipine (4.65 microM) and benidipine (4.96 microM), followed by bepridil (10.6 microM), barnidipine (12.6 microM), efonidipine (13.0 microM), verapamil (13.2 microM) and nilvadipine (18.0 microM). The reversal effect on cytotoxicity was assessed by the 50% growth inhibitory concentration after 3 days exposure, and the resistance to vinblastine or paclitaxel in Hvr100-6 cells was reversed by manidipine, verapamil, benidipine, barnidipine, and nicardipine, in that order. Bepridil, barnidipine, efonidipine, verapamil and nilvadipine showed similar inhibitory effects on [(3)H]digoxin transport, but barnidipine and verapamil showed a stronger effect in reversal of cytotoxicity. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay indicated a decrease in MDR1 mRNA expression by barnidipine and verapamil. It is concluded that Ca(2+) antagonists cannot only be direct inhibitors of MDR1 but that some may at the same time act as inhibitors of expression of MDR1 via down-regulation of MDR1 mRNA.

  5. Monitoring PfMDR1 transport in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Reiling, Sarah J; Rohrbach, Petra

    2015-07-15

    The Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 transporter, PfMDR1, contains five amino acid polymorphisms that are suggested to be involved in altered drug transport from the parasite's cytosol into the digestive vacuole (DV). Transport of a substrate into another intracellular compartment influences drug availability at its site of action, therefore making the parasite more susceptible or resistant to a drug. Fluo-4 is a known fluorescent substrate that can be used as a molecular tool to investigate transport dynamics of PfMDR1 in many parasite strains. Six P. falciparum strains with varying PfMDR1 mutations were loaded with Fluo-4 AM. Accumulation of the fluorophore in the DV was measured using confocal microscopy. The role of a key amino acid mutation was verified using selected parasite clones with point mutations at PfMDR1 amino acid position 1042. Equal expression of PfMDR1 was confirmed by Western blot. Fluo-4 was transported by PfMDR1 into the DV of most drug-sensitive and -resistant parasites. Asparagine at PfMDR1 amino acid position 1042 was crucial for Fluo-4 transport, while the N1042D substitution abolished Fluo-4 transport. Competition studies of Fluo-4 with chloroquine, quinine and mefloquine were performed on parasites harbouring asparagine at position 1042. A distinct Fluo-4 transport inhibition pattern for each tested anti-malarial drug was observed in parasite strains of different genetic background. This study demonstrates that Fluo-4 can be used to investigate PfMDR1 transport dynamics in both drug-sensitive and -resistant parasites. Furthermore, direct evidence of altered Fluo-4 transport in PfMDR1 is linked to a single amino acid mutation in the substrate binding pocket. This system offers a great tool to investigate the role of substrate transport by PfMDR1 and the mutations necessary to support transport, which would lead to new insights for the development of novel anti-malarial drugs.

  6. Treatment of MDR1 Mutant Dogs with Macrocyclic Lactones

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Joachim; Janko, Christina

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance gene MDR1, is an ATP-driven drug efflux pump which is highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier of vertebrates. Drug efflux of macrocyclic lactones by P-glycoprotein is highly relevant for the therapeutic safety of macrocyclic lactones, as thereby GABA-gated chloride channels, which are confined to the central nervous system in vertebrates, are protected from high drug concentrations that otherwise would induce neurological toxicity. A 4-bp deletion mutation exists in the MDR1 gene of many dog breeds such as the Collie and the Australian Shepherd, which results in the expression of a non-functional P-glycoprotein and is associated with multiple drug sensitivity. Accordingly, dogs with homozygous MDR1 mutation are in general prone to neurotoxicity by macrocyclic lactones due to their increased brain penetration. Nevertheless, treatment of these dogs with macrocyclic lactones does not inevitably result in neurological symptoms, since, the safety of treatment highly depends on the treatment indication, dosage, route of application, and the individual compound used as outlined in this review. Whereas all available macrocyclic lactones can safely be administered to MDR1 mutant dogs at doses usually used for heartworm prevention, these dogs will experience neurological toxicity following a high dose regimen which is common for mange treatment in dogs. Here, we review and discuss the neurotoxicological potential of different macrocyclic lactones as well as their treatment options in MDR1 mutant dogs. PMID:22039792

  7. Meta-analysis of the influence of MDR1 C3435T polymorphism on digoxin pharmacokinetics and MDR1 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chowbay, Balram; Li, Huihua; David, Machin; Bun Cheung, Yin; Lee, Edmund J D

    2005-01-01

    Aims Studies revealing conflicting results of the functional significance of MDR1 exon 26 C3435T SNP on the disposition of digoxin in different ethnic groups led us to perform a meta-analysis on published data investigating the influence of C3435T SNP on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin and the expression of MDR1. Methods Meta-analysis was performed on data from published studies investigating the influence of MDR1 C3435T SNP on digoxin pharmacokinetics, as well as MDR1 expression in Caucasian and Japanese populations. The following outcomes were included: exposures to digoxin measured by area under the concentration–time curve and maximum concentration, the mean intestinal MDR1 mRNA expression and P-gp expression in the absence of digoxin administration. Results The overall results of the meta-analysis in Caucasian and Japanese subjects suggested no major influence of the C3435T SNP on exposure levels of digoxin as determined by AUC0−4 h or AUC0−24 h although Cmax values for digoxin were lower in wild-type (CC) subjects compared with subjects harbouring TT genotypes. Subgroup analysis by ethnic populations showed the oral availability of digoxin to be lower in wild-type Caucasian populations compared with wild-type Japanese subjects. No causal relationships were detected between the C3435T SNP and MDR1 mRNA or protein expression. Conclusions Our meta-analysis of available studies indicates that the synonymous MDR1 C3435T SNP does not affect the pharmacokinetics of digoxin and the expression of MDR1 mRNA. Future studies should focus on the impact of MDR1 haplotypes on the pharmacokinetics of MDR1 substrates rather than the C3435T SNP alone. PMID:16042669

  8. MDR1 transporter protects against paraquat-induced toxicity in human and mouse proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xia; Gibson, Christopher J; Yang, Ill; Buckley, Brian; Goedken, Michael J; Richardson, Jason R; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2014-10-01

    Paraquat is a herbicide that is highly toxic to the lungs and kidneys following acute exposures. Prior studies have demonstrated that the organic cation transporter 2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 contribute to the urinary secretion of paraquat in the kidneys. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/Mdr1, ABCB1, or P-glycoprotein) also participates in the removal of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against renal injury. Paraquat transport and toxicity were quantified in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) that endogenously express MDR1, HEK293 cells overexpressing MDR1, and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. In RPTEC cells, reduction of MDR1 activity using the antagonist PSC833 or siRNA transfection increased the cellular accumulation of paraquat by 50%. Reduced efflux of paraquat corresponded with enhanced cytotoxicity in PSC833-treated cells. Likewise, stable overexpression of the human MDR1 gene in HEK293 cells reduced intracellular levels of paraquat by 50%. In vivo studies assessed the renal accumulation and subsequent nephrotoxicity of paraquat (10 or 30 mg/kg ip) in wild-type and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. At 4 h after paraquat treatment, renal concentrations of paraquat in the kidneys of Mdr1a/1b knockout mice were 750% higher than wild-type mice. By 72 h, paraquat-treated Mdr1a/1b knockout mice had more extensive tubular degeneration and significantly greater mRNA expression of kidney injury-responsive genes, including kidney injury molecule-1, lipocalin-2, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, MDR1/Mdr1 participates in the elimination of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against subsequent toxicity.

  9. MDR1 Transporter Protects Against Paraquat-Induced Toxicity in Human and Mouse Proximal Tubule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xia; Gibson, Christopher J.; Yang, Ill; Buckley, Brian; Goedken, Michael J.; Richardson, Jason R.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat is a herbicide that is highly toxic to the lungs and kidneys following acute exposures. Prior studies have demonstrated that the organic cation transporter 2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 contribute to the urinary secretion of paraquat in the kidneys. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/Mdr1, ABCB1, or P-glycoprotein) also participates in the removal of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against renal injury. Paraquat transport and toxicity were quantified in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) that endogenously express MDR1, HEK293 cells overexpressing MDR1, and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. In RPTEC cells, reduction of MDR1 activity using the antagonist PSC833 or siRNA transfection increased the cellular accumulation of paraquat by 50%. Reduced efflux of paraquat corresponded with enhanced cytotoxicity in PSC833-treated cells. Likewise, stable overexpression of the human MDR1 gene in HEK293 cells reduced intracellular levels of paraquat by 50%. In vivo studies assessed the renal accumulation and subsequent nephrotoxicity of paraquat (10 or 30 mg/kg ip) in wild-type and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. At 4 h after paraquat treatment, renal concentrations of paraquat in the kidneys of Mdr1a/1b knockout mice were 750% higher than wild-type mice. By 72 h, paraquat-treated Mdr1a/1b knockout mice had more extensive tubular degeneration and significantly greater mRNA expression of kidney injury-responsive genes, including kidney injury molecule-1, lipocalin-2, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, MDR1/Mdr1 participates in the elimination of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against subsequent toxicity. PMID:25015657

  10. Detection of MDR1 mRNA expression with optimized gold nanoparticle beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiumei; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-03-01

    MDR1 (multidrug resistance gene) mRNA expression is a promising biomarker for the prediction of doxorubicin resistance in clinic. However, the traditional technical process in clinic is complicated and cannot perform the real-time detection mRNA in living single cells. In this study, the expression of MDR1 mRNA was analyzed based on optimized gold nanoparticle beacon in tumor cells. Firstly, gold nanoparticle (AuNP) was modified by thiol-PEG, and the MDR1 beacon sequence was screened and optimized using a BLAST bioinformatics strategy. Then, optimized MDR1 molecular beacons were characterized by transmission electron microscope, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. The cytotoxicity of MDR1 molecular beacon on L-02, K562 and K562/Adr cells were investigated by MTT assay, suggesting that MDR1 molecular beacon was low inherent cytotoxicity. Dark field microscope was used to investigate the cellular uptake of hDAuNP beacon assisted with ultrasound. Finally, laser scanning confocal microscope images showed that there was a significant difference in MDR1 mRNA expression in K562 and K562/Adr cells, which was consistent with the results of q-PCR measurement. In summary, optimized MDR1 molecular beacon designed in this study is a reliable strategy for detection MDR1 mRNA expression in living tumor cells, and will be a promising strategy for in guiding patient treatment and management in individualized medication.

  11. Evidence for altered ion transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing human MDR 1 protein.

    PubMed

    Fritz, F; Howard, E M; Hoffman, M M; Roepe, P D

    1999-03-30

    Recently [Hoffman, M. M., and Roepe, P. D. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 11153-11168] we presented evidence for a novel Na+- and Cl--dependent H+ transport process in LR73/hu MDR 1 CHO transfectants that likely explains pHi, volume, and membrane potential changes in eukaryotic cells overexpressing the hu MDR 1 protein. To further explore this process, we have overexpressed human MDR 1 protein in yeast strain 9.3 following a combination of approaches used previously [Kuchler, K., and Thorner, J. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 2302-2306; Ruetz, S., et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 11588-11592]. Thus, a truncated hu MDR 1 cDNA was cloned behind a tandem array of sterile 6 (Ste6) and alchohol dehydrogenase (Adh) promoters to create the yeast expression vector pFF1. Valinomycin resistance of intact cells and Western blot analysis with purified yeast plasma membranes confirmed the overexpression of full length, functional, and properly localized hu MDR 1 protein in independently isolated 9.3/pFF1 colonies. Interestingly, relative valinomycin resistance and growth of the 9.3/hu MDR 1 strains are found to strongly depend on the ionic composition of the growth medium. Atomic absorption reveals significant differences in intracellular K+ for 9.3/hu MDR 1 versus control yeast. Transport assays using [3H]tetraphenylphosphonium ([3H]TPP+) reveal perturbations in membrane potential for 9.3/hu MDR 1 yeast that are stimulated by KCl and alkaline pHex. ATPase activity of purified plasma membrane fractions from yeast strains and LR73/hu MDR 1 CHO transfectants constructed previously [Hoffman, M. M., et al. (1996) J. Gen. Physiol. 108, 295-313] was compared. MDR 1 ATPase activity exhibits a higher pH optimum and different salt dependencies, relative to yeast H+ ATPase. Inside-out plasma membrane vesicles (ISOV) fabricated from 9.3/hu MDR 1 and control strains were analyzed for formation of H+ gradients +/- verapamil. Similar pharmacologic profiles are found for

  12. Hepatobiliary and intestinal clearance of amphiphilic cationic drugs in mice in which both mdr1a and mdr1b genes have been disrupted

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Johan W; Schinkel, Alfred H; Weert, Betty; Meijer, Dirk K F

    1998-01-01

    We have used mice with homozygously disrupted mdr1a and mdr1b genes (mdr1a/1b (−/−) mice) to study the role of the mdr1-type P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the elimination of cationic amphiphilic compounds from the body. These mice lack drug-transporting P-gps, but show no physiological abnormalities under laboratory conditions and have normal bile flow.3H-labelled cationic drugs were administered intravenously (i.v.) to mice as a single bolus dose and the disposition of the studied cationic drugs was investigated by focusing on drug secretion into bile, intestinal lumen and urine.Hepatobiliary secretion of the investigated cationic drugs was profoundly reduced in mice devoid of the mdr1-type P-gps. In fact, the cumulative biliary output, measured during 1 h, of the small type 1 compounds tri-butylmethyl ammonium (TBuMA) and azidoprocainamide methoiodide (APM), as well as of the more bulky type 2 cationic drug vecuronium, was reduced by at least 70% in the mdr1a/1b (−/−) mice compared to wild-type.The intestinal secretion of TBuMA, APM and vecuronium was also profoundly reduced in mdr1a/1b (−/−) mice compared to wild-type mice. The absence of the mdr1-type P-gp resulted in virtual elimination of intestinal secretion of TBuMA and APM (>90% reduced as compared to wild-type (P=0.0001 and 0.0022, respectively)). The intestinal secretion of the type 2 cation drug vecuronium was reduced by 58% (P=0.0004) compared to the wild-type mice.Increased renal clearances of both the type 1 compounds TBuMA and APM and also of the type 2 cationic compound vecuronium in the mdr1a/1b (−/−) mice were observed. Furthermore, the balance between hepatic, intestinal and renal clearances of small type 1 organic cations clearly shifted towards a predominant role for renal clearance. Increased renal clearance may be explained by (over)expresion of additional mechanisms for renal organic cation secretion, alternatively they may also point to an as yet undefined role of P

  13. The siRNA targeted to mdr1b and mdr1a mRNAs in vivo sensitizes murine lymphosarcoma to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the main obstacles for successful cancer polychemotherapy is multiple drug resistance phenotype (MDR) acquired by tumor cells. Currently, RNA interference represents a perspective strategy to overcome MDR via silencing the genes involved in development of this deleterious phenotype (genes of ABC transporters, antiapoptotic genes, etc.). Methods In this study, we used the siRNAs targeted to mdr1b, mdr1a, and bcl-2 mRNAs to reverse the MDR of tumors and increase tumor sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. The therapy consisting in ex vivo or in vivo application of mdr1b/1a siRNA followed by cyclophosphamide administration was studied in the mice bearing RLS40 lymphosarcoma, displaying high resistance to a wide range of cytostatics. Results Our data show that a single application of mdr1b/1a siRNA followed by treatment with conventionally used cytostatics results in more than threefold decrease in tumor size as compared with the control animals receiving only cytostatics. Conclusions In perspective, mdr1b/1a siRNA may become a well-reasoned adjuvant tool in the therapy of MDR malignancies. PMID:20470373

  14. Tryptanthrin inhibits MDR1 and reverses doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.-T.; Chen, T.-M.; Tseng, S.-Y.; Chen, Y.-H. . E-mail: tcyhchen@ntu.edu.tw

    2007-06-22

    Development of agents to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) is important in cancer chemotherapy. Up to date, few chemicals have been reported to down-regulate MDR1 gene expression. We evaluated the effect of tryptanthrin on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated MDR in a breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Tryptanthrin could depress overexpression of MDR1 gene. We observed reduction of P-gp protein in parallel with decreases in mRNA in MCF-7/adr cells treated with tryptanthrin. Tryptanthrin suppressed the activity of MDR1 gene promoter. Tryptanthrin also enhanced interaction of the nuclear proteins with the negatively regulatory CAAT region of MDR1 gene promoter in MCF-7/adr. It might result in suppression of MDR1 gene. In addition, tryptanthrin decreased the amount of mutant p53 protein with decreasing mutant p53 protein stability. It might contribute to negative regulation of MDR1 gene. In conclusion, tryptanthrin exhibited MDR reversing effect by down-regulation of MDR1 gene and might be a new adjuvant agent for chemotherapy.

  15. Dioscin enhances methotrexate absorption by down-regulating MDR1 in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Qi; Meng, Qiang; Sun, Huijun; Huo, Xiaokui; and others

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the enhancing effect of dioscin on the absorption of methotrexate (MTX) and clarify the molecular mechanism involved in vivo and in vitro. Dioscin increased MTX chemosensitivity and transepithelial flux in the absorptive direction, significantly inhibiting multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) mRNA and protein expression and MDR1 promoter and nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) activities in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) degradation was inhibited by dioscin. Dioscin enhanced the intracellular concentration of MTX by down-regulating MDR1 expression through a mechanism that involves NF-κB signaling pathway inhibition in Caco-2 cells. Dioscin strengthened MTX absorption by inhibiting MDR1 expression in rat intestine. In addition, even though MTX is absorbed into the enterocytes, there was no increase in toxicity observed, and that, in fact, decreased toxicity was seen. - Highlights: • Dioscin raised MTX concentration by inhibiting MDR1 in Caco-2 cells. • Dioscin suppresses MDR1 by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway in Caco-2 cells. • Dioscin can enhance MTX absorption via inhibiting MDR1 in vivo and in vitro. • Dioscin did not increase MTX-induced gastrointestinal mucosal toxicity.

  16. Orally administered extract from Prunella vulgaris attenuates spontaneous colitis in mdr1a-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Haarberg, Kelley MK; Wymore Brand, Meghan J; Overstreet, Anne-Marie C; Hauck, Catherine C; Murphy, Patricia A; Hostetter, Jesse M; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Wannemuehler, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of a Prunella vulgaris (P. vulgaris) ethanolic extract to attenuate spontaneous typhlocolitis in mdr1a-/- mice. METHODS: Vehicle (5% ethanol) or P. vulgaris ethanolic extract (2.4 mg/d) were administered daily by oral gavage to mdr1a-/- or wild type FVBWT mice from 6 wk of age up to 20 wk of age. Clinical signs of disease were noted by monitoring weight loss. Mice experiencing weight loss in excess of 15% were removed from the study. At the time mice were removed from the study, blood and colon tissue were collected for analyses that included histological evaluation of lesions, inflammatory cytokine levels, and myeloperoxidase activity. RESULTS: Administration of P. vulgaris extracts to mdr1a-/- mice delayed onset of colitis and reduced severity of mucosal inflammation when compared to vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice. Oral administration of the P. vulgaris extract resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) serum levels of IL-10 (4.6 ± 2 vs 19.4 ± 4), CXCL9 (1319.0 ± 277 vs 3901.0 ± 858), and TNFα (9.9 ± 3 vs 14.8 ± 1) as well as reduced gene expression by more than two-fold for Ccl2, Ccl20, Cxcl1, Cxcl9, IL-1α, Mmp10, VCAM-1, ICAM, IL-2, and TNFα in the colonic mucosa of mdr1a-/- mice compared to vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice. Histologically, several microscopic parameters were reduced (P < 0.05) in P. vulgaris-treated mdr1a-/- mice, as was myeloperoxidase activity in the colon (2.49 ± 0.16 vs 3.36 ± 0.06, P < 0.05). The numbers of CD4+ T cells (2031.9 ± 412.1 vs 5054.5 ± 809.5) and germinal center B cells (2749.6 ± 473.7 vs 4934.0 ± 645.9) observed in the cecal tonsils of P. vulgaris-treated mdr1a-/- were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) from vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice. Vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice were found to produce serum antibodies to antigens derived from members of the intestinal microbiota, indicative of severe colitis and a loss of adaptive tolerance to the members of the microbiota. These serum antibodies were greatly

  17. [Effect of quercetin on doxorubicin-induced expression of MDR1 gene in HL-60 cells].

    PubMed

    He, Hai-Lan; Ji, Li-Juan; Li, Qi-Zhi; Zhang, Rong; Huang, Jian-Ming; Li, Ge

    2015-02-01

    Leukemia cells can acquire a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype in response to a wide variety of chemotherapeutic agents including doxorubicin (Dox). In addition to the constitutive expression in the leukemia prior to chemotherapy, a complex phenotype of pleiotropic resistance is presented in the residual or recurrent leukemia. Recent studies showed Dox-induced coexpression of COX2 and MDR1 genes in human leukaemia cells, and whether Dox-induced MDR1 up-regulation in acute leukaemia cells is dependent on COX2-transcriptional activity and thus might be overcome or prevented with COX2-promotor inhibitor quercetin interfering with COX2 expression and activity. This study was purposed to investigate the impacts of quercetin on Dox-induced mRNA expression of MDR1 and COX2 genes in HL-60 leukemia cells. The MDR1 and COX2 mRNA expression in HL-60 cells was detected by RT-PCR; the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release was measured by ELISA; the cytotoxicity of Dox was determined by MTT test. The incubation of HL-60 cells with Dox not only up-regulated MDR1 mRNA, but also COX2 mRNA expression, and after co-incubation with quercetin or celecoxib, Dox-induced overexpression of MDR1 and COX2 mRNA were reduced by quercetin, not by celecoxib, whereas PGE2 release was significantly decreased with subsequent enhancement of Dox cytotoxic efficacy by both of them. Dox-induced MDR1 up-regulation may be dependent on COX2-transcriptional activity, not PGE2, suggesting that the existence of causal link between COX2 and MDR1 expression induced by Dox, and modulation of COX2 transcriptional expression by quercetin would not only sensitize leukemia cells to Dox, but also prevent the acquisition of MDR during chemotherapy.

  18. mAb MDR1-modified chitosan nanoparticles overcome acquired EGFR-TKI resistance through two potential therapeutic targets modulation of MDR1 and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan; Su, Chang; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yijie

    2017-10-04

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that act against the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) were once widely used in chemotherapy for many human cancers. However, acquired chemoresistance occurred in almost all patients, limiting the clinical application of EGFR-TKI. Thus far, no effective methods existing can resolve this problem. Designing a therapeutic treatment with a specific multi-target profile has been regarded as a possible strategy to overcome acquired EGFR-TKI resistance. MDR1 antibody-modified chitosan nanoparticles loading gefitinib and autophagy inhibitor chloroquine were prepared by ionic crosslinking and electrostatic attracting method. MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis and western blot assay were all performed to confirm the effect of different formulations of gefitinib on the proliferation of SMMC-7721/gefitinib cells. The preparations demonstrated their multi-target potential to achieve both tumor-targeting selectivity and the desired antitumor effects by blocking cell-surface MDR1 and inhibiting autophagy. mAb MDR1-modified CS NPs, when combined with the co-delivery of gefitinib and chloroquine, showed targeting and therapeutic potential on enhancing the delivery of anticancer drugs and inducing significant cell apoptosis against acquired EGFR-TKI resistance through the modulation of autophagy and while blocking the activity of the MDR1 receptor. A new approach to design an excellent nanoparticle drug-delivery system can overcome acquired EGFR-TKI resistance against various multiple antitumor targets.

  19. A synonymous polymorphism in a common MDR1 (ABCB1) haplotype shapes protein function

    PubMed Central

    Fung, King Leung; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    The MDR1 (ABCB1) gene encodes a membrane-bound transporter that actively effluxes a wide range of compounds from cells. The overexpression of MDR1 by multidrug-resistant cancer cells is a serious impediment to chemotherapy. MDR1 is expressed in various tissues to protect them from the adverse effect of toxins. The pharmacokinetics of drugs that are also MDR1 substrates also influence disease outcome and treatment efficacy. Although MDR1 is a well conserved gene, there is increasing evidence that its polymorphisms affect substrate specificity. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occur frequently and have strong linkage, creating a common haplotype at positions 1236C>T (G412G), 2677G>T (A893S) and 3435C>T (I1145I). The frequency of the synonymous 3435C>T polymorphism has been shown to vary significantly according to ethnicity. Existing literature suggests that the haplotype plays a role in response to drugs and disease susceptibility. This review summarizes recent findings on the 3435C>T polymorphism of MDR1 and the haplotype to which it belongs. A possible molecular mechanism of action by ribosome stalling that can change protein structure and function by altering protein folding is discussed. PMID:19285158

  20. [Resistance to therapy in primary nephrotic syndrome: effect of MDR1 gene activity].

    PubMed

    Stachowski, J; Zanker, C B; Runowski, D; Zaniew, M; Peszko, A; Medyńska, A; Zwolińska, D; Rogowska-Kalisz, A; Hyla-Klekot, L; Szprygner, K; Weglarska, J; Sieniawska, M; Musiał, W; Maciejewski, J; Baldamus, C A

    2000-04-01

    MDR1 gene encodes for a transmembranous glycoprotein, gp-170, which acts as a drug export pump and is also a cyclosporine(CsA)-binding protein. This study aimed at evaluating MDR1 expression in NS sensitive(S) and resistant(R) to therapy (steroids/S/, cyclophosphamide/C/, CsA) patients. Twenty six boys, 13 girls aged 3-8 years were included to the study. MDR1 was analysed using: 1) evaluation of gp-170 activity according to DiC2/3/ [3,3-Diethyloxa-carbocyanine Iodide] by means of flow cytometry and as 2) mRNA expression of MDR1 determined by RT-PCR. The analysis was performed in the lymphocyte subset CD4/CD45RA presenting suppressor-inducer activity. Negative control, Jurkat-T-cell line, not expressing the MDR1 phenotype, was transfected with viral expression vector containing a full-length cDNA for the human MDR1 gene. We found that: in SR-NS the high expression of MDR1 was associated mainly with the suppressor-inducer T-cells (CD45RA+CD4+) and was subsequently enhanced during an ineffective treatment with C and/or CsA. C-R-NS and CsA-R-NS were partially reversible by S- and R-Verapamil; this was in vitro confirmed by inhibition of export pump activity, gp-170. SS-NS, C-S-NS and CsA-S-NS presented the low expression and activity of MDR1 comparing to R-children (p < 0.001) and healthy controls (p < 0.00001). Resistance to therapy in NS patients seems to be resulted from the enhanced expression of MDR1 gene and subsequent high activity of export pump P-gp-170. Calcium channel blockers may reverse the MRD1-related resistance in the therapy of NS. Analysis of MDR1 may help to detect of suspected therapy resistance in NS.

  1. Silencage du gene MDR1 et resensibilisation des cellules MCF-7 MDR a la doxorubicine en utilisant les nanoparticules chitosane/MDR1-siARN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ariss, Mohamad

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Canada and is responsible for about 30% of all deaths in the country.[1] It is estimated that by 2015, one in four Canadians (24% women and 29% men) will die from cancer. In the world and only for 2012, 14 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths from the disease were reported.[2] The worst is yet to come because, according to World Health Organization, the number of new cases is expected to increase by about 70% over the next two decades. The high mortality associated with cancer is partly explained by the acquisition of drug resistance that make patients refractory to chemotherapy. In fact, cancer cells exposed to a cytotoxic agent during chemotherapy, may develop a resistance to this agent as well as various agents sharing structural or functional similarities. These cancer cells are known for multidrug resistance ("Multiple Drug resistant cells"). The development of resistance to chimiodrogues is a major public health problem that presents an obstacle for the development of new cancer treatments. MCF-7 MDR are established cell lines of human breast cancer that have developed resistance to chimiodrogues such as doxorubicin. MCF-7 MDR have the particularity to over-express P-gp protein that is responsible for the detoxification of cells by reflux of chimiodrogues. The purpose of this study was therefore to reduce the expression of P-gp, encoded by the MDR1 gene (also called gene ABCB1) in cancer cells MCF-7, and re-sensitize MCF-7 MDR cells to anti-cancer treatments. In order to modify MDR1 gene expression, we used small RNAi called siRNA that are specific to the MDR1 gene. In total, 4 duplexes of siRNA have been used: siRNA_1, siRNA_1M, siRNA_2 and siRNA_2M. Each of the duplexes strands is consists of 21 nucleic acids and has two protruding nucleic acids (overhangs) at the 3' end. siRNA_1 and siRNA_1M are complementary to the nucleic acid sequence (577-595 nucleic acids ) of the MDR1 gene, whereas siARN_2 and si

  2. A CRISPR-Cas9 Generated MDCK Cell Line Expressing Human MDR1 Without Endogenous Canine MDR1 (cABCB1): An Improved Tool for Drug Efflux Studies.

    PubMed

    Karlgren, Maria; Simoff, Ivailo; Backlund, Maria; Wegler, Christine; Keiser, Markus; Handin, Niklas; Müller, Janett; Lundquist, Patrik; Jareborg, Anne-Christine; Oswald, Stefan; Artursson, Per

    2017-09-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells stably transfected with transport proteins are commonly used models for drug transport studies. However, endogenous expression of especially canine MDR1 (cMDR1) confounds the interpretation of such studies. Here we have established an MDCK cell line stably overexpressing the human MDR1 transporter (hMDR1; P-glycoprotein), and used CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to knockout the endogenous cMDR1. Genomic screening revealed the generation of a clonal cell line homozygous for a 4-nucleotide deletion in the canine ABCB1 gene leading to a frameshift and a premature stop codon. Knockout of cMDR1 expression was verified by quantitative protein analysis and functional studies showing retained activity of the human MDR1 transporter. Application of this cell line allowed unbiased reclassification of drugs previously defined as both substrates and non-substrates in different studies using commonly used MDCK-MDR1 clones. Our new MDCK-hMDR1 cell line, together with a previously developed control cell line, both with identical deletions in the canine ABCB1 gene and lack of cMDR1 expression represent excellent in vitro tools for use in drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Loss of TLR2 Worsens Spontaneous Colitis in MDR1A Deficiency through Commensally Induced Pyroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ey, Birgit; Eyking, Annette; Klepak, Magdalena; Salzman, Nita H.; Göthert, Joachim R.; Rünzi, Michael; Schmid, Kurt W.; Gerken, Guido; Podolsky, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Variants of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1/ABCB1) have been associated with increased susceptibility to severe ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we investigated the role of TLR/IL-1R signaling pathways including the common adaptor MyD88 in the pathogenesis of chronic colonic inflammation in MDR1A deficiency. Double- or triple-null mice lacking TLR2, MD-2, MyD88, and MDR1A were generated in the FVB/N background. Deletion of TLR2 in MDR1A deficiency resulted in fulminant pancolitis with early expansion of CD11b+ myeloid cells and rapid shift toward TH1-dominant immune responses in the lamina propria. Colitis exacerbation in TLR2/MDR1A double-knockout mice required the unaltered commensal microbiota and the LPS coreceptor MD-2. Blockade of IL-1β activity by treatment with IL-1R antagonist (IL-1Ra; Anakinra) inhibited colitis acceleration in TLR2/MDR1A double deficiency; intestinal CD11b+Ly6C+-derived IL-1β production and inflammation entirely depended on MyD88. TLR2/MDR1A double-knockout CD11b+ myeloid cells expressed MD-2/TLR4 and hyperresponded to nonpathogenic Escherichia coli or LPS with reactive oxygen species production and caspase-1 activation, leading to excessive cell death and release of proinflammatory IL-1β, consistent with pyroptosis. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species–mediated lysosome degradation suppressed LPS hyperresponsiveness. Finally, active UC in patients carrying the TLR2-R753Q and MDR1-C3435T polymorphisms was associated with increased nuclear expression of caspase-1 protein and cell death in areas of acute inflammation, compared with active UC patients without these variants. In conclusion, we show that the combined defect of two UC susceptibility genes, MDR1A and TLR2, sets the stage for spontaneous and uncontrolled colitis progression through MD-2 and IL-1R signaling via MyD88, and we identify commensally induced pyroptosis as a potential innate immune effector in severe UC pathogenesis. PMID:23636052

  4. Increased susceptibility to Trichuris muris infection and exacerbation of colitis in Mdr1a-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Ekta K; Else, Kathryn J; Rogan, Michael T; Warhurst, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of Trichuris muris (T. muris) infection in a mouse model of genetic susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease, Mdr1a-/-. METHODS: Mdr1a-/- mice were housed under specific pathogen free conditions to slow the development of colitis and compared to congenic FVB controls. Mice were infected with approximately 200 embryonated ova from T. muris and assessed for worm burden and histological and functional markers of gut inflammation on day 19 post infection. RESULTS: Mdr1a-/- mice exhibited a marked increase in susceptibility to T. muris infection with a 10-fold increase in colonic worm count by day 19 pi compared to FVB controls. Prior to infection, Mdr1a-/- exhibited low-level mucosal inflammation with evidence of an enhanced Th1 environment. T. muris infection accelerated the progression of colitis in Mdr1a-/- as evidenced by marked increases in several indicators including histological damage score, mucosal CD4+ T-cell and DC infiltration and dramatically increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSION: These data provide further evidence of the complex interaction between T. muris and an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-susceptible host which may have relevance to the application of helminth therapy in the treatment of human IBD. PMID:24587657

  5. Assessment of Plasmodium falciparum PfMDR1 transport rates using Fluo-4

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, O; Reiling, SJ; Wunderlich, J; Rohrbach, P

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the multidrug resistance transporter of Plasmodium falciparum PfMDR1 have been implicated to play a significant role in the emergence of worldwide drug resistance, yet the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of this transporter are not well understood. Although it is generally accepted that drug resistance in P. falciparum is partly associated with PfMDR1 transport activity situated in the membrane of the digestive vacuole, direct estimates of the pump rate of this transport process in the natural environment of the intact host–parasite system have never been analysed. The fluorochrome Fluo-4 is a well-documented surrogate substrate of PfMDR1 and has been found to accumulate by actively being transported into the digestive vacuole of several parasitic strains. In the present study, we designed an approach to use Fluo-4 fluorescence uptake as a measure of compartmental Fluo-4 concentration accumulation in the different compartments of the host–parasite system. We performed a ‘reverse Fluo-4 imaging' approach to relate fluorescence intensity to changes in dye concentration rather than Ca2+ fluctuations and were able to calculate the overall rate of transport for PfMDR1 in Dd2 parasites. With this assay, we provide a powerful method to selectively measure the effect of PfMDR1 mutations on substrate transport kinetics. This will be of high significance for future compound screening to test for new drugs in resistant P. falciparum strains. PMID:24889967

  6. Increased susceptibility to Trichuris muris infection and exacerbation of colitis in Mdr1a-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ekta K; Else, Kathryn J; Rogan, Michael T; Warhurst, Geoffrey

    2014-02-21

    To investigate the influence of Trichuris muris (T. muris) infection in a mouse model of genetic susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease, Mdr1a-/-. Mdr1a-/- mice were housed under specific pathogen free conditions to slow the development of colitis and compared to congenic FVB controls. Mice were infected with approximately 200 embryonated ova from T. muris and assessed for worm burden and histological and functional markers of gut inflammation on day 19 post infection. Mdr1a-/- mice exhibited a marked increase in susceptibility to T. muris infection with a 10-fold increase in colonic worm count by day 19 pi compared to FVB controls. Prior to infection, Mdr1a-/- exhibited low-level mucosal inflammation with evidence of an enhanced Th1 environment. T. muris infection accelerated the progression of colitis in Mdr1a-/- as evidenced by marked increases in several indicators including histological damage score, mucosal CD⁺ T-cell and DC infiltration and dramatically increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These data provide further evidence of the complex interaction between T. muris and an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-susceptible host which may have relevance to the application of helminth therapy in the treatment of human IBD.

  7. Validation of a P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) Humanized Mouse Model by Integrating Selective Absolute Quantification of Human MDR1, Mouse Mdr1a and Mdr1b Protein Expressions with In Vivo Functional Analysis for Blood-Brain Barrier Transport

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Muhammad Waqas; Uchida, Yasuo; Hoshi, Yutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish a useful validation method for newly generated humanized mouse models. The novel approach of combining our established species-specific protein quantification method combined with in vivo functional studies is evaluated to validate a humanized mouse model of P-gp/MDR1 efflux transporter. The P-gp substrates digoxin, verapamil and docetaxel were administered to male FVB Mdr1a/1b(+/+) (FVB WT), FVB Mdr1a/1b(-/-) (Mdr1a/1b(-/-)), C57BL/6 Mdr1a/1b(+/+) (C57BL/6 WT) and humanized C57BL (hMDR1) mice. Brain-to-plasma total concentration ratios (Kp) were measured. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomic (QTAP) analysis was used to selectively quantify the protein expression levels of hMDR1, Mdr1a and Mdr1b in the isolated brain capillaries. The protein expressions of other transporters, receptors and claudin-5 were also quantified. The Kp for digoxin, verapamil, and docetaxel were 20, 30 and 4 times higher in the Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice than in the FVB WT controls, as expected. The Kp for digoxin, verapamil and docetaxel were 2, 16 and 2-times higher in the hMDR1 compared to the C57BL/6 WT mice. The hMDR1 mice had 63- and 9.1-fold lower expressions of the hMDR1 and Mdr1a proteins than the corresponding expression of Mdr1a in C57BL/6 WT mice, respectively. The protein expression levels of other molecules were almost consistent between C57BL/6 WT and hMDR1 mice. The P-gp function at the BBB in the hMDR1 mice was smaller than that in WT mice due to lower protein expression levels of hMDR1 and Mdr1a. The combination of QTAP and in vivo functional analyses was successfully applied to validate the humanized animal model and evaluates its suitability for further studies. PMID:25932627

  8. Validation of a P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) Humanized Mouse Model by Integrating Selective Absolute Quantification of Human MDR1, Mouse Mdr1a and Mdr1b Protein Expressions with In Vivo Functional Analysis for Blood-Brain Barrier Transport.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Muhammad Waqas; Uchida, Yasuo; Hoshi, Yutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish a useful validation method for newly generated humanized mouse models. The novel approach of combining our established species-specific protein quantification method combined with in vivo functional studies is evaluated to validate a humanized mouse model of P-gp/MDR1 efflux transporter. The P-gp substrates digoxin, verapamil and docetaxel were administered to male FVB Mdr1a/1b(+/+) (FVB WT), FVB Mdr1a/1b(-/-) (Mdr1a/1b(-/-)), C57BL/6 Mdr1a/1b(+/+) (C57BL/6 WT) and humanized C57BL (hMDR1) mice. Brain-to-plasma total concentration ratios (Kp) were measured. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomic (QTAP) analysis was used to selectively quantify the protein expression levels of hMDR1, Mdr1a and Mdr1b in the isolated brain capillaries. The protein expressions of other transporters, receptors and claudin-5 were also quantified. The Kp for digoxin, verapamil, and docetaxel were 20, 30 and 4 times higher in the Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice than in the FVB WT controls, as expected. The Kp for digoxin, verapamil and docetaxel were 2, 16 and 2-times higher in the hMDR1 compared to the C57BL/6 WT mice. The hMDR1 mice had 63- and 9.1-fold lower expressions of the hMDR1 and Mdr1a proteins than the corresponding expression of Mdr1a in C57BL/6 WT mice, respectively. The protein expression levels of other molecules were almost consistent between C57BL/6 WT and hMDR1 mice. The P-gp function at the BBB in the hMDR1 mice was smaller than that in WT mice due to lower protein expression levels of hMDR1 and Mdr1a. The combination of QTAP and in vivo functional analyses was successfully applied to validate the humanized animal model and evaluates its suitability for further studies.

  9. A new model for studying tissue-specific mdr1a gene expression in vivo by live imaging.

    PubMed

    Gu, Long; Tsark, Walter M; Brown, Donna A; Blanchard, Suzette; Synold, Timothy W; Kane, Susan E

    2009-03-31

    Multidrug resistance continues to be a major impediment to successful chemotherapy in cancer patients. One cause of multidrug resistance is enhanced expression of the mdr1 gene, but the precise factors and physiological conditions controlling mdr1 expression are not entirely known. To gain a better understanding of mdr1 transcriptional regulation, we created a unique mouse model that allows noninvasive bioimaging of mdr1 gene expression in vivo and in real time. The model uses a firefly luciferase (fLUC) gene inserted by homologous recombination into the murine mdr1a genetic locus. The inserted fLUC gene is preceded by a neo expression cassette flanked by loxP sites, so that Cre-mediated recombination is required to configure the fLUC gene directly under the control of the endogenous mdr1a promoter. We now demonstrate that the mdr1a.fLUC knock-in is a faithful reporter for mdr1a expression in naive animals, in which fLUC mRNA levels and luminescence intensities accurately parallel endogenous mdr1a mRNA expression. We also demonstrate xenobiotic-inducible regulation of mdr1a.fLUC expression in real time, in parallel with endogenous mdr1a expression, resulting in a more detailed understanding of the kinetics of mdr1a gene induction. This mouse model demonstrates the feasibility of using bioimaging coupled with Cre/loxP conditional knock-in to monitor regulated gene expression in vivo. It represents a unique tool with which to study the magnitude and kinetics of mdr1a induction under a variety of physiologic, pharmacologic, genetic, and environmental conditions.

  10. MDR1 overexpression inhibits chemotherapy-induced toxicity of granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Sana M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To protect granulosa cells from chemotherapy-induced toxicity by retrovirus-mediated multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) transfection. DESIGN Laboratory study. SETTING Academic research laboratory in a university hospital. INTERVENTION(S) KK15 immortalized murine granulosa cell line was transiently transduced with sf91m3 retrovirus vector carrying MDR1 cDNA that encodes P-glycoprtoein (P-gp). Transduced cells were selected with colchicine and treated with doxorubicin or paclitaxel for 24–72 hours. The expression and function of MDR1 and the mRNA expression of selected steroidogenesis enzymes were evaluated by flow cytometry, cell viability assays, Western blot, and RT-PCR. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) Viability of sf91m3-transduced KK15 cells after treatment with doxorubicin and paclitaxel. RESULT(S) sf91m3-transduced KK15 demonstrated high expression of biologically active MDR1 as shown by flow cytometry analysis and immunoblotting using P-gp monoclonal antibody and Rhodamine 123 efflux assays. sf91m3-transduced KK15 exhibited significant resistance to toxicity of 10uM paclitaxel(p≤0.001). MDR1-transduced KK15 cells were also protected from doxorubicin toxicity (10nM to 2.5uM) as shown by cell viability assay (p≤0.02). Both flow cytometry and cell viability assay showed that the protection of KK15 from doxorubicin toxicity was lost at 5 uM of doxorubicin; equivalent to 500 times LD50 (p≥0.05). sf91m3-transduced KK15 showed normal mRNA expression of a panel of selected steroidogenesis enzymes. CONCLUSION(S) Retroviral gene delivery of human MDR1 inhibited chemotherapy- induced granulosa cell toxicity and offered chemoprotection in an in vitro model. PMID:21316663

  11. Temozolomide induces the production of epidermal growth factor to regulate MDR1 expression in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Jessian L; Rodriguez-Cruz, Vivian; Greco, Steven J; Nagula, Vipul; Scotto, Kathleen W; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) commonly resists the frontline chemotherapy treatment temozolomide. The multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) and its protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), are associated with chemoresistance. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying MDR1-mediated resistance by GBM to temozolomide. P-gp trafficking was studied by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. MDR1 expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and reporter gene assays. AP-1 interaction with MDR1 was studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. EGF production was analyzed by ELISA, EGFR signaling was determined by Western blot analysis, and in vivo response to erlotinib and/or temozolomide was studied in nude mice. During the early phase of temozolomide treatment, intracellular P-gp was trafficked to the cell membrane, followed by conformational change into active P-gp. At the later phase, gene transcription of MDR1 was induced by temozolomide-mediated production of EGF. EGF activated ERK1/2-JNK-AP-1 cofactors (c-jun and c-fos). An inhibitor of EGFR kinase (erlotinib) given to nude mice with GBM prevented temozolomide-induced resistance. The results identified an essential role for activated EGFR in the resistance of GBM to temozolomide. Temozolomide resistance occurred through a biphasic response; first, by a conformational change in P-gp into the active form and, second, by releasing EGF, which caused autocrine stimulation of GBM cells to induce MDR1. Pharmacologic inhibition of EGFR kinase blunted the ability of GBM cells to resist temozolomide. These findings may explain reports on the common occurrence of mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII) and EGFR expansion in the resistance of GBM cells.

  12. Effects of Kampo medicines on MDR-1-mediated multidrug resistance in human hepatocellular carcinoma HuH-7/PTX cells.

    PubMed

    Hyuga, Sumiko; Shiraishi, Masumi; Hori, Atsushi; Hyuga, Masashi; Hanawa, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Paclitaxel-resistant HuH-7 (HuH-7/PTX) cells were established by one-week exposure of HuH-7 cells to paclitaxel to analyze the effects of Kampo medicines on MDR-1-mediated multidrug resistance. HuH-7/PTX cells expressed high levels of MDR-1 and efficiently exported calcein-acetoxymethylester (calcein-AM), which is a substrate of MDR-1, suggesting that HuH-7/PTX cells resist paclitaxel by overexpressing MDR-1. We assessed the effects of 26 kinds of Kampo medicine on MDR-1 by calcein-AM efflux assay using HuH-7/PTX cells, and the results revealed that takushato and goreisan are potential inhibitors of drug efflux by MDR-1. Additionally, the sensitivity of HuH-7/PTX cells to paclitaxel was increased in combination with these Kampo medicines, indicating that takushato and goreisan overcame paclitaxel resistance in the cells by suppressing drug export by MDR-1. We further clarified that Alismatis Rhizoma contained in both takushato and goreisan reversed paclitaxel resistance by preventing drug efflux by MDR-1 without affecting the expression levels of MDR-1. Moreover, the principal components of Alismatis Rhizoma, Alisol A, Alisol B, and Alisol B acetate, were found to increase the sensitivity to paclitaxel in HuH-7/PTX by inhibiting drug export by MDR-1 without affecting the expression levels of MDR-1. These results suggested that the reversal effects of takushato and goreisan on paclitaxel resistance are derived from these principal components in Alismatis Rhizoma. Accordingly, Kampo medicines containing Alismatis Rhizoma such as takushato and goreisan may be useful as MDR-1 inhibitors.

  13. Binding properties of monoclonal antibodies recognizing external epitopes of the human MDR1 P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, A H; Arceci, R J; Smit, J J; Wagenaar, E; Baas, F; Dollé, M; Tsuruo, T; Mechetner, E B; Roninson, I B; Borst, P

    1993-09-30

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing external epitopes of the human MDR1 P-glycoprotein have been used both for the detection of multidrug-resistant cells and as specific inhibitors of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance. Using a panel of recently developed transfected or transgenic cell lines containing variants of the human MDR1 and MDR3 P-glycoproteins, we have compared the specificity and binding properties of the previously isolated MAbs MRK16, HYB-241, UIC2 and 4E3, and of the newly isolated MAb 7G4. The removal of 1, 2 or all 3 of the N-glycosylation sites present in the first extracellular loop of MDR1 P-glycoprotein did not significantly affect the binding of these MAbs. In contrast, 20 amino acid deletion in the first extracellular loop of MDR1 P-glycoprotein completely abolished binding of UIC2, whereas the binding of all other MAbs was hardly affected. None of the MAbs tested bound detectably to cell lines containing a high level of the human MDR3 P-glycoprotein. The differences in the binding specificity between UIC2 and the other tested antibodies parallel the reported functional differences in the ability of these antibodies to inhibit P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux.

  14. Tuberous sclerosis associated with MDR1 gene expression and drug-resistant epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lazarowski, A; Sevlever, G; Taratuto, A; Massaro, M; Rabinowicz, A

    1999-10-01

    Intractable seizures are the most common manifestation in severe cases of tuberous sclerosis. Multidrug resistance type 1 (MDR1) gene expression is directly linked to the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy as the major cause of treatment failure, but it has not been reported in tuberous sclerosis cells nor has the relationship between the MDR1 gene and antiepileptic drugs been described. A 4-month-old female is described with poorly controlled seizures secondary to tuberous sclerosis. The patient was treated with antiepileptic drugs, including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and lorazepam, without improvement of symptoms. Phenytoin blood levels were invariably subtherapeutic and ranged from 0.45 to 3.55 microg/mL, despite several consecutive intravenous loading doses. Surgical treatment with total resection of the brain lesions was performed as a last resort. Immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tissues revealed high levels of P-glycoprotein 170 expression, the product of the MDR1 gene. Both MDR1 gene expression and persistently low phenytoin levels likely share a common pathway liable to induce drug-resistant epilepsy.

  15. Cross-talk between signalling pathways and the multidrug resistant protein MDR-1

    PubMed Central

    Ding, S; Chamberlain, M; McLaren, A; Goh, L-b; Duncan, I; Wolf, C R

    2001-01-01

    The multidrug resistant protein MDR-1 has been associated with the resistance to a wide range of anti-cancer drugs. Taxol is a substrate for this transporter system and is used in the treatment of a wide range of human malignancies including lung, breast and ovarian cancer. We have generated a series of ovarian cell lines resistant to this compound, all of which overexpress MDR-1 through gene amplification. We present novel evidence that a constitutive activation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway was also observed although the level of active JNK and p38 remained unchanged. Inhibition of the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway using UO126 or PD098059 re-sensitised the Taxol resistant cells at least 20-fold. Importantly, when Mdr-1 cDNA was stably expressed in the wild-type cell line to generate a highly Taxol-resistant sub-line, 1847/MDR5, ERK1/2 MAP kinases again became activated. This result demonstrated that the increased activity of the signalling pathway in the Taxol-resistant lines was directly attributable to MDR-1 overexpression and was not due to the effects of Taxol itself. Additionally, we demonstrated that inhibition of the P13K pathway with LY294002 sensitised the MDR-1-expressing 1847/TX0.5 cells and 1847/MDR5 cells at least 10-fold but had no effect in the wild-type cells. This finding suggests a possible role for this pathway, also, in the generation of resistance to Taxol. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710832

  16. Assessment of Plasmodium falciparum PfMDR1 transport rates using Fluo-4.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, O; Reiling, S J; Wunderlich, J; Rohrbach, P

    2014-09-01

    Mutations in the multidrug resistance transporter of Plasmodium falciparum PfMDR1 have been implicated to play a significant role in the emergence of worldwide drug resistance, yet the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of this transporter are not well understood. Although it is generally accepted that drug resistance in P. falciparum is partly associated with PfMDR1 transport activity situated in the membrane of the digestive vacuole, direct estimates of the pump rate of this transport process in the natural environment of the intact host-parasite system have never been analysed. The fluorochrome Fluo-4 is a well-documented surrogate substrate of PfMDR1 and has been found to accumulate by actively being transported into the digestive vacuole of several parasitic strains. In the present study, we designed an approach to use Fluo-4 fluorescence uptake as a measure of compartmental Fluo-4 concentration accumulation in the different compartments of the host-parasite system. We performed a 'reverse Fluo-4 imaging' approach to relate fluorescence intensity to changes in dye concentration rather than Ca(2+) fluctuations and were able to calculate the overall rate of transport for PfMDR1 in Dd2 parasites. With this assay, we provide a powerful method to selectively measure the effect of PfMDR1 mutations on substrate transport kinetics. This will be of high significance for future compound screening to test for new drugs in resistant P. falciparum strains. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. MDR1 Polymorphisms and Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome in Slovak Children: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Cizmarikova, Martina; Podracka, Ludmila; Klimcakova, Lucia; Habalova, Viera; Boor, Andrej; Mojzis, Jan; Mirossay, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of the multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1 or ABCB1) gene polymorphisms 1236T>C, 2677T>G, and 3435T>C was studied in relation to susceptibility, demographics, and pathological characteristics, as well as their role in the therapeutic response (TR) to prednisone treatment in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). Material/Methods The polymorphisms were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 46 children with INS and in 100 healthy controls. Different genetic models (codominant, dominant, recessive, and overdominant) were used for testing of associations between polymorphisms and phenotypes. Results Statistical analysis showed a significantly increased chance of TR in children carrying 3435TC genotype (OR=5.13, 95% CI=1.18–22.25; overdominant model). Moreover, INS patients under 6 years of age had significantly decreased frequencies of MDR1 1236CC (7.7% vs. 35%, p=0.029) or 2677GG (3.8% vs. 30.0%, p=0.033) genotypes. We also observed that patients with minimal change in disease and patients under 6 years of age at the onset of INS were initial responders more frequently when compared with children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and patients ≥6 years old at the onset (p=0.0001, p=0.027, respectively). Conclusions These data suggest that prednisone TR may be influenced by histology, age at the onset of INS, and MDR1 3435T>C polymorphism. The MDR1 1236T>C and 2677T>G polymorphisms were significantly associated with age at onset. Larger multicenter studies and studies across other ethnic groups are needed to elucidate the contradictory implications of MDR1 polymorphisms with INS in children. PMID:25559283

  18. Nanolipoparticles-mediated MDR1 siRNA delivery reduces doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells and silences MDR1 expression in xenograft model of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Mahnaz; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Lage, Hermann; Abnous, Khalil; mosaffa, Fatemeh; Badiee, Ali; Behravan, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux protein, the overexpression of which has been associated with multidrug resistance in various cancers. Although siRNA delivery to reverse P-gp expression may be promising for sensitizing of tumor cells to cytotoxic drugs, the therapeutic use of siRNA requires effective carriers that can deliver siRNA intracellularly with minimal toxicity on target cells. We investigated a special class of PEGylated lipid-based nanoparticles (NP), named nanolipoparticles (NLPs), for siRNA-mediated P-gp downregulation. Materials and Methods: NLPs were prepared based on low detergent dialysis method. After characterization, we evaluated the effect of NLPs on siRNA delivery, and P-gp downregulation compared to oligofectamine™ (OFA) in vitro and in vivo. Results: Our results showed a significant decrease in P-gp expression and subsequent enhancement of chemosensitivity to doxorubicin in vitro. Although the effectiveness of NLPs for in vitro siRNA delivery compared to OFA was limited, the results of in vivo studies showed noticeable effectiveness of NLPs for systemic siRNA delivery. siRNA delivery using NLPs could downregulate MDR1 in tumor cells more than 80%, while OFA had a reverse effect on MDR1 expression in vivo. Conclusion: The results indicated that the prepared NLPs could be suitable siRNA delivery systems for tumor therapy. PMID:26019802

  19. An MDR1 promoter allele with higher promoter activity is common in clinically isolated strains of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Bruzual, Igor

    2013-01-01

    In the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans, up-regulation of MDR1, encoding an efflux transporter, leads to increased resistance to the antifungal drug fluconazole. Antifungal resistance has been linked to several types of genetic change in C. albicans, including changes in genome structure, genetic alteration of the drug target, and overexpression of transporters. High-level over-expression of MDR1 is commonly mediated by mutation in a trans-acting factor, Mrr1p. This report describes a second mechanism that contributes to up-regulation of MDR1 expression. By analyzing the sequence of the MDR1 promoter region in fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible strains, we identified sequence polymorphisms that defined two linkage groups, corresponding to the two alleles in the diploid genome. One of the alleles conferred higher MDR1 expression compared with the other allele. Strains in which both alleles were of the higher activity type were common in collections of clinically isolated strains while strains carrying only the less active allele were rare. As increased expression of MDR1 confers higher resistance to drugs, strains with the more active MDR1 promoter allele may grow or survive longer when exposed to drugs or other selective pressures, providing greater opportunity for mutations that confer high-level drug resistance to arise. Through this mechanism, higher activity alleles of the MDR1 promoter could promote the development of drug resistance. PMID:21972105

  20. [siRNA silences mdr1 gene expression and reverses apoptosis resistance of K562/ADM cells line].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hu-lai; Gao, Li-ping; Jing, Tao; Zhao, Huai-shun; Yi, Juan; Sun, Jin; Han, Jian

    2007-06-01

    To explore the effect of small interfering RNA(siRNA) on silence of mdr1 gene and reversal of apoptosis resistance in multidrug-resistant (MDR) human leukemia K562/ADM cell. Human MDR leukemia cell line K562/ADM was used as the target cells. Two siRNAs (mdr1 siRNA-1 and mdr1 siRNA-2) targeted mdr1 gene were chemically synthesized and transfected into K562/ADM cells with liposome. Expression of mdr1 mRNA was determined by real-time PCR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and caspase-3 activity were measured with flow cytometry (FCM), and the cell apoptosis was observed by optical and electronic microscopy for morphology and Annexin V/PI staining. The mdr1 siRNA-1 and mdr1 siRNA-2 could markedly down-regulate the expression of mdr1 gene in K562/ADM cells, the expression of mdr1 mRNA decreased by 91.2% and 82.0% , and the P-gp by 74.1% and 84.4%, respectively. The caspase-3 activity was markedly enhanced, and the active caspase-3 in K562/ADM cells increased by about 40% compared to liposome alone and non-silencing controls. the sensitivity of K562/ADM cells to adriamycin-induced apoptosis was significantly augmented, the apoptotic rate of the cells treated with siRNA plus adriamycin increased by about 60% compared to adriamycin alone. siRNAs silence the expression of mdr1/P-gp to overcome the P-gp-mediated apoptosis resistance in drug-resistant K562/ADM cells.

  1. Relationship between response to colchicine treatment and MDR1 polymorphism in familial Mediterranean fever patients.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Ahmet; Silan, Coskun; Atik, Sinem; Akurut, Cisem; Uludag, Aysegul; Silan, Fatma; Ozdemir, Ozturk

    2014-02-01

    Investigate the relationship between MDR1 C3435T polymorphism and colchicine response in Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients. Patients (n=50) who received colchicine regularly, were willing to participate in the study, and attended control visits were included in the study. MDR1 C3435T genotype was defined by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Patients were divided into three groups. Patients, who recovered from episodes with standard colchicine treatment, and had no attack in the last 1 year were accepted as complete; patients whose episode number and intensity were decreased with the ongoing standard treatment as partial; and patients whose episodes were not decreased despite the standard treatment as nonresponders. MDR1 C and T allele frequencies of FMF patients with colchicine responses of complete, partial, and nonresponders were C=0.75 and T=0.25; C=0.56 and T=0.44; and C=0.50 and T=0.50, respectively. When complete responding patients were compared with the partial responding patients, subjects with CT genotype had 6.18 times more increased risk than with CC genotype (OR=6.18; p=0.015). Poor response risk of subjects with the T allele was increased 2.45 times more when compared with the C allele (p=0.03). MDR1 gene C3435T polymorphism enacts an important role on colchicine response in FMF; good response to colchicine treatment was related to the C allele, whereas poor response was related to the T allele in FMF.

  2. Berry anthocyanins and anthocyanidins exhibit distinct affinities for the efflux transporters BCRP and MDR1

    PubMed Central

    Dreiseitel, A; Oosterhuis, B; Vukman, KV; Schreier, P; Oehme, A; Locher, S; Hajak, G; Sand, PG

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dietary anthocyanins hold great promise in the prevention of chronic disease but factors affecting their bioavailability remain poorly defined. Specifically, the role played by transport mechanisms at the intestinal and blood–brain barriers (BBB) is currently unknown. Experimental approach: In the present study, 16 anthocyanins and anthocyanidins were exposed to the human efflux transporters multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), using dye efflux, ATPase and, for BCRP, vesicular transport assays. Key results: All test compounds interacted with the BCRP transporter in vitro. Of these, seven emerged as potential BCRP substrates (malvidin, petunidin, malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside) and 12 as potential inhibitors of BCRP (cyanidin, peonidin, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, malvidin, pelargonidin, delphinidin, petunidin, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside, malvidin-3-galactoside). Malvidin, malvidin-3-galactoside and petunidin exhibited bimodal activities serving as BCRP substrates at low concentrations and, at higher concentrations, as BCRP inhibitors. Effects on MDR1, in contrast, were weak. Only aglycones exerted mild inhibitory activity. Conclusions and implications: Although the anthocyanidins under study may alter pharmacokinetics of drugs that are BCRP substrates, they are less likely to interfere with activities of MDR1 substrates. The present data suggest that several anthocyanins and anthocyanidins may be actively transported out of intestinal tissues and endothelia, limiting their bioavailability in plasma and brain. PMID:19922539

  3. Rapid activation of MDR1 gene expression in human metastatic sarcoma after in vivo exposure to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Abolhoda, A; Wilson, A E; Ross, H; Danenberg, P V; Burt, M; Scotto, K W

    1999-11-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a multidrug transporter encoded by the MDR1 gene, is associated with chemoresistance in some human solid tumor malignancies. To date, analyses of MDR1 levels in solid tumors have examined constitutive increases in expression at relapse. In the present study, we have evaluated the acute induction of MDR1 gene expression in a solid human tumor as a function of time in response to in vivo exposure to chemotherapy. Five patients with unresectable sarcoma pulmonary metastases underwent isolated single lung perfusion with doxorubicin. Relative MDR1 gene expression was measured in metastatic tumor nodules and normal lung specimens after initiation of chemoperfusion. In four of five patients, a 3-15-fold (median, 6.8) increase in MDR1 RNA levels was detected in tumors at 50 min after administration of doxorubicin. In contrast, normal lung samples had very low levels of MDR1 RNA prior to perfusion, and no acute increases were observed after therapy. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that MDR1 gene expression can be rapidly activated in human tumors after transient in vivo exposure to cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  4. CTLA-4 and MDR1 polymorphisms increase the risk for ulcerative colitis: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia-Jun; Wang, Di; Yao, Hui; Sun, Da-Wei; Li, Hong-Yu

    2015-09-14

    To evaluate the correlations between cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes polymorphisms with ulcerative colitis (UC) risk. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CBM databases, Springerlink, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Wanfang database, VIP database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Weipu Journal databases were exhaustively searched using combinations of keywords relating to CTLA-4, MDR1 and UC. The published studies were filtered using our stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, the quality assessment for each eligible study was conducted using Critical Appraisal Skill Program and the resultant high-quality data from final selected studies were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) software. The correlations between SNPs of CTLA-4 gene, MDR1 gene and the risk of UC were evaluated by OR at 95%CI. Z test was carried out to evaluate the significance of overall effect values. Cochran's Q-statistic and I(2) tests were applied to quantify heterogeneity among studies. Funnel plots, classic fail-safe N and Egger's linear regression test were inspected for indication of publication bias. A total of 107 studies were initially retrieved and 12 studies were eventually selected for meta-analysis. These 12 case-control studies involved 1860 UC patients and 2663 healthy controls. Our major result revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CTLA-4 gene rs3087243 G > A and rs231775 G > A may increase the risk of UC (rs3087243 G > A: allele model: OR = 1.365, 95%CI: 1.023-1.822, P = 0.035; dominant model: OR = 1.569, 95%CI: 1.269-1.940, P < 0.001; rs231775 G > A: allele model: OR = 1.583, 95%CI: = 1.306-1.918, P < 0.001; dominant model: OR = 1.805, 95%CI: 1.393-2.340, P < 0.001). In addition, based on our result, SNPs of MDR1 gene rs1045642 C > T might also confer a significant increases for the risk of UC (allele model: OR = 1.389, 95%CI: 1.214-1.590, P < 0.001; dominant

  5. CTLA-4 and MDR1 polymorphisms increase the risk for ulcerative colitis: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jia-Jun; Wang, Di; Yao, Hui; Sun, Da-Wei; Li, Hong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the correlations between cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes polymorphisms with ulcerative colitis (UC) risk. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CBM databases, Springerlink, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Wanfang database, VIP database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Weipu Journal databases were exhaustively searched using combinations of keywords relating to CTLA-4, MDR1 and UC. The published studies were filtered using our stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, the quality assessment for each eligible study was conducted using Critical Appraisal Skill Program and the resultant high-quality data from final selected studies were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) software. The correlations between SNPs of CTLA-4 gene, MDR1 gene and the risk of UC were evaluated by OR at 95%CI. Z test was carried out to evaluate the significance of overall effect values. Cochran’s Q-statistic and I2 tests were applied to quantify heterogeneity among studies. Funnel plots, classic fail-safe N and Egger’s linear regression test were inspected for indication of publication bias. RESULTS: A total of 107 studies were initially retrieved and 12 studies were eventually selected for meta-analysis. These 12 case-control studies involved 1860 UC patients and 2663 healthy controls. Our major result revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CTLA-4 gene rs3087243 G > A and rs231775 G > A may increase the risk of UC (rs3087243 G > A: allele model: OR = 1.365, 95%CI: 1.023-1.822, P = 0.035; dominant model: OR = 1.569, 95%CI: 1.269-1.940, P < 0.001; rs231775 G > A: allele model: OR = 1.583, 95%CI: = 1.306-1.918, P < 0.001; dominant model: OR = 1.805, 95%CI: 1.393-2.340, P < 0.001). In addition, based on our result, SNPs of MDR1 gene rs1045642 C > T might also confer a significant increases for the risk of UC (allele model: OR = 1.389, 95%CI: 1

  6. Toxicokinetic and genomic analysis of chronic arsenic exposure in multidrug-resistance mdr1a/1b(-/-) double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yaxiong; Liu, Jie; Liu, Yaping; Klaassen, Curtis D; Waalkes, Michael P

    2004-01-01

    Multidrug-resistance gene knockout mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice, which are deficient in P-glycoproteins, are more sensitive than wild-type (WT) mice to acute arsenic toxicity. This study assessed toxic manifestations of chronic oral arsenic in mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice, including oxidative stress and altered gene expression, and investigated altered toxicokinetics as a potential basis of enhanced arsenic toxicity. Thus, mdr1a/1b(-/-) and WT mice were exposed to sodium arsenite (0-80 ppm as arsenic) in the drinking water for 10 weeks at which time hepatic arsenic accumulation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), redox status and change in gene expression level were assessed. All mice survived the arsenic exposure, but body weight gain in the highest dose group was reduced in both mdr1a/1b(-/-) and WT mice. Arsenic induced pathological changes, elevated LPO levels and enhanced glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, in the liver to a greater extent in mdr1a/1b(-/-) than in WT mice. Arsenic also decreased Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activity in both mdr1a/1b(-/-) and WT mice. The expressions of certain genes, such as those encoding cell proliferation, GST, acute-phase proteins and metabolic enzymes, were modestly altered in arsenic-exposed mice. The expression of cyclin D1, a potential hepatic oncogene, was enhanced in arsenic-exposed mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice only. At the highest level of exposure, hepatic arsenic content was higher in mdr1a/1b(-/-) than in WT mice, suggesting that enhanced accumulation due to transport deficiency may, in part, account for the enhanced toxicity in these mice. In summary, this study shows that chronic arsenic toxicity, including liver pathology and oxidative stress, is enhanced in mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice, possibly due to enhanced accumulation of arsenic as a result of transport system deficiency.

  7. Reversal of multi-drug resistance by pSUPER-shRNA-mdr1 in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Guang-Dong; Yang, Jian-Qing; Yan, Lv-Nan; Chu, Guang-Ping; Liu, Qiang; Xiao, Yi; Yuan, Lin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of reversing multi-drug resistance (MDR) to HepG2/mdr1 in vitro and in vivo with RNA interference (RNAi). METHODS: HepG2/mdr1 was obtained by cloning the whole gene mdr1 into HepG2 cells. shRNA targeting sequence was designed to be homologous to the P-gp encoding MDR1 mRNA consensus sequence. pSUPER-shRNA/mdr1 was constructed using the enzyme-digested technique. HepG2/mdr1 cells were transfected with vectors of pSUPER-shRNA/mdr1 to measure their efficacy by real-time PCR for mdr1 mRNA, flow cytometry (FCM) for P-gp expression, and Rhodamine efflux, MTT method for HepG2/mdr1 function, respectively. In vivo, mice tumors were treated by injecting pSUPER-shRNA/mdr1 in situ and into intra-abdominal cavity. Tumors were collected to create cell suspension and cryosections after chemothearpy with adiramycin and mytomycin. The cell suspension was incubated in RPMI-1640 supplemented with G418 to screen stable cells for appreciating the reversal of MDR. Cryosections were treated with immunohistochemistry technique to show the effectiveness of transfection and the expression of P-gp. RESULTS: pSUPER-shRNA/mdr1 was successfully constructed, which was confirmed by sequencing. The MDR phenotype of HepG2/mdr1 was decreased significantly in vitro transfection. HepG2/mdr1 showing its MDR was reversed notably in P-gp expression (11.0% vs 98.2%, P < 0.01). Real-time PCR showed that mRNA/mdr1 was lower in test groups than in control groups (18.73 ± 1.33 vs 68.03 ± 2.21, P < 0.001). Compared with HepG2, the sensitivity of HepG2/mdr1 and HepG2/mdr1-dsRNA cells to ADM was decreased by 1.64 times and 15.6 times, respectively. The accumulation of DNR in positive groups was decreased evidently. In vivo, the p-gp expression in positive groups was significantly lower than that in control groups (65.1% vs 94.1%, P < 0.05). The tumor suppressing rate in test groups was 57.8%. After chemotherapy, the growth rate in test groups was lower than that in control

  8. The biology of MDR1-P-glycoprotein (MDR1-Pgp) in designing functional antibody drug conjugates (ADCs): the experience of gemtuzumab ozogamicin.

    PubMed

    Cianfriglia, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of cancer remains a formidable challenge owing to the difficulties in differentiating tumor cells from healthy cells to ameliorate the disease without causing intolerable toxicity to patients. In addition, the emergence of MDR1-Pgp mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR) it is a biological phenomenon that inhibits the curative potential of chemotherapeutic treatments. One way to improve the selectivity of therapeutic molecules in tumors would be to target them on the tumor site, thereby sparing normal tissues. In this overview, we will discuss the biological factors influencing the safety and efficacy of the humanized mAb hP67.6 linked to the potent cytotoxic drug calicheamicingamma1 (gemtuzumab ozogamicin) that target CD33 cell surface antigen expressed on AML cells. In addition, we highlight key aspects of MDR1-Pgp biology as a platform to understand its functional role in gemtuzumab ozogamicin immunotherapy which is tightly linked to an accurate assessment of the MDR status of AML cells. Several factors may affect the efficacy and safety of immunoconjugates. These include the common issues of chemical and antibody therapeutics such as specificity, heterogeneous target antigen expression and the complex pharmacokinetics profile of conveyed antibody. Further, the delivered drug may not be sufficient for providing therapeutic benefit, since the curative cytotoxic compound may be affected by intrinsic or acquired resistance of target cells. These and other potential problems, as well as the possible ways to overcome them will be discussed in this review by examining the biological factors involved in safety and efficacy of the first in class antibody drug conjugate (ADC) gentuzumab ozogamicin. Despite this set-back, the extensive recorded data and the lessons learned from gentuzumab ozogamicin recently withdrawn from the market for safety concerns helped to pave the way for next generations of clinically promising new ADCs which are currently investigated

  9. [Polymorphisms of the multiple drug resistance gene (MDR1) in Mapuche, Mestizo and Maori populations in Chile].

    PubMed

    Wielandt, Ana María; Vollrath, Valeska; Chianale, José

    2004-09-01

    There are significant differences in drug responses among different ethnic groups. The multidrug transporter P-gp, encoded by the MDR1 gene, plays a key role in determining drug bioavailability, and an association between a polymorphism in exon 26 (C3435T) and lower P-gp expression has been found. The co-segregation of this polymorphism with the polymorphism in exon 12 (C1236T) and in exon 21 (G2677T/A) determines several MDR1 haplotypes in humans. To characterize the polymorphisms of exons 26, 21 and 12 of the MDR1 gene in different Chilean populations. Using a polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, we studied the allelic frequencies and the distribution of MDR1 haplotypes in 3 Chilean populations: Mestizo (n=104), Mapuche (n=96, living in the National Reservation of the Huapi Island, Ranico Lake) and Maori (n=52, living in Eastern Island). The frequency of the normal MDR1*1 haplotype, without mutations, was lower in Mapuches than in Mestizos or Maoris (p<0.005) but similar to that reported in Asian population (p=0.739), probably due to the Asian origin of the Amerindian populations. In addition, the MDR1*l haplotype fequency hin Mestizos was similar to the frequency reported in Caucasians (p=0.49), in agreement with the origin of our population, with a strong influence of Caucasian genes from the Spanish conquerors. The MDR1*2 haplotype distribution, with the three polymoyphisms and probably lower multidrug transporter expression, was similar in the three Chilean populations studied (p>0.0.5), but lower than the frequencies reported in Caucasians or Asians (p<0.05). We found significant differences in the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms of the MDR1 gene in Chilean populations, related to the ethnic origins of our ancestors.

  10. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction measured expression of MDR1 and MRP in primary breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dexter, D W; Reddy, R K; Geles, K G; Bansal, S; Myint, M A; Rogakto, A; Leighton, J C; Goldstein, L J

    1998-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of drug resistance mechanisms in breast cancer, we examined the expression of MDR1 and MRP in primary breast carcinoma and normal adjacent tissue using a highly quantitative and reproducible reverse transcription-PCR assay. Expression of both genes was observed in all specimens examined, both tumor (n = 74) and normal adjacent tissue (n = 55). The expression of MDR1, however, was low, with the level of expression being 25 times less than the drug-resistant control cell line KB 8-5. Immunohistochemical analysis of P-glycoprotein corroborated the PCR results; only 6% (2 of 31) were positive for JSB1 staining, and 0 of 32 were positive for for UIC2. MRP expression did not exceed control cell line levels, and immunohistochemistry detected moderate levels of expression. MDR1 expression was independent of grade, stage, tumor size, nodal status, metastasis, and estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status. There was, however, a significant correlation of MDR1 expression with age and histology. Approximately twice the expression of MDR1 was observed in the < 50 age group compared to the > 50 age group, and lobular carcinoma had 4 times the expression of MDR1 of other histological types. MRP expression was independent of all other clinical parameters. Thus, these results show that although MDR1 expression is detectable in primary breast carcinoma by PCR, this expression as measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR is extremely low. The significance of these low levels is yet to be determined. MDR1 expression was higher in < 50 age group and lobular carcinoma, which may contribute to poor prognosis associated with young age and lobular histology.

  11. Let-7 modulates acquired resistance of ovarian cancer to Taxanes via IMP-1-mediated stabilization of MDR1

    PubMed Central

    Boyerinas, Benjamin; Park, Sun-Mi; Murmann, Andrea E.; Gwin, Katja; Montag, Anton G.; Zillardt, Marion R.; Hua, You-Jia; Lengyel, Ernst; Peter, Marcus E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Ovarian cancer patients frequently develop resistance to chemotherapy regiments utilizing Taxol and carboplatin. One of the resistance factors that protects cancer cells from Taxol-based therapy is multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1). micro(mi)RNAs are small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate protein expression. Members of the let-7 family of miRNAs are downregulated in many human cancers, and low let-7 expression has been correlated with resistance to microtubule targeting drugs (Taxanes), although little is known that would explain this activity. We now provide evidence that, while let-7 is not a universal sensitizer of cancer cells to Taxanes, it affects acquired resistance of cells to this class of drugs by targeting IMP-1, resulting in de-stabilization of the mRNA of MDR1. Introducing let-7g into ADR-RES cells expressing both IMP-1 and MDR1 reduced expression of both proteins rendering the cells more sensitive to treatment with either Taxol or vinblastine without affecting the sensitivity of the cells to carboplatin, a non-MDR1 substrate. This effect could be reversed by reintroducing IMP-1 into let-7g high/MDR1 low cells causing MDR1 to again become stabilized. Consistently, many relapsed ovarian cancer patients tested before and after chemotherapy were found to downregulate let-7 and to co-upregulate IMP-1 and MDR1, and the increase in the expression levels of both proteins after chemotherapy negatively correlated with disease-free time before recurrence. Our data point at IMP-1 and MDR1 as indicators for response to therapy, and at IMP-1 as a novel therapeutic target for overcoming multidrug resistance of ovarian cancer. PMID:21618519

  12. Structurally diverse MDM2–p53 antagonists act as modulators of MDR-1 function in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Zhao, Y; Halliday, G C; Berry, P; Rousseau, R F; Middleton, S A; Nichols, G L; Del Bello, F; Piergentili, A; Newell, D R; Lunec, J; Tweddle, D A

    2014-01-01

    Background: A frequent mechanism of acquired multidrug resistance in human cancers is overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporters such as the Multi-Drug Resistance Protein 1 (MDR-1). Nutlin-3, an MDM2–p53 antagonist, has previously been reported to be a competitive MDR-1 inhibitor. Methods: This study assessed whether the structurally diverse MDM2–p53 antagonists, MI-63, NDD0005, and RG7388 are also able to modulate MDR-1 function, particularly in p53 mutant neuroblastoma cells, using XTT-based cell viability assays, western blotting, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Verapamil and the MDM2–p53 antagonists potentiated vincristine-mediated growth inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner when used in combination with high MDR-1-expressing p53 mutant neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations that did not affect the viability of cells when given alone. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses showed that verapamil, Nutlin-3, MI-63 and NDD0005, but not RG7388, led to increased intracellular levels of vincristine in high MDR-1-expressing cell lines. Conclusions: These results show that in addition to Nutlin-3, other structurally unrelated MDM2–p53 antagonists can also act as MDR-1 inhibitors and reverse MDR-1-mediated multidrug resistance in neuroblastoma cell lines in a p53-independent manner. These findings are important for future clinical trial design with MDM2–p53 antagonists when used in combination with agents that are MDR-1 substrates. PMID:24921920

  13. Reversing multidrug-resistant by RNA interference through silencing MDR1 gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells subline Bel-7402/ADM.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Long; Xiong, Maoming; Li, Cong; Meng, Xiangling

    2014-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HC) significantly impedes the effect of chemotherapy and is considered as a primary reason leading to its recurrences and metastasis. The aim of present study was to explore new molecular targets for the reversal of MDR in HC by screening the adriamycin (ADM)-induced, human MDR-resistant HC cell subline Bel-7402/ADM. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of four (MDR1si326, MDR1si1513, MDR1si2631 and MDR1si3071) targeting MDR1 were designed and transfected into Bel-7402/ADM cell strains. The experiments involved the following: mRNA expression of MDR1 gene by RT-PCR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression by Western blot, intracellular ADM accumulation flow cytometry, and IC50 of ADM by a cytotoxic MTT assay. Four siRNAs reversed MDR in HC mediated by MDR1 to varying degrees. The expression level of MDR1 mRNA in cells of MDR1si326 or MDR1si2631 group (0.190 ± 0.038 or 0.171 ± 0.011) was more decreased. The expression level of P-gp in cells of MDR1si326 group was the lowest. The accumulation of ADM in cells of MDR1si326 or MDR1si2631 group (77.0 ± 3.5 or 75.4 ± 2.9) was more increased. The IC50 of cells to ADM was lowest in MDR1si326 group (11.32 ± 0.69 mg/L). Compared with other three siRNAs, MDR1si326 performed the optimal reversal effect of drug resistance in human HC Bel-7402/ADM.

  14. Does maternal MDR1 C1236T polymorphism have an effect on placental arsenic levels?

    PubMed

    Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Doğan, Derya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2016-01-01

    To detect whether maternal MDR1 C1236T polymorphism has an effect on placental arsenic levels, 112 mother-placenta pairs were examined. Venous blood samples from mothers were collected to investigate the C1236T polymorphism which was detected by standard PCR-RFLP technique. Placentas were collected to measure arsenic levels by GF-AAS. The MDR1 C1236T genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 30.3% homozygote typical (CC), 51.8% heterozygote (CT) and 17.9% homozygote atypical (TT). The mean placental arsenic level was 62.36±30.43 μg/kg. It was observed that the placental arsenic concentrations were higher in mothers with TT genotype than those with CC and CT genotypes, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.702). This finding was indicated that fetuses of mothers with TT genotype may be more susceptible to arsenic toxicity as compared to those of with CC and CT genotypes. We believe that this difference warrant further studies with larger study subjects.

  15. Association between MDR1 gene of gastrointestinal tumors, the expression of P-glycoprotein and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian-Li; Wang, Cheng-Hong; Kang, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Bao-Zhong; Liu, Mei-Rong; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Lin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine and discuss the association between multidrug resistance 1 gene (MDR1) of gastrointestinal tumors, the expression of P-glycoprotein and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, 126 cases of patients with gastrointestinal tumors admitted to hospital from February 2013 to February 2015 were selected. The expression levels of MDR1 gene were obsreved in the control population and patients before and after treatment by fluoresecent quantitative PCR. The protein expression level of P-glycoprotein was determined using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, drug resistance was assessed by ATP-TCA chemosensitivity experiments. The results showed that before treatment, the expression of mRNA in MDR1 of tissues of gastrointestinal tract of the 126 cases was 108-fold larger than that of the gastrointestinal tract of the controls (p<0.05), P-glycoprotein was 87-fold larger than the expression level of the controls (p<0.05). The sensitivity of 126 tumor tissues to different chemotherapeutic drugs was determined, and the results showed that most of the tumor tissues were sensitive to chemotherapeutic drugs, and the sensitivity rate reached 96.4%. Following chemotherapy, the expression of mRNA in MDR1 of tumor tissues and the expression of P-glycoprotein decreased (p<0.05). In conclusion, the MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein have a positive correlation with the occurrence of gastrointestinal tumors, and a negative correlation between the MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein with resistance of chemotherapeutic drugs. Therefore, the MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein can be used as references in the identification and diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors.

  16. [Reversal effect of MDR1 and MDR3 gene silencing on resistance of A2780/taxol cells to paclitaxel].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lan; Gao, Rui; Lu, Shi; Lu, Mei-Song; Liang, Ming-Lin; Ren, Li-Rong; Wang, Ze-Hua

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the reversal effect of MDR1 and MDR3 gene silencing on resistance of A2780/taxol cells to paclitaxel. shRNA plasmid vector specifically targeting MDR1 and MDR3 genes was transfected into A2780/taxol cells. The early stage cell apoptosis and the effect of intracellular rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation were detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The late stage cell apoptosis rate was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL). The 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) of paclitaxel on A2780/taxol cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. MDR1 and MDR3 mRNA were assessed by RT-PCR, and caspase-3 protein was detected by western blot. After treatment with MDR1 and MDR3 shRNA plasmid vector, early apoptosis rate of A2780/taxol cells was (20.21 +/- 0.56)% and (10.87 +/- 1.24)%, respectively. MDR1 and MDR3 shRNA could increase cellular Rh123 accumulation (116.6 +/- 8.1 and 98.4 +/- 3.8, respectively). The late stage apoptosis rates detected by TUNEL displayed the same tendency as FCM results did. The IC(50) for paclitaxel of A2780/taxol cells was decreased significantly. The mRNA levels of MDR1 and MDR3 in A2780/taxol cells were decreased by (73.3 +/- 0.8)% and (51.6 +/- 0.4)% of control, and the reduction of MDR1 and MDR3 mRNA was in a time-dependent manner. The expression of caspase-3 protein of MDR1 and MDR3 shRNA vector transfected group in A2780/taxol cells was significantly increased [(80.8 +/- 2.6)% and (72.0 +/- 4.7)%, respectively]. MDR1 and MDR3 gene silencing could recover sensitivity of A2780/taxol cells to paclitaxel and induce cell apoptosis, thus reversing cell resistance to paclitaxel.

  17. Association between ABCB1 (MDR1) gene 3435 C>T polymorphism and colchicine unresponsiveness of FMF patients.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Filiz; Silan, Coskun; Uludag, Ahmet; Candan, Ferhan; Silan, Fatma; Ozdemir, Semra; Atik, Sinem; Ozdemir, Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    The multidrug resistance gene-1 (MDR1, adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter: ABCB1, P-glycoprotein) encodes membrane proteins that play a crucial role in protecting cells from xenobiotics, chemicals, and drugs. The TT genotype of 3435 codon in exon 26 of MDR1 gene causes overexpression of gene activity and effluxes many chemically diverse compounds across the plasma membrane. We studied the association between C3435T polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphism) of MDR1 gene and colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients. Total genomic DNA samples from 52 FMF patients of colchicine unresponsiveness were used for FMF (MEFV) and MDR1 genes profile analyses. Target genes were genotyped by multiplex PCR-based reverse-hybridization Strip Assay method. The preliminary current results showed increased T allele frequency (0.596) in colchicine unresponsiveness of FMF patients. The distributions of the CC, CT, and TT genotypes in colchicine nonresponder FMF patients were 17%, 46%, and 37%, respectively. Our results indicate that C3435T polymorphism in exon 26 of MDR1 gene is associated with colchicine resistance in nonresponder FMF patients during the common therapy protocol.

  18. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-{alpha} in hepatitis-B-virus X protein-mediated MDR1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hyo-Kyung; Han, Chang Yeob; Cheon, Eun-Pa; Lee, Jaewon; Kang, Keon Wook . E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-06-01

    The transition from chemotherapy-responsive cancer cells to chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells is mainly accompanied by the increased expression of multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1). We found that hepatitis-B-virus X protein (HBx) increases the transcriptional activity and protein level of MDR1 in a hepatoma cell line, H4IIE. In addition, HBx overexpression made H4IIE cells more resistant to verapamil-uptake. HBx stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and induced the nuclear translocation of C/EBP{beta}. Reporter gene analyses showed that HBx increased the reporter activity in the cells transfected with the reporter containing MDR1 gene promoter. Moreover, the luciferase reporter gene activity was significantly inhibited by HIF-1{alpha} siRNA but not by overexpression of C/EBP dominant negative mutant. These results imply that HBx increases the MDR1 transporter activity through the transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene with HIF-1{alpha} activation, and suggest HIF-1{alpha} for the therapeutic target of HBV-mediated chemoresistance.

  19. Modulation of MDR1 and MRP3 Gene Expression in Lung Cancer Cells after Paclitaxel and Carboplatin Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Melguizo, Consolación; Prados, Jose; Luque, Raquel; Ortiz, Raúl; Caba, Octavio; Álvarez, Pablo J.; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Aranega, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    Carboplatin-paclitaxel is a reference regimen in the treatment of locally advanced or disseminated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This paper discusses the multidrug resistance developed with this drug combination, which is one of the major obstacles to successful treatment. In order to understand and overcome the drug resistance pattern of NSCLC after carboplatin plus paclitaxel exposure, levels of mRNA expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3) were investigated in primary NSCLC cell lines (A-549 and A-427) and a metastasis-derived NSCLC cell line (NODO). Our results showed that exposure of the three NSCLC lines to plasma concentrations of paclitaxel (5 μM) produced an increase in MDR1 expression, while MRP3 showed no alteration in expression. By contrast, the same cells exposed to carboplatin plasma concentrations (30 μM) showed overexpression of MRP3. In these cells, MDR1 showed no expression changes. Interestingly, the combination of both paclitaxel and carboplatin caused increased expression of the MDR1 drug resistance gene rather than the individual treatments. These results suggest that carboplatin and paclitaxel may induce drug resistance mediated by MDR1 and MRP3, which may be enhanced by the simultaneous use of both drugs. PMID:23443122

  20. Modulation of MDR1 and MRP3 gene expression in lung cancer cells after paclitaxel and carboplatin exposure.

    PubMed

    Melguizo, Consolación; Prados, Jose; Luque, Raquel; Ortiz, Raúl; Caba, Octavio; Alvarez, Pablo J; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Aranega, Antonia

    2012-12-05

    Carboplatin-paclitaxel is a reference regimen in the treatment of locally advanced or disseminated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This paper discusses the multidrug resistance developed with this drug combination, which is one of the major obstacles to successful treatment. In order to understand and overcome the drug resistance pattern of NSCLC after carboplatin plus paclitaxel exposure, levels of mRNA expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3) were investigated in primary NSCLC cell lines (A-549 and A-427) and a metastasis-derived NSCLC cell line (NODO). Our results showed that exposure of the three NSCLC lines to plasma concentrations of paclitaxel (5 μM) produced an increase in MDR1 expression, while MRP3 showed no alteration in expression. By contrast, the same cells exposed to carboplatin plasma concentrations (30 μM) showed overexpression of MRP3. In these cells, MDR1 showed no expression changes. Interestingly, the combination of both paclitaxel and carboplatin caused increased expression of the MDR1 drug resistance gene rather than the individual treatments. These results suggest that carboplatin and paclitaxel may induce drug resistance mediated by MDR1 and MRP3, which may be enhanced by the simultaneous use of both drugs.

  1. SH003 enhances paclitaxel chemosensitivity in MCF-7/PAX breast cancer cells through inhibition of MDR1 activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeong Sim; Cho, Sung-Gook; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Hee Jae; Moon, Seung Hee; Jang, Hee Jae; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2017-02-01

    Paclitaxel is an anti-cancer drug for treating cancer, but paclitaxel resistance is reported in cancer cells. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is related with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mechanism, which plays a key role in cancer metastasis. Moreover, EMT mechanism is connected to tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells. Consequently, oncologists are interested in finding new MDR1 inhibitors originating from herbal medicines to have less side-effect. Here, we investigated an inhibition effect of SH003 on MDR1 activity in paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7/PAX breast cancer cells. Our results showed that paclitaxel did not inhibit a proliferation in paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7 cells showed an increase of MDR1 activity, which was confirmed by measuring an amount of accumulated rhodamine 123 in the cells. Also, qRT-PCR and Western blot assays confirmed that paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7 cells exhibited high MDR1 expression level. Furthermore, paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7 cells showed mesenchymal morphology with alterations of EMT markers, and acquired tamoxifen resistance with a decrease of ERα expression. We also found that a combinatorial treatment of SH003 and paclitaxel in paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7 cells caused apoptosis in synergistic manner, which was due to SH003 inhibition of MDR1 expression. Therefore, SH003 could be a potential agent for overcoming MDR in drug-resistant cancer cells.

  2. The influence of DNA polymorphism of multidrug resistant 1 (MDR1) on the effect of midazolam pretreatment in children

    PubMed Central

    Byon, Hyo-Jin; Park, Keun-Suk; Park, Yong-Hee; Kim, Jin-Tae; Jung, Chul-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients showed a different response following intravenous midazolam injection. Some children showed irritability or were not sedated by midazolam. We hypothesized that there may be genetic variations of the MDR1 gene, based on the response to midazolam. Methods One hundred and ninety-three pediatric patients were recruited in this study. Midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) was injected intravenously before surgery. Anxiety score (activity, vocalizations, emotional expressivity, state of apparent arousal) was checked before and 5 minutes after midazolam injection. In addition, other manifestations after midazolam injection were recorded. After anesthesia, 2 ml of blood was sampled. Children were genotyped MDR1. Haplotype was analyzed using the software package PHASE, version 2.0. Results The observed frequencies of MDR1 haplotype of TTT, TGC, CAC, CGC were 0.334, 0.205, 0.182 and 0.225, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the response of midazolam and the MDR1 haplotype of TTT, TGC, CAC or CGC (P = 0.98). Conclusions Genotyping of MDR1 may not be related to the response of midazolam in children. PMID:22558499

  3. Regulation of MDR1 gene expression in multidrug-resistant cancer cells is independent from YB-1.

    PubMed

    Kaszubiak, Alexander; Kupstat, Annette; Müller, Ursula; Hausmann, Romy; Holm, Per Sonne; Lage, Hermann

    2007-05-25

    The MDR1 gene encoded transmembrane ABC-transporter MDR1/P-glycoprotein can mediate the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR), a major obstacle in the clinical management of cancer patients. It was hypothesized that YB-1 is a fundamental regulatory factor of the MDR1 gene in tumor cells and can therewith enhance drug resistance. To analyze the potential impact of YB-1 in MDR cancer cells, two specific anti-YB-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were designed for transient triggering the gene-silencing RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the MDR cell lines EPG85-257RDB and EPP85-181RDB as well as in their drug-sensitive counterparts EPG85-257P and EPP85-181P. Since both siRNAs showed biological activity, for stable inhibition of YB-1 corresponding tetracycline-inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-encoding expression vectors were designed. By treatment of the cancer cells with these constructs, the expression of the targeted YB-1 encoding mRNA and protein was completely inhibited following tetracycline exposure. These gene-silencing effects were not accompanied by modulation of the MDR1 expression or by reversal of the drug-resistant phenotype. In conclusion, the data demonstrate the utility of the analyzed RNAs as powerful laboratory tools and indicate that YB-1 is not involved in the regulation of the MDR1 gene or the development of the drug-resistant phenotype in MDR cancer cells.

  4. Constituents of Carpobrotus edulis inhibit P-glycoprotein of MDR1-transfected mouse lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, A; Vasas, A; Schelz, Zs; Viveiros, M; Molnár, J; Hohmann, J; Amaral, L

    2010-03-01

    A bioassay-guided separation protocol, including the testing of the extracts, fractions and pure compounds for their ability to inhibit P-glycoprotein (the efflux pump responsible for the multidrug resistance of the used cell line) of mouse lymphoma cells containing the human efflux pump gene MDR1, led to the isolation of seven compounds from the chloroform and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the methanolic extract of Carpobrotus edulis. The compounds were identified by 1D, 2D NMR and MS investigations as triterpens (beta-amyrin, uvaol and oleanolic acid), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin B5. Uvaol was the most effective and promising compound in the reversal of multidrug resistance in MDR mouse lymphoma cell line.

  5. NOX1 mediates chemoresistance via HIF1α/MDR1 pathway in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ming; Wang, Hui; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wei; Yang, Linhua; He, Min; Xu, Sunwang; Wang, Jian

    NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) plays a key role in tumorigenesis and metastasis through generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), an important intracellular signaling molecule. However, how it is expressed in gallbladder cancer (GBC) tissue sample and whether it associates with GBC chemoresistance have never been investigated. Our study analyzed the relationship between NOX1 expression and cisplatin-sensitivity both in vivo and in vitro. We found that reduced NOX1 expression promoted cisplatin efficiency in GBC-SD cells, whereas overexpression of which potentially inhibited the sensitivity of cisplatin in SGC-996 cells. Further study into the mechanism we found that increased NOX1 expression elevated intracellular ROS levels, which then activated HIF-1α/MDR1 pathway. These findings established NOX1 a novel accelerant of chemoresistance in GBC, and NOX1-targeted therapeutics might be exploited as a strategy for increasing the efficacy of cisplatin treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MDR1 gene polymorphisms and disposition of the P-glycoprotein substrate fexofenadine

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Siegfried; Schaeffeler, Elke; Hitzl, Monika; Hofmann, Ute; Schwab, Matthias; Brinkmann, Ulrich; Eichelbaum, Michel; Fromm, Martin F

    2002-01-01

    Aims The C3435T polymorphism in the human MDR1 gene is associated with lower intestinal P-glycoprotein expression, reduced protein function in peripheral blood cells and higher plasma concentrations of the P-glycoprotein substrate digoxin. Using fexofenadine, a known P-glycoprotein substrate, the hypothesis was tested whether this polymorphism also affects the disposition of other drugs in humans. Methods Ten Caucasian subjects homozygous for the wild-type allele at position 3435 (CC) and 10 individuals homozygous for T at position 3435 participated in this study. A single oral dose of 180 mg fexofenadine HCl was administered. Plasma and urine concentrations of fexofenadine were measured up to 72 h using a sensitive LC/MS method. In addition, P-glycoprotein function was assessed using efflux of the P-glycoprotein substrate rhodamine 123 from CD56+ cells. Results Fexofenadine plasma concentrations varied considerably among the study population. However, fexofenadine disposition was not significantly different between the CC and TT groups (e.g. AUC(0,∞) CC vs TT: 3567.1±1535.5 vs 3910.1±1894.8 ng ml−1 h, NS; 95% CI on the difference −1364.9, 2050.9). In contrast, P-glycoprotein function was significantly decreased in CD56+ cells of the TT compared with the CC group (rhodamine fluorescence CC vs TT: 45.6±7.2% vs 61.1±12.3%, P<0.05; 95% CI on the difference 5.6, 25.5). Conclusions In spite of MDR1 genotype-dependent differences in P-glycoprotein function in peripheral blood cells, there was no association of the C3435T polymorphism with the disposition of the P-glycoprotein substrate fexofenadine in this German Caucasian study population. These data indicate that other mechanisms including uptake transporter function are likely to play a role in fexofenadine disposition. PMID:11994059

  7. Role of MDR1 gene polymorphisms in gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporine in transplant patients.

    PubMed

    De Iudicibus, S; Castronovo, G; Gigante, A; Stocco, G; Decorti, G; Di Lenarda, R; Bartoli, F

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association between genotypes of the MDR1 gene, encoding P-glycoprotein, and gingival overgrowth in transplant patients treated with cyclosporine, and to evaluate the effect of periodontal treatment in these patients. Fifty transplant patients receiving therapy with cyclosporine and suffering from gingival overgrowth were subjected to nonsurgical periodontal treatment and received oral hygiene instructions. Hyperplastic index, periodontal probing depths, bleeding and plaque scores were recorded at baseline and after 3 and 6 mo. Patients were dichotomized into two groups: those with a hyperplastic index of < 30% (minimal gingival overgrowth) and those with a hyperplastic index of > or = 30% (clinically significant gingival overgrowth). MDR1 C3435T and G2677T polymorphisms were evaluated in all patients and in 100 controls. At baseline, 32 patients (64%) had minimal gingival overgrowth and 18 patients (36%) had clinically significant gingival overgrowth. The mutated C3435T genotype was significantly more frequent in the second group (p < 0.019). The significant association between gingival overgrowth and the 3435TT genotype was confirmed by logistic regression analysis (p < 0.031). The differences in hyperplastic index, observed at baseline between patients with the TT genotype and those with the CC/CT genotype disappeared in the second and third evaluation. The mean monthly change of the square root of the gingival overgrowth scores for all patients, assessed using linear models, was significantly different from baseline (-0.17 points per month, p < 0.00001); and this was particularly evident in subjects with renal transplant (-1.62, p < 0.01). Aetiological periodontal and self-performed maintenance therapy is effective in reducing gingival overgrowth, particularly in subjects with the 3435TT genotype and in patients with renal transplant.

  8. Differential requirement of the transcription factor Mcm1 for activation of the Candida albicans multidrug efflux pump MDR1 by its regulators Mrr1 and Cap1.

    PubMed

    Mogavero, Selene; Tavanti, Arianna; Senesi, Sonia; Rogers, P David; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-05-01

    Overexpression of the multidrug efflux pump Mdr1 causes increased fluconazole resistance in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. The transcription factors Mrr1 and Cap1 mediate MDR1 upregulation in response to inducing stimuli, and gain-of-function mutations in Mrr1 or Cap1, which render the transcription factors hyperactive, result in constitutive MDR1 overexpression. The essential MADS box transcription factor Mcm1 also binds to the MDR1 promoter, but its role in inducible or constitutive MDR1 upregulation is unknown. Using a conditional mutant in which Mcm1 can be depleted from the cells, we investigated the importance of Mcm1 for MDR1 expression. We found that Mcm1 was dispensable for MDR1 upregulation by H2O2 but was required for full MDR1 induction by benomyl. A C-terminally truncated, hyperactive Cap1 could upregulate MDR1 expression both in the presence and in the absence of Mcm1. In contrast, a hyperactive Mrr1 containing a gain-of-function mutation depended on Mcm1 to cause MDR1 overexpression. These results demonstrate a differential requirement for the coregulator Mcm1 for Cap1- and Mrr1-mediated MDR1 upregulation. When activated by oxidative stress or a gain-of-function mutation, Cap1 can induce MDR1 expression independently of Mcm1, whereas Mrr1 requires either Mcm1 or an active Cap1 to cause overexpression of the MDR1 efflux pump. Our findings provide more detailed insight into the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in this important human fungal pathogen.

  9. MiR-138 indirectly regulates the MDR1 promoter by NF-κB/p65 silencing.

    PubMed

    Requenez-Contreras, J L; López-Castillejos, E S; Hernández-Flores, R; Moreno-Eutimio, M A; Granados-Riveron, J T; Martinez-Ruiz, G U; Aquino-Jarquin, G

    2017-03-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing in the cytoplasm and recent evidence indicates that may also possess nuclear roles in regulating gene expression. A previous study showed that miR-138 is involved in the multidrug resistance of leukemia cells through down-regulation of the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the protein encoded by the human multidrug-resistant ABCB1/MDR1 gene. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. To deepen the description of the mechanism of transcriptional gene silencing on the MDR1 promoter, we initially performed a bioinformatics search for potential miR-138 binding sites in the MDR1 gene promoter sequence. Interestingly, we did not find miR-138 binding sites in this region, suggesting an indirect regulation. From six representative transcriptional factors involved in MDR1 gene regulation, an in silico analysis revealed that NF-κB/p65 has a specific binding site for miR-138. The results of luciferase reporter assay, western blot and flow cytometry shown here suggest that miR-138 might modulate the human MDR1 expression by inhibiting NF-κB/p65 as an indirect mechanism of MDR1 regulation. Furthermore, employing the human macrophage-like cell line U937 we observed comparable results with NF-κB/p65 down-regulation and we also observed a significant reduction in the IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA, as well as in their secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines following miR-138 expression, suggesting that canonical NF-κB target genes might also be potential targets for miR-138 in leukemia cells.

  10. Associations between MDR1 gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia and therapeutic response to olanzapine in female schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Bozina, Nada; Kuzman, Martina Rojnic; Medved, Vesna; Jovanovic, Nikolina; Sertic, Jadranka; Hotujac, Ljubomir

    2008-01-01

    Multidrug resistant protein (MDR1) gene, which codes for P-glycoprotein and functions as an efflux transporter in different cells, is widely localized in normal tissues including the gastrointestinal tract, blood cells, biliary tract, kidney and brain and plays a major role in absorption, distribution and elimination of various xenobiotics. Therefore, MDR1 gene variants were proposed as potential susceptibility factors for diseases and as determinants of treatment response to various drugs. We investigated the relationships between exon 21 G2677T and exon 26 C3435T genetic variants of MDR1 gene with susceptibility and treatment response in female schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two steps. We first compared allele, genotype and haplotype distributions between 117 female schizophrenic patients and 123 control female subjects. Afterwards, we studied treatment response to olanzapine, in 87 out of 117 previously unmedicated female patients. Overall, we found lower representation of G2677/C3435 haplotype in schizophrenic female patients compared to controls. Test result for linkage disequilibrium between loci was found to be significant. Furthermore, we found significant associations between MDR1 exon 21 G2677T genotypes and treatment response measured with positive PANSS percentage changes, with T allele and TT genotype being associated with significantly better treatment response. A borderline, non-significant statistical association was found between MDR1 exon 26 C3435T genotypes and treatment response, with TT genotype being associated with better treatment response. Our data support functional importance of the MDR1 mutations for the susceptibility and treatment response in female schizophrenic patients.

  11. Intracellular targeted co-delivery of shMDR1 and gefitinib with chitosan nanoparticles for overcoming multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiwei; Yang, Guang; Shi, Yijie; Su, Chang; Liu, Ming; Feng, Bo; Zhao, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, multidrug resistance and side effects of drugs limit the effectiveness of chemotherapies in clinics. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (MDR1), as a member of the ATP-binding cassette family, acts on transporting drugs into cell plasma across the membrane of cancer cells and leads to the occurrence of multidrug resistance, thus resulting in the failure of chemotherapy in cancer. The main aims of this research were to design a nanodelivery system for accomplishing the effective co-delivery of gene and antitumor drug and overcoming multidrug resistance effect. In this study, shMDR1 and gefitinib-encapsulating chitosan nanoparticles with sustained release, small particle size, and high encapsulation efficiency were prepared. The serum stability, protection from nuclease, and transfection efficiency of gene in vitro were investigated. The effects of co-delivery of shMDR1 and gefitinib in nanoparticles on reversing multidrug resistance were also evaluated by investigating the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake mechanism, and cell apoptosis on established gefitinib-resistant cells. The results demonstrated that chitosan nanoparticles entrapping gefitinib and shMDR1 had the potential to overcome the multidrug resistance and improve cancer treatment efficacy, especially toward resistant cells. PMID:26648717

  12. The process behind the expression of mdr-1/P-gp and mrp/MRP in human leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masao

    2009-04-01

    There is a controversy over the link between phenotypes of multidrug resistance (MDR) and clinical outcome in leukemia/lymphoma patients. This may be because the process behind the induction and loss of expression of genotypes and phenotypes by which MDR develops and the role of MDR in fresh cells of human leukemia/lymphoma are not clearly defined. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) increased and decreased along with mdr-1 expression in three cell lines out of five vincristine (VCR)-resistant cell lines. MRP appeared with increased mrp expression in the other two cell lines. After the drug was removed from the culture system, mdr-1/P-gp changed in parallel with the level of VCR resistance, although mrp and MRP did not. It was concluded that P-gp is directly derived from mdr-1 and that mdr-1/P-gp supports the VCR-resistance but mrp/MRP is not directly linked to the VCR-resistance. These results should contribute to a better understanding of MDR phenomenon in cancer.

  13. Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator enhances cisplatin resistance by upregulating MDR1 expression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ya-Yi; Kalpana, Sriram; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Chang, Wen-Chang; Chen, Ben-Kuen

    2013-10-01

    The identification of molecular pathways in cancer cells is important for understanding the cells' underlying biology and for designing effective cancer therapies. We demonstrate that the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is critical during the development of cisplatin resistance. The reduced expression of ARNT was correlated with cisplatin-induced cell death in drug-sensitive cells. In addition, suppression of ARNT reversed the characteristics of cisplatin-resistant cells, making these cells cisplatin-sensitive, and significantly enhanced caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis. The inhibition of colony formation, regulated by cisplatin, was more significant in ARNT-knockdown cells than in parental cells. In a xenograft analysis of severe combined immunodeficiency mice, cisplatin also efficiently inhibited ARNT-deficient c4 tumors but not ARNT-containing vT2 tumor formation. Furthermore, the downregulation of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) expression and retention of drugs in cells caused by suppression of ARNT, resulting in the resensitization of drug-resistant cells to cisplatin, was observed. When overexpressed, ARNT interacted with Sp1 to enhance the expression of MDR1 through Sp1-binding sites on the MDR1 promoter, resulting in a reversal of the effect of cisplatin on cell death. In addition, ARNT-induced MDR1 expression was inhibited in Sp1-knockdown cells. These results reveal previously unrecognized, multifaceted functions of ARNT in establishing the drug-resistant properties of cancer cells by the upregulation of MDR1, highlighting ARNT's potential as a therapeutic target in an important subset of cancers.

  14. Overexpression of MDR-1 and CDR-2 genes in fluconazole resistance of Candida albicans isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Khosravi Rad, K; Falahati, M; Roudbary, M; Farahyar, S; Nami, S

    2016-12-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungus that can colonize women's mucosal epithelial cell surfaces, causing vulvovaginitis in specific circumstances. The major genes contributing to drug resistance in C. albicans are the candida drug resistance (CDR) and multi drug resistance (MDR) genes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CDR-2 and MDR-1 gene expression patterns in C. albicans strains isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. In this study, 40 isolates of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. These isolates were collected from women with vulvovaginitis who were referred to a clinic in Tehran, Iran, and transferred to a mycology laboratory. Then, RNA was extracted from the isolates using phenol-chloroform and glass beads, and the complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthetized. To detect the semi-quantitative expression of CDR-2 and MDR-1 genes, the reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) technique was performed using specific primers. Our findings indicated that of the 40 C. albicans isolates, 35 (87.5%) strains were positive for mRNA of the CDR-2 gene, 32 (80%) strains expressed mRNA of the MDR-1 gene, and 30 (75%) strains were confirmed to express mRNA of both the CDR-2 and MDR-1 genes simultaneously using the RT-PCR assay. According to the obtained results, the expression rates of CDR-2 and MDR-1 genes were high in fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates, which can cause treatments to fail and result in chronic infections. Inhibiting these important genes using novel or natural agents can help with the treatment of chronic and recurrent vaginitis.

  15. Contribution of mdr1b-type P-glycoprotein to okadaic acid resistance in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ritz, V; Marwitz, J; Sieder, S; Ziemann, C; Hirsch-Ernst, K I; Quentin, I; Steinfelder, H J

    1999-08-01

    Okadaic acid as well as other, structurally different, inhibitors of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A induce apoptosis in pituitary GH3 cells. Incubation with stepwise raised concentrations of okadaic acid resulted in the isolation of cells that were increasingly less sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of this agent. After about 18 months cells were selected that survived at 300 nM okadaic acid, which is about 30 times the initially lethal concentration. This study revealed that a major pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying cell survival was the development of a P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The increase in mRNA levels of the mdr1b P-glycoprotein isoform correlated with the extent of drug resistance. Functional assays revealed that increasing drug resistance was paralleled by a decreased accumulation of rhodamine 123, a fluorescent dye which is a substrate of mdr1-mediated efflux activity. Resistance could be abolished by structurally different chemosensitizers of P-glycoprotein function like verapamil and reserpine but not by the leukotriene receptor antagonist MK571 which is a modulator of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). Okadaic acid resistance included cross-resistance to other cytotoxic agents that are substrates of mdr1-type P-glycoproteins, like doxorubicin and actinomycin D, but not to non-substrates of mdr1, e.g. cytosine arabinoside. Thus, functional as well as biochemical features support the conclusion that okadaic acid is a substrate of the mdr1-mediated efflux activity in rat pituitary GH3 cells. Maintenance of resistance after withdrawal of okadaic acid as well as metaphase spreads of 100 nM okadaic acid-resistant cells suggested a stable MDR genotype without indications for the occurrence of extrachromosomal amplifications, e.g. double minute chromosomes.

  16. With no interaction, knockdown of Apollon and MDR1 reverse the multidrug resistance of human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562/ADM cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Ru; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Hong; Yi, Ying-Jie; Li, You-Jie

    2017-05-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment method for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and has achieved marked results. However, the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR) has seriously affected the quality of life and survival rate of patients. The overexpression of the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the two main causes of MDR. Apollon and MDR1 are the most important and representative members, respectively, among the IAPs and ABC transporters. In the present study, we investigated the role of Apollon and MDR1 in chemotherapy resistance and their mechanism of interaction. We respectively knocked down the expression of Apollon and MDR1 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in adriamycin (ADM) resistant human CML K562 cells and examined the drug sensitivity, the consequences with regard to ADM accumulation and the alterations in the expression of Apollon and MDR1. The expression levels of Apollon and MDR1 mRNA were higher in the K562/ADM cells compared with the parental K562 cells as determined by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The plasmids of Apollon and MDR1 shRNA were respectively stably transfected into K562/ADM cells using Lipofectamine 2000. The transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay revealed that Apollon or MDR1 knockdown significantly increased the chemosensitivity of the K562/ADM cells to ADM. Flow cytometric assay revealed that K562/ADM/shMDR1 cells exhibited a significantly increased intracellular accumulation of ADM, and that changes were not found in the K562/ADM/shApollon cells. Compared with the parental K562/ADM cells, a significantly decreased expression of Apollon mRNA and protein was determined in the K562/ADM/shApollon cells without affecting the expression of MDR1 as determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. Likewise, the expression levels of MDR1 m

  17. C-Phycocyanin inhibits 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced expression of MDR1 in mouse macrophage cells: ROS mediated pathway determined via combination of experimental and In silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Karnati R; Arunasree, Kalle M; Dhoot, Amit; Aparna, Rachamallu; Reddy, Gorla Venkateswara; Vali, Shireen; Reddanna, Pallu

    2007-03-15

    We studied the effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis on the 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)-induced expression of MDR1, encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene, in mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). Our experimental and In silico studies revealed a significant inhibition of 2-AAF-induced expression of MDR1 protein in C-PC treated mouse macrophage cell line. MDR1 induction by 2-AAF was dependent on ROS (reactive oxygen species)-Akt (protein kinase B)-NF-kappaB (Nuclear factor kappa B) signaling pathway. Generation of ROS, phosphorylation of Akt and corresponding nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, the events that play a major role in the induction of MDR1 expression, were decreased significantly in C-PC treated cells. NADPH oxidase inhibitor, DPI (Diphenyl iodide), and pharmacological inhibitor of Akt, Akt inhibitor IV, also showed a reduction in MDR1 expression, although not to the same extent as C-PC mediated inhibition of MDR1 expression. To further understand the mechanism, we created a computational model of the detailed ROS-Akt-NF-kappaB pathway. C-PC was modeled purely as a ROS scavenger and this representation matched the experimental trends accurately. Also the ROS levels determined through In silico investigation showed that C-PC was more effective in reduction of MDR1 expression than inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and Akt. Our experimental and In silico studies collectively suggest that 2-AAF induces MDR1 by ROS dependent pathway and C-PC is a potential negative regulator of MDR1 expression. This down regulation of MDR1 expression, induced by xenobiotics such as 2-AAF, suggests C-PC's usefulness in overcoming the drug resistance in cellular systems.

  18. MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoqian; Lyer, Arun K.; Singh, Amit; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-02-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost universal phenomenon in patients with ovarian cancer, and this severely limits the ultimate success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Overexpression of the MDR1 gene and corresponding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best known MDR mechanisms. MDR1 siRNA based strategies were proposed to circumvent MDR, however, systemic, safe, and effective targeted delivery is still a major challenge. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) targeted hyaluronic acid (HA) based nanoparticle has been shown to successfully deliver chemotherapy agents or siRNAs into tumor cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of HA-PEI/HA-PEG to deliver MDR1 siRNA and the efficacy of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA with paclitaxel to suppress growth of ovarian cancer. We observed that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles can efficiently deliver MDR1 siRNA into MDR ovarian cancer cells, resulting in down-regulation of MDR1 and Pgp expression. Administration of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles followed by paclitaxel treatment induced a significant inhibitory effect on the tumor growth, decreased Pgp expression and increased apoptosis in MDR ovarian cancer mice model. Our findings suggest that CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles can serve as a therapeutic tool with great potentials to circumvent MDR in ovarian cancer.

  19. MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoqian; lyer, Arun K.; Singh, Amit; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost universal phenomenon in patients with ovarian cancer, and this severely limits the ultimate success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Overexpression of the MDR1 gene and corresponding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best known MDR mechanisms. MDR1 siRNA based strategies were proposed to circumvent MDR, however, systemic, safe, and effective targeted delivery is still a major challenge. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) targeted hyaluronic acid (HA) based nanoparticle has been shown to successfully deliver chemotherapy agents or siRNAs into tumor cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of HA-PEI/HA-PEG to deliver MDR1 siRNA and the efficacy of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA with paclitaxel to suppress growth of ovarian cancer. We observed that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles can efficiently deliver MDR1 siRNA into MDR ovarian cancer cells, resulting in down-regulation of MDR1 and Pgp expression. Administration of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles followed by paclitaxel treatment induced a significant inhibitory effect on the tumor growth, decreased Pgp expression and increased apoptosis in MDR ovarian cancer mice model. Our findings suggest that CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles can serve as a therapeutic tool with great potentials to circumvent MDR in ovarian cancer. PMID:25687880

  20. MDR-1 and MRP2 Gene Polymorphisms in Mexican Epileptic Pediatric Patients with Complex Partial Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Escalante-Santiago, David; Feria-Romero, Iris Angélica; Ribas-Aparicio, Rosa María; Rayo-Mares, Dario; Fagiolino, Pietro; Vázquez, Marta; Escamilla-Núñez, Consuelo; Grijalva-Otero, Israel; López-García, Miguel Angel; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Although the Pgp efflux transport protein is overexpressed in resected tissue of patients with epilepsy, the presence of polymorphisms in MDR1/ABCB1 and MRP2/ABCC2 in patients with antiepileptic-drugs resistant epilepsy (ADR) is controversial. The aim of this study was to perform an exploratory study to identify nucleotide changes and search new and reported mutations in patients with ADR and patients with good response (CTR) to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a rigorously selected population. We analyzed 22 samples In Material and Methods, from drug-resistant patients with epilepsy and 7 samples from patients with good response to AEDs. Genomic DNA was obtained from leukocytes. Eleven exons in both genes were genotyped. The concentration of drugs in saliva and plasma was determined. The concentration of valproic acid in saliva was lower in ADR than in CRT. In ABCB1, five reported SNPs and five unreported nucleotide changes were identified; rs2229109 (GA) and rs2032582 (AT and AG) were found only in the ADR. Of six SNPs associated with the ABCC2 that were found in the study population, rs3740066 (TT) and 66744T > A (TG) were found only in the ADR. The strongest risk factor in the ABCB1 gene was identified as the TA genotype of rs2032582, whereas for the ABCC2 gene the strongest risk factor was the T allele of rs3740066. The screening of SNPs in ACBC1 and ABCC2 indicates that the Mexican patients with epilepsy in this study display frequently reported ABCC1 polymorphisms; however, in the study subjects with a higher risk factor for drug resistance, new nucleotide changes were found in the ABCC2 gene. Thus, the population of Mexican patients with AED-resistant epilepsy (ADR) used in this study exhibits genetic variability with respect to those reported in other study populations; however, it is necessary to explore this polymorphism in a larger population of patients with ADR. PMID:25346718

  1. MDR-1 and MRP2 Gene Polymorphisms in Mexican Epileptic Pediatric Patients with Complex Partial Seizures.

    PubMed

    Escalante-Santiago, David; Feria-Romero, Iris Angélica; Ribas-Aparicio, Rosa María; Rayo-Mares, Dario; Fagiolino, Pietro; Vázquez, Marta; Escamilla-Núñez, Consuelo; Grijalva-Otero, Israel; López-García, Miguel Angel; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Although the Pgp efflux transport protein is overexpressed in resected tissue of patients with epilepsy, the presence of polymorphisms in MDR1/ABCB1 and MRP2/ABCC2 in patients with antiepileptic-drugs resistant epilepsy (ADR) is controversial. The aim of this study was to perform an exploratory study to identify nucleotide changes and search new and reported mutations in patients with ADR and patients with good response (CTR) to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a rigorously selected population. We analyzed 22 samples In Material and Methods, from drug-resistant patients with epilepsy and 7 samples from patients with good response to AEDs. Genomic DNA was obtained from leukocytes. Eleven exons in both genes were genotyped. The concentration of drugs in saliva and plasma was determined. The concentration of valproic acid in saliva was lower in ADR than in CRT. In ABCB1, five reported SNPs and five unreported nucleotide changes were identified; rs2229109 (GA) and rs2032582 (AT and AG) were found only in the ADR. Of six SNPs associated with the ABCC2 that were found in the study population, rs3740066 (TT) and 66744T > A (TG) were found only in the ADR. The strongest risk factor in the ABCB1 gene was identified as the TA genotype of rs2032582, whereas for the ABCC2 gene the strongest risk factor was the T allele of rs3740066. The screening of SNPs in ACBC1 and ABCC2 indicates that the Mexican patients with epilepsy in this study display frequently reported ABCC1 polymorphisms; however, in the study subjects with a higher risk factor for drug resistance, new nucleotide changes were found in the ABCC2 gene. Thus, the population of Mexican patients with AED-resistant epilepsy (ADR) used in this study exhibits genetic variability with respect to those reported in other study populations; however, it is necessary to explore this polymorphism in a larger population of patients with ADR.

  2. Genotype variability and haplotype profile of ABCB1 (MDR1) gene polymorphisms in Macedonian population.

    PubMed

    Naumovska, Zorica; Nestorovska, Aleksandra K; Sterjev, Zoran; Filipce, Ana; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Suturkova, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the most common ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein) polymorphisms in the population of R. Macedonia and compare the allele and haplotype frequencies with the global geographic data reported from different ethnic populations. The total of 107 healthy Macedonian individuals from the general population was included. Genotypes for the ABCB1 for three polymorphisms C1236T [rs1128503], G2677A/T [rs2032582] and C3435T [rs1045642] were analyzed by Real-Time PCR. Obtained allele frequencies for these three SNPs were similar to those observed in other European Caucasians. The detected genotype frequencies were 33.6% for 1236CC, 44.9% for 1236CT and 21.5% for 1236TT in exon 12; 32.7%, 44.9% and 22.4% for 2677GG, 2677GT and 2677GT consecutively in exon 21; and 25.2% for 3435CC, 52.3% for 3435CT and 22.5% for 3435TT in exon 26.Strong LD was observed in our study among all three SNPs with the highest association confirmed for C1236T and G2677T ((D'=0.859, r2=0.711). Eight different haplotypes were identified and the most prominent was the CGC haplotype (45.3%). Our study was the first to have documented the distribution of ABCB1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes in the population of R. Macedonia. The obtained results can help in the prediction of different response to the drugs that are P-glycoprotein substrates. Additionally, in the era of individualized medicine the determination of the P-glycoprotein genotype might be a good predictive marker for determination of the subpopulations with higher risk to certain diseases.

  3. Multi-drug resistance gene (MDR-1) and risk of brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Eno, Michele L.; Ahn, Edward H.; Shahzad, Mian M.K.; Im, Dwight D.; Rosenshein, Neil B.; Sood, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate risk factors that predict brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer. Methods All patients with FIGO stage I to IV who underwent initial cytoreductive surgery between January 1995 and January 2009 were evaluated. The tumor samples were evaluated for 7 markers including multi-drug resistance gene (MDR-1), DNA aneuploidity and S-phase fraction, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53 mutation, epidermal growth factor receptor, and CD31. Biomarker expression was evaluated as a predictor of hematogenous metastasis to the following locations: (i) liver and spleen, (ii) lung, and (iii) brain. Results There were 309 cases identified during the period. Of those, five (1.6%, 95%CI 0.2-3.0%) women developed brain metastasis. Time to onset of brain metastasis was significantly longer than for other recurrent sites (median time to recurrence after initial cytoreduction, brain vs lung vs liver, 21.4 vs 12.6 vs 11.0 months, p<0.05). Significantly increased expression of MDR-1 was seen in tumors from women who developed brain metastasis (brain vs non-brain sites, 80% vs 4.2-24.3%, p=0.004). In multivariate analysis, MDR-1 was the only significant variable associated with the risk of brain metastasis. MDR-1 expression predicted brain metastasis (Receiver-operator-characteristic curve analysis, AUC 0.808, p=0.018), and with a 10% positive expression of MDR-1 as the cutoff value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy of prediction of brain metastasis were 80%, 86.1%, 15.4%, 99.3%, and 85.9%, respectively (odds ratio 24.7, 95%CI 2.64-232, p=0.002). Conclusions Increased expression of MDR-1 in the tumor tissue obtained at initial cytoreduction is associated with increased risk of developing brain metastases in women with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer. PMID:20921883

  4. β-Asarone promotes Temozolomide's entry into glioma cells and decreases the expression of P-glycoprotein and MDR1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nanbu; Zhang, Qinxin; Ning, Baile; Luo, Laiyu; Fang, Yongqi

    2017-06-01

    Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor and has an undesirable prognosis due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and drug resistance. A thorough investigation of the changes in intracellular drug concentrations is important to observe therapeutic effects and cell resistance. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an essential protein of Multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1). The over-expression of P-gp and MDR1 is associated with poor prognosis and drug-resistance in glioma. However, β-asarone can pass through the BBB easily and increase the drug concentration in the rat brain. Our aim is to study the effect of β-asarone on promoting the entry of temozolomide (TMZ) into human glioma U251 cells. The cells were divided into three groups: model group, TMZ group (300μM) and co-administration group (360μM β-asarone; 300μM TMZ). We further detected P-gp and MDR1 expression in U251 and rat glioma C6 cells in four groups: model group (U251/C6), TMZ group (U251 300μM, C6 420μM), β-asarone group (U251 360μM, C6 450μM) and co-administration group (β-asarone 360μM, TMZ 300μM for U251; β-asarone 450μM, TMZ 420μM for C6). Then, high performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the intracellular and extracellular levels of TMZ. Morphological changes in both cells were observed by the microscope. The Counting Kit-8 assay was used to measure the cell proliferation and toxicity. Cell immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence, flowcytometry and western blot were synchronously used to examine the expression of P-gp. We also determined the levels of MDR1 mRNA by RT-PCR. The results showed that β-asarone could promote the entry of TMZ into U251 cells through the membrane. The co-administration of β-asarone and TMZ also decreased cell proliferation and the expression of P-gp and MDR1 better than single medication in U251 and C6 cells. All of the data suggest that β-asarone might contribute to treatment by promoting TMZ's entry into glioma cells, thereby contributing to anti

  5. Functional Characterization Of Peptide Transporters In MDCKII -MDR1 Cell line As A Model For Oral Absorption Studies

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sheetal; Jain, Ritesh; Pal, Dhananjay; K.Mitra, Ashim

    2007-01-01

    MDCKII-MDR1 cell line has been extensively selected as a model to study P-gp-mediated drug efflux. Recently, investigators have employed this cell line for studying influx of peptide prodrug derivatives of parent compounds which are P-gp substrates. Therefore, the objective of this study is to functionally characterize the peptide mediated uptake and transport of [3H] Glycylsarcosine ([3H] Gly-Sar), a model peptide substrate across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. [3H] Gly-Sar uptake from apical (AP) and basolateral (BL) membranes was found to be time dependent and saturable. Michaelis-Menten (Km) constants of [3H] Gly-Sar uptake across the AP and BL directions in MDCKII-MDR1 cell line were found to be 457 ± 37 μM and 464 ± 85 μM respectively. Vmax values in AP and BL directions for the peptide transporters in MDCKII-MDR1 cell line were calculated to be 0.035 ± 0.001 and 0.35 ± 0.034 pmol/min/mg protein respectively. Uptake of [3H] Gly-Sar was significantly inhibited in the presence of aminocephalosporins and ACE-Inhibitors, known substrates for peptide transporters in both the AP and BL directions. Permeability of [3H] Gly-Sar in the BL direction was maximal at pH 4 as compared to pH 5, 6 and 7.4 whereas such permeability in the AP direction was optimal at pH 7.4. Transepithelial transport of [3H] Gly-Sar in the AP-BL direction was significantly lower than from BL-AP direction at all observed pHs. No statistical difference was observed in the transepithelial permeability of [3H] Gly-Sar across both AP and BL directions over 4–10 days of growth period. The present study indicates that peptide transporters are effectively involved in the bidirectional transport of Gly-Sar across MDCKII-MDR1 cell line; the BL peptide transporter can transport Gly-Sar at a greater rate as compared to the AP peptide transporter. Results from these studies suggest the application of MDCKII-MDR1 cell line as a rapid effective tool to study peptide mediated influx of compounds that may be

  6. Diltiazem augments the influence of MDR1 genotype status on cyclosporine concentration in Chinese patients with renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-xi; Li, Jia-li; Wang, Xue-ding; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Chang-xi; Huang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Co-administration of diltiazem can reduce the dosage of cyclosporine (CsA) in patients with renal transplantation. In this study, we investigated how diltiazem altered the relationship between MDR1 genetic polymorphisms and CsA concentration in Chinese patients with renal transplantation. Methods: A total of 126 renal transplant patients were enrolled. All the patients received CsA (2–4 mg·kg−1·d−1), and diltiazem (90 mg/d) was co-administered to 76 patients. MDR1-C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T polymorphisms were genotyped. The whole blood concentration was measured using the FPIA method, and the adjusted trough concentrations were compared among the groups with different genotypes. Results: In all patients, MDR1-C1236T did not influence the adjusted CsA trough concentration. With regard to MDR1-3435, the adjusted CsA trough concentration was significantly higher in TT carriers than in CC and CT carriers when diltiazam was co-administered (58.83±13.95 versus 46.14±7.55 and 45.18±12.35 ng/mL per mg/kg, P=0.011), and the differences were not observed in patients without diltiazam co-administered. With regard to MDR1-2677, the adjusted CsA trough concentration was significantly higher in TT carriers than in GG and GT carriers when diltiazam was co-administered (61.31±12.93 versus 52.25±7.83 and 39.70±7.26 ng/mL per mg/kg, P=0.0001). The differences were also observed in patients without diltiazam co-administered (43.27±5.95 versus 35.22±7.55 and 29.54±5.35 ng/mL per mg/kg, P=0.001). The adjusted CsA trough blood concentration was significantly higher in haplotype T-T-T and haplotype T-T-C carriers than in non-carriers, regardless of diltiazem co-administered. Conclusion: MDR1 variants influence the adjusted CsA trough concentration in Chinese patients with renal transplant, and the influence more prominent when diltiazem is co-administered. PMID:25891084

  7. Diltiazem augments the influence of MDR1 genotype status on cyclosporine concentration in Chinese patients with renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-xi; Li, Jia-li; Wang, Xue-ding; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Chang-xi; Huang, Min

    2015-07-01

    Co-administration of diltiazem can reduce the dosage of cyclosporine (CsA) in patients with renal transplantation. In this study, we investigated how diltiazem altered the relationship between MDR1 genetic polymorphisms and CsA concentration in Chinese patients with renal transplantation. A total of 126 renal transplant patients were enrolled. All the patients received CsA (2-4 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), and diltiazem (90 mg/d) was co-administered to 76 patients. MDR1-C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T polymorphisms were genotyped. The whole blood concentration was measured using the FPIA method, and the adjusted trough concentrations were compared among the groups with different genotypes. In all patients, MDR1-C1236T did not influence the adjusted CsA trough concentration. With regard to MDR1-3435, the adjusted CsA trough concentration was significantly higher in TT carriers than in CC and CT carriers when diltiazam was co-administered (58.83±13.95 versus 46.14±7.55 and 45.18±12.35 ng/mL per mg/kg, P=0.011), and the differences were not observed in patients without diltiazam co-administered. With regard to MDR1-2677, the adjusted CsA trough concentration was significantly higher in TT carriers than in GG and GT carriers when diltiazam was co-administered (61.31±12.93 versus 52.25±7.83 and 39.70±7.26 ng/mL per mg/kg, P=0.0001). The differences were also observed in patients without diltiazam co-administered (43.27±5.95 versus 35.22±7.55 and 29.54±5.35 ng/mL per mg/kg, P=0.001). The adjusted CsA trough blood concentration was significantly higher in haplotype T-T-T and haplotype T-T-C carriers than in non-carriers, regardless of diltiazem co-administered. MDR1 variants influence the adjusted CsA trough concentration in Chinese patients with renal transplant, and the influence more prominent when diltiazem is co-administered.

  8. MDR1/P-gp and VEGF synergistically enhance the invasion of Hep-2 cells with multidrug resistance induced by taxol.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Jiang, Alice C; Dong, Pin; Wang, Haibo; Xu, Wei; Xu, Chengzhi

    2009-05-01

    Tumor invasion/metastasis and multidrug resistance (MDR) are the main causes of treatment failure and high mortality in all kinds of cancer patients. The relationship between the two factors is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between MDR and invasion, especially the role of multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) during the invasion. Multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) were detected with real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting at the levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein, respectively. RNA interference was applied to inhibit the expression of MDR1. The invasive assays were performed with the CHEMICON cell invasion assay kit. The MDR cell line induced by Taxol (Hep-2T cell) was more invasive than its parent cell line (Hep-2 cell), which was at least in part mediated through the overexpressed MDR1/P-pg. MDR1-targeted RNA interference could effectively inhibit the expression of MDR1 and obviously decrease the invasive ability. Synergistic enhancing effects existed between MDR1/P-gp and VEGF on the invasion of Hep-2T cells. The expression of VEGFR-2 was elevated in Hep-2T cells. SU1498 could significantly decrease the invasion of Hep-2T cells. MDR1-targeted RNA interference and SU1498 had synergistic decreasing effect on the invasion of Hep-2T cells. MDR1/P-pg may be a risk predictor for the invasion of laryngeal cancer. MDR1 knock down and VEGFR-2 inhibitor may be two promising treatment regiments for advanced laryngeal carcinoma patients with MDR and invasion/metastasis.

  9. Quinone derivatives isolated from the endolichenic fungus Phialocephala fortinii are Mdr1 modulators that combat azole resistance in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fei; Chang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Ming; Li, Ying; Li, Wei; Shi, Hongzhuo; Zheng, Sha; Lou, Hongxiang

    2016-01-01

    One of the main azole-resistance mechanisms in Candida pathogens is the upregulation of drug efflux pumps, which compromises the efficacy of azoles and results in treatment failure. The combination of azole-antifungal agents with efflux pump inhibitors represents a promising strategy to combat fungal infection. High-throughput screening of 150 extracts obtained from endolichenic fungal cultures led to the discovery that the extract of Phialocephala fortinii exhibits potent activity for the reversal of azole resistance. From P. fortinii cultures, a total of 15 quinone derivatives, comprising 11 new derivatives and 4 known compounds, were obtained. Among these compounds, palmarumycin P3 (3) and phialocephalarin B (8) specifically modulate the expression of MDR1 to inhibit the activity of drug efflux pumps and therefore reverse azole resistance. The present study revealed Mdr1 targeting as an alternative mechanism for the discovery of new agents to fight antifungal drug resistance. PMID:27650180

  10. Genetic analysis of coding SNPs in blood-brain barrier transporter MDR1 in European Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Funke, Claudia; Soehn, Anne S; Tomiuk, Juergen; Riess, Olaf; Berg, Daniela

    2009-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions (Lewy bodies). Iron, which is elevated in the substantia nigra of PD patients, seems to be of pivotal importance, because of its capacity to enhance the amplification of reactive oxygen species. As iron enters and exits the brain via transport proteins in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), these proteins may represent candidates for a genetic susceptibility to PD. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one important efflux pump in the BBB. There is evidence that the function of P-gp is impaired in PD patients. In the current study we examined ten coding single nucleotide polymorphisms in the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) encoding P-gp to assess whether certain genotypes are associated with PD. However, genotyping of 300 PD patients and 302 healthy controls did not reveal a significant association between coding MDR1 gene polymorphisms and PD.

  11. Association between the MDR1 gene variant C3435T and risk of leukaemia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B-B; Xuan, C; Deng, K-F; Wu, N; Lun, L-M

    2013-09-01

    Although a number of genetic studies have attempted to link the multidrug resistance (MDR1) C3435T polymorphism to risk of leukaemia, the results were often inconsistent. The present study aimed at investigating the pooled association using a meta-analysis on the published studies. 1933 cases and 2215 controls of 11 published studies in English before June 2012 were involved in the updated meta-analysis. Furthermore, subgroup analysis was performed in different ethnic and leukaemia subtype groups. This meta-analysis suggests that the MDR1 C3435T polymorphism associate with risk of leukaemia. The effect of the variant on the expression levels and the possible functional role of the variant in leukaemia should be addressed in further studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Association of MDR1 C3435T and C1236T single nucleotide polymorphisms with male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Aydos, S E; Karadağ, A; Özkan, T; Altınok, B; Bunsuz, M; Heidargholizadeh, S; Aydos, K; Sunguroğlu, A

    2015-06-11

    Infertility affects 1 in 6 couples and approximately 1 in 25 men. Male factor infertility is a major cause of spermatogenic anomalies, the causes of which are largely unknown. Impaired repro-ductive functions in men might result from physiological, genetic, and/or environmental factors such as xenobiotics. The multi-drug re-sistance1 (MDR1) gene encodes a P-glycoprotein which has a role in the active transport of various substrates providing protection of somatic cells from potentially toxic substances, including xenobi-otics. MDR1 is highly expressed at the luminal surface of capillary endothelial cells, and is expressed in Leydig cells, testicular mac-rophages, and Sertoli cells. We performed genotype and haplotype analyses of MDR1 in 192 infertile and 102 fertile Turkish men for the genetic markers C1236T and C3435T, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the overall population, correlations were analyzed in all genotype mod-els. We found that the C3435T polymorphism TT vs CT genotypes showed statistically significant differences in their association with infertility (P = 0.045), and that the CT genotype was associated with high sperm DNA damage (P = 0.02), suggesting that the CT genotype might be a susceptibility factor for infertility. Additionally, the T-T haplotype was significantly more frequent in the control group (13.2 vs 6.5%; odds ratio = 0.459, 95%CI = 0.259-0.814, P = 0.006). This study showed that MDR1 might have a role in male infertility. Fur-ther research in large cohorts with different populations is required to clarify the role of MDR in male fertility.

  13. Preferential cytotoxicity of bortezomib toward highly malignant human liposarcoma cells via suppression of MDR1 expression and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yamei; Wang, Lingxian; Wang, Lu; Wu, Xuefeng; Wu, Xudong; Gu, Yanhong; Shu, Yongqian; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qiang

    2015-02-15

    Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma with a high risk of relapse. Few therapeutic options are available for the aggressive local or metastatic disease. Here, we report that the clinically used proteasome inhibitor bortezomib exhibits significantly stronger cytotoxicity toward highly malignant human liposarcoma SW872-S cells compared with its parental SW872 cells, which is accompanied by enhanced activation of apoptotic signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of cells with Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP60015 or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide ameliorated this enhanced apoptosis. Bortezomib inhibited MDR1 expression and function more effectively in SW872-S cells than in SW872 cells, indicating that the increased cytotoxicity relies on the degree of proteasome inhibition. Furthermore, the pharmacological or genetic inhibition of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA) 2, which is highly expressed in SW872-S cells, resulted in partial reversal of cell growth inhibition and increase of MDR1 expression in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. These results show that bortezomib exhibits preferential cytotoxicity toward SW872-S cells possibly via highly expressed SERCA2-associated MDR1 suppression and suggest that bortezomib may serve as a potent agent for treating advanced liposarcoma. - Highlights: • We compare the cytotoxicity of different drugs between SW872-S and SW872 cells. • Highly malignant liposarcoma cells SW872-S show hypersensitivity to bortezomib. • Apoptotic signaling is robustly enhanced in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. • Bortezomib has strong suppression on MDR1 expression and function in SW872-S cells. • Inhibition of SERCA2 protects SW872-S cells from bortezomib.

  14. Globally prevalent PfMDR1 mutations modulate Plasmodium falciparum susceptibility to artemisinin-based combination therapies

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, M. Isabel; Dhingra, Satish K.; Henrich, Philipp P.; Straimer, Judith; Gnädig, Nina; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Martin, Rowena E.; Lehane, Adele M.; Fidock, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chemotherapy, globally reliant on artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), is threatened by the spread of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Here we use zinc-finger nucleases to genetically modify the multidrug resistance-1 transporter PfMDR1 at amino acids 86 and 184, and demonstrate that the widely prevalent N86Y mutation augments resistance to the ACT partner drug amodiaquine and the former first-line agent chloroquine. In contrast, N86Y increases parasite susceptibility to the partner drugs lumefantrine and mefloquine, and the active artemisinin metabolite dihydroartemisinin. The PfMDR1 N86 plus Y184F isoform moderately reduces piperaquine potency in strains expressing an Asian/African variant of the chloroquine resistance transporter PfCRT. Mutations in both digestive vacuole-resident transporters are thought to differentially regulate ACT drug interactions with host haem, a product of parasite-mediated haemoglobin degradation. Global mapping of these mutations illustrates where the different ACTs could be selectively deployed to optimize treatment based on regional differences in PfMDR1 haplotypes. PMID:27189525

  15. Ursolic acid sensitized colon cancer cells to chemotherapy under hypoxia by inhibiting MDR1 through HIF-1α*

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jian-zhen; Xuan, Yan-yan; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Jian-jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the efficacy of ursolic acid in sensitizing colon cancer cells to chemotherapy under hypoxia and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Three colon cancer cell lines (RKO, LoVo, and SW480) were used as in vitro models. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin were used as chemotherapeutic drugs. Cell viability and apoptosis were tested to evaluate the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to chemotherapy. The transcription and expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1), and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting. Cycloheximide and MG132 were used to inhibit protein synthesis and degradation, respectively. In vitro tube formation assay was used to evaluate angiogenesis. Results: We demonstrated the chemosensitizing effects of ursolic acid with 5-FU and oxaliplatin in three colon cancer cell lines under hypoxia. This effect was correlated to its inhibition of MDR1 through HIF-1α. Moreover, ursolic acid was capable of inhibiting HIF-1α accumulation with little effects on its constitutional expression in normoxia. In addition, ursolic acid also down-regulated VEGF and inhibited tumor angiogenesis. Conclusions: Ursolic acid exerted chemosensitizing effects in colon cancer cells under hypoxia by inhibiting HIF-1α accumulation and the subsequent expression of the MDR1 and VEGF. PMID:27604859

  16. Downregulation of mdr1 and abcg2 genes is a mechanism of inhibition of efflux pumps mediated by polymeric amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Castillo, Amalia I; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mathet, Verónica L

    2012-11-01

    The ability of cells to acquire resistance to multiple pharmaceuticals, namely multidrug resistance (MDR), is often mediated by the over-expression of efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily; for example P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP or ABCG2), and multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1. ABCs pump drug molecules out of cells against a concentration gradient, reducing their intracellular concentration. The ability of polymeric amphiphiles to inhibit ABCs as well as the cellular pathways involved in the inhibition has been extensively investigated. This work investigated for the first time the effect of branched poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamines) on the levels of mRNA encoding for MDR1, BCRP and MRP1, in a human hepatoma cell line (Huh7). Copolymers with a broad range of molecular weights and hydrophilic-lipophilic balances were assayed. Results confirmed the down-regulation of mdr1 and abcg2 genes. Conversely, the mrp1 gene was not affected. These findings further support the versatility of these temperature- and pH-responsive copolymers to overcome drug resistance in cancer and infectious diseases.

  17. Sinomenine Sensitizes Multidrug-Resistant Colon Cancer Cells (Caco-2) to Doxorubicin by Downregulation of MDR-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Chang, Jiu-Yang; Zhang, Zhi-feng; Chu, Rui; Li, Yu-Ling; Dai, Ke-Hang; Mo, Guang-quan; Chang, Qing-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Chemoresistance in multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells over expressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by the MDR1 gene, is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Previous studies have indicated that sinomenine can enhance the absorption of various P-gp substrates. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sinomenine on the chemoresistance in colon cancer cells and explored the underlying mechanism. We developed multidrug-resistant Caco-2 (MDR-Caco-2) cells by exposure of Caco-2 cells to increasing concentrations of doxorubicin. We identified overexpression of COX-2 and MDR-1 genes as well as activation of the NF-κB signal pathway in MDR-Caco-2 cells. Importantly, we found that sinomenine enhances the sensitivity of MDR-Caco-2 cells towards doxorubicin by downregulating MDR-1 and COX-2 expression through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings provide a new potential strategy for the reversal of P-gp-mediated anticancer drug resistance. PMID:24901713

  18. Effects of TNFα, NOS3, MDR1 Gene Polymorphisms on Clinical Parameters, Prognosis and Survival of Multiple Myeloma Cases.

    PubMed

    Basmaci, C; Pehlivan, M; Tomatir, Ag; Sever, T; Okan, V; Yilmaz, M; Oguzkan-Balci, S; Pehlivan, S

    2016-01-01

    It is not clear how gene polymorphisms affecting drugs can contributes totheir efficacy in multiple myeloma (MM). We here aimed to explore associations among gene polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), nitric oxide synthesis 3 (NOS3) and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1), clinical parameters, prognosis and survival in MM patients treated with VAD (vincristine-adriamycine-dexamethasone), MP (mephalane-prednisolone), autolougus stem cell transplantation (ASCT), BODEC (bortezomib-dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide) and TD (thalidomide-dexamethasone). We analyzed TNFα, NOS 3 and MDR1 in 77 patients with MM and 77 healthy controls. The genotyping was performed with PCR and/or PCR-RFLP. There was no clinically significant difference between MM and control groups when TNF α(-238) and (-857) and MDR1 gene polymorphisms were studied. However, the TNFαgene polymorphism (-308) GG genotype (p=0.012) and NOS3 (+894) TT genotype (p=0.008) were more common in the MM group compared to healthy controls. NOS3 (VNTR) AA (p=0.007) and NOS3 (+894) GG genotypes (p=0.004) were decreased in the MM group in contrast. In conclusion, the NOS3 (+894) TT and TNF α(-308) GG genotypes may have roles in myeloma pathogenesis.

  19. Purification and characterization of NF-R1 that regulates the expression of the human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, M; Takatori, T; Tsuruo, T

    1992-01-01

    We have purified a protein, NF-R1, that specifically binds to two unrelated motifs--the ATTCAGTCA motif and the GC-box motif--on the MDR1 proximal promoter. Purified NF-R1 has been confirmed by southwestern blotting to be a 110-kDa protein. Methylation interference analysis revealed that the nucleotides were in close contact with purified NF-R1 on the ATTCAGTCA and GC-box motifs. The nucleotides were required for the binding of NF-R1, as seen by competition gel mobility shift assay using point mutated oligonucleotides. In a CAT expression assay using the corresponding point-mutated MDR1 promoter fused to a CAT gene, binding inhibition of NF-R1 to the promoter resulted in 2- to 3-fold increases of CAT activity, as compared to the intact promoter in Adriamycin-resistant K562 cells. Thus NF-R1 has a relation to the negative regulation of the MDR1 gene transcription. Images PMID:1360648

  20. Functional Characterization of Sodium-dependent Multivitamin Transporter (SMVT) in MDCK-MDR1 cells and its Utilization as a Target for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuanghui; Kansara, Viral S.; Zhu, Xiaodong; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is to characterize a sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) in MDCK-MDR1 cells (Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene) and to investigate the feasibility of utilizing MDCK-MDR1 cell line as an in vitro model to study the permeability of biotin-conjugated prodrugs of anti-HIV protease inhibitors. Mechanism of [3H] biotin uptake and transport was delineated. Transepithelial permeability of the biotin conjugated prodrug i.e. biotin-saquinavir was also studied. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to confirm the existence of SMVT in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Biotin uptake was Na+, pH, and temperature dependent, but energyindependent. Transepithelial transport studies of biotin-saquinavir in MDCK-MDR1, wild type MDCK, and Caco-2 cells revealed that permeability of biotin-saquinavir was similar in all three cell lines. A band of SMVT mRNA at 862 bp was identified by RT-PCR. A sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter, SMVT, responsible for biotin uptake and transport, was identified and functionally characterized in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Therefore, MDCK-MDR1 cell line may be utilized as an in vitro model to study the permeability of biotin conjugated prodrugs such as HIV protease inhibitors. PMID:16749865

  1. A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis of MDR1 polymorphisms and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: Susceptibility and steroid responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Han, Shi-Sheng; Xu, Yan-Qiu; Lu, Yan; Gu, Xiang-Chen; Wang, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Studies have investigated rs1128503, rs1045642, and rs2032582 in multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) for association with susceptibility to idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) and steroid resistance. However, because these findings were inconsistent, we performed a meta-analysis to determine whether there was evidence of a role of these MDR1 variants in INS. The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched to identify studies that examined MDR1 polymorphisms with susceptibility to INS and/or to steroid resistance. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by a fixed-effects or random-effects model based on heterogeneity. We selected 9 case-control studies that included 928 patients with INS, of which steroid resistance data were available for 724 (236 were steroid resistant and 488 were steroid sensitive), and 879 healthy controls. All subjects were children. No significant relationships between these polymorphisms and INS susceptibility were identified. Significantly increased risk of steroid resistance was observed with rs1128503 allelic (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.20-1.86) and genotypic (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.18-3.30; OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.43-2.88) comparisons, and with allelic (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.05-2.31) and genotypic (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.15-7.07; OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.01-4.8) comparisons to rs2032582 in Caucasian populations. However, this association between rs2032582 and steroid resistance was not robust enough to withstand corrections for multiple comparisons. Similarly, we found that the rs1128503T-rs2032582G-rs1045642C (T-G-C) haplotype was associated with an increased risk of steroid resistance (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.13-3.59), while the wild-type C-G-C haplotype was associated with a decreased risk (OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.12-0.88) in Caucasians; however, these findings were not significant following adjustments for multiple

  2. Enhanced efflux of (/sup 3/H)vinblastine from Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with a full-length complementary DNA clone for the mdr1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, J.R.; Johnstone, R.M.; Gros, P.

    1989-07-15

    Multidrug-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell clones stably transfected with, and overexpressing, the mouse mdr1 complementary DNA clone along with drug-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary control cells were characterized for their capacities to accumulate and retain (/sup 3/H)vinblastine. Multidrug-resistant mdr1 transfectants show a 3-4-fold decrease in (/sup 3/H)vinblastine accumulation, compared to their drug-sensitive counterparts. After ATP depletion, this difference in (/sup 3/H)vinblastine accumulation between mdr1 transfectants and control cells effectively disappears. This ATP-dependent decreased drug accumulation is paralleled in mdr1 transfectants by an enhanced capacity of these cells to extrude the drug in an ATP-dependent manner. In medium containing glucose and glutamine, the mdr1 transfectants release preloaded drug at a rate five times that of control, drug-sensitive cells. In ATP-depleted control and mdr1-transfected cells, there is little difference in the rate or extent of (/sup 3/H)vinblastine release. The observation that the mdr1 transfectants show a decreased (/sup 3/H)vinblastine accumulation and an increased vinblastine release, both of which are abolished when cellular ATP levels are reduced, provides a direct demonstration that the product of the transfected mdr1 gene is responsible for a mechanism controlling cellular drug levels in an ATP-dependent manner. However, attempts to establish competition for (/sup 3/H)vinblastine transport by vincristine, daunomycin, and actinomycin D were only partly successful in mdr1 transfectants.

  3. Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in MDR1-transfected versus wildtype cell lines affect P-glycoprotein mediated drug transport.

    PubMed

    Kuteykin-Teplyakov, Konstantin; Luna-Tortós, Carlos; Ambroziak, Kamila; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux assays are widely used to identify Pgp substrates. The kidney cell lines Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-II and LLC-PK1, transfected with human MDR1 (ABCB1) are used to provide recombinant models of drug transport. Endogenous transporters in these cells may contribute to the activities of recombinant transporters, so that drug transport in MDR1-transfected cells is often corrected for the transport obtained in parental (wildtype) cells. However, expression of endogenous transporters may vary between transfected and wildtype cells, so that this correction may cause erroneous data. Here, we have measured the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in transfected and wildtype MDCK-II or LLC cells and the consequences for Pgp-mediated drug transport. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we determined the expression of endogenous Mdr1 mRNA and other efflux transporters in wildtype and MDR1-transfected MDCK-II and LLC cells. Transcellular transport was measured with the test substrate vinblastine. In MDR1-transfected MDCK cells, expression of endogenous (canine) Mdr1 and Mrp2 (Abcc2) mRNA was markedly lower than in wildtype cells, whereas MDR1-transfected LLC cells exhibited comparable Mdr1 but strikingly higher Mrp2 mRNA levels than wildtype cells. As a consequence, transport of vinblastine by human Pgp in efflux experiments was markedly underestimated when transport in MDR1-transfected MDCK cells was corrected for transport obtained in wildtype cells. This problem did not occur in LLC cells. Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters between transfected and wildtype MDCK cells provide a potential bias for in vitro studies on Pgp-mediated drug transport.

  4. Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in MDR1-transfected versus wildtype cell lines affect P-glycoprotein mediated drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Kuteykin-Teplyakov, Konstantin; Luna-Tortós, Carlos; Ambroziak, Kamila; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux assays are widely used to identify Pgp substrates. The kidney cell lines Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-II and LLC-PK1, transfected with human MDR1 (ABCB1) are used to provide recombinant models of drug transport. Endogenous transporters in these cells may contribute to the activities of recombinant transporters, so that drug transport in MDR1-transfected cells is often corrected for the transport obtained in parental (wildtype) cells. However, expression of endogenous transporters may vary between transfected and wildtype cells, so that this correction may cause erroneous data. Here, we have measured the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in transfected and wildtype MDCK-II or LLC cells and the consequences for Pgp-mediated drug transport. Experimental approach: Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we determined the expression of endogenous Mdr1 mRNA and other efflux transporters in wildtype and MDR1-transfected MDCK-II and LLC cells. Transcellular transport was measured with the test substrate vinblastine. Key results: In MDR1-transfected MDCK cells, expression of endogenous (canine) Mdr1 and Mrp2 (Abcc2) mRNA was markedly lower than in wildtype cells, whereas MDR1-transfected LLC cells exhibited comparable Mdr1 but strikingly higher Mrp2 mRNA levels than wildtype cells. As a consequence, transport of vinblastine by human Pgp in efflux experiments was markedly underestimated when transport in MDR1-transfected MDCK cells was corrected for transport obtained in wildtype cells. This problem did not occur in LLC cells. Conclusions and implications: Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters between transfected and wildtype MDCK cells provide a potential bias for in vitro studies on Pgp-mediated drug transport. PMID:20590635

  5. Bryostatin 1 down-regulates mdr1 and potentiates vincristine cytotoxicity in diffuse large cell lymphoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Al-Katib, A M; Smith, M R; Kamanda, W S; Pettit, G R; Hamdan, M; Mohamed, A N; Chelladurai, B; Mohammad, R M

    1998-05-01

    The down-regulation of multidrug resistance (mdr1) gene expression as detected by competitive reverse transcription-PCR and the antitumor activity of bryostatin 1 (Bryo1) are investigated in a newly established cell line from a patient with relapsed diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL). The cell line (WSU-DLCL2) grows in liquid culture and forms s.c. tumors in mice with severe combined immune deficiency. WSU-DLCL2 is a mature B-cell line (IgG lambda) that is negative for EBV nuclear antigen, expresses the multidrug resistance phenotype, and has t(14;18)(q32;q21) plus other chromosomal aberrations. Exposure of the WSU-DLCL2 cells to Bryo1 in culture reversed the multidrug resistance phenotype within 24 h. A functional assay revealed a 4-fold increase in [3H]vincristine accumulation in Bryo1-treated cells compared with control. Vincristine (VCR), doxorubicin, Bryo1, and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine showed no clinically significant activity when given alone to WSU-DLCL2-bearing severe combined immune deficiency mice. However, when given 24 h before each cytotoxic agent, Bryo1 substantially increased the antitumor activity of VCR but not 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the expression of P-glycoprotein in WSU-DLCL2 tumors taken from Bryo1-treated animals compared with untreated controls. In vivo, a competitive reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed decreased mdr1 RNA expression 24 h after Bryo1 treatment. These findings taken together indicate that Bryo1-induced down-regulation of mdr1 might be one mechanism by which Bryo1 potentiates VCR activity. The sequential use of both agents resulted in clinically significant antitumor activity in this lymphoma model.

  6. Expression polymorphism of the blood-brain barrier component P-glycoprotein (MDR1) in relation to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Furuno, Taku; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Ceroni, Mauro; Caporaso, Neil; Bernucci, Ilaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Martignoni, Emilia; Schaeffeler, Elke; Eichelbaum, Michel; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M

    2002-10-01

    Because drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein, the product of the multidrug resistance (MDR1 ) gene, contribute to the function of the blood-brain barrier, we hypothesized that differences in their expression could affect the uptake of neurotoxic xenobiotics, thereby modulating interindividual susceptibility for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In a pilot case-control study comprising 95 Parkinson's disease patients (25 early-onset patients with onset age < or = 45 years) and 106 controls we analysed the three common polymorphisms, 3435C >T in exon 26, 2677G > T,A in exon 21, and -129T > C in exon 1b. There were no statistically significant associations between any of these polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease. However, a distribution pattern consistent with our hypothesis was observed in that the frequency of the 3435T/T genotype, which had previously been associated with decreased P-glycoprotein expression and function, was highest in the early-onset Parkinson's disease group (36.0%), second-highest in the late-onset Parkinson's disease group (22.9%), and lowest in the control group (18.9%). Furthermore, we confirmed that the MDR1 exon 21 and exon 26 polymorphisms are in significant linkage disequilibrium since the [2677G, 3435C] and [2677T, 3435T] haplotypes were far more frequently observed than expected. In conclusion, MDR1 and other drug transporters represent plausible candidates as Parkinson's disease risk genes. Larger studies are required to confirm this role in the etiology of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Distinct genotype distribution and haplotype profiles in MDR1 gene among Chinese Han, Bai, Wa and Tibetan ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yong; Huang, Min; Li, Hui; Wang, Xue-Ding; Li, Jia-Li

    2012-11-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by MDR1 gene) plays an important role in determining bioavailability and pharmacologic effects of many drugs. There is increasing evidence that P-gp activity may be genetically determined. In this study, we investigated the genotype distribution and the haplotype profiles of MDR1 gene in Chinese Han, Bai, Wa and Tibetan subjects. Much lower frequencies of the 1236T allele and the 2677T allele were found in Wa subjects than those in other three ethnic groups, while the 2677A allele was found about 6-fold more frequently in Han subjects than in subjects of other three ethnic groups. The Han, Bai and Tibetan subjects share the same three predominant haplotypes (T-T-T, T-G-C and C-G-C), and T-T-T is the highest and accounts for more than one third of the number of haplotypes in the subjects from each ethnic group. However, T-T-T was less common than T-G-C, T-G-T and C-G-C and occurring at only 13.8% in Wa subjects, furthermore, higher frequencies of T-G-T, C-T-C, C-G-T and C-T-T were observed in Wa subjects compared to those in other three ethnic groups. Frequencies of C-A-C and T-A-C in Han subjects were higher than those in other three ethnic groups. The findings of this study will be of some relevance in predicting MDR1 phenotype and pharmacokinetics as well as pharmacodynamic effects of many commonly used drugs that are P-gp substrates in these four Chinese ethnic groups.

  8. Selective Toxicity of NSC 73306 in MDR1-positive cells as a New Strategy to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Joseph A.; Martin, Scott E.; Chu, Benjamin F.; Cardarelli, Carol; Sauna, Zuben E.; Caplen, Natasha J.; Fales, Henry M.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Weinstein, John N.

    2006-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins include the best known mediators of resistance to anticancer drugs. In particular, ABCB1 (MDR1/P-gp) extrudes many types of drugs from cancer cells, thereby conferring resistance to those agents. Attempts to overcome P-gp-mediated drug resistance using specific inhibitors of P-gp has had limited success, and has faced many therapeutic challenges. As an alternative approach to using P-gp inhibitors, we characterize a thiosemicarbazone derivative (NSC73306) identified in a generic screen as a compound that exploits, rather than suppresses, P-gp function to induce cytotoxicity. Cytotoxic activity of NSC73306 was evaluated in vitro using human epidermoid, ovarian, and colon cancer cell lines expressing various levels of P-gp. Our findings suggest that cells become hypersensitive to NSC73306 in proportion to the increased P-gp function and multidrug resistance (MDR). Abrogation of both sensitivity to NSC73306 and resistance to P-gp substrate anticancer agents occurred with specific inhibition of P-gp function using either a P-gp inhibitor (PSC833, XR9576) or RNA interference (RNAi), suggesting that cytotoxicity was linked to MDR1 function, not to other, nonspecific factors arising during the generation of resistant or transfected cells. Molecular characterization of cells selected for resistance to NSC73306 revealed loss of P-gp expression and consequent loss of the MDR phenotype. Although hypersensitivity to NSC73306 required functional expression of P-gp, biochemical assays revealed no direct interaction between NSC73306 and P-gp. This work demonstrates that NSC73306 kills cells with intrinsic or acquired P-gp-induced MDR and indirectly acts to eliminate resistance to MDR1 substrates. PMID:16651436

  9. CD30 Downregulation, MMAE Resistance, and MDR1 Upregulation Are All Associated with Resistance to Brentuximab Vedotin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Robert; Hou, Jessie; Newman, Edward; Kim, Young; Donohue, Cecile; Liu, Xueli; Thomas, Sandra H; Forman, Stephen J; Kane, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an antibody-drug conjugate that specifically delivers the potent cytotoxic drug monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) to CD30-positive cells. BV is FDA approved for treatment of relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL); however, many patients do not achieve complete remission and develop BV-resistant disease. We selected for BV-resistant Hodgkin lymphoma (L428) and ALCL (Karpas-299) cell lines using either constant (ALCL) or pulsatile (Hodgkin lymphoma) exposure to BV. We confirmed drug resistance by MTS assay and analyzed CD30 expression in resistant cells by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. We also measured drug exporter expression, MMAE resistance, and intracellular MMAE concentrations in BV-resistant cells. In addition, tissue biopsy samples from 10 Hodgkin lymphoma and 5 ALCL patients who had relapsed or progressed after BV treatment were analyzed by immunohistocytochemistry for CD30 expression. The resistant ALCL cell line, but not the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line, demonstrated downregulated CD30 expression compared with the parental cell line. In contrast, the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line, but not the ALCL cell line, exhibited MMAE resistance and increased expression of the MDR1 drug exporter compared with the parental line. For both Hodgkin lymphoma and ALCL, samples from patients relapsed/resistant on BV persistently expressed CD30 by immunohistocytochemistry. One Hodgkin lymphoma patient sample expressed MDR1 by immunohistocytochemistry. Although loss of CD30 expression is a possible mode of BV resistance in ALCL in vitro models, this has not been confirmed in patients. MMAE resistance and MDR1 expression are possible modes of BV resistance for Hodgkin lymphoma both in vitro and in patients.

  10. CD30 downregulation, MMAE resistance, and MDR1 upregulation are all associated with resistance to brentuximab vedotin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Robert; Hou, Jessie; Newman, Edward; Kim, Young; Donohue, Cecile; Liu, Xueli; Thomas, Sandra H.; Forman, Stephen J.; Kane, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an antibody-drug conjugate that specifically delivers the potent cytotoxic drug MMAE to CD30-positive cells. BV is FDA-approved for treatment of relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL); however, many patients do not achieve complete remission and develop BV resistant disease. We selected for BV-resistant HL (L428) and ALCL (Karpas-299) cell lines using either constant (ALCL) or pulsatile (HL) exposure to BV. We confirmed drug resistance by MTS assay, and analyzed CD30 expression in resistant cells by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. We also measured drug exporter expression, MMAE resistance, and intracellular MMAE concentrations in BV-resistant cells. Additionally, tissue biopsy samples from 10 HL and 5 ALCL patients who had relapsed or progressed after BV treatment were analyzed by immunohistocytochemistry for CD30 expression. The resistant ALCL cell line, but not the HL cell line, demonstrated downregulated CD30 expression compared to the parental cell line. In contrast, the HL cell line, but not the ALCL cell line, exhibited MMAE resistance and increased expression of the MDR1 drug exporter compared to the parental line. For both HL and ALCL, samples from patients relapsed/resistant on BV persistently expressed CD30 by immunohistocytochemistry. One HL patient sample expressed MDR1 by immunohistocytochemistry. Although loss of CD30 expression is a possible mode of BV resistance in ALCL in vitro models, this has not been confirmed in patients. MMAE resistance and MDR1 expression are possible modes of BV resistance for HL both in vitro and in patients. PMID:25840583

  11. BPR1K653, a Novel Aurora Kinase Inhibitor, Exhibits Potent Anti-Proliferative Activity in MDR1 (P-gp170)-Mediated Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio; Lin, Wen-Hsing; Hsu, John Tsu-An; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Yeh, Teng-Kuang; Ko, Shengkai; Lien, Tzu-Wen; Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj; Liu, Jin-Fen; Lai, Wen-Yang; Shiao, Hui-Yi; Lee, Tian-Ren; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang; Chang, Jang-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Background Over-expression of Aurora kinases promotes the tumorigenesis of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the preclinical profile of a novel pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor, BPR1K653, as a candidate for anti-cancer therapy. Since expression of the drug efflux pump, MDR1, reduces the effectiveness of various chemotherapeutic compounds in human cancers, this study also aimed to determine whether the potency of BPR1K653 could be affected by the expression of MDR1 in cancer cells. Principal Findings BPR1K653 specifically inhibited the activity of Aurora-A and Aurora-B kinase at low nano-molar concentrations in vitro. Anti-proliferative activity of BPR1K653 was evaluated in various human cancer cell lines. Results of the clonogenic assay showed that BPR1K653 was potent in targeting a variety of cancer cell lines regardless of the tissue origin, p53 status, or expression of MDR1. At the cellular level, BPR1K653 induced endo-replication and subsequent apoptosis in both MDR1-negative and MDR1-positive cancer cells. Importantly, it showed potent activity against the growth of xenograft tumors of the human cervical carcinoma KB and KB-derived MDR1-positive KB-VIN10 cells in nude mice. Finally, BPR1K653 also exhibited favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. Conclusions and Significance BPR1K653 is a novel potent anti-cancer compound, and its potency is not affected by the expression of the multiple drug resistant protein, MDR1, in cancer cells. Therefore, BPR1K653 is a promising anti-cancer compound that has potential for the management of various malignancies, particularly for patients with MDR1-related drug resistance after prolonged chemotherapeutic treatments. PMID:21887256

  12. Relative neurotoxicity of ivermectin and moxidectin in Mdr1ab (-/-) mice and effects on mammalian GABA(A) channel activity.

    PubMed

    Ménez, Cécile; Sutra, Jean-François; Prichard, Roger; Lespine, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The anthelmintics ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) display differences in toxicity in several host species. Entrance into the brain is restricted by the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter, while toxicity is mediated through the brain GABA(A) receptors. This study compared the toxicity of IVM and MOX in vivo and their interaction with GABA(A) receptors in vitro. Drug toxicity was assessed in Mdr1ab(-/-) mice P-gp-deficient after subcutaneous administration of increasing doses (0.11-2.0 and 0.23-12.9 µmol/kg for IVM and MOX in P-gp-deficient mice and half lethal doses (LD(50)) in wild-type mice). Survival was evaluated over 14-days. In Mdr1ab(-/-) mice, LD(50) was 0.46 and 2.3 µmol/kg for IVM and MOX, respectively, demonstrating that MOX was less toxic than IVM. In P-gp-deficient mice, MOX had a lower brain-to-plasma concentration ratio and entered into the brain more slowly than IVM. The brain sublethal drug concentrations determined after administration of doses close to LD(50) were, in Mdr1ab(-/-) and wild-type mice, respectively, 270 and 210 pmol/g for IVM and 830 and 740-1380 pmol/g for MOX, indicating that higher brain concentrations are required for MOX toxicity than IVM. In rat α1β2γ2 GABA channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, IVM and MOX were both allosteric activators of the GABA-induced response. The Hill coefficient was 1.52±0.45 for IVM and 0.34±0.56 for MOX (p<0.001), while the maximum potentiation caused by IVM and MOX relative to GABA alone was 413.7±66.1 and 257.4±40.6%, respectively (p<0.05), showing that IVM causes a greater potentiation of GABA action on this receptor. Differences in the accumulation of IVM and MOX in the brain and in the interaction of IVM and MOX with GABA(A) receptors account for differences in neurotoxicity seen in intact and Mdr1-deficient animals. These differences in neurotoxicity of IVM and MOX are important in considering their use in humans.

  13. Genomic Profiling Reveals the Potential Role of TCL1A and MDR1 Deficiency in Chemotherapy-Induced Cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Timothy A.; Tziros, Constantine; Lewis, Jannet; Katz, Richard; Siegel, Robert; Weglicki, William; Kramer, Jay; Mak, I. Tong; Toma, Ian; Chen, Liang; Benas, Elizabeth; Lowitt, Alexander; Rao, Shruti; Witkin, Linda; Lian, Yi; Lai, Yinglei; Yang, Zhaoqing; Fu, Sidney W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin (Adriamycin), are highly effective chemotherapeutic agents, but are well known to cause myocardial dysfunction and life-threatening congestive heart failure (CHF) in some patients. Methods: To generate new hypotheses about its etiology, genome-wide transcript analysis was performed on whole blood RNA from women that received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy and either did, or did not develop CHF, as defined by ejection fractions (EF)≤40%. Women with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy unrelated to chemotherapy were compared to breast cancer patients prior to chemo with normal EF to identify heart failure-related transcripts in women not receiving chemotherapy. Byproducts of oxidative stress in plasma were measured in a subset of patients. Results: The results indicate that patients treated with doxorubicin showed sustained elevations in oxidative byproducts in plasma. At the RNA level, women who exhibited low EFs after chemotherapy had 260 transcripts that differed >2-fold (p<0.05) compared to women who received chemo but maintained normal EFs. Most of these transcripts (201) were not altered in non-chemotherapy patients with low EFs. Pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated enrichment in apoptosis-related transcripts. Notably, women with chemo-induced low EFs had a 4.8-fold decrease in T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1A (TCL1A) transcripts. TCL1A is expressed in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, and is a known co-activator for AKT, one of the major pro-survival factors for cardiomyocytes. Further, women who developed low EFs had a 2-fold lower level of ABCB1 transcript, encoding the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), which is an efflux pump for doxorubicin, potentially leading to higher cardiac levels of drug. In vitro studies confirmed that inhibition of MDR1 by verapamil in rat H9C2 cardiomyocytes increased their susceptibility to doxorubicin-induced toxicity. Conclusions: It is proposed that chemo

  14. Identification of trichlormethiazide as a Mdr1a/b gene expression enhancer via a dual secretion-based promoter assay

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Sarina; Reinhardt, Sven; Freese, Christian; Schmitt, Ulrich; Endres, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family such as MDR1 play a pivotal role in persistence of brain homeostasis by contributing to the strict permeability properties of the blood–brain barrier. This barrier on one hand compromises treatment of central nervous system diseases by restricting access of drugs; on the other hand, an impaired or altered function of barrier building cells has been described in neurological disorders. The latter might contribute to increased vulnerability of the brain under pathological conditions or even enforce pathogenesis. Here, we present a novel approach for a systematic examination of drug impact on Mdr1 gene expression by establishing a dual reporter gene assay for the murine upstream core promoters of Mdr1a and b. We validated the time-resolved assay in comparison with single reporter gene constructs and applied it to analyze effects of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library consisting of 627 substances. The chemo-preventive synthetic dithiolethione oltipraz was reidentified with our assay as an already known inducer of Mdr1 gene expression. Together with two newly characterized modifiers – gemcitabine and trichlormethiazide – we prove our findings in a blood–brain barrier culture model as well as in wild-type and Mdr1 knockout mice. In sum, we could demonstrate that our dual reporter gene assay delivers results, which also persist in the living animal and consequently is applicable for further analysis and prediction of Mdr1 regulation in vivo. PMID:25692026

  15. C-Phycocyanin inhibits MDR1 through reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase-2 mediated pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Nishanth, Reddy P; Ramakrishna, B S; Jyotsna, Radhika G; Roy, Karnati R; Reddy, Gorla V; Reddy, Pratap K; Reddanna, Pallu

    2010-12-15

    The effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis on the regulation of multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1), a poly glycoprotein in human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2 were reported. The results revealed that a significant down regulation of MDR1 expression in C-PC treated HepG2 cells was through reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mediated pathways. C-PC in a concentration dependent manner increased the accumulation of doxorubicin in HepG2 cells and enhanced sensitivity of the cells to doxorubicin by 5 folds. The induction of MDR1 expression by PGE₂ and its down regulation by C-PC and DPI (Diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor) or by COX-2 knockdown suggest that the enhanced sensitivity of HepG2 cells to doxorubicin by C-PC is mediated by the down regulation of MDR1 expression. Further studies reveal the involvement of NF-κB and AP-1 in the C-PC induced down regulation of MDR1. Also the inactivation of the signal transduction pathways involving Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 by C-PC was observed. The present study thus demonstrates the efficacy of C-PC in overcoming the MDR1 mediated drug resistance in HepG2 cells by the down regulation of reactive oxygen species and COX-2 pathways via the involvement of NF-κB and AP-1.

  16. Modulation of mdr1 expression by cytokines in human colon carcinoma cells: an approach for reversal of multidrug resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, U.; Walther, W.; Shoemaker, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    Reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) may offer a means of increasing the effectiveness of tumour chemotherapy. A variety of recent evidence indicates that cytokines may be particularly useful in this endeavour. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which cytokines may sensitise multidrug-resistant colon carcinoma cells, HCT15 and HCT116, to treatment with MDR-related drugs, we evaluated the effects of the human cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN gamma) on mdr1 gene expression at the mRNA level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and at the protein level with monoclonal antibodies by immuno flow cytometry. P-glycoprotein function was examined after accumulation of the fluorescent drug, doxorubicin, by flow cytometry. Chemosensitivity to doxorubicin and vincristine was analysed using the XTT assay. All three cytokines were found to modulate the MDR characteristics on mdr1 expression levels, P-glycoprotein function and measured chemosensitivity to MDR-associated anti-cancer drugs. This cytokine-induced reversal of MDR was strongly time dependent, with maximal effects after 48 and 72 h of cytokine treatment. If similar modulation of MDR phenotype can be obtained in in vivo models, it may be possible to verify the time course for modulation by cytokine treatment and to design appropriate clinical trials of this strategy for MDR reversal. Images Figure 1 PMID:8912533

  17. Genetic variation in MDR1, LPL and eNOS genes and the response to atorvastatin treatment in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Anjana

    2012-11-01

    Statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events by lowering the blood cholesterol. Many genes involved in the pharmacodynamic pathway of statins have been part of pharmacogenetic research in patients with hypercholesterolemia, with an emphasis on genes involved in the cholesterol pathway. The present study was carried out with an aim to evaluate the association between the genetic variants of lipoprotein lipase gene [HindIII (+/+)/HindIII (-/-)], multiple drug resistance gene (C3435T) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (4a/4b) with clinical outcome including an increased risk of recurrent stroke or death in ischemic stroke patients on atorvastatin therapy. 525 stroke patients and 500 healthy controls were involved in the study. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with patients post-event to determine stroke outcome. Blood samples were collected and genotypes determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction digestion technique. A significant association of MDR1 and LPL gene variants with bad outcome in stroke patients on atorvastatin therapy was found. However, there was no significant association of 27 bp VNTR polymorphism of eNOS gene with outcome. MDR analysis was carried out to analyze gene-gene interaction involving these gene variants contributing to clinical outcome of patients on stratin therapy but no significant interaction between these variants was observed. In conclusion the individuals with HindIII (-/-) genotype of LPL and CC genotype of MDR1 gene would benefit more from atorvastatin therapy.

  18. Helicobacter bilis Infection Accelerates and H. hepaticus Infection Delays the Development of Colitis in Multiple Drug Resistance-Deficient (mdr1a−/−) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maggio-Price, Lillian; Shows, Donna; Waggie, Kim; Burich, Andrew; Zeng, Weiping; Escobar, Sabine; Morrissey, Phil; Viney, Joanne L.

    2002-01-01

    mdr1a-deficient mice lack P-glycoprotein and spontaneously develop colitis with age. Helicobacter spp. are gram-negative organisms that have been associated with colitis in certain mouse strains, but Helicobacter spp. have been excluded as contributing to the spontaneous colitis that develops in mdr1a−/− mice. We wished to determine whether infection with either H. bilis or H. hepaticus would accelerate the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in mdr1a−/− mice. We found that H. bilis infection induced diarrhea, weight loss, and IBD in mdr1a−/− mice within 6 to 17 weeks post-inoculation and before the expected onset of spontaneous IBD. Histopathology of H. bilis-induced IBD included crypt hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltrates, crypt abscesses, and obliteration of normal gut architecture. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Taqman analysis from colonic tissue showed increased transcripts for interferon-γ and interleukin-10 from H. bilis-infected colitic mdr1a−/− mice. Additionally, mesenteric lymph nodes had increased cellularity with expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and B cells and increased proliferation to soluble H. bilis antigens with elaboration of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10. In contrast, H. hepaticus infection of mdr1a−/− mice did not accelerate disease but rather delayed the onset of spontaneous colitis which was milder in severity. mdr1a−/− mice infected with Helicobacter spp. may provide a useful tool to explore the pathogenesis of microbial-induced IBD in a model with a presumed epithelial cell “barrier” defect. PMID:11839595

  19. ERα directly activated the MDR1 transcription to increase paclitaxel-resistance of ERα-positive breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Feng; Yang, Nan; Ding, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Jie-Xin; Hu, Mei-Ling; Leng, Yan; Han, Xiao; Sun, Yu-Jie

    2014-08-01

    Chemotherapy is commonly used to treat early-stage invasive and advanced-stage breast cancer either before or after surgery. Increasing evidence from clinical analysis and in vitro studies has shown that ER-positive breast cancer cells are insensitive to chemotherapy. Complete understanding of how ERα mediates drug resistance is prerequisite to improvement of the chemotherapeutic efficacy. Over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by MDR1 gene is one of the major causes of drug resistance. The association between ERα and MDR1 in breast cancer is still unclear and the limited reports are conflict. This study systematically explored intrinsic link between ERα and the P-gp over-expression in paclitaxel-resistant ERα(+) breast cancer cell lines and mouse model in molecular details. Our data showed that ERα activated the MDR1 transcription in MCF-7/PTX breast cancer cells by binding to ERE1/2 and interacting with Sp1 that bridged to the downstream CG-rich element within the MDR1 promoter. Knockdown of MDR1 restrained the effect of ERα in MCF-7 cells and sensitized the cells to paclitaxel. Treatment of ICI 182,780 that selectively suppressed ERα significantly decreased the MDR1 expression and increased the sensitivity of drug resistant breast cancer cells and xenograft tumors to paclitaxel. Our data strongly demonstrated that ERα was able to increase drug resistance of breast cancer cells through activating MDR1 transcription. This novel mechanism provides new insight to how the ERα signaling regulates response of ERα(+) breast tumors to chemotherapy, which may be exploited for developing novel therapeutic strategies for breast cancer in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New invMED1 element cis-activates human multidrug-related MDR1 and MVP genes, involving the LRP130 protein

    PubMed Central

    Labialle, Stéphane; Dayan, Guila; Gayet, Landry; Rigal, Dominique; Gambrelle, Joël; Baggetto, Loris G.

    2004-01-01

    The MDR1 gene is a key component of the cytotoxic defense network and its overexpression results in the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the MDR1 gene and coordinate multiple MDR-related genes expression are poorly understood. In a previous study, we identified a new 12 bp cis-activating region in the 5′-flanking region of the human MDR1 gene, which we called inverted MED1. In the present study, we characterized the precise binding element, which we named invMED1, and revealed the presence of the LRP130 protein as the nuclear factor. Its binding intensity increases with the endogenous MDR1 geneexpression and with the MDR level of CEM leukemia cells. Interestingly, the LRP130 level did not vary with the chemoresistance level. We observed the involvement of LRP130 in the transcriptional activity of the MDR1 gene promoter, and moreover, in that of the MDR-related, invMED1-containing, MVP gene promoter. We used siRNAs and transcriptional decoys in two unrelated human cancer cell lines to show the role of the invMED1/LRP130 couple in both MDR1 and MVP endogenous genes activities. We showed that invMED1 was localized in the −105/−100 and −148/−143 regions of the MDR1 and MVP gene promoters, respectively. In addition, since the invMED1 sequence is primarily located in the −160/−100 bp region of mammalian MDR-related genes, our results present the invMED1/LRP130 couple as a potential central regulator of the transcription of these genes. PMID:15272088

  1. Application of an original RT-PCR–ELISA multiplex assay for MDR1 and MRP, along with p53 determination in node-positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, J M; Etienne, M C; Formento, J L; Francoual, M; Rostagno, P; Peyrottes, I; Ettore, F; Teissier, E; Leblanc-Talent, P; Namer, M; Milano, G

    1999-01-01

    The long-term prognostic value of tumoural MDR1 and MRP, along with p53 and other classical parameters, was analysed on 85 node-positive breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant therapy. All patients underwent tumour resection plus irradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy (the majority receiving fluorouracil–epirubicin–cyclophosphamide). Median follow-up for the 54 alive patients was 7.8 years. Mean age was 53.7 years (range 28–79) and 54 patients were post-menopausal. MDR1 and MRP expression were quantified according to an original reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction multiplex assay with colourimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection(β2-microglobulin as control). P53 protein was analysed using an immunoluminometric assay (Sangtec). MDR1 expression varied within an 11-fold range (mean 94, median 83), MRP within a 45-fold range (mean 315, median 242) and p53 protein from the limit of detection (0.002 ng mg−1) up to 35.71 ng mg−1(mean 1.18, median 0.13 ng mg−1). P53 protein was significantly higher in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative than in ER-positive tumours (P = 0.039). The higher the p53, the lower the MDR1 expression (P = 0.015, r = –0.27). P53 was not linked to progesterone receptor (PR) status, S phase fraction, or MRP. Significantly greater MDR1 expression was observed in grade I tumours (P = 0.029). No relationship was observed between MDR1 and MRP. Neither MDR1 nor MRP was linked to ER or PR status. Unlike MDR1, MRP was correlated with the S phase: the greater the MRP, the lower the S phase (P = 0.006, r = –0.42). Univariate Cox analyses revealed that MDR1, MRP, p53 and S phase had no significant influence on progression-free or specific survival. A tendency suggested that the greater the p53, the shorter the progression-free survival (P = 0.076 as continuous and 0.069 as dichotomous). © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10638986

  2. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppressed the over-expression of HSP 70 and MDR1 induced by heat shock in SGC 7901.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, You-Qing

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the expression of HSP 70 and MDR 1. SGC-7901 cells were cultured with RPMI 1640 medium. The single or combined effects of EGCG (0.1, 1, 10, 20, and 40 micromol/L) and heat shock were examined by MTT assay. The expression of HSP 70 and MDR 1 was semi-quantified by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry method (SP staining). EGCG suppressed cell proliferation at a time- and dose-dependent manner. The effects of combined treatment with EGCG and heat shock on the growth of SGC-7901 cells were stronger than single effects of EGCG. After using EGCG for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, the IC50s were 112.5 micromol/l, 21.41 micromol/l and 5.24 micromol/l, respectively. Heat shock stimulated the over-expression of HSP 70, especially after heat shock for 8 h, as well as MDR1 after heat shock for 24 h. But EGCG suppressed the over-expression induced by heat shock. The authors conclude that EGCG inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901, and EGCG combined with heat shock strengthened the effects. Heat shock weakened the over-expression of HSP 70 and MDR1; however, EGCG suppressed the over-expression of HSP 70 and MDR1 induced by heat shock. EGCG combined with heat shock may enhance the sensitivity of drugs to tumors.

  3. Dual Infection with Helicobacter bilis and Helicobacter hepaticus in P-Glycoprotein-Deficient mdr1a−/− Mice Results in Colitis that Progresses to Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Maggio-Price, Lillian; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Treuting, Piper; Iritani, Brian M.; Zeng, Weiping; Nicks, Andrea; Tsang, Mark; Shows, Donna; Morrissey, Phil; Viney, Joanne L.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for developing high-grade dysplasia and colorectal cancer. Animal IBD models that develop dysplasia and neoplasia may help elucidate the link between inflammation and colorectal cancer. Mdr1a−/− mice lack the membrane efflux pump p-glycoprotein and spontaneously develop IBD that can be modulated by infection with Helicobacter sp: H. bilis accelerates development of colitis while H. hepaticus delays disease. In this study, we determined if H. hepaticus infection could prevent H. bilis-induced colitis. Unexpectedly, a proportion of dual-infected mdr1a−/− mice showed IBD with foci of low- to high-grade dysplasia. A group of dual-infected mdr1a−/− animals were maintained long term (39 weeks) by intermittent feeding of medicated wafers to model chronic and relapsing disease. These mice showed a higher frequency of high-grade crypt dysplasia, including invasive adenocarcinoma, possibly because H. hepaticus, in delaying the development of colitis, allows time for transformation of epithelial cells. Colonic epithelial preparations from co-infected mice showed increased expression of c-myc (5- to 12-fold) and interleukin-1α/β (600-fold) by real-time polymerase chain reaction relative to uninfected wild-type and mdr1a−/− animals. This animal model may have particular relevance to human IBD and colorectal cancer because certain human MDR1 polymorphisms have been linked to ulcerative colitis and increasedrisk for colorectal cancer. PMID:15920164

  4. Involvement of CjMDR1, a plant multidrug-resistance-type ATP-binding cassette protein, in alkaloid transport in Coptis japonica

    PubMed Central

    Shitan, Nobukazu; Bazin, Ingrid; Dan, Kazuyuki; Obata, Kazuaki; Kigawa, Koji; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Sato, Fumihiko; Forestier, Cyrille; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2003-01-01

    Alkaloids comprise one of the largest groups of plant secondary metabolites. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is preferentially accumulated in the rhizome of Coptis japonica, a ranunculaceous plant, whereas gene expression for berberine biosynthetic enzymes has been observed specifically in root tissues, which suggests that berberine synthesized in the root is transported to the rhizome, where there is high accumulation. We recently isolated a cDNA encoding a multidrug-resistance protein (MDR)-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (Cjmdr1) from berberine-producing cultured C. japonica cells, which is highly expressed in the rhizome. Functional analysis of Cjmdr1 by using a Xenopus oocyte expression system showed that CjMDR1 transported berberine in an inward direction, resulting in a higher accumulation of berberine in Cjmdr1-injected oocytes than in the control. Typical inhibitors of ABC proteins, such as vanadate, nifedipine, and glibenclamide, as well as ATP depletion, clearly inhibited this CjMDR1-dependent berberine uptake, suggesting that CjMDR1 functioned as an ABC transporter. Conventional membrane separation methods showed that CjMDR1 was localized in the plasma membrane of C. japonica cells. In situ hybridization indicated that Cjmdr1 mRNA was expressed preferentially in xylem tissues of the rhizome. These findings strongly suggest that CjMDR1 is involved in the translocation of berberine from the root to the rhizome. PMID:12524452

  5. [The effect of MDR1 (P-gp) and ABCG2 on the drug resistance in Hep 2 cells].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenfeng; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jia; Su, Tiantian; Dong, Pin

    2015-06-01

    To study the effect of MDR1 (P-gp) and ABCG2 on the drug resistance in Hep 2 cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect the variations of the antitumor drugs accumulation and discharging, and activity variations when MDR1 and ABCG2 inhibitors were used in Hep-2. The accumulation and discharging of mitoxantrone was significantly higher than the control group when ABCG2 inhibitor FTC was used in Hep-2 (P<0. 05). In contrast, P-gp did not appear similar case; To the mitoxantrone and cisplatin, there was no statistical correlation about activity of Hep-2 between P-gp or ABCG2 antagonist and the control; To the doxorubicin, combining FTC and P-gp, the activity of Hep-2 was higher than the control and difference was significant (P<. 05), In contrast, FTC and P-gp did not appear similar case when used alone; To the 5-FU, when PGP used, the activity of Hep-2 was higher than that in the control and difference was significant (P<0. 05), In con- trast, FTC and FTC+P-gp did not appear similar case; To the paclitaxel, when P-gp or FTC+P-gp used, the activity of Hep-2 was higher than that in the control and difference was significant(P<0. 05). ABCG2 may lead to drug resistance mainly by changing the ability of cell in accumulating and discharging chemotherapy drugs. P-gp has other way. P-gp and ABCG2 play different roles in different drug resistance.

  6. MDR1 pharmacogenetics: frequency of the C3435T mutation in exon 26 is significantly influenced by ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Ameyaw, M M; Regateiro, F; Li, T; Liu, X; Tariq, M; Mobarek, A; Thornton, N; Folayan, G O; Githang'a, J; Indalo, A; Ofori-Adjei, D; Price-Evans, D A; McLeod, H L

    2001-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (PGP), the product of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump that exports its substrates out of the cell. PGP expression is an important factor regulating absorption of a wide variety of medications. It has also been associated with intrinsic and acquired cross resistance to a number of structurally unrelated anticancer drugs. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 26 of the MDR1 gene, C3435T, was recently correlated with PGP protein levels and substrate uptake. Individuals homozygous for the T allele have more than four-fold lower PGP expression compared with CC individuals. As overexpression of PGP has been associated with altered drug absorption, therapy-resistant malignancies, and lower concentrations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors, this SNP may provide a useful approach to individualize therapy. To facilitate clinical application throughout the world, 1280 subjects from 10 different ethnic groups were evaluated for this SNP using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and the genotype and allele frequency for each group were ascertained. Marked differences in genotype and allele frequency were apparent between the African populations and the Caucasian/Asian populations (P < 0.0001). The Ghanaian, Kenyan, African American and Sudanese populations studied had frequencies of 83%, 83%, 84% and 73%, respectively, for the C allele. The British Caucasian, Portuguese, South-west Asian, Chinese, Filipino and Saudi populations had lower frequencies of the C allele compared to the African group (48%, 43%, 34%, 53%, 59%, and 55%, respectively). The high frequency of the C allele in the African group implies overexpression of PGP and may have important therapeutic and prognostic implications for use of PGP dependent drugs in individuals of African origin.

  7. Association between multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene polymorphisms and therapeutic response to bromperidol in schizophrenic patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Saito, Manabu; Nakagami, Taku; Kaneda, Ayako; Tateishi, Tomonori; Kaneko, Sunao

    2006-03-01

    The drug-transporting P-glycoprotein transports drugs against a concentration gradient across the blood-brain barrier back into the plasma and thereby reduces the bioavailability in the brain. Polymorphisms in the MDR1 gene regulating P-glycoprotein expression can be associated with differences in drug disposition in the brain. The present study was therefore designed to examine whether the major polymorphisms of MDR1 gene, C3435T and G2677T/A are related to therapeutic response to neuroleptics in the treatment of schizophrenia. Subjects consisted of 31 acutely exacerbated schizophrenic inpatients treated with bromperidol (6-18 mg/day). Plasma drug concentrations were monitored and clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) before and 3 weeks after the treatment. The C3435T and G2677T/A genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction method. Schizophrenic symptoms were allocated into 5 clusters: positive, excitement, cognitive, negative, and anxiety-depression symptoms. Patients were C/C in 12, C/T in 12 and T/T in 7 cases for C3435T genotype and G/G in 3, G/T or A in 17 and T or A/T or A in 11 cases for G2677T/A genotype. There were a tendency of difference, but not statistically different, in the percentage improvement or the improved scores of 5 sub-grouped symptoms after the 3-week treatment between C3435T genotypes and between G2677T/A genotypes. Multiple regression analyses including age, body weight, gender and drug concentration showed significant correlations between the percentage improvement and the improved scores of cognitive symptoms and C3435T genotypes. The present results suggest that the C3435T polymorphism is associated with some therapeutic response to bromperidol in schizophrenic patients, possibly by different drug concentration in the brain.

  8. pHluorin enables insights into the transport mechanism of antiporter Mdr1: R215 is critical for drug/H+ antiport.

    PubMed

    Redhu, Archana Kumari; Khandelwal, Nitesh Kumar; Banerjee, Atanu; Moreno, Alexis; Falson, Pierre; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-10-01

    Multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) is a member of the major facilitator superfamily that contributes to MDR of Candida albicans This antiporter belongs to the drug/H(+) antiporter 1 family, pairing the downhill gradient of protons to drug extrusion. Hence, drug efflux from cytosol to extracellular space and the parallel import of H(+) towards cytosol are inextricably linked processes. For monitoring the drug/H(+) antiporter activity of Mdr1p, we developed a new system, exploiting a GFP variant pHluorin, which changes its fluorescence properties with pH. This enabled us to measure the cytosolic pH correlated to drug efflux. Since protonation of charged residues is a key step in proton movement, we explored the role of all charged residues of the 12 transmembrane segments (TMSs) of Mdr1p in drug/H(+) transport by mutational analysis. This revealed that the conserved residue R(215), positioned close to the C-terminal end of TMS-4, is critical for drug/H(+) antiport, allowing protonation over a range of pH, in contrast with its H(215) or K(215) variants that failed to transport drugs at basic pH. Mutation of other residues of TMS-4 highlights the role of this TMS in drug transport, as confirmed by in silico modelling of Mdr1p and docking of drugs. The model points to the importance of R(215) in proton transport, suggesting that it may adopt two main conformations, one oriented towards the extracellular face and the other towards the centre of Mdr1p. Together, our results not only establish a new system for monitoring drug/H(+) transport, but also unveil a positively charged residue critical to Mdr1p function. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. CYP3A5*3 and MDR1 C3435T are influencing factors of inter-subject variability in rupatadine pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yuqing; Yuan, Zhao; Yang, Jingzhi; Xia, Chunhua; Li, Xinhua; Huang, Shibo; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Mingyi

    2016-04-01

    Rupatadine (RUP) is an oral antihistamine and platelet-activating factor antagonist and is shown as the substrate of CYP3A5 and P-gp. The significant interindividual differences of CYP3A5 and P-gp often cause bioavailability differences of some clinical drugs. The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and MDR1 on RUP pharmacokinetics in healthy male Chinese volunteer subjects. Blood samples were collected from 36 subjects before and after a single, oral RUP 10 mg dose. A PCR-RFLP assay was used to genotype CYP3A5*3 and assess MDR1 C3435T variation. A validated LC-MS/MS method quantified plasma RUP concentration. The relationship between RUP plasma concentration, pharmacokinetic parameters, and polymorphic alleles (CYP3A5 and MDR1) were assessed. Plasma RUP concentrations were lower for CYP3A5*1/*1 carriers than for CYP3A5*3/*3 and CYP3A5*1/*3 carriers. Mean C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) were significantly lower, and the CLz and Vd were significantly higher in the CYP3A5 wild-type group, than in the CYP3A5 mutated group. MDR1 CT and MDR1 TT carriers had lower plasma RUP concentrations than MDR1 CC carriers. The mean C(max), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞) and T max were significantly lower in the TT group than in the CC and CT groups. The mean CLz was higher in the TT group than in the CC and CT groups, but not significantly. These results suggest that CYP3A5 and MDR1 may play a key role in the variability of RUP metabolism and transport, respectively. CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms may be the main explanation for the differences observed in RUP pharmacokinetics, and therefore may provide a rationale for safe and effective clinical use of RUP. Our research lays down a solid theory foundation to guide the safe and effective clinical use of RUP and a route to achieve individualized therapy.

  10. Characterization of gastrointestinal absorption of digoxin involving influx and efflux transporter in rats: application of mdr1a knockout (-/-) rats into absorption study of multiple transporter substrate.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motoya; Komura, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Tomonori; Enya, Seiji; Nagao, Akemi; Takubo, Hiroaki; Kogayu, Motohiro

    2014-11-01

    1.  This study was aimed to characterize gastrointestinal absorption of digoxin using wild-type (WT) and multidrug resistance protein 1a [mdr1a; P-glycoprotein (P-gp)] knockout (-/-) rats. 2.  In WT rats, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of oral digoxin increased after oral pretreatment with quinidine at 30 mg/kg compared with non-treatment, but the increasing ratio tended to decrease at a high dose of 100 mg/kg. In mdr1a (-/-) rats, however, quinidine pretreatment caused a dose-dependent decrease in the AUC. 3.  Quinidine pretreatment did not alter the hepatic availability of digoxin, indicating that the changes in the digoxin AUC were attributable to inhibition of the absorption process by quinidine; i.e. inhibition of influx by quinidine in mdr1a (-/-) rats and inhibition of efflux and influx by quinidine in WT rats. 4.  An in situ rat intestinal closed loop study using naringin implied that organic anion transporting peptide (Oatp) 1a5 may be a responsible transporter in the absorption of digoxin. 5.  These findings imply that the rat absorption behavior of digoxin is possibly governed by Oatp1a5-mediated influx and P-gp-mediated efflux. The mdr1a (-/-) rat is therefore a useful in vivo tool to investigate drug absorption associated with multiple transporters including P-gp.

  11. Effects of genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19*2/*3 and MDR1 C3435T on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole in healthy Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Xin; Wei, Shi-Jie; Yang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Wen-Ping; Wang, Xin-Yu; Dang, Hong-Wan

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of CYP2C19*2/*3 and MDR1 C3435T polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole (LPZ) in healthy Chinese subjects. All 24 subjects were from a study of bioequivalence. Plasma concentrations of LPZ were determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19*2/*3 and multidrug resistance transporter gene 1 (MDR1) C3435T of the subjects were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Significant differences were found in the area under the concentration-time curve from predose to T (AUC(0-T)), area under the concentration-time curve from predose to infinity (AUC(0-∞), t(1/2)), and apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of LPZ between CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers and intermediate metabolizers (p < 0.05). The AUC(0-T), AUC(0-∞), maximum plasma concentration, and CL/F of LPZ were significantly different between subjects with the MDR1 C3435T C/C, C/T, and T/T polymorphisms (p < 0.05). CYP2C19*2/*3 and MDR1 C3435T polymorphisms are important determinants of LPZ pharmacokinetics.

  12. A Candida albicans petite mutant strain with uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation overexpresses MDR1 and has diminished susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoji; Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, Katherine T; Clapp, William; Nguyen, M Hong

    2007-05-01

    We showed that a Candida albicans petite mutant in which oxidative phosphorylation is uncoupled was eightfold more resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole than SC5314 but equally susceptible to ketoconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B. Strain P5 significantly overexpressed MDR1, which likely accounts for the decreased drug susceptibility.

  13. Polysorbate 20 increases oral absorption of digoxin in wild-type Sprague Dawley rats, but not in mdr1a(-/-) Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Abdulhussein, Ahmed A; Colak, Dilan; Holm, René

    2016-11-20

    The aim was to investigate the ability of polysorbate 20 to alter oral digoxin absorption in vitro and drug exposure in vivo via modulation of transporter mediated efflux. Transport studies were performed in MDCKII-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells using (3)H-digoxin. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in wild type and mdr1a deficient Sprague Dawley rats. (3)H-digoxin was quantified using liquid scintillation counting. The results showed an increased absorptive transport and a reduced secretory transport in MDCKII-MDR and Caco-2 cells as a function of polysorbate 20 concentrations. The secretory transport (B-A) of digoxin was reduced by 50% at lower polysorbate 20 concentrations than required to increase the absorptive transport (A-B). In vivo, the oral bioavailability of digoxin in wild type animal was increased by 10-25% (w/v) polysorbate 20. In mdr1a deficient Sprague Dawley rats 25% (w/v) polysorbate 20 did not alter the absorption of digoxin after oral administration, but digoxin exposure was significantly different between wild type and mdr1a deficient rats. In conclusion, polysorbate 20 increased absorptive transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers and in vivo in rats in a concentration dependent manner, most likely via inhibition of P-gp rather than through solubilization of digoxin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors Serve as Substrates for Multidrug Transporter Proteins MDR1 and MRP1 but Retain Antiviral Efficacy in Cell Lines Expressing These Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Ranga V.; Middlemas, David; Flynn, Pat; Fridland, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs)—saquinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, and indinavir—interact with the ABC-type multidrug transporter proteins MDR1 and MRP1 in CEM T-lymphocytic cell lines. Calcein fluorescence was significantly enhanced in MDR1+ CEM/VBL100 and MRP1+ CEM/VM-1-5 cells incubated in the presence of various HIV PIs and calcein acetoxymethyl ester. HIV PIs also enhanced the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin, a known substrate for MDR1 and MRP1, in both VBL100 and VM-1-5 CEM lines. Saquinavir, ritonavir, and nelfinavir enhanced doxorubicin toxicity in CEM/VBL100 cells by approximately three- to sevenfold. Saquinavir and ritonavir also enhanced doxorubicin toxicity in CEM/VM-1-5 cells. HIV-1 replication was effectively inhibited by the various PIs in all of the cell lines, and the 90% inhibitory concentration for a given compound was comparable between the different cell types. Therefore, overexpression of MDR1 or MRP1 by T lymphocytes is not likely to limit the antiviral efficacy of HIV PI therapy. PMID:9835508

  15. The influence of 5-HT(2C) and MDR1 genetic polymorphisms on antipsychotic-induced weight gain in female schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Kuzman, Martina Rojnic; Medved, Vesna; Bozina, Nada; Hotujac, Ljubomir; Sain, Ivica; Bilusic, Hrvoje

    2008-09-30

    We investigated the relationships between functional genetic variants of the 5-HT(2C) receptor and multidrug-resistant protein (MDR1), coding for P-glycoprotein, and second generation antipsychotic (SDA)-induced weight gain among 108 female schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine or risperidone for up to 4 months. No significant differences in -759C/T allelic and genotype variants of 5-HT(2C) were found between patients who gained more than 7% of their initial weight compared with those who gained less. Haplotype-based analysis of two MDR1 loci, exon 21 G2677T and exon 26 C3435T, revealed a slightly lower representation of the G2677/C3435 haplotype in the >or=7% group. In the subgroup of patients treated with risperidone, we found borderline overrepresentation of 2677T, significant overrepresentation of 3435T variant and borderline overrepresentation of 2677T/3435T haplotype the >or=7% group, whereas G2677/C3435 haplotype was found to be less represented in the >or=7% group. Our data indicate a nonsignificant role of 759C/T 5-HT(2C) in SDA-induced weight gain, and a stronger influence of the MDR1 G2677T and C3435T polymorphisms on risperidone-induced weight gain in female schizophrenic patients. 3435T and 2677T MDR1 variants, both associated with lower P-gp function, might predispose to higher risperidone accessibility to the brain that would lead to stronger effects, including weight gain.

  16. Fluconazole transport into Candida albicans secretory vesicles by the membrane proteins Cdr1p, Cdr2p, and Mdr1p.

    PubMed

    Basso, Luiz R; Gast, Charles E; Mao, Yuxin; Wong, Brian

    2010-06-01

    A major cause of azole resistance in Candida albicans is overexpression of CDR1, CDR2, and/or MDR1, which encode plasma membrane efflux pumps. To analyze the catalytic properties of these pumps, we used ACT1- and GAL1-regulated expression plasmids to overexpress CDR1, CDR2, or MDR1 in a C. albicans cdr1 cdr2 mdr1-null mutant. When the genes of interest were expressed, the resulting transformants were more resistant to multiple azole antifungals, and accumulated less [(3)H]fluconazole intracellularly, than empty-vector controls. Next, we used a GAL1-regulated dominant negative sec4 allele to cause cytoplasmic accumulation of post-Golgi secretory vesicles (PGVs), and we found that PGVs isolated from CDR1-, CDR2-, or MDR1-overexpressing cells accumulated much more [(3)H]fluconazole than did PGVs from empty-vector controls. The K(m)s (expressed in micromolar concentrations) and V(max)s (expressed in picomoles per milligram of protein per minute), respectively, for [(3)H]fluconazole transport were 0.8 and 0.91 for Cdr1p, 4.3 and 0.52 for Cdr2p, and 3.5 and 0.59 for Mdr1p. [(3)H]fluconazole transport by Cdr1p and Cdr2p required ATP and was unaffected by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), whereas [(3)H]fluconazole transport by Mdr1p did not require ATP and was inhibited by CCCP. [(3)H]fluconazole uptake by all 3 pumps was inhibited by all other azoles tested, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s; expressed as proportions of the [(3)H]fluconazole concentration) of 0.2 to 5.6 for Cdr1p, 0.3 to 3.1 for Cdr2p, and 0.3 to 3.1 for Mdr1p. The methods used in this study may also be useful for studying other plasma membrane transporters in C. albicans and other medically important fungi.

  17. Fluconazole Transport into Candida albicans Secretory Vesicles by the Membrane Proteins Cdr1p, Cdr2p, and Mdr1p ▿

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Luiz R.; Gast, Charles E.; Mao, Yuxin; Wong, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A major cause of azole resistance in Candida albicans is overexpression of CDR1, CDR2, and/or MDR1, which encode plasma membrane efflux pumps. To analyze the catalytic properties of these pumps, we used ACT1- and GAL1-regulated expression plasmids to overexpress CDR1, CDR2, or MDR1 in a C. albicans cdr1 cdr2 mdr1-null mutant. When the genes of interest were expressed, the resulting transformants were more resistant to multiple azole antifungals, and accumulated less [3H]fluconazole intracellularly, than empty-vector controls. Next, we used a GAL1-regulated dominant negative sec4 allele to cause cytoplasmic accumulation of post-Golgi secretory vesicles (PGVs), and we found that PGVs isolated from CDR1-, CDR2-, or MDR1-overexpressing cells accumulated much more [3H]fluconazole than did PGVs from empty-vector controls. The Kms (expressed in micromolar concentrations) and Vmaxs (expressed in picomoles per milligram of protein per minute), respectively, for [3H]fluconazole transport were 0.8 and 0.91 for Cdr1p, 4.3 and 0.52 for Cdr2p, and 3.5 and 0.59 for Mdr1p. [3H]fluconazole transport by Cdr1p and Cdr2p required ATP and was unaffected by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), whereas [3H]fluconazole transport by Mdr1p did not require ATP and was inhibited by CCCP. [3H]fluconazole uptake by all 3 pumps was inhibited by all other azoles tested, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s; expressed as proportions of the [3H]fluconazole concentration) of 0.2 to 5.6 for Cdr1p, 0.3 to 3.1 for Cdr2p, and 0.3 to 3.1 for Mdr1p. The methods used in this study may also be useful for studying other plasma membrane transporters in C. albicans and other medically important fungi. PMID:20348384

  18. Assessment of the Disposition of Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Female mdr 1a/b Knockout versus Wild-type Mice Using Multivariate Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Lulek, Janina; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in the environment as complex mixtures, which make it challenging to identify PCB congeners that may be subject to active transport processes. Here we employ a transgenic mouse model in combination with multivariate analyses to investigate if chiral PCBs 91, 95, 132, 136, 149, 174, 176 and 183 are subject to active (enantioselective) transport by multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters. A synthetic PCB mixture containing these congeners was administered orally to female FVB or mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Due to the short half-life of chiral PCB congeners, mice were euthanized after 24 hours and PCB concentrations and enantiomeric fractions were determined in selected tissues and excreta. Principal component analysis did not reveal differences between wild-type and mdr1a/1b knockout mice. However, Hotelling T2-test revealed significantly lower PCB concentrations and a more pronounced enantiomeric enrichment in the adipose tissue of mdr1a/1b knockout mice. These differences are due to higher body weights and higher fecal fat contents of mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Analysis of the enantiomeric fractions of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149 and 174 showed a significant enantiomeric enrichment for all five congeners in wild-type and mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Overall, by studying a PCB mixture in a transgenic mouse model in combination with a multivariate data reduction approach, PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149 and 174 could be excluded as substrates of multidrug resistance transporters 1a/b. PMID:19923000

  19. AEG-1 is associated with hypoxia-induced hepatocellular carcinoma chemoresistance via regulating PI3K/AKT/HIF-1alpha/MDR-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yong; Zhong, De-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common characteristic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with reduced response to chemotherapy, thus increasing the probability of tumor recurrence. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) has been involved in a wide array of cancer progression including proliferation, chemoresistance, angiogenesis and metastasis, but its effect on HCC chemoresistance induced by hypoxia is unclear. In this study, expression of AEG-1 and multiple drug resistance (MDR-1) were examined in HCC using immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR. Furthermore, their expression levels were detected in HCC HepG2 cells in normoxia or hypoxia via RT-PCR and Western blot assays. Specific shRNAs were used to silence AEG-1 expression in HepG2 cells. Results showed AEG-1 and MDR-1 expression were higher in HCC tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. Incubation of HepG2 cells in hypoxia increased expression of AEG-1 and MDR-1, compared to incubation in normoxia. Exposure to hypoxia blunted sensitivity of HepG2 cells to Adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil and cis-platinum, as evidenced by modest alterations in cell viability and apoptosis rate, however the sensitivity was elevated with AEG-1 knockdown. PI3K/AKT/HIF-1/MDR-1 pathway was attenuated following AEG-1 knockdown in hypoxia. Based on these data, it was suggested that AEG-1 is associated with hypoxia-induced hepatocellular carcinoma chemoresistance via regulating PI3K/AKT/HIF-1/MDR-1 pathway. This study uncovered a novel potential target for development of an effective therapy against hypoxia-induced HCC chemoresistance.

  20. Drug transporter, P-glycoprotein (MDR1), is an integrated component of the mammalian blood-testis barrier§

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Cheng, Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout spermatogenesis, leptotene spermatocytes traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium for continued development. At the same time, the integrity of the BTB, which is constituted by co-existing tight junctions (TJ), basal ectoplasmic specializations (basal ES) and desmosome-like junctions, must be maintained since a breach in barrier function can result in spermatogenic arrest and infertility. There is evidence to suggest that drug transporters may function at the BTB, but little is known about how they contribute to spermatogenesis. In this study, we investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug efflux pump, in BTB dynamics. A survey by RT-PCR revealed several transport proteins to be expressed by the testis, including Mdr1 (gene symbol for P-gp), Mrp1, Abcc5 and Slc15a1. It was also demonstrated that P-gp localizes to the BTB in all stages of the epithelial cycle in the adult rat testis, as well as to the Sertoli cell elongated spermatid interface in stages VII–VIII. We continued our study by examining the levels of several transporters in the testis following oral administration of Adjudin, a compound known to affect Sertoli-germ cell adhesion. In this experiment, the steady-state levels of P-gp, MRP1, ABCG1 and SLC15A1 were all found to increase by several-fold within hours of Adjudin treatment during junction restructuring. More importantly, an increase in P-gp association with TJ proteins (e.g., occludin, claudin-11 and JAM-A) was noted when testis lysates from Adjudin-treated rats were used for co-immunoprecipitation experiments, suggesting that P-gp may enhance BTB function during Sertoli-germ cell junction restructuring. PMID:19720156

  1. Distinctive polymer micelle designed for siRNA delivery and reversal of MDR1 gene-dependent multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Ge; Yang, Shu-di; Zhu, Wen-Jing; You, Ben-Gang; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Wei-Liang; Li, Ji-Zhao; Zhou, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Xue-Nong

    2017-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays an importantrole in multidrug resistance (MDR), proved to be one of the major obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. Cationic polymers could specifically deliver siRNA to tumor cells and thus reverse MDR by the downregulation of P-gp. In this study, a triblock copolymer micelle was prepared based on the polymer of N-succinyl-chitosan-poly-l-lysine-palmitic acid (NSC-PLL-PA) to deliver siRNA-P-gp (siRNA-micelle) or doxorubicin (Dox-micelle). The resulting micelle exhibited an efficient binding ability for siRNA and high encapsulation efficiency for Dox, with an average particle size of ∼170 nm. siRNA-micelle and Dox-micellewere instable at low pH, thereby enhancing tumor accumulation and intracellular release of the encapsulated siRNA and Dox. siRNA-micelle micelles could enhance the knockdown efficacy of siRNA by improving the transfection efficiency, downregulating P-gp expression, and passing the drug efflux transporters, thereby improving the therapeutic effects of Dox-micelle. However, P-gp could transfer from HepG2/ADM to HepG2 cells independent of the expression of mdr1, and the acquired resistance could permit tumor cells to survive and develop intrinsic P-gp-mediated resistance, thereby limiting the desired efficiency of chemotherapeutics. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of siRNA-micelle for tumor-targeted delivery, MDR reversal, and provided an effective strategy for the treatment of cancers that develop MDR. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2093-2106, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Association of steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene expression with survival among patients with invasive bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Jorge; Bandrés, Eva; Rosell Costa, David; Rincón, Anibal; López, Ines; Zudaire Bergera, Juan Javier; García Foncillas, Jesús; Gil, María Jesús; Panizo, Angel; Plaza, Luis; Rioja, Luis Angel; Berián Polo, José María

    2011-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? SXR and MDR1 are known as responsible for chemo and radiotherapy resistance in some cancers, like kidney cancer (MDR1). Invasive bladder cancer is an aggressive disease, with different behaviour upon its tumoral stage, and also within the same tumoral stage, therefore molecular markers are sought. This study shows a new molecular marker, which has shown as a predictor for bad prognosis cancers, therefore, allowing us for a better patient selection for aggressive therapies. To investigate the prognostic value of steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene expression in relation to survival among patients with invasive bladder cancer. The prospective study included 67 patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer and treated with radical cystectomy at one of two institutions. SXR and MDR1 gene expression was assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in tumoral and normal tissue from frozen surgical specimens. Patients were followed for a mean of 29 months; 31 patients (46%) had progression. In univariate analysis, significant predictors of overall survival (OS) were pathological stage, lymph node (LN) status, histological grade, vascular-lymphatic invasion, and SXR expression. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of OS were LN status (odds ratio [OR], 2.96; P=0.034), vascular-lymphatic invasion (OR, 2.50; P=0.029), and SXR expression (OR, 1.05, P=0.03). Among the 51 patients with negative LNs (pN0), univariate predictors of OS were SXR expression, MDR1 expression, and pathological stage. In multivariate analysis, SXR expression (OR, 1.06; P=0.01) and MDR1 expression (OR, 3.27; P=0.03) were independently associated with survival. Within the pN0 group, patients with SXR expression had shorter progression-free survival than did those without expression (P=0.004). This association persisted in the N0 subgroup with stage pT3-pT4 disease (P=0

  3. Cell-specific activity of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter of the mouse multidrug resistance gene mdr1.

    PubMed

    Raymond, M; Gros, P

    1990-11-01

    To define cis-acting elements implicated in transcriptional regulation of the mouse multidrug resistance gene mdr1, we have cloned and characterized the 5' end of the gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified TATA, GGGCGG, and CCAAT consensus sequence elements at positions -27, -47, and -83, respectively. The transcriptional activities of 5' deletion fragments from the promoter linked to a reporter gene were tested in mouse cell lines of different tissue origins shown to express different levels of endogenous mdr1 RNA. Sequences located between nucleotides -93 and +84 were able to confer basal promoter activity and cell specificity to the reporter gene. The addition to the basal promoter of sequences upstream of position -141 was found to up or down regulate the basal level of expression of the reporter gene in a cell-specific manner.

  4. Analysis of the mdr-1 Gene in Patients Co-Infected with Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa Who Experienced a Post-Ivermectin Serious Adverse Event

    PubMed Central

    Bourguinat, Catherine; Kamgno, Joseph; Boussinesq, Michel; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Prichard, Roger K.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2010-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is exceptionally safe in humans, and is used for mass treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. However, cases of encephalopathy, sometimes fatal, have been reported in a small number of individuals who harbored large numbers of Loa loa microfilariae (mf). A loss-of-function mutation in the mdr-1 gene in some dog breeds and in mice leads to accumulation of the drug in the brain, causing coma and death. This hypothesis was tested in four individuals from Cameroon who experienced a post-IVM serious adverse event (SAE) and in nine non-SAE matched controls. No loss-of-function mutation was detected in mdr-1 in any subject. However, haplotypes, associated with altered drug disposition, were present as homozygotes in two of the SAE patients (50%), but absent as homozygotes in the controls (0%). An association of high Loa mf load and a genetic predisposition to altered IVM distribution could be involved in IVM SAEs. PMID:20595473

  5. Efficient Trafficking of MDR1/P-Glycoprotein to Apical Canalicular Plasma Membranes in HepG2 Cells Requires PKA-RIIα Anchoring and Glucosylceramide

    PubMed Central

    Wojtal, Kacper A.; de Vries, Erik; Hoekstra, Dick

    2006-01-01

    In hepatocytes, cAMP/PKA activity stimulates the exocytic insertion of apical proteins and lipids and the biogenesis of bile canalicular plasma membranes. Here, we show that the displacement of PKA-RIIα from the Golgi apparatus severely delays the trafficking of the bile canalicular protein MDR1 (P-glycoprotein), but not that of MRP2 (cMOAT), DPP IV and 5′NT, to newly formed apical surfaces. In addition, the direct trafficking of de novo synthesized glycosphingolipid analogues from the Golgi apparatus to the apical surface is inhibited. Instead, newly synthesized glucosylceramide analogues are rerouted to the basolateral surface via a vesicular pathway, from where they are subsequently endocytosed and delivered to the apical surface via transcytosis. Treatment of HepG2 cells with the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor PDMP delays the appearance of MDR1, but not MRP2, DPP IV, and 5′NT at newly formed apical surfaces, implicating glucosylceramide synthesis as an important parameter for the efficient Golgi-to-apical surface transport of MDR1. Neither PKA-RIIα displacement nor PDMP inhibited (cAMP-stimulated) apical plasma membrane biogenesis per se, suggesting that other cAMP effectors may play a role in canalicular development. Taken together, our data implicate the involvement of PKA-RIIα anchoring in the efficient direct apical targeting of distinct proteins and glycosphingolipids to newly formed apical plasma membrane domains and suggest that rerouting of Golgi-derived glycosphingolipids may underlie the delayed Golgi-to-apical surface transport of MDR1. PMID:16723498

  6. P-glycoprotein gene MDR1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in Guangxi population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Liu, Yanqiong; Zhao, Jiangyang; Xu, Juanjuan; Li, Shan; Qin, Xue

    2017-04-01

    The multidrug resistance 1 gene (MDR1) encodes for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which plays a pathophysiological role in the development of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we aimed to investigate the relationship between MDR1 gene polymorphisms and SLE susceptibility in the Chinese Guangxi population. The genotypes of rs1128503 and rs1045642 in MDR1 gene were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 283 SLE patients and 247 healthy controls from Guangxi. Direct sequencing method was used to verify the results. Binary logistic regression analyses adjusting for gender and age indicated that subjects carrying the rs1128503 T-allele and TT genotype were at increased risk of SLE when compared to carriers of the C allele and CC genotype, with adjusted ORs of 1.36 (95% CI 1.07-1.74; P = 0.014) and 1.77 (95% CI 1.08-2.88; P = 0.022), respectively. In addition, the risk allele T had a recessive effect (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04-2.14, P = 0.029). Subgroup analyses revealed effect modification by age for the presence of the rs1128503 T allele, yielding a significant positive association with SLE in older (≥40 years) subjects (T vs. C allele: OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.96; P = 0.041; TT vs. CC genotype: OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.07-2.79; P = 0.021). For the first time, we demonstrated that MDR1 rs1128503 polymorphisms were associated with SLE susceptibility in Chinese Guangxi population.

  7. Association between polymorphisms of XRCC1, p53 and MDR1 genes, the expression of their protein products and prognostic significance in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rybárová, Silvia; Vecanová, Janka; Hodorová, Ingrid; Mihalik, Jozef; Čižmáriková, Martina; Mojžiš, Ján; Solár, Peter; Benický, Marián; Adamkov, Marian; Mirossay, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study aimed to examine the relationship between XRCC1, p53 and MDR1 protein, along with polymorphisms of their genes and their prognostic values in breast cancer. The following clinical and pathological parameters were evaluated: histopathological type of tumor, grade, stage, Her2/neu expression, ER, PR positivity and involvement of regional lymph nodes. Material/Methods Expression of proteins was determined in 39 samples of breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. Nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. For statistical analysis, chi-square test (Yates), Fisher’s exact test, and correlation test were used to analyze the data. Results The highest protein expression was immunohistochemically found in MDR1 protein, with 54% of samples testing positive. In addition, the evaluation of MDR1 expression revealed higher positive immunoreactivity in lobular (LIC) and other types of tumor in comparison to ductal (DIC) type. The expression of p53 and XRCC1 protein was equal, but lower compared to MDR1, both testing positive in 36% of all tissue samples. Comparison of XRCC1 protein and histopathological type of tumor revealed that DIC and LIC types were mostly XRCC1-negative, while other types, papillary and mucinous were more likely to be XRCC1-positive. Interestingly, when evaluating LIC samples separately, a negative correlation between the Her2/neu and expression of XRCC1 was detected. Apparently, all Her2/neu-positive samples were XRCC1-negative (6/86%). The correlation test indicated a negative correlation between Her2/neu-positive samples and XRCC1-negative specimens (r=1, p<0.05). Statistical analysis did not reveal a correlation of p53 expression with clinical and pathological parameters. Similarly, no statistically significant difference was found between the tested polymorphisms and protein expression. Conclusions We did not find statistically significant correlation between tested polymorphisms and their protein expression. PMID

  8. Kinetic analysis of human and canine P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport in MDR1-MDCK cell model: approaches to reduce false-negative substrate classification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibin; Wang, Ying; Hidalgo, Ismael J

    2013-09-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, MDR1-MDCK, are widely used as an in vitro model to classify compounds as human P-glycoprotein (hPgp) substrates or nonsubstrates. Because MDCK cells express endogenous canine Pgp (cPgp), which is prone to downregulation after transfection with hPgp, this situation could lead to false-negative classification of hPgp substrates. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that influence hPgp substrate classification in MDR1-MDCK model and to seek ways to reduce false classification. Three-compartment models were used to derive flux equations describing the drug transport processes; factors influencing hPgp substrate classification were evaluated by simulations. Pgp functionality was assessed by determining the bidirectional permeability of a series of test compounds. Expressions of hPgp and cPgp were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Kinetic model analysis revealed that the current net flux ratio calculation for hPgp substrate classification is influenced by endogenous cPgp expression as well as hPgp-cPgp expression ratio; the effect was more pronounced in low hPgp-cPgp region and diminished in high ratio region. On the basis of kinetic considerations, this study provides a rational experimental approach and appropriate mathematical corrections to minimize the potential occurrence of false-negative classification of new molecular entities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dioscin strengthens the efficiency of adriamycin in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells through autophagy induction: More than just down-regulation of MDR1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changyuan; Huo, Xiaokui; Wang, Lijuan; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Zhihao; Liu, Qi; Sun, Huijun; Sun, Pengyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Kexin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of dioscin on activity of adriamycin (ADR) in ADR-sensitive (MCF-7) and ADR-resistant (MCF-7/ADR) human breast cancer cells and to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved. Antiproliferation effect of ADR was enhanced by dioscin in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. Dioscin significantly inhibited MDR1 mRNA and protein expression and MDR1 promoter and nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) activity in MCF-7/ADR cells. Additionally, inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) degradation was inhibited by dioscin. Moreover, dioscin induced the formation of vacuoles in the cytoplasm and protein level of LC3-II in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. Autophagy inhibitor 3-MA abolished the effect of dioscin on ADR cytotoxicity. Dioscin inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt, resulting in upregulation of LC3-II expression. In conclusion, dioscin increased ADR chemosensitivity by down-regulating MDR1 expression through NF-κB signaling inhibition in MCF-7/ADR cells. Autophagy was induced by dioscin to ameliorate the cytotoxicity of ADR via inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathways in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. These findings provide evidence in support of further investigation into the clinical application of dioscin as a chemotherapy adjuvant. PMID:27329817

  10. Dissimilar expression of multidrug resistance mdr1 and bcrp by the replication of hepatitis C virus: role of the nonstructural 5A protein.

    PubMed

    W Rivero, C; Rosso, N; Gentile, E; Cuestas, M; Tiribelli, C; Oubiña, J R; Mathet, V L

    2013-04-01

    Multidrug resistance associated with the overexpression of ATP-dependent binding cassette (ABC) proteins is widely accepted as an important cause of treatment failure in patients with neoplastic or infectious diseases. Some of them play also a pivotal role in detoxification processes. Herein, we investigated the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein on the expression and functional activity of two ABC transport proteins: MDR1 and BCRP. RT-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was carried out for mdr1 and bcrp mRNAs in both Huh7 cells expressing NS5A and Huh7.5 cells containing either full-length- or subgenomic-HCV replicon systems. The functional activity of these pumps was studied by performing a dye efflux assay with DiOC2 and Rhodamine 123. A dose-dependent down-regulation of mdr1 expression was documented in Huh7 cells expressing the NS5A protein, as well as in both replicon systems. In contrast, a significant increase of bcrp expression in both systems was recorded, which were in full agreement with the dye efflux assay results. These results warrant further in vivo studies in HCV patients with cholestasis and/or patients that are refractive to the pharmacotherapy due to the activity of these pumps. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Associations of MDR1, TBXA2R, PLA2G7, and PEAR1 genetic polymorphisms with the platelet activity in Chinese ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ling-ling; Zhao, Yuan-qi; Zhou, Zi-yi; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Min; Chen, Xin-meng; Chen, Ling-yan; Cai, Ye-feng; Li, Jia-li; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aspirin resistance has an incidence of 5%–65% in patients with ischemic stroke, who receive the standard dose of aspirin, but the platelet function is inadequately inhibited, thereby leading to thrombotic events. Numerous evidence shows that thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2 receptor, encoded by TBXA2R), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2, encoded by PLA2G7) and platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1, encoded by PEAR1) are crucial in regulating platelet activation, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by MDR1) influences the absorption of aspirin in the intestine. In this study we examined the correlation between MDR1, TBXA2R, PLA2G7, PEAR1 genetic polymorphisms and platelet activity in Chinese ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy. Methods: A total of 283 ischemic stroke patients receiving 100 mg aspirin for 7 d were genotyped for polymorphisms in MDR1 C3435T, TBXA2R (rs1131882), PLA2G7 (rs1051931, rs7756935), and PEAR1 (rs12566888, rs12041331). The platelet aggregation response was measured using an automatic platelet aggregation analyzer and a commercially available TXB2 ELISA kit. Results: Thirty-three patients (11.66%) were insensitive to aspirin treatment. MDR1 3435TT genotype carriers, whose arachidonic acid (AA) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was lower than that of CC+CT genotype carriers, were less likely to suffer from aspirin resistance (odds ratio=0.421, 95% CI: 0.233–0.759). The TBXA2R rs1131882 CC genotype, which was found more frequently in the aspirin-insensitive group (81.8% vs 62.4%) than in the sensitive group, was identified as a risk factor for aspirin resistance (odds ratio=2.712, 95% CI: 1.080–6.810) with a higher level of AA-induced platelet aggregation. Due to the combined effects of PLA2G7 rs1051931 and rs7756935, carriers of the AA-CC haplotype had a higher level of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and were at considerably higher risk of aspirin resistance than

  12. Design of a hairpin polyamide, ZT65B, for targeting the inverted CCAAT box (ICB) site in the multidrug resistant (MDR1) gene.

    PubMed

    Buchmueller, Karen L; Taherbhai, Zarmeen; Howard, Cameron M; Bailey, Suzanna L; Nguyen, Binh; O'Hare, Caroline; Hochhauser, Daniel; Hartley, John A; Wilson, W David; Lee, Moses

    2005-12-01

    A novel hairpin polyamide, ZT65B, containing a 3-methylpicolinate moiety was designed to target the inverted CCAAT box (ICB) of the human multidrug resistance 1 gene (MDR1) promoter. Binding of nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) to the ICB site upregulates MDR1 gene expression and is, therefore, a good target for anticancer therapeutic agents. However, it is important to distinguish amongst different promoter ICB sites so that only specific genes will be affected. All ICB sites have the same sequence but they differ in the sequence of the flanking base pairs, which can be exploited in the design of sequence-specific polyamides. To test this hypothesis, ten ICB-containing DNA hairpins were designed with different flanking base pairs; the sequences ICBa and ICBb were similar to the 3'-ICB site of MDR1 (TGGCT). Thermal-denaturation studies showed that ZT65B effectively targeted ICBa and ICBb (DeltaTM=6.5 and 7.0 degrees C) in preference to the other DNA hairpins (<3.5 degrees C), with the exception of ICBc (5.0 degrees C). DNase I-footprinting assays were carried out with the topoisomerase IIalpha-promoter sequence, which contains five ICB sites; of these, ICB1 and ICB5 are similar to the ICB site of MDR1. ZT65B was found to selectively bind ICB1 and ICB5; footprints were not observed with ICB2, ICB3, or ICB4. A strong, positive induced ligand band at 325 nm in CD studies confirmed that ZT65B binds in the DNA minor groove. The selectivity of ZT65B binding to hairpins that contained the MDR1 ICB site compared to one that did not (ICBd) was confirmed by surface-plasmon studies, and equilibrium constants of 5x10(6)-1x10(7) and 4.6x10(5) M-1 were obtained with ICB1, ICB5,and ICB2 respectively. ZT65B and the previously published JH37 (J. A. Henry, et al. Biochemistry 2004, 43, 12 249-12 257) serve as prototypes for the design of novel polyamides. These can be used to specifically target the subset of ubiquitous gene elements known as ICBs, and thereby affect the expression of one or

  13. Impact of CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene (G2677T) polymorphisms on dose requirement of the cyclosporine in renal transplant Egyptian recipients.

    PubMed

    Sharaki, Ola; Zeid, Montasser; Moez, Pacint; Zakaria, Nermine Hossam; Nassar, Eman

    2015-01-01

    Advances in immunosuppressive therapy allowed renal transplantation to become the treatment of choice for suitable candidates with (end stage renal disease) ESRD. The post-transplant therapeutic strategy is difficult due to narrow therapeutic indices for the currently used immunosuppressive drugs. Inter-individual differences in drug bioavailability are related to genetic and non genetic factors. The idea of targeted and personalized therapy is to achieve therapeutic success. The empirical dose has lost its value in the post-transplant therapy and an individualized dosage regimen must be established. Interindividual heterogeneity in expression of ABCB1 and CYP3A4 has been suspected to be one of the factors resulting in cyclosporine (CsA) pharmacokinetic variation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of inter-individual CYP3A4 rs4646437C>T and MDR1 G2677T/A polymorphisms on cyclosporine dose requirements among a sample of renal transplant Egyptian recipients. Fifty adult Egyptian patients on CsA were genotyped for CYP3A4 rs4646437C>T and MDR1 G2677T/A and correlated with CsA dose requirement and dose-adjusted CsA (C0) blood levels at 3, 6, and 9 months post transplantation. CYP3A4 rs4646437C>T influenced significantly cyclosporine kinetics, the T carriers requiring higher cyclosporine dose. Daily dose requirements were also significantly higher in T allele MDR1 2677G>T GG genotype as compared to GT/TT genotypes at 3, 6, and 9 months post transplantation. Genotyping of both CYP3A4 and MDR1 SNPs may be helpful in providing pre-transplant pharmacogenetic information to individualize CsA dosing. Heterozygous CT genotype is the most frequent CYP3A4 rs4646437C>T genotype in the studied group of Egyptian population (48 %) followed by CC genotype and TT genotype. Daily dose requirements were significantly higher in T allele MDR1 2677G>T GG genotype as compared to GT/TT genotypes at 3, 6, and 9 months post transplantation.

  14. Decreased expression of nucleophosmin/B23 increases drug sensitivity of adriamycin-resistant Molt-4 leukemia cells through mdr-1 regulation and Akt/mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyan; Chen, Buyuan; Lin, Minhui; Cao, Yanqin; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Xinji; Liu, Tingbo; Hu, Jianda

    2015-03-01

    Nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM) is a nuclear protein with prosurvival and ribosomal RNA processing functions. However, the potential role of NPM involved in drug-resistance in leukemia has not been investigated clearly. In this study, we generated an adriamycin (ADM)-resistant lymphoblastic cell line Molt-4/ADR (MAR) by stepwise induction. Cell proliferation, sensitivity to chemotherapy agents and expressions of drug resistance related molecules were assessed. The IC50 of Molt-4 cells were 0.58±0.11μmol/L and MAR cells were 22.56±1.94μmol/L, meaning MAR cells were 38.63 fold resistant to Molt-4 cells. Furthermore, MAR cells gained an expression of mdr-1 (P-gp) and a higher expression of NPM compared to Molt-4 cells. Knockdown of NPM by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed the viability of both Molt-4 and MAR cells. After NPM RNAi, the IC50 of MAR and Molt-4 cells were 3.83±0.38μmol/L and 0.19±0.02μmol/L respectively. Both of them revealed an increase of drug sensitivity with down-regulation of mdr-1 and Akt/mTOR signaling. Knockdown of mdr-1 could also reverse the drug resistance, with no change in NPM expression. It could be concluded that knockdown of NPM reversed the drug resistance by down-regulating P-gp and Akt/mTOR signal pathway, indicating that NPM may serve as a potential modulator in drug resistance.

  15. Regulation of expression and activity of multidrug resistance proteins MRP2 and MDR1 by estrogenic compounds in Caco-2 cells. Role in prevention of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Arias, Agostina; Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Villanueva, Silvina S M; Ruiz, María L; Luquita, Marcelo G; Perdomo, Virginia G; Vore, Mary; Catania, Viviana A; Mottino, Aldo D

    2014-06-05

    ABC transporters including MRP2, MDR1 and BCRP play a major role in tissue defense. Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest a cytoprotective role of estrogens in intestine, though the mechanism remains poorly understood. We evaluated whether pharmacologic concentrations of ethynylestradiol (EE, 0.05pM to 5nM), or concentrations of genistein (GNT) associated with soy ingestion (0.1-10μM), affect the expression and activity of multidrug resistance proteins MRP2, MDR1 and BCRP using Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of intestinal epithelium. We found that incubation with 5pM EE and 1μM GNT for 48h increased expression and activity of both MRP2 and MDR1. Estrogens did not affect expression of BCRP protein at any concentration studied. Irrespective of the estrogen tested, up-regulation of MDR1 and MRP2 protein was accompanied by increased levels of MDR1 mRNA, whereas MRP2 mRNA remained unchanged. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated association of MRP2 and MDR1 up-regulation with increased resistance to cell death induced by 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, an MRP2 substrate precursor, and by paraquat, an MDR1 substrate. Experiments using an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist implicate ER participation in MRP2 and MDR1 regulation. GNT but not EE increased the expression of ERβ, the most abundant form in human intestine and in Caco-2 cells, which could lead in turn to increased sensitivity to estrogens. We conclude that specific concentrations of estrogens can confer resistance against cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells, due in part to positive modulation of ABC transporters involved in extrusion of their toxic substrates. Although extrapolation of these results to the in vivo situation must be cautiously done, the data could explain tentatively the cytoprotective role of estrogens against chemical injury in intestine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of MDR1 C3435T polymorphism on the eradication rate of H. pylori infection in PPI-based triple therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Li, Taijie; Guo, Shihui; Liang, Hongjie; Jiang, Dunke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several studies have reported that multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) C3435T polymorphism was associated with the rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy. However, the conclusions were inconsistent. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of MDR1 C3435T polymorphism on H. pylori eradication by PPI-based triple therapy. Methods: Seven eligible studies published up to August 2016 and including 1019 patients were identified by searching the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, Wan fang, PubMed, and the Web of Science electronic databases. Consequently, a meta-analysis was conducted with STATA software, using summary odds ratios (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Overall, there was no significant difference between MDR1 C3435T polymorphism and the eradication rate of H. pylori in the entire genetic model, irrespective of the PPI used. Furthermore, in Asian populations, the TT genotype decreased H. pylori eradication (TT vs CT+CC: OR=0.411, 95% CI = 0.280–0.602, P = 0.000). In addition, a significantly low eradication rate was observed in a recessive model, in which either lansoprazole (TT vs CT+CC: OR = 0.305, 95% CI = 0.184–0.504, P = 0.000) or omeprazole (TT vs CT+CC: OR = 0.229, 95% CI = 0.069–0.763, P = 0.016) was taken, in a subanalysis of individual PPIs. In the analyses that were stratified by disease type, no significant difference was observed in the peptic ulcer group and the combined diseases subgroup. Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicated that the TT genotype of the MDR1 C3435T polymorphism decreased H. pylori eradication in Asian populations and was also associated with a low cure rate of H. pylori in patients taking lansoprazole- and omeprazole-based triple therapies. However, future studies using larger sample sizes are required. PMID:28353592

  17. Relative Neurotoxicity of Ivermectin and Moxidectin in Mdr1ab (−/−) Mice and Effects on Mammalian GABA(A) Channel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ménez, Cécile; Sutra, Jean-François; Prichard, Roger; Lespine, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The anthelmintics ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) display differences in toxicity in several host species. Entrance into the brain is restricted by the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter, while toxicity is mediated through the brain GABA(A) receptors. This study compared the toxicity of IVM and MOX in vivo and their interaction with GABA(A) receptors in vitro. Drug toxicity was assessed in Mdr1ab(−/−) mice P-gp-deficient after subcutaneous administration of increasing doses (0.11–2.0 and 0.23–12.9 µmol/kg for IVM and MOX in P-gp-deficient mice and half lethal doses (LD50) in wild-type mice). Survival was evaluated over 14-days. In Mdr1ab(−/−) mice, LD50 was 0.46 and 2.3 µmol/kg for IVM and MOX, respectively, demonstrating that MOX was less toxic than IVM. In P-gp-deficient mice, MOX had a lower brain-to-plasma concentration ratio and entered into the brain more slowly than IVM. The brain sublethal drug concentrations determined after administration of doses close to LD50 were, in Mdr1ab(−/−) and wild-type mice, respectively, 270 and 210 pmol/g for IVM and 830 and 740–1380 pmol/g for MOX, indicating that higher brain concentrations are required for MOX toxicity than IVM. In rat α1β2γ2 GABA channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, IVM and MOX were both allosteric activators of the GABA-induced response. The Hill coefficient was 1.52±0.45 for IVM and 0.34±0.56 for MOX (p<0.001), while the maximum potentiation caused by IVM and MOX relative to GABA alone was 413.7±66.1 and 257.4±40.6%, respectively (p<0.05), showing that IVM causes a greater potentiation of GABA action on this receptor. Differences in the accumulation of IVM and MOX in the brain and in the interaction of IVM and MOX with GABA(A) receptors account for differences in neurotoxicity seen in intact and Mdr1-deficient animals. These differences in neurotoxicity of IVM and MOX are important in considering their use in humans. PMID:23133688

  18. Two homologous ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, AtMDR1 and AtPGP1, regulate Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis and root development by mediating polar auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rongcheng; Wang, Haiyang

    2005-06-01

    Light and auxin control many aspects of plant growth and development in an overlapping manner. We report here functional characterization of two closely related ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter genes, AtMDR1 and AtPGP1, in light and auxin responses. We showed that loss-of-function atmdr1 and atpgp1 mutants display hypersensitivity to far-red, red, and blue-light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, reduced chlorophyll and anthocyanin accumulation, and abnormal expression of several light-responsive genes, including CAB3, RBCS, CHS, and PORA, under both darkness and far-red light conditions. In addition, we showed that the atmdr1-100 and atmdr1-100/atpgp1-100 mutants are defective in multiple aspects of root development, including increased root-growth sensitivity to 1-naphthalene acetic acid (1-NAA), and decreased sensitivity to naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Consistent with the proposed role of AtMDR1 in basipetal auxin transport, we found that expression of the auxin responsive DR5::GUS reporter gene in the central elongation zone is significantly reduced in the atmdr1-100 mutant roots treated with 1-NAA at the root tips, compared to similarly treated wild-type plants. Moreover, atmdr1-100, atpgp1-100, and their double mutants produced fewer lateral roots, in the presence or absence of 1-NAA or NPA. The atmdr1-100 and atmdr1-100/atpgp1-100 mutants also displayed enhanced root gravitropism. Genetic-epistasis analysis revealed that mutations in phyA largely suppress the randomized-hypocotyl growth and the short-hypocotyl phenotype of the atmdr1-100 mutants under far-red light, suggesting that phyA acts downstream of AtMDR1. Together, our results suggest that AtMDR1 and AtPGP1 regulate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) photomorphogenesis and multiple aspects of root development by mediating polar auxin transport.

  19. 5'-Triphosphate siRNA targeting MDR1 reverses multi-drug resistance and activates RIG-I-induced immune-stimulatory and apoptotic effects against human myeloid leukaemia cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Dengzhe; Gale, Robert Peter; Liu, Yanfeng; Lei, Baoxia; Wang, Yuan; Diao, Dongmei; Zhang, Mei

    2017-07-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR), immune suppression and decreased apoptosis are important causes of therapy-failure in leukaemia. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) down-regulate gene transcription, have sequence-independent immune-stimulatory effects and synergize with other anti-cancer therapies in some experimental models. We designed a siRNA targeting MDR1 with 5'-triphosphate ends (3p-siRNA-MDR1). Treatment of leukaemia cells with 3p-siRNA-MDR1 down-regulated MDR1 expression, reduced-drug resistance and induced immune and pro-apoptotic effects in drug-resistant HL-60/Adr and K562/Adr human leukaemia cell lines. We show mechanisms-of-action of these effects involve alterations in the anti-viral cytosolic retinoic acid-inducible protein-I (RIG-I; encoded by RIG-I or DDX58) mediated type-I interferon signal induction, interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10; encoded by IP10 or CXCL10) secretion, major histocompatibility complex-I expression (MHC-I) and caspase-mediated cell apoptosis. 3p-siRNA-MDR1 transfection also enhanced the anti-leukaemia efficacy of doxorubicin. These data suggest a possible synergistic role for 3p-siRNA-MDR1 in anti-leukaemia therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Notch-1 Confers Chemoresistance in Lung Adenocarcinoma to Taxanes through AP-1/microRNA-451 Mediated Regulation of MDR-1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiayuan; Chen, Yitian; Li, Junyang; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Jing; Chen, Dongqin; Feng, Bing; Song, Haizhu; Feng, Jifeng; Wang, Rui; Chen, Longbang

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that expression of Notch-1 is associated with poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) patients. The aim of this study is to reveal whether Notch-1 was associated with Taxanes-resistant LAD and, the underlying mechanisms. We collected 39 patients of advanced LAD treated with Taxanes and found that positive Notch-1 expression is closely related to LAD lymph node metastasis, recurrence and poorer prognosis, and Notch-1 acts as an independent poor prognostic factor in LAD by multivariate analysis with Cox regression model. Then, by using the Docetaxel (DTX)-resistant LAD cell lines that we established previously, we found that Notch-1 contributes to resistance of LAD cells to DTX in vitro, and inhibition of Notch-1 sensitizes LAD to DTX in vivo. We further demonstrated that Notch-1 mediates chemoresistance response and strengthens proliferation capacity in LAD cells partially through negative regulation of miR-451 by transcription factor AP-1. Moreover, we found that MDR-1 is a direct target of miR-451 and influences chemoresistance of LAD cells. Taken together, our data revealed a novel Notch-1/AP-1/miR-451/MDR-1 signaling axis, and suggested a new therapeutic strategy of combining DTX with Notch inhibitors to treat DTX-resistant LAD.

  1. Influence of borneol and muscone on geniposide transport through MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cells as blood-brain barrier in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Zhen; Lu, Yang; Du, Shou-Ying; Shang, Ke-Xin; Cai, Cheng-Bo

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was (1) to characterize geniposide transport through MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cell lines to confirm its transport mechanism and (2) to evaluate the effect of borneol and muscone as enhancers of geniposide transport in the BBB models so as to explore the enhancement mechanism. Transport studies of geniposide were performed in both directions, from apical to basolateral and from basolateral to apical sides. Drug concentrations were analyzed by HPLC. Geniposide showed relatively poor absorption in MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cells, apparent permeability coefficients ranging from 0.323×10(-6) to 0.422×10(-6) cm/s. The in vitro experiments showed that geniposide transport in both directions was not concentration dependent and saturable, indicating purely passive diffusion. The efflux ratio of geniposide was less than 2 in the two cell models, which suggested that geniposide was not P-gp substrates. Geniposide transport in both directions significantly increased when co-administrated with increasing concentrations of borneol and muscone. Actin staining results indicated that borneol and muscone increased geniposide transport in the BBB models may attribute to disassembly effect on tight junction integrity.

  2. Inhibition of MDR1 gene expression and enhancing cellular uptake for effective colon cancer treatment using dual-surface–functionalized nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Mingzhen; Viennois, Emilie; Zhang, Yuchen; Wei, Na; Baker, Mark T.; Jung, Yunjin; Merlin, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine options for colon cancer therapy have been limited by the lack of suitable carriers capable of delivering sufficient drug into tumors to cause lethal toxicity. To circumvent this limitation, we fabricated a camptothecin (CPT)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle (NP) with dual-surface functionalization—Pluronic F127 and chitosan—for inhibiting multi-drug resistant gene 1 (MDR1) expression and enhancing tumor uptake. The resultant spherical NPs-P/C had a desirable particle size (~268 nm), slightly positive zeta-potential, and the ability to efficiently down-regulate the expression of MDR1. In vitro cytotoxicity tests revealed that the 24 and 48 h IC50 values of NPs-P/C1 were 2.03 and 0.67 µM, respectively, which were much lower than those for free CPT and other NPs. Interestingly, NPs-P/C1 showed the highest cellular uptake efficiency (approximately 85.5%) among the different drug formulations. Most importantly, treatment of colon tumor-bearing mice with various drug formulations confirmed that the introduction of Pluronic F127 and chitosan to the NP surface significantly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of CPT, induced tumor cell apoptosis, and reduced systemic toxicity. Collectively, these findings suggest that our one-step–fabricated, dual-surface–functionalized NPs may hold promise as a readily scalable and effective drug carrier with clinical potential in colon cancer therapy. PMID:25701040

  3. K13-propeller Alleles, Mdr1 Polymorphism, and Drug Effectiveness at Day 3 after Artemether-lumefantrine Treatment for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Colombia, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Madeline; Neal, Aaron T; Posada, Maritza; De Las Salas, Briegel; Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M; Fairhurst, Rick M; Tobon-Castaño, Alberto

    2017-09-25

    High treatment failure rates for Plasmodium falciparum malaria have been reported in Colombia for chloroquine, amodiaquine, and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Artemisinin combination therapies were introduced in 2006 in Colombia, where artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is currently used to treat uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Artemisinin (ART) resistance was initially observed in Southeast Asia as a delayed parasite clearance time, manifesting as a positive thick-blood smear on Day 3 after treatment (D3 positivity). Recently, mutations in the propeller domain of the P. falciparum kelch13 gene (K13-propeller) have been associated with ART resistance. In this study, we surveyed AL effectiveness at D3 and molecular markers of drug resistance among 187 uncomplicated P. falciparum cases in 4 regions of Colombia from June 2014 to July 2015. We found that 3.2% (4/125) of parasite isolates showed D3 positivity, 100% (163/163) of isolates carried wild-type K13-propeller alleles, 12.9% (23/178) of isolates had multiple copies of the multidrug resistance 1 gene (mdr1), and 75.8% (113/149) of isolates harbored the double-mutant NFSDD mdr1 haplotype. These data suggest that ART resistance is not currently suspected in Colombia, but that monitoring for lumefantrine resistance and AL failures should continue. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K.; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb–drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation. PMID:25377539

  5. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    1.This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. 2.Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. 3. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. 4.Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb-drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation.

  6. Minor compensatory changes in SAGE Mdr1a (P-gp), Bcrp, and Mrp2 knockout rats do not detract from their utility in the study of transporter-mediated pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J; Goldstein, Keith M; Paulman, April; Baker, Thomas K; Ryan, Timothy P

    2013-06-01

    Mdr1a-, Bcrp-, and Mrp2-knockout rats are a more practical species for absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies than murine models and previously demonstrated expected alterations in the pharmacokinetics of various probe substrates. At present, gene expression and pathology changes were systematically studied in the small intestine, liver, kidney, and brain tissue from male SAGE Mdr1a, Bcrp, and Mrp2 knockout rats versus wild-type Sprague-Dawley controls. Gene expression data supported the relevant knockout genotype. As expected, Mrp2 knockout rats were hyperbilirubinemic and exhibited upregulation of hepatic Mrp3. Overall, few alterations were observed within 112 ADME-relevant genes. The two potentially most consequential changes were upregulation of intestinal carboxylesterase in Mdr1a knockouts and catechol-O-methyltransferase in all tissues of Bcrp knockout rats. Previously reported upregulation of hepatic Mdr1b P-glycoprotein in proprietary Wistar Mdr1a knockout rats was not observed in the SAGE counterpart investigated herein. Relative liver and kidney weights were 22-53% higher in all three knockouts, with microscopic increases in hepatocyte size in Mdr1a and Mrp2 knockout rats and glomerular size in Bcrp and Mrp2 knockouts. Increased relative weight of clearing organs is quantitatively consistent with reported increases in the clearance of drugs that are not substrates of the knocked-out transporter. Overall, SAGE knockout rats demonstrated modest compensatory changes, which do not preclude their general application to study transporter-mediated pharmacokinetics. However, until future studies elucidate the magnitude of functional change, caution is warranted in rare instances of extensive metabolism by catechol-O-methyltransferase in Bcrp knockouts and intestinal carboxylesterase in Mdr1a knockout rats, specifically for molecules with free catechol groups and esters subject to gut-wall hydrolysis.

  7. Resveratrol induces AMPK-dependent MDR1 inhibition in colorectal cancer HCT116/L-OHP cells by preventing activation of NF-κB signaling and suppressing cAMP-responsive element transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Long; Ni, Zhenhua; Sun, Jian; Gao, Hong; Cheng, Zhuoan; Xu, Jianhua; Yin, Peihao

    2015-12-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound found in foods and beverages, has attracted increasing attention in recent years because of its potent chemopreventive and anti-tumor effects. In this study, the effects of resveratrol on the expression of P-glycoprotein/multi-drug resistance protein 1 (P-gp/MDR1), and the underlying molecular mechanisms, were investigated in oxaliplatin (L-OHP)-resistant colorectal cancer cells (HCT116/L-OHP). Resveratrol downregulated MDR1 protein and mRNA expression levels and reduced MDR1 promoter activity. It also enhanced the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123, suggesting that resveratrol can reverse multi-drug resistance by downregulating MDR1 expression and reducing drug efflux. Resveratrol treatment also reduced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, reduced phosphorylation levels of IκBα, and reduced nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65. Moreover, downregulation of MDR1 expression and promoter activity was mediated by resveratrol-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. The inhibitory effects of resveratrol on MDR1 expression and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were reversed by AMPKα siRNA transfection. We found that the transcriptional activity of cAMP-responsive element (CRE) was inhibited by resveratrol. These results demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on MDR1 expression in HCT116/L-OHP cells were closely associated with the inhibition of NF-κB signaling and CREB activation in an AMPK-dependent manner.

  8. Activity of a sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) in MDCK-MDR1 cells and mechanism of ascorbate uptake

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuanghui; Wang, Zhiying; Kansara, Viral; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to functionally characterize sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) in MDCK-MDR1 cells and to study the effect of substituted benzene derivatives on the intracellular accumulation of ascorbic acid (AA). Mechanism of AA uptake and transport was delineated. Uptake of [14C]ascorbic acid ([14C]AA) was studied in the absence and presence of excess unlabelled AA, anion transporter inhibitors, and a series of mono- and di- substituted benzenes. Transepithelial transport of [14C]AA across polarized cell membrane has been studied for the first time. Role of cellular protein kinase mediated pathways on the regulation of AA uptake has been investigated. The cellular localizations of SVCTs were observed using confocal microscopy. Uptake of AA was found to be saturable with a Km of 83.2 μM and Vmax of 94.2 pmol/min/mg protein for SVCT1. The process was pH, sodium, temperature, and energy dependent. It was under the regulation of cellular protein kinase C (PKC) and Ca2+/CaM mediated pathways. [14C]AA uptake was significantly inhibited in the presence of excess unlabelled AA and a series of electron-withdrawing group i.e. halogen- and nitro- substituted benzene derivatives. AA appears to translocate across polarized cell membrane from apical to basal side (A−B) as well as basal to apical side (B−A) at a similar permeability. It appears that SVCT1 was mainly expressed on the apical side and SVCT2 may be located on both apical and basal sides. In conclusion, SVCT has been functionally characterized in MDCK-MDR1 cells. The interference of a series of electrophile substituted benzenes on the AA uptake process may be explained by their structural similarity. SVCT may be targeted to facilitate the delivery of drugs with low bioavailability by conjugating with AA and its structural analogs. MDCK-MDR1 cell line may be utilized as an in vitro model to study the permeability of AA conjugated prodrugs. PMID:18417304

  9. Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp2 combination knockout mice: altered disposition of the dietary carcinogen PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and its genotoxic metabolites.

    PubMed

    Vlaming, Maria L H; Teunissen, Sebastiaan F; van de Steeg, Evita; van Esch, Anita; Wagenaar, Els; Brunsveld, Luc; de Greef, Tom F A; Rosing, Hilde; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2014-03-01

    The multidrug transporters breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MDR1), and multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 and 3 eliminate toxic compounds from tissues and the body and affect the pharmacokinetics of many drugs and other potentially toxic compounds. The food-derived carcinogen PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) is transported by BCRP, MDR1, and MRP2. To investigate the overlapping functions of Bcrp1, Mdr1a/b, and Mrp2 in vivo, we generated Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp2(-/-) mice, which are viable and fertile. These mice, together with Bcrp1;Mrp2;Mrp3(-/-) mice, were used to study the effects of the multidrug transporters on the pharmacokinetics of PhIP and its metabolites. Thirty minutes after oral or intravenous administration of PhIP (1 mg/kg), the PhIP levels in the small intestine were reduced 4- to 6-fold in Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp2(-/) (-) and Bcrp1;Mrp2;Mrp3(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Fecal excretion of PhIP was reduced 8- to 20-fold in knockouts. Biliary PhIP excretion was reduced 41-fold in Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp2(-/-) mice. Biliary and small intestine levels of PhIP metabolites were reduced in Bcrp1;Mrp2-deficient mice. Furthermore, in both knockout strains, kidney levels and urinary excretion of genotoxic PhIP-metabolites were significantly increased, suggesting that reduced biliary excretion of PhIP and PhIP metabolites leads to increased urinary excretion of these metabolites and increased systemic exposure. Bcrp1 and Mdr1a limited PhIP brain accumulation. In Bcrp1;Mrp2;Mrp3(-/-), but not Bcrp1;Mdr1a/b;Mrp(-/-) mice, the carcinogenic metabolites N2-OH-PhIP (2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and PhIP-5-sulfate (a genotoxicity marker) accumulated in liver tissue, indicating that Mrp3 is involved in the sinusoidal secretion of these compounds. We conclude that Bcrp1, Mdr1a/b, Mrp2, and Mrp3 significantly affect tissue disposition and biliary and fecal elimination of Ph

  10. Suppression of MAPK Signaling and Reversal of mTOR-Dependent MDR1-Associated Multidrug Resistance by 21α-Methylmelianodiol in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aldonza, Mark Borris Docdoc; Hong, Ji-Young; Bae, Song Yi; Song, Jayoung; Kim, Won Kyung; Oh, Jedo; Shin, Yoonho; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Sang Kook

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and remains the most prevalent. Interplay between PI3K/AMPK/AKT and MAPK pathways is a crucial effector in lung cancer growth and progression. These signals transduction protein kinases serve as good therapeutic targets for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which comprises up to 90% of lung cancers. Here, we described whether 21α-Methylmelianodiol (21α-MMD), an active triterpenoid derivative of Poncirus trifoliate, can display anticancer properties by regulating these signals and modulate the occurrence of multidrug resistance in NSCLC cells. We found that 21α-MMD inhibited the growth and colony formation of lung cancer cells without affecting the normal lung cell phenotype. 21α-MMD also abrogated the metastatic activity of lung cancer cells through the inhibition of cell migration and invasion, and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest with increased intracellular ROS generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. 21α-MMD regulated the expressions of PI3K/AKT/AMPK and MAPK signaling which drove us to further evaluate its activity on multidrug resistance (MDR) in lung cancer cells by specifying on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/MDR1-association. Employing the established paclitaxel-resistant A549 cells (A549-PacR), we further found that 21α-MMD induced a MDR reversal activity through the inhibition of P-gp/MDR1 expressions, function, and transcription with regained paclitaxel sensitivity which might dependently correlate to the regulation of PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, the mechanistic evaluation in vitro of 21α-MMD displaying growth-inhibiting potential with influence on MDR reversal in human lung cancer cells. PMID:26098947

  11. Mitochondrial genome depletion dysregulates bile acid- and paracetamol-induced expression of the transporters Mdr1, Mrp1 and Mrp4 in liver cells

    PubMed Central

    Perez, MJ; Gonzalez-Sanchez, E; Gonzalez-Loyola, A; Gonzalez-Buitrago, JM; Marin, JJG

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Mitochondria are involved in the toxicity of several compounds, retro-control of gene expression and apoptosis activation. The effect of mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) depletion on changes in ABC transporter protein expression in response to bile acids and paracetamol was investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Hepa 1-6 mouse hepatoma cells with 70% decrease in 16S/18S rRNA ratio (Rho cells) were obtained by long-term treatment with ethidium bromide. KEY RESULTS Spontaneous apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were decreased in Rho cells. Following glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) or paracetamol, Rho cells generated less ROS and were more resistant to cell death. Apoptosis induced by GCDCA and Fas was also reduced. The basal expression of Mdr1 was significantly enhanced, but this was not further stimulated by GCDCA or paracetamol, as observed in wild-type (WT) cells. Basal expression of Mrp1 and Mrp4 was similar in WT and Rho cells, whereas they were up-regulated only in WT cells after GCDCA or paracetamol, along with the transcription factors Shp and Nrf2, but not Fxr or Pxr. Increased expression of Nrf2 was accompanied by its enhanced nuclear translocation. Glycoursodeoxycholic acid failed to cause any of the effects observed for GCDCA or paracetamol. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The Nrf2-mediated pathway is partly independent of ROS production. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 is insufficient to up-regulate Mdr1, Mrp1 and Mrp4, which requires the participation of other regulatory element(s) whose activation in response to GCDCA and paracetamol is impaired in Rho cells and hence probably sensitive to ROS. PMID:21175587

  12. Inhibitory effect of phospholipids on P-glycoprotein: cellular studies in Caco-2, MDCKII mdr1 and MDCKII wildtype cells and P-gp ATPase activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Simon, S; Schubert, R

    2012-09-01

    Phospholipids are widely used excipients for pharmaceutical formulations, such as for preparing biphasic systems or to solubilize or encapsulate poorly soluble drugs. The present study investigates a new property of this class of substance: its ability to inhibit the efflux transporter Pglycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp is expressed in the intestinal epithelium, thereby significantly impairing the systemic absorption of various pharmaceutically active substances. The phospholipid screening performed in this study involved derivatives with different headgroups and fatty acid residues and a number of experimental parameters. For in vitro studies we carried out transport experiments and calcein accumulation assays in Caco-2- and MDCKII mdr1 and wildtype cell lines. The three compounds which displayed significant P-gp inhibition in both assays and in Caco-2 as well as in MDCKII mdr1, consisted of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and either two saturated fatty acid residues of eight (8:0 PC) or ten carbon atoms (10:0 PC), or of two unsaturated docosahexaeonic acid residues (cis-22:6 PC).Supported by P-gp ATPase activity measurements, 8:0 and 10:0 PC were assumed to function as direct P-gp inhibitors interacting with the transporter probably in their monomeric state, whereas a different, as yet unknown mechanism of action applied for cis-22:6 PC.Because of their proven ability to significantly inhibit P-gp in vitro, these phospholipids shall further be elucidated in vivo, whether they may truly serve to increase the bioavailability of orally applied drugs with a P-gp substrate character.

  13. Fast and simple detection methods for the 4-base pair deletion of canine MDR1/ ABCB1 gene by PCR and isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Stiedl, Cathrin P; Weber, Karin

    2017-03-01

    Dogs with a 4-bp deletion in the MDR1 (or ABCB1) gene show intolerance to certain drugs routinely used in veterinary medicine, such as ivermectin, vincristine, and doxorubicin. The mutation leads to a dysfunctional P-glycoprotein drug transporter, which results in drug accumulation in the brain and severe neurotoxicity. A rapid and accurate in-house test to determine the genotype of patients in cases of acute neurotoxic signs or in tumor patients is desirable. We describe a cost-effective detection method with simple technical equipment for veterinary practice. Two allele-specific methods are presented, which allow discrimination of all genotypes, require little hands-on time, and show the results within ~1 h after DNA sampling. DNA from buccal swabs of 115 dogs with known genotype (no mutation, n = 54; heterozygous for the mutation, n = 37; homozygous for the mutation, n = 24) was extracted either by using a column-based extraction kit or by heating swabs in a simple NaOH-Tris buffer. Amplification was performed either by allele-specific fast polymerase chain reaction or by allele-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Analysis was done either on agarose gels, by simple endpoint visualization using ultraviolet light, or by measuring the increase of fluorescence and time to threshold crossing. Commercial master mixes reduced the preparation time and minimized sources of error in both methods. Both methods allowed the discrimination of all 3 genotypes, and the results of the new methods matched the results of the previous genotyping. The presented methods could be used for fast individual MDR1/ ABCB1 genotyping with less equipment than existing methods.

  14. Lathyrol and epoxylathyrol derivatives: Modulation of Cdr1p and Mdr1p drug-efflux transporters of Candida albicans in Saccharomyces cerevisiae model.

    PubMed

    Mónico, Andreia; Nim, Shweta; Duarte, Noélia; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Prasad, Rajendra; Di Pietro, Attilio; Ferreira, Maria-José U

    2017-07-01

    Macrocyclic diterpenes were previously found to be able to modulate the efflux pump activity of Candida albicans multidrug transporters. Most of these compounds were jatrophanes, but only a few number of lathyrane-type diterpenes was evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of nineteen structurally-related lathyrane diterpenes (1-19) to overcome the drug-efflux activity of Cdr1p and Mdr1p transporters of C. albicans, and get some insights on their structure-activity relationships. The transport assay was performed by monitoring Nile Red (NR) efflux in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain overexpressing the referred efflux pumps from C. albicans. Moreover, a chemosensitization assay was performed in order to evaluate the type of interaction between the inhibitory compounds and the antifungal drug fluconazole. Compounds 1-13 were previously isolated from Euphorbia boetica or obtained by derivatization, and compounds 14-19 were prepared by chemical transformations of compound 4. In the transport assays, compounds 14-19 revealed the strongest inhibitory activity of the Cdr1p efflux pump, ranging from 65 to 85%. Concerning Mdr1p efflux pump, the most active compounds were 1, 3, 6, 8, and 12 (75-85%). When used in combination with fluconazole, epoxyboetirane K (2) and euphoboetirane N (18) revealed synergistic effects in the AD-CDR1 yeast strain, overexpressing the Cdr1p transporter, through their ability to reduce the effective concentration of the antifungal drug by 23- and 52-fold, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modulation of the Cellular Accumulation and Intracellular Activity of Daptomycin towards Phagocytized Staphylococcus aureus by the P-Glycoprotein (MDR1) Efflux Transporter in Human THP-1 Macrophages and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Tulkens, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1), a major efflux transporter, recognizes various antibiotics and is present in macrophages. We have examined its effect on the modulation of the intracellular accumulation and activity of daptomycin towards phagocytized Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) in human THP-1 macrophages, in comparison with MDCK epithelial cells (wild type and MDCK-MDR1 overexpressing P-gp; the bulk of the protein was immunodetected at the surface of all three cell types). Daptomycin displayed concentration-dependent intracellular activity (Hill equation pattern) in THP-1 and MDCK cells with (i) 50% effective drug extracellular concentration (EC50; relative potency) and static concentrations at 9 to 10 times the MIC and (ii) maximal efficacy (Emax; CFU decrease at infinite extracellular drug concentration) at 1.6 to 2 log compared to that of the postphagocytosis inoculum. Verapamil (100 μM) and elacridar (GF 120918; 0.5 μM), two known inhibitors of P-gp, decreased daptomycin EC50 (about threefold) in THP-1 and MDCK cells without affecting Emax. Daptomycin EC50 was about three- to fourfold higher and accumulation in MDCK-MDR1 commensurately lower than in wild-type cells. In THP-1 macrophages, (i) verapamil and ATP depletion increased, and ouabain (an inducer of mdr1 [the gene encoding P-gp] expression) decreased the accumulation of daptomycin in parallel with that of DiOC2 (a known substrate of P-gp); (ii) silencing mdr1 with duplex human mdr1 siRNAs reduced the cell content in immunoreactive P-gp to 15 to 30% of controls and caused an eight- to 13-fold increase in daptomycin accumulation. We conclude that daptomycin is subject to efflux from THP-1 macrophages and MDCK cells by P-gp, which reduces its intracellular activity against phagocytized S. aureus. PMID:17548493

  16. Induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf through constitutive androstane receptor- and pregnane X receptor-mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Wang, Qi; Yao, Xiaomin; Li, Yan

    2010-08-25

    The herbal products baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf have multiple pharmacological effects and are extensively used in alternative and/or complementary therapies. The present study investigated whether baicalin, baicalein, chlorogenic acid, and ginsenoside Rf induced the expression of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes through the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor pathways. Real time PCR, western blotting, and a luminescent assay were used to assess the induction of gene expression and activity of CYP3A4 and MDR1 by the test compounds. The interactions of baicalein/chlorogenic acid/ginsenoside Rf with constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor were evaluated using luciferase reporter and gel shift assays. Baicalein induced the expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 mRNA by activating pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. Chlorogenic acid and ginsenoside Rf showed a relatively weak effect on CYP3A4 promoter activation only in HepG2 cells cotransfected with constitutive androstane receptor and demonstrated no effects on MDR1 via either the constitutive androstane receptor or pregnane X receptor pathway. Baicalin had no effect on either CYP3A4 or MDR1 gene expression. In conclusion, baicalein has the potential to up-regulate CYP3A4 and MDR1 through the direct activation of the constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor pathways. Chlorogenic acid and ginsenoside Rf only induced constitutive androstane receptor-mediated CYP3A4 expression.

  17. By inhibiting Src, verapamil and dasatinib overcome multidrug resistance via increased expression of Bim and decreased expressions of MDR1 and survivin in human multidrug-resistant myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Komai, Makiko; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Shimaoka, Hirotaka; Takeda, Tomoya; Ogawa, Naoki; Mashimo, Kenji; Fujiwara, Daiichiro; Mukai, Junji; Sakaguchi, Katsuhiko; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

    2014-01-01

    The calcium channel blocker verapamil inhibits the transport function of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Although verapamil acts to reverse MDR in cancer cells, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of reversing MDR by verapamil in anti-cancer drug-resistant multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines. We found that verapamil suppresses MDR1 and survivin expressions and increases Bim expression via suppression of Src activation. Furthermore, dasatinib reversed the drug-resistance of the drug-resistant cell lines. These findings suggest that Src inhibitors are potentially useful as an anti-MDR agent for the treatment of malignant tumor cells.

  18. Solanum nigrum Unripe fruit fraction attenuates Adriamycin resistance by down-regulating multi-drug resistance protein (Mdr)-1 through Jak-STAT pathway.

    PubMed

    Jagadeeshan, Sankar; David, Diana; Jisha, S; Manjula, S; Asha Nair, S

    2017-07-18

    Solanum nigrum, herbal plant that commonly grows in temperate climate zone, has been used as a traditional folk medicine whose ripen fruits were proven to exhibit anti-tumor properties. In traditional Chinese medicine, it has been used for centuries to cure inflammation, edema, mastitis and hepatic cancer and in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine in India, S. nigrum is applied against enteric diseases, ulcer, diarrhea and skin diseases. A methanolic glycosidic extract fraction of unripe fruit of S. nigrum (SNME) was investigated for its anticancer property and possible mechanism to surmount adriamycin resistance in NCI/ADR-RES cells. The NCI/ADR-RES cells were treated with 7.8125, 15.625, 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 μg/ml of methanolic extract of S. nigrum (SNME) for 12, 24 and 48 h, to check the cell viability and proliferation. The cells were also exposed to adriamycin alone or in combination with SNME and the effects on cell growth were determined by MTT. Cell cycle analysis, Ethidium bromide and Acridine orange staining, Annexin-binding efficiency, nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation of the apoptotic NCI/ADR-RES cells were also determined. To elucidate the relationship between SNME and multi drug resistance, we analyzed the expression levels of Mdr-1, JAK1, STAT3, and pSTAT3 in NCI/ADR-RES cells after treatment with SNME. Results from the cytotoxicity assay showed a direct correlation between the concentration of methanolic glycosidic extract fraction of S. nigrum (SNME) and the surviving cell population. Combination with Adriamycin, SNME exhibits a synergistic action on NCI/ADR-RES cells, giving the first line of evidence to overcoming Adriamycin resistance. The SNME mediated cell growth suppression was proven to be apoptotic, based on results obtained from DNA fragmentation, annexin V apoptosis assaay and PARP cleavage analysis. Looking into the molecular insight SNME surpasses the chemoresistance of NCI/ADR-RES cells by inhibiting the JAK

  19. Direct genotyping of C3435T single nucleotide polymorphism in unamplified human MDR1 gene using a surface plasmon resonance imaging DNA sensor.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Stefano; Scarano, Simona; Carrai, Maura; Barale, Roberto; Minunni, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Optical genotyping of C3435T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in unamplified human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene was here performed by a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) dual-targeting DNA assay, allowing its selective detection down to 0.18 fM of the whole genomic DNA. The result was achieved by the combination of the rational selection of the DNA probe and an optimized sample pretreatment (i.e., ultrasound fragmentation and thermal denaturation). Some assay developments and tunings were reported in a previously published research, but here, for the first time, the biosensor reliability and its analytical performance were directly tested on the unamplified human DNA extracted from lymphocytes. The assay resulted to be able to differentiate among all the possible genotypes of C3435T (homozygote and heterozygote) in the diluted genomic samples using a label-free approach and by bypassing the classical PCR amplification of the target sequences. Moreover, the reusability of the DNA-based chip allowed up to 40 subsequent measuring cycles, opening new horizons in multi-SNP genotyping based on cheap and daily routine clinical monitoring by optical biosensing.

  20. IL-17A exacerbates cisplatin-based resistance of OVCA via upregulating the expression of ABCG2 and MDR1 through Gli1-mediated Hh signaling.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiulong; Liu, Wenxing; Wang, Yue; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Zhijun; Li, Hongzhao; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Deng, Weimin

    2016-07-18

    The major obstacle of the tumor chemotherapy, including ovarian cancer (OVCA), is drug resistance. However, the relevance of IL-17A with drug-resistance of OVCA has been poorly elaborated. In this study, we used 2 human OVCA cell lines to investigate the effects of IL-17A on cisplatin (CDDP or DDP)-based resistance in OVCA cells and the underlying mechanisms. Meanwhile, IL-17A-deficient mice and ID8 were used to verify the IL-17A's effects on OVCA chemo-resistance in vivo. Moreover, the relationship between IL-17A level and relevant indices were primarily assessed in ovarian specimens from 55 patients with OVCA. We found that rhIL-17A exacerbated DDP-based resistance of OVCA cells via up-regulating the expression of ABCG2 and MDR1 through Gli1-mediated Hh signal pathway. Animal experiment demonstrated that IL-17A significantly recede DDP-based treatment for ID8 tumor. Similar results were observed in preliminary clinical investigation. Our findings suggest that inhibiting IL-17A/IL-17RA-Gli1 signal may improve the resistance of OVCA to DDP.

  1. Genomewide Scan Reveals Amplification of mdr1 as a Common Denominator of Resistance to Mefloquine, Lumefantrine, and Artemisinin in Plasmodium chabaudi Malaria Parasites▿†‡

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Sofia; Cravo, Pedro; Creasey, Alison; Fawcett, Richard; Modrzynska, Katarzyna; Rodrigues, Louise; Martinelli, Axel; Hunt, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites pose a threat to effective drug control, even to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Here we used linkage group selection and Solexa whole-genome resequencing to investigate the genetic basis of resistance to component drugs of ACTs. Using the rodent malaria parasite P. chabaudi, we analyzed the uncloned progeny of a genetic backcross between the mefloquine-, lumefantrine-, and artemisinin-resistant mutant AS-15MF and a genetically distinct sensitive clone, AJ, following drug treatment. Genomewide scans of selection showed that parasites surviving each drug treatment bore a duplication of a segment of chromosome 12 (translocated to chromosome 04) present in AS-15MF. Whole-genome resequencing identified the size of the duplicated segment and its position on chromosome 4. The duplicated fragment extends for ∼393 kbp and contains over 100 genes, including mdr1, encoding the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein homologue 1. We therefore show that resistance to chemically distinct components of ACTs is mediated by the same genetic mutation, highlighting a possible limitation of these therapies. PMID:21709099

  2. Quantitative and Mechanistic Assessment of Model Lipophilic Drugs in Micellar Solutions in the Transport Kinetics Across MDR1-MDCK Cell Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Norman F H; Nielsen, James; Peterson, Michelle; Burton, Philip S

    2016-02-01

    An approach to characterizing P-glycoprotein (Pgp) interaction potential for sparingly water-soluble compounds was developed using bidirectional transport kinetics in MDR1-MDCK cell monolayers. Paclitaxel, solubilized in a dilute polysorbate 80 (PS80) micellar solution, was used as a practical example. Although the passage of paclitaxel across the cell monolayer was initially governed by the thermodynamic activity of the micelle-solubilized drug solution, Pgp inhibition was sustained by the thermodynamic activity (i.e., critical micelle concentration) of the PS80 micellar solution bathing the apical (ap) membrane. The mechanistic understanding of the experimental strategies and treatment of data was supported by a biophysical model expressed in the form of transport events occurring at the ap and basolateral (bl) membranes in series whereas the vectorial directions of the transcellular kinetics were accommodated. The derived equations permitted the stepwise quantitative delineation of the Pgp efflux activity (inhibited and uninhibited by PS80) and the passive permeability coefficient of the ap membrane, the passive permeability at the bl membrane and, finally, the distinct coupling of these with efflux pump activity to identify the rate-determining steps and mechanisms. The Jmax/KM(∗) for paclitaxel was in the order of 10(-4) cm/s and the ap- and bl-membrane passive permeability coefficients were asymmetric, with bl-membrane permeability significantly greater than ap. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD influence the expression of MDR-1, MRP-1, and BCRP mRNA but not LRP mRNA assessed with RQ-PCR method in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nasilowska-Adamska, Barbara; Solarska, Iwona; Paluszewska, Monika; Malinowska, Iwona; Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw W; Warzocha, Krzysztof

    2014-04-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) and mixed-lineage leukemia gene-partial tandem duplication (MLL-PTD) are aberrations associated with leukemia which indicate unsatisfactory prognosis. Downstream regulatory targets of FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD are not well defined. We have analyzed the expression of MDR-1, multidrug resistant protein-1 (MRP-1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and lung resistance protein (LRP) messenger RNA (mRNA) in relation to the mutational status of FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD in 185 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) adult patients. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was performed to assess the expression of the MDR-1, MRP-1, BCRP, and LRP mRNA, and the results were presented as coefficients calculated using an intermediate method according to Pfaffl's rule. Significantly higher expressions of MDR-1 mRNA were found in patients who did not harbor FLT3-ITD (0.20 vs. 0.05; p = 0.0001) and MRP-1 mRNA in patients with this mutation (0.96 vs. 0.70; p = 0.002) and of BCRP mRNA in patients with MLL-PTD (0.61 vs. 0.38; p = 0.03). In univariate analysis, the high expression of MDR-1 mRNA (≥0.1317) negatively influenced the outcome of induction therapy (p = 0.05), whereas the high expression of BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) was associated with a high relapse rate (RR) (p = 0.013). We found that the high expression of MDR-1 (≥0.1317), MRP-1 (≥0.8409), and BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) significantly influenced disease-free survival (DFS; p = 0.059, 0.032, and 0.009, respectively) and overall survival (0.048, 0.014, and 0.059, respectively). Moreover, a high expression of BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) proved to be an independent prognostic factor for RR (p = 0.01) and DFS (p = 0.002) in multivariate analysis. The significant correlation between the expression of MDR-1, MRP-1, and BCRP mRNA and FLT3-ITD or MLL-PTD in AML patients requires further investigation.

  4. Interrogation of multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) expression in human pancreatic carcinoma cells: correlation of 99mTc-Sestamibi uptake with western blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Harpstrite, Scott E; Gu, Hannah; Natarajan, Radhika; Sharma, Vijay

    2014-10-01

    Histopathological studies indicate that ∼63% of pancreatic tumors express multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and its polymorphic variants. However, Pgp expression detected at the mRNA or protein level does not always correlate with functional transport activity. Because Pgp transport activity is affected by specific mutations and the phosphorylation state of the protein, altered or less active forms of Pgp may also be detected by PCR or immunohistochemistry, which do not accurately reflect the status of tumor cell resistance. To interrogate the status of the functional expression of MDR1 Pgp in MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells, cellular transport studies using Tc-Sestamibi were performed and correlated with western blot analysis. Biochemical transport assays in human pancreatic carcinoma MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells, human epidermal carcinoma drug-sensitive KB-3-1 cells, and human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells (negative controls), and human epidermal carcinoma drug-resistant KB-8-5 cells, human breast carcinoma stably transfected with Pgp MCF-7/MDR1Pgp cells, and liver carcinoma HepG2 cells (positive controls) were performed. Protein levels were determined using a monoclonal antibody C219. Tc-Sestamibi demonstrates accumulation in human pancreatic carcinoma MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells. Uptake profiles are not affected by treatment with LY335979, a Pgp inhibitor, and correlate with western blot analysis. These cellular transport studies indicate an absence of Pgp at a functional level in MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells. Because major pancreatic tumors originate from the pancreatic duct and Tc-Sestamibi undergoes a dominant hepatobiliary mode of excretion, it would not be a sensitive probe for imaging pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Following interrogation of the functional status of Pgp in other pancreatic carcinoma cells, chemotherapeutic drugs that are also MDR1 substrates could offer alternative therapeutics for treating pancreatic adenocarcinomas.

  5. AZT and emodin exhibit synergistic growth-inhibitory effects on K562/ADM cells by inducing S phase cell cycle arrest and suppressing MDR1 mRNA/p-gp protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Liu, Yingxia; Sun, Yanqing; Chen, Che; Qi, Yongmei; Zhang, Yingmei

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that both 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and emodin, a traditional chemotherapy agent, can inhibit the growth of many types of cancer cells. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of AZT and emodin on adriamycin-resistant human chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562/ADM) cells, determine the expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) mRNA/p-glycoprotein (p-gp) protein, a protein known to induce resistance to anticancer agents, and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. K562/ADM cells were treated with AZT (10-160 μM) or emodin (5-80 μM) for 24, 48 and 72 h and cell viability was measured using the MTT assay. The effect of AZT (16.5, 33 and 66 μM) and emodin (6.1, 17.6 and 33.2 μM) on K562/ADM cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry, and MDR1 mRNA/p-gp protein expression was determined by real time RT-PCR and western blotting. The growth suppression of emodin was dramatically enhanced by AZT in K562/ADM cells. The IC50 of AZT and emodin was lower than that of emodin alone. All examined combinations of AZT and emodin yielded a synergetic effect (CI < 1). Furthermore, AZT and emodin altered the cell cycle distribution and led to an accumulation of cells in S phase. Meanwhile, the expression of MDR1 mRNA/p-gp protein was markedly decreased. These results show a synergistic growth-inhibitory effect of AZT and emodin in K562/ADM cells, which is achieved through S phase arrest. MDR1 might ultimately be responsible for these phenomena.

  6. [Effect of different heating methods combined with neferine on the expressions of γH2AX and mdr-1/P-gp in MCF-7/Adr breast cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenghui; Cao, Peiguo; Xie, Zhaoxia; Zhu, Hong

    2011-04-01

    To determine the effect of different heating Methods combined with neferine(Nef) on the proliferation and expressions of γH2AX and mdr-1/P-gp in MCF-7/Adr breast cancer cells. MTT assay was used to determine block heating, water submerged heating, medium heating, and oven heating combined with 10 μg/mL Nef on adriamycin cultured MCF-7/Adr cell proliferation. The mdr-1mRNA expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. γH2AX and P-gp expressions were detected by Western blot. The absorbance values of MCF-7/Adr cells in different heating groups at 42 degree and 45 degree were significantly decreased, the mdr-1/P-gp expression was decreased, and γH2AX expression was upregulated compared with those of the 37 degree control group (all P<0.01). The absorbance values (P<0.01) and mdr-1/P-gp expression(P<0.05) were significantly lower and γH2AX expression(P<0.05) was significantly higher in the hyperthermia combined with 10 μg/mL Nef group than those of 10 μg/mL Nef group and hyperthermia group in MCF-7/Adr cells. The water submerged heating group had the lowest P-gp expression and the highest γH2AX expression among different heating groups at 42 degree and 45 degree in MCF-7/Adr cells (P<0.05). Hyperthermia can increase the cell toxicity of adriamycin to multidrug resistant breast cancer cells. Hyperthermia significantly damages DNA of MCF-7/Adr cells and the higher temperature, the worse effect. Multidrug resistant breast cancer cells may respond differently to the different heating methods. Combined treatment of hyperthermia with Nef can increase the sensitivity in adriamycin chemotherapy.

  7. Design, synthesis, and biological activities of novel hexahydropyrazino[1,2-a]indole derivatives as potent inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins antagonists with improved membrane permeability across MDR1 expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Shiokawa, Zenyu; Hashimoto, Kentaro; Saito, Bunnai; Oguro, Yuya; Sumi, Hiroyuki; Yabuki, Masato; Yoshimatsu, Mie; Kosugi, Yohei; Debori, Yasuyuki; Morishita, Nao; Dougan, Douglas R; Snell, Gyorgy P; Yoshida, Sei; Ishikawa, Tomoyasu

    2013-12-15

    We previously reported octahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivative 2 (T-3256336) as a potent antagonist for inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins. Because compound 2 was susceptible to MDR1 mediated efflux, we developed another scaffold, hexahydropyrazino[1,2-a]indole, using structure-based drug design. The fused benzene ring of this scaffold was aimed at increasing the lipophilicity and decreasing the basicity of the scaffold to improve the membrane permeability across MDR1 expressing cells. We established a chiral pool synthetic route to yield the desired tricyclic chiral isomers. Chemical modification of the core scaffold led to a representative compound 50, which showed strong inhibition of IAP binding (X chromosome-linked IAP [XIAP]: IC50 23 nM and cellular IAP [cIAP]: IC50 1.1 nM) and cell growth inhibition (MDA-MB-231 cells: GI50 2.8 nM) with high permeability and low potential of MDR1 substrate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of 309 molecules as inducers of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP1A2, OATP1B1, OCT1, MDR1, MRP2, MRP3 and BCRP in cryopreserved human hepatocytes in sandwich culture.

    PubMed

    Badolo, Lassina; Jensen, Bente; Säll, Carolina; Norinder, Ulf; Kallunki, Pekka; Montanari, Dino

    2015-02-01

    1. Regulation of hepatic metabolism or transport may lead to increase in drug clearance and compromise efficacy or safety. In this study, cryopreserved human hepatocytes were used to assess the effect of 309 compounds on the activity and mRNA expression (using qPCR techniques) of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, as well as mRNA expression of six hepatic transport proteins: OATP1B1 (SCLO1B1), OCT1 (SLC22A1), MDR1 (ABCB1), MRP2 (ABCC2), MRP3 (ABCC3) and BCRP (ABCG2). 2. The results showed that 6% of compounds induced CYP1A2 activity (1.5-fold increase); 30% induced CYP2B6 while 23% induced CYP3A4. qPCR data identified 16, 33 or 32% inducers of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 or CYP3A4, respectively. MRP2 was induced by 27 compounds followed by MDR1 (16)>BCRP (9)>OCT1 (8)>OATP1B1 (5)>MRP3 (2). 3. CYP3A4 appeared to be down-regulated (≥2-fold decrease in mRNA expression) by 53 compounds, 10 for CYP2B6, 6 for OCT1, 4 for BCRP, 2 for CYP1A2 and OATP1B1 and 1 for MDR1 and MRP2. 4. Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 inducers are bulky lipophilic molecules with a higher number of heavy atoms and a lower number of hydrogen bond donors. Finally, a strategy for testing CYP inducers in drug discovery is proposed.

  9. Changes in the Expression of miR-381 and miR-495 Are Inversely Associated with the Expression of the MDR1 Gene and Development of Multi-Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Ohms, Stephen J.; Li, Zhen; Wang, Qiao; Gong, Guangming; Hu, Yiqiao; Mao, Zhiyong; Shannon, M. Frances; Fan, Jun Y.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) frequently develops in cancer patients exposed to chemotherapeutic agents and is usually brought about by over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which acts as a drug efflux pump to reduce the intracellular concentration of the drug(s). Thus, inhibiting P-gp expression might assist in overcoming MDR in cancer chemotherapy. MiRNAome profiling using next-generation sequencing identified differentially expressed microRNAs (miRs) between parental K562 cells and MDR K562 cells (K562/ADM) induced by adriamycin treatment. Two miRs, miR-381 and miR-495, that were strongly down-regulated in K562/ADM cells, are validated to target the 3’-UTR of the MDR1 gene. These miRs are located within a miR cluster located at chromosome region 14q32.31, and all miRs in this cluster appear to be down-regulated in K562/ADM cells. Functional analysis indicated that restoring expression of miR-381 or miR-495 in K562/ADM cells was correlated with reduced expression of the MDR1 gene and its protein product, P-gp, and increased drug uptake by the cells. Thus, we have demonstrated that changing the levels of certain miR species modulates the MDR phenotype in leukemia cells, and propose further exploration of the use of miR-based therapies to overcome MDR. PMID:24303078

  10. The putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan does not affect the transcellular permeability and cellular uptake of the calcium channel antagonist verapamil in the P-glycoprotein expressing cell line MDCK II MDR1

    PubMed Central

    Saaby, Lasse; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Brodin, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Verapamil is used in high doses for the treatment of cluster headache. Verapamil has been described as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) substrate. We wished to evaluate in vitro whether co administration of a P-gp inhibitor with verapamil could be a feasible strategy for increasing CNS uptake of verapamil. Fluxes of radiolabelled verapamil across MDCK II MDR1 monolayers were measured in the absence and presence of the putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan (a clinically approved drug compound). Verapamil displayed a vectorial basolateral-to-apical transepithelial efflux across the MDCK II MDR1 monolayers with a permeability of 5.7 × 10−5 cm sec−1 compared to an apical to basolateral permeability of 1.3 × 10−5 cm sec-1. The efflux could be inhibited with the P-gp inhibitor zosuquidar. Zosuquidar (0.4 μmol/L) reduced the efflux ratio (PB-A/PA-B) for verapamil 4.6–1.6. The presence of telmisartan, however, only caused a slight reduction in P-gp-mediated verapamil transport to an efflux ratio of 3.4. Overall, the results of the present in vitro approach indicate, that clinical use of telmisartan as a P-gp inhibitor may not be an effective strategy for increasing brain uptake of verapamil by co-administration with telmisartan. PMID:26171231

  11. Elucidation of Transport Mechanism of Paeoniflorin and the Influence of Ligustilide, Senkyunolide I and Senkyunolide A on Paeoniflorin Transport through Mdck-Mdr1 Cells as Blood-Brain Barrier in Vitro Model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng-Yi; Liu, Dan; Zheng, Qin; Wu, Qing; Tang, Yu; Yang, Ming

    2016-03-02

    The objectives of the present investigation were to: (1) elucidate the transport mechanism of paeoniflorin (PF) across MDCK-MDR1 monolayers; and (2) evaluate the effect of ligustilide (LIG), senkyunolide I (SENI) and senkyunolide A (SENA) on the transport of PF through blood-brain barrier so as to explore the enhancement mechanism. Transport studies of PF were performed in both directions, from apical to basolateral side (A→B) and from basolateral to apical sides (B→A). Drug concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. PF showed relatively poor absorption in MDCK-MDR1 cells, apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) ranging from 0.587 × 10(-6) to 0.705 × 10(-6) cm/s. In vitro experiments showed that the transport of PF in both directions was concentration dependent and not saturable. The B→A/A→B permeability ER of PF was more than 2 in the MDCK-MDR1 cells, which indicated that the transport mechanism of PF might be passive diffusion as the dominating process with the active transportation mediated mechanism involved. The increased Papp of PF in A→B direction by EDTA-Na₂ suggested that PF was absorbed via the paracellular route. The P-gp inhibitor verapamil could significantly increase the transport of PF in A→B direction, and ER decreased from 2.210 to 0.690, which indicated that PF was P-gp substance. The transport of PF in A→B direction significantly increased when co-administrated with increasing concentrations of LIG, SENI and SENA. An increased cellular accumulation of Rho 123 and Western blot analysis indicated that LIG, SENI and SENA had increased the transport of PF in the BBB models attribute to down-regulate P-gp expression. A decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) during the permeation experiment can be explained by the modulation and opening of the tight junctions caused by the permeation enhancer LIG, SENI and SENA.

  12. Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles induce apoptotic cell death through regulation of the function of MDR1 and reactive oxygen species in cisplatin-resistant CAR human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pei-Ying; Peng, Shu-Fen; Lee, Chao-Ying; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Wu, Tian-Shung; Tu, Ming-Gene; Chen, Michael Yuanchien; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2013-10-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound which possesses anticancer potential. It has been shown to induce cell death in a variety of cancer cells, however, its effect on CAL27‑cisplatin-resistant human oral cancer cells (CAR cells) has not been elucidated to date. The low water solubility of curcumin which leads to poor bioavailability, however, has been highlighted as a major limiting factor. In this study, we utilized water-soluble PLGA curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-NPs), and investigated the effects of Cur-NPs on CAR cells. The results showed Cur-NPs induced apoptosis in CAR cells but exhibited low cytotoxicity to normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and normal human oral keratinocytes (OKs). Cur-NPs triggered DNA concentration, fragmentation and subsequent apoptosis. Compared to untreated CAR cells, a more detectable amount of Calcein-AM accumulation was found inside the treated CAR cells. Cur-NPs suppressed the protein and mRNA expression levels of MDR1. Both the activity and the expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were elevated in the treated CAR cells. The Cur-NP-triggered apoptosis was blocked by specific inhibitors of pan-caspase (z-VAD-fmk), caspase-3 (z-DEVD-fmk), caspase-9 (z-LEHD-fmk) and antioxidant agent (N-acetylcysteine; NAC). Cur-NPs increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, upregulated the protein expression levels of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-9, cytochrome c, Apaf-1, AIF, Bax and downregulated the protein levels of Bcl-2. Our results suggest that Cur-NPs triggered the intrinsic apoptotic pathway through regulating the function of multiple drug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CAR cells. Cur-NPs could be potentially efficacious in the treatment of cisplatin-resistant human oral cancer.

  13. Investigation of utility of cerebrospinal fluid drug concentration as a surrogate for interstitial fluid concentration using microdialysis coupled with cisternal cerebrospinal fluid sampling in wild-type and Mdr1a(-/-) rats.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, Yoko; Nozaki, Yoshitane; Takenaka, Osamu; Watari, Ryuji; Kusano, Kazutomi; Yoshimura, Tsutomu; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    In drug discovery, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drug concentration (CCSF) has been used as a surrogate for the interstitial fluid (ISF) concentration (CISF). However, the CCSF-to-CISF gradient suggested for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates in rodents causes uncertainty in CISF estimations and subsequent pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses. To evaluate the utility of CCSF as a surrogate for CISF, this study directly compared the CCSF with the CISF of 12 compounds, including P-gp substrates, under steady-state conditions in wild-type and Mdr1a(-/-) rats using microdialysis coupled with cisternal CSF sampling. In wild-type rats, the ISF-to-unbound plasma (Kp,uu,ISF) and CSF-to-unbound plasma (Kp,uu,CSF) concentration ratios of the P-gp substrates, except for metoclopramide, were lower than those of the non-P-gp substrates, and the Kp,uu,CSF values were within or close to 3-fold of the Kp,uu,ISF values for all the compounds examined. The Kp,uu,CSF values of the selected P-gp substrates increased in Mdr1a(-/-) rats with a similar magnitude to the Kp,uu,ISF values, resulting in the Kp,uu,CSF-to-Kp,uu,ISF ratios being unchanged. These results suggested that P-gp-mediated active efflux at the blood-brain barrier is a major determinant not only for CISF, but also for CCSF, and that CCSF can be used as a surrogate for CISF even for P-gp substrates in rats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Chrysosplenetin inhibits artemisinin efflux in P-gp-over-expressing Caco-2 cells and reverses P-gp/MDR1 mRNA up-regulated expression induced by artemisinin in mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liping; Wei, Shijie; Yang, Bei; Ma, Wei; Wu, Xiuli; Ji, Hongyan; Sui, Hong; Chen, Jing

    2017-12-01

    CYP3A4 and P-gp together form a highly efficient barrier for orally absorbed drugs and always share the same substrates. Our previous work revealed that chrysosplenetin (CHR) significantly augmented the rat plasma level and anti-malarial efficacy of artemisinin (ART), partially due to the uncompetitive inhibition effect of CHR on rat CYP3A. But the impact of CHR on P-gp is still unknown. The present study investigates whether CHR interferes with P-gp-mediated efflux of ART and elucidates the underlying mechanism. P-gp-over-expressing Caco-2 cells were treated with ART (10 μM) or ART-CHR (1:2, 10:20 μM) in ART bidirectional transport experiment. ART concentration was determined by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Healthy male ICR mice were randomly divided into nine groups (n = 6) including negative control (0.5% CMC-Na solution, 13 mL/kg), ART alone (40 mg/kg), verapamil (positive control, 40 mg/kg), ART-verapamil (1:1, 40:40 mg/kg), CHR alone (80 mg/kg), ART-CHR (1:0.1, 40:4 mg/kg), ART-CHR (1:1, 40:40 mg/kg), ART-CHR (1:2, 40:80 mg/kg) and ART-CHR (1:4, 40:160 mg/kg). The drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven consecutive days. MDR1 and P-gp expression levels in mice small intestine were examined by performing RT-PCR and western blot analysis. ABC coupling ATPase activity was also determined. After combined with CHR (1:2), Papp (AP-BL) and Papp (BL-AP) of ART changed to 4.29 × 10 (-) (8) (increased 1.79-fold) and 2.85 × 10 (-) (8 )cm/s (decreased 1.24-fold) from 2.40 × 10 (-) (8) and 3.54 × 10 (-) (8 )cm/s, respectively. Efflux ratio (PBA/PAB) declined 2.21-fold (p < 0.01) versus to ART alone. ART significantly up-regulated both MDR1 mRNA and P-gp levels compared with vehicle, while CHR in combination ratio of 0:1, 0.1:1, 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 with ART, reversed them to normal levels as well as negative control (p < 0.05). The ATPase activities in ART-CHR 1:4 and CHR alone groups achieved a

  15. Central nervous system pharmacokinetics of the Mdr1 P-glycoprotein substrate CP-615,003: intersite differences and implications for human receptor occupancy projections from cerebrospinal fluid exposures.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, Karthik; Tseng, Elaine; Nelson, Frederick R; Rollema, Hans; French, Jonathan L; Kaplan, Irina V; Horner, Weldon E; Gibbs, Megan A

    2007-08-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) distribution and transport mechanisms of the investigational drug candidate CP-615,003 (N-[3-fluoro-4-[2-(propylamino)ethoxy]phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-4-oxo-1H-indole-3-carboxamide) and its active metabolite CP-900,725 have been characterized. Brain distribution of CP-615,003 and CP-900,725 was low in rats and mice (brain-to-serum ratio < 0.2). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-serum ratios of CP-615,003 were 6- to 8-fold lower than the plasma unbound fraction in rats and dogs. In vitro, CP-615,003 displayed quinidine-like efflux in MDR1-expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells. The brain-to-serum ratio of CP-615,003 in mdr1a/1b (-/-) mice was approximately 7 times that in their wild-type counterparts, confirming that impaired CNS distribution was explained by P-gp efflux transport. In contrast, P-gp efflux did not explain the impaired CNS penetration of CP-900,725. Intracerebral microdialysis was used to characterize rat brain extracellular fluid (ECF) distribution. Interestingly, the ECF-to-serum ratio of the P-gp substrate CP-615,003 was 7-fold below the CSF-to-serum ratio, whereas this disequilibrium was not observed for CP-900,725. In a clinical study, steady-state CSF exposures were measured after administration of 100 mg of CP-615,003 b.i.d. The human CSF-to-plasma ratios of CP-615,003 and CP-900,725 were both approximately 10-fold below their ex vivo plasma unbound fractions, confirming impaired human CNS penetration. Preliminary estimates of CNS receptor occupancy from human CSF concentrations were sensitive to assumptions regarding the magnitude of the CSF-ECF gradient for CP-615,003 in humans. In summary, this case provides an example of intersite differences in CNS pharmacokinetics of a P-gp substrate and potential implications for projection of human CNS receptor occupancy of transporter substrates from CSF pharmacokinetic data when direct imaging-based approaches are not feasible.

  16. Binary-copolymer system base on low-density lipoprotein-coupled N-succinyl chitosan lipoic acid micelles for co-delivery MDR1 siRNA and paclitaxel, enhances antitumor effects via reducing drug.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Di; Zhu, Wen-Jing; Zhu, Qiao-Ling; Chen, Wei-Liang; Ren, Zhao-Xiang; Li, Fang; Yuan, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Ji-Zhao; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Xue-Nong

    2017-07-01

    The development of effective and stable carriers of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is important for treating cancer with multidrug resistance (MDR). We developed a new gene and drug co-delivery system and checked its characteristics. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was coupled with N-succinyl chitosan (NSC) Lipoic acid (LA) micelles and co-delivered MDR1 siRNA and paclitaxel (PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA) to enhance antitumor effects by silencing the MDR gene of tumors (Li et al., Adv Mater 2014;26:8217-8224). In our study, we developed a new type of containing paclitaxel-loaded micelles and siRNA-loaded LDL nanoparticle. This "binary polymer" is pH and reduction dual-sensitive core-crosslinked micelles. PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA had an average particle size of (171.6 ± 6.42) nm, entrapment efficiency of (93.92 ± 1.06) %, and drug-loading amount of (12.35% ± 0.87) %. In vitro, MCF-7 cells, high expressed LDL receptor, were more sensitive to this delivery system than to taxol(®) and cell activity was inhibited significantly. Fluorescence microscopy showed that PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA was uptaken very conveniently and played a key role in antitumor activity. PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA protected the siRNA from degradation by macrophage phagocytosis and evidently down-regulated the level of mdr1 mRNA as well as the expression of P-gp. We tested the target ability of PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA in vivo in tumor-bearing nude mice. Results showed that this system could directly deliver siRNA and PTX to cancer cells. Thus, new co-delivering siRNA and antitumor drugs should be explored for solving MDR in cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1114-1125, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Determination of loperamide in mdr1a/1b knock-out mouse brain tissue using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and comparison with quantitative electrospray-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young G; Dong, Teresa; Chou, Bilin; Menghrajani, Kapil

    2011-11-01

    Recently matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) imaging has been used to analyze small molecule pharmaceutical compounds directly on tissue sections to determine spatial distribution within target tissue and organs. The data presented to date usually indicate relative amounts of drug within the tissue. The determination of absolute amounts is still done using tissue homogenization followed by traditional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this study, the quantitative determination of loperamide, an antidiarrheal agent and a P-glycoprotein substrate, in mdr1a/1b (-/-) mouse brain tissue sections using MALDI MS on a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry is described. 5 mg/mL α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid in 50% acetonitrile with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and 0.5 μM reserpine was used as the MALDI matrix. The calibration curve constructed by the peak intensities of standard samples from MALDI MS was linear from 0.025 to 0.5 μM with r² = 0.9989. The accuracy of calibration curve standards was 78.3-105.9% and the percent deviation was less than 25%. Comparison between direct MALDI tissue analysis and conventional tissue analysis using homogenization followed by electrospray LC-MS/MS was also explored.

  18. Role of ABC-cassette transporters (MDR1, MRP1, BCRP) in the development of primary and acquired multiple drug resistance in patients with early and metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A A; Tsvetaeva, D A; Grudinskaja, T V

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the research was to study the influence of multiple drug resistance (MDR1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) proteins expression on the effectiveness of chemotherapy in breast cancer (BC) patients. The retrospective analysis of the results of treatment of 77 women with invasive BC with different molecular subtypes at the age of 54.1±12.5, who received treatment in Zaporizhzhya Regional Clinical Oncological Dispensary during 2011-2013, has been carried out. 23 (29.8%) patients were in II stage of disease, 32 (41.5%) - in III stage, 22 patients (28.5%) - IV stage. Neoadjuvant therapy has been given to 34 (44.2%) patients, palliative therapy in connection with presence of hematogenous visceral and bone metastases - to 43 (55.8%) patients. Transport proteins BCRP, MRP and PGP have been studied in tissues of primary BC tumor, in tissues of visceral metastases, in metastatically altered regional lymph nodes, as well as in circulating in blood tumor cells (CTC). In every case, 1000 of tumor cells has been calculated. The intensity of staining (0, 1+, 2+, 3+), percentage of stained cells (threshold has constituted 10%) and homogeneity of tumor cells staining (homogeneous was considered 80% staining of cytoplasm or membrane of studied cells) has been taken in consideration. Retrospective analysis has determined the dependence of results of polychemotherapy (PCT) on level and pattern of expression of BCRP, MRP and PGP proteins. In 1(st) group, in the absence thereof expression of transport proteins in BC cells, the objective response (CR + PR) from the tumor has been observed in 17 out of 18 patients (94.4%). In 2nd group (only cytoplasmic staining) the objective response has been observed in 36 patients (85.7%). Ineffectiveness of therapy and tumor progression in this group has been observed in 6 (14.2%) patients. In 3(rd)group (high membrane BCRP, MRP and PGP expression), in 14 out of 17 patients (82.3%), during

  19. The Differential Absorption of a Series of P-Glycoprotein Substrates in Isolated Perfused Lungs from Mdr1a/1b Genetic Knockout Mice can be Attributed to Distinct Physico-Chemical Properties: an Insight into Predicting Transporter-Mediated, Pulmonary Specific Disposition.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel F; Luscombe, Chris N; Eddershaw, Peter J; Edwards, Chris D; Gumbleton, Mark

    2017-07-12

    To examine if pulmonary P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is functional in an intact lung; impeding the pulmonary absorption and increasing lung retention of P-gp substrates administered into the airways. Using calculated physico-chemical properties alone build a predictive Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model distinguishing whether a substrate's pulmonary absorption would be limited by P-gp or not. A panel of 18 P-gp substrates were administered into the airways of an isolated perfused mouse lung (IPML) model derived from Mdr1a/Mdr1b knockout mice. Parallel intestinal absorption studies were performed. Substrate physico-chemical profiling was undertaken. Using multivariate analysis a QSAR model was established. A subset of P-gp substrates (10/18) displayed pulmonary kinetics influenced by lung P-gp. These substrates possessed distinct physico-chemical properties to those P-gp substrates unaffected by P-gp (8/18). Differential outcomes were not related to different intrinsic P-gp transporter kinetics. In the lung, in contrast to intestine, a higher degree of non-polar character is required of a P-gp substrate before the net effects of efflux become evident. The QSAR predictive model was applied to 129 substrates including eight marketed inhaled drugs, all these inhaled drugs were predicted to display P-gp dependent pulmonary disposition. Lung P-gp can affect the pulmonary kinetics of a subset of P-gp substrates. Physico-chemical relationships determining the significance of P-gp to absorption in the lung are different to those operative in the intestine. Our QSAR framework may assist profiling of inhaled drug discovery candidates that are also P-gp substrates. The potential for P-gp mediated pulmonary disposition exists in the clinic.

  20. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts.

  1. Characterization of human colorectal cancer MDR1/P-gp Fab antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Gao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the peptide sized 21 kDa covering P-gp transmembrane region was first prepared for generating a novel mouse monoclonal antibody Fab fragment with biological activity against multiple drug resistance protein P-gp21 by phage display technology. Phage-displayed antibody library prepared from mice spleen tissues was selected against the recombinant protein P-gp21 with five rounds of panning. A number of clones expressing Fab bound to P-gp21, showing neutralized activity in vitro, were isolated and screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on its recognition properties to P-gp21 and human colorectal cancer tissue homogenate, resulting in identification of an optimal recombinant Fab clone (Number 29). Further characterization by recloning number 29 into an expression vector showed significant induction of the Fab antibody in the clone number 29 by Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). After purified by HiTrap Protein L, the specificity of the Fab antibody to P-gp21 was also confirmed. Not only was the targeted region of this monoclonal Fab antibody identified as a 16-peptide epitope (ALKDKKELEGSGKIAT) comprising residues 883-898 within the transmembrane (TM) domain of human P-gp, but also the binding ability with it was verified. The clinical implication of our results for development of personalized therapy of colorectal cancer will be further studied.

  2. Rolling Circle Transcription of Ribozymes Targeted to ras and mdr-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    ssDNA) to direct transcription of an tion-PCR, and recyclization were carried out to optimize active hammerhead ribozyme in E. coli cells. transcription...transcription I hammerhead ribozyme I in vitro selection and 12.5 units/ml RNase inhibitor (Promega), in a total reaction volume of 15 tk1. After a...sequence encoding a ssDNA, and splint ssDNA were ethanol-precipitated and used as hammerhead ribozyme . templates to begin the next round of in vitro

  3. Plasmodium falciparum mdr1 mutations and in vivo chloroquine resistance in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Saladín, E; Fryauff, D J; Taylor, W R; Laksana, B S; Susanti, A I; Purnomo; Subianto, B; Richie, T L

    1999-08-01

    Mutations in the Pfmdr1 gene are reported to be associated with chloroquine resistance in some Plasmodium falciparum isolates. A polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used for the detection of Pfmdr1 mutations in chloroquine-resistant field isolates of P. falciparum collected in Irian Jaya. The frequency of Pfmdr1 mutations was significantly higher in chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum parasites than background frequencies observed in the same location. The 7G8 mutation was identified in some parasites although always in a mixed genotype status. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum specimens were characterized using the World Health Organization 28-day criteria, supplemented by demonstrating adequate chloroquine absorption and genetic analysis.

  4. Catalytic Transitions in the Human MDR1 P-Glycoprotein Drug Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance proteins that belong to the ATP-binding cassette family like the human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 or Pgp) are responsible for many failed cancer and antiviral chemotherapies because these membrane transporters remove the chemotherapeutics from the targeted cells. Understanding the details of the catalytic mechanism of Pgp is therefore critical to the development of inhibitors that might overcome these resistances. In this work, targeted molecular dynamics techniques were used to elucidate catalytically relevant structures of Pgp. Crystal structures of homologues in four different conformations were used as intermediate targets in the dynamics simulations. Transitions from conformations that were wide open to the cytoplasm to transition state conformations that were wide open to the extracellular space were studied. Twenty-six nonredundant transitional protein structures were identified from these targeted molecular dynamics simulations using evolutionary structure analyses. Coupled movement of nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) and transmembrane domains (TMDs) that form the drug binding cavities were observed. Pronounced twisting of the NBDs as they approached each other as well as the quantification of a dramatic opening of the TMDs to the extracellular space as the ATP hydrolysis transition state was reached were observed. Docking interactions of 21 known transport ligands or inhibitors were analyzed with each of the 26 transitional structures. Many of the docking results obtained here were validated by previously published biochemical determinations. As the ATP hydrolysis transition state was approached, drug docking in the extracellular half of the transmembrane domains seemed to be destabilized as transport ligand exit gates opened to the extracellular space. PMID:22647192

  5. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  6. ABCB1 (MDR1) induction defines a common resistance mechanism in paclitaxel- and olaparib-resistant ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Aparajitha; Sawers, Lynne; Gannon, Anne-Louise; Chakravarty, Probir; Scott, Alison L; Bray, Susan E; Ferguson, Michelle J; Smith, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical response to chemotherapy for ovarian cancer is frequently compromised by the development of drug-resistant disease. The underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for prescription of routinely prescribed chemotherapy drugs are poorly understood. Methods: We created novel A2780-derived ovarian cancer cell lines resistant to paclitaxel and olaparib following continuous incremental drug selection. MTT assays were used to assess chemosensitivity to paclitaxel and olaparib in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells±the ABCB1 inhibitors verapamil and elacridar and cross-resistance to cisplatin, carboplatin, doxorubicin, rucaparib, veliparib and AZD2461. ABCB1 expression was assessed by qRT-PCR, copy number, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis and ABCB1 activity assessed by the Vybrant and P-glycoprotein-Glo assays. Results: Paclitaxel-resistant cells were cross-resistant to olaparib, doxorubicin and rucaparib but not to veliparib or AZD2461. Resistance correlated with increased ABCB1 expression and was reversible following treatment with the ABCB1 inhibitors verapamil and elacridar. Active efflux of paclitaxel, olaparib, doxorubicin and rucaparib was confirmed in drug-resistant cells and in ABCB1-expressing bacterial membranes. Conclusions: We describe a common ABCB1-mediated mechanism of paclitaxel and olaparib resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Optimal choice of PARP inhibitor may therefore limit the progression of drug-resistant disease, while routine prescription of first-line paclitaxel may significantly limit subsequent chemotherapy options in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27415012

  7. Plasmodium vivax mdr1 genotypes in isolates from successfully cured patients living in endemic and non-endemic Brazilian areas.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Larissa Rodrigues; Almeida-de-Oliveira, Natália Ketrin; de Lavigne, Aline Rosa; de Lima, Suelen Rezende Félix; de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; Ménard, Didier; Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria de Fatima

    2016-02-18

    Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed species causing the highest number of malaria cases in the world. In Brazil, P. vivax is responsible for approximately 84 % of reported cases. In the absence of a vaccine, control strategies are based on the management of cases through rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment, in addition to vector control measures. The approaches used to investigate P. vivax resistance to chloroquine (CQ) were exclusively in vivo studies because of the difficulty in keeping parasites in continuous in vitro culture. In view of the limitations related to follow-up of patients and to assessing the plasma dosage of CQ and its metabolites, an alternative approach to monitor chemo-resistance (QR) is to use molecular markers. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the multidrug resistance gene pvmdr1 are putative determinants of CQ resistance (CQR), but such SNPs in P. vivax isolates from patients with good response to treatment should be further explored. The aim of this study is to investigate the mutations in the gene, supposedly associated to QR, in P. vivax isolates from successfully cured patients, living in Brazilian endemic and non-endemic areas. Blood samples were collected from 49 vivax malaria patients from endemic (Amazon Basin: 45) and non-endemic (Atlantic Forest: four) Brazilian regions and analysed for SNPs in the CQR-related P. vivax gene (pvmdr1), using PCR-based methods. Among the 49 isolates genetically characterized for the gene pvmdr1, 34 (70 %) presented at least one mutation. T958M mutant alleles were the most frequent (73 %) followed Y976F (15 %) and F1076L (12 %). Single mutation was detected in 24 (70.5 %) isolates and double mutations in ten (29.5 %). The most common single mutant genotype was the 958M/Y976/F1076 (79 %), followed by 976F/F1076 (21 %) whereas 958M/Y976/1076L (60 %) and 976F/1076L (40 %) double mutant genotypes were detected. Single mutant profile was observed only in isolates from Amazon Basin, although double mutants were found both in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest regions. Interestingly, the genotype 958M/Y976/1076L was present in all isolates from the Atlantic Forest in the Rio de Janeiro State. Considering that primaquine (PQ) efficacy is highly dependent on concurrent administration of a blood schizontocidal agent and that PQ could not circumvent CQR, together with the fact that no pvmdr1 mutation should be expected in successfully cured patients, these findings seem to indicate that the pvmdr1 gene is not a reliable marker of CQR. Further investigations are needed to define a reliable molecular marker for monitoring P. vivax CQR in P. vivax populations.

  8. Carfilzomib resistance due to ABCB1/MDR1 overexpression is overcome by nelfinavir and lopinavir in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Besse, A; Stolze, S C; Rasche, L; Weinhold, N; Morgan, G J; Kraus, M; Bader, J; Overkleeft, H S; Besse, L; Driessen, C

    2017-07-05

    Proteasome inhibitor (PI) carfilzomib (CFZ) has activity superior to bortezomib (BTZ) and is increasingly incorporated in multiple myeloma (MM) frontline therapy and relapsed settings. Most MM patients ultimately experience PI-refractory disease, an unmet medical need with poorly understood biology and dismal outcome. Pharmacologic targeting of ABCB1 improved patient outcomes, including MM, but suffered from adverse drug effects and insufficient plasma concentrations. Proteomics analysis identified ABCB1 overexpression as the most significant change in CFZ-resistant MM cells. We addressed the functional role of ABCB1 overexpression in MM and observed significantly upregulated ABCB1 in peripheral blood malignant plasma cells (PCs) vs untreated patients' bone marrow PC. ABCB1 overexpression reduces the proteasome-inhibiting activity of CFZ due to drug efflux, in contrast to BTZ. Likewise, the cytotoxicity of established anti-MM drugs was significantly reduced in ABCB1-expressing MM cells. In search for potential drugs targeting ABCB1 in clinical trials, we identified the HIV protease inhibitors nelfinavir (NFV) and lopinavir (LPV) as potent functional modulators of ABCB1-mediated drug export, most likely via modulation of mitochondria permeability transition pore. NFV and LPV restored CFZ activity at therapeutically relevant drug levels and thus represent ready-to-use drugs to be tested in clinical trials to target ABCB1 and to re-sensitize PC to established myeloma drugs, in particular CFZ.Leukemia advance online publication, 28 July 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.212.

  9. ABCB1 (MDR1) induction defines a common resistance mechanism in paclitaxel- and olaparib-resistant ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Aparajitha; Sawers, Lynne; Gannon, Anne-Louise; Chakravarty, Probir; Scott, Alison L; Bray, Susan E; Ferguson, Michelle J; Smith, Gillian

    2016-08-09

    Clinical response to chemotherapy for ovarian cancer is frequently compromised by the development of drug-resistant disease. The underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for prescription of routinely prescribed chemotherapy drugs are poorly understood. We created novel A2780-derived ovarian cancer cell lines resistant to paclitaxel and olaparib following continuous incremental drug selection. MTT assays were used to assess chemosensitivity to paclitaxel and olaparib in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells±the ABCB1 inhibitors verapamil and elacridar and cross-resistance to cisplatin, carboplatin, doxorubicin, rucaparib, veliparib and AZD2461. ABCB1 expression was assessed by qRT-PCR, copy number, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis and ABCB1 activity assessed by the Vybrant and P-glycoprotein-Glo assays. Paclitaxel-resistant cells were cross-resistant to olaparib, doxorubicin and rucaparib but not to veliparib or AZD2461. Resistance correlated with increased ABCB1 expression and was reversible following treatment with the ABCB1 inhibitors verapamil and elacridar. Active efflux of paclitaxel, olaparib, doxorubicin and rucaparib was confirmed in drug-resistant cells and in ABCB1-expressing bacterial membranes. We describe a common ABCB1-mediated mechanism of paclitaxel and olaparib resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Optimal choice of PARP inhibitor may therefore limit the progression of drug-resistant disease, while routine prescription of first-line paclitaxel may significantly limit subsequent chemotherapy options in ovarian cancer patients.

  10. Chemotoxicity of doxorubicin and surface expression of P-glycoprotein (MDR1) is regulated by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin Cif.

    PubMed

    Ye, Siying; MacEachran, Daniel P; Hamilton, Joshua W; O'Toole, George A; Stanton, Bruce A

    2008-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, is a major drug efflux pump expressed in normal tissues, and is overexpressed in many human cancers. Overexpression of Pgp results in reduced intracellular drug concentration and cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs and is thought to contribute to multidrug resistance of cancer cells. The involvement of Pgp in clinical drug resistance has led to a search for molecules that block Pgp transporter activity to improve the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of therapeutic agents. We have recently identified and characterized a secreted toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, designated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif). Cif reduces the apical membrane abundance of CFTR, also an ABC transporter, and inhibits the CFTR-mediated chloride ion secretion by human airway and kidney epithelial cells. We report presently that Cif also inhibits the apical membrane abundance of Pgp in kidney, airway, and intestinal epithelial cells but has no effect on plasma membrane abundance of multidrug resistance protein 1 or 2. Cif increased the drug sensitivity to doxorubicin in kidney cells expressing Pgp by 10-fold and increased the cellular accumulation of daunorubicin by 2-fold. Thus our studies show that Cif increases the sensitivity of Pgp-overexpressing cells to doxorubicin, consistent with the hypothesis that Cif affects Pgp functional expression. These results suggest that Cif may be useful to develop a new class of specific inhibitors of Pgp aimed at increasing the sensitivity of tumors to chemotherapeutic drugs, and at improving the bioavailability of Pgp transport substrates.

  11. Chemotoxicity of doxorubicin and surface expression of P-glycoprotein (MDR1) is regulated by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin Cif

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Siying; MacEachran, Daniel P.; Hamilton, Joshua W.; O'Toole, George A.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, is a major drug efflux pump expressed in normal tissues, and is overexpressed in many human cancers. Overexpression of Pgp results in reduced intracellular drug concentration and cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs and is thought to contribute to multidrug resistance of cancer cells. The involvement of Pgp in clinical drug resistance has led to a search for molecules that block Pgp transporter activity to improve the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of therapeutic agents. We have recently identified and characterized a secreted toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, designated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif). Cif reduces the apical membrane abundance of CFTR, also an ABC transporter, and inhibits the CFTR-mediated chloride ion secretion by human airway and kidney epithelial cells. We report presently that Cif also inhibits the apical membrane abundance of Pgp in kidney, airway, and intestinal epithelial cells but has no effect on plasma membrane abundance of multidrug resistance protein 1 or 2. Cif increased the drug sensitivity to doxorubicin in kidney cells expressing Pgp by 10-fold and increased the cellular accumulation of daunorubicin by 2-fold. Thus our studies show that Cif increases the sensitivity of Pgp-overexpressing cells to doxorubicin, consistent with the hypothesis that Cif affects Pgp functional expression. These results suggest that Cif may be useful to develop a new class of specific inhibitors of Pgp aimed at increasing the sensitivity of tumors to chemotherapeutic drugs, and at improving the bioavailability of Pgp transport substrates. PMID:18650266

  12. Multiple Origins of Mutations in the mdr1 Gene—A Putative Marker of Chloroquine Resistance in P. vivax

    PubMed Central

    Schousboe, Mette L.; Ranjitkar, Samir; Rajakaruna, Rupika S.; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H.; Morales, Francisco; Pearce, Richard; Ord, Rosalyn; Leslie, Toby; Rowland, Mark; Gadalla, Nahla B.; Konradsen, Flemming; Bygbjerg, Ib C.; Roper, Cally; Alifrangis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Chloroquine combined with primaquine has been the recommended antimalarial treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria infections for six decades but the efficacy of this treatment regimen is threatened by chloroquine resistance (CQR). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the multidrug resistance gene, Pvmdr1 are putative determinants of CQR but the extent of their emergence at population level remains to be explored. Objective In this study we describe the prevalence of SNPs in the Pvmdr1 among samples collected in seven P. vivax endemic countries and we looked for molecular evidence of drug selection by characterising polymorphism at microsatellite (MS) loci flanking the Pvmdr1 gene. Methods We examined the prevalence of SNPs in the Pvmdr1 gene among 267 samples collected from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Sudan, São Tomé and Ecuador. We measured and diversity in four microsatellite (MS) markers flanking the Pvmdr1 gene to look evidence of selection on mutant alleles. Results SNP polymorphism in the Pvmdr1 gene was largely confined to codons T958M, Y976F and F1076L. Only 2.4% of samples were wildtype at all three codons (TYF, n = 5), 13.3% (n = 28) of the samples were single mutant MYF, 63.0% of samples (n = 133) were double mutant MYL, and 21.3% (n = 45) were triple mutant MFL. Clear geographic differences in the prevalence of these Pvmdr mutation combinations were observed. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) between Pvmdr1 and MS alleles was found in populations sampled in Ecuador, Nepal and Sri Lanka, while significant LD between Pvmdr1 and the combined 4 MS locus haplotype was only seen in Ecuador and Sri Lanka. When combining the 5 loci, high level diversity, measured as expected heterozygosity (He), was seen in the complete sample set (He = 0.99), while He estimates for individual loci ranged from 0.00–0.93. Although Pvmdr1 haplotypes were not consistently associated with specific flanking MS alleles, there was significant differentiation between geographic sites which could indicate directional selection through local drug pressure. Conclusions Our observations suggest that Pvmdr1 mutations emerged independently on multiple occasions even within the same population. In Sri Lanka population analysis at multiple sites showed evidence of local selection and geographical dispersal of Pvmdr1 mutations between sites. PMID:26539821

  13. ABCB1 (MDR1)-type P-glycoproteins at the blood-brain barrier modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system: implications for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marianne B; Keck, Martin E; Binder, Elisabeth B; Kresse, Adelheid E; Hagemeyer, Thomas P; Landgraf, Rainer; Holsboer, Florian; Uhr, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type P-glycoproteins (ABCB1-type P-gps) protect the brain against the accumulation of many toxic xenobiotics and drugs. We recently could show that the access of the endogenous glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol to the brain are regulated by ABCB1-type P-gps in vivo. ABCB1-type P-gp function, therefore, is likely to exert a profound influence on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Hyperactivity of the HPA system is frequently observed in human affective disorder, and a considerable amount of evidence has been accumulated suggesting that normalization of the HPA system might be the final step necessary for stable remission of the disease. To examine whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) function influences neuroendocrine regulation, we investigated HPA system activity in abcb1ab (-/-) mice under basal conditions and following stress. Abcb1ab (-/-) mice showed consistently lower plasma ACTH levels and lower evening plasma corticosterone levels. CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was decreased and pituitary POMC mRNA expressing cells were significantly reduced in number in abcb1ab (-/-) mutants; however, they showed a normal activation of the HPA system following CRH stimulation. Lower doses of dexamethasone were required to suppress plasma corticosterone levels in mutants. Our data thus provide evidence for a sustained suppression of the HPA system at the hypothalamic level in abcb1ab (-/-) mice, suggesting that BBB function significantly regulates HPA system activity. Whether naturally occurring polymorphisms in the human ABCB1 gene might result in persistent changes in the responsiveness and regulation of the HPA system will be the subject of future investigations, correlating both genetic information with individual characteristics of the neuroendocrine phenotype.

  14. Cloning and heterologous expression of the ovine (Ovis aries) P-glycoprotein (Mdr1) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed

    Zahner, D; Alber, J; Petzinger, E

    2010-06-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a crucial role in the multidrug resistance of pathogenic helminths in sheep (Ovis aries) as well as in antiparasitic drug pharmacokinetics in the host. We cloned sheep P-gp cDNA and expressed it stably in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The open reading frame consists of 3858 nucleotides coding for a 1285 amino acids containing protein. The sequence shows high homology to the orthologs of other mammalian species, especially cattle. Both ruminant DNA sequences show a 9 bp insertion that is lacking in all other investigated sequences. Expressed in MDCK cells, the protein displays a size of 170 kDa on Western analysis. Transfection of MDCK cells with sheep P-gp resulted in 10- to 50-fold resistance to the cytotoxic P-gp substrates colchicin and daunorubicin, and in reduced digoxin accumulation.

  15. Timosaponin A-III reverses multi-drug resistance in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562/ADM cells via downregulation of MDR1 and MRP1 expression by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Ru; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Hong; Yi, Ying-Jie; Wang, Jian-Yong; Li, You-Jie

    2016-05-01

    One of the major causes of failure in chemotherapy for patients with human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR is often associated with the overexpression of drug efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family. Timosaponin A-III (TAIII), a saponin isolated from the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides, has previously demonstrated the ability to suppress certain human tumor processes and the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent. Nevertheless, the ability of TAIII to reverse MDR has not yet been explored. In this study, the adriamycin (ADM) resistance reversal effect of TAIII in human CML K562/ADM cells and the underlying mechanism was investigated. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay showed that TAIII had a reversal effect on the drug resistance of K562/ADM cells. Flow cytometry assay showed increased intracellular accumulation of ADM after cells were pretreated with TAIII, and the changes in the accumulation of rhodamine-123 (Rho-123) and 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) dye in K562/ADM cells were determined to be similar to the changes of intracellular accumulation of ADM. After pretreatment of cells with TAIII, the decreasing expression of P-gp and MRP1 mRNA was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Western blotting showed TAIII inhibiting P-gp and MRP1 expression depended on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by decreasing the activity of p-Akt. Moreover, wortmannin an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has a strong inhibitory effect on the expression of p-Akt, P-gp and MRP1. Besides, the combined treatment with TAIII did not have an affect on wortmannin downregulation of p-Akt, P-gp and MRP1. Taken together, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that TAIII induced MDR reversal through inhibition of P-gp and MRP1 expression and function with regained adriamycin sensitivity which might mainly correlate to the regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  16. Escuelas sin Drogas. Como Actuar. Edicion 1992. (Schools without Drugs. What Works. 1992 Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Across the United States, schools and communities have found ways to turn the tide in the battle against drugs. This guidebook describes the methods they have used and the actions they have taken. The first section, "Children and Drugs" outlines the nature and extent of the drug problem and summarizes the latest research on the effects of drugs on…

  17. Inmunoterapias para las adicciones a las drogas Immunotherapies for Drug Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Iván D.

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapies in the form of vaccines (active immunization) or monoclonal antibodies (passive immunization) appear safe and a promising treatment approaches for some substance-related disorders. The mechanism of action of the antibody therapy is by preventing the rapid entry of drugs of abuse into the central nervous system. In theory, immunotherapies could have several clinical applications. Monoclonal antibodies may be useful to treat drug overdoses and prevent the neurotoxic effects of drugs by blocking the access of drugs to the brain. Vaccines may help to prevent the development of addiction, initiate drug abstinence in those already addicted to drugs, or prevent drug use relapse by reducing the pharmacological effects and rewarding properties of the drugs of abuse on the brain. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies has been investigated for cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, and phencyclidine (PCP). Active immunization with vaccines has been studied for cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and nicotine. These immunotherapies seem promising therapeutic tools and are at different stages in their development before they can be approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of substance-related disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the current immunotherapy approaches with emphasis on the risks and benefits for the treatment of these disorders. PMID:18551223

  18. Creciendo Sin Drogas: Guia de Prevencion para Padres (Growing Up Drug-Free: A Parent's Guide to Prevention).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Safe and Drug Free Schools Program.

    This publication is part of the Department of Education's ongoing effort to provide information to emerging populations in their native language on how to create and maintain drug-free and safe schools across the nation. Throughout the publication are personal stories and artwork of elementary and secondary school students that promote the message…

  19. Evaluation of Near Infrared Dyes as Markers of P-Glycoprotein Activity in Tumors.

    PubMed

    Semenenko, Inessa; Portnoy, Emma; Aboukaoud, Mohammed; Guzy, Serge; Shmuel, Miriam; Itzhak, Gal; Eyal, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1; P-glycoprotein) has been associated with efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from tumor cells and with poor patient prognosis. This study evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive, non-radioactive near infrared (NIR) imaging methodology for detection of MDR1 functional activity in tumors. Methods: Initial accumulation assays were conducted in MDR1-overexpressing MDCK cells (MDCK-MDR1) and control MDCK cells (MDCK-CT) using the NIR dyes indocyanine green (ICG), IR-783, IR-775, rhodamine 800, XenoLight DiR, and Genhance 750, at 0.4 μM-100 μM. ICG and IR-783 were also evaluated in HT-29 cells in which MDR1 overexpression was induced by colchicine (HT-29-MDR1) and their controls (HT-29-CT). In vivo optical imaging studies were conducted using immunodeficient mice bearing HT-29-CT and HT-29-MDR1 xenografts. Results: ICG's emission intensity was 2.0- and 2.2-fold higher in control versus MDR1-overexpressing cells, in MDCK and HT-29 cell lines, respectively. The respective IR-783 control:MDR1 ratio was 1.4 in both MDCK and HT-29 cells. Optical imaging of mice bearing HT-29-CT and HT-29-MDR1 xenografts revealed a statistically non-significant, 1.7-fold difference (p > 0.05) in ICG emission intensity between control and MDR1 tumors. No such differences were observed with IR-783. Conclusion: ICG and IR-783 appear to be weak MDR1 substrates. In vivo, low sensitivity and high between-subject variability impair the ability to use the currently studied probes as markers of tumor MDR1 activity. The results suggest that, for future use of this technology, additional NIR probes should be screened as MDR1 substrates.

  20. Evaluation of Near Infrared Dyes as Markers of P-Glycoprotein Activity in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Semenenko, Inessa; Portnoy, Emma; Aboukaoud, Mohammed; Guzy, Serge; Shmuel, Miriam; Itzhak, Gal; Eyal, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1; P-glycoprotein) has been associated with efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from tumor cells and with poor patient prognosis. This study evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive, non-radioactive near infrared (NIR) imaging methodology for detection of MDR1 functional activity in tumors. Methods: Initial accumulation assays were conducted in MDR1-overexpressing MDCK cells (MDCK-MDR1) and control MDCK cells (MDCK-CT) using the NIR dyes indocyanine green (ICG), IR-783, IR-775, rhodamine 800, XenoLight DiR, and Genhance 750, at 0.4 μM–100 μM. ICG and IR-783 were also evaluated in HT-29 cells in which MDR1 overexpression was induced by colchicine (HT-29-MDR1) and their controls (HT-29-CT). In vivo optical imaging studies were conducted using immunodeficient mice bearing HT-29-CT and HT-29-MDR1 xenografts. Results: ICG’s emission intensity was 2.0- and 2.2-fold higher in control versus MDR1-overexpressing cells, in MDCK and HT-29 cell lines, respectively. The respective IR-783 control:MDR1 ratio was 1.4 in both MDCK and HT-29 cells. Optical imaging of mice bearing HT-29-CT and HT-29-MDR1 xenografts revealed a statistically non-significant, 1.7-fold difference (p > 0.05) in ICG emission intensity between control and MDR1 tumors. No such differences were observed with IR-783. Conclusion: ICG and IR-783 appear to be weak MDR1 substrates. In vivo, low sensitivity and high between-subject variability impair the ability to use the currently studied probes as markers of tumor MDR1 activity. The results suggest that, for future use of this technology, additional NIR probes should be screened as MDR1 substrates. PMID:27895581

  1. Is Ciprofloxacin a Substrate of P-glycoprotein?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Miki Susanto; Okochi, Hideaki; Benet, Leslie Z

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Studies using MDCKII and LLC-PK1 cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA indicate that ciprofloxacin is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein. However, our data has shown that transport studies done using different P-gp overexpressing cell lines (MDCKI-MDR1, MDCKII-MDR1 and L-MDR1), could lead to contradictory conclusion on whether a compound is a substrate of P-gp. The aim of our study was to determine if ciprofloxacin is indeed not a P-glycoprotein substrate using MDCKI cells transfected with human MDR1 cDNA. Methods Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the mRNA level of MDR1 while Western blot was performed to determine the protein expression level of P-gp, MRP1 and MRP2 in various cells. Ciprofloxacin bidirectional transport studies were performed in MDCKI, MDCKI-MDR1, MDCKII, MDCKII-MDR1, MDCKII-MRP2, LLC-PK1, L-MRP1 and L-MDR1 cells. Results Ciprofloxacin showed net secretion in MDCKI-MDR1 but net absorption in MDCKI cells. Various P-gp inhibitors decreased the B to A and increased the A to B transport of ciprofloxacin in MDCKI-MDR1 cells while having no effect in MDCKI cells. The B to A transport of ciprofloxacin in MDCKI-MDR1 cells was not affected by non-P-gp inhibitors. In the presence of indomethacin, ciprofloxacin showed net secretion instead of net absorption in MDCKI cells while in the presence of probenecid and sulfinpyrazone, there was no net secretion and absorption. There was no difference in ciprofloxacin transport between MDCKII and MDCKII-MDR1, LLC-PK1 and L-MDR1, LLC-PK1 and L-MRP1 and MDCKII and MDCKII-MRP2. Conclusions Transport data in MDCKI and MDCKI-MDR1 cells indicate that ciprofloxacin is a substrate of P-gp but data from MDCKII, MDCKII-MDR1, LLC-PK1 and L-MDR1 cells indicate that ciprofloxacin is not a substrate of P-gp. Vinblastine, a well-known P-gp substrate, also did not show differences between LLC-PK1 and L-MDR1 cells. Further studies need to be performed to characterize these P-gp overexpressing cell lines and the

  2. Targeting glucosylceramide synthase induction of cell surface globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in acquired cisplatin-resistance of lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Andreas; Johansson, Anders; Karlsson, Terese; Gudey, Shyam Kumar; Brännström, Thomas; Grankvist, Kjell; Behnam-Motlagh, Parviz

    2015-08-01

    Background: Acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment is a caveat when treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Ceramide increases in response to chemotherapy, leading to proliferation arrest and apoptosis. However, a tumour stress activation of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) follows to eliminate ceramide by formation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), the functional receptor of verotoxin-1. Ceramide elimination enhances cell proliferation and apoptosis blockade, thus stimulating tumor progression. GSLs transactivate multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) expression which further prevents ceramide accumulation and stimulates drug efflux. We investigated the expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 in NSCLC and MPM cells with acquired cisplatin resistance, and if GCS activity or MDR1 pump inhibitors would reduce their expression and reverse cisplatin-resistance. Methods: Cell surface expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 and intracellular expression of MDR1 and MRP1 was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy on P31 MPM and H1299 NSCLC cells and subline cells with acquired cisplatin resistance. The effect of GCS inhibitor PPMP and MDR1 pump inhibitor cyclosporin A for 72 h on expression and cisplatin cytotoxicity was tested. Results: The cisplatin-resistant cells expressed increased cell surface Gb3. Cell surface Gb3 expression of resistant cells was annihilated by PPMP whereas cyclosporin A decreased Gb3 and MDR1 expression in H1299 cells. No decrease of MDR1 by PPMP was noted in using flow cytometry, whereas a decrease of MDR1 in H1299 and H1299res was indicated with confocal microscopy. No certain co-localization of Gb3 and MDR1 was noted. PPMP, but not cyclosporin A, potentiated cisplatin cytotoxicity in all cells. Conclusions: Cell surface Gb3 expression is a likely tumour biomarker for acquired cisplatin

  3. Regulation of Efflux Pump Expression and Drug Resistance by the Transcription Factors Mrr1, Upc2, and Cap1 in Candida albicans▿†

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Sabrina; Barker, Katherine S.; Znaidi, Sadri; Schneider, Sabrina; Dierolf, Franziska; Dunkel, Nico; Aïd, Malika; Boucher, Geneviève; Rogers, P. David; Raymond, Martine; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Constitutive overexpression of the Mdr1 efflux pump is an important mechanism of acquired drug resistance in the yeast Candida albicans. The zinc cluster transcription factor Mrr1 is a central regulator of MDR1 expression, but other transcription factors have also been implicated in MDR1 regulation. To better understand how MDR1-mediated drug resistance is achieved in this fungal pathogen, we studied the interdependence of Mrr1 and two other MDR1 regulators, Upc2 and Cap1, in the control of MDR1 expression. A mutated, constitutively active Mrr1 could upregulate MDR1 and confer drug resistance in the absence of Upc2 or Cap1. On the other hand, Upc2 containing a gain-of-function mutation only slightly activated the MDR1 promoter, and this activation depended on the presence of a functional MRR1 gene. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated, activated form of Cap1 could upregulate MDR1 in a partially Mrr1-independent fashion. The induction of MDR1 expression by toxic chemicals occurred independently of Upc2 but required the presence of Mrr1 and also partially depended on Cap1. Transcriptional profiling and in vivo DNA binding studies showed that a constitutively active Mrr1 binds to and upregulates most of its direct target genes in the presence or absence of Cap1. Therefore, Mrr1 and Cap1 cooperate in the environmental induction of MDR1 expression in wild-type C. albicans, but gain-of-function mutations in either of the two transcription factors can independently mediate efflux pump overexpression and drug resistance. PMID:21402859

  4. 78 FR 28701 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Nicolas), c/o DEPOSITO POPULAR DE DROGAS S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/ o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA...) . 3. CUECA VILLARAGA, Hernan, c/o DROGAS LA REBAJA BOGOTA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; Cedula No. 11352426... (Colombia) (individual) . 6. FERNANDEZ LUNA, Tiberio, c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR S.A., Bogota...

  5. Tips for Parents on Keeping Children Drug Free = Consejos para Los Padres Sobre Como Mantener a Los Hijos Libres de La Droga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Research shows that recent trends in youth drug use have stabilized; however, the rates of use remain at high levels. It has been shown that the earlier drug use is initiated, the more likely a person is to develop drug problems later in life. Youth substance abuse may lead to many other problems that affect not only the child, but also the…

  6. Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.

    This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

  7. Predicting the Toxicity of Adjuvant Breast Cancer Drug Combination Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    the adrenal gland, placenta , ovaries and pregnant uterus [8]. Both mdr1a and mdr1b are expressed in the kidney [8]. In contrast, humans have only one...brain, testis and placenta . Additionally, expression of ABCB1 in tumor cells is known to confer drug resistance by pumping anticancer drugs out

  8. Differential involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and P-glycoprotein in tissue distribution and excretion of grepafloxacin in mice.

    PubMed

    Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukio; Suzuki, Takashi; Itose, Minoru; Miyamoto, Gohachiro; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2004-08-01

    The involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1) and P-glycoprotein (mdr1) in the tissue distribution and excretion of grepafloxacin (GPFX), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was investigated using gene-deficient mice [mdr1a(-/-), mdr1a/1b(-/-), and mrp1(-/-)]. The plasma concentration-time profile of GPFX in mrp1(-/-) was nearly identical to that in mrp1(+/+), whereas that in mdr1a/1b(-/-) was higher than that in mdr1a/1b(+/+). The urinary clearance of GPFX in mdr1a/1b(-/-) was lower than that in mdr1a/1b(+/+), suggesting that the urinary excretion of GPFX is at least partially mediated by mdr1. The tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios during the beta-phase (K(p beta),) was significantly higher in the heart, trachea, kidney, spleen, and brown fat of mrp1(-/-) than those in mrp1(+/+). In MRP1-transfected LLC-PK1 cells, the efflux of GPFX after preloading into the cells was higher than that observed in the parent cell lines. These results suggest that GPFX is a substrate of MRP1 and that its distribution to these tissues might be limited by Mrp1. On the other hand, a higher K(p beta), and of GPFX in mdr1a(-/-) mdr1a/1b(-/-) compared with mdr1a/1b(+/+) was observed only in the brain. GPFX was efficiently distributed to the lung parenchyma cells and pulmonary airspaces, including the epithelial lining fluid and macrophages that are the pharmacological target of GPFX, although the contribution of Mdr1 and Mrp1 to such distribution seems to be minor. Thus, the present findings reveal that the disposition of GPFX is at least in part governed by these two ABC transporters and that both Mrp1 and Mdr1 are involved in the limited distribution of GPFX to the distinct tissues, including pharmacological and/or toxicological targets by an active efflux mechanism.

  9. Multidrug resistance 1 gene variants, pesticide exposure, and increased risk of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Huang; Wu, Man-Tzu Marcie; Chou, Chia-Hsuan; Huang, Chia-Chen; Tseng, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Fang-Yu; Li, Ying-Ti; Tsai, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Tsung-Shing; Wong, Ruey-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR)1 gene, extrudes fat-soluble compounds to the extracellular environment. However, the DNA damage of pesticides in subjects with genetic variation in MDR1 has not been investigated. In this study, the comet assay was applied to examine the extent of DNA damage in the peripheral blood of 195 fruit growers who had been exposed to pesticides and 141 unexposed controls. The MDR1 polymorphisms were identified. Questionnaires were administered to obtain demographic data and occupational history. Results showed subjects experiencing high (2.14 μm/cell, P < 0.01) or low pesticide exposure (2.18 μm/cell, P < 0.01) had a significantly greater DNA tail moment than controls (1.28 μm/cell). Compared to the MDR1 T-129C (rs3213619) TC/CC carriers, the TT carriers had increased DNA tail moment in controls (1.30 versus 1.12 μm/cell, P < 0.01). Similar results were observed in the high and low pesticide-exposed groups. Combined analysis revealed that pesticide-exposed fruit growers with MDR1 -129 TT genotype had the greatest DNA damage in the subjects with the combinations of pesticide exposure and MDR1 -129 genotypes. In conclusion, pesticide exposed individuals with susceptible MDR1 -129 genotypes may experience increased risk of DNA damage.

  10. Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene Variants, Pesticide Exposure, and Increased Risk of DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Huang; Wu, Man-Tzu Marcie; Chou, Chia-Hsuan; Huang, Chia-Chen; Tseng, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Fang-Yu; Li, Ying-Ti; Tsai, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Tsung-Shing

    2014-01-01

    The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR)1 gene, extrudes fat-soluble compounds to the extracellular environment. However, the DNA damage of pesticides in subjects with genetic variation in MDR1 has not been investigated. In this study, the comet assay was applied to examine the extent of DNA damage in the peripheral blood of 195 fruit growers who had been exposed to pesticides and 141 unexposed controls. The MDR1 polymorphisms were identified. Questionnaires were administered to obtain demographic data and occupational history. Results showed subjects experiencing high (2.14 μm/cell, P < 0.01) or low pesticide exposure (2.18 μm/cell, P < 0.01) had a significantly greater DNA tail moment than controls (1.28 μm/cell). Compared to the MDR1 T-129C (rs3213619) TC/CC carriers, the TT carriers had increased DNA tail moment in controls (1.30 versus 1.12 μm/cell, P < 0.01). Similar results were observed in the high and low pesticide-exposed groups. Combined analysis revealed that pesticide-exposed fruit growers with MDR1 -129 TT genotype had the greatest DNA damage in the subjects with the combinations of pesticide exposure and MDR1 -129 genotypes. In conclusion, pesticide exposed individuals with susceptible MDR1 -129 genotypes may experience increased risk of DNA damage. PMID:24791009

  11. Facial Layer-by-Layer Engineering of Upconversion Nanoparticles for Gene Delivery: Near-Infrared-Initiated Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Tracking and Overcoming Drug Resistance in Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min; Gao, Yan; Diefenbach, Thomas J; Shen, Jacson K; Hornicek, Francis J; Park, Yong Il; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian; Amiji, Mansoor; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2017-03-08

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) contributes to the majority of treatment failures in clinical chemotherapy. We report facial layer-by-layer engineered upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) for near-infrared (NIR)-initiated tracking and delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to enhance chemotherapy efficacy by silencing the MDR1 gene and resensitizing resistant ovarian cancer cells to drug. Layer-by-layer engineered UCNPs were loaded with MDR1 gene-silencing siRNA (MDR1-siRNA) by electrostatic interaction. The delivery vehicle enhances MDR1-siRNA cellular uptake, protects MDR1-siRNA from nuclease degradation, and promotes endosomal escape for silencing the MDR gene. The intrinsic photon upconversion of UCNPs provides an unprecedented opportunity for monitoring intracellular attachment and release of MDR1-siRNA by NIR-initiated fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurs between donor UCNPs and acceptor fluorescence dye-labeled MDR1-siRNA. Enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy in vitro was demonstrated by cell viability assay. The developed delivery vehicle holds great potential in delivery and imaging-guided tracking of therapeutic gene targets for effective treatment of drug-resistant cancers.

  12. Effect of multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein on the hypoxia-induced multidrug resistance of human laryngeal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Zhou, Liang; Huang, Jiameng; Xiao, Xiyan

    2016-08-01

    In a previous study, it was demonstrated that hypoxia upregulated the multidrug resistance (MDR) of laryngeal cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, with multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression also being upregulated. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of MDR1/P-gp on hypoxia-induced MDR in human laryngeal carcinoma cells. The sensitivity of laryngeal cancer cells to multiple drugs and cisplatin-induced apoptosis was determined by CCK-8 assay and Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining analysis, respectively. The accumulation of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in the cells served as an estimate of drug accumulation and was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). MDR1/P-gp expression was inhibited using interference RNA, and the expression of the MDR1 gene was analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. As a result, the sensitivity to multiple chemotherapeutic agents and the apoptosis rate of the hypoxic laryngeal carcinoma cells increased following a decrease in MDR1/P-gp expression (P<0.05). Additionally, FCM analysis of fluorescence intensity indicated that the downregulated expression of MDR1/P-gp markedly increased intracellular Rh123 accumulation (P<0.05). Such results suggest that MDR1/P-gp serves an important role in regulating hypoxia-induced MDR in human laryngeal carcinoma cells through a decrease in intracellular drug accumulation.

  13. Regulation and expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) transcripts in the intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Li, M; Hurren, R; Zastawny, R L; Ling, V; Buick, R N

    1999-01-01

    A paucity of information exists on the regulation of gene expression in the undifferentiated intestine. The intestinal epithelium is one of the few normal tissues expressing the multidrug resistance (MDR) genes that confer the multidrug resistant phenotype to a variety of tumours. Expression of mdr1a has been observed in the primitive rat intestinal epithelial cell line, IEC-18. It is hypothesized that characterization of MDR gene expression in IEC-18 cells will provide insight into gene regulation in undifferentiated intestinal cells. A series of hamster mdr1a promoter deletion constructs was studied in IEC-18 and a region with 12–13-fold enhancer activity was identified. This region was shown to function in an orientation- and promoter context-independent manner, specifically in IEC-18 cells. Unexpectedly, Northern probing revealed a greater expression of mdr1b than mdr1a in IEC-18 cells. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to compare the relative expression of MDR genes in IEC cells, fetal intestine, and in the undifferentiated and differentiated components of adult intestinal epithelium. MDR transcript levels in IEC cells were found to resemble those of fetal intestine and small intestinal crypts, where a conversion from mixed mdr1a/mdr1b to predominantly mdr1a expression occurs as cells mature. This work describes two contributions to the field of gene regulation in the undifferentiated intestine – first, the initial characterization of a putative mdr1a enhancer region with specificity for primitive intestinal cells and secondly, the first report of mdr1b detection in the intestine and its expression in primitive cell types. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10376961

  14. Reversal of multidrug resistance by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dönmez, Yaprak; Gündüz, Ufuk

    2011-03-01

    Resistance to anticancer drugs is a serious obstacle to cancer chemotherapy. A common form of multidrug resistance (MDR) is caused by the overexpression of transmembrane transporter proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1), encoded by MDR1 and MRP1 genes, respectively. These proteins lead to reduced intracellular drug concentration and decreased cytotoxicity by means of their ability to pump the drugs out of the cells. Breast cancer tumor resistance is mainly associated with overexpression of P-gp/MDR1. Although some chemical MDR modulators aim to overcome MDR by interfering functioning of P-gp, their toxicities limit their usage in clinics. Consequently, RNA interference mediated sequence specific inhibition of the expression of P-gp/MDR1 mRNA may be an efficient tool to reverse MDR phenotype and increase the success of chemotherapy. Aim of this study was resensitizing doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells to anticancer agent doxorubicin by selective downregulation of P-gp/MDR1 mRNA. The effect of the selected MDR1 siRNA, and MRP1 expression after MDR1 silencing was determined by qPCR analysis. Intracellular drug accumulation and localization was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy after treatment with MDR1 siRNA. XTT cell proliferation assay was performed to determine the effect of MDR1 silencing on doxorubicin sensitivity. The results demonstrated that approximately 90% gene silencing occurred by the selected siRNA targeting MDR1 mRNA. However, the level of MRP1 mRNA did not change after MDR1 downregulation. Silencing of P-gp encoding MDR1 gene resulted in almost complete restoration of the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation and relocalization of the drug in the nuclei. Introduction of siRNA resulted in about 70% resensitization to doxorubicin. Selected siRNA duplex was shown to effectively inhibit MDR1 gene expression, restore doxorubicin accumulation and localization, and enhance

  15. 77 FR 54949 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... LABORATORIOS KRESSFOR DE COLOMBIA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA., Bogota... DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR S.A., Bogota, Colombia; DOB 03 Nov 1962; Cedula No. 19494919 (Colombia...

  16. 78 FR 62948 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... LTDA.; Linked To: DEPOSITO POPULAR DE DROGAS S.A.; Linked To: LABORATORIOS KRESSFOR DE COLOMBIA S.A... DROGAS CONDOR LTDA.; Linked To: D'CACHE S.A.; Linked To: LABORATORIOS Y COMERCIALIZADORA DE...

  17. Multi-drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein overexpression is not correlated with ZAP-70/CD38 expression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Nicolas; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie; Claisse, Jean-François; Troussard, Xavier; Lepelley, Pascale; Damaj, Gandhi; Royer, Bruno; Garidi, Reda; Lefrere, Jean-Jacques

    2007-08-01

    ZAP-70 and CD38 expression can identify B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia with an inferior clinical outcome. Many groups have investigated the meaning of the expression of these two proteins and the correlation with the bad prognosis in B-CLL. But nobody has investigated the relation between the multidrug resistance mediated by Pgp overexpression (MDR1) and ZAP-70/CD38 coexpression. Forty-one untreated and stage A patients, either ZAP-70(+)CD38(+) or ZAP-70(-)CD38(-), were tested to determine the MDR1 status. MDR1 was observed in 41% of CLL ZAP-70(+)CD38(+) and in 37% of CLL ZAP-70(-)CD38(-). The difference was not significant (p = 0.745). Patients with ZAP-70 and CD38 positive CLL can not be candidates for MDR1 antagonists.

  18. 75 FR 79445 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... DE DROGAS LA REBAJA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o LABORATORIOS KRESSFOR DE COLOMBIA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o RADIO UNIDAS FM S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA., Bogota, Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA MIGIL LTDA., Cali, Colombia; c/o DEPOSITO POPULAR DE DROGAS S.A., Cali...

  19. Let-7 modulates acquired resistance of ovarian cancer to Taxanes via IMP-1-mediated stabilization of multidrug resistance 1.

    PubMed

    Boyerinas, Benjamin; Park, Sun-Mi; Murmann, Andrea E; Gwin, Katja; Montag, Anton G; Zillhardt, Marion; Hua, You-Jia; Lengyel, Ernst; Peter, Marcus E

    2012-04-15

    Ovarian cancer patients frequently develop resistance to chemotherapy regiments using Taxol and carboplatin. One of the resistance factors that protects cancer cells from Taxol-based therapy is multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1). micro(mi)RNAs are small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate protein expression. Members of the let-7 family of miRNAs are downregulated in many human cancers, and low let-7 expression has been correlated with resistance to microtubule targeting drugs (Taxanes), although little is known that would explain this activity. We now provide evidence that, although let-7 is not a universal sensitizer of cancer cells to Taxanes, it affects acquired resistance of cells to this class of drugs by targeting IMP-1, resulting in destabilization of the mRNA of MDR1. Introducing let-7g into ADR-RES cells expressing both IMP-1 and MDR1 reduced expression of both proteins rendering the cells more sensitive to treatment with either Taxol or vinblastine without affecting the sensitivity of the cells to carboplatin, a non-MDR1 substrate. This effect could be reversed by reintroducing IMP-1 into let-7g high/MDR1 low cells causing MDR1 to again become stabilized. Consistently, many relapsed ovarian cancer patients tested before and after chemotherapy were found to downregulate let-7 and to co-upregulate IMP-1 and MDR1, and the increase in the expression levels of both proteins after chemotherapy negatively correlated with disease-free time before recurrence. Our data point at IMP-1 and MDR1 as indicators for response to therapy, and at IMP-1 as a novel therapeutic target for overcoming multidrug resistance of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  20. Importance of inducible multidrug resistance 1 expression in HL-60 cells resistant to gemtuzumab ozogamicin.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Taichi; Jimi, Shiro; Hara, Shuuji; Takamatsu, Yasushi; Suzumiya, Junji; Tamura, Kazuo

    2012-07-01

    Resistance to gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) hampers the effective treatment of refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To clarify the mechanism of resistance to GO, HL-60 cells were persistently exposed to GO in order to establish GO-resistant HL-60 (HL-60/GOR) cells. Multidrug resistance 1 (MDR-1) was strongly expressed in HL-60/GOR cells, but not in HL-60 cells. Although withdrawal of GO after the chronic exposure of HL-60/GOR cells to this compound gradually decreased MDR-1 expression to trace levels, reintroducing GO restored high MDR-1 expression in HL-60/GOR cells, but not in HL-60 cells. These results indicate that HL-60/GOR cells acquired the ability to induce MDR-1 expression in response to GO. U0126, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, prevented GO-inducible MDR-1 expression and abrogated GO resistance in HL-60/GOR cells. These results suggest that in the clinical use of GO, inducible MDR-1 expression in tumor cells should be investigated before treatment with GO. If the cells are positive then MEK1/2 inhibitors may be effective in overcoming resistance to GO.

  1. Neuroinflammation activates efflux transport by NFκB

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanhui; Argyropoulos, George; Zhang, Yan; Kastin, Abba J.; Hsuchou, Hung; Pan, Weihong

    2009-01-01

    Background/aims Although it is known that drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be hampered by efflux transport activity of the multidrug resistance (mdr) gene product P-glycoprotein, it is not clear how inflammation regulates efflux transporters. In rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells of BBB origin, the proinflammatory cytokine TNF mainly induces transcriptional upregulation of mdr1b, and to a lesser extent mdr1a, resulting in greater efflux of the substrates (Yu C et al., Cell Physiol Biochem, 2007). This study further determined the mechanisms by which TNF activates mdr1b promoter activity. Methods/Results Luciferase reporter assays and DNA binding studies show that (a) maximal basal promoter activity was conferred by a 476 bp sequence upstream to the mdr1b transcriptional initiation site; (2) TNF induced upregulation of promoter activity by NFkB nuclear translocation; and (3) the NFκB binding site of the mdr1b promoter was solely responsible for basal and TNF-activated gene transcription, whereas the p53 binding site was not involved. Binding of the p65 subunit of NFκB to nuclear DNA from RBE4 cells was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Conclusion Thus, NFκB mediated TNF-induced upregulation of mdr1b promoter activity, illustrating how inflammation activates BBB efflux transport. PMID:19088456

  2. P-glycoprotein inhibition by the agricultural pesticide propiconazole and its hydroxylated metabolites: Implications for pesticide-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Christopher S; Marchitti, Satori A; Zastre, Jason

    2015-01-05

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) functions as an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure assessment because of their use as both pesticides and drugs. Propiconazole is an agricultural pesticide undergoing evaluation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. In this study, the P-gp interaction of propiconazole and its hydroxylated metabolites were evaluated using MDR1-expressing membrane vesicles and NIH-3T3/MDR1 cells. Membrane vesicle assays demonstrated propiconazole (IC50,122.9μM) and its metabolites (IC50s, 350.8μM, 366.4μM, and 456.3μM) inhibited P-gp efflux of a probe substrate, with propiconazole demonstrating the strongest interaction. P-gp mediated transport of propiconazole in MDR1-expressed vesicles was not detected indicating propiconazole interacts with P-gp as an inhibitor rather than a substrate. In NIH-3T3/MDR1 cells, propiconazole (1 and 10μM) led to decreased cellular resistance (chemosensitization) to paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic drug and known MDR1 substrate. Collectively, these results have pharmacokinetic and risk assessment implications as P-gp interaction may influence pesticide toxicity and the potential for pesticide-drug interactions.

  3. Minocycline and riluzole brain disposition: interactions with p-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Milane, Aline; Fernandez, Christine; Vautier, Sarah; Bensimon, Gilbert; Meininger, Vincent; Farinotti, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative fatal disease. The only drug recognized to increase the survival time is riluzole(RLZ). In animal models, minocycline (MNC) delayed the onset of the disease and increased the survival time (in combination with RLZ). The objective of our work was to study the interactions between RLZ, MNC and the efflux pump p-glycoprotein (p-gp) at the blood-brain barrier. We investigated these two drugs as: (i) p-gp substrates by comparing their brain uptake in CF1 mdr1a (-/-) and mdr1a (+/+) mice, (ii) p-gp modulators by studying their effect on the cerebral uptake of digoxin. mdr1a (-/-) mice showed higher brain uptake of MNC and RLZ than mdr1a (+/+) (in a 1.6- and 1.4-fold, respectively); and in mdr1a (+/+) mice pre-treated with repeated doses of MNC, brain uptake of digoxin was increased. When both drugs were administrated to mdr1a (+/+) mice, MNC increased the brain uptake of RLZ in a 2.1-fold. In conclusion, MNC and RLZ are both p-gp substrates. MNC is also a p-gp inhibitor and increases the brain diffusion of RLZ. In vitro experiments with the GPNT cell line confirmed these results. These interactions should be taken into account in the design of future clinical trials.

  4. Synthetic Organotellurium Compounds Sensitize Drug-Resistant Candida albicans Clinical Isolates to Fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Reis de Sá, L F; Toledo, F T; Gonçalves, A C; Sousa, B A; Dos Santos, A A; Brasil, P F; Duarte da Silva, V A; Tessis, A C; Ramos, J A; Carvalho, M A; Lamping, E; Ferreira-Pereira, A

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Candida albicans infections are a serious health threat for immunocompromised individuals. Fluconazole is most commonly used to treat these infections, but resistance due to the overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps is of grave concern. This study evaluated the ability of five synthetic organotellurium compounds to reverse the fluconazole resistance of C. albicans clinical isolates. Compounds 1 to 4, at <10 μg/ml, ameliorated the fluconazole resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing the major C. albicans multidrug efflux pumps Cdr1p and Mdr1p, whereas compound 5 only sensitized Mdr1p-overexpressing strains to fluconazole. Compounds 1 to 4 also inhibited efflux of the fluorescent substrate rhodamine 6G and the ATPase activity of Cdr1p, whereas all five of compounds 1 to 5 inhibited Nile red efflux by Mdr1p. Interestingly, all five compounds demonstrated synergy with fluconazole against efflux pump-overexpressing fluconazole-resistant C. albicans clinical isolates, isolate 95-142 overexpressing CDR1 and CDR2, isolate 96-25 overexpressing MDR1 and ERG11, and isolate 12-99 overexpressing CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, and ERG11 Overall, organotellurium compounds 1 and 2 were the most promising fluconazole chemosensitizers of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates. Our data suggest that these novel organotellurium compounds inhibit pump efflux by two very important and distinct families of fungal multidrug efflux pumps: the ATP-binding cassette transporter Cdr1p and the major facilitator superfamily transporter Mdr1p.

  5. Impact of genetic deficiencies of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein on pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Yasuhisa; Sano, Tomokazu; Oda, Kazuo; Kawamura, Akio; Usui, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    1. We investigated how deficiencies in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) affect the pharmacokinetics of atypical antipsychotics aripiprazole and its active metabolite (dehydroaripiprazole) using normal Friend leukemia virus strain B (FVB) mice, BCRP knockout (Bcrp[-/-]) mice, and P-gp and BCRP triple knockout (Mdr1a/1b[-/-]Bcrp[-/-]) mice. 2. While plasma concentrations of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole after oral administration were slightly higher in both Bcrp(-/-) and Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice than in normal FVB mice, the difference was not marked. The increase in absolute bioavailability (F) compared with normal mice (approximately 1.3-fold increase) was comparable between Bcrp(-/-) and Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice. This finding suggests that BCRP may be involved in the intestinal absorption of aripiprazole in mice, albeit with minimal contribution to absorption at best. 3. In contrast, the brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,brain) for aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole after oral administration was significantly higher in Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice than in normal mice, whereas Bcrp(-/-) mice exhibited Kp,brain values similar to those in normal mice. In addition, the Kp,brain values in Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice were not drastically different from those previously reported in Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice, suggesting that brain penetration of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole can be affected by P-gp, but with little synergistic effect of BCRP.

  6. Inoculation with enterococci does not affect colon inflammation in the multi-drug resistance 1a-deficient mouse model of IBD.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Matthew P G; Dommels, Yvonne E M; Butts, Christine A; Zhu, Shuotun; McNabb, Warren C; Roy, Nicole C

    2016-03-03

    Intestinal bacteria are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated whether oral inoculation with specific intestinal bacteria increased colon inflammation in the multi-drug resistance 1a-deficient (Mdr1a (-/-) ) mouse model of IBD. Five-week-old Mdr1a (-/-) mice (FVB background) and FVB mice were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (Control or Inoculation, n = 12 per group). All mice were fed AIN-76A rodent diet, and mice in the Inoculation groups also received a single oral bacterial inoculation consisting of twelve cultured Enterococcus species combined with conventional intestinal flora obtained from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy mice (EF.CIF). Body weight, food intake, and disease activity index (DAI) were assessed throughout the study, and at 21 or 24 weeks of age, inflammation was assessed post-mortem by determining colon length and histological injury score (HIS), and plasma serum amyloid A (SAA). Mdr1a (-/-) mice consumed more food than FVB mice at 13 weeks of age (P < 0.05). There was also a significant effect of genotype on body weight, with Mdr1a (-/-) mice weighing less than FVB mice throughout the study (P < 0.05) regardless of treatment, but there was no effect of inoculation on body weight (P > 0.25). Colon HIS of Mdr1a (-/-) mice was significantly higher than that of FVB mice in the Control (9.3 ± 4.7 (mean ± SD) vs. 0.58 ± 0.51; P < 0.001) and Inoculation (6.7 ± 5.1 vs. 0.92 ± 0.39; P < 0.001) groups. There was no difference in colon HIS of Mdr1a (-/-) mice in the Control group compared with Mdr1a (-/-) mice in the Inoculation group (P = 0.25), nor was there any difference in within-group variation of colon HIS in these two Mdr1a (-/-) groups. DAI was higher in Mdr1a (-/-) mice than in FVB mice, but there was no effect of treatment in either strain, nor were there any differences in colon length or plasma SAA. Inoculation of Mdr1a (-/-) mice with the EF

  7. Generacion de Nuevas Capacidades en el Ejercito de Guatemala para el Combate al Trafico de Drogas y Delitos Conexos (Generating New Capacities within the Guatemalan Army in Order to Combat Drug Trafficking and Related Crimes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    constitución política de la Republica . De esta manera podrá efectivamente incrementar, equipar, entrenar y empeñar personal en la interdicción del territorio...capítulo V “Ejército”. 16República de Guatemala, Ley de Orden Público de la República de Guatemala (Guatemala: Congreso de la Republica , Decreto no. 7...efectivo a la Policía Federal, Procuraduría General de la Republica y Superintendencia de Administración Tributaria. Cada una de las instituciones está en

  8. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches To Preventing Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use [and] La Prevencion Positiva: Metodos que han tenido exito en la prevencion del uso de drogas y alcohol entre la juventud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The United States has the highest rate of youthful drug abuse of any industrialized country in the world. There is a growing awareness that drug and alcohol use are closely connected to other problems such as teenage suicide, adolescent pregnancy, traffic fatalities, juvenile delinquency, poor school performance, runaways, and dropouts. Youthful…

  9. Turning Awareness into Action: What Your Community Can Do about Drug Use in America = De La Toma de Conciencia a la Accion: Que Puede Hacer la Comunidad Respecto al Consumo de Drogas en America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This booklet gives examples of successful community drug abuse prevention programs, as well as guidelines for finding out more about a community's prevention needs and taking action. The first section discusses taking action against drug abuse. It presents examples which illustrate the different approaches communities have taken. Ten steps to help…

  10. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches To Preventing Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use [and] La Prevencion Positiva: Metodos que han tenido exito en la prevencion del uso de drogas y alcohol entre la juventud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The United States has the highest rate of youthful drug abuse of any industrialized country in the world. There is a growing awareness that drug and alcohol use are closely connected to other problems such as teenage suicide, adolescent pregnancy, traffic fatalities, juvenile delinquency, poor school performance, runaways, and dropouts. Youthful…

  11. P-Glycoprotein Is a Major Determinant of Norbuprenorphine Brain Exposure and Antinociception

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sarah M.; Campbell, Scott D.; Crafford, Amanda; Regina, Karen J.; Holtzman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Norbuprenorphine is a major metabolite of buprenorphine and potent agonist of μ, δ, and κ opioid receptors. Compared with buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine causes minimal antinociception but greater respiratory depression. It is unknown whether the limited antinociception is caused by low efficacy or limited brain exposure. Norbuprenorphine is an in vitro substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Mdr1), but the role of P-glycoprotein in norbuprenorphine transport in vivo is unknown. This investigation tested the hypothesis that limited norbuprenorphine antinociception results from P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and limited brain access. Human P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in vitro of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and their respective glucuronide conjugates was assessed by using transfected cells. P-glycoprotein-mediated norbuprenorphine transport and consequences in vivo were assessed by using mdr1a(+/+) and mdr1a(−/−) mice. Antinociception was determined by hot-water tail-flick assay, and respiratory effects were determined by unrestrained whole-body plethysmography. Brain and plasma norbuprenorphine and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide were quantified by mass spectrometry. In vitro, the net P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux ratio for norbuprenorphine was nine, indicating significant efflux. In contrast, the efflux ratio for buprenorphine and the two glucuronide conjugates was unity, indicating absent transport. The norbuprenorphine brain/plasma concentration ratio was significantly greater in mdr1a(−/−) than mdr1a(+/+) mice. The magnitude and duration of norbuprenorphine antinociception were significantly increased in mdr1a(−/−) compared with mdr1a(+/+) mice, whereas the reduction in respiratory rate was similar. Results show that norbuprenorphine is an in vitro and in vivo substrate of P-glycoprotein. P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux influences brain access and antinociceptive, but not the respiratory, effects of norbuprenorphine. PMID

  12. Characterization of multidrug transporter-mediated efflux of avermectins in human and mouse neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Abigail M; Mistry, Pratibha; Wright, Jayne; Williams, Faith M; Brown, Colin D A

    2015-06-15

    ABC transporters play an important role in the disposition of avermectins in several animal species. In this study the interactions of three key avermectins, abamectin, emamectin and ivermectin, with human and mouse homologues of MDR1 (ABCB1/Abcb1a) and MRP (ABCC/Abcc), transporters endogenously expressed by human SH-SY5Y and mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells were investigated. In both cell lines, retention of the fluorescent dye H33342 was found to be significantly increased in the presence of avermectins and cyclosporin A. These effects were shown to be unresponsive to the BCRP inhibitor Ko-143 and therefore MDR1/Mdr1-dependent. Avermectins inhibited MDR1/Mdr1a-mediated H33342 dye efflux, with apparent Ki values of 0.24±0.08 and 0.18±0.02μM (ivermectin); 0.60±0.07 and 0.56±0.02μM (emamectin) and 0.95±0.08 and 0.77±0.25μM (abamectin) in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, respectively. There were some apparent affinity differences for MDR1 and Mdr1a within each cell line (affinity for ivermectin>emamectin≥abamectin, P<0.05 by One-Way ANOVA), but importantly, the Ki values for individual avermectins for human MDR1 or mouse Mdr1a were not significantly different. MK571-sensitive retention of GSMF confirmed the expression of MRP/Mrp efflux transporters in both cell lines. Avermectins inhibited MRP/Mrp-mediated dye efflux with IC50 values of 1.58±0.51 and 1.94±0.72μM (ivermectin); 1.87±0.57 and 2.74±1.01μM (emamectin) and 2.25±0.01 and 1.68±0.63μM (abamectin) in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, respectively. There were no significant differences in IC50 values between individual avermectins or between human MRP and mouse Mrp. Kinetic data for endogenous human MDR1/MRP isoforms in SH-SY5Y cells and mouse Mdr1a/b/Mrp isoforms in N2a cells are comparable for the selected avermectins. All are effluxed at concentrations well above 0.05-0.1μM ivermectin detected in plasma (Ottesen and Campbell, 1994; Ottesen and Campbell, 1994) This is an important finding in the light of

  13. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by CD44 antibody-targeted nanocomplexes for short hairpin RNA-encoding plasmid DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jijin; Fang, Xiaoling; Hao, Junguo; Sha, Xianyi

    2015-03-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the major reasons for the reductions in efficacy of many chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy. As a classical MDR phenotype of human malignancies, the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC)-transporter P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp) is an efflux protein with aberrant activity that has been linked to multidrug resistance in cancer. For the reversal of MDR by RNA interference (RNAi) technology, an U6-RNA gene promoter-driven expression vector encoding anti-MDR1/P-gp short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules was constructed (abbreviated pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA). This study explored the feasibility of using Pluronic P123-conjugated polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimer (P123-PPI) as a carrier for pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA to overcome tumor drug resistance in breast cancer cells. P123-PPI functionalized with anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody (CD44 receptor targeting ligand) (anti-CD44-P123-PPI) can efficiently condense pDNA into nanocomplexes to achieve efficient delivery of pDNA, tumor specificity and long circulation. The in vitro studies methodically evaluated the effect of P123-PPI and anti-CD44-P123-PPI on pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA delivery and P-gp downregulation. Our in vitro results indicated that the P123-PPI/pDNA and anti-CD44-P123-PPI/pDNA nanocomplexes with low cytotoxicity revealed higher transfection efficiency compared with the PPI/pDNA nanocomplexes and Lipofectamine™ 2000 in the presence of serum. The nanocomplexes loaded with pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA against P-gp could reverse MDR accompanied by the suppression of MDR1/P-gp expression at the mRNA and protein levels and improve the internalization and cytotoxicity of Adriamycin (ADR) in the MCF-7/ADR multidrug-resistant cell line. BALB/c nude mice bearing MCF-7/ADR tumor were utilized as a xenograft model to assess antitumor efficacy in vivo. The results demonstrated that the administration of anti-CD44-P123-PPI/pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA nanocomplexes combined with ADR could inhibit tumor growth more

  14. A gene encoding multidrug resistance (MDR)-like protein is induced by aluminum and inhibitors of calcium flux in wheat.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Ezaki, Bunichi; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2002-02-01

    A cDNA clone exclusively induced by aluminum (Al) was isolated from root apices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by the differential display method. The predicted amino acid sequence exhibited homology to the multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins that is known as a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily. Thus this gene was named TaMDR1 (Triticum aestivum MDR). TaMDR1 was induced as a function of Al concentration in the range from 5 to 50 microM, which is in the range of Al content in natural acid soil environment. The concentration required for the induction was lower in the Al-sensitive cultivar than in the Al-tolerant cultivar, indicating that the accumulation of TaMDR1 mRNA was associated with the events caused by Al toxicity rather than Al tolerance. TaMDR1 was significantly induced by the exposure to lanthanum, gadolinium and ruthenium red, which are known as inhibitors of calcium channels. Furthermore, decreasing of calcium ion in growth medium caused stimulation of the gene expression. These results suggested that the induction of TaMDR1 is caused by the breaking of calcium homeostasis which occurred at early stage of Al toxicity.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the multidrug resistance 1 gene in Korean epileptics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Myeong Kyu; Woo, Young Jong; Lee, Min Cheol; Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Ki Won; Kim, Eun Young; Roh, Young Il; Kim, Chan Jong

    2006-01-01

    P-glycoprotein 170 encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene exports various antiepileptic drugs out of the CNS, which leads to multidrug resistance. This study was performed to elucidate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MDR1 gene and drug resistance in Koreans with epilepsy. Three SNPs at nucleotide position 1236 in exon 12, 2677 in exon 21 and 3435 in exon 26 of the MDR1 gene were genotyped in 207 Korean epileptics. Subjects were classified according to whether they had drug-resistant (RS group; N=99) or drug-responsive epilepsy (RP group; N=108). The frequencies of genotype and haplotype were compared between the RS and RP groups. The frequencies of genotype and haplotype in the RS group were not statistically different from those in the RP group. In Korean epileptics, there was no significant relationship between three known SNPs in MDR1 and drug resistance. And there was no association of MDR1 haplotype based on above three sites with pharmacoresistance.

  16. Expression of a multidrug-resistance gene in human tumors and tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Fojo, A.T.; Ueda, K.; Slamon, D.J.; Poplack, D.G.; Gottesman, M.M.; Pastan, I.

    1987-01-01

    The identification and cloning of a segment of a human multidrug resistance gene (mdr1) was reported recently. To examine, the molecular basis of one type of multidrug resistance, the authors have prepared RNA from human tumors and normal tissues and measured their content of mdr1 RNA. They find that the mdr1 gene is expressed at a very high level in the adrenal gland; at a high level in the kidney; at intermediate levels in the lung, liver, lower jejunum, colon, and rectum; and at low levels in many other tissues. The mdr1 gene is also expressed in several human tumors, including many but not all tumors derived from the adrenal gland and the colon. In addition, increased expression was detected in a few tumors at the time of relapse following initial chemotherapy. Although controlled clinical studies will be required, the results suggest that measurement of mdr1 RNA may prove to be a valuable tool in the design of chemotherapy protocols.

  17. Brain permeability of inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Arya, Vikram; Issar, Manish; Wang, Yaning; Talton, James D; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the permeability of inhaled corticosteroids entering the brain is reduced and if P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporters are involved. Currently employed inhaled corticosteroids were given intravenously and intratracheally to rats at a dose of 100 microg kg-1. An ex-vivo receptor binding assay was used to monitor over 12 h the glucocorticoid receptor occupancy in the brain and a systemic reference organ (kidney). The involvement of P-gp in the brain permeability of triamcinolone acetonide was assessed in wild-type mice and mdr1a(-/-) knockout mice (mice lacking the gene for expressing P-gp). After both forms of administration, the average brain receptor occupancies were 20-56% of those of the reference organ, with the more lipophilic drugs showing a more pronounced receptor occupation. While the receptor occupancies in the liver of wild-type and mdr1a(-/-) mice were similar after administration of triamcinolone acetonide, brain receptor occupancies in mdr1a(-/-) mice were significantly greater (mdr1a(-/-): 47.6%, 40.2-55.0%, n=14; 2; wild-type: 11.5+/-33.0%, n=14; 3). Penetration into the brain for inhaled corticosteroids (especially those of lower lipophilicity) is reduced. Experiments in mdr1a(-/-) mice confirmed the involvement of P-gp transporters. Further studies are needed to assess whether potential drug interactions at the transporter level are of pharmacological significance.

  18. 77 FR 41479 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... REPRESENTACIONES S.A., Quito, Ecuador; c/o INVERSIONES ARA LTDA., Cali, Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS LA REBAJA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o DROGAS LA REBAJA BOGOTA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o DEPOSITO POPULAR DE DROGAS S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/o D'CACHE S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/o PRODUCCIONES CARNAVAL DEL...

  19. Multidrug resistance-1 in T lymphocytes and natural killer cells of adults with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: effect of prednisone treatment.

    PubMed

    López-Karpovitch, Xavier; Graue, Gerardo; Crespo-Solís, Erick; Piedras, Josefa

    2008-07-01

    High P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance-1 (P-gp/MDR1) activity in lymphocytes from idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patients may affect disease outcome. ITP treatment includes glucocorticoids that are substrates of P-gp; hence, P-gp functional activity and antigenic expression were assessed by flow cytometry in T and natural killer (NK) cells from ITP patients before and after prednisone therapy. Herein, patients' T and NK cells did not show increased MDR1 functional activity, whereas P-gp antigenic expression was significantly enhanced in both therapy-free and prednisone-treated patients. Prednisone treatment did not significantly modify the function and expression of MDR1 in T and NK cells of ITP patients.

  20. Pro-inflammatory human Th17 cells selectively express P-glycoprotein and are refractory to glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Radha; Kozhaya, Lina; McKevitt, Kelly; Djuretic, Ivana M.; Carlson, Thaddeus J.; Quintero, Maria A.; McCauley, Jacob L.; Abreu, Maria T.; Unutmaz, Derya

    2014-01-01

    IL-17A–expressing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells) are generally regarded as key effectors of autoimmune inflammation. However, not all Th17 cells are pro-inflammatory. Pathogenic Th17 cells that induce autoimmunity in mice are distinguished from nonpathogenic Th17 cells by a unique transcriptional signature, including high Il23r expression, and these cells require Il23r for their inflammatory function. In contrast, defining features of human pro-inflammatory Th17 cells are unknown. We show that pro-inflammatory human Th17 cells are restricted to a subset of CCR6+CXCR3hiCCR4loCCR10−CD161+ cells that transiently express c-Kit and stably express P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/multi-drug resistance type 1 (MDR1). In contrast to MDR1− Th1 or Th17 cells, MDR1+ Th17 cells produce both Th17 (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22) and Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines upon TCR stimulation and do not express IL-10 or other anti-inflammatory molecules. These cells also display a transcriptional signature akin to pathogenic mouse Th17 cells and show heightened functional responses to IL-23 stimulation. In vivo, MDR1+ Th17 cells are enriched and activated in the gut of Crohn’s disease patients. Furthermore, MDR1+ Th17 cells are refractory to several glucocorticoids used to treat clinical autoimmune disease. Thus, MDR1+ Th17 cells may be important mediators of chronic inflammation, particularly in clinical settings of steroid resistant inflammatory disease. PMID:24395888

  1. Biliary transport of irinotecan and metabolites in normal and P-glycoprotein-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lalitha; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Shepard, Dale R; Bingham, Christopher M; Hossfeld, Dieter-Kurt; Ratain, Mark J; Mayer, Ulrich

    2002-04-01

    The extensive and unpredictable biliary excretion of CPT-11 and its metabolites, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38G) may contribute to the wide interpatient variability reported in the disposition and gastrointestinal toxicity of CPT-11. We studied the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in in vivo biliary excretion of CPT-11, SN-38 and SN-38G in mice lacking mdr1-type P-gp [ mdr1a/1b(-/-)] in the presence of the multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent, PSC833. Wild-type (Wt) and mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice ( n=3 or 4) were treated intragastrically with PSC833 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle 2 h prior to i.v. CPT-11 dosing (10 mg/kg), and bile samples were collected. P-gp was found to play an important role in CPT-11 biliary excretion, as there was a significant (40%, P<0.05) decrease in its biliary recovery in 90 min in mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice (6.6+/-0.6% dose) compared with Wt mice (11+/-1.2%). This also implied a major role of other undetermined non-P-gp-mediated mechanism(s) for hepatic transport of CPT-11, which was inhibited by PSC833 (1.8+/-0.8% with PSC833, 6.6+/-0.6% without PSC833) in mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice. SN-38 and SN-38G biliary transport was unchanged in mice lacking P-gp after vehicle treatment, indicating a lack of P-gp mediation in their transport. PSC833 significantly reduced (56-89%) SN-38 and SN-38G biliary transport in Wt and mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice, suggesting that PSC833 may be a candidate to modulate biliary excretion of SN-38 with potential use in reducing CPT-11 toxicity.

  2. Establishment of optimized MDCK cell lines for reliable efflux transport studies.

    PubMed

    Gartzke, Dominik; Fricker, Gert

    2014-04-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with human MDR1 gene (MDCK-MDR1) encoding for P-glycoprotein (hPgp, ABCB1) are widely used for transport studies to identify drug candidates as substrates of this efflux protein. Therefore, it is necessary to rely on constant and comparable expression levels of Pgp to avoid false negative or positive results. We generated a cell line with homogenously high and stable expression of hPgp through sorting single clones from a MDCK-MDR1 cell pool using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To obtain control cell lines for evaluation of cross-interactions with endogenous canine Pgp (cPgp) wild-type cells were sorted with a low expression pattern of cPgp in comparison with the MDCK-MDR1. Expression of other transporters was also characterized in both cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Pgp function was investigated applying the Calcein-AM assay as well as bidirectional transport assays using (3) H-Digoxin, (3) H-Vinblastine, and (3) H-Quinidine as substrates. Generated MDCK-MDR1 cell lines showed high expression of hPgp. Control MDCK-WT cells were optimized in showing a comparable expression level of cPgp in comparison with MDCK-MDR1 cell lines. Generated cell lines showed higher and more selective Pgp transport compared with parental cells. Therefore, they provide a significant improvement in the performance of efflux studies yielding more reliable results.

  3. Pro-inflammatory human Th17 cells selectively express P-glycoprotein and are refractory to glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Radha; Kozhaya, Lina; McKevitt, Kelly; Djuretic, Ivana M; Carlson, Thaddeus J; Quintero, Maria A; McCauley, Jacob L; Abreu, Maria T; Unutmaz, Derya; Sundrud, Mark S

    2014-01-13

    IL-17A-expressing CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells) are generally regarded as key effectors of autoimmune inflammation. However, not all Th17 cells are pro-inflammatory. Pathogenic Th17 cells that induce autoimmunity in mice are distinguished from nonpathogenic Th17 cells by a unique transcriptional signature, including high Il23r expression, and these cells require Il23r for their inflammatory function. In contrast, defining features of human pro-inflammatory Th17 cells are unknown. We show that pro-inflammatory human Th17 cells are restricted to a subset of CCR6(+)CXCR3(hi)CCR4(lo)CCR10(-)CD161(+) cells that transiently express c-Kit and stably express P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/multi-drug resistance type 1 (MDR1). In contrast to MDR1(-) Th1 or Th17 cells, MDR1(+) Th17 cells produce both Th17 (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22) and Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines upon TCR stimulation and do not express IL-10 or other anti-inflammatory molecules. These cells also display a transcriptional signature akin to pathogenic mouse Th17 cells and show heightened functional responses to IL-23 stimulation. In vivo, MDR1(+) Th17 cells are enriched and activated in the gut of Crohn's disease patients. Furthermore, MDR1(+) Th17 cells are refractory to several glucocorticoids used to treat clinical autoimmune disease. Thus, MDR1(+) Th17 cells may be important mediators of chronic inflammation, particularly in clinical settings of steroid resistant inflammatory disease.

  4. Isogenic Strain Construction and Gene Targeting in Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Staib, Peter; Moran, Gary P.; Sullivan, Derek J.; Coleman, David C.; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a recently described opportunistic fungal pathogen that is closely related to Candida albicans but differs from it with respect to epidemiology, certain virulence characteristics, and the ability to develop fluconazole resistance in vitro. A comparison of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis at the molecular level should therefore provide clues about the mechanisms used by these two species to adapt to their human host. In contrast to C. albicans, no auxotrophic C. dubliniensis strains are available for genetic manipulations. Therefore, we constructed homozygous ura3 mutants from a C. dubliniensis wild-type isolate by targeted gene deletion. The two URA3 alleles were sequentially inactivated using the MPAR-flipping strategy, which is based on the selection of integrative transformants carrying a mycophenolic acid resistance marker that is subsequently deleted again by site-specific, FLP-mediated recombination. The URA3 gene from C. albicans (CaURA3) was then used as a selection marker for targeted integration of a fusion between the C. dubliniensis MDR1 (CdMDR1) promoter and a C. albicans-adapted GFP reporter gene. Uridine-prototrophic transformants were obtained with high frequency, and all transformants of two independent ura3-negative parent strains had correctly integrated the reporter gene fusion into the CdMDR1 locus, demonstrating that the CaURA3 gene can be used for efficient and specific targeting of recombinant DNA into the C. dubliniensis genome. Transformants carrying the reporter gene fusion did not exhibit detectable fluorescence during growth in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium in vitro, suggesting that CdMDR1 is not significantly expressed under these conditions. Fluconazole had no effect on MDR1 expression, but the addition of the drug benomyl strongly activated the reporter gene fusion in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating that the CdMDR1 gene, which encodes an efflux pump mediating resistance to toxic compounds, is

  5. Genes amplified and overexpressed in human multidrug-resistant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Van der Bliek, A M; Baas, F; Van der Velde-Koerts, T; Biedler, J L; Meyers, M B; Ozols, R F; Hamilton, T C; Joenje, H; Borst, P

    1988-11-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is associated with overproduction of Mr 170,000 membrane proteins (P-glycoproteins) caused by either gene amplification, transcriptional activation, or both. In rodents the amplified domain comprises genes that encode P-glycoproteins and at least five unrelated genes, one of which encodes the calcium-binding protein sorcin. The amplification and increased expression of these genes always includes one P-glycoprotein-encoding gene (pgp1 in hamsters, homologous to mdr1 in humans). In human MDR cells only elevated mdr1 expression has been shown thusfar, although another P-glycoprotein encoding gene (mdr3, homologous to hamster pgp3) is closely linked. Here we show that the human homolog of the hamster sorcin gene resides on chromosome 7 like the P-glycoprotein-encoding genes. Furthermore, gene classes designated 4, 5, and 6 are coamplified with mdr1 and mdr3 in the human ovarian carcinoma cell line 2780AD, which strongly suggests that the overall structure of the human MDR domain is the same as in rodents. Class 6 was moderately and mdr1 was highly overexpressed in this cell line. Four other human MDR cell lines also have much higher mdr1 overexpression than expected from the relatively low levels (2- to 30-fold) of gene amplification. This contrasts with the results of previous work with rodent MDR cells, in which the increase in P-glycoprotein mRNA levels usually parallels the increase in gene copy number. Although four of the five human MDR cell lines have coamplified mdr3, its expression was undetectable. Our results confirm the central role of the mdr1 (pgp1) gene in MDR and suggest that different cross-resistance patterns are not due to differential expression of different P-glycoprotein genes.

  6. Functional dissection of a Candida albicans zinc cluster transcription factor, the multidrug resistance regulator Mrr1.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sabrina; Popp, Christina; Rogers, P David; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-08-01

    The overexpression of the MDR1 gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, is a frequent cause of resistance to the widely used antimycotic agent fluconazole and other toxic compounds in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. The zinc cluster transcription factor Mrr1 controls MDR1 expression in response to inducing chemicals, and gain-of-function mutations in MRR1 are responsible for the constitutive MDR1 upregulation in fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains. To understand how Mrr1 activity is regulated, we identified functional domains of this transcription factor. A hybrid protein consisting of the N-terminal 106 amino acids of Mrr1 and the transcriptional activation domain of Gal4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitutively induced MDR1 expression, demonstrating that the DNA binding domain is sufficient to target Mrr1 to the MDR1 promoter. Using a series of C-terminal truncations and systematic internal deletions, we could show that Mrr1 contains multiple activation and inhibitory domains. One activation domain (AD1) is located in the C terminus of Mrr1. When fused to the tetracycline repressor TetR, this distal activation domain induced gene expression from a TetR-dependent promoter. The deletion of an inhibitory region (ID1) located near the distal activation domain resulted in constitutive activity of Mrr1. The additional removal of AD1 abolished the constitutive activity, but the truncated Mrr1 still could activate the MDR1 promoter in response to the inducer benomyl. These results demonstrate that the activity of Mrr1 is regulated in multiple ways and provide insights into the function of an important mediator of drug resistance in C. albicans.

  7. Pharmacoproteomics-based reconstruction of in vivo P-glycoprotein function at blood-brain barrier and brain distribution of substrate verapamil in pentylenetetrazole-kindled epilepsy, spontaneous epilepsy, and phenytoin treatment models.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasuo; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate experimentally that alterations of in vivo transporter function at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in disease and during pharmacotherapy can be reconstructed from in vitro data based on our established pharmacoproteomic concept of reconstructing in vivo function by integrating intrinsic transport activity per transporter molecule and absolute protein expression level at the BBB. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled and spontaneous model of epilepsy (EL) mice were used as models of chemically induced and spontaneous epilepsy, respectively. A mouse model of antiepileptic drug treatment was prepared by consecutive 5-week administration of phenytoin (PHT). Quantitative targeted absolute proteomic analysis of 31 membrane proteins showed that P-glycoprotein (P-gp/mdr1a) protein expression levels were significantly increased in brain capillaries of PTZ (129%), EL (143%), and PHT mice (192%) compared with controls. The brain-to-plasma concentration ratios (Kp brain) of P-gp/mdr1a substrate verapamil were 0.563, 0.394, 0.432, and 0.234 in control, PTZ, EL, and PHT mice, respectively. In vivo P-gp/mdr1a function at the BBB was reconstructed from the measured P-gp/mdr1a protein expression levels and intrinsic transport activity for verapamil per P-gp/mdr1a previously reported by our group. Then, the reconstructed P-gp/mdr1a functional activities were integrated with unbound fractions of verapamil in plasma and brain to reconstruct Kp brain of verapamil. In all mice, reconstructed Kp brain values agreed well with the observed values within a 1.21-fold range. These results demonstrate that altered P-gp functions at the BBB in epilepsy and during pharmacotherapy can be reconstructed from in vitro data by means of our pharmacoproteomic approach.

  8. Differential effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on cellular drug transporters and their implications for using epigenetic modifiers in combination chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Benigno C.; Li, Yang; Murray, David; Brammer, Jonathan E.; Liu, Yan; Hosing, Chitra; Nieto, Yago; Champlin, Richard E.; Andersson, Borje S.

    2016-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors, DNA alkylators and nucleoside analogs are effective components of combination chemotherapy. To determine a possible mechanism of their synergism, we analyzed the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of drug transporters which export DNA alkylators. Exposure of PEER lymphoma T-cells to 15 nM romidepsin (Rom) resulted in 40%-50% reduction in mRNA for the drug transporter MRP1 and up to ~500-fold increase in the MDR1 mRNA within 32-48 hrs. MRP1 protein levels concomitantly decreased while MDR1 increased. Other HDAC inhibitors − panobinostat, belinostat and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) − had similar effects on these transporters. The protein level of MRP1 correlated with cellular resistance to busulfan and chlorambucil, and Rom exposure sensitized cells to these DNA alkylators. The decrease in MRP1 correlated with decreased cellular drug export activity, and increased level of MDR1 correlated with increased export of daunorubicin. A similar decrease in the level of MRP1 protein, and increase in MDR1, were observed when mononuclear cells derived from patients with T-cell malignancies were exposed to Rom. Decreased MRP1 and increased MDR1 expressions were also observed in blood mononuclear cells from lymphoma patients who received SAHA-containing chemotherapy in a clinical trial. This inhibitory effect of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of MRP1 suggests that their synergism with DNA alkylating agents is partly due to decreased efflux of these alkylators. Our results further imply the possibility of antagonistic effects when HDAC inhibitors are combined with anthracyclines and other MDR1 drug ligands in chemotherapy. PMID:27564097

  9. Blonanserin, a novel atypical antipsychotic agent not actively transported as substrate by P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoko; Osada, Kenichi; Tagawa, Masaaki; Ogawa, Yuriko; Haga, Toshiaki; Sogame, Yoshihisa; Hashizume, Takanori; Watanabe, Takashi; Taguchi, Atsushi; Katsumata, Takashi; Yabuki, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Noboru

    2012-10-01

    Although blonanserin, a novel atypical antipsychotic agent with dopamine D(2)/serotonin 5-HT(2A) antagonistic properties, displays good brain distribution, the mechanism of this distribution has not been clarified. P-glycoprotein [(P-gp) or multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)] is an efflux transporter expressed in the brain and plays an important role in limiting drug entry into the central nervous system (CNS). In particular, P-gp can affect the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of antipsychotics, and exacerbate or soothe their adverse effects. In this study, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine whether blonanserin is a P-gp substrate. Risperidone and its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone, both of which are P-gp substrates, were used as reference drugs. Affinity of blonanserin, risperidone, and 9-hydroxyrisperidone for P-gp was evaluated by in vitro transcellular transport across LLC-PK1, human MDR1 cDNA-transfected LLC-PK1 (LLC-MDR1), and mouse Mdr1a cDNA-transfected LLC-PK1 (LLC-Mdr1a). In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters in the brain and plasma (B/P ratio) of test compounds were measured in mdr1a/1b knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. The results of in vitro experiments revealed that P-gp does not actively transport blonanserin as a substrate in humans or mice. In addition, blonanserin displayed comparable B/P ratios in KO and WT mice, whereas B/P ratios of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone differed markedly in these animals. Our results indicate that blonanserin is not a P-gp substrate and therefore its brain distribution is unlikely to be affected by this transporter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 may be involved in pregnane x receptor-activated overexpression of multidrug resistance 1 gene during acquired multidrug resistant

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Ma, Zhiqiang; Liu, Haiyan; Liu, Pinghua; Xiao, Yu; Jiang, Xuehua; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pregnane x receptor (PXR) - activated overexpression of the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene is an important way for tumor cells to acquire drug resistance. However, the detailed mechanism still remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether protein arginine methyl transferase 1(PRMT1) is involved in PXR - activated overexpression of MDR1 during acquired multidrug resistant. Experimental Design Arginine methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (AMI-1) was used to pharmacologically block PRMT1 in resistant breast cancer cells (MCF7/adr). The mRNA and protein levels of MDR1 were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. Immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation were used to investigate the physical interaction between PXR and PRMT1. Then, 136 candidate compounds were screened for PRMT1 inhibitors. Lastly, luciferase reporter gene and nude mice bearing resistant breast cancer xenografts were adopted to investigate the anti-tumor effect of PRMT1 inhibitors when combined with adriamycin. Results AMI-1 significantly suppressed the expression of MDR1 in MCF7/adr cells and increased cells sensitivity of MCF7/adr to adriamycin. Physical interaction between PRMT1 and PXR exists in MCF7/adr cells, which could be disrupted by AMI-1. Those results suggest that PRMT1 may be involved in PXR-activated overexpression of MDR1 in resistant breast cancer cells, and AMI-1 may suppress MDR1 by disrupting the interaction between PRMT1 and PXR. Then, five compounds including rutin, isoquercitrin, salvianolic acid A, naproxen, and felodipline were identified to be PRMT1 inhibitors. Finally, those PRMT1 inhibitors were observed to significantly decrease MDR1 promoter activity in vitro and enhance the antitumor effect of adriamycin in nude mice that bearing resistant breast cancer xenografts. Conclusions PRMT1 may be an important co-activator of PXR in activating MDR1 gene during acquired resistance, and PRMT1 inhibitor combined with

  11. Roles of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein in transporting para-aminosalicylic acid and its N-acetylated metabolite in mice brain

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lan; Xu, Cong; O'Neal, Stefanie; Bi, Hui-chang; Huang, Min; Zheng, Wei; Zeng, Su

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) is effective in the treatment of manganism-induced neurotoxicity (manganism). In this study we investigated the roles of P-glycoprotein (MDR1a) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) in transporting PAS and its N-acetylated metabolite AcPAS through blood-brain barrier. Methods: MDR1a-null or wild-type mice were intravenously injected with PAS (200 mg/kg). Thirty minutes after the injection, blood samples and brains were collected, and the concentrations of PAS and AcPAS in brain capillaries and parenchyma were measured using HPLC. Both MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP1 cells that overexpressed P-gp and MRP1, respectively, were used in two-chamber Transwell transport studies in vitro. Results: After injection of PAS, the brain concentration of PAS was substantially higher in MDR1a-null mice than in wild-type mice, but the brain concentration of AcPAS had no significant difference between MDR1a-null mice and wild-type mice. Concomitant injection of PAS with the MRP-specific inhibitor MK-571 (50 mg/kg) further increased the brain concentration of PAS in MDR1a-null mice, and increased the brain concentration of AcPAS in both MDR1a-null mice and wild-type mice. Two-chamber Transwell studies with MDCK-MDR1 cells demonstrated that PAS was not only a substrate but also a competitive inhibitor of P-gp, while AcPAS was not a substrate of P-gp. Two-chamber Transwell studies with the MDCK-MRP1 cells showed that MRP1 had the ability to transport both PAS and AcPAS across the BBB. Conclusion: P-gp plays a major role in the efflux of PAS from brain parenchyma into blood in mice, while MRP1 is involved in both PAS and AcPAS transport in the brain. PMID:25418377

  12. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-11

    bought the periodicals issued by the former Trybuna Ludu Publishing House: TRYBUNA, CHLOPSKA DROGA , and ZYCIE ZYRARDOWA, but they lost their bid...For 1,250,000,000 Zlotys TRYBUNA (the daily), together with CHLOPSKA DROGA [The Peasant Road] and ZYCIE ZYRAR- DOWA [Life of Zyrardow], a weekly—Ad

  13. Effects of natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitors on anticancer drug efflux transporter human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Hiroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Uwai, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein plays an important role in cancer chemotherapy. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factors play critical roles in development and progression of cancer. In this study, the effects of natural compounds that can inhibit NF-κB activation on the function of P-glycoprotein were investigated using human MDR1 gene-transfected KB/MDR1 cells. The accumulation of daunorubicin or rhodamine 123, fluorescent substrates of P-glycoprotein, in KB/MDR1 cells increased in the presence of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE), licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, lupeol, zerumbone, thymoquinone, emodin, and anethol had no effects. The ATPase activities of P-glycoprotein were stimulated by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulated NF-κB activation was inhibited by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, and xanthohumol. KB/MDR1 cells were sensitized to vinblastine cytotoxicity by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol, showing that these natural NF-κB inhibitors reverse multidrug resistance. These results suggest that natural compounds, such as CAPE, licochalcone A, and anacardic acid, have dual inhibitory effects on the anticancer drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein and NF-κB activation, and may become useful to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  14. Interaction of BDE-47 and its Hydroxylated Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and BCRP: Considerations for Human Exposure and Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also known as MDR1, ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; also known as ABCG2), are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular efflux of xenobiotics as an important defense against chemic...

  15. Verapamil and rifampin effect on p-glycoprotein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Amir; Ghasemian, Sepideh; Najafzadeh, Hossein; Galehdari, Hamid; Seifi, Masoud Reza; Zangene, Fateme; Dehdardargahi, Shaiesteh

    2014-11-01

    High expression of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is likely that P-gp overexpression is responsible for multidrug resistance in HCC. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of potent carcinogen nitrosamine with and without verapamil and rifampin drugs on P-gp expression at the mRNA level in HCC. Four groups of rats (n = 5) were selected with different treatments and one group as control. mRNA concentration changes were monitored using quantitative PCR (QPCR). A significant difference was found between verapamil treated group and the control regarding the mRNA level. The mdr1a mRNA was significantly decreased in the verapamil group (P ≤ 0.001). Rifampin administrated group had a decreased level of the mdr1a mRNA compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.006). No significant changes were observed in HCC induced rats regarding the mdr1a mRNA level when treated with verapamil and rifampin. An enhanced expression of the mdr1a gene was found In the HCC induced animals when treated with drugs. Verapamil and rifampin were found specific and effective against P-gp expression in HCC. In conclusion, treatment efficacy of most anticancer drugs is increased in combination with verapamil and rifampin against most advanced HCC.

  16. TNF activates P-glycoprotein in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuanhui; Kastin, Abba J; Tu, Hong; Waters, Sarah; Pan, Weihong

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug resistance proteins (MDRs, including P-glycoproteins) are efflux pumps that serve important biological functions but hinder successful drug delivery to the CNS. Many chemotherapeutic agents, anti-epileptics, anti-HIV drugs, and opiates are substrates for MDRs. Therefore, understanding the regulation of MDRs in the endothelial cells composing the blood-brain barrier has therapeutic implications. We used microarray, real time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and uptake of vinblastine by RBE4 cerebral endothelial cells to test the effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) on the expression and functions of P-glycoprotein (MDR1). The proinflammatory cytokine TNF specifically induced the expression and enhanced the function of MDR1 in RBE4 cells. The persistent upregulation of MDR1 mRNA was shown by cDNA microarray at 6, 12, and 24 h after TNF treatment. This was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR between 2 and 24 h. MDR1 protein expression was increased 6 to 24 h after TNF treatment and resulted in a significant reduction in the cellular uptake of (3)H-vinblastine. The drug efflux transporter in cerebral endothelial cells can be upregulated by TNF. This suggests that adjunctive anti-TNF treatment has novel therapeutic potential in conditions such as brain cancer, epilepsy, neuroAIDS, and chronic pain.

  17. Comparison of 3 assay systems using a common probe substrate, calcein AM, for studying P-gp using a selected set of compounds.

    PubMed

    Szerémy, Péter; Pál, Akos; Méhn, Dóra; Tóth, Beáta; Fülöp, Ferenc; Krajcsi, Péter; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina

    2011-01-01

    The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) transporter is the most abundantly investigated adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter protein. Multiple assay systems were developed to study MDR1-mediated transport and possible drug-drug interactions. Yet, as different probe substrates are used in these assays, it is difficult to directly compare the results. In this study, a common probe substrate was applied in 3 assay systems developed to study MDR1: the cellular dye efflux assay, the ATPase assay, and the vesicular transport assay. This probe substrate is calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein AM), the acetoxymethyl ester derivative of the fluorescent dye, calcein. Using a common probe allows the investigation of the effect of passive permeability on the result obtained by testing various compounds. In this study, 22 compounds with different logP values were tested in the above-mentioned 3 assay systems. The vesicular transport assay proved most sensitive, detecting 18 of 22 interactions with the protein. The ATPase assay detected 15 interactions, whereas the cellular dye efflux assay was the least sensitive with only 10 hits. A correlation was found between the hydrophobicity of the compound and the ratio of cellular and vesicular transport IC(50) values, indicating the effect of passive permeability on the result. Based on hydrophobicity, the current study provides guidelines on applying the most correct tool for studying MDR1 interactions.

  18. Alterations in cellular pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of elvitegravir in response to ethanol exposure in HIV-1 infected monocytic (U1) cells

    PubMed Central

    Midde, Narasimha M.; Sinha, Namita; Lukka, Pradeep B.; Meibohm, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol consumption is negatively associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and general health in HIV positive individuals. Previously, we demonstrated ethanol-mediated alterations to metabolism of elvitegravir (EVG) in human liver microsomes. In the current study, we investigated ethanol influence on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of EVG in HIV infected monocytic (U1) cells. U1 cells were treated with 5 μM EVG, 2 μM Cobicistat (COBI), a booster drug, and 20 mM ethanol for up to 24 hours. EVG, HIV p24 levels, alterations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, MRP1, and MDR1 protein expressions were measured. Presence of ethanol demonstrated a significant effect on the total exposures of both EVG and EVG in combination with COBI. Ethanol also increased the HIV replication despite the presence of drugs and this elevated HIV replication was reduced in the presence of MRP1 and MDR1 inhibitors. Consequently, a slight increase in EVG concentration was observed in the presence of MRP1 inhibitor but not with MDR1 inhibitor. Furthermore, CYP3A4, MRP1 and MDR1 protein levels were significantly induced in treatment groups which included ethanol compared to those with no treatment. In summary, these findings suggest that Ethanol reduces intra cellular EVG exposure by modifying drug metabolism and transporter protein expression. This study provides valuable evidence for further investigation of ethanol effects on the intracellular concentration of EVG in ex vivo or in vivo studies. PMID:28231276

  19. Fluconazole Susceptibility in Cryptococcus gattii Is Dependent on the ABC Transporter Pdr11.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mai Lee; Uhrig, John; Vu, Kiem; Singapuri, Anil; Dennis, Michael; Gelli, Angie; Thompson, George R

    2015-12-07

    Cryptococcus gattii isolates from the Pacific Northwest have exhibited higher fluconazole MICs than isolates from other sites. The mechanism of fluconazole resistance in C. gattii is unknown. We sought to determine the role of the efflux pumps Mdr1 and Pdr11 in fluconazole susceptibility. Using biolistic transformation of the parent isolate, we created a strain lacking Mdr1 (mdr1Δ) and another strain lacking Pdr11 (pdr11Δ). Phenotypic virulence factors were assessed by standard methods (capsule size, melanin production, growth at 30 and 37 °C). Survival was assessed in an intranasal murine model of cryptococcosis. Antifungal MICs were determined by the M27-A3 methodology. No differences in key virulence phenotypic components were identified. Fluconazole susceptibility was unchanged in the Mdr1 knockout or reconstituted isolates. However, fluconazole MICs decreased from 32 μg/ml for the wild-type isolate to <0.03 μg/ml for the pdr11Δ strain and reverted to 32 μg/ml for the reconstituted strain. In murine models, no difference in virulence was observed between wild-type, knockout, or reconstituted isolates. We conclude that Pdr11 plays an essential role in fluconazole susceptibility in C. gattii. Genomic and expression differences between resistant and susceptible C. gattii clinical isolates should be assessed further in order to identify other potential mechanisms of resistance.

  20. Transgenic Mice that Express the Human Multidrug-Resistance Gene in Bone Marrow Enable a Rapid Identification of Agents that Reverse Drug Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickisch, Gerald H.; Merlino, Glenn T.; Galski, Hanan; Gottesman, Michael M.; Pastan, Ira

    1991-01-01

    The development of preclinical models for the rapid testing of agents that circumvent multidrug resistance in cancer is a high priority of research on drug resistance. A common form of multidrug resistance in human cancer results from expression of the MDR1 gene, which encodes a M_r 170,000 glycoprotein that functions as a plasma membrane energy-dependent multidrug efflux pump. We have engineered transgenic mice that express this multidrug transporter in their bone marrow and demonstrated that these animals are resistant to leukopenia by a panel of anticancer drugs including anthracyclines, vinca alkaloids, etoposide, taxol, and actinomycin D. Differential leukocyte counts indicate that both neutrophils and lymphocytes are protected. Drugs such as cisplatin, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil, which are not handled by the multidrug transporter, produce bone marrow suppression in both normal and transgenic mice. The resistance conferred by the MDR1 gene can be circumvented in a dose-dependent manner by simultaneous administration of agents previously shown to be inhibitors of the multidrug transporter in vitro, including verapamil isomers, quinidine, and quinine. Verapamil and quinine, both at levels suitable for human trials that produced only partial sensitization of the MDR1-transgenic mice, were fully sensitizing when used in combination. We conclude that MDR1-transgenic mice provide a rapid and reliable system to determine the bioactivity of agents that reverse multidrug resistance in animals.

  1. Strategies of Drug Transporter Quantitation by LC-MS: Importance of Peptide Selection and Digestion Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Buyun; Liu, Liling; Ho, Hoangdung; Chen, Yuan; Yang, Ze; Liang, Xiaorong; Payandeh, Jian; Dean, Brian; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Deng, Yuzhong

    2017-06-06

    Huge variation of drug transporter abundance was seen in the literature, making PBPK prediction difficult when transporters play a major role. Among multiple factors such as membrane fraction, digestion, and peptide selection that contributed to such variation, peptide selection is the least discussed. Herein, a strategy was established by using a small amount of purified protein standard to select a peptide with near 100% digestion efficiency for quantitation of a transporter protein MDR1. The impact of native membrane protein's tertiary structure on the digestion efficiency of surrogate peptides of MDR1 was investigated. Peptides in more solvent accessible regions are found to be digested much more efficiently than those in large stretches of helical structures. The concentration of peptide EALDESIPPVSFWR(EAL) in the most solvent accessible linker region of MDR1 was found closest to the true protein concentration. When using EAL for MDR1 quantitation, the abundance is over 10 times higher than previously reported, indicating the importance of peptide selection for transporter quantitation. In addition, this study also proposes a screening strategy to select peptides appropriate for relative quantitation for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation in the absence of any protein standard.

  2. N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane enhances the sensitivity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells to gemcitabine via the inhibition of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2.

    PubMed

    Yao, Minya; Hong, Yun; Liu, Yu; Chen, Wei; Wang, Weilin

    2017-09-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy due to its broad resistance to chemotherapy. Gemcitabine is used as a standard chemotherapeutic drug for PDAC treatment, either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutics. However, in patients with advanced disease, survival is rarely improved. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC7) combined with gemcitabine in PDAC therapy. We measured eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF5A2) expression and gemcitabine sensitivity in different PDAC cell lines (Panc-1, BxPC-3, and T3-M4). The synergistic cytotoxic effects of gemcitabine combined with GC7 were measured using Cell Counting Kit-8 assays. Western blots were performed to measure eIF5A2 and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) protein expression in PDAC cells. The present findings demonstrated that combined treatment with GC7 and gemcitabine significantly inhibited PDAC cell line viability (P<0.05). EdU incorporation assays also indicated that GC7 co-treatment remarkably enhanced gemcitabine sensitivity in PDAC cells. Furthermore, downregulation of eIF5A2 diminished the regulatory role of GC7 in gemcitabine cytotoxicity. Western blotting data indicated that GC7 downregulated the expression of MDR1 while gemcitabine induced MDR1 upregulation. These findings showed that GC7 combination therapy may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine in PDAC by downregulating MDR1 expression.

  3. P-Glycoprotein in skin contributes to transdermal absorption of topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Yamazaki, Erina; Oikawa, Masashi; Masuo, Yusuke; Schinkel, Alfred H; Kato, Yukio

    2017-04-15

    ATP binding cassette transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), are expressed in skin, but their involvement in transdermal absorption of clinically used drugs remains unknown. Here, we examined their role in transdermal absorption of corticosteroids. Skin and plasma concentrations of dexamethasone after dermal application were reduced in P-gp and BCRP triple-knockout (Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp(-/-)) mice. The skin concentration in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp(-/-) mice was reduced in the dermis, but not in the epidermis, indicating that functional expression of these transporters in skin is compartmentalized. Involvement of these transporters in dermal transport of dexamethasone was also supported by the observation of a higher epidermal concentration in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp(-/-) than wild-type mice during intravenous infusion. Transdermal absorption after dermal application of prednisolone, but not methylprednisolone or ethinyl estradiol, was also lower in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp(-/-) than in wild-type mice. Transport studies in epithelial cell lines transfected with P-gp or BCRP showed that dexamethasone and prednisolone are substrates of P-gp, but are minimally transported by BCRP. Thus, our findings suggest that P-gp is involved in transdermal absorption of at least some corticosteroids in vivo. P-gp might be available as a target for inhibition in order to deliver topically applied drugs and cosmetics in a manner that minimizes systemic exposure.

  4. Modulation of multidrug resistance gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of lung cancer patients and evaluation of their clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Melguizo, Consolación; Prados, Jose; Luque, Raquel; Ortiz, Raúl; Rama, Ana R; Caba, Octavio; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando; Álvarez, Pablo J; Aránega, Antonia

    2013-02-01

    Multidrug resistance is one of the major obstacles to the successful treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An ability to identify molecular markers of drug resistance in peripheral blood cells in order to better target treatment would therefore be extremely useful in selecting therapy protocols for patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether expression of resistance genes (MDR1, MRP3 and LRP) can predict clinical outcome in NSCLC patients treated with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from lung cancer patients before and after chemotherapy and expression of the resistance gene in polymononuclear cells was detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results were correlated with treatment response and overall survival, which was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. MDR1 expression levels in PMNs rose rapidly within 24 h post-administration of paclitaxel and carboplatin, whereas MRP and LRP expression levels remained unchanged. However, no significant correlation was observed between MDR1 expression and the patients' survival or treatment response. Modulation of MDR1 gene expression in PMNs after lung cancer treatment with paclitaxel and carboplatin cannot be used as a prognosis marker in these patients.

  5. Rapid quantification of drug resistance gene expression in Candida albicans by reverse transcriptase LightCycler PCR and fluorescent probe hybridization.

    PubMed

    Frade, Joao P; Warnock, David W; Arthington-Skaggs, Beth A

    2004-05-01

    We developed a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible assay to quantify Candida albicans ACT1, CDR1, CDR2, ERG11, and MDR1 mRNA using a two-step reverse transcription and LightCycler real-time PCR (RT-LightCycler PCR) method with sequence-specific hybridization probes. We compared RT-LightCycler PCR with Northern hybridization for quantitative analysis of gene expression in isolates with various fluconazole susceptibilities. Specificity of each LightCycler PCR was verified by LightCycler melting curve analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified products. Correlation of quantification results between RT-LightCycler PCR and Northern hybridization yielded correlation coefficients of > or = 0.91 for all genes except MDR1 (0.74). In this case, reduced correlation was due to the inability of Northern hybridization to accurately quantify the high MDR1 expression in a susceptible dose-dependent isolate which was shown by RT-LightCycler PCR to overexpress MDR1 >200-fold relative to the other isolates tested. In four isolates, low levels of CDR2 mRNA were detected by RT-LightCycler PCR but were undetectable by Northern hybridization. mRNA quantification by RT-LightCycler PCR correlates with Northern hybridization and offers additional advantages, including increased sensitivity and speed of analysis, along with lower RNA concentration requirements and an increased dynamic range of signal detection.

  6. P-glycoprotein Inhibition by the Agricultural Pesticide Propiconazole and Its Hydroxylated Metabolites: Implications for Pesticide-Drug Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) functions an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure ass...

  7. P-glycoprotein Inhibition by the Agricultural Pesticide Propiconazole and Its Hydroxylated Metabolites: Implications for Pesticide-Drug Interactions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1) functions an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure ass...

  8. Intestinal and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Ginkgolides and Bilobalide: In Vitro and In Vivo Approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study intestinal and blood brain barrier (BBB) transport of ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, isolated from Ginkgo biloba (Family-Ginkgoaceae), was evaluated in Caco-2 and MDR1-MDCK cell monolayer models. Transepithelial transport was examined for 2 hours in both absorptive and secretor...

  9. Gray mold populations in german strawberry fields are resistant to multiple fungicides and dominated by a novel clade closely related to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Leroch, Michaela; Plesken, Cecilia; Weber, Roland W S; Kauff, Frank; Scalliet, Gabriel; Hahn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to fruit and vegetable production. Strawberry fields usually receive several fungicide treatments against Botrytis per season. Gray mold isolates from several German strawberry-growing regions were analyzed to determine their sensitivity against botryticides. Fungicide resistance was commonly observed, with many isolates possessing resistance to multiple (up to six) fungicides. A stronger variant of the previously described multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype MDR1, called MDR1h, was found to be widely distributed, conferring increased partial resistance to two important botryticides, cyprodinil and fludioxonil. A 3-bp deletion mutation in a transcription factor-encoding gene, mrr1, was found to be correlated with MDR1h. All MDR1h isolates and the majority of isolates with resistance to multiple fungicides were found to be genetically distinct. Multiple-gene sequencing confirmed that they belong to a novel clade, called Botrytis group S, which is closely related to B. cinerea and the host-specific species B. fabae. Isolates of Botrytis group S genotypes were found to be widespread in all German strawberry-growing regions but almost absent from vineyards. Our data indicate a clear subdivision of gray mold populations, which are differentially distributed according to their host preference and adaptation to chemical treatments.

  10. Gene Amplification of the Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene of Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar▿

    PubMed Central

    Imwong, Mallika; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Pongtavornpinyo, Wirichada; Nakeesathit, Supatchara; Nair, Shalini; Newton, Paul; Nosten, Francois; Anderson, Timothy J. C.; Dondorp, Arjen; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax mdr1 gene amplification, quantified by real-time PCR, was significantly more common on the western Thailand border (6 of 66 samples), where mefloquine pressure has been intense, than elsewhere in southeast Asia (3 of 149; P = 0.02). Five coding mutations in pvmdr1, independent of gene amplification, were also found. PMID:18443118

  11. Interaction of BDE-47 and its Hydroxylated Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and BCRP: Considerations for Human Exposure and Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also known as MDR1, ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; also known as ABCG2), are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular efflux of xenobiotics as an important defense against chemic...

  12. P-glycoprotein Inhibition by the Agricultural Pesticide Propiconazole and Its Hydroxylated Metabolites: Implications for Pesticide-Drug Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) functions an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure ass...

  13. P-glycoprotein Inhibition by the Agricultural Pesticide Propiconazole and Its Hydroxylated Metabolites: Implications for Pesticide-Drug Interactions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1) functions an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure ass...

  14. Rhodamine Inhibitors of P-glycoprotein: An Amide/Thioamide “Switch” for ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Michael K.; Holt, Jason J.; Bennett, Stephanie M.; Wetzel, Bryan R.; Loo, Tip W.; Bartlett, M. Claire; Clarke, David M.; Sawada, Geri A.; Higgins, J. William; Tombline, Gregory; Raub, Thomas J.; Detty, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    We have examined 46 tetramethylrosamine/rhodamine derivatives with structural diversity in the heteroatom of the xanthylium core, the amino substituents of the 3- and 6-positions, and the alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl group at the 9-substituent. These compounds were examined for affinity and ATPase stimulation in isolated MDR3 CL P-gp and human P-gp-His10, for their ability to promote uptake of calcein AM and vinblastine in multidrug-resistant MDCKII-MDR1 cells, and for transport in monolayers of MDCKII-MDR1 cells. Thioamide 31-S gave KM of 0.087 μM in human P-gp. Small changes in structure among this set of compounds affected affinity as well as transport rate (or flux) even though all derivatives examined were substrates for P-gp. With isolated protein, tertiary amide groups dictate high affinity and high stimulation while tertiary thioamide groups give high affinity and inhibition of ATPase activity. In MDCKII-MDR1 cells, the tertiary thioamide-containing derivatives promote uptake of calcein AM and have very slow passive, absorptive, and secretory rates of transport relative to transport rates for tertiary amide-containing derivatives. Thioamide 31-S promoted uptake of calcein AM and inhibited efflux of vinblastine with IC50’s of ~2 μM in MDCKII-MDR1 cells. PMID:19402665

  15. Patterns of Proteins that Associate with p53 or with p53 Binding Sites Present in the Ribosomal Gene Cluster and MDM2 (P2) Promoter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    factor receptor (efr) (Ludes-Meyers, et al., 1996), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pCna) (Deb et al., 1992), the multi drug resistant gene (mdr-1...by the HlV -LTR (Subler et al., 1994; Gualberto and Baldwin, 1995). 4 Mutant p53 proteins may activate transcription of the HIV-LTR by cooperation

  16. Fluconazole Susceptibility in Cryptococcus gattii Is Dependent on the ABC Transporter Pdr11

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mai Lee; Uhrig, John; Vu, Kiem; Singapuri, Anil; Dennis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii isolates from the Pacific Northwest have exhibited higher fluconazole MICs than isolates from other sites. The mechanism of fluconazole resistance in C. gattii is unknown. We sought to determine the role of the efflux pumps Mdr1 and Pdr11 in fluconazole susceptibility. Using biolistic transformation of the parent isolate, we created a strain lacking Mdr1 (mdr1Δ) and another strain lacking Pdr11 (pdr11Δ). Phenotypic virulence factors were assessed by standard methods (capsule size, melanin production, growth at 30 and 37°C). Survival was assessed in an intranasal murine model of cryptococcosis. Antifungal MICs were determined by the M27-A3 methodology. No differences in key virulence phenotypic components were identified. Fluconazole susceptibility was unchanged in the Mdr1 knockout or reconstituted isolates. However, fluconazole MICs decreased from 32 μg/ml for the wild-type isolate to <0.03 μg/ml for the pdr11Δ strain and reverted to 32 μg/ml for the reconstituted strain. In murine models, no difference in virulence was observed between wild-type, knockout, or reconstituted isolates. We conclude that Pdr11 plays an essential role in fluconazole susceptibility in C. gattii. Genomic and expression differences between resistant and susceptible C. gattii clinical isolates should be assessed further in order to identify other potential mechanisms of resistance. PMID:26643330

  17. Gray Mold Populations in German Strawberry Fields Are Resistant to Multiple Fungicides and Dominated by a Novel Clade Closely Related to Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Leroch, Michaela; Plesken, Cecilia; Weber, Roland W. S.; Kauff, Frank; Scalliet, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to fruit and vegetable production. Strawberry fields usually receive several fungicide treatments against Botrytis per season. Gray mold isolates from several German strawberry-growing regions were analyzed to determine their sensitivity against botryticides. Fungicide resistance was commonly observed, with many isolates possessing resistance to multiple (up to six) fungicides. A stronger variant of the previously described multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype MDR1, called MDR1h, was found to be widely distributed, conferring increased partial resistance to two important botryticides, cyprodinil and fludioxonil. A 3-bp deletion mutation in a transcription factor-encoding gene, mrr1, was found to be correlated with MDR1h. All MDR1h isolates and the majority of isolates with resistance to multiple fungicides were found to be genetically distinct. Multiple-gene sequencing confirmed that they belong to a novel clade, called Botrytis group S, which is closely related to B. cinerea and the host-specific species B. fabae. Isolates of Botrytis group S genotypes were found to be widespread in all German strawberry-growing regions but almost absent from vineyards. Our data indicate a clear subdivision of gray mold populations, which are differentially distributed according to their host preference and adaptation to chemical treatments. PMID:23087030

  18. A Computational Approach towards the Understanding of Plasmodium falciparum Multidrug Resistance Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Saumya K.; Prasanth Kumar, Sivakumar; Highland, Hyacinth N.; Jasrai, Yogesh T.; Pandya, Himanshu A.; Desai, Ketaki R.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum tremendously affected the chemotherapy worldwide while the intense distribution of chloroquine-resistant strains in most of the endemic areas added more complications in the treatment of malaria. The situation has even worsened by the lack of molecular mechanism to understand the resistance conferred by Plasmodia species. Recent studies have suggested the association of antimalarial resistance with P. falciparum multidrug resistance protein 1 (PfMDR1), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and a homologue of human P-glycoprotein 1 (P-gp1). The present study deals about the development of PfMDR1 computational model and the model of substrate transport across PfMDR1 with insights derived from conformations relative to inward- and outward-facing topologies that switch on/off the transportation system. Comparison of ATP docked positions and its structural motif binding properties were found to be similar among other ATPases, and thereby contributes to NBD domains dimerization, a unique structural agreement noticed in Mus musculus Pgp and Escherichia coli MDR transporter homolog (MsbA). The interaction of leading antimalarials and phytochemicals within the active pocket of both wild-type and mutant-type PfMDR1 demonstrated the mode of binding and provided insights of less binding affinity thereby contributing to parasite's resistance mechanism. PMID:25937947

  19. 4-Isoxazolyl-1,4-dihydropyridines exhibit binding at the multidrug-resistance transporter.

    PubMed

    Hulubei, Victoria; Meikrantz, Scott B; Quincy, David A; Houle, Tina; McKenna, John I; Rogers, Mark E; Steiger, Scott; Natale, N R

    2012-11-15

    The 4-isoxazolyl-dihydropyridines (IDHPs) exhibit inhibition of the multidrug-resistance transporter (MDR-1), and exhibit an SAR distinct from their activity at voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC). Among the four most active IDHPs, three were branched at C-5 of the isoxazole, including the most active analog, 1k.

  20. Recovery of motor spontaneous activity after intranasal delivery of human recombinant erythropoietin in a focal brain hypoxia model induced by CoCl2 in rats.

    PubMed

    Merelli, Amalia; Caltana, Laura; Girimonti, Patricia; Ramos, Alberto Javier; Lazarowski, Alberto; Brusco, Alicia

    2011-08-01

    Stroke is a major human health problem inducing long-term disability without any efficient therapeutic option being currently available. Under hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activates several genes as erythropoietin receptor (Epo-R) related with O(2) supply, and the multidrug-resistance gene (MDR-1) related with drug-refractory phenotype. Brain cortical injection of CoCl(2) produces focal hypoxia-like lesion with neuronal and glial alterations, as well as HIF-1α stabilization and MDR-1 overexpression. Intranasal (IN) drug delivery can by-pass blood-brain barrier (BBB) where MDR-1 is normally expressed. We evaluated the effects of IN-rHu-Epo administration on spontaneous motor activity (SMA) and the brain pattern expression of HIF-1α, MDR-1, and Epo-R in our cobalt-induced hypoxia model. Adult male Wistar rats were injected by stereotaxic surgery in frontoparietal cortex, with CoCl(2) (2 μl-50 mM; n = 20) or saline (controls; n = 20). Ten rats of each group were treated with IN-rHu-Epo 24 U or IN-saline. In addition, erythropoietic stimulation was evaluated by reticulocytes (Ret) account during three consecutive days, after intraperitoneal (i.p.)-recombinant-human Epo (rHu-Epo) (950 U; n = 6) or IN-rHu-Epo (24 U; n = 6) administration. SMA was evaluated by open field and rotarod tests, before and after surgical procedures during five consecutive days. Histological and immunostaining studies of HIF-1α, MDR-1, and Epo-R were performed on brain slides. A significant difference in SMA was observed in the hypoxic rats of IN-rHu-Epo-administered group as compared with Co-Saline-treated subjects and controls (p < 0.001). HIF-1α, EPO-R, and MDR-1 were overexpressed in the hypoxic cortex areas, while in contralateral hemisphere or controls, they were negatives. Reticulocytes were only increased in intraperitoneal (i.p.)-rHu-Epo-administered group. In spite of MDR-1 overexpression being detected in neurons, the coexpression of Epo-R could

  1. [Reversal of adriamycin resistance by digoxin in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/adriamycin and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Li, Bai-He; Yuan, Lei; Shi, Ran-Ran; Wang, Jian-Guo

    2015-12-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of digoxin on the chemoresistance of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/adriamycin (ADR) and its underlying mechanism. MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells were designated as control and ADR groups, respectively. MCF-7/ADR cells in ADR + digoxin group received 48 h of digoxin (10 nmol/L) treatment; MCF-7/ADR cells transfected with pLKO.1-shHIF-1α and pLKO.1-shcontrol plasmids were named shHIF-1α and shcontrol groups, respectively. CCK-8 assay was employed to detect the cytotoxic effect of ADR on MCF-7/ADR cells, and IC50 value and resistance index were calculated according to CCK-8. RT-PCR was used to measure the mRNA levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1). Western blot was used to analyze the protein levels of HIF-1α and MDR1. Flow cytometry was used to determine the apoptosis. The result showed that the resistance index of MCF-7/ADR cells was 115.6, and it was reduced to 47.2 under the action of digoxin (P < 0.05). In comparison with control group, ADR groups showed increased protein and mRNA levels of HIF-1α and MDR1 (P < 0.05). Digoxin reduced the protein levels of HIF-1α and MDR1, as well as the mRNA level of MDR1, but did not affect the mRNA level of HIF-1α. After HIF-1α gene was silenced, the protein levels of HIF-1α and MDR1 were down-regulated (P < 0.05), and the pro-apoptotic effect of ADR on MCF-7/ADR cells was enhanced. Although it was also observed that digoxin promoted cell apoptosis in both shcontrol and shHIF-1α groups, the difference between the two groups was not significant. In conclusion, the results suggest that digoxin may partially reverse the ADR resistance in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADR by means of down-regulating the expression levels of HIF-1α and MDR1 and promoting apoptosis via HIF-1α-independent pathway.

  2. Detection of P-glycoprotein activity in endotoxemic rats by 99mTc-sestamibi imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Hung; Scollard, Deborah A; Teng, Shirley; Reilly, Raymond M; Piquette-Miller, Micheline

    2005-09-01

    (99m)Tc-sestamibi is a widely used radiopharmaceutical agent for myocardial and oncologic imaging. Because of its unique role as a P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-specific substrate, this compound can be used to examine Pgp functional activity in vitro and in vivo under pathologic conditions. Our objective was to use (99m)Tc-sestamibi as a tool to investigate whether systemic inflammation induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) would affect in vivo Pgp function in the brain, heart, liver, and kidneys of rats. Moreover, we also wanted to examine LPS-mediated effects in the placenta of pregnant rats because of the limited amount of in vivo data on this tissue. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with LPS or an equal volume of saline as controls. After certain time periods (6 or 24 h), animals were administered 20 MBq of (99m)Tc-sestamibi intravenously, and then images were taken at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 h. Tissues of rats were excised for (99m)Tc-sestamibi biodistribution analysis by gamma-counting and messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Western blot analysis with antibody C-219 was used to detect Pgp levels. LPS treatment for 6 h caused a significant downregulation of mdr1a mRNA levels in the brain, heart, and liver, whereas 24 h of LPS treatment significantly reduced mdr1a mRNA levels only in the liver. A significant downregulation of mdr1a mRNA was seen in the brain, heart, and liver within 6 h after LPS administration. Imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated a higher accumulation of (99m)Tc-sestamibi in the brain, heart, and liver of LPS-treated rats. In the brain, LPS-imposed downregulation of mdr1a mRNA levels was transient, with significant suppression at 4, 6, and 12 h, and the levels recovered to nearly normal by 24 h. This time-dependent downregulation of mRNA correlated with protein levels determined by Western blot analysis. Biodistribution studies of pregnant rats demonstrated a 3.5-fold

  3. ABC- and SLC-Transporters in Murine and Bovine Mammary Epithelium - Effects of Prochloraz

    PubMed Central

    Yagdiran, Yagmur; Oskarsson, Agneta; Knight, Christopher H.; Tallkvist, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Some chemicals are ligands to efflux transporters which may result in high concentrations in milk. Limited knowledge is available on the influence of maternal exposure to chemicals on the expression and function of transporters in the lactating mammary gland. We determined gene expression of ABC and SLC transporters in murine mammary tissue of different gestation and lactation stages, in murine mammary cells (HC11) featuring resting and secreting phenotypes and in bovine mammary tissue and cells (BME-UV). Effects on transporter expression and function of the imidazole fungicide prochloraz, previously reported to influence BCRP in mammary cells, was investigated on transporter expression and function in the two cell lines. Transporters studied were BCRP, MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5/OATP1A2, OCTN1 and OCT1. Gene expressions of BCRP and OCT1 in murine mammary glands were increased during gestation and lactation, whereas MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5 and OCTN1 were decreased, compared to expressions in virgins. All transporters measured in mammary glands of mice were detected in bovine mammary tissue and in HC11 cells, while only MDR1 and MRP1 were detected in BME-UV cells. Prochloraz treatment induced MDR1 gene and protein expression in both differentiated HC11 and BME-UV cells and increased protein function in HC11 cells, resulting in decreased accumulation of the MDR1 substrate digoxin. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that murine (HC11) and bovine (BME-UV) mammary epithelial cells can be applied to characterize expression and function of transporters as well as effects of contaminants on the mammary transporters. An altered expression, induced by a drug or toxic chemical, on any of the transporters expressed in the mammary epithelial cells during lactation may modulate the well-balanced composition of nutrients and/or secretion of contaminants in milk with potential adverse effects on breast-fed infants and dairy consumers. PMID:27028005

  4. Effects of iron deprivation on multidrug resistance of leukemic K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Dingzhu; Bao, Yixiao; Li, Xiaobin; Liu, Fang; Cai, Kang; Gao, Ju; Liao, Qingkui

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) compromises the efficacy of chemotherapy. Many approaches have been used to reduce MDR; however, the results are poor. It has been reported that iron deprivation downregulates MDR genes. To investigate the relationship of iron with MDR and early growth response gene-1 (EGR1), we investigated the effect of iron deprivation on expression and/or function of multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1), early growth response gene-1 (EGR1), ferritin heavy chain gene (H-Fn) and MDR1-encoded P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the K562 leukemic cell line. The cells were stimulated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and incubated with either FeCl(3) or the iron-chelating drug DFO. The mRNA levels of MDR1, EGR1 and H-Fn were detected by RT-PCR. The protein expression and function of P-gp were measured by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry, respectively. DFO significantly reduced the intracellular iron level, and led to approximately 70% reduction of MDR1 mRNA, approximately 50% of reduction of H-Fn mRNA and approximately 30% reduction of P-gp protein in TPA-differentiated K562 cells. The P-gp pump function, measured by daunorubicin exclusion, was also reduced by DFO treatment. These results suggest a close relationship between iron deprivation and reduced MDR1/P-gp expression and function. DFO may be used together with chemotherapeutic drugs to achieve better clinical efficacy. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Mitochondria of a human multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell line constitutively express inducible nitric oxide synthase in the inner membrane.

    PubMed

    Fantappiè, Ornella; Sassoli, Chiara; Tani, Alessia; Nosi, Daniele; Marchetti, Serena; Formigli, Lucia; Mazzanti, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in pathways of stress conditions. They can be transported from one cell to another, bringing their features to the cell where they are transported. It has been shown in cancer cells overexpressing multidrug resistance (MDR) that mitochondria express proteins involved in drug resistance such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistant protein and multiple resistance protein-1. The MDR phenotype is associated with the constitutive expression of COX-2 and iNOS, whereas celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2 activity, reverses drug resistance of MDR cells by releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria. It is possible that COX-2 and iNOS are also expressed in mitochondria of cancer cells overexpressing the MDR phenotype. This study involved experiments using the human HCC PLC/PRF/5 cell line with and without MDR phenotype and melanoma A375 cells that do not express the MDR1 phenotype but they do iNOS. Western blot analysis, confocal immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy showed that iNOS is localized in mitochondria of MDR1-positive cells, whereas COX-2 is not. Low and moderate concentrations of celecoxib modulate the expression of iNOS and P-gp in mitochondria of MDR cancer cells independently from inhibition of COX-2 activity. However, A375 cells that express iNOS also in mitochondria, were not MDR1 positive. In conclusion, iNOS can be localized in mitochondria of HCC cells overexpressing MDR1 phenotype, however this phenomenon appears independent from the MDR1 phenotype occurrence. The presence of iNOS in mitochondria of human HCC cells phenotype probably concurs to a more aggressive behaviour of cancer cells.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in Candida parapsilosis isolates from a U.S. surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Nina T; Pham, Cau D; Cleveland, Angela A; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2015-02-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the second or third most common cause of candidemia in many countries. The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends fluconazole as the primary therapy for C. parapsilosis candidemia. Although the rate of fluconazole resistance among C. parapsilosis isolates is low in most U.S. institutions, the resistance rate can be as high as 7.5%. This study was designed to assess the mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in 706 incident bloodstream isolates from U.S. hospitals. We sequenced the ERG11 and MRR1 genes of 122 C. parapsilosis isolates with resistant (30 isolates; 4.2%), susceptible dose-dependent (37 isolates; 5.2%), and susceptible (55 isolates) fluconazole MIC values and used real-time PCR of RNA from 17 isolates to investigate the regulation of MDR1. By comparing these isolates to fully fluconazole-susceptible isolates, we detected at least two mechanisms of fluconazole resistance: an amino acid substitution in the 14-α-demethylase gene ERG11 and overexpression of the efflux pump MDR1, possibly due to point mutations in the MRR1 transcription factor that regulates MDR1. The ERG11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found in 57% of the fluconazole-resistant isolates and in no susceptible isolates. The MRR1 SNPs were more difficult to characterize, as not all resulted in overexpression of MDR1 and not all MDR1 overexpression was associated with an SNP in MRR1. Further work to characterize the MRR1 SNPs and search for overexpression of other efflux pumps is needed.

  7. Interactions of bilastine, a new oral H₁ antihistamine, with human transporter systems.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Maria Luisa; Gonzalo, Ana; Ganza, Alvaro; Leal, Nerea; Soengas, Itziar; Ioja, Eniko; Gedey, Szilvia; Jahic, Mirza; Bednarczyk, Dallas

    2012-06-01

    Membrane transporters play a significant role in facilitating transmembrane drug movement. For new pharmacological agents, it is important to evaluate potential interactions (e.g., substrate specificity and/or inhibition) with human transporters that may affect their pharmacokinetics, efficacy, or toxicity. Bilastine is a new nonsedating H₁ antihistamine indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. The in vitro inhibitory effects of bilastine were assessed on 12 human transporters: four efflux [multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) or P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2), and bile salt export pump) and eight uptake transporters (sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, organic cation transporter (OCT)1, organic anion transporter (OAT)1, OAT3, OCT2, OATP2B1, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3). Only mild inhibition was found for MDR1-, OCT1-, and OATP2B1-mediated transport of probe substrates at the highest bilastine concentration assayed (300 μM; half-maximal inhibitory concentration: ≥300 μM). Bilastine transport by MDR1, BCRP, OAT1, OAT3, and OCT2 was also investigated in vitro. Only MDR1 active transport of bilastine was relevant, whereas it did not appear to be a substrate of OCT2, OAT1, or OAT3, nor was it transported substantially by BCRP. Drug-drug interactions resulting from bilastine inhibition of drug transporters that would be generally regarded as clinically relevant are unlikely. Additionally, bilastine did not appear to be a substrate of human BCRP, OAT1, OAT3, or OCT2 and thus is not a potential victim of inhibitors of these transporters. On the other hand, based on in vitro evaluation, clinically relevant interactions with MDR1 inhibitors are anticipated.

  8. TLR signaling modulates side effects of anticancer therapy in the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Magdalena; Hennenberg, Eva Maria; Eyking, Annette; Rünzi, Michael; Gerken, Guido; Scott, Paul; Parkhill, Julian; Walker, Alan W.; Cario, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal mucositis represents the most common complication of intensive chemotherapy, which has a severe adverse impact on quality of life of cancer patients. However, the precise pathophysiology remains to be clarified and there is so far no successful therapeutic intervention. Here, we investigated the role of innate immunity through TLR signaling in modulating genotoxic chemotherapy-induced small intestinal injury in vitro and in vivo. Genetic deletion of TLR2, but not MD-2, in mice resulted in severe chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis in the proximal jejunum with villous atrophy, accumulation of damaged DNA, CD11b+-myeloid cell infiltration and significant gene alterations in xenobiotic metabolism, including a decrease in ABCB1/MDR1 p-glycoprotein (p-gp) expression. Functionally, stimulation of TLR2 induced synthesis and drug efflux activity of ABCB1/MDR1 p-gp in murine and human CD11b+-myeloid cells, thus inhibiting chemotherapy-mediated cytotoxicity. Conversely, TLR2 activation failed to protect small intestinal tissues genetically deficient in MDR1A against DNA-damaging drug-induced apoptosis. Gut microbiota depletion by antibiotics led to increased susceptibility to chemotherapy-induced mucosal injury in wildtype mice, which was suppressed by administration of a TLR2 ligand, preserving ABCB1/MDR1 p-gp expression. Findings were confirmed in a preclinical model of human chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis using duodenal biopsies, by demonstrating that TLR2 activation limited the toxic-inflammatory reaction and maintained assembly of the drug transporter p-gp. In conclusion, this study identifies a novel molecular link between innate immunity and xenobiotic metabolism. TLR2 acts as a central regulator of xenobiotic defense via the multidrug transporter ABCB1/MDR1 p-gp. Targeting TLR2 may represent a novel therapeutic approach in chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis. PMID:25589072

  9. In vitro assessment of the roles of drug transporters in the disposition and drug-drug interaction potential of olaparib.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Alex; Swaisland, Helen

    2017-10-01

    1. In vitro assessments were conducted to examine interactions between olaparib (a potent oral inhibitor of poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase) and drug transporters. 2. Olaparib showed inhibition of the hepatic drug uptake transporters OATP1B1 (IC50 values of 20.3 μM and 27.1 μM) and OCT1 (IC50 37.9 μM), but limited inhibition of OATP1B3 (25% at 100 μM); inhibition of the renal uptake transporters OCT2 (IC50 19.9 μM) and OAT3 (IC50 18.4 μM), but limited inhibition of OAT1 (13.5% at 100 μM); inhibition of the renal efflux transporters MATE1 and MATE2K (IC50s 5.50 μM and 47.1 μM, respectively); inhibition of the efflux transporter MDR1 (IC50 76.0 μM), but limited inhibition of BCRP (47% at 100 μM) and no inhibition of MRP2. At clinically relevant exposures, olaparib has the potential to cause pharmacokinetic interactions via inhibition of OCT1, OCT2, OATP1B1, OAT3, MATE1 and MATE2K in the liver and kidney, as well as MDR1 in the liver and GI tract. Olaparib was found to be a substrate of MDR1 but not of several other transporters. 3. Our assessments indicate that olaparib is a substrate of MDR1 and may cause clinically meaningful inhibition of MDR1, OCT1, OCT2, OATP1B1, OAT3, MATE1 and MATE2K.

  10. Interactions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder therapeutic agents with the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hao-Jie; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Donovan, Jennifer L.; Jiang, Yan; Gibson, Bryan B.; DeVane, C. Lindsay; Markowitz, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential interactions of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) therapeutic agents atomoxetine — and the individual isomers of methylphenidate, amphetamine, and modafinil utilizing established in vitro assay. An initial ATPase assay indicated that both d- and l-methylphenidate have weak affinity for P-glycoprotein. The intracellular accumulation of P-glycoprotein substrates doxorubicin and rhodamine123 in the P-glycoprotein overexpressing cell line LLC-PK1/MDR1 was determined to evaluate potential inhibitory effects on P-glycoprotein. The results demonstrated that all compounds, except both modafinil isomers, significantly increased doxorubicin and rhodamine123 accumulation in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells at higher concentrations. To investigate the P-glycoprotein substrate properties, the intracellular concentrations of the tested compounds in LLC-PK1/MDR1 and P-glycoprotein negative LLC-PK1 cells were measured in the presence and absence of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor PSC833. The results indicate that the accumulation of d-methylphenidate in LLC-PK1 cells was 32.0% higher than in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells. Additionally, coadministration of PSC833 leads to 52.9% and 45.6% increases in d-modafinil and l-modafinil accumulation, respectively, in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells. Further studies demonstrated that l-modafinil transport across LLC-PK1/MDR1 cell monolayers in the basolateral-to-apical (B–A) direction was significantly higher than in the apical-to-basolateral (A–B) direction. PSC833 treatment significantly decreased the transport of l-modafinil in B–A direction. In conclusion, our results suggest that all tested agents with the exception of modafinil isomers are relatively weak P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Furthermore, P-glycoprotein may play a minor role in the transport of d-methylphenidate, d-modafinil, and l-modafinil. PMID:17963743

  11. MRP (ABCC) transporters-mediated efflux of anti-HIV drugs, saquinavir and zidovudine, from human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Eilers, Mark; Roy, Upal; Mondal, Debasis

    2008-01-01

    The constituents of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) include HIV-1 protease inhibitors (HPIs) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Endothelial cell (EC) barriers, especially the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) suppresses the entry of HAART drugs to subendothelial HIV-1 reservoirs. The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter family members, multidrug resistant-1 (MDR-1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) can efflux both HPIs and NRTIs from intracellular compartments. Using brain derived ECs from non-human sources, previous studies suggested a dominant role for MDR-1 in HAART efflux from the BBB. However, due to species variations in ABC-transporter expression, drug-efflux functions using human brain ECs need to be investigated. Furthermore, role of ABC-transporters in drug-efflux from systemic EC barriers need to be studied. We monitored the expression of ABC-transporters in primary human ECs obtained from brain (HBMVECs), aorta (HAECs), pulmonary-artery (HPAECs), dermal-microvessel (HDMVECs) and umbilical vein (HUVECs). Gene expression for MDR-1 and MRPs (MRP-1 to MRP-5) were analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Drug efflux functions were determined by calcein retention assays. Intracellular accumulation of both 3H-saquinavir (an HPI) and 3H-zidovudine (an NRTI) were also monitored in HAECs and HBMVECs. Both assays were carried out in presence of verapamil (20–60 µM) or MK-571 (12.5–50 µM) inhibitors of MDR-1 and MRPs, respectively in presence of verapamil or MK-571. The HBMVECs expressed higher levels of MRPs than MDR-1 and only MK-571 significantly (p<0.01) suppressed calcein efflux from these cells. However, both HAECs and HPAECs showed MDR-1 and MRP expression and calcein efflux was inhibited by both verapamil and MK-571. Both inhibitors suppressed 3H-saquinavir efflux from HAECs, but only MK-571 suppressed saquinavir efflux from HBMVECs. In both ECs, 3H-zidovudine efflux was only

  12. Absence of P-glycoprotein transport in the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of the herbicide paraquat.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Sarah E; Gremaud, Julia N; Skagen, Kasse; Steed, Emily; Dalton, Rachel; Sugden, Kent D; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Sherwin, Catherine M T; Woodahl, Erica L

    2014-02-01

    Genetic variation in the multidrug resistance gene ABCB1, which encodes the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), has been associated with Parkinson disease. Our goal was to investigate P-gp transport of paraquat, a Parkinson-associated neurotoxicant. We used in vitro transport models of ATPase activity, xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity, transepithelial permeability, and rhodamine-123 inhibition. We also measured paraquat pharmacokinetics and brain distribution in Friend leukemia virus B-type (FVB) wild-type and P-gp-deficient (mdr1a(-/-)/mdr1b(-/-)) mice following 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg oral doses. In vitro data showed that: 1) paraquat failed to stimulate ATPase activity; 2) resistance to paraquat-induced cytotoxicity was unchanged in P-gp-expressing cells in the absence or presence of P-gp inhibitors GF120918 [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide] and verapamil-37.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 33.2-41.4], 46.2 (42.5-50.2), and 34.1 µM (31.2-37.2)-respectively; 3) transepithelial permeability ratios of paraquat were the same in P-gp-expressing and nonexpressing cells (1.55 ± 0.39 and 1.39 ± 0.43, respectively); and 4) paraquat did not inhibit rhodamine-123 transport. Population pharmacokinetic modeling revealed minor differences between FVB wild-type and mdr1a(-/-)/mdr1b(-/-) mice: clearances of 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.52] and 0.78 l/h (0.58-0.98), respectively, and volume of distributions of 1.77 (95% CI: 1.50-2.04) and 3.36 liters (2.39-4.33), respectively; however, the change in clearance was in the opposite direction of what would be expected. It is noteworthy that paraquat brain-to-plasma partitioning ratios and total brain accumulation were the same across doses between FVB wild-type and mdr1a(-/-)/mdr1b(-/-) mice. These studies indicate that paraquat is not a P-gp substrate. Therefore, the association between ABCB1 pharmacogenomics and

  13. Absence of P-Glycoprotein Transport in the Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of the Herbicide Paraquat

    PubMed Central

    Lacher, Sarah E.; Gremaud, Julia N.; Skagen, Kasse; Steed, Emily; Dalton, Rachel; Sugden, Kent D.; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Sherwin, Catherine M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variation in the multidrug resistance gene ABCB1, which encodes the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), has been associated with Parkinson disease. Our goal was to investigate P-gp transport of paraquat, a Parkinson-associated neurotoxicant. We used in vitro transport models of ATPase activity, xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity, transepithelial permeability, and rhodamine-123 inhibition. We also measured paraquat pharmacokinetics and brain distribution in Friend leukemia virus B-type (FVB) wild-type and P-gp-deficient (mdr1a−/−/mdr1b−/−) mice following 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg oral doses. In vitro data showed that: 1) paraquat failed to stimulate ATPase activity; 2) resistance to paraquat-induced cytotoxicity was unchanged in P-gp-expressing cells in the absence or presence of P-gp inhibitors GF120918 [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide] and verapamil—37.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 33.2–41.4], 46.2 (42.5–50.2), and 34.1 µM (31.2–37.2)—respectively; 3) transepithelial permeability ratios of paraquat were the same in P-gp-expressing and nonexpressing cells (1.55 ± 0.39 and 1.39 ± 0.43, respectively); and 4) paraquat did not inhibit rhodamine-123 transport. Population pharmacokinetic modeling revealed minor differences between FVB wild-type and mdr1a−/−/mdr1b−/− mice: clearances of 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.52] and 0.78 l/h (0.58–0.98), respectively, and volume of distributions of 1.77 (95% CI: 1.50–2.04) and 3.36 liters (2.39–4.33), respectively; however, the change in clearance was in the opposite direction of what would be expected. It is noteworthy that paraquat brain-to-plasma partitioning ratios and total brain accumulation were the same across doses between FVB wild-type and mdr1a−/−/mdr1b−/− mice. These studies indicate that paraquat is not a P-gp substrate. Therefore, the association between

  14. Targeting SVCT for enhanced drug absorption: Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a novel vitamin C conjugated prodrug of saquinavir

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuanghui; Wang, Zhiying; Patel, Mitesh; Khurana, Varun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim. K.

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve oral absorption, a novel prodrug of saquinavir (Saq), ascorbyl-succinic-saquinavir (AA-Su-Saq) targeting sodium dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) was synthesized and evaluated. Aqueous solubility, stability and cytotoxicity were determined. Affinity of AA-Su-Saq towards effluxpump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and recognition of AA-Su-Saq by SVCT were studied. Transepithelial permeability across polarized MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells were determined. Metabolic stability of AA-Su-Saq in rat liver microsomes was investigated. AA-Su-Saq appears to be fairly stable in both DPBS and Caco-2 cells with half lives of 9.65 and 5.73 h, respectively. Uptake of [3H]Saquinavir accelerated by 2.7 and 1.9 fold in the presence of 50 μM Saq and AA-Su-Saq in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Cellular accumulation of [14C]AA diminished by about 50–70% relative to control in the presence of 200 μM AA-Su-Saq in MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. Uptake of AA-Su-Saq was lowered by 27% and 34% in the presence of 5 mM AA in MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells, respectively. Absorptive permeability of AA-Su-Saq was elevated about 4-5 fold and efflux index reduced by about 13-15 fold across the polarized MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. Absorptive permeability of AA-Su-Saq decreased 44% in the presence of 5 mM AA across MDCK-MDR1 cells. AA-Su-Saq was devoid of cytotoxicity over the concentration range studied. AA-Su-Saq significantly enhanced the metabolic stability but lowered the affinity towards CYP3A4. In conclusion, prodrug modification of Saq through conjugation to AA via a linker significantly raised the absorptive permeability and metabolic stability. Such modification also caused significant evading of P-gp mediated efflux and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism. SVCT targeted prodrug approach can be an attractive strategy to enhance the oral absorption and systemic bioavailability of anti-HIV protease inhibitors. PMID:21571053

  15. Both P-gp and MRP2 mediate transport of Lopinavir, a protease inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sheetal; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Polarized epithelial non-human (canine) cell lines stably transfected with human or murine complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding for various efflux transporters (P-gp/MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and Bcrp1) were used to study transepithelial transport of Lopinavir (LVR) and compare results with the MDCKII-Wild type cells. These transmembrane proteins cause multidrug resistance by decreasing the total intracellular accumulation of drugs. Lopinavir efflux was directional and was completely inhibited by MK-571, a selective MRP family inhibitor in the MDCKII-MRP2 cell line. Similarly, LVR efflux was also inhibited by P-gp inhibitors P-gp 4008 and GF120918 in the MDCKII-MDR1 cell line. The efflux ratios (Efflux rate/ Influx rate) of LVR in the absence of any efflux inhibitors in the MDCK-Wild type, MDCKII-MDR1, MDCKII-MRP1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cell monolayers were 1.32, 4.91, 1.26 and 2.89 respectively. The MDCKII-MDR1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cells have significantly increased LVR efflux ratio relative to the parental cells due to the apically directed transport by MDR1 and MRP2 respectively. The efflux ratios in MRP2 and MDR1 transfected cell lines were close to unity in the presence of MK-571 and P-gp 4008 respectively; indicating that LVR efflux by MRP2 and P-gp was completely inhibited by their selective inhibitors. MDCKII-MRP1 cells did not exhibit a significant reduction in the LVR efflux relative to the parental cells, indicating that LVR is not a good substrate for MRP1. Transport studies across MDCKII-Bcrp1 cells indicated that LVR is not transported by Bcrp1 and is not a substrate for this efflux protein. In conclusion, this study presents direct evidence that LVR is effluxed by both P-gp and MRP2 which may contribute to its poor oral bioavailability and limited penetration into the CNS. PMID:17451894

  16. Drug and Immigration Issues in the Mexico-US Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    norms of international law. Jorge Vargas. Manual de Derecho Internacional para Oficiales de la Armada de Mexico. Politica Internacional Mexicana. 41...p.10. 8o Univision. May 14/94. By Armando Guzman. Peru and Brlibia Increase their Drug Production. 81 Leonidas Gomez 0. Cartel. Historia de la Droga...they will remain intoxicated for at least two hours, and they would be paying $1 person-hour for the 83 Leonidas Gomez 0. Cartel Historia de la Droga. p

  17. Drugs in the Americas: Their Influence on International Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    Schroeder. The Politics of Drugs; Spanish translation, "El mundo de las drogas" Chapter VI The World of Drugs changes constantly; Mexico 1982 p. 91 2. Ibid...Schroeder Richard C. " EL MUNDO DE LAS DROGAS ’ Traduction from "THE POLITICS OF DRUGS" Mexico 1982. 3. Venezuelan commission against illicit use of...Army War College Carlisle Barracks. Pennsylvania 17013 31 March 1989 oo 4 ’., V. / H".. ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Carlos Garcia Priani. Col. ARMY. Mexico TITLE

  18. Thiorhodamines Containing Amide and Thioamide Functionality as Inhibitors of the ATP-Binding Cassette Drug Transporter P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Alexandra; Schamerhorn, Gregory A.; Calitree, Brandon D.; Sawada, Geri A.; Loo, Tip W.; Bartlett, M. Claire; Clarke, David M.; Dettya, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Twelve thiorhodamine derivatives have been examined for their ability to stimulate the ATPase activity of purified human P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-His10, to promote uptake of calcein AM and vinblastine into multidrug-resistant, P-gp-overexpressing MDCKII-MDR1 cells, and for their rates of transport in monolayers of multidrug-resistant, P-gp-overexpressing MDCKII-MDR1 cells. The thiorhodamine derivatives have structural diversity from amide and thioamide functionality (N,N-diethyl and N-piperidyl) at the 5-position of a 2-thienyl substituent on the thiorhodamine core and from diversity at the 3-amino substituent with N,N-dimethylamino, fused azadecalin (julolidyl), and fused N-methylcyclohexylamine (half-julolidyl) substituents. The julolidyl and half-julolidyl derivatives were more effective inhibitors of P-gp than the dimethylamino analogues. Amide-containing derivatives were transported much more rapidly than thioamide-containing derivatives. PMID:22727780

  19. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  20. The selectivity of austocystin D arises from cell-line-specific drug activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Marks, Kevin M; Park, Eun Sun; Arefolov, Alexander; Russo, Katie; Ishihara, Keiko; Ring, Jennifer E; Clardy, Jon; Clarke, Astrid S; Pelish, Henry E

    2011-04-25

    The natural product austocystin D was identified as a potent cytotoxic agent with in vivo antitumor activity and selectivity for cells expressing the multidrug resistance transporter MDR1. We sought to elucidate the mechanism of austocystin D's selective cytotoxic activity. Here we show that the selective cytotoxic action of austocystin D arises from its selective activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in specific cancer cell lines, leading to induction of DNA damage in cells and in vitro. The potency and selectivity of austocystin D is lost upon inhibition of CYP activation and does not require MDR1 expression or activity. Furthermore, the pattern of cytotoxicity of austocystin D was distinct from doxorubicin and etoposide and unlike aflatoxin B(1), a compound that resembles austocystin D and is also activated by CYP enzymes to induce DNA damage. Theses results suggest that austocystin D may be of clinical benefit for targeting or overcoming chemoresistance.

  1. Mebendazole, an antiparasitic drug, inhibits drug transporters expression in preclinical model of gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Celestino Pinto, Laine; de Fátima Aquino Moreira-Nunes, Caroline; Soares, Bruno Moreira; Burbano, Rommel Mário Rodriguez; de Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether MBZ down-regulates drug transporter expression (ABCB1, ABCC1, SLC47A1). mRNA expression level of ABCB1, ABCC1 and SLC47A1 was evaluated by qPCR and protein expression levels MDR-1 was performed by western blotting in malignant ascites cells (AGP-01) treated with MBZ for 24h. The mRNA expression level of ABCB1 and ABCC1 significantly decreased at a 1.0μM of MBZ compared to negative control, while SLC47A1 extremely decreased at all tested concentrations of MBZ. Protein expression levels MDR-1 significantly decreased at a 1.0μM of MBZ compared to negative control. Therefore, our results showed MBZ may play an important role in inhibiting MDR gene expression in malignant ascites cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of ABC Proteins in Drug Resistant Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    photoactivable reagents for the identification of parasite adhesive proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry 282: 916-28. Klein I, Sarkadi B, & Varadi A...cholesterol. Biochem J 2007;401:597–605. [2] Sarkadi B, Price EM, Boucher RC, Germann UA, Scarborough GA. Expression of the human multidrug resistance...PfMDR1 protein. Biochemistry 2007;46(20):6060–73. 11] Welker E, Szabo K, Hollo Z, Muller M, Sarkadi B, Varadi A. Drug-stimulated ATPase activity of a

  3. Ontogeny of Human Hepatic and Intestinal Transporter Gene Expression during Childhood: Age Matters

    PubMed Central

    Mooij, Miriam G.; Schwarz, Ute I.; de Koning, Barbara A. E.; Leeder, J. Steven; Gaedigk, Roger; Samsom, Janneke N.; Spaans, Edwin; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Tibboel, Dick; Kim, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Many drugs prescribed to children are drug transporter substrates. Drug transporters are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular uptake or efflux of drugs and are important to drug absorption and elimination. Very limited data are available on the effect of age on transporter expression. Our study assessed age-related gene expression of hepatic and intestinal drug transporters. Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), and OATP1B3 expression was determined in postmortem liver samples (fetal n = 6, neonatal n = 19, infant n = 7, child n = 2, adult n = 11) and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) expression in 61 pediatric liver samples. Intestinal expression of MDR1, MRP2, and OATP2B1 was determined in surgical small bowel samples (neonates n = 15, infants n = 3, adults n = 14). Using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, we measured fetal and pediatric gene expression relative to 18S rRNA (liver) and villin (intestines), and we compared it with adults using the 2−∆∆Ct method. Hepatic expression of MRP2, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 in all pediatric age groups was significantly lower than in adults. Hepatic MDR1 mRNA expression in fetuses, neonates, and infants was significantly lower than in adults. Neonatal intestinal expressions of MDR1 and MRP2 were comparable to those in adults. Intestinal OATP2B1 expression in neonates was significantly higher than in adults. We provide new data that show organ- and transporter-dependent differences in hepatic and intestinal drug transporter expression in an age-dependent fashion. This suggests that substrate drug absorption mediated by these transporters may be subject to age-related variation in a transporter dependent pattern. PMID:24829289

  4. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of rebamipide in healthy Korean subjects with the characterization of atypical complex absorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Lien; Yoo, Hee-Doo; Tran, Phuong; Cho, Hea-Young; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of rebamipide (Reba) in healthy male Korean subjects was analyzed using the nonlinear mixed effects modeling method. The possible effects of physiological covariates and the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene 3435C>T polymorphism on PK parameters were also investigated. Data were collected from a bioequivalence study, in which 26 subjects who participated in the study were administered a single oral dose of 100 mg Reba; only data from the reference formulation were used. Reba showed a relatively large inter-individual variability (from 2.6- to 3.3-fold) in the PK parameters with double peaks or the concentration plateau after the peak concentration in its serum concentration-time profiles. The population PKs of Reba was best described by a one-compartment model with three fraction absorption processes followed a single Weibull-type function and two first-order kinetics, and lag times. The study suggests that the efflux transporter MDR1 3435C>T allele affects the substantial inter-individual variability in the absorption of Reba according to genetic polymorphism. A significant difference was found in the absorption rate ka 1 among the MDR1 3435C>T genotype groups (P < 0.05) (CT group, 79.8% increase; and TT group, 115% increase). The use of combined MDR1 3435C>T and body mass index as covariates for ka 1 exerted a more significant effect (P < 0.05). In addition, body surface area significantly affected the apparent total clearance (P < 0.05).

  5. Cellular localization and functional significance of CYP3A4 in the human epileptic brain

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chaitali; Marchi, Nicola; Desai, Nirav K.; Puvenna, Vikram; Hossain, Mohammed; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Alexopoulos, Andreas V.; Janigro, Damir

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose Compelling evidence supports the presence of P450 enzymes (CYPs) in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little information is available on the localization and function of CYPs in the drug-resistant epileptic brain. We have evaluated the pattern of expression of the specific enzyme CYP3A4 and studied its co-localization with MDR1. We also determined whether an association exists between CYP3A4 expression and cell survival. Methods Brain specimens were obtained from eight patients undergoing resection to relieve drug-resistant seizures or to remove a cavernous angioma. Each specimen was partitioned for either immunostaining or primary culture of human endothelial cells and astrocytes. Immunostaining was performed using anti-CYP3A4, MDR1, GFAP, or NeuN antibodies. High performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis was used to quantify carbamazepine (CBZ) metabolism by these cells. CYP3A4 expression was correlated to DAPI condensation, a marker of cell viability. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells were transfected with CYP3A4 to further evaluate the link between CYP3A4 levels, CBZ metabolism, and cell viability. Key Findings CYP3A4 was expressed by blood–brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells and by the majority of neurons (75 ± 10%). Fluorescent immunostaining showed coexpression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in endothelial cells and neurons. CYP3A4 expression inversely correlated with DAPI nuclear condensation. CYP3A4 overexpression in HEK cells conferred resistance to cytotoxic levels of carbamazepine. CYP3A4 levels positively correlated with the amount of CBZ metabolized. Significance CYP3A4 brain expression is not only associated with drug metabolism but may also represent a cytoprotective mechanism. Coexpression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 may be involved in cell survival in the diseased brain. PMID:21294720

  6. Murine P-glycoprotein Deficiency Alters Intestinal Injury Repair and Blunts Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Radioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Elizabeth M.; Yarbrough, Vanisha R.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Daft, Joseph G.; Tanner, Scott M.; Steverson, Dennis; Lorenz, Robin G.

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been reported to increase stem cell proliferation and regulate apoptosis. Absence of P-gp results in decreased repair of intestinal epithelial cells after chemical injury. To further explore the mechanisms involved in the effects of P-gp on intestinal injury and repair, we used the well-characterized radiation injury model. In this model, injury repair is mediated by production of prostaglandins (PGE2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to confer radioprotection. B6.mdr1a−/− mice and wild-type controls were subjected to 12 Gy total body X-ray irradiation and surviving crypts in the proximal jejunum and distal colon were evaluated 3.5 days after irradiation. B6.mdr1a−/−mice exhibited normal baseline stem cell proliferation and COX dependent crypt regeneration after irradiation. However, radiation induced apoptosis was increased and LPS-induced radioprotection was blunted in the C57BL6.mdr1a−/−distal colon, compared to B6 wild-type controls. The LPS treatment induced gene expression of the radioprotective cytokine IL-1α, in B6 wild-type controls but not in B6.mdr1a−/− animals. Lipopolysaccharid-induced radioprotection was absent in IL-1R1−/− animals, indicating a role for IL-1α in radioprotection, and demonstrating that P-gp deficiency interferes with IL-1α gene expression in response to systemic exposure to LPS. PMID:22780103

  7. Variability in P-Glycoprotein Inhibitory Potency (IC50) Using Various in Vitro Experimental Systems: Implications for Universal Digoxin Drug-Drug Interaction Risk Assessment Decision Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Joe; O’Connor, Michael P.; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Coleman, JoAnn; Lee, Caroline; Palm, Johan; Pak, Y. Anne; Perloff, Elke S.; Reyner, Eric; Balimane, Praveen; Brännström, Marie; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hanna, Imad; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Hillgren, Kate; Li, Libin; Hollnack-Pusch, Evelyn; Jamei, Masoud; Lin, Xuena; Mason, Andrew K.; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Patel, Aarti; Podila, Lalitha; Plise, Emile; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Sands, Eric; Taub, Mitchell E.; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Xia, Cindy Q.; Xiao, Guangqing; Yabut, Jocelyn; Yamagata, Tetsuo; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    A P-glycoprotein (P-gp) IC50 working group was established with 23 participating pharmaceutical and contract research laboratories and one academic institution to assess interlaboratory variability in P-gp IC50 determinations. Each laboratory followed its in-house protocol to determine in vitro IC50 values for 16 inhibitors using four different test systems: human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2; eleven laboratories), Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA (MDCKII-MDR1; six laboratories), and Lilly Laboratories Cells—Porcine Kidney Nr. 1 cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA (LLC-PK1-MDR1; four laboratories), and membrane vesicles containing human P-glycoprotein (P-gp; five laboratories). For cell models, various equations to calculate remaining transport activity (e.g., efflux ratio, unidirectional flux, net-secretory-flux) were also evaluated. The difference in IC50 values for each of the inhibitors across all test systems and equations ranged from a minimum of 20- and 24-fold between lowest and highest IC50 values for sertraline and isradipine, to a maximum of 407- and 796-fold for telmisartan and verapamil, respectively. For telmisartan and verapamil, variability was greatly influenced by data from one laboratory in each case. Excluding these two data sets brings the range in IC50 values for telmisartan and verapamil down to 69- and 159-fold. The efflux ratio-based equation generally resulted in severalfold lower IC50 values compared with unidirectional or net-secretory-flux equations. Statistical analysis indicated that variability in IC50 values was mainly due to interlaboratory variability, rather than an implicit systematic difference between test systems. Potential reasons for variability are discussed and the simplest, most robust experimental design for P-gp IC50 determination proposed. The impact of these findings on drug-drug interaction risk assessment is discussed in the companion article (Ellens et al., 2013) and recommendations

  8. The effect of breast cancer resistance protein, multidrug resistant protein 1, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 on the antitumor efficacy of the lipophilic camptothecin 7-t-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (AR-67) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tsakalozou, Eleftheria; Adane, Eyob D; Kuo, Kuei-Ling; Daily, Abigail; Moscow, Jeffrey A; Leggas, Markos

    2013-07-01

    AR-67 (7-t-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin) is a lipophilic camptothecin analog, currently under early stage clinical trials. Transporters are known to have an impact on the disposition of camptothecins and on the response to chemotherapeutics in general due to their expression in tumor tissues. Therefore, we investigated the interplay between the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistant protein 1 (MDR1), and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1/1B3 transporters and AR-67 and their impact on the toxicity profile of AR-67. Using cell lines expressing the aforementioned transporters, we showed that the lipophilic AR-67 lactone form is a substrate for efflux transporters BCRP and MDR1. Additionally, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 facilitated the uptake of AR-67 carboxylate in SLCO1B1- and SLCO1B3-transfected cell systems compared with the mock-transfected ones. Notably, both BCRP and MDR1 conferred resistance to AR-67 lactone. Prompted by recent studies showing increased OATP1B3 expression in certain cancer types, we investigated the effect of OATP1B3 expression on cell viability after exposure to AR-67 carboxylate. OATP1B3-expressing cells had increased carboxylate uptake as compared with mock-transfected cells but were not sensitized because the intracellular amount of lactone was 50-fold higher than that of carboxylate and comparable between OATP1B3-expressing and OATP1B3-nonexpressing cells. In conclusion, BCRP- and MDR1-mediated efflux of AR-67 lactone confers resistance to AR-67, but OATP1B3-mediated uptake of the AR-67 carboxylate does not sensitize OATP1B3-expressing tumor cells.

  9. The Effect of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein, Multidrug Resistant Protein 1, and Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide 1B3 on the Antitumor Efficacy of the Lipophilic Camptothecin 7-t-Butyldimethylsilyl-10-Hydroxycamptothecin (AR-67) In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tsakalozou, Eleftheria; Adane, Eyob D.; Kuo, Kuei-Ling; Daily, Abigail; Moscow, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    AR-67 (7-t-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin) is a lipophilic camptothecin analog, currently under early stage clinical trials. Transporters are known to have an impact on the disposition of camptothecins and on the response to chemotherapeutics in general due to their expression in tumor tissues. Therefore, we investigated the interplay between the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistant protein 1 (MDR1), and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1/1B3 transporters and AR-67 and their impact on the toxicity profile of AR-67. Using cell lines expressing the aforementioned transporters, we showed that the lipophilic AR-67 lactone form is a substrate for efflux transporters BCRP and MDR1. Additionally, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 facilitated the uptake of AR-67 carboxylate in SLCO1B1- and SLCO1B3-transfected cell systems compared with the mock-transfected ones. Notably, both BCRP and MDR1 conferred resistance to AR-67 lactone. Prompted by recent studies showing increased OATP1B3 expression in certain cancer types, we investigated the effect of OATP1B3 expression on cell viability after exposure to AR-67 carboxylate. OATP1B3-expressing cells had increased carboxylate uptake as compared with mock-transfected cells but were not sensitized because the intracellular amount of lactone was 50-fold higher than that of carboxylate and comparable between OATP1B3-expressing and OATP1B3-nonexpressing cells. In conclusion, BCRP- and MDR1-mediated efflux of AR-67 lactone confers resistance to AR-67, but OATP1B3-mediated uptake of the AR-67 carboxylate does not sensitize OATP1B3-expressing tumor cells. PMID:23620484

  10. Aliskiren toxicity in juvenile rats is determined by ontogenic regulation of intestinal P-glycoprotein expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Peter; Beckman, David; McLean, Lee Anne; Yan, Jing-He

    2014-02-15

    Juvenile rat toxicity studies with the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren were initiated to support treatment in the pediatric population. In Study 1, aliskiren was administered orally to juvenile rats at doses of 0, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg/day with repeated dosing from postpartum day (PPD) 8 to PPD 35/36. In-life, clinical pathology, anatomic pathology, and toxicokinetics evaluations were performed. In Study 2, single oral doses of aliskiren (0, 100 or 300 mg/kg) were given to 14-, 21-, 24-, 28-, 31- or 36-day-old rats; in-life data and toxicokinetics were evaluated. Study 3 was a single dose (3 mg/kg i.v.) pharmacokinetic study in juvenile rats on PPD 8, 14, 21 and 28. In Study 4, naïve rats were used to investigate ontogenic changes of the multidrug-resistant protein 1 (MDR1) and the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) mRNA in several organs. Oral administration of aliskiren at 100 and 300 mg/kg caused unexpected mortality and severe morbidity in 8-day-old rats. Aliskiren plasma and tissue concentrations were increased in rats aged 21 days and younger. Expression of MDR1 and OATP mRNA in the intestine, liver and brain was significantly lower in very young rats. In conclusion, severe toxicity and increased exposure in very young rats after oral administration of aliskiren are considered to be the result of immature drug transporter systems. Immaturity of MDR1 in enterocytes appears to be the most important mechanism responsible for the high exposure. - Highlights: • Aliskiren was orally administered to juvenile rats. • Unexpected severe toxicity and acute mortality occurred in rats aged 8 days. • Toxicity was associated with increased aliskiren plasma and tissue exposure. • Developmental changes of exposure correlated with ontogeny of transporters. • Immaturity of MDR1 in enterocytes causes increased exposure in very young rats.

  11. [Reversal of mdrl gene-dependent multidrug resistance in multidrug resistance human leukemia cell line K562/ADM using short hairpin RNA expression vectors].

    PubMed

    Gan, Hui-zhu; Zhang, Gui-zhen; Lu, Zhen-xia; Pu, Li-sha; Yang, Shao-juan; Gao, Shen; Zheng, De-ming

    2007-06-01

    To explore the role of reversal multidrug resistance (MDR) using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vectors in multidrug resistance human leukemia cell line K562/ADM. The oligonucleotides with 19-mer hairpin structure were synthesized. The shRNA expression vectors were constructed and introduced into K562/ADM cells. Expression of mdr1 mRNA was assessed by RT-PCR, and P-gp expression was determined by Western blot. The apoptosis and sensitivity of the K562/ADM cells to doxorubicin were quantified by flow cytometry and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays, respectively. Cellular daunorubicin accumulation was assayed by laser confocal scanning microscope (LCSM). In positive clones of K562/ADM cells stably transfected with pSilencer 3.1-HI neo mdr1-A and mdr1-B shRNA expression vectors, RT-PCR showed that mdr1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced to 35.9% (P < 0.05), 27.5% (P < 0.01), respectively. Western blot showed that P-gp expression was significantly and specifically inhibited. Resistance against doxorubicin was decreased from 79-fold to 38-fold (P < 0.05), 30-fold (P < 0.01) respectively. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity of K562/ADM cells was increased significantly compared with the control. shRNA vectors significantly enhanced the cellular daunorubicin accumulation. The percent of the apoptosis cell was significantly enhanced to 18.1% (P < 0.05) , 54.4% (P < 0.01) respectively. shRNA expression vectors can effectively reverse MDR, and restore the sensitivity of drug-resistance K562/ADM cells to conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

  12. [Orphanin FQ combined with adriamycin reverses multi-drug resistance of K562/ADM and its molecular mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xuan; Zhao, Li

    2012-06-01

    Our study have confirmed that orphanin FQ (OFQ) alone can reverse the multi-drug resistance of K562/ADM at the cellular level. Thus, this study was purposed to investigate the molecular mechanism of OFQ combined with ADM that reverses multi-drug resistance of K562/ADM, as well as its correlation with the expression of MDR1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MTT method was used to detect the proliferation ability of K562/ADM treated with OFQ and ADM alone and their combination; flow cytometry was performed to measure the cell apoptosis rate; real time-PCR was applied to detect the MDR1 mRAN expression; Western blot was used to determine the P-gp expression. The results showed that OFQ (0.1 µmol/L) combined with ADM (15 mg/L) significantly inhibited the cell proliferation of K562/ADM, compared with ADM group; the date gained at 48 h was statistically significant (P < 0.05), and cell apoptosis rate was significantly raised (P < 0.01); MDR1 mRNA and P-gp expression levels of OFR combined with ADM were significantly lower than that of ADM alone, and were time-dependent within 48 h. It is concluded that OFQ combined with ADM can reverse the multi-drug resistance of K562/ADM in time-dependent manner, and the 48 h after treatment with these 2 drugs is the best reverse time, which may be related with down regulating the expression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp.

  13. Piperine activates human pregnane X receptor to induce the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yue-Ming; Lin, Wenwei; Chai, Sergio C.; Wu, Jing; Ong, Su Sien; Schuetz, Erin G.; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-10-01

    Activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and subsequently its target genes, including those encoding drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, while playing substantial roles in xenobiotic detoxification, might cause undesired drug-drug interactions. Recently, an increased awareness has been given to dietary components for potential induction of diet–drug interactions through activation of PXR. Here, we studied, whether piperine (PIP), a major component extracted from the widely-used daily spice black pepper, could induce PXR-mediated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Our results showed that PIP activated human PXR (hPXR)-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression in human hepatocytes, intestine cells, and a mouse model; PIP activated hPXR by recruiting its coactivator SRC-1 in both cellular and cell-free systems; PIP bound to the hPXR ligand binding domain in a competitive ligand binding assay in vitro. The dichotomous effects of PIP on induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression observed here and inhibition of their activity reported elsewhere challenges the potential use of PIP as a bioavailability enhancer and suggests that caution should be taken in PIP consumption during drug treatment in patients, particularly those who favor daily pepper spice or rely on certain pepper remedies. - Highlights: • Piperine induces PXR-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression. • Piperine activates PXR by binding to PXR and recruiting coactivator SRC-1. • Piperine induces PXR activation in vivo. • Caution should be taken in piperine consumption during drug treatment.

  14. Identification of the hepatic efflux transporters of organic anions using double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells expressing human organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, OATP1B1/multidrug resistance 1, and OATP1B1/breast cancer resistance protein.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Soichiro; Maeda, Kazuya; Kondo, Chihiro; Hirano, Masaru; Sasaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2005-09-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that the transport of various organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane was mainly mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2). However, a number of new reports have shown that some organic anions are also substrates of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and/or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), implying MDR1 and BCRP could also be involved in the biliary excretion of organic anions in humans. In the present study, we constructed new double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells expressing organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)/MDR1 and OATP1B1/BCRP, and we investigated the transcellular transport of four kinds of organic anions, estradiol-17beta-d-glucuronide (EG), estrone-3-sulfate (ES), pravastatin (PRA), and cerivastatin (CER), to identify which efflux transporters mediate the biliary excretion of compounds using double-transfected cells. We observed the vectorial transport of EG and ES in all the double transfectants. MRP2 showed the highest efflux clearance of EG among these efflux transporters, whereas BCRP-mediated clearance of ES was the highest in these double transfectants. In addition, two kinds of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, CER and PRA, were also substrates of all these efflux transporters. The rank order of the efflux clearance of PRA mediated by each transporter was the same as that of EG, whereas the contribution of MDR1 to the efflux of CER was relatively greater than for PRA. This experimental system is very useful for identifying which transporters are involved in the biliary excretion of organic anions that cannot easily penetrate the plasma membrane.

  15. Brain penetration of emodepside is increased in P-glycoprotein-deficient mice and leads to neurotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Elmshäuser, S; Straehle, L C; Kranz, J; Krebber, R; Geyer, J

    2015-02-01

    The antiparasitic drug emodepside (EMO) is a substrate of the P-glycoprotein multidrug efflux carrier (P-gp; syn. MDR1, ABCB1), which has an important function in protecting the brain from potentially toxic compounds by functional drug efflux at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Many dogs of the Collie breed and even dogs of many other breeds have a loss-of-function 4-bp deletion mutation in the MDR1 gene. In these dogs, brain penetration of many P-gp-transported drugs is increased and so their therapeutic usage is restricted. To elucidate the role of P-gp at the BBB for the brain penetration of EMO, we applied EMO at 1 mg/kg to mdr1-deficient (PGP(mut) ) and mdr1-intact (PGP(WT) ) CF1 mice. Whereas in the brain of the PGP(WT) mice, EMO was below the detection level of 10 ng/g, its concentration was at 43.7 ng/g in the PGP(mut) mice. Furthermore, appearance of neurological toxicity was analyzed in these mice after application of 1 mg/kg EMO using a rotarod setup. In all PGP(mut) mice, but not in the PGP(WT) mice, the walking performance on the rotarod was impaired by EMO with clear differences in the degree and duration of neurological toxicity. Some of the mice were completely unable to walk on the rotarod already at 2 h after drug application and showed long-lasting ataxia over >24 h. Others even showed significantly reduced walking performance, but completely recovered within 1 day. In conclusion, P-gp restricts brain penetration of EMO and prevents neurological toxicity of this drug in mice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Characterisation of human tubular cell monolayers as a model of proximal tubular xenobiotic handling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Colin D.A. Sayer, Rachel; Windass, Amy S.; Haslam, Iain S.; Broe, Marc E. de; D'Haese, Patrick C.; Verhulst, Anja

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether primary human tubular cell monolayers could provide a powerful tool with which to investigate the renal proximal tubular handling of xenobiotics. Human proximal and distal tubule/collecting duct cells were grown as monolayers on permeable filter supports. After 10 days in culture, proximal tubule cells remained differentiated and expressed a wide palette of transporters at the mRNA level including NaPi-IIa, SGLT1, SGLT2, OCT2, OCTN2, OAT1, OAT3, OAT4, MDR1, MRP2 and BCRP. At the protein level, the expression of a subset of transporters including NaPi-IIa, OAT1 and OAT3 was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the expression of the ATP binding cassette efflux pumps MDR1, MRP2 and BCRP confirmed their apical membrane localisation. At the functional level, tubule cell monolayers retain the necessary machinery to mediate the net secretion of the prototypic substrates; PAH and creatinine. PAH secretion across the monolayer consisted of the uptake of PAH across the basolateral membrane by OAT1 and OAT3 and the apical exit of PAH by a probenecid and MK571-sensitive route consistent with actions of MRP2 or MRP4. Creatinine secretion was by OCT2-mediated uptake at the basolateral membrane and via MDR1 at the apical membrane. Functional expression of MDR1 and BCRP at the apical membrane was also demonstrated using a Hoechst 33342 dye. Similarly, measurement of calcein efflux demonstrated the functional expression of MRP2 at the apical membrane of cell monolayers. In conclusion, human tubular cell monolayers provide a powerful tool to investigate renal xenobiotic handling.

  17. Impact of Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic and intestinal mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and drug transporters, and on the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Devreese, Mathias; De Baere, Siegrid; Martel, An; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2017-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) drug biotransformation enzymes and multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins may influence drug disposition processes. The first part of the study aimed to evaluate the effect of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and/or fumonisins (FBs), at contamination levels approaching European Union guidance levels, on intestinal and hepatic CYP450 enzymes and MDR proteins gene expression in broiler chickens. mRNA expression of genes encoding CYP450 enzymes (CYP3A37, CYP1A4 and CYP1A5) and drug transporters (MDR1/ABCB1 and MRP2/ABCC2) was determined using qRT-PCR. A significant up-regulation of CYP1A4 (P = 0.037) and MDR1 (P = 0.036) was observed in the jejunum of chickens fed a diet contaminated with FBs. The second part of this study aimed to investigate the impact of feeding a FBs contaminated diet on the oral absorption of enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg BW), a MDR1 substrate. A significant (P = 0.045), however small, decreased area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-48 h, mean ± SD) was observed for enrofloxacin in chickens fed the FBs contaminated diet compared to the control group, 16.28 ± 1.82 h μg/mL versus 18.27 ± 1.79 h μg/mL. These findings suggest that concurrent administration of drugs with FBs contaminated feed might alter the pharmacokinetic characteristics of CYP1A4 substrate drugs and MDR1 substrates, such as enrofloxacin.

  18. [Cytological Study in vitro on Co-delivery of siRNA and Paclitaxel within Solid Lipid Nanoparticles to Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Tumors].

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Yao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuan; Sun, Xun; Lin, Yunzhu

    2016-02-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains the major obstacle to the success of clinical cancer chemotherapy. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the MDR1, is an important part with complex mechanisms associated with the MDR. In order to overcome the MDR of tumors, we in the present experimental design incorporated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting MDR1 gene and anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) into the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to achieve the combinational therapeutic effects of genetherapy and chemotherapy. In this study, siRNA-PTX-SLNs were successfully prepared. The cytotoxicity of blank SLNs and siRNA-PTX-SLNs in MCF-7 cells and MCF-7/ADR cells were detected by MTT; and the uptake efficiency of PTX in MCF-7/ADR cells were detected via HPLC method; quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry were performed to investigate the silencing effect of siRNA-PTX- SLNs on MDR1 gene in MCF-7/ADR cells. The results showed that PTX loaded SLNs could significantly inhibit the growth of tumor cells, and more importantly, the MDR tumor cells treated with siRNA-PTX-SLNs showed the lowest viability. HPLC study showed that SLNs could enhance the cellular uptake for PTX. Meanwhile, siRNA delivered by SLNs significantly decreased the P-gp expression in MDR tumor cells, thus increased the cellular accumulation of rhodamine123 as a P-gp substrate. In conclusion, the MDR1 gene could be silenced by siRNA-PTX-SLNs, which could promote the growth inhibition efficiency of PTX on tumor cells, leading to synergetic effect on MDR tumor therapy.

  19. Intestinal drug transporter expression and the impact of grapefruit juice in humans.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, H; Bailey, D G; Dresser, G K; Gregor, J C; Schwarz, U I; McGrath, J S; Jolicoeur, E; Lee, W; Leake, B F; Tirona, R G; Kim, R B

    2007-03-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the extent of human intestinal drug transporter expression, determine the subcellular localization of the drug uptake transporter OATP1A2, and then to assess the effect of grapefruit juice consumption on OATP1A2 expression relative to cytochrome P450 3A4 and MDR1. Expression of drug uptake and efflux transporters was assessed using human duodenal biopsy samples. Fexofenadine uptake by different transporters was measured in a transporter-transfected cell line. We investigated the influence of grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics of orally administered fexofenadine. The effect of grapefruit juice on the expression of intestinal transporters was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. In the duodenum of healthy volunteers, an array of CYP enzymes as well as uptake and efflux transporters was expressed. Importantly, uptake transporters thought to be liver-specific, such as OATP1B1 and 1B3, as well as OATP2B1 and 1A2 were expressed in the intestine. However, among OATP transporters, only OATP1A2 was capable of fexofenadine uptake when assessed in vitro. OATP1A2 colocalized with MDR1 to the brush border domain of enterocytes. Consumption of grapefruit juice concomitantly or 2 h before fexofenadine administration was associated with reduced oral fexofenadine plasma exposure, whereas intestinal expression of either OATP1A2 or MDR1 remained unaffected. In conclusion, an array of drug uptake and efflux transporters are expressed in the human intestine. OATP1A2 is likely the key intestinal uptake transporter for fexofenadine absorption whose inhibition results in the grapefruit juice effect. Although short-term grapefruit juice ingestion was associated with reduced fexofenadine availability, OATP1A2 or MDR1 expression was unaffected.

  20. The correlation of virulence, pathogenicity, and itraconazole resistance with SAP activity in Candida albicans strains.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenli; Yang, Jing; Pan, Yanwei; Xi, Zhiqin; Qiao, Zusha; Ma, Yan

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between SAP2 activity and drug resistance in Candida albicans was investigated by using itraconazole-resistant and itraconazole-sensitive C. albicans isolates. The precipitation zones were measured to analyze SAP2 activity. Mice were classified into itraconazole-resistant and -sensitive C. albicans isolate groups, and a control group, with their survival and mortality rate being observed over 30 days. The relative expression levels of CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, and SAP2 were measured using RT-PCR. It was found that the secreted aspartyl proteinase activity of itraconazole-resistant C. albicans strains was significantly higher than that of itraconazole-sensitive C. albicans strains (P < 0.001). A significantly higher mortality rate was recorded for mice treated with itraconazole-resistant C. albicans than for mice treated with itraconazole-sensitive C. albicans. In regards to the CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 genes, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups of mice. Positive correlations between SAP2 and MDR1 and between CDR1 and CDR2 were found. The high expression level of SAP2 may relate to the virulence, pathogenicity, and resistance of C. albicans.

  1. Multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphism in amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Kumaraswamy Naik Lambani Rama; Jhajharia, Kapil; Chaudhary, Roopam; Tatikonda, Aravind; Dhaliwal, Aprinderpal Singh; Kaur, Rose Kanwaljeet

    2015-01-01

    Gingival enlargement comprises any clinical condition in which an increase in the size of the gingiva is observed. It is a side effect associated with some distinct classes of drugs, such as anticonvulsants, immunosuppressant, and calcium channel blockers. Among calcium channel blockers, nifedipine causes gingival enlargement in about 10% of patients, whereas the incidence of amlodipine, a third-generation calcium channel blocker, induced gingival enlargement is very limited. Because the calcium antagonists, albeit to a variable degree, act as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the gene product of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), and inflammation may modify P-gp expression. We hereby, report a case of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement with MDR1 3435C/T polymorphism, associated with inflammatory changes due to plaque accumulation, in a 50-year-old hypertensive male patient. The genotype obtained for the polymorphism was a heteromutant genotype, thus supporting the contention that the MDR1 polymorphism may alter the inflammatory response to the drug. PMID:26015682

  2. Reversion of multidrug resistance in the P-glycoprotein-positive human pancreatic cell line (EPP85-181RDB) by introduction of a hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Holm, P. S.; Scanlon, K. J.; Dietel, M.

    1994-01-01

    A major problem in cytostatic treatment of many tumours is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR4). This is most often accompanied by the overexpression of a membrane transport protein, P-glycoprotein, and its encoding mRNA. In order to reverse the resistant phenotype in cell cultures, we constructed a specific hammerhead ribozyme possessing catalytic activity that cleaves the 3'-end of the GUC sequence in codon 880 of the mdr1 mRNA. We demonstrated that the constructed ribozyme is able to cleave a reduced substrate mdr1 mRNA at the GUC position under physiological conditions in a cell-free system. A DNA sequence encoding the ribozyme gene was then incorporated into a mammalian expression vector (pH beta APr-1 neo) and transfected into the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line EPP85-181RDB, which is resistant to daunorubicin and expresses the MDR phenotype. The expressed ribozyme decreased the level of mdr1 mRNA expression, inhibited the formation of P-glycoprotein and reduced the cell's resistance to daunorubicin dramatically; this means that the resistant cells were 1,600-fold more resistant than the parental cell line (EPP85-181P), whereas those cell clones that showed ribozyme expression were only 5.3-fold more resistant than the parental cell line. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:7914421

  3. Sotalol permeability in cultured-cell, rat intestine and PAMPA system

    PubMed Central

    LIU, WEI; OKOCHI, HIDEAKI; BENET, LESLIE Z.; ZHAI, SUO-DI

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To clarify sotalol’s classification in the BCS versus BDDCS systems through cellular, rat everted sac and PAMPA permeability studies. Methods Studies were carried out in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and MDR1-transfected MDCK (MDCK-MDR1) cell lines, rat everted gut sacs and the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) system. Three-hour transport studies were conducted in MDCK cell lines (with apical pH changes) and MDCK-MDR1 cells (with and without the P-glycoprotein inhibitor GG918); male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 ~ 350 g) were used to prepare everted sacs. In the PAMPA studies, drug solutions at different pH’s were dosed in each well and incubated for 5 hours. Samples were measured by LC-MS/MS, or liquid scintillation counting and apparent permeability (Papp) was calculated. Results Sotalol showed low permeability in all of the cultured-cell lines, everted sacs and PAMPA systems. It might be a border line P-glycoprotein substrate. The PAMPA study showed that sotalol’s permeability increased with a higher apical pH, while much less change was found in MDCK cells. Conclusion The low permeability rate for sotalol correlates with its Class 3 BDDCS assignment and lack of in vivo metabolism. PMID:22350803

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of Crmdr1, a novel MDR-type ABC transporter gene from Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hongbin; Liu, Donghui; Zuo, Kaijing; Gong, Yifu; Miao, Zhiqi; Chen, Yuhui; Ren, Weiwei; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2007-08-01

    A novel gene encoding a MDR-like ABC transporter protein was cloned from Catharanthus roseus, a medicinal plant with more than 120 kinds of secondary metabolites, through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). This gene (named as Crmdr1; GenBank accession no.: DQ660356) had a total length of 4395 bp with an open reading frame of 3801 bp, and encoded a predicted polypeptide of 1266 amino acids with a molecular weight of 137.1 kDa. The CrMDR1 protein shared 59.8, 62.5, 60.0 and 58.2% identity with other MDR proteins isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana (AAD31576), Coptis japonica (CjMDR), Gossypium hirsutum (GhMDR) and Triticum aestivum (TaMDR) at amino acid level, respectively. Southern blot analysis showed that Crmdr1 was a low-copy gene. Expression pattern analysis revealed that Crmdr1 constitutively expressed in the root, stem and leaf, but with lower expression in leaf. The domains analysis showed that CrMDR1 protein possessed two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) arranging in "TMD1-NBD1-TMD2-NBD2" direction, which is consistent with other MDR transporters. Within NBDs three characteristic motifs common to all ABC transporters, "Walker A", "Walker B" and C motif, were found. These results indicate that CrMDR1 is a MDR-like ABC transporter protein that may be involved in the transport and accumulation of secondary metabolites.

  5. Induction of drug resistance and protein kinase C genes in A2780 ovarian cancer cells after incubation with antineoplastic agents at sublethal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Brügger, Dorothee; Brischwein, Klaus; Liu, Chao; Bader, Peter; Niethammer, Dietrich; Gekeler, Volker; Beck, James F

    2002-01-01

    We examined the inducibility of drug resistance (MDR1, MRP1, LRP) and protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme (alpha, epsilon, eta, theta, tau, zeta) corresponding genes in A2780 ovarian cancer cells after a 24-hour treatment with adriamycin (ADR), camptothecin (CAM), etoposide (ETO) or vincristine (VCR). Sublethal concentrations of drugs were used to exclude short-term effects caused by selection. Cell cycle analysis was performed to identify possible correlation between resistance factors, PKC isozymes and proliferation. We found a mostly combined induction of MDR1, LRP, PKC tau and PKC zeta by CAM, ETO and VCR. PKC alpha, epsilon, eta and theta gene expression altered variably. Cell cycle analysis showed that A2780 cells responded with a marked G2/M arrest after a 24-hour treatment with CAM, ETO and VCR but an association between the induction of PKC isozymes corresponding genes and proliferation was not seen. Our analysis points to a possible link between atypical PKC tau/PKC zeta and MDR1/LRP in cytostatic stress response of cancer cells.

  6. Screening for impact of popular herbs improving mental abilities on the transcriptional level of brain transporters.

    PubMed

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz-Rakowska, Beata; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-06-01

    There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) and SLC (solute carrier) transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1). Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital) and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin) substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB.

  7. Visualizing spatial distribution of alectinib in murine brain using quantitative mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Mitsuhiro; Ryu, Shoraku; Yamashita, Makiko; Ohtsuka, Naoto; Nishidate, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hamada, Akinobu

    2016-03-30

    In the development of anticancer drugs, drug concentration measurements in the target tissue have been thought to be crucial for predicting drug efficacy and safety. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is commonly used for determination of average drug concentrations; however, complete loss of spatial information in the target tissue occurs. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been recently applied as an innovative tool for detection of molecular distribution of pharmacological agents in heterogeneous targets. This study examined the intra-brain transitivity of alectinib, a novel anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-MSI and LC-MS/MS techniques. We first analyzed the pharmacokinetic profiles in FVB mice and then examined the effect of the multidrug resistance protein-1 (MDR1) using Mdr1a/b knockout mice including quantitative distribution of alectinib in the brain. While no differences were observed between the mice for the plasma alectinib concentrations, diffuse alectinib distributions were found in the brain of the Mdr1a/b knockout versus FVB mice. These results indicate the potential for using quantitative MSI for clarifying drug distribution in the brain on a microscopic level, in addition to suggesting a possible use in designing studies for anticancer drug development and translational research.

  8. A robust and versatile signal-on fluorescence sensing strategy based on SYBR Green I dye and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huazhang; Wu, Namei; Zheng, Yanjie; Chen, Min; Weng, Shaohuang; Chen, Yuanzhong; Lin, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    A robust and versatile signal-on fluorescence sensing strategy was developed to provide label-free detection of various target analytes. The strategy used SYBR Green I dye and graphene oxide as signal reporter and signal-to-background ratio enhancer, respectively. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) gene and mercury ion (Hg(2+)) were selected as target analytes to investigate the generality of the method. The linear relationship and specificity of the detections showed that the sensitive and selective analyses of target analytes could be achieved by the proposed strategy with low detection limits of 0.5 and 2.2 nM for MDR1 gene and Hg(2+), respectively. Moreover, the strategy was used to detect real samples. Analytical results of MDR1 gene in the serum indicated that the developed method is a promising alternative approach for real applications in complex systems. Furthermore, the recovery of the proposed method for Hg(2+) detection was acceptable. Thus, the developed label-free signal-on fluorescence sensing strategy exhibited excellent universality, sensitivity, and handling convenience.

  9. Vincristine-induced central neurotoxicity in a collie homozygous for the ABCB1Δ mutation.

    PubMed

    Krugman, L; Bryan, J N; Mealey, K L; Chen, A

    2012-03-01

    A six-year-old, neutered, female collie was presented to an oncology specialty service after developing tetraparesis and self-mutilation that progressively worsened while receiving chemotherapy for lymphoma. Neurologic examination revealed ataxia, paresis and diminished conscious proprioception in all limbs with entire spinal reflexes. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord was normal. Electromyography of the limbs ruled out a vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and cerebrospinal fluid and serum testing for Neospora and Toxoplasma were normal. Results of MDR1 genotyping revealed that the dog was homozygous for the ABCB1-1Δ (MDR1) mutation. This clinical presentation strongly resembled the effects seen from inadvertent intrathecal administration of vincristine in humans. Dogs that are homozygous for the ABCB1-1Δ (MDR1) mutation should not receive standard dosages of chemotherapy drugs known to be eliminated by P-glycoprotein, the gene product of ABCB1. Testing for this mutation is strongly recommended before chemotherapy initiation for at-risk breeds.

  10. CCR9 Antagonists in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bekker, Pirow; Ebsworth, Karen; Walters, Matthew J.; Berahovich, Robert D.; Ertl, Linda S.; Charvat, Trevor T.; Punna, Sreenivas; Powers, Jay P.; Campbell, James J.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Jaen, Juan C.; Schall, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    While it has long been established that the chemokine receptor CCR9 and its ligand CCL25 are essential for the movement of leukocytes into the small intestine and the development of small-intestinal inflammation, the role of this chemokine-receptor pair in colonic inflammation is not clear. Toward this end, we compared colonic CCL25 protein levels in healthy individuals to those in patients with ulcerative colitis. In addition, we determined the effect of CCR9 pharmacological inhibition in the mdr1a−/− mouse model of ulcerative colitis. Colon samples from patients with ulcerative colitis had significantly higher levels of CCL25 protein compared to healthy controls, a finding mirrored in the mdr1a−/− mice. In the mdr1a−/− mice, CCR9 antagonists significantly decreased the extent of wasting and colonic remodeling and reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon. These findings indicate that the CCR9:CCL25 pair plays a causative role in ulcerative colitis and suggest that CCR9 antagonists will provide a therapeutic benefit in patients with colonic inflammation. PMID:26457007

  11. Pharmacokinetic role of P-glycoprotein in oral bioavailability and intestinal secretion of grepafloxacin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Yano, Ikuko; Saito, Hideyuki; Inui, Ken-ichi

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the contribution of P-glycoprotein to the bioavailability and intestinal secretion of grepafloxacin and levofloxacin in vivo. Plasma concentrations of grepafloxacin and levofloxacin after intravenous and intraintestinal administration were increased by cyclosporin A, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, in rats. The total body clearance and volume of distribution at steady state of grepafloxacin were significantly decreased to 60 and 63% of the corresponding control values by cyclosporin A. The apparent oral clearance of grepafloxacin was decreased to 33% of the control, and the bioavailability of grepafloxacin was increased to 95% by cyclosporin A from 53% in the controls. Intestinal clearance of grepafloxacin and levofloxacin were decreased to one-half and one-third of the control, respectively, and biliary clearance of grepafloxacin was also decreased to one-third with cyclosporin A in rats. Intestinal secretion of grepafloxacin in mdr1a/1b (-/-) mice, which lack mdr1-type P-glycoproteins, was significantly decreased compared with wild-type mice, although the biliary secretion was similar. Intestinal secretion of grepafloxacin in wild-type mice treated with cyclosporin A was comparable to those in mdr1a/1b (-/-) mice with or without cyclosporin A, indicating that cyclosporin A completely inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated intestinal transport of grepafloxacin. In conclusion, our results indicated that P-glycoprotein mediated the intestinal secretion of grepafloxacin and limited the bioavailability of this drug in vivo.

  12. Separating the roles of acropetal and basipetal auxin transport on gravitropism with mutations in two Arabidopsis multidrug resistance-like ABC transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Daniel R; Miller, Nathan D; Splitt, Bessie L; Wu, Guosheng; Spalding, Edgar P

    2007-06-01

    Two Arabidopsis thaliana ABC transporter genes linked to auxin transport by various previous results were studied in a reverse-genetic fashion. Mutations in Multidrug Resistance-Like1 (MDR1) reduced acropetal auxin transport in roots by 80% without affecting basipetal transport. Conversely, mutations in MDR4 blocked 50% of basipetal transport without affecting acropetal transport. Developmental and auxin distribution phenotypes associated with these altered auxin flows were studied with a high-resolution morphometric system and confocal microscopy, respectively. Vertically grown mdr1 roots produced positive and negative curvatures threefold greater than the wild type, possibly due to abnormal auxin distribution observed in the elongation zone. However, upon 90 degrees reorientation, mdr1 gravitropism was inseparable from the wild type. Thus, acropetal auxin transport maintains straight growth but contributes surprisingly little to gravitropism. Conversely, vertically maintained mdr4 roots grew as straight as the wild type, but their gravitropism was enhanced. Upon reorientation, curvature in this mutant developed faster, was distributed more basally, and produced a greater total angle than the wild type. An amplified auxin asymmetry may explain the mdr4 hypertropism. Double mutant analysis indicated that the two auxin transport streams are more independent than interdependent. The hypothesis that flavanols regulate MDR-dependent auxin transport was supported by the epistatic relationship of mdr4 to the tt4 phenylpropanoid pathway mutation.

  13. Enhancement of placental antioxidative function and P-gp expression by sodium ferulate mediated its protective effect on rat IUGR induced by prenatal tobacco/alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yan, You-E; Wang, Hui

    2011-11-01

    This study was aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of sodium ferulate (SF) on rats with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and then to clarify the corresponding mechanism. Pregnant rats were divided into normal group, tobacco/alcohol exposure group, and tobacco/alcohol+SF groups. Fetal developmental indices, placental weight, histological alteration, oxidative and antioxidative-function (e.g. MDA, SOD, CAT) and Mdr1 levels were assayed. Results showed exposure to tobacco/alcohol resulted in reduced fetal developmental indices and placental histological alteration, as well as the increased MDA content, decreased SOD and CAT activities and decreased Mdr1a level. After SF treatment, fetal developmental indices, and placental weight, histological alteration, oxidative and antioxidative-function and mdr1a levels were reversed. Our study indicated SF may be effective in reversing IUGR production, and its underlying mechanism may be due to enhanced placental antioxidative function and P-gp expression, which may be related to IUGR formation by tobacco/alcohol exposure.

  14. Integrative Cloning, Expression, and Stability of the cryIA(c) Gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in a Recombinant Strain of Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis

    PubMed Central

    Lampel, Jay S.; Canter, Gayle L.; Dimock, Michael B.; Kelly, Jeffrey L.; Anderson, James J.; Uratani, Brenda B.; Foulke, James S.; Turner, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A bacterial endophyte was engineered for insecticidal activity against the European corn borer. The cryIA(c) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was introduced into the chromosome of Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis by using an integrative plasmid vector. The integration vectors pCG740 and pCG741 included the replicon pGEM5Zf(+), which is maintained in Escherichia coli but not in C. xyli subsp. cynodontis; tetM as a marker for selection in C. xyli subsp. cynodontis; and a chromosomal fragment of C. xyli subsp. cynodontis to allow for homologous recombination between the vector and the bacterial chromosome. Insertion of vector DNA into the chromosome was demonstrated by DNA hybridization. Recombinant strains MDR1.583 and MDR1.586 containing the cryIA(c) gene were shown to produce the 133,000-kDa protoxin and several smaller immunoreactive proteins. Both strains were equally toxic to insect larvae in bioassays. Significant insecticidal activity was demonstrated in planta. The cryIA(c) gene and the tetM gene introduced into strain MDR1.586 were shown to be deleted from some cells, thereby giving rise to a noninsecticidal segregant population. In DNA hybridization experiments and insect bioassays, these segregants were indistinguishable from the wild-type strain. Overall, these results demonstrate the plausibility of genetically engineered bacterial endophytes for insect control. Images PMID:16349179

  15. Reversal effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide on multidrug resistance in K562/ADM cell line.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Bo-di; Wei, Ran; Liu, Ji-Hong; Lin, Zhi-Bin

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the reversal effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) on multidrug resistance (MDR) in the adriamycin (ADM)-resistant leukemic cell line K562/ADM. Cytotoxicity was assayed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method; the ADM concentration in cells was determined by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy techniques; the expression of P-glycoprotein was assayed by flow cytometry; and the mRNA expression levels of MDR-1 and MDR-associated protein (MRP)1 were determined by RT-PCR. Gl-PS reversed MDR in K562/ADM cells. Gl-PS obviously reversed the resistance of K562/ADM to doxorubicin. The reversing factors of Gl-PS at 10 and 20 mg/L were 6.46 and 6.80, respectively. MDR-1 and MRP1 transcription were downregulated by 10 and 50 mg/L Gl-PS. Gl-PS can reverse the MDR by downregulating the expression of MDR-1 and MRP1 in K562/ADM cells.

  16. [Effect of mPGES-1 inhibitor MK886 on apoptosis and drug resistance of HL-60/A cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Qing; Yin, Song-Mei; Nie, Da-Nian; Xie, Shuang-Feng; Ma, Li-Ping; Wang, Xiu-Ju; Wu, Yu-Dan

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of MK886, a mPGES-1 inhibitor, on apoptosis and drug resistance of leukemia HL-60/A cell line. Expression of mPGES-1 was assayed by QT-PCR and Western blot. The effect of MK886 on HL-60/A cell proliferation was assayed by CCK-8 method, and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. The expression of Akt and P-Akt was detected by Western blot. PGE2 was measured by ELISA. Effect of MK886 (10 µmol/L) on the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of HL-60/A cells and expression of mdr-1 mRNA and P170 protein were investigated too. The results indicated the expression of mPGES-1 was higher in HL-60/A cells. MK886 inhibited HL-60/A cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Expression of mPGES-1 and P-Akt and synthesis of PGE2 decreased significantly. MK886 reduced expression of mdr-1 and P170 protein and enhanced the sensitivity of HL-60/A cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. It is concluded that MK886 can inhibit HL-60/A cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and enhance sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, the mechanism of which possibly associates to down-regulation of mPGES-1/PGE2 synthesis, reduction P-Akt expression and decreasing mdr-1 and P170 protein expression.

  17. Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression

    SciTech Connect

    Shabbir, Arsalan; DiStasio, Susan; Zhao, Jingbo; Cardozo, Christopher P.; Wolff, Mary S.; Caplan, Avrom J. . E-mail: avrom.caplan@mssm.edu

    2005-03-01

    1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  18. P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter in inflammatory bowel diseases: More questions than answers

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Elke

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal barrier is constantly exposed to numerous environmental substrates that are foreign and potentially harmful. These xenobiotics can cause shifts in the intestinal microbiota composition, affect mucosal immune responses, disturb tissue integrity and impair regeneration. The multidrug transporter ABCB1/MDR1 p-glycoprotein (p-gp) plays a key role at the front line of host defence by efficiently protecting the gastrointestinal barrier from xenobiotic accumulation. This Editorial discusses how altered expression and function of ABCB1/MDR1 p-gp may contribute to the development and persistence of chronic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Recent evidence implies multiple interactions between intestinal microbiota, innate immunity and xenobiotic metabolism via p-gp. While decreased efflux activity may promote disease susceptibility and drug toxicity, increased efflux activity may confer resistance to therapeutic drugs in IBD. Mice deficient in MDR1A develop spontaneously chronic colitis, providing a highly valuable murine IBD model for the study of intestinal epithelial barrier function, immunoregulation, infectious co-triggers and novel therapeutic approaches. Possible associations of human ABCB1 gene polymorphisms with IBD susceptibility have been evaluated, but results are inconsistent. Future studies must focus on further elucidation of the pathophysiological relevance and immunological functions of p-gp and how its ambiguous effects could be therapeutically targeted in IBD. PMID:28321153

  19. Cell Type Dependent Regulation of Multidrug Resistance-1 Gene Expression by AML1-ETO

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Robert; Boyapati, Anita; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2007-01-01

    The AML1-ETO fusion protein is generated from the 8;21 chromosome translocation that is commonly identified in acute myeloid leukemia. AML1-ETO is a DNA binding transcription factor and has been demonstrated to play a critical role in promoting leukemogenesis. Therefore, it is important to define the molecular mechanism of AML1-ETO in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we report that the effect of AML1-ETO on the promoter of multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1) gene, a known AML1-ETO target, is highly cell type specific. Besides observing repression of the MDR1 promoter in C33A and CV-1 cells as reported previously, AML1-ETO strongly activated the promoter in K562 and B210 cells. More importantly, this activation required both the AML1 and ETO portions of the fusion protein, but did not depend on the AML1 binding site in MDR1 promoter. Furthermore, results from promoter deletion analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that this activation effect was likely through the influence of the general transcription machinery rather than promoter-specific factors. Based on these data, we propose that AML1-ETO may have opposing effects on gene expression depending on the various conditions of the cellular environment. PMID:17590361

  20. Overexpression of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase-L1 enhances multidrug resistance and invasion/metastasis in breast cancer by activating the MAPK/Erk signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjuan; Zou, Liping; Zhou, Danmei; Zhou, Zhongwen; Tang, Feng; Xu, Zude; Liu, Xiuping

    2016-09-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) exhibit enhanced invasive/metastatic ability as compared with the sensitive cells. We aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying this observation and found that during the development of drug resistance to adriamycin in MCF7 cells, the elevated expression of UCH-L1 coincides with the up-regulation of MDR1, CD147, MMP2, and MMP9 as well as increased cellular migration/invasion. Overexpression of UCH-L1 in MCF7 cells up-regulated MDR1, CD147, MMP2, and MMP9, which conferred MDR and promoted migration/invasion. On the other hand, silencing of UCH-L1 in MCF7/Adr cells led to the opposite effect. Immunohistochemistry in 203 breast cancer samples revealed that UCH-L1 expression is positively correlated with P-gp, CD147, MMP2, and MMP9 expression and standard tumor spread indicators. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated a correlation between UCH-L1 expression and shorter recurrent and survival times. Moreover, UCH-L1-overexpressing clones treated with U0126 (an Erk1/2-specific inhibitor) significantly decreased the expression of MDR1, CD147, MMP2, and MMP9. These data indicate that UCH-L1 may assume a dual role, because it had intrinsic stimulatory effects on tumor migration/invasion and increased MDR. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The expression of P-glycoprotein is causally related to a less aggressive phenotype in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Scotlandi, K; Manara, M C; Serra, M; Benini, S; Maurici, D; Caputo, A; De Giovanni, C; Lollini, P L; Nanni, P; Picci, P; Campanacci, M; Baldini, N

    1999-01-21

    The relationship between P-glycoprotein expression and malignancy is controversial. We have recently found that, in osteosarcoma, multidrug resistance (MDR) is associated with a less aggressive behavior, both in vitro and in clinical settings. In this study, we evaluated whether P-glycoprotein overexpression has a cause-effect relationship with the reduced metastatic potential of MDR cells, or rather reflects a more complex phenotype. MDR1 gene-transfected osteosarcoma cell clones, showing different levels of P-glycoprotein expression, were analysed for their in vitro characteristics and their tumorigenic and metastatic ability in athymic mice. Apart from the different levels of P-glycoprotein, no significant change in the expression of surface antigens or in the differentiative features were observed in the MDR1 gene transfectants compared to the parental cell lines or control clones, obtained by transfection with neo gene alone. In contrast to controls, however, MDR1 transfectants showed a significantly lower ability to grow in semi-solid medium and were completely unable to grow and give lung metastases in athymic mice. These findings indicate that P-glycoprotein overexpression is causally associated with a low malignant potential of osteosarcoma cells, and open new insights on the role and functions of P-glycoprotein activity.

  2. Overcoming doxorubicin resistance of cancer cells by Cas9-mediated gene disruption

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jong Seong; Byun, Juyoung; Ahn, Dae-Ro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Cas9 system was employed to down-regulate mdr1 gene for overcoming multidrug resistance of cancer cells. Disruption of the MDR1 gene was achieved by delivery of the Cas9-sgRNA plasmid or the Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complex using a conventional gene transfection agent and protein transduction domain (PTD). Doxorubicin showed considerable cytotoxicity to the drug-resistant breast cancer cells pre-treated with the RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN) systems, whereas virtually non-toxic to the untreated cells. The potency of drug was enhanced in the cells treated with the protein-RNA complex as well as in those treated with plasmids, suggesting that mutation of the mdr1 gene by intracellular delivery of Cas9-sgRNA complex using proper protein delivery platforms could recover the drug susceptibility. Therefore, Cas9-mediated disruption of the drug resistance-related gene can be considered as a promising way to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer cells. PMID:26961701

  3. mRNA overexpression of BAALC: A novel prognostic factor for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    AZIZI, ZAHRA; RAHGOZAR, SOHEILA; MOAFI, ALIREZA; DABAGHI, MOHAMMAD; NADIMI, MOTAHAREH

    2015-01-01

    BAALC is a novel molecular marker in leukemia that is highly expressed in patients with acute leukemia. Increased expression levels of BAALC are known as poor prognostic factors in adult acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the BAALC gene expression levels in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its association with MDR1. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the mRNA expression levels of BAALC and MRD1 were measured in bone marrow samples of 28 new diagnosed childhood ALL patients and 13 children without cancer. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was measured one year after the initiation of the chemotherapy using the RT-qPCR method. The high level expression of BAALC had a significant association with the pre-B-ALL subtype, leukocytosis and positive MRD after one year of treatment in leukemic patients. In addition, a positive correlation between BAALC and MDR1 mRNA expression was shown in this group. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the increase of BAALC expression as a poor prognostic factor for childhood ALL is shown for the first time. Additionally, the correlation between BAALC and MDR1 in mRNA expression levels can aid for an improved understanding of the mechanism through which BAALC may function in ALL and multidrug resistance. PMID:26137238

  4. mRNA overexpression of BAALC: A novel prognostic factor for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Zahra; Rahgozar, Soheila; Moafi, Alireza; Dabaghi, Mohammad; Nadimi, Motahareh

    2015-05-01

    BAALC is a novel molecular marker in leukemia that is highly expressed in patients with acute leukemia. Increased expression levels of BAALC are known as poor prognostic factors in adult acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the BAALC gene expression levels in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its association with MDR1. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the mRNA expression levels of BAALC and MRD1 were measured in bone marrow samples of 28 new diagnosed childhood ALL patients and 13 children without cancer. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was measured one year after the initiation of the chemotherapy using the RT-qPCR method. The high level expression of BAALC had a significant association with the pre-B-ALL subtype, leukocytosis and positive MRD after one year of treatment in leukemic patients. In addition, a positive correlation between BAALC and MDR1 mRNA expression was shown in this group. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the increase of BAALC expression as a poor prognostic factor for childhood ALL is shown for the first time. Additionally, the correlation between BAALC and MDR1 in mRNA expression levels can aid for an improved understanding of the mechanism through which BAALC may function in ALL and multidrug resistance.

  5. Separating the Roles of Acropetal and Basipetal Auxin Transport on Gravitropism with Mutations in Two Arabidopsis Multidrug Resistance-Like ABC Transporter Genes[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Daniel R.; Miller, Nathan D.; Splitt, Bessie L.; Wu, Guosheng; Spalding, Edgar P.

    2007-01-01

    Two Arabidopsis thaliana ABC transporter genes linked to auxin transport by various previous results were studied in a reverse-genetic fashion. Mutations in Multidrug Resistance-Like1 (MDR1) reduced acropetal auxin transport in roots by 80% without affecting basipetal transport. Conversely, mutations in MDR4 blocked 50% of basipetal transport without affecting acropetal transport. Developmental and auxin distribution phenotypes associated with these altered auxin flows were studied with a high-resolution morphometric system and confocal microscopy, respectively. Vertically grown mdr1 roots produced positive and negative curvatures threefold greater than the wild type, possibly due to abnormal auxin distribution observed in the elongation zone. However, upon 90° reorientation, mdr1 gravitropism was inseparable from the wild type. Thus, acropetal auxin transport maintains straight growth but contributes surprisingly little to gravitropism. Conversely, vertically maintained mdr4 roots grew as straight as the wild type, but their gravitropism was enhanced. Upon reorientation, curvature in this mutant developed faster, was distributed more basally, and produced a greater total angle than the wild type. An amplified auxin asymmetry may explain the mdr4 hypertropism. Double mutant analysis indicated that the two auxin transport streams are more independent than interdependent. The hypothesis that flavanols regulate MDR-dependent auxin transport was supported by the epistatic relationship of mdr4 to the tt4 phenylpropanoid pathway mutation. PMID:17557805

  6. Interactions of Pluronic Block Copolymers on P-gp Efflux Activity: Experience With HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    SHAIK, NAVEED; PAN, GUOYU; ELMQUIST, WILLIAM F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the influence of Pluronic block-copolymers on the interaction between the drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein and HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs). The ATPase assay determined the effect of various Pluronics on PI-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity. Cellular accumulation studies were conducted using MDCKII and LLC-PK1 cells transfected with human MDR1 to assess Pluronic modulation of PI efflux. Pluronic P85 inhibited both basal and nelfinavir-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity, while Pluronic F127 had no effect. In cell accumulation studies, Pluronic P85 restored the accumulation of nelfinavir in MDCKII-MDR1 cells while Pluronic F127 and F88 had no effect. Pluronic P85 increased saquinavir accumulation in wild-type and MDR1-transfected cells in both the MDCKII and LLC-PK1 cell models, suggesting inhibition of multiple transporters, including MRPs. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that a block-copolymer, Pluronic P85, effectively inhibits the interaction of P-gp with nelfinavir and saquinavir. These data indicate that effective inhibition of HIV-1 PI efflux by Pluronic P85 may influence the distribution of antiretroviral agents to sites protected by efflux mechanisms, such as the blood–brain barrier, and possibly increase the brain exposure of these drugs resulting in suppression of viral replication and reduction in the incidence of drug resistant mutants. PMID:18393290

  7. Bile acid transport in sister of P-glycoprotein (ABCB11) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ping; Wang, Renxue; Ling, Victor

    2005-09-20

    In vertebrates, bile flow is essential for movement of water and solutes across liver canalicular membranes. In recent years, the molecular motor of canalicular bile acid secretion has been identified as a member of the ATP binding cassette transporter (ABC) superfamily, known as sister of P-glycoprotein (Spgp) or bile salt export pump (Bsep, ABCB11). In humans, mutations in the BSEP gene are associated with a very low level of bile acid secretion and severe cholestasis. However, as reported previously, because the spgp(-)(/)(-) knockout mice do not express severe cholestasis and have substantial bile acid secretion, we investigated the "alternative transport system" that allows these mice to be physiologically relatively normal. We examined the expression levels of several ABC transporters in spgp(-)(/)(-) mice and found that the level of multidrug resistance Mdr1 (P-glycoprotein) was strikingly increased while those of Mdr2, Mrp2, and Mrp3 were increased to only a moderate extent. We hypothesize that an elevated level of Mdr1 in the spgp(-)(/)(-) knockout mice functions as an alternative pathway to transport bile acids and protects hepatocytes from bile acid-induced cholestasis. In support of this hypothesis, we showed that plasma membrane vesicles isolated from a drug resistant cell line expressing high levels of P-glycoprotein were capable of transporting bile acids, albeit with a 5-fold lower affinity compared to Spgp. This finding is the first direct evidence that P-glycoprotein (Mdr1) is capable of transporting bile acids.

  8. Interactions between riluzole and ABCG2/BCRP transporter.

    PubMed

    Milane, Aline; Vautier, Sarah; Chacun, Hélène; Meininger, Vincent; Bensimon, Gilbert; Farinotti, Robert; Fernandez, Christine

    2009-03-06

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative fatal disease. Drugs used in this disease need to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only riluzole is approved for ALS treatment. We have investigated riluzole as a breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) substrate by studying its brain transport in CF1 mdr1a (-/-) mice and its intracellular uptake on BeWo cells (human placental choriocarcinoma cell line). We have also investigated the effect of riluzole on BCRP expression level and on its activity using the prazocin as a test probe for brain transport and intracellular uptake. Assays on mdr1a (-/-) mice and BeWo cells showed a higher uptake of riluzole when pretreated with a BCRP inhibitor. After repeated doses of riluzole, BCRP activity was increased in CF1 mdr1a (-/-) mice, riluzole uptake was decrease and both BCRP expression and activity were increased in BeWo cells. In conclusion, we report in this study that riluzole is transported by BCRP at the BBB level and can enhance its function. These results taken with our previous studies on riluzole and P-glycoprotein show that drug-drug interactions between riluzole and efflux transporters substrates may occur at the BBB level and should be taken into account in future clinical trial design in ALS.

  9. Influence of beta-adrenergic antagonists, H1-receptor blockers, analgesics, diuretics, and quinolone antibiotics on the cellular accumulation of the anticancer drug, daunorubicin: P-glycoprotein modulation.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S; Peggins, J; Knapton, A; Licht, T; Aszalos, A

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of patients with several drugs simultaneously may result in modulation of the naturally expressed P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at different tissues. With this possibility in mind, we have assessed the ability of different classes of drugs to modulate Pgp function in vitro. Modulation of the Pgp function was studied at in vitro drug concentrations comparable to therapeutic blood levels of the drugs. Human blood brain barrier endothelial cells and human colon adenocarcinoma cells were transduced or transfected with the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) to express Pgp. The uptake of fluorescent substrates of Pgp, Rhodamine 123 and daunorubicin, into these cells and NIH3T3/MDR1 and MDCK/MDR1 cells was measured by flow cytometry and in monolayers in the presence and absence of the different drugs. From the tested six H1-receptor blockers, seven beta-adrenergic antagonists, four analgesics, ten diuretics and five quinolons, five drugs inhibited Pgp at therapeutic blood levels and two at somewhat higher concentrations. Significant synergism for blocking Pgp could be demonstrated for several drugs. We conclude that administration of several drugs which modulate the function of Pgp to patients may adversely affect the natural function of this efflux pump and may cause drug-drug interactions induced side effects.

  10. Differential regulation of c-Jun protein plays an instrumental role in chemoresistance of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Yang, Weiwei; Bu, Wen; Ji, Haitao; Zhao, Xueqiang; Zheng, Yanhua; Lin, Xin; Li, Yi; Lu, Zhimin

    2013-07-05

    The chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP)) is widely used in the treatment of human cancers. However, the mechanism underlying intrinsic tumor resistance to CDDP remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that treatment with CDDP resulted in down-regulation of c-Jun expression via caspase-9-dependent cleavage of c-Jun at Asp-65 and MEKK1-mediated ubiquitylation and degradation of c-Jun in CDDP-sensitive cancer cells. In contrast, activation of JNK2 (but not JNK1) phosphorylated and up-regulated the expression of c-Jun in CDDP-resistant cells. Activated c-Jun bound to the promoter regions of the MDR1 gene and promoted the expression of MDR1. Expression of a cleavage-resistant c-Jun mutant (D65A) suppressed CDDP-induced apoptosis of CDDP-sensitive cells, whereas depletion of JNK2, c-Jun, or MDR1 in CDDP-resistant cancer cells promoted apoptosis upon CDDP treatment. In addition, mammary gland tumors induced by polyomavirus middle T antigen in JNK2(-/-) mice were more sensitive to CDDP compared with those in JNK2(+/+) mice. These findings highlight the instrumental role of c-Jun in the resistance of tumors to treatment with CDDP and indicate that c-Jun is a molecular target for improving cancer therapy.

  11. Consecutive salinomycin treatment reduces doxorubicin resistance of breast tumor cells by diminishing drug efflux pump expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Hermawan, Adam; Wagner, Ernst; Roidl, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Chemoresistance is a major challenge for the successful therapy of breast cancer. The discovery of salinomycin as an anticancer stem cell drug provides progress in overcoming chemoresistance. However, it remains to be elucidated whether salinomycin treatment is able to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. In the present study, we consecutively treated epithelial MCF-7 and BT-474 breast cancer cells as well as mesenchymal MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 436 cells with salinomycin, and analyzed the gene expression of the two prominent multiple drug resistance (MDR) genes, MDR1 and BCRP1. We found that repeated treatment with salinomycin generated resistance against this drug in all cell lines and increased the chemosensitivity towards doxorubicin. Drug efflux pump gene expression and pump activity of MDR1 and BCRP1 were downregulated in almost all cell lines, except for MDR1 in the MDA-MB 231 cells. Consequently, the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation was increased compared to the respective parental cells. Our findings suggest a novel treatment option for MDR tumors by sensitizing these tumors via salinomycin pretreatment.

  12. Targeted inhibition of HDAC8 increases the doxorubicin sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells via up regulation of miR-137.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Wang, Guoliang; Bai, Hongmin; Li, Tiandong; Gong, Fanghe; Yang, Huan; Wen, Jinchong; Wang, Weimin

    2017-02-20

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been suggested to be potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. Recent studies revealed that HDAC8 expression was associated with poor prognostic markers and poor overall survival rate of neuroblastoma (NB). Our present study revealed that among the four members of class I HDACs, HDAC8 is significantly over expressed in NB cells as compared with the normal fibroblast 3T3 cells or primary normal human astrocytes (NHA) cells. Targeted inhibition of HDAC8 by its specific siRNA (si-HDAC8) can inhibit the in vitro growth of NB cells. Furthermore, si-HDAC8 significantly increases the sensitivity of NB cells to doxorubicin (Dox). Silencing of HDAC8 can increase the expression of miR-137, which has been suggested to mediate the Dox sensitivity of NB cells. Knockdown of miR-137 can attenuate si-HDAC8 enhanced Dox sensitivity. Further, si-HDAC8 can also inhibit the expression of multi-drug resistance gene 1 (MDR1). While knockdown of miR-137 can attenuate si-HDAC8 induced down regulation of MDR1. Collectively, our data revealed that targeted inhibition of HDAC8 can suppress the growth of NB cells and increase Dox sensitivity via up regulation of miR-137 and suppression of MDR1. Therefor, combination of HDAC8 inhibitor will be helpful to elevate the treatment outcome of NB patients.

  13. Polymorphisms in the human organic cation transporter and the multidrug resistance gene: correlation with imatinib levels and clinical course in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vine, Jacob; Cohen, Sara Bar; Ruchlemer, Rosa; Goldschmidt, Neta; Levin, Moshe; Libster, Diana; Gural, Alexander; Gatt, Moshe E; Lavie, David; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Rund, Deborah

    2014-11-01

    The optimal tyrosine kinase inhibitor for any individual patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is not predictable. Pharmacogenetic parameters and trough levels of imatinib (IM) have each been independently correlated with response. We therefore studied the human organic cation transporter (hOCT1) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and correlated these with IM levels and major molecular response (MMR) (3-log reduction) in 84 patients with CML, the first such study performed in Caucasians. We studied MDR1 G2677T and C3435T, and for hOCT1, C480G and A1222G. IM levels varied significantly with dose (< or > 400 mg/day) (p = 0.038) and were significantly lower in 20 patients who lost MMR (p = 0.042). Adjusting for dose, trough IM levels were not significantly correlated with SNPs. Patients with MDR1 3435 TT had significantly longer times to MMR compared to CC/CT genotypes (p = 0.047). Genotypes did not predict treatment failure when controlling for IM levels. We conclude that IM levels, but not the SNPs studied here, determine IM failure.

  14. Effect of tacrolimus on activity and expression of P-glycoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporter A5 (ABCA5) proteins in hematoencephalic barrier cells.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Claudia Andrea; Garrido, Wallys Ximena; González-Oyarzún, Mauricio Alejandro; Rauch, María Cecilia; Salas, Mónica Roxana; San Martín, Rody Enrique; Claude, Alejandro Andrés; Yañez, Alejandro Javier; Slebe, Juan Carlos; Cárcamo, Juan Guillermo

    2008-10-01

    Tacrolimus is an agent used in clinical immunosuppressive drug therapies. A wide spectrum of adverse effects has been reported in association with this immunosuppressor, including neurotoxic effect. The upper limit of therapeutic blood concentrations of tacrolimus has been described as 30 ng/ml in immunosuppressed patients. We investigated the effect of this therapeutic dose of tacrolimus on the expression and activity of the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1 or Pgp, P-glycoprotein) and ATP-binding cassette transporters A5 (ABCA5) in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), derived from Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) endothelium, these being the most predominantly expressed transcripts in these cells. The expression and activity of MDR1 transporter decreased with 30 ng/ml tacrolimus. The cell viability was not changed with the therapeutic dose used. By contrast, ABCA5 transcripts, of unknown role as yet, increased their expression at this concentration. We propose that the secondary cytotoxic effects of this immunosuppressor on CSN, besides the functional blockade related to multidrug resistance proteins, such as MDR1, and probably ABCA5, could be linked to variations in the expression levels of these proteins at the BBB.

  15. Altered MRP is associated with multidrug resistance and reduced drug accumulation in human SW-1573 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Eijdems, E. W.; Zaman, G. J.; de Haas, M.; Versantvoort, C. H.; Flens, M. J.; Scheper, R. J.; Kamst, E.; Borst, P.; Baas, F.

    1995-01-01

    We have analysed the contribution of several parameters, e.g. drug accumulation, MDR1 P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and topoisomerase (topo) II, to drug resistance in a large set of drug-resistant variants of the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line SW-1573 derived by selection with low concentrations of doxorubicin or vincristine. Selection with either drug nearly always resulted in MDR clones. The resistance of these clones could be explained by reduced drug accumulation and was associated with a decrease rather than an increase in the low MDR1 mRNA level. To test whether a decrease in MDR1 mRNA indirectly affected resistance in these cells, we introduced a MDR1-specific hammerhead ribozyme into wild-type SW-1573 cells. Although this led to a substantial reduction in MDR1 mRNA, it did not result in resistance. In all resistant clones we found an altered form of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), migrating slightly slower during SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis than MRP in parental cells. This altered MRP was also present in non-P-gp MDR somatic cell hybrids of the SW-1573 cells, demonstrating a clear linkage with the MDR phenotype. Treatment of crude cellular membrane fractions with N-glycanase, endoglycosidase H or neuraminidase showed that the altered migration of MRP on SDS-PAGE is due to a post-translational modification. There was no detectable difference in sialic acid content. In most but not all doxorubicin-selected clones, this MDR phenotype was accompanied by a reduction in topo II alpha mRNA level. No reduction was found in the clones selected with vincristine. We conclude from these results that selection of the SW-1573 cell line for low levels of doxorubicin or vincristine resistance, predominantly results in MDR with reduced drug accumulation associated with the presence of an altered MRP protein. This mechanism can be accompanied by other resistance mechanisms, such as reduced topo

  16. Effects of standard chemotherapy on tumor growth and regulation of multidrug resistance genes and proteins in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Guido; Warmann, Steven W; Vokuhl, Christian O; Heitmann, Heike; Treuner, Claudia; Leuschner, Ivo; Fuchs, Jörg

    2007-05-01

    The prognosis of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in advanced stages is still sobering. Therapy is limited due to local tumor recurrence, development of metastases and multidrug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of multidrug resistance in cell lines and in xenografts of alveolar and embryonal RMS treated according to the German Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study (CWS). Alveolar and embryonal RMS cell lines were treated with Vincristine, Topotecan, Carboplatin, Actinomycin D, or Ifosfamide. Expression levels of resistance-associated genes were assessed using Real time-PCR. Nude mice (NMRI nu/nu, n = 10 per group) underwent xenotransplantation of human embryonal or alveolar RMS. Animals were treated with standard chemotherapeutic drugs Vincristine, Topotecan, Carboplatin, Actinomycin D, or Ifosfamide according to treatment schedules of the CWS-study. Tumor sizes were measured and relative tumor volumes were calculated. Animals were sacrificed after 20 days and standard histology, Real-time-PCR for MDR1-, MRP-, LRP- and MDM2-gene as well as immunohistochemistry for MDR1-, LRP-, and MRP-protein were performed. In the cell lines, an up-regulation of MDR-1 gene was found in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. In embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, an up-regulation of LRP and MRP was found. Standard chemotherapy of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth (P < 0.05) in all groups. In embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma strongest effects were found after treatment with Ifosfamide, Vincristine and Carboplatin (P < 0.05). RT-PCR revealed a MDR1-dependent mechanism in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. In embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, MDR1 occurred to a lower degree. Immunohistochemistry revealed correlating expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated proteins. The use of established chemotherapy on human RMS in vivo had strong effects on xenografts compared to their controls. In all cases, there was only a reduction of tumor growth, but not a

  17. Saturable Active Efflux by P-Glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein at the Blood-Brain Barrier Leads to Nonlinear Distribution of Elacridar to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Sane, Ramola; Agarwal, Sagar; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate factors that affect the central nervous system (CNS) distribution of elacridar. Elacridar inhibits transport mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and has been used to study the influence of transporters on brain distribution of chemotherapeutics. Adequate distribution of elacridar across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and into the brain parenchyma is necessary to target tumor cells in the brain that overexpress transporters and reside behind an intact BBB. We examined the role of P-gp and Bcrp on brain penetration of elacridar using Friend leukemia virus strain B wild-type, Mdr1a/b(−/−), Bcrp1(−/−), and Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice. Initially, the mice were administered 2.5 mg/kg of elacridar intravenously, and the plasma and brain concentrations were determined. The brain-to-plasma partition coefficient of elacridar in the wild-type mice was 0.82, as compared with 3.5 in Mdr1a/b(−/−) mice, 6.6 in Bcrp1(−/−) mice, and 15 in Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice, indicating that both P-gp and Bcrp limit the brain distribution of elacridar. The four genotypes were then administered increasing doses of elacridar, and the CNS distribution of elacridar was determined. The observed and model predicted maximum brain-to-plasma ratios (Emax) at the highest dose were not significantly different in all genotypes. However, the ED50 was lower for Mdr1a/b(−/−) mice compared with Bcrp1(−/−) mice. These findings correlate with the relative expression of P-gp and Bcrp at the BBB in these mice and demonstrate the quantitative enhancement in elacridar CNS distribution as a function of its dose. Overall, this study provides useful concepts for future applications of elacridar as an adjuvant therapy to improve targeting of chemotherapeutic agents to tumor cells in the brain parenchyma. PMID:23397054

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-mediated regulation of multidrug resistance 2 (Mdr2) expression and function in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Tineke; Bloks, Vincent W; Wolters, Henk; Havinga, Rick; Jansen, Peter L M; Staels, Bart; Kuipers, Folkert

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a nuclear receptor that controls expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and is activated by fatty acids and hypolipidaemic fibrates. Fibrates induce the hepatic expression of murine multidrug resistance 2 ( Mdr2 ), encoding the canalicular phospholipid translocator. The physiological role of PPARalpha in regulation of Mdr2 and other genes involved in bile formation is unknown. We found no differences in hepatic expression of the ATP binding cassette transporter genes Mdr2, Bsep (bile salt export pump), Mdr1a / 1b, Abca1 and Abcg5 / Abcg8 (implicated in cholesterol transport), the bile salt-uptake systems Ntcp (Na(+)-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide gene) and Oatp1 (organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1 gene) or in bile formation between wild-type and Ppar alpha((-/-)) mice. Upon treatment of wild-type mice with ciprofibrate (0.05%, w/w, in diet for 2 weeks), the expression of Mdr2 (+3-fold), Mdr1a (+6-fold) and Mdr1b (+11-fold) mRNAs was clearly induced, while that of Oatp1 (-5-fold) was reduced. Mdr2 protein levels were increased, whereas Bsep, Ntcp and Oatp1 were drastically decreased. Exposure of cultured wild-type mouse hepatocytes to PPARalpha agonists specifically induced Mdr2 mRNA levels and did not affect expression of Mdr1a / 1b. Altered transporter expression in fibrate-treated wild-type mice was associated with a approximately 400% increase in bile flow: secretion of phospholipids and cholesterol was increased only during high-bile-salt infusions. No fibrate effects were observed in Ppar alpha((-/-)) mice. In conclusion, our results show that basal bile formation is not affected by PPARalpha deficiency in mice. The induction of Mdr2 mRNA and Mdr2 protein levels by fibrates is mediated by PPARalpha, while the induction of Mdr1a / 1b in vivo probably reflects a secondary phenomenon related to chronic PPARalpha activation. PMID:12381268

  19. [Reverse of the resistance to paclitaxel of the heparin binding-epidermal growth factor-like growth factor inhibitor in ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Tang, X H; Lu, M S; Deng, S; Li, M

    2017-02-25

    Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of CRM197, the heparin binding-epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) inhibitor, on the reverse of the resistance of ovarian cancer to paclitaxel. Methods: (1)The effect of CRM197 on the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of human ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780/Taxol was tested by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Western blot was used to detect the effect of CRM197 on the expression of HB-EGF, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and plasma membrane glycoprotein (P-gp) protein in A2780 and A2780/Taxol cells. Real-time PCR was used to examine the MDR1 mRNA expression in these cells. (2) A2780/Taxol cells were divided into 4 groups, including the cells transfected with empty vector and saline treatment (empty vector group), MDR1 small interference RNA (siRNA) vector and saline treatment (MDR1 siRNA group), empty vector and CRM197 treatment (empty vector+CRM197 group) and MDR1 siRNA vector and CRM197 treatment (MDR1 siRNA+CRM197 group), respectively. Flow cytometry was used to detecte the effect of intracellular rhodomine 123 (Rh123) accumulation, and caspase-3 activity assay was used to test the effect of apoptosis in four groups of A2780/Taxol cells. (3) In experiments in vivo, A2780/Taxol cells were inoculated to nude mouse subcutaneously to determine the EGFR and P-gp protein expression following CRM197 treatment by immunohistochemistry. Results: (1) In vitro, MTT examination showed that the IC(50) of A2780/Taxol cells to paclitaxel in A2780/Taxol+CRM197 group [(6.4±0.3) μmol/L] was significantly lower than the IC(50) in A2780/Taxol group [ (34.1±0.5) μmol/L, P<0.01], and the reveral fold of CRM197 was 5.3. The expression level of HB-EGF protein in A2780/Taxol+CRM197 group (1.44±0.29) was significantly lower than HB-EGF protein in A2780/Taxol group (2.72±0.32), respectively (P<0.05). The expression level of EGFR

  20. The Armed Forces and Drug Trafficking: Operation Rio as a Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Secretaria Nacional Anti Drogas, Teoria do Leque, < http://www.senad.gov.br/paginas/ Teoria %20do%20Leque%20-%20Português_arquivos/frame.htm...accessed on 20 December 2002. The Teoria do Leque’s thesis arguments for existing only six steps, from number (3) to (8). Steps (1) and (2) were added by...Department of Defense. Dictionary of Military Terms. Pennsylvania, Stackpole Books, 1999. Uchôa, Paulo. Secretaria Nacional Anti Drogas, “ Teoria do Leque

  1. Overexpression of survivin via activation of ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB plays a central role in vincristine resistance in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Takeda, Tomoya; Ogawa, Naoki; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Shimaoka, Hirotaka; Fujita, Arisa; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

    2015-04-01

    The acquisition of anti-cancer drug resistance is a major limitation of chemotherapy for multiple myeloma (MM) and it is thus important to identify the mechanisms by which MM cells develop such drug resistance. In a previous study, we showed that multidrug resistance (MDR) involves the overexpression of MDR1 and survivin in vincristine-resistant RPMI8226/VCR cells. However, the underlying mechanism of MDR remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of MDR in RPMI8226/VCR cells, and found that RPMI8226/VCR cells exhibit increased levels of activated ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB, while the levels of activated mTOR, p38MAPK, and JNK do not differ between RPMI8226/VCR cells and their vincristine-susceptible counterparts. In addition, the inhibition of ERK1/2, Akt, or NF-κB by inhibitors reversed the drug-resistance of RPMI8226/VCR cells via the suppression of survivin expression, but did not affect MDR1 expression; RNA silencing of survivin expression completely reversed vincristine resistance, while MDR1 silencing only weakly suppressed vincristine resistance in RPMI8226/VCR cells. These results indicate that enhanced survivin expression via the activation of ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB plays a critical role in vincristine resistance in RPMI8226/VCR cells. Our findings suggest that ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB inhibitors are potentially useful as anti-MDR agents for the treatment of vincristine-resistant MM.

  2. Oxycodone Induces Overexpression of P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1) and Affects Paclitaxel’s Tissue Distribution in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    HASSAN, HAZEM E.; MYERS, ALAN L.; LEE, INSONG J.; COOP, ANDREW; EDDINGTON, NATALIE D.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulates the PK/PD of many compounds including opioid agonists and chemotherapeutic agents. The objective of this study was to assess the P-gp affinity status of oxycodone, the P-gp expression, and the paclitaxel’s tissue distribution in oxycodone-treated rats. P-gp ATPase assay, Caco-2 transepithelial permeability studies, and mdr1a/b (−/−) mice were used to assess the P-gp affinity status of oxycodone. P-gp expression was determined by Western blot analysis while [14C] paclitaxel’s distributions in the liver, kidney, brain, and plasma tissues were determined by liquid scintillation counter. Oxycodone stimulated the P-gp ATPase activity in a concentration-dependant manner. The Caco-2 secretory transport of oxycodone was reduced from 3.64 ×10−5 to 1.96 × 10−5 cm/s (p <0.05) upon preincubation with the P-gp inhibitor, verapamil. The brain levels of oxycodone in mdr1a/b (+/+) were not detectable (<15 ng/mL) while in mdr1a/b (−/−) the average levels were 115 ± 39 ng/mL. The P-gp protein levels were increased by 1.3–4.0 folds while paclitaxel’s tissue distributions were decreased by 38–90% (p <0.05) in oxycodone-treated rats. These findings display that oxycodone is a P-gp substrate, induces overexpression of P-gp, and affects paclitaxel’s tissue distribution in a manner that may influence its chemotherapeutic activity. PMID:17593551

  3. Chemoresistance of CD133(+) colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133(+) colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133(-) cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133(+) and siRNA-induced CD133(-) cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133(+) cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133(+) cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133(+) cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133(+) cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133(+) colon cancer.

  4. Oral Serum-Derived Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Has Immunomodulatory Effects on the Colon of Mice that Spontaneously Develop Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Maijó, Mònica; Polo, Javier; Campbell, Joy M.; Russell, Louis; Crenshaw, Joe D.; Weaver, Eric; Moretó, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Dietary immunoglobulin concentrates prepared from animal plasma can modulate the immune response of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Previous studies have revealed that supplementation with serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) ameliorates colonic barrier alterations in the mdr1a-/- genetic mouse model of IBD. Here, we examine the effects of SBI on mucosal inflammation in mdr1a-/- mice that spontaneously develop colitis. Wild type (WT) mice and mice lacking the mdr1a gene (KO) were fed diets supplemented with either SBI (2% w/w) or milk proteins (Control diet), from day 21 (weaning) until day 56. Leucocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and in lamina propria were determined, as was mucosal cytokine production. Neutrophil recruitment and activation in MLN and lamina propria of KO mice were increased, but were significantly reduced in both by SBI supplementation (p < 0.05). The increased neutrophil recruitment and activation observed in KO mice correlated with increased colon oxidative stress (p < 0.05) and SBI supplementation reduced this variable (p < 0.05). The Tact/Treg lymphocyte ratios in MLN and lamina propria were also increased in KO animals, but SBI prevented these changes (both p < 0.05). In the colon of KO mice, there was an increased production of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2 (2-fold), IL-6 (26-fold) and IL-17 (19-fold), and of chemokines MIP-1β (4.5-fold) and MCP-1 (7.2-fold). These effects were significantly prevented by SBI (p < 0.05). SBI also significantly increased TGF-β secretion in the colon mucosa, suggesting a role of this anti-inflammatory cytokine in the modulation of GALT and the reduction of the severity of the inflammatory response during the onset of colitis. PMID:27139220

  5. Treatment strategy based on targeting P-glycoprotein on peripheral lymphocytes in patients with systemic autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Shizuyo; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2012-02-01

    Although corticosteroids, immunosuppressants and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are widely used in the treatment of various systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we often experience patients with systemic autoimmune diseases who are resistant to these treatments. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) of membrane transporters, a product of the multiple drug resistance (MDR)-1 gene, is known to play a pivotal role in the acquisition of drug resistance to chemotherapy in malignancy. However, the relevance of MDR-1 and P-gp to resting and activated lymphocytes, which are the major target in the treatment of systemic autoimmune diseases, remains unclear. Studies from our laboratories found surface expression of P-gp on peripheral lymphocytes in patients with SLE and a significant correlation between the expression level and disease activity. Such expression is induced not only by genotoxic stresses but also by various stimuli including cytokines, resulting in active efflux of drugs from the cytoplasm of lymphocytes, resulting in drug-resistance and high disease activity. However, the use of both P-gp antagonists (e.g., cyclosporine) and inhibition of P-gp synthesis with intensive immunosuppressive therapy successfully reduces the efflux of corticosteroids from lymphocytes in vitro, suggesting that P-gp antagonists and P-gp synthesis inhibitors could be used to overcome drug-resistance in vivo and improve outcome. In conclusion, lymphocytes activated by various stimuli in patients with highly active disease apparently acquire MDR-1-mediated multidrug resistance against corticosteroids and probably some DMARDs, which are substrates of P-gp. Inhibition/reduction of P-gp could overcome such drug resistance. The expression of P-gp on lymphocytes is a promising marker of drug resistance and a suitable target to combat drug resistance in patients with active systemic autoimmune diseases.

  6. Improvement of Transmembrane Transport Mechanism Study of Imperatorin on P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Drug Transport.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-Gen; Tang, Tao; Guan, Xue-Jing; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Yang, Ming; Liang, Xin-Li

    2016-11-24

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects the transport of many drugs; including puerarin and vincristine. Our previous study demonstrated that imperatorin increased the intestinal absorption of puerarin and vincristine by inhibiting P-gp-mediated drug efflux. However; the underlying mechanism was not known. The present study investigated the mechanism by which imperatorin promotes P-gp-mediated drug transport. We used molecular docking to predict the binding force between imperatorin and P-gp and the effect of imperatorin on P-gp activity. P-gp efflux activity and P-gp ATPase activity were measured using a rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) accumulation assay and a Pgp-Glo™ assay; respectively. The fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) was used to assess cellular membrane fluidity in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Western blotting was used to analyze the effect of imperatorin on P-gp expression; and P-gp mRNA levels were assessed by qRT-PCR. Molecular docking results demonstrated that the binding force between imperatorin and P-gp was much weaker than the force between P-gp and verapamil (a P-gp substrate). Imperatorin activated P-gp ATPase activity; which had a role in the inhibition of P-gp activity. Imperatorin promoted Rh-123 accumulation in MDCK-MDR1 cells and decreased cellular membrane fluidity. Western blotting demonstrated that imperatorin inhibited P-gp expression; and qRT-PCR revealed that imperatorin down-regulated P-gp (MDR1) gene expression. Imperatorin decreased P-gp-mediated drug efflux by inhibiting P-gp activity and the expression of P-gp mRNA and protein. Our results suggest that imperatorin could down-regulate P-gp expression to overcome multidrug resistance in tumors.

  7. Effects of resveratrol on P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A in vitro and on pharmacokinetics of oral saquinavir in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiapeng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jingru; Yu, Xiaotong; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Libo

    2016-01-01

    Background The intestinal cytochrome P450 3A (CYP 3A) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) present a barrier to the oral absorption of saquinavir (SQV). Resveratrol (RESV) has been indicated to have modulatory effects on P-gp and CYP 3A. Therefore, this study was to investigate the effects of RESV on P-gp and CYP 3A activities in vitro and in vivo on oral SQV pharmacokinetics in rats. Methods In vitro, intestinal microsomes were used to evaluate RESV effect on CYP 3A-mediated metabolism of SQV; MDR1-expressing Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCKII-MDR1) cells were employed to assess the impact of RESV on P-gp-mediated efflux of SQV. In vivo effects were studied using 10 rats randomly assigned to receive oral SQV (30 mg/kg) with or without RESV (20 mg/kg). Serial blood samples were obtained over the following 24 h. Concentrations of SQV in samples were ascertained using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Results RESV (1–100 μM) enhanced residual SQV (% of control) in a dose-dependent manner after incubation with intestinal microsomes. RESV (1–100 μM) reduced the accumulation of SQV in MDCKII-MDR1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A double peaking phenomenon was observed in the plasma SQV profiles in rats. The first peak of plasma SQV concentration was increased, but the second peak was reduced by coadministration with RESV. The mean AUC0–∞ of SQV was slightly decreased, with no statistical significance probably due to the high individual variation. Conclusion RESV can alter the plasma SQV concentration profiles, shorten the Tmax of SQV. RESV might also cause a slight decrease tendency in the SQV bioavailability in rats. PMID:27895462

  8. Oxycodone induces overexpression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and affects paclitaxel's tissue distribution in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hazem E; Myers, Alan L; Lee, Insong J; Coop, Andrew; Eddington, Natalie D

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulates the PK/PD of many compounds including opioid agonists and chemotherapeutic agents. The objective of this study was to assess the P-gp affinity status of oxycodone, the P-gp expression, and the paclitaxel's tissue distribution in oxycodone-treated rats. P-gp ATPase assay, Caco-2 transepithelial permeability studies, and mdr1a/b (-/-) mice were used to assess the P-gp affinity status of oxycodone. P-gp expression was determined by Western blot analysis while [(14)C] paclitaxel's distributions in the liver, kidney, brain, and plasma tissues were determined by liquid scintillation counter. Oxycodone stimulated the P-gp ATPase activity in a concentration-dependant manner. The Caco-2 secretory transport of oxycodone was reduced from 3.64 x 10(-5) to 1.96 x 10(-5) cm/s (p < 0.05) upon preincubation with the P-gp inhibitor, verapamil. The brain levels of oxycodone in mdr1a/b (+/+) were not detectable (<15 ng/mL) while in mdr1a/b (-/-) the average levels were 115 +/- 39 ng/mL. The P-gp protein levels were increased by 1.3-4.0 folds while paclitaxel's tissue distributions were decreased by 38-90% (p < 0.05) in oxycodone-treated rats. These findings display that oxycodone is a P-gp substrate, induces overexpression of P-gp, and affects paclitaxel's tissue distribution in a manner that may influence its chemotherapeutic activity.

  9. Fluoxetine pretreatment effects pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ECSTASY) in rat.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D

    2008-04-01

    Fluoxetine has been shown to provide protection from MDMA induced long term neurotoxicity. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the pharmacokinetic drug interaction between MDMA and fluoxetine and also to determine the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on mediating drug-drug interactions with MDMA. Bi-directional transport studies were conducted across MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 monolayers. MDMA brain and plasma levels were measured in P-gp deficient [mdr1a(-/-)] and normal [mdr1a(+/+)] mice after a 5 mg/kg i.p. dose of MDMA. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with fluoxetine (4 days, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline followed by MDMA (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and brain and plasma samples were collected over 10 h. MDMA and its active metabolite MDA were quantified using a HPLC method with fluorescence detection. In transport studies MDMA exhibited high permeability with essentially unpolarized transport. No significant difference in MDMA and MDA brain levels were seen in P-gp deficient versus normal mice. Pretreatment of rats with fluoxetine resulted in an increase in MDMA (1.4-fold) and MDA (1.5-fold) exposure in both brain and plasma. Elimination half-life was increased for MDMA (2.4 vs. 4.9 h) and MDA (1.8 vs. 8.2 h) with fluoxetine pretreatment. P-gp does not play a physiologically relevant role in absorption and distribution of MDMA, hence this transporter may not have a role in drug-drug interactions with MDMA. Fluoxetine pretreatment to provide protection from MDMA induced long term neurotoxicity decreases elimination of MDMA and MDA and may lead to enhanced risk of MDMA acute toxic effects. Overall, our results indicate that caution need to be practiced when recommending fluoxetine as an agent to provide protection from MDMA induced long term neurotoxicity.

  10. Estradiol and progesterone-mediated regulation of P-gp in P-gp overexpressing cells (NCI-ADR-RES) and placental cells (JAR).

    PubMed

    Coles, Lisa D; Lee, Insong J; Voulalas, Pamela J; Eddington, Natalie D

    2009-01-01

    The effect of progesterone and estrogen treatment on the expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was evaluated in JAR cells and a P-gp overexpressing cell line, NCI-ADR-RES. Western blot analysis and real-time Q-PCR were used to evaluate P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA expression respectively in the cells following incubation with progesterone (P4) and/or beta-estradiol (E2). Cellular uptake studies of the P-gp substrates, saquinavir and paclitaxel, were performed to evaluate function. Treatment with either E2 or P4 resulted in a significant increase in P-gp protein levels in the NCI-ADR-RES cells at concentrations of or greater than 100 nM or 10 nM, respectively. JAR cells also had increased levels of P-gp with 100 nM of P4 but were much more sensitive to E2 showing increased P-gp at a concentration of 1 nM. Furthermore, E2 or P4 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in cellular uptake of the P-gp substrates tested in these cells lines. Based on mRNA quantitation, a transient increase (2-fold) in MDR1 levels was observed at 8 h postincubation with either E2 or P4, while MDR1 levels remained high in the JAR cells treated with E2 for 72 h postincubation. The addition of actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor negated the increase in P-gp by P4 and E2. P4 and E2 increase P-gp expression and function in NCI-ADR-RES and JAR cells with the ERalpha-expressing cells (JAR) much more sensitive to E2. Furthermore, transcriptional regulation by E2 and P4 likely contributes to the modulation of P-gp levels.

  11. Carfilzomib and oprozomib synergize with histone deacetylase inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma models of acquired resistance to proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yan; Kirk, Christopher J; Johnson, Daniel E

    2014-09-01

    Acquired resistance to proteasome inhibitors represents a considerable impediment to their effective clinical application. Carfilzomib and its orally bioavailable structural analog oprozomib are second-generation, highly-selective, proteasome inhibitors. However, the mechanisms of acquired resistance to carfilzomib and oprozomib are incompletely understood, and effective strategies for overcoming this resistance are needed. Here, we developed models of acquired resistance to carfilzomib in two head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, UMSCC-1 and Cal33, through gradual exposure to increasing drug concentrations. The resistant lines R-UMSCC-1 and R-Cal33 demonstrated 205- and 64-fold resistance, respectively, relative to the parental lines. Similarly, a high level of cross-resistance to oprozomib, as well as paclitaxel, was observed, whereas only moderate resistance to bortezomib (8- to 29-fold), and low level resistance to cisplatin (1.5- to 5-fold) was seen. Synergistic induction of apoptosis signaling and cell death, and inhibition of colony formation followed co-treatment of acquired resistance models with carfilzomib and the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) vorinostat. Synergism was also seen with other combinations, including oprozomib plus vorinostat, or carfilzomib plus the HDACi entinostat. Synergism was accompanied by upregulation of proapoptotic Bik, and suppression of Bik attenuated the synergy. The acquired resistance models also exhibited elevated levels of MDR-1/P-gp. Inhibition of MDR-1/P-gp with reversin 121 partially overcame carfilzomib resistance in R-UMSCC-1 and R-Cal33 cells. Collectively, these studies indicate that combining carfilzomib or oprozomib with HDAC or MDR-1/P-gp inhibitors may be a useful strategy for overcoming acquired resistance to these proteasome inhibitors.

  12. Synergistic effect of fluconazole and doxycycline against Candida albicans biofilms resulting from calcium fluctuation and downregulation of fluconazole-inducible efflux pump gene overexpression.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Hui; Liu, Shuyuan; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Shujuan

    2014-07-01

    Candida albicans biofilms are intrinsically resistant to antimicrobial agents. Previous work demonstrated that the antifungal activity of fluconazole against C. albicans biofilms is notably enhanced by doxycycline. In order to explore the synergistic mechanism of fluconazole and doxycycline, we investigated the changes of efflux pump gene expression, intracellular calcium concentration and cell cycle distribution after drug intervention in this study. The expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1 were determined by real-time PCR, and the results showed that fluconazole alone could stimulate the high expression of CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1, and the combination of doxycycline and fluconazole downregulated the gene overexpression induced by fluconazole. Intracellular calcium concentration was determined using Fluo-3/AM by observing the fluorescence with flow cytometry. A calcium fluctuation, which started 4 h and peaked 8 h after the treatment with fluconazole, was observed. The combined drugs also initiated a calcium fluctuation after 4 h treatment and showed a peak at 16 h, and the peak was higher than that stimulated by fluconazole alone. The cell cycle was measured using flow cytometry. Fluconazole alone and the combined drugs both induced a reduction in the percentages of S-phase cells and an elevation in the percentages of cells in the G2/M phase. The results of this research showed that the synergism of fluconazole and doxycycline against C. albicans biofilms is associated with blockade of the efflux pump genes CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1, and stimulation of high intracellular calcium concentration. The findings of this study are of great significance in the search for new antifungal mechanisms.

  13. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P < 0.05). The growth of stem and H460 cells treated with a combination of T. chinensis var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P < 0.05). Rh-123 was significantly accumulated in the intracellular region and showed delayed efflux in stem cells treated with T. chinensis var. (P < 0.05), compared to those treated with verapamil. T. chinensis var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P < 0.05) compared to H460 cells. Thus, T. chinensis var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  14. Role of miR-27a, miR-181a and miR-20b in gastric cancer hypoxia-induced chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Danza, Katia; Silvestris, Nicola; Simone, Giovanni; Signorile, Michele; Saragoni, Luca; Brunetti, Oronzo; Monti, Manlio; Mazzotta, Annalisa; De Summa, Simona; Mangia, Anita; Tommasi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the search for new therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer (GC), there is much evidence of progression due to resistance to chemotherapy. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the ability of cancer cells to survive after exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. The involvement of miRNAs in the development of MDR has been well described but miRNAs able to modulate the sensitivity to chemotherapy by regulating hypoxia signaling pathways have not yet been fully addressed in GC. Our aim was to analyze miR-20b, miR-27a and miR-181a expression with respect to (epirubicin/oxaliplatin/capecitabine (EOX)) chemotherapy regimen in a set of GC patients, in order to investigate whether miRNAs deregulation may influence GC MDR also via hypoxia signaling modulation. Cancer biopsy were obtained from 21 untreated HER2 negative advanced GC patients, retrospectively analyzed. All patients received a first-line chemotherapy (EOX) regimen. MirWalk database was used to identify miR-27a, miR-181a and miR-20b target genes. The expression of miRNAs and of HIPK2, HIF1A and MDR1 genes were detected by real-time PCR. HIPK2 localization was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Our data showed the down-regulation of miR-20b, miR-27a, miR-181a concomitantly to higher levels of MDR1, HIF1A and HIPK2 genes in GC patients with a progressive disease respect to those with a disease control rate. Moreover, immunohistochemistry assay highlighted a higher cytoplasmic HIPK2 staining, suggesting a different role for it. We showed that aberrant expression of miR-20b, miR27a and miR-181a was associated with chemotherapeutic response in GC through HIF1A, MDR1 and HIPK2 genes modulation, suggesting a possible novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:26793992

  15. Role of miR-27a, miR-181a and miR-20b in gastric cancer hypoxia-induced chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Danza, Katia; Silvestris, Nicola; Simone, Giovanni; Signorile, Michele; Saragoni, Luca; Brunetti, Oronzo; Monti, Manlio; Mazzotta, Annalisa; De Summa, Simona; Mangia, Anita; Tommasi, Stefania

    2016-04-02

    Despite the search for new therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer (GC), there is much evidence of progression due to resistance to chemotherapy. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the ability of cancer cells to survive after exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. The involvement of miRNAs in the development of MDR has been well described but miRNAs able to modulate the sensitivity to chemotherapy by regulating hypoxia signaling pathways have not yet been fully addressed in GC. Our aim was to analyze miR-20b, miR-27a and miR-181a expression with respect to (epirubicin/oxaliplatin/capecitabine (EOX)) chemotherapy regimen in a set of GC patients, in order to investigate whether miRNAs deregulation may influence GC MDR also via hypoxia signaling modulation. Cancer biopsy were obtained from 21 untreated HER2 negative advanced GC patients, retrospectively analyzed. All patients received a first-line chemotherapy (EOX) regimen. MirWalk database was used to identify miR-27a, miR-181a and miR-20b target genes. The expression of miRNAs and of HIPK2, HIF1A and MDR1 genes were detected by real-time PCR. HIPK2 localization was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Our data showed the down-regulation of miR-20b, miR-27a, miR-181a concomitantly to higher levels of MDR1, HIF1A and HIPK2 genes in GC patients with a progressive disease respect to those with a disease control rate. Moreover, immunohistochemistry assay highlighted a higher cytoplasmic HIPK2 staining, suggesting a different role for it. We showed that aberrant expression of miR-20b, miR27a and miR-181a was associated with chemotherapeutic response in GC through HIF1A, MDR1 and HIPK2 genes modulation, suggesting a possible novel therapeutic strategy.

  16. Interspecies variability in expression of hepatobiliary transporters across human, dog, monkey, and rat as determined by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Prasad, Bhagwat; Salphati, Laurent; Chu, Xiaoyan; Gupta, Anshul; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Evers, Raymond; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2015-03-01

    We quantified, by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, transporter protein expression of BSEP, MATE1, MRP3, MRP4, NTCP, and OCT1 in our human liver bank (n = 55) and determined the relationship between protein expression and sex, age and genotype. These data complement our previous work in the same liver bank where we quantified the protein expression of OATPs, BCRP, MDR1, and MRP2. In addition, we quantified and compared the interspecies differences in expression of the hepatobiliary transporters, corresponding to the above human transporters, in liver tissue and hepatocytes of male beagle dogs, cynomolgus monkeys, Sprague-Dawley rats, and Wistar rats. In all the species, the sinusoidal OATPs/Oatps were the most abundant hepatic transporters. However, there were notable interspecies differences in the relative abundance of the remaining transporters. For example, the next most abundant transporter in humans and monkeys was OCT1/Oct1, whereas it was Mrp2 and Ntcp in dogs/Wistar rats and Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. In contrast, the protein expression of the efflux transporters BCRP/Bcrp, MDR1/Mdr1, MRP3/Mrp3, MRP4/Mrp4, and MATE1/Mate1 was much lower across all the species. For most transporters, the expression in the liver tissues was comparable to that in the unplated cryopreserved hepatocytes. These data on human liver transporter protein expression complete the picture of the expression of major human hepatobiliary transporters important in drug disposition and toxicity. In addition, the data on expression of the corresponding hepatobiliary transporters in preclinical species will be helpful in interpreting and extrapolating pharmacokinetic, pharmacological, and toxicological results from preclinical studies to humans.

  17. A peptide derived from phage display library exhibits anti-tumor activity by targeting GRP78 in gastric cancer multidrug resistance cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jianqin; Zhao, Guohong; Lin, Tao; Tang, Shanhong; Xu, Guanghui; Hu, Sijun; Bi, Qian; Guo, Changcun; Sun, Li; Han, Shuang; Xu, Qian; Nie, Yongzhan; Wang, Biaoluo; Liang, Shuhui; Ding, Jie; Wu, Kaichun

    2013-10-10

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a significant challenge to the clinical treatment of gastric cancer (GC). In the present study, using a phage display approach combined with MTT assays, we screened a specific peptide GMBP1 (Gastric cancer MDR cell-specific binding peptide), ETAPLSTMLSPY, which could bind to the surface of GC MDR cells specifically and reverse their MDR phenotypes. Immunocytochemical staining showed that the potential receptor of GMBP1 was located at the membrane and cytoplasm of MDR cells. In vitro and in vivo drug sensitivity assays, FACS analysis and Western blotting confirmed that GMBP1 was able to re-sensitize MDR cells to chemical drugs. Western blotting and proteomic approaches were used to screen the receptor of GMBP1, and GRP78, a MDR-related protein, was identified as a receptor of GMBP1. This result was further supported by immunofluoresence microscopy and Western blot. Additionally, Western blotting demonstrated that pre-incubation of GMBP1 in MDR cells greatly diminished MDR1, Bcl-2 and GRP78 expression but increased the expression of Bax, whereas downregulation of GRP78, function as a receptor and directly target for GMBP1, only inhibited MDR1 expression. Our findings suggest that GMBP1 could re-sensitize GC MDR cells to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents and this role might be mediated partly through down-regulating GRP78 expression and then inhibiting MDR1 expression. These findings indicate that peptide GMBP1 likely recognizes a novel GRP78 receptor and mediates cellular activities associated with the MDR phenotype, which provides new insight into research on the management of MDR in gastric cancer cells.

  18. Shear stress activation of nuclear receptor PXR in endothelial detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Fang, Xi; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Zhen; Zhao, Beilei; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Ao; Li, Yi-Shuan J.; Shyy, John Y.-J.; Guan, Youfei; Chien, Shu; Wang, Nanping

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly exposed to xenobiotics and endobiotics or their metabolites, which perturb EC function, as well as to shear stress, which plays a crucial role in vascular homeostasis. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor and a key regulator of the detoxification of xeno- and endobiotics. Here we show that laminar shear stress (LSS), the atheroprotective flow, activates PXR in ECs, whereas oscillatory shear stress, the atheroprone flow, suppresses PXR. LSS activation of PXR in cultured ECs led to the increased expression of a PXR target gene, multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1). An in vivo study using rats showed that the expression of MDR1 was significantly higher in the endothelium from the descending thoracic aorta, where flow is mostly laminar, than from the inner curvature of aortic arch, where flow is disturbed. Functionally, LSS-activated PXR protects ECs from apoptosis triggered by doxorubicin via the induction of MDR1 and other detoxification genes. PXR also suppressed the expression of proinflammatory adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion in response to TNF-α and lipopolysaccharide. Overexpression of a constitutively active PXR in rat carotid arteries potently attenuated proinflammatory responses. In addition, cDNA microarray revealed a large number of the PXR-activated endothelial genes whose products are responsible for major steps of detoxification, including phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and transporters. These detoxification genes in ECs are induced by LSS in ECs in a PXR-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that PXR represents a flow-activated detoxification system to protect ECs against damage by xeno- and endobiotics. PMID:23878263

  19. Restricted delivery of talazoparib across the blood-brain barrier limits the sensitizing effects of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition on temozolomide therapy in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kizilbash, Sani H; Gupta, Shiv K; Chang, Kenneth; Kawashima, Ryo; Parrish, Karen E; Carlson, Brett L; Bakken, Katrina K; Mladek, Ann C; Schroeder, Mark A; Decker, Paul A; Kitange, Gaspar J; Shen, Yuqiao; Feng, Ying; Protter, Andrew A; Elmquist, William F; Sarkaria, Jann N

    2017-09-25

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP inhibitors, including talazoparib (TAL), potentiate temozolomide (TMZ) efficacy in multiple tumor types, however TAL-mediated sensitization has not been evaluated in orthotopic glioblastoma (GBM) models. This study evaluates TAL ± TMZ in clinically relevant GBM models. TAL at 1-3 nmol/L sensitized T98G, U251 and GBM12 cells to TMZ, and enhanced DNA damage signaling and G2/M arrest in vitro. In vivo cyclical therapy with TAL (0.15 mg/kg twice daily) combined with low dose TMZ (5 mg/kg daily) was well tolerated. This TAL/TMZ regimen prolonged tumor stasis more than TMZ alone in heterotopic GBM12 xenografts [median time to endpoint: 76 days vs. 50 days TMZ (p=0.005), 11 days placebo (p <0.001)]. However, TAL/TMZ did not accentuate survival beyond that of TMZ alone in corresponding orthotopic xenografts (median survival 37 vs. 30 days with TMZ (p=0.93), 14 days with placebo, p<0.001). Average brain and plasma TAL concentrations at 2 hours after a single dose (0.15 mg/kg) were 0.49±0.07 ng/g and 25.5±4.1 ng/ml, respectively. The brain/plasma distribution of TAL in Bcrp-/- versus WT mice did not differ, while the brain/plasma ratio in Mdr1a/b-/- mice was higher than WT mice (0.23 vs. 0.02, p<0.001). Consistent with the in vivo brain distribution, overexpression of MDR1 decreased TAL accumulation in MDCKII cells. These results indicate that TAL has significant MDR1 efflux liability that may restrict delivery across the blood-brain barrier, and this may explain the loss of TAL-mediated TMZ sensitization in orthotopic versus heterotopic GBM xenografts. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Inhibition of the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and BCRP by the BDE-47 Hydroxylated Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47: Considerations for Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Marchitti, Satori A; Mazur, Christopher S; Dillingham, Caleb M; Rawat, Swati; Sharma, Anshika; Zastre, Jason; Kenneke, John F

    2017-01-01

    High body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in infants and young children have led to increased concern over their potential impact on human development. PBDE exposure can alter the expression of genes involved in thyroid homeostasis, including those of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which mediate cellular xenobiotic efflux. However, little information exists on how PBDEs interact with ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactions of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and its hydroxylated metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with P-gp and BCRP, using human MDR1- and BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles and stably transfected NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells. In P-gp membranes, BDE-47 did not affect P-gp activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 inhibited P-gp activity at low µM concentrations (IC50 = 11.7 µM). In BCRP membranes, BDE-47 inhibited BCRP activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 was a stronger inhibitor [IC50 = 45.9 µM (BDE-47) vs. IC50 = 9.4 µM (6-OH-BDE-47)]. Intracellular concentrations of known P-gp and BCRP substrates [((3)H)-paclitaxel and ((3)H)-prazosin, respectively] were significantly higher (indicating less efflux) in NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells in the presence of 6-OH-BDE-47, but not BDE-47. Collectively, our results indicate that the BDE-47 metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 is an inhibitor of both P-gp and BCRP efflux activity. These findings suggest that some effects previously attributed to BDE-47 in biological systems may actually be due to 6-OH-BDE-47. Considerations for human exposure are discussed.

  1. [Reversal of resistance to adriamycin in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADM by silencing AEG-1 gene and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lei; Shi, Ran-Ran; Rao, Shu-Mei; Song, Jin-Ling; Cui, Ming-Chen

    2014-10-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEG-1 gene silencing on the chemoresistance of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADM and its possible mechanism. MCF-7/ADM cells were incubated in the medium containing adriamycin (ADM). The recombinant pLKO.1-shAEG-1 plasmid was constructed to silence AEG-1 expression in human breast cancer MCF-7/ADM cells. MTT assay was employed to detect the anti-tumor effect of ADM on MCF-7/ADM cells, and IC50 value of ADM was calculated according to MTT. Flow cytometry was used to determine the apoptosis. Western blot was used to analyze the expression levels of AEG-1, p-Akt, p-MDM2, p-Bad, p53 and MDR1. The result showed MCF-7/ADM had a significantly higher expression level of AEG-1 compared with that of MCF-7 (P < 0.05), however, the expression of AEG-1 was decreased after AEG-1 gene silencing. The IC50 value of ADM in shAEG-1 group was significantly lower than that in shcontrol group. AEG-1 gene silencing induced cell apoptosis and enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of ADM on MCF-7/ADM cells. After AEG-1 gene silencing, the phosphorylation of Akt, MDM2 and Bad was inhibited (P < 0.05), the protein levels of p53 and MDR1 were up-regulated (P < 0.05) and down-regulated (P < 0.05) respectively, compared with control. In conclusion, the results suggest that AEG-1 gene silencing can reverse the ADM resistance in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADM by means of inducing apoptosis and down-regulating the protein level of MDR1.

  2. Autophagy-related genes Raptor, Rictor, and Beclin1 expression and relationship with multidrug resistance in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shuhua, Wu; Chenbo, Sun; Yangyang, Li; Xiangqian, Gao; Shuang, He; Tangyue, Li; Dong, Tian

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the relationship between the expressions of autophagy-related genes Raptor, Rictor, and Beclin1 and the expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) gene in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the protein and messenger RNA expressions of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Raptor, Rictor, Beclin1, light chain 3 (LC3), and MDR-1 in 279 CRC specimens. Patients were followed up annually by telephone or at an outpatient clinic. Results revealed that the protein and messenger RNA expressions of Beclin1, LC3, mTOR, Raptor, Rictor, and MDR-1 in CRC are significantly higher than in adjacent tissues. LC3 expression in poorly differentiated CRC is higher than that in well-differentiated CRC, and the expression of mTOR, Raptor, Rictor, and LC3 in lymph node metastasis is higher than that obtained in the absence of lymph node metastasis. The expression of LC3 is positively correlated with those of Beclin1 and Rictor and negatively correlated with Raptor and mTOR in CRC. The expression of Raptor is negatively correlated with Rictor. The expression of MDR-1 is positively correlated with those of Beclin1, LC3, and Rictor and negatively correlated with Raptor and mTOR. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the 5-year survival rate of patients without lymph node metastasis; positive expression of Rictor, Beclin1, and LC3; and negative expression of Raptor and mTOR were higher than those with these characteristics. To conclude, the expressions of Beclin1, Raptor, and Rictor are related to the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma and MDR. ( 2014-009-01.). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ABCC10/MRP7 is associated with vinorelbine resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Bessho, Yuji; Oguri, Tetsuya; Ozasa, Hiroaki; Uemura, Takehiro; Sakamoto, Hideo; Miyazaki, Mikinori; Maeno, Ken; Sato, Shigeki; Ueda, Ryuzo

    2009-01-01

    The non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells SK-LC6 and NCI-H23 were continuously exposed to vinorelbine (VNB), and the VNB-resistant clones, SK-LC6/VNB and H23/VNB were selected. Since SK-LS6/VNB and H23/VNB cells showed cross-resistance to certain anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel and docetaxel, we examined the gene expression levels of drug efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family. We found that the gene expression of ABCB1/MDR1 and ABCC10/MRP7 in SK-LC6/VNB and H23/VNB cells was increased compared with that in SK-LS6 and NCI-H23 cells, whereas the expression of ABCC1/MRP1, ABCC2/MRP2, ABCC3/MRP3 and ABCG2/BCRP did not change among these cells. Treatment with ABCB1/MDR1 inhibitor verapamil and ABCC10/MRP7 inhibitor sulfin-pyrazone altered the sensitivity of SK-LC6/VNB cells to vinorelbine. To confirm the ABCC10/MRP7 activity, we transfected small interfering RNA against ABCC10/MRP7 to ABCC10/MRP7-expressing RERF-LC-AI cells resulting in the decrease of ABCC10/MRP7 expression concomitant with the alteration of VNB cytotoxicity. Moreover, we detected the expression of ABCC10/MRP7 in 12 of 17 NSCLC cells, whereas ABCB1/MDR1 was detected in only 3 of 17 NSCLC cells. These results indicate that ABCC10/MRP7 may confer VNB resistance in NSCLC.

  4. Inhibition of the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    High body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in infants and young children have led to increased concern over their potential impact on human development. PBDE exposure can alter the expression of genes involved in thyroid homeostasis, including those of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which mediate cellular xenobiotic efflux. However, little information exists on how PBDEs interact with ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactions of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and its hydroxylated metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with P-gp and BCRP, using human MDR1- and BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles and stably transfected NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells. In P-gp membranes, BDE-47 did not affect P-gp activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 inhibited P-gp activity at low µM concentrations (IC50 = 11.7 µM). In BCRP membranes, BDE-47 inhibited BCRP activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 was a stronger inhibitor [IC50 = 45.9 µM (BDE-47) vs. IC50 = 9.4 µM (6-OH-BDE-47)]. Intracellular concentrations of known P-gp and BCRP substrates [(3H)-paclitaxel and (3H)-prazosin, respectively] were significantly higher (indicating less efflux) in NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells in the presence of 6-OH-BDE-47, but not BDE-47. Collectively, our results indicate that the BDE-47 metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 is an inhibitor of both P-gp and BCRP efflux activity.

  5. Psoralen reverses the P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in human breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingru; Wang, Xiaohong; Cheng, Kai; Zhao, Wanzhong; Hua, Yitong; Xu, Chengfeng; Yang, Zhenlin

    2016-06-01

    The resistance of cancer to chemotherapeutic agents is a major obstacle during chemotherapy. Clinical multidrug resistance (MDR) is commonly mediated by membrane drug efflux pumps, including ATP‑binding cassette subfamily B member 1, also termed P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp is a membrane transporter encoded by the MDR1 gene. The current study aimed to investigate the impact of psoralen on the expression and function of P‑gp. The 10% inhibitory concentration (IC10) of psoralen, and its capacity to reduce MDR in adriamycin (ADR)‑resistant MCF‑7/ADR cells were determined using MTT assay. The ability of psoralen to modulate the transport activity of P‑gp in MCF‑7/ADR cells was evaluated by measuring the accumulation and efflux of rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) and adriamycin with flow cytometry. The present study evaluated the mRNA level of MDR1 in MCF‑7 and MCF‑7/ADR cells treated with psoralen using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression level of P‑gp was examined by western blot analysis. The current study demonstrated that the IC10 of psoralen in MCF‑7/ADR cells was 8 µg/ml. At 8 µg/ml, psoralen reduced MDR and the sensitivity of the MCF‑7/ADR cells to ADR compared with untreated cells. Additionally, psoralen significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of ADR and Rh 123. However, the IC10 of psoralen did not affect the protein expression levels of P‑gp or mRNA levels of MDR1 (P>0.05). Psoralen reduces MDR by inhibiting the efflux function of P‑gp, which may be important for increasing the efficiency of chemotherapy and improving the clinical protocols aiming to reverse P-gp-mediated MDR.

  6. [Mechanism reversing MDR of K562/A02 by garlicin combined with erythromycin].

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Liu, Xin; Xu, Bo; Wang, Hui; Chen, Wei

    2008-10-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the reversal effect of garlicin, erythromycin alone or combination of garlicin with erythromycin on K562/A02 and its possible mechanisms, so as to provide experimental evidence for combination reversal strategies. Cytotoxicity and the reversal effect of garlicin and erythromycin alone and combination of this two drugs were detected by MTT assay. The expression of mdr1 gene of K562/A02 was detected by RT-PCR. The P-gp expression was observed by immunohistochemical technique. Flow cytometry was used to detect intracellular drug concentration. The results showed that the sensitivity of K562/A02 to ADM increased somewhat in the presence of 1, 4, 8 mg/L garlicin, the reversal multiples at 1, 4, 8 mg/L garlicin were 1.80, 2.26 and 2.82 respectively in dose-dependent manner. The reversal multiple of erythromycin 60 mg/L was 2.20. The combination of two drugs could increase the reversal multiple to 4.94, and had no more cytotoxin. Both of garlicin and erythromycin alone could down-regulate the expression of mdr1 and P-gp of K562/A02 and elevate the intracellular concentrations of ADM in K562/A02 cells. Meanwhile, the effects described above were enhanced when garlicin was combined with erythromycin. It is concluded that the garlicin and erythromycin alone under cytotoxic dose both can reverse the MDR of K562/A02 cells effectively. Moreover, the combination of two drugs is more effective than that in use alone. Combination of these two drugs shows synergistic actions in regulating the expression of mdr1/P-gp and increasing the intracellular concentrations of ADM in K562/A02 cell.

  7. mRNA expression profile of multidrug-resistant genes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children, a prognostic value for ABCA3 and ABCA2.

    PubMed

    Rahgozar, Soheila; Moafi, Alireza; Abedi, Marjan; Entezar-E-Ghaem, Mansureh; Moshtaghian, Jamal; Ghaedi, Kamran; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Montazeri, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an important cause of treatment failure in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The ABC family of membrane transporters is proposed, albeit with controversy, to be involved in this process. The present study aims to investigate the mRNA expression profile of several genes of this family, including ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, MRP3/ABCC3, ABCG2/BCRP, and the intracellular transporter MVP/LRP, in childhood ALL, and to evaluate their association with response to therapy. Some genes in the present research are being studied for the first time in Iran. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated 27 children with ALL at diagnosis and 15 children with normal bone marrow. The status of response to therapy was assessed one year after the onset of therapy through investigating the IgH/TCRγ gene rearrangements. Our findings indicate a considerable and direct relationship between mRNA expression levels of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive minimal residual disease (MRD) measured after one year of treatment. Statistical analysis revealed that expression of these genes higher than the cutoff point will raise the risk of MRD by 15-, 6.25-, 12-, and 9-fold, respectively. No relationship was found between of MVP/LRP, MRP3 and ABCG2 genes expression and ALL prognoses. Considering the direct and significant relationship between the increased expression of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive risk of MRD in children with ALL, evaluating the expression profile of these genes on diagnosis may identify high risk individuals and help plan a more efficient treatment strategy.

  8. mRNA expression profile of multidrug-resistant genes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children, a prognostic value for ABCA3 and ABCA2

    PubMed Central

    Rahgozar, Soheila; Moafi, Alireza; Abedi, Marjan; Entezar-e-ghaem, Mansureh; Moshtaghian, Jamal; Ghaedi, Kamran; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Montazeri, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an important cause of treatment failure in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The ABC family of membrane transporters is proposed, albeit with controversy, to be involved in this process. The present study aims to investigate the mRNA expression profile of several genes of this family, including ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, MRP3/ABCC3, ABCG2/BCRP, and the intracellular transporter MVP/LRP, in childhood ALL, and to evaluate their association with response to therapy. Some genes in the present research are being studied for the first time in Iran. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated 27 children with ALL at diagnosis and 15 children with normal bone marrow. The status of response to therapy was assessed one year after the onset of therapy through investigating the IgH/TCRγ gene rearrangements. Our findings indicate a considerable and direct relationship between mRNA expression levels of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive minimal residual disease (MRD) measured after one year of treatment. Statistical analysis revealed that expression of these genes higher than the cutoff point will raise the risk of MRD by 15-, 6.25-, 12-, and 9-fold, respectively. No relationship was found between of MVP/LRP, MRP3 and ABCG2 genes expression and ALL prognoses. Considering the direct and significant relationship between the increased expression of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive risk of MRD in children with ALL, evaluating the expression profile of these genes on diagnosis may identify high risk individuals and help plan a more efficient treatment strategy. PMID:24145140

  9. Role of the OATP Transporter Family and a Benzbromarone-SensitiveEfflux Transporter in the Hepatocellular Disposition of Vincristine.

    PubMed

    Nicolaï, Johan; Thevelin, Louise; Bing, Qi; Stieger, Bruno; Chanteux, Hugues; Augustijns, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter

    2017-08-21

    Vincristine is known to interfere with OATP-mediated uptake of other compounds, hinting that vincristine itself could be a substrate of OATP transporters. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the role of OATP transporters in the hepatocellular disposition of vincristine. Vincristine uptake was studied in suspended rat and human hepatocytes as well as OATP-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in the absence and presence of OATP transporter inhibitors. Membrane vesicles containing MDR1 or MRP1/2/3 were used to directly assess the role of these efflux transporters in vincristine disposition. Uptake in suspended rat hepatocytes was temperature-dependent and could be inhibited by a range of OATP inhibitors. Furthermore, the MRP-inhibitor benzbromarone, but none of the tested MDR1 inhibitors, reduced vincristine efflux in rat and human suspended hepatocytes. OATP1B1-, OATP1B3- and OATP2B1- transfected CHO cells showed significantly increased vincristine uptake as compared to wild-type cells. Moreover, uptake in OATP-transfected CHO cells was reduced by OATP inhibitors. However, uptake studies in suspended human hepatocytes showed that only 10% of the total vincristine uptake process could be attributed to OATP-mediated transport. Studies with transporter-expressing membrane vesicles confirmed vincristine as an MDR1 substrate, while MRP1/2/3-mediated transport of vincristine could not be observed with this model system. Our findings show the involvement of OATP transporters in the disposition of vincristine in rat and human hepatocytes. However, in both species, hepatic uptake is overshadowed by a benzbromarone-sensitive efflux mechanism, possibly MRP3.

  10. Distribution of Gefitinib to the Brain Is Limited by P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (ABCG2)-Mediated Active Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sagar; Sane, Ramola; Gallardo, Jose L.; Ohlfest, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Gefitinib is an orally active inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor approved for use in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non–small ce