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Sample records for multisensory multifunctional nucleus

  1. The multifunctional lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Weyand, Theodore G

    2016-02-01

    Providing the critical link between the retina and visual cortex, the well-studied lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has stood out as a structure in search of a function exceeding the mundane 'relay'. For many mammals, it is structurally impressive: Exquisite lamination, sophisticated microcircuits, and blending of multiple inputs suggest some fundamental transform. This impression is bolstered by the fact that numerically, the retina accounts for a small fraction of its input. Despite such promise, the extent to which an LGN neuron separates itself from its retinal brethren has proven difficult to appreciate. Here, I argue that whereas retinogeniculate coupling is strong, what occurs in the LGN is judicious pruning of a retinal drive by nonretinal inputs. These nonretinal inputs reshape a receptive field that under the right conditions departs significantly from its retinal drive, even if transiently. I first review design features of the LGN and follow with evidence for 10 putative functions. Only two of these tend to surface in textbooks: parsing retinal axons by eye and functional group and gating by state. Among the remaining putative functions, implementation of the principle of graceful degradation and temporal decorrelation are at least as interesting but much less promoted. The retina solves formidable problems imposed by physics to yield multiple efficient and sensitive representations of the world. The LGN applies context, increasing content, and gates several of these representations. Even if the basic concentric receptive field remains, information transmitted for each LGN spike relative to each retinal spike is measurably increased. PMID:26479339

  2. Stimulus-timing dependent multisensory plasticity in the guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Multisensory neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) show long-lasting enhancement or suppression of sound-evoked responses when stimulated with combined somatosensory-auditory stimulation. By varying the intervals between sound and somatosensory stimuli we show for the first time in vivo that DCN bimodal responses are influenced by stimulus-timing dependent plasticity. The timing rules and time courses of the observed stimulus-timing dependent plasticity closely mimic those of spike-timing dependent plasticity that have been demonstrated in vitro at parallel-fiber synapses onto DCN principal cells. Furthermore, the degree of inhibition in a neuron influences whether that neuron has Hebbian or anti-Hebbian timing rules. As demonstrated in other cerebellar-like circuits, anti-Hebbian timing rules reflect adaptive filtering, which in the DCN would result in suppression of sound-evoked responses that are predicted by activation of somatosensory inputs, leading to the suppression of body-generated signals such as self-vocalization. PMID:23527274

  3. Stimulus-timing dependent multisensory plasticity in the guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Multisensory neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) show long-lasting enhancement or suppression of sound-evoked responses when stimulated with combined somatosensory-auditory stimulation. By varying the intervals between sound and somatosensory stimuli we show for the first time in vivo that DCN bimodal responses are influenced by stimulus-timing dependent plasticity. The timing rules and time courses of the observed stimulus-timing dependent plasticity closely mimic those of spike-timing dependent plasticity that have been demonstrated in vitro at parallel-fiber synapses onto DCN principal cells. Furthermore, the degree of inhibition in a neuron influences whether that neuron has Hebbian or anti-Hebbian timing rules. As demonstrated in other cerebellar-like circuits, anti-Hebbian timing rules reflect adaptive filtering, which in the DCN would result in suppression of sound-evoked responses that are predicted by activation of somatosensory inputs, leading to the suppression of body-generated signals such as self-vocalization.

  4. Integration of vestibular and gastrointestinal inputs by cerebellar fastigial nucleus neurons: multisensory influences on motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Michael F; Miller, Daniel J; Cotter, Lucy A; McCall, Andrew A; Yates, Bill J

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that ingestion of the emetic compound copper sulfate (CuSO4) alters the responses to vestibular stimulation of a large fraction of neurons in brainstem regions that mediate nausea and vomiting, thereby affecting motion sickness susceptibility. Other studies suggested that the processing of vestibular inputs by cerebellar neurons plays a critical role in generating motion sickness and that neurons in the cerebellar fastigial nucleus receive visceral inputs. These findings raised the hypothesis that stimulation of gastrointestinal receptors by a nauseogenic compound affects the processing of labyrinthine signals by fastigial nucleus neurons. We tested this hypothesis in decerebrate cats by determining the effects of intragastric injection of CuSO4 on the responses of rostral fastigial nucleus to whole-body rotations that activate labyrinthine receptors. Responses to vestibular stimulation of fastigial nucleus neurons were more complex in decerebrate cats than reported previously in conscious felines. In particular, spatiotemporal convergence responses, which reflect the convergence of vestibular inputs with different spatial and temporal properties, were more common in decerebrate than in conscious felines. The firing rate of a small percentage of fastigial nucleus neurons (15%) was altered over 50% by the administration of CuSO4; the firing rate of the majority of these cells decreased. The responses to vestibular stimulation of a majority of these cells were attenuated after the compound was provided. Although these data support our hypothesis, the low fraction of fastigial nucleus neurons whose firing rate and responses to vestibular stimulation were affected by the administration of CuSO4 casts doubt on the notion that nauseogenic visceral inputs modulate motion sickness susceptibility principally through neural pathways that include the cerebellar fastigial nucleus. Instead, it appears that convergence of gastrointestinal and

  5. Multisensory constraints on awareness

    PubMed Central

    Deroy, Ophelia; Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Given that multiple senses are often stimulated at the same time, perceptual awareness is most likely to take place in multisensory situations. However, theories of awareness are based on studies and models established for a single sense (mostly vision). Here, we consider the methodological and theoretical challenges raised by taking a multisensory perspective on perceptual awareness. First, we consider how well tasks designed to study unisensory awareness perform when used in multisensory settings, stressing that studies using binocular rivalry, bistable figure perception, continuous flash suppression, the attentional blink, repetition blindness and backward masking can demonstrate multisensory influences on unisensory awareness, but fall short of tackling multisensory awareness directly. Studies interested in the latter phenomenon rely on a method of subjective contrast and can, at best, delineate conditions under which individuals report experiencing a multisensory object or two unisensory objects. As there is not a perfect match between these conditions and those in which multisensory integration and binding occur, the link between awareness and binding advocated for visual information processing needs to be revised for multisensory cases. These challenges point at the need to question the very idea of multisensory awareness. PMID:24639579

  6. Multisensory flavor perception.

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles

    2015-03-26

    The perception of flavor is perhaps the most multisensory of our everyday experiences. The latest research by psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists increasingly reveals the complex multisensory interactions that give rise to the flavor experiences we all know and love, demonstrating how they rely on the integration of cues from all of the human senses. This Perspective explores the contributions of distinct senses to our perception of food and the growing realization that the same rules of multisensory integration that have been thoroughly explored in interactions between audition, vision, and touch may also explain the combination of the (admittedly harder to study) flavor senses. Academic advances are now spilling out into the real world, with chefs and food industry increasingly taking the latest scientific findings on board in their food design. PMID:25815982

  7. Metacognition in Multisensory Perception.

    PubMed

    Deroy, Ophelia; Spence, Charles; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-10-01

    Metacognition - the ability to monitor one's own decisions and representations, their accuracy and uncertainty - is considered a hallmark of intelligent behavior. Little is known about metacognition in our natural multisensory environment. To form a coherent percept, the brain should integrate signals from a common cause but segregate those from independent causes. Multisensory perception thus relies on inferring the world's causal structure, raising new challenges for metacognition. We discuss the extent to which observers can monitor their uncertainties not only about their final integrated percept but also about the individual sensory signals and the world's causal structure. The latter causal metacognition highlights fundamental links between perception and other cognitive domains such as social and abstract reasoning.

  8. Metacognition in Multisensory Perception.

    PubMed

    Deroy, Ophelia; Spence, Charles; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-10-01

    Metacognition - the ability to monitor one's own decisions and representations, their accuracy and uncertainty - is considered a hallmark of intelligent behavior. Little is known about metacognition in our natural multisensory environment. To form a coherent percept, the brain should integrate signals from a common cause but segregate those from independent causes. Multisensory perception thus relies on inferring the world's causal structure, raising new challenges for metacognition. We discuss the extent to which observers can monitor their uncertainties not only about their final integrated percept but also about the individual sensory signals and the world's causal structure. The latter causal metacognition highlights fundamental links between perception and other cognitive domains such as social and abstract reasoning. PMID:27612983

  9. Generalization of multisensory perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Powers III, Albert R.; Hillock-Dunn, Andrea; Wallace, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Life in a multisensory world requires the rapid and accurate integration of stimuli across the different senses. In this process, the temporal relationship between stimuli is critical in determining which stimuli share a common origin. Numerous studies have described a multisensory temporal binding window—the time window within which audiovisual stimuli are likely to be perceptually bound. In addition to characterizing this window’s size, recent work has shown it to be malleable, with the capacity for substantial narrowing following perceptual training. However, the generalization of these effects to other measures of perception is not known. This question was examined by characterizing the ability of training on a simultaneity judgment task to influence perception of the temporally-dependent sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). Results do not demonstrate a change in performance on the SIFI itself following training. However, data do show an improved ability to discriminate rapidly-presented two-flash control conditions following training. Effects were specific to training and scaled with the degree of temporal window narrowing exhibited. Results do not support generalization of multisensory perceptual learning to other multisensory tasks. However, results do show that training results in improvements in visual temporal acuity, suggesting a generalization effect of multisensory training on unisensory abilities. PMID:27000988

  10. Early Experience & Multisensory Perceptual Narrowing

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing is a reflection of early experience and contributes in key ways to perceptual and cognitive development. In general, findings have shown that unisensory perceptual sensitivity in early infancy is broadly tuned such that young infants respond to, and discriminate, native as well as non-native sensory inputs, whereas older infants only respond to native inputs. Recently, my colleagues and I discovered that perceptual narrowing occurs at the multisensory processing level as well. The present article reviews this new evidence and puts it in the larger context of multisensory perceptual development and the role that perceptual experience plays in it. Together, the evidence on unisensory and multisensory narrowing shows that early experience shapes the emergence of perceptual specialization and expertise. PMID:24435505

  11. Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husty, Sandra; Jackson, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and…

  12. Multisensory stimulation in stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Barbro Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    The brain has a large capacity for automatic simultaneous processing and integration of sensory information. Combining information from different sensory modalities facilitates our ability to detect, discriminate, and recognize sensory stimuli, and learning is often optimal in a multisensory environment. Currently used multisensory stimulation methods in stroke rehabilitation include motor imagery, action observation, training with a mirror or in a virtual environment, and various kinds of music therapy. Non-invasive brain stimulation has showed promising preliminary results in aphasia and neglect. Patient heterogeneity and the interaction of age, gender, genes, and environment are discussed. Randomized controlled longitudinal trials starting earlier post-stroke are needed. The advance in brain network science and neuroimaging enabling longitudinal studies of structural and functional networks are likely to have an important impact on patient selection for specific interventions in future stroke rehabilitation. It is proposed that we should pay more attention to age, gender, and laterality in clinical studies.

  13. Multisensory Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Barbro Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    The brain has a large capacity for automatic simultaneous processing and integration of sensory information. Combining information from different sensory modalities facilitates our ability to detect, discriminate, and recognize sensory stimuli, and learning is often optimal in a multisensory environment. Currently used multisensory stimulation methods in stroke rehabilitation include motor imagery, action observation, training with a mirror or in a virtual environment, and various kinds of music therapy. Non-invasive brain stimulation has showed promising preliminary results in aphasia and neglect. Patient heterogeneity and the interaction of age, gender, genes, and environment are discussed. Randomized controlled longitudinal trials starting earlier post-stroke are needed. The advance in brain network science and neuroimaging enabling longitudinal studies of structural and functional networks are likely to have an important impact on patient selection for specific interventions in future stroke rehabilitation. It is proposed that we should pay more attention to age, gender, and laterality in clinical studies. PMID:22509159

  14. Multifunctional nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Klimov, Victor I.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Crooker, Scott A.; Kim, Hyungrak

    2010-06-22

    Multifunctional nanocomposites are provided including a core of either a magnetic material or an inorganic semiconductor, and, a shell of either a magnetic material or an inorganic semiconductor, wherein the core and the shell are of differing materials, such multifunctional nanocomposites having multifunctional properties including magnetic properties from the magnetic material and optical properties from the inorganic semiconductor material. Various applications of such multifunctional nanocomposites are also provided.

  15. Multifunctional nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Klimov, Victor I.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Crooker, Scott A.; Kim, Hyungrak

    2007-08-28

    Multifunctional nanocomposites are provided including a core of either a magnetic material or an inorganic semiconductor, and, a shell of either a magnetic material or an inorganic semiconductor, wherein the core and the shell are of differing materials, such multifunctional nanocomposites having multifunctional properties including magnetic properties from the magnetic material and optical properties from the inorganic semiconductor material. Various applications of such multifunctional nanocomposites are also provided.

  16. Predictive coding of multisensory timing

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhuanghua; Burr, David

    2016-01-01

    The sense of time is foundational for perception and action, yet it frequently departs significantly from physical time. In the paper we review recent progress on temporal contextual effects, multisensory temporal integration, temporal recalibration, and related computational models. We suggest that subjective time arises from minimizing prediction errors and adaptive recalibration, which can be unified in the framework of predictive coding, a framework rooted in Helmholtz’s ‘perception as inference’.

  17. Predictive coding of multisensory timing

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhuanghua; Burr, David

    2016-01-01

    The sense of time is foundational for perception and action, yet it frequently departs significantly from physical time. In the paper we review recent progress on temporal contextual effects, multisensory temporal integration, temporal recalibration, and related computational models. We suggest that subjective time arises from minimizing prediction errors and adaptive recalibration, which can be unified in the framework of predictive coding, a framework rooted in Helmholtz’s ‘perception as inference’. PMID:27695705

  18. Multisensory Integration and Child Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Dionne-Dostie, Emmanuelle; Paquette, Natacha; Lassonde, Maryse; Gallagher, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of cognitive processes depend on the integration of multisensory information. The brain integrates this information, providing a complete representation of our surrounding world and giving us the ability to react optimally to the environment. Infancy is a period of great changes in brain structure and function that are reflected by the increase of processing capacities of the developing child. However, it is unclear if the optimal use of multisensory information is present early in childhood or develops only later, with experience. The first part of this review has focused on the typical development of multisensory integration (MSI). We have described the two hypotheses on the developmental process of MSI in neurotypical infants and children, and have introduced MSI and its neuroanatomic correlates. The second section has discussed the neurodevelopmental trajectory of MSI in cognitively-challenged infants and children. A few studies have brought to light various difficulties to integrate sensory information in children with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Consequently, we have exposed certain possible neurophysiological relationships between MSI deficits and neurodevelopmental disorders, especially dyslexia and attention deficit disorder with/without hyperactivity. PMID:25679116

  19. Multisensory signalling enhances pupil dilation

    PubMed Central

    Rigato, Silvia; Rieger, Gerulf; Romei, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Detecting and integrating information across the senses is an advantageous mechanism to efficiently respond to the environment. In this study, a simple auditory-visual detection task was employed to test whether pupil dilation, generally associated with successful target detection, could be used as a reliable measure for studying multisensory integration processing in humans. We recorded reaction times and pupil dilation in response to a series of visual and auditory stimuli, which were presented either alone or in combination. The results indicated faster reaction times and larger pupil diameter to the presentation of combined auditory and visual stimuli than the same stimuli when presented in isolation. Moreover, the responses to the multisensory condition exceeded the linear summation of the responses obtained in each unimodal condition. Importantly, faster reaction times corresponded to larger pupil dilation, suggesting that also the latter can be a reliable measure of multisensory processes. This study will serve as a foundation for the investigation of auditory-visual integration in populations where simple reaction times cannot be collected, such as developmental and clinical populations. PMID:27189316

  20. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  1. Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birsh, Judith R., Ed.

    This text on multisensory structured language education (MSLE) provides the foundation for MSLE and offers components of instruction and effective teaching strategies that teachers can put into practice for students with dyslexia and others struggling to learn to read, write, and spell. Chapters include: (1) "Multisensory Instruction" (Louisa C.…

  2. Multisensory attention training for treatment of tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    D. P., Spiegel; T., Linford; B., Thompson; M. A., Petoe; K., Kobayashi; C. M., Stinear; G. D., Searchfield

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is the conscious perception of sound with no physical sound source. Some models of tinnitus pathophysiology suggest that networks associated with attention, memory, distress and multisensory experience are involved in tinnitus perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a multisensory attention training paradigm which used audio, visual, and somatosensory stimulation would reduce tinnitus. Eighteen participants with predominantly unilateral chronic tinnitus were randomized between two groups receiving 20 daily sessions of either integration (attempting to reduce salience to tinnitus by binding with multisensory stimuli) or attention diversion (multisensory stimuli opposite side to tinnitus) training. The training resulted in small but statistically significant reductions in Tinnitus Functional Index and Tinnitus Severity Numeric Scale scores and improved attentional abilities. No statistically significant improvements in tinnitus were found between the training groups. This study demonstrated that a short period of multisensory attention training reduced unilateral tinnitus, but directing attention toward or away from the tinnitus side did not differentiate this effect. PMID:26020589

  3. Altered multisensory temporal integration in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Scarpina, Federica; Migliorati, Daniele; Marzullo, Paolo; Mauro, Alessandro; Scacchi, Massimo; Costantini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Eating is a multisensory behavior. The act of placing food in the mouth provides us with a variety of sensory information, including gustatory, olfactory, somatosensory, visual, and auditory. Evidence suggests altered eating behavior in obesity. Nonetheless, multisensory integration in obesity has been scantily investigated so far. Starting from this gap in the literature, we seek to provide the first comprehensive investigation of multisensory integration in obesity. Twenty male obese participants and twenty male healthy-weight participants took part in the study aimed at describing the multisensory temporal binding window (TBW). The TBW is defined as the range of stimulus onset asynchrony in which multiple sensory inputs have a high probability of being integrated. To investigate possible multisensory temporal processing deficits in obesity, we investigated performance in two multisensory audiovisual temporal tasks, namely simultaneity judgment and temporal order judgment. Results showed a wider TBW in obese participants as compared to healthy-weight controls. This holds true for both the simultaneity judgment and the temporal order judgment tasks. An explanatory hypothesis would regard the effect of metabolic alterations and low-grade inflammatory state, clinically observed in obesity, on the temporal organization of brain ongoing activity, which one of the neural mechanisms enabling multisensory integration. PMID:27324727

  4. Altered multisensory temporal integration in obesity.

    PubMed

    Scarpina, Federica; Migliorati, Daniele; Marzullo, Paolo; Mauro, Alessandro; Scacchi, Massimo; Costantini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Eating is a multisensory behavior. The act of placing food in the mouth provides us with a variety of sensory information, including gustatory, olfactory, somatosensory, visual, and auditory. Evidence suggests altered eating behavior in obesity. Nonetheless, multisensory integration in obesity has been scantily investigated so far. Starting from this gap in the literature, we seek to provide the first comprehensive investigation of multisensory integration in obesity. Twenty male obese participants and twenty male healthy-weight participants took part in the study aimed at describing the multisensory temporal binding window (TBW). The TBW is defined as the range of stimulus onset asynchrony in which multiple sensory inputs have a high probability of being integrated. To investigate possible multisensory temporal processing deficits in obesity, we investigated performance in two multisensory audiovisual temporal tasks, namely simultaneity judgment and temporal order judgment. Results showed a wider TBW in obese participants as compared to healthy-weight controls. This holds true for both the simultaneity judgment and the temporal order judgment tasks. An explanatory hypothesis would regard the effect of metabolic alterations and low-grade inflammatory state, clinically observed in obesity, on the temporal organization of brain ongoing activity, which one of the neural mechanisms enabling multisensory integration. PMID:27324727

  5. Decentralized Multisensory Information Integration in Neural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-hao; Chen, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    How multiple sensory cues are integrated in neural circuitry remains a challenge. The common hypothesis is that information integration might be accomplished in a dedicated multisensory integration area receiving feedforward inputs from the modalities. However, recent experimental evidence suggests that it is not a single multisensory brain area, but rather many multisensory brain areas that are simultaneously involved in the integration of information. Why many mutually connected areas should be needed for information integration is puzzling. Here, we investigated theoretically how information integration could be achieved in a distributed fashion within a network of interconnected multisensory areas. Using biologically realistic neural network models, we developed a decentralized information integration system that comprises multiple interconnected integration areas. Studying an example of combining visual and vestibular cues to infer heading direction, we show that such a decentralized system is in good agreement with anatomical evidence and experimental observations. In particular, we show that this decentralized system can integrate information optimally. The decentralized system predicts that optimally integrated information should emerge locally from the dynamics of the communication between brain areas and sheds new light on the interpretation of the connectivity between multisensory brain areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To extract information reliably from ambiguous environments, the brain integrates multiple sensory cues, which provide different aspects of information about the same entity of interest. Here, we propose a decentralized architecture for multisensory integration. In such a system, no processor is in the center of the network topology and information integration is achieved in a distributed manner through reciprocally connected local processors. Through studying the inference of heading direction with visual and vestibular cues, we show that

  6. Multisensory integration in balance control.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, A M

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to the topic of multisensory integration in balance control in, both, health and disease. One of the best-studied examples is that of visuo-vestibular interaction, which is the ability of the visual system to enhance or suppress the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR suppression). Of clinical relevance, examination of VOR suppression is clinically useful because only central, not peripheral, lesions impair VOR suppression. Visual, somatosensory (proprioceptive), and vestibular inputs interact strongly and continuously in the control of upright balance. Experiments with visual motion stimuli show that the visual system generates visually-evoked postural responses that, at least initially, can override vestibular and proprioceptive signals. This paradigm has been useful for the study of the syndrome of visual vertigo or vision-induced dizziness, which can appear after vestibular disease. These patients typically report dizziness when exposed to optokinetic stimuli or visually charged environments, such as supermarkets. The principles of the rehabilitation treatment of these patients, which use repeated exposure to visual motion, are presented. Finally, we offer a diagnostic algorithm in approaching the patient reporting oscillopsia - the illusion of oscillation of the visual environment, which should not be confused with the syndrome mentioned earlier of visual vertigo. PMID:27638062

  7. Multisensory body representation in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Finotti, Gianluca; Costantini, Marcello

    2016-02-12

    Body representation has been linked to the processing and integration of multisensory signals. An outstanding example of the pivotal role played by multisensory mechanisms in body representation is the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). In this paradigm, multisensory stimulation induces a sense of ownership over a fake limb. Previous work has shown high interindividual differences in the susceptibility to the RHI. The origin of this variability remains largely unknown. Given the tight and bidirectional communication between the brain and the immune system, we predicted that the origin of this variability could be traced, in part, to the immune system's functioning, which is altered by several clinical conditions, including Coeliac Disease (CD). Consistent with this prediction, we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion is stronger in CD patients as compared to healthy controls. We propose a biochemical mechanism accounting for the dependency of multisensory body representation upon the Immune system. Our finding has direct implications for a range of neurological, psychiatric and immunological conditions where alterations of multisensory integration, body representation and dysfunction of the immune system co-exist.

  8. Multisensory body representation in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Finotti, Gianluca; Costantini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Body representation has been linked to the processing and integration of multisensory signals. An outstanding example of the pivotal role played by multisensory mechanisms in body representation is the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). In this paradigm, multisensory stimulation induces a sense of ownership over a fake limb. Previous work has shown high interindividual differences in the susceptibility to the RHI. The origin of this variability remains largely unknown. Given the tight and bidirectional communication between the brain and the immune system, we predicted that the origin of this variability could be traced, in part, to the immune system’s functioning, which is altered by several clinical conditions, including Coeliac Disease (CD). Consistent with this prediction, we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion is stronger in CD patients as compared to healthy controls. We propose a biochemical mechanism accounting for the dependency of multisensory body representation upon the Immune system. Our finding has direct implications for a range of neurological, psychiatric and immunological conditions where alterations of multisensory integration, body representation and dysfunction of the immune system co-exist. PMID:26867786

  9. Multisensory integration substantiates distributed and overlapping neural networks.

    PubMed

    Pasqualotto, Achille

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that highly overlapping networks underlie brain functions (neural reuse) is decisively supported by three decades of multisensory research. Multisensory areas process information from more than one sensory modality and therefore represent the best examples of neural reuse. Recent evidence of multisensory processing in primary visual cortices further indicates that neural reuse is a basic feature of the brain. PMID:27562234

  10. Nucleus-nucleus potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Satchler, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The significance of a nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed. Information about such potentials obtained from scattering experiments is reviewed, including recent examples of so-called rainbow scattering that probe the potential at smaller distances. The evidence for interactions involving the nuclear spins is summarized, and their possible origin in couplings to non-elastic channels. Various models of the potentials are discussed.

  11. Predictive coding and multisensory integration: an attentional account of the multisensory mind

    PubMed Central

    Talsma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Multisensory integration involves a host of different cognitive processes, occurring at different stages of sensory processing. Here I argue that, despite recent insights suggesting that multisensory interactions can occur at very early latencies, the actual integration of individual sensory traces into an internally consistent mental representation is dependent on both top–down and bottom–up processes. Moreover, I argue that this integration is not limited to just sensory inputs, but that internal cognitive processes also shape the resulting mental representation. Studies showing that memory recall is affected by the initial multisensory context in which the stimuli were presented will be discussed, as well as several studies showing that mental imagery can affect multisensory illusions. This empirical evidence will be discussed from a predictive coding perspective, in which a central top–down attentional process is proposed to play a central role in coordinating the integration of all these inputs into a coherent mental representation. PMID:25859192

  12. The Complex Interplay Between Multisensory Integration and Perceptual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Aller, M.; Noppeney, U.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of information has been considered a hallmark of human consciousness, as it requires information being globally available via widespread neural interactions. Yet the complex interdependencies between multisensory integration and perceptual awareness, or consciousness, remain to be defined. While perceptual awareness has traditionally been studied in a single sense, in recent years we have witnessed a surge of interest in the role of multisensory integration in perceptual awareness. Based on a recent IMRF symposium on multisensory awareness, this review discusses three key questions from conceptual, methodological and experimental perspectives: (1) What do we study when we study multisensory awareness? (2) What is the relationship between multisensory integration and perceptual awareness? (3) Which experimental approaches are most promising to characterize multisensory awareness? We hope that this review paper will provoke lively discussions, novel experiments, and conceptual considerations to advance our understanding of the multifaceted interplay between multisensory integration and consciousness.

  13. Multisensory Instruction in Foreign Language Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Teresita del Rosario Caballero; Uglem, Craig Thomas Chase

    This paper reviews some theories that through history have explained the process of learning. It also taps some new findings on how the brain learns. Multisensory instruction is a pedagogic strategy that covers the greatest number of individual preferences in the classroom, language laboratories, and multimedia rooms for a constant and diverse…

  14. Improving Vocabulary Acquisition with Multisensory Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…

  15. Laminar and Connectional Organization of a Multisensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Foxworthy, W. Alex; Clemo, H. Ruth; Meredith, M. Alex

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of sensory signals as they pass through cortical circuits has been revealed almost exclusively through studies of the primary sensory cortices, where principles of laminar organization, local connectivity and parallel processing have been elucidated. In contrast, almost nothing is known about the circuitry or laminar features of multisensory processing in higher-order, multisensory cortex. Therefore, using the ferret higher-order multisensory rostral posterior parietal (PPr) cortex, the present investigation employed a combination of multichannel recording and neuroanatomical techniques to elucidate the laminar basis of multisensory cortical processing. The proportion of multisensory neurons, the share of neurons showing multisensory integration, and the magnitude of multisensory integration were all found to differ by layer in a way that matched the functional or connectional characteristics of the PPr. Specifically, the supragranular layers (L2–3) demonstrated among the highest proportions of multisensory neurons and the highest incidence of multisensory response enhancement, while also receiving the highest levels of extrinsic inputs, exhibiting the highest dendritic spine densities, and providing a major source of local connectivity. In contrast, layer 6 showed the highest proportion of unisensory neurons while receiving the fewest external and local projections and exhibiting the lowest dendritic spine densities. Coupled with a lack of input from principal thalamic nuclei and a minimal layer 4, these observations indicate that this higher-level multisensory cortex shows unique functional and organizational modifications from the well-known patterns identified for primary sensory cortical regions. PMID:23172137

  16. Correlation detection as a general mechanism for multisensory integration

    PubMed Central

    Parise, Cesare V.; Ernst, Marc O.

    2016-01-01

    The brain efficiently processes multisensory information by selectively combining related signals across the continuous stream of multisensory inputs. To do so, it needs to detect correlation, lag and synchrony across the senses; optimally integrate related information; and dynamically adapt to spatiotemporal conflicts across the senses. Here we show that all these aspects of multisensory perception can be jointly explained by postulating an elementary processing unit akin to the Hassenstein–Reichardt detector—a model originally developed for visual motion perception. This unit, termed the multisensory correlation detector (MCD), integrates related multisensory signals through a set of temporal filters followed by linear combination. Our model can tightly replicate human perception as measured in a series of empirical studies, both novel and previously published. MCDs provide a unified general theory of multisensory processing, which simultaneously explains a wide spectrum of phenomena with a simple, yet physiologically plausible model. PMID:27265526

  17. Correlation detection as a general mechanism for multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Parise, Cesare V; Ernst, Marc O

    2016-01-01

    The brain efficiently processes multisensory information by selectively combining related signals across the continuous stream of multisensory inputs. To do so, it needs to detect correlation, lag and synchrony across the senses; optimally integrate related information; and dynamically adapt to spatiotemporal conflicts across the senses. Here we show that all these aspects of multisensory perception can be jointly explained by postulating an elementary processing unit akin to the Hassenstein-Reichardt detector-a model originally developed for visual motion perception. This unit, termed the multisensory correlation detector (MCD), integrates related multisensory signals through a set of temporal filters followed by linear combination. Our model can tightly replicate human perception as measured in a series of empirical studies, both novel and previously published. MCDs provide a unified general theory of multisensory processing, which simultaneously explains a wide spectrum of phenomena with a simple, yet physiologically plausible model. PMID:27265526

  18. Dissecting neural circuits for multisensory integration and crossmodal processing

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Jeffrey M.; DeAngelis, Gregory C.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2015-01-01

    We rely on rich and complex sensory information to perceive and understand our environment. Our multisensory experience of the world depends on the brain's remarkable ability to combine signals across sensory systems. Behavioural, neurophysiological and neuroimaging experiments have established principles of multisensory integration and candidate neural mechanisms. Here we review how targeted manipulation of neural activity using invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation techniques have advanced our understanding of multisensory processing. Neuromodulation studies have provided detailed characterizations of brain networks causally involved in multisensory integration. Despite substantial progress, important questions regarding multisensory networks remain unanswered. Critically, experimental approaches will need to be combined with theory in order to understand how distributed activity across multisensory networks collectively supports perception. PMID:26240418

  19. Do Cross-Modal Projections Always Result in Multisensory Integration?

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben E.; Keniston, Leslie P.; Medina, Alexandre E.; Wang, Meng Y.; Meredith, M. Alex

    2008-01-01

    Convergence of afferents from different sensory modalities has generally been thought to produce bimodal (and trimodal) neurons (i.e., exhibit suprathreshold excitation to more than 1 sensory modality). Consequently, studies identifying cross-modal connections assume that such convergence results in bimodal (or trimodal) neurons that produce familiar forms of multisensory integration: response enhancement or depression. The present study questioned that assumption by anatomically identifying a projection from ferret auditory to visual cortex Area 21. However, electrophysiological recording within Area 21 not only failed to identify a single bimodal neuron but also familiar forms of multisensory integration were not observed either. Instead, a small proportion of neurons (9%; 27/296) showed subthreshold multisensory integration, in which visual responses were significantly modulated by auditory inputs. Such subthreshold multisensory effects were enhanced by γ-aminobutyric acid antagonism, whereby a majority of neurons (87%; 20/23) now participated in a significant, multisensory population effect. Thus, multisensory convergence does not de facto result in bimodal (or trimodal) neurons or the traditional forms of multisensory integration. However, the fact that unimodal neurons exhibited a subthreshold form of multisensory integration not only affirms the relationship between convergence and integration but also expands our understanding of the functional repertoire of multisensory processing itself. PMID:18203695

  20. Using Multisensory Phonics to Foster Reading Skills of Adolescent Delinquents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Kristan; Caldarella, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a multisensory phonics-based reading remediation program for adolescent delinquents classified as poor readers living at a residential treatment center. We used a pretest--posttest control group design with random assignment. The treatment group participated in a 30-hr multisensory phonics reading…

  1. Multisensory Modalities for Blending and Segmenting among Early Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of touch-screen interfaces on the tablet computer, multisensory elements in reading instruction have taken on a new dimension. This computer assisted language learning research aimed to determine whether specific technology features of a tablet computer can add to the functionality of multisensory instruction in early reading…

  2. A Rational Analysis of the Acquisition of Multisensory Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Ilker; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    How do people learn multisensory, or amodal, representations, and what consequences do these representations have for perceptual performance? We address this question by performing a rational analysis of the problem of learning multisensory representations. This analysis makes use of a Bayesian nonparametric model that acquires latent multisensory…

  3. Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills Activity Book. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreker, Suzanne; Birsh, Judith R.

    2011-01-01

    With the new edition of this activity book--the companion to Judith Birsh's bestselling text, "Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills"--students and practitioners will get the practice they need to use multisensory teaching effectively with students who have dyslexia and other learning disabilities. Ideal for both pre-service teacher…

  4. TMS of posterior parietal cortex disrupts visual tactile multisensory integration

    PubMed Central

    Pasalar, Siavash; Ro, Tony; Beauchamp, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated a number of brain regions, especially the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), as being potentially important for visual–tactile multisensory integration. However, neuroimaging studies are correlational and do not prove the necessity of a region for the behavioral improvements that are the hallmark of multisensory integration. To remedy this knowledge gap, we interrupted activity in the PPC, near the junction of the anterior intraparietal sulcus and the postcentral sulcus, using MRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while subjects localized touches delivered to different fingers. As the touches were delivered, subjects viewed a congruent touch video, an incongruent touch video, or no video. Without TMS, a strong effect of multisensory integration was observed, with significantly better behavioral performance for discrimination of congruent multisensory touch than for unisensory touch alone. Incongruent multisensory touch produced a smaller improvement in behavioral performance. TMS of the PPC eliminated the behavioral advantage of both congruent and incongruent multisensory stimuli, reducing performance to unisensory levels. These results demonstrate a causal role for the PPC in visual–tactile multisensory integration. Taken together with converging evidence from other studies, these results support a model in which the PPC contains a map of space around the hand that receives input from both the visual and somatosensory modalities. Activity in this map is likely to be the neural substrate for visual–tactile multisensory integration. PMID:20584182

  5. Multisensory Processes: A Balancing Act across the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Murray, Micah M; Lewkowicz, David J; Amedi, Amir; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-08-01

    Multisensory processes are fundamental in scaffolding perception, cognition, learning, and behavior. How and when stimuli from different sensory modalities are integrated rather than treated as separate entities is poorly understood. We review how the relative reliance on stimulus characteristics versus learned associations dynamically shapes multisensory processes. We illustrate the dynamism in multisensory function across two timescales: one long term that operates across the lifespan and one short term that operates during the learning of new multisensory relations. In addition, we highlight the importance of task contingencies. We conclude that these highly dynamic multisensory processes, based on the relative weighting of stimulus characteristics and learned associations, provide both stability and flexibility to brain functions over a wide range of temporal scales. PMID:27282408

  6. Unifying multisensory signals across time and space.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M T; Roberson, G E; Hairston, W D; Stein, B E; Vaughan, J W; Schirillo, J A

    2004-09-01

    The brain integrates information from multiple sensory modalities and, through this process, generates a coherent and apparently seamless percept of the external world. Although multisensory integration typically binds information that is derived from the same event, when multisensory cues are somewhat discordant they can result in illusory percepts such as the "ventriloquism effect." These biases in stimulus localization are generally accompanied by the perceptual unification of the two stimuli. In the current study, we sought to further elucidate the relationship between localization biases, perceptual unification and measures of a participant's uncertainty in target localization (i.e., variability). Participants performed an auditory localization task in which they were also asked to report on whether they perceived the auditory and visual stimuli to be perceptually unified. The auditory and visual stimuli were delivered at a variety of spatial (0 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees ) and temporal (200, 500, 800 ms) disparities. Localization bias and reports of perceptual unity occurred even with substantial spatial (i.e., 15 degrees ) and temporal (i.e., 800 ms) disparities. Trial-by-trial comparison of these measures revealed a striking correlation: regardless of their disparity, whenever the auditory and visual stimuli were perceived as unified, they were localized at or very near the light. In contrast, when the stimuli were perceived as not unified, auditory localization was often biased away from the visual stimulus. Furthermore, localization variability was significantly less when the stimuli were perceived as unified. Intriguingly, on non-unity trials such variability increased with decreasing disparity. Together, these results suggest strong and potentially mechanistic links between the multiple facets of multisensory integration that contribute to our perceptual Gestalt. PMID:15112119

  7. The multisensory approach to birth and aromatherapy.

    PubMed

    Gutteridge, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way. PMID:24873114

  8. The question of simultaneity in multisensory integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Lynnette; McCourt, Mark E.

    2012-03-01

    Early reports of audiovisual (AV) multisensory integration (MI) indicated that unisensory stimuli must evoke simultaneous physiological responses to produce decreases in reaction time (RT) such that for unisensory stimuli with unequal RTs the stimulus eliciting the faster RT had to be delayed relative to the stimulus eliciting the slower RT. The "temporal rule" states that MI depends on the temporal proximity of unisensory stimuli, the neural responses to which must fall within a window of integration. Ecological validity demands that MI should occur only for simultaneous events (which may give rise to non-simultaneous neural activations). However, spurious neural response simultaneities which are unrelated to singular environmental multisensory occurrences must somehow be rejected. Using an RT/race model paradigm we measured AV MI as a function of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA: +/-200 ms, 50 ms intervals) under fully dark adapted conditions for visual (V) stimuli that were either weak (scotopic 525 nm flashes; 511 ms mean RT) or strong (photopic 630 nm flashes; 356 ms mean RT). Auditory (A) stimulus (1000 Hz pure tone) intensity was constant. Despite the 155 ms slower mean RT to the scotopic versus photopic stimulus, facilitative AV MI in both conditions nevertheless occurred exclusively at an SOA of 0 ms. Thus, facilitative MI demands both physical and physiological simultaneity. We consider the mechanisms by which the nervous system may take account of variations in response latency arising from changes in stimulus intensity in order to selectively integrate only those physiological simultaneities that arise from physical simultaneities.

  9. Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Michael J; Brown, David J; Pasqualotto, Achille; Meijer, Peter

    2014-04-01

    One of the most exciting recent findings in neuroscience has been the capacity for neural plasticity in adult humans and animals. Studies of perceptual learning have provided key insights into the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the changes in functional neuroanatomy that it affords. Key questions in this field of research concern how practice of a task leads to specific or general improvement. Although much of this work has been carried out with a focus on a single sensory modality, primarily visual, there is increasing interest in multisensory perceptual learning. Here we will examine how advances in perceptual learning research both inform and can be informed by the development and advancement of sensory substitution devices for blind persons. To allow 'sight' to occur in the absence of visual input through the eyes, visual information can be transformed by a sensory substitution device into a representation that can be processed as sound or touch, and thus give one the potential to 'see' through the ears or tongue. Investigations of auditory, visual and multisensory perceptual learning can have key benefits for the advancement of sensory substitution, and the study of sensory deprivation and sensory substitution likewise will further the understanding of perceptual learning in general and the reverse hierarchy theory in particular. It also has significant importance for the developing understanding of the brain in metamodal terms, where functional brain areas might be best defined by the computations they carry out rather than by their sensory-specific processing role. PMID:23220697

  10. Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Michael J; Brown, David J; Pasqualotto, Achille; Meijer, Peter

    2014-04-01

    One of the most exciting recent findings in neuroscience has been the capacity for neural plasticity in adult humans and animals. Studies of perceptual learning have provided key insights into the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the changes in functional neuroanatomy that it affords. Key questions in this field of research concern how practice of a task leads to specific or general improvement. Although much of this work has been carried out with a focus on a single sensory modality, primarily visual, there is increasing interest in multisensory perceptual learning. Here we will examine how advances in perceptual learning research both inform and can be informed by the development and advancement of sensory substitution devices for blind persons. To allow 'sight' to occur in the absence of visual input through the eyes, visual information can be transformed by a sensory substitution device into a representation that can be processed as sound or touch, and thus give one the potential to 'see' through the ears or tongue. Investigations of auditory, visual and multisensory perceptual learning can have key benefits for the advancement of sensory substitution, and the study of sensory deprivation and sensory substitution likewise will further the understanding of perceptual learning in general and the reverse hierarchy theory in particular. It also has significant importance for the developing understanding of the brain in metamodal terms, where functional brain areas might be best defined by the computations they carry out rather than by their sensory-specific processing role.

  11. Multisensory architectures for action-oriented perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba, L.; Arena, P.; De Fiore, S.; Listán, J.; Patané, L.; Salem, A.; Scordino, G.; Webb, B.

    2007-05-01

    In order to solve the navigation problem of a mobile robot in an unstructured environment a versatile sensory system and efficient locomotion control algorithms are necessary. In this paper an innovative sensory system for action-oriented perception applied to a legged robot is presented. An important problem we address is how to utilize a large variety and number of sensors, while having systems that can operate in real time. Our solution is to use sensory systems that incorporate analog and parallel processing, inspired by biological systems, to reduce the required data exchange with the motor control layer. In particular, as concerns the visual system, we use the Eye-RIS v1.1 board made by Anafocus, which is based on a fully parallel mixed-signal array sensor-processor chip. The hearing sensor is inspired by the cricket hearing system and allows efficient localization of a specific sound source with a very simple analog circuit. Our robot utilizes additional sensors for touch, posture, load, distance, and heading, and thus requires customized and parallel processing for concurrent acquisition. Therefore a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based hardware was used to manage the multi-sensory acquisition and processing. This choice was made because FPGAs permit the implementation of customized digital logic blocks that can operate in parallel allowing the sensors to be driven simultaneously. With this approach the multi-sensory architecture proposed can achieve real time capabilities.

  12. A model of the temporal dynamics of multisensory enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Benjamin A.; Stein, Barry E.

    2014-01-01

    The senses transduce different forms of environmental energy, and the brain synthesizes information across them to enhance responses to salient biological events. We hypothesize that the potency of multisensory integration is attributable to the convergence of independent and temporally aligned signals derived from cross-modal stimulus configurations onto multisensory neurons. The temporal profile of multisensory integration in neurons of the deep superior colliculus (SC) is consistent with this hypothesis. The responses of these neurons to visual, auditory, and combinations of visual–auditory stimuli reveal that multisensory integration takes place in real-time; that is, the input signals are integrated as soon as they arrive at the target neuron. Interactions between cross-modal signals may appear to reflect linear or nonlinear computations on a moment-by-moment basis, the aggregate of which determines the net product of multisensory integration. Modeling observations presented here suggest that the early nonlinear components of the temporal profile of multisensory integration can be explained with a simple spiking neuron model, and do not require more sophisticated assumptions about the underlying biology. A transition from nonlinear “super-additive” computation to linear, additive computation can be accomplished via scaled inhibition. The findings provide a set of design constraints for artificial implementations seeking to exploit the basic principles and potency of biological multisensory integration in contexts of sensory substitution or augmentation. PMID:24374382

  13. The effects of visual training on multisensory temporal processing.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Wilson, Magdalena M; Powers, Albert R; Wallace, Mark T

    2013-04-01

    The importance of multisensory integration for human behavior and perception is well documented, as is the impact that temporal synchrony has on driving such integration. Thus, the more temporally coincident two sensory inputs from different modalities are, the more likely they will be perceptually bound. This temporal integration process is captured by the construct of the temporal binding window-the range of temporal offsets within which an individual is able to perceptually bind inputs across sensory modalities. Recent work has shown that this window is malleable and can be narrowed via a multisensory perceptual feedback training process. In the current study, we seek to extend this by examining the malleability of the multisensory temporal binding window through changes in unisensory experience. Specifically, we measured the ability of visual perceptual feedback training to induce changes in the multisensory temporal binding window. Visual perceptual training with feedback successfully improved temporal visual processing, and more importantly, this visual training increased the temporal precision across modalities, which manifested as a narrowing of the multisensory temporal binding window. These results are the first to establish the ability of unisensory temporal training to modulate multisensory temporal processes, findings that can provide mechanistic insights into multisensory integration and which may have a host of practical applications.

  14. Neonatal cortical ablation disrupts multisensory development in superior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wan; Jiang, Huai; Stein, Barry E.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of cat superior colliculus (SC) neurons to synthesize information from different senses depends on influences from two areas of the cortex: the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES) and the rostral lateral suprasylvian sulcus (rLS). Reversibly deactivating the inputs to the SC from either of these areas in normal adults severely compromises this ability and the SC-mediated behaviors that depend on it. In the present study we found that removal of these areas in neonatal animals precluded the normal development of multisensory SC processes. At maturity there was a substantial decrease in the incidence of multisensory neurons, and those multisensory neurons that did develop were highly abnormal. Their cross-modal receptive field register was severely compromised, as was their ability to integrate cross-modal stimuli. Apparently, despite the impressive plasticity of the neonatal brain, it cannot compensate for the early loss of these cortices. Surprisingly, however, neonatal removal of either AES or rLS had comparatively minor consequences on these properties. At maturity multisensory SC neurons were quite common: they developed the characteristic spatial register among their unisensory receptive fields and exhibited normal adult-like multisensory integration. These observations suggest that during early ontogeny, when the multisensory properties of SC neurons are being crafted, AES and rLS may have the ability to compensate for the loss of one another’s cortico-collicular influences so that normal multisensory processes can develop in the SC. PMID:16267111

  15. The multisensory function of the human primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Murray, Micah M; Thelen, Antonia; Thut, Gregor; Romei, Vincenzo; Martuzzi, Roberto; Matusz, Pawel J

    2016-03-01

    It has been nearly 10 years since Ghazanfar and Schroeder (2006) proposed that the neocortex is essentially multisensory in nature. However, it is only recently that sufficient and hard evidence that supports this proposal has accrued. We review evidence that activity within the human primary visual cortex plays an active role in multisensory processes and directly impacts behavioural outcome. This evidence emerges from a full pallet of human brain imaging and brain mapping methods with which multisensory processes are quantitatively assessed by taking advantage of particular strengths of each technique as well as advances in signal analyses. Several general conclusions about multisensory processes in primary visual cortex of humans are supported relatively solidly. First, haemodynamic methods (fMRI/PET) show that there is both convergence and integration occurring within primary visual cortex. Second, primary visual cortex is involved in multisensory processes during early post-stimulus stages (as revealed by EEG/ERP/ERFs as well as TMS). Third, multisensory effects in primary visual cortex directly impact behaviour and perception, as revealed by correlational (EEG/ERPs/ERFs) as well as more causal measures (TMS/tACS). While the provocative claim of Ghazanfar and Schroeder (2006) that the whole of neocortex is multisensory in function has yet to be demonstrated, this can now be considered established in the case of the human primary visual cortex. PMID:26275965

  16. The multisensory brain and its ability to learn music.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Emily; Lahav, Amir

    2012-04-01

    Playing a musical instrument requires a complex skill set that depends on the brain's ability to quickly integrate information from multiple senses. It has been well documented that intensive musical training alters brain structure and function within and across multisensory brain regions, supporting the experience-dependent plasticity model. Here, we argue that this experience-dependent plasticity occurs because of the multisensory nature of the brain and may be an important contributing factor to musical learning. This review highlights key multisensory regions within the brain and discusses their role in the context of music learning and rehabilitation.

  17. On the relative contributions of multisensory integration and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention to multisensory response enhancement.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Spence, C; Nijboer, T C W; Van der Stigchel, S

    2015-11-01

    Two processes that can give rise to multisensory response enhancement (MRE) are multisensory integration (MSI) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention. It is, however, currently unclear what the relative contribution of each of these is to MRE. We investigated this issue using two tasks that are generally assumed to measure MSI (a redundant target effect task) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention (a spatial cueing task). One block of trials consisted of unimodal auditory and visual targets designed to provide a unimodal baseline. In two other blocks of trials, the participants were presented with spatially and temporally aligned and misaligned audiovisual (AV) targets (0, 50, 100, and 200ms SOA). In the integration block, the participants were instructed to respond to the onset of the first target stimulus that they detected (A or V). The instruction for the cueing block was to respond only to the onset of the visual targets. The targets could appear at one of three locations: left, center, and right. The participants were instructed to respond only to lateral targets. The results indicated that MRE was caused by MSI at 0ms SOA. At 50ms SOA, both crossmodal exogenous spatial attention and MSI contributed to the observed MRE, whereas the MRE observed at the 100 and 200ms SOAs was attributable to crossmodal exogenous spatial attention, alerting, and temporal preparation. These results therefore suggest that there may be a temporal window in which both MSI and exogenous crossmodal spatial attention can contribute to multisensory response enhancement.

  18. On the relative contributions of multisensory integration and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention to multisensory response enhancement.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Spence, C; Nijboer, T C W; Van der Stigchel, S

    2015-11-01

    Two processes that can give rise to multisensory response enhancement (MRE) are multisensory integration (MSI) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention. It is, however, currently unclear what the relative contribution of each of these is to MRE. We investigated this issue using two tasks that are generally assumed to measure MSI (a redundant target effect task) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention (a spatial cueing task). One block of trials consisted of unimodal auditory and visual targets designed to provide a unimodal baseline. In two other blocks of trials, the participants were presented with spatially and temporally aligned and misaligned audiovisual (AV) targets (0, 50, 100, and 200ms SOA). In the integration block, the participants were instructed to respond to the onset of the first target stimulus that they detected (A or V). The instruction for the cueing block was to respond only to the onset of the visual targets. The targets could appear at one of three locations: left, center, and right. The participants were instructed to respond only to lateral targets. The results indicated that MRE was caused by MSI at 0ms SOA. At 50ms SOA, both crossmodal exogenous spatial attention and MSI contributed to the observed MRE, whereas the MRE observed at the 100 and 200ms SOAs was attributable to crossmodal exogenous spatial attention, alerting, and temporal preparation. These results therefore suggest that there may be a temporal window in which both MSI and exogenous crossmodal spatial attention can contribute to multisensory response enhancement. PMID:26436587

  19. Multisensory processing in review: from physiology to behaviour.

    PubMed

    Alais, David; Newell, Fiona N; Mamassian, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Research in multisensory processes has exploded over the last decade. Tremendous advances have been made in a variety of fields from single-unit neural recordings and functional brain imaging through to behaviour, perception and cognition. These diverse approaches have highlighted how the senses work together to produce a coherent multimodal representation of the external world that enables us to function better by exploiting the redundancies and complementarities provided by multiple sensory modalities. With large numbers of new students and researchers being attracted to multisensory research, and the multi-disciplinary nature of the work, our aim in this review is to provide an overview of multisensory processing that includes all fields in a single review. Our intention is to provide a comprehensive source for those interested in learning about multisensory processes, covering a variety of sensory combinations and methodologies, and tracing the path from single-unit neurophysiology through to perception and cognitive functions such as attention and speech.

  20. Reduced multisensory facilitation in persons with autism.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Olivier; Charbonneau, Geneviève; Peters, Frédéric; Nassim, Marouane; Lassonde, Maryse; Lepore, Franco; Mottron, Laurent; Bertone, Armando

    2013-06-01

    Although the literature concerning auditory and visual perceptual capabilities in the autism spectrum is growing, our understanding of multisensory integration (MSI) is rather limited. In the present study, we assessed MSI in autism by measuring whether participants benefited from an auditory cue presented in synchrony with the color change of a target during a complex visual search task. The synchronous auditory pip typically increases search efficacy (pip and pop effect), indicative of the beneficial use of sensory input from both modalities. We found that for conditions without auditory information, autistic participants were better at visual search compared to neurotypical participants. Importantly, search efficiency was increased by the presence of auditory pip for neurotypical participants only. The simultaneous occurrence of superior unimodal performance with altered audio-visual integration in autism suggests autonomous sensory processing in this population.

  1. Multisensory integration during short-term music reading training enhances both uni- and multisensory cortical processing.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2014-10-01

    The human ability to integrate the input of several sensory systems is essential for building a meaningful interpretation out of the complexity of the environment. Training studies have shown that the involvement of multiple senses during training enhances neuroplasticity, but it is not clear to what extent integration of the senses during training is required for the observed effects. This study intended to elucidate the differential contributions of uni- and multisensory elements of music reading training in the resulting plasticity of abstract audiovisual incongruency identification. We used magnetoencephalography to measure the pre- and posttraining cortical responses of two randomly assigned groups of participants that followed either an audiovisual music reading training that required multisensory integration (AV-Int group) or a unisensory training that had separate auditory and visual elements (AV-Sep group). Results revealed a network of frontal generators for the abstract audiovisual incongruency response, confirming previous findings, and indicated the central role of anterior prefrontal cortex in this process. Differential neuroplastic effects of the two types of training in frontal and temporal regions point to the crucial role of multisensory integration occurring during training. Moreover, a comparison of the posttraining cortical responses of both groups to a group of musicians that were tested using the same paradigm revealed that long-term music training leads to significantly greater responses than the short-term training of the AV-Int group in anterior prefrontal regions as well as to significantly greater responses than both short-term training protocols in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG).

  2. Interactions between space and effectiveness in human multisensory performance.

    PubMed

    Nidiffer, Aaron R; Stevenson, Ryan A; Krueger Fister, Juliane; Barnett, Zachary P; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-07-29

    Several stimulus factors are important in multisensory integration, including the spatial and temporal relationships of the paired stimuli as well as their effectiveness. Changes in these factors have been shown to dramatically change the nature and magnitude of multisensory interactions. Typically, these factors are considered in isolation, although there is a growing appreciation for the fact that they are likely to be strongly interrelated. Here, we examined interactions between two of these factors - spatial location and effectiveness - in dictating performance in the localization of an audiovisual target. A psychophysical experiment was conducted in which participants reported the perceived location of visual flashes and auditory noise bursts presented alone and in combination. Stimuli were presented at four spatial locations relative to fixation (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°) and at two intensity levels (high, low). Multisensory combinations were always spatially coincident and of the matching intensity (high-high or low-low). In responding to visual stimuli alone, localization accuracy decreased and response times (RTs) increased as stimuli were presented at more eccentric locations. In responding to auditory stimuli, performance was poorest at the 30° and 60° locations. For both visual and auditory stimuli, accuracy was greater and RTs were faster for more intense stimuli. For responses to visual-auditory stimulus combinations, performance enhancements were found at locations in which the unisensory performance was lowest, results concordant with the concept of inverse effectiveness. RTs for these multisensory presentations frequently violated race-model predictions, implying integration of these inputs, and a significant location-by-intensity interaction was observed. Performance gains under multisensory conditions were larger as stimuli were positioned at more peripheral locations, and this increase was most pronounced for the low-intensity conditions. These

  3. Interactions between space and effectiveness in human multisensory performance.

    PubMed

    Nidiffer, Aaron R; Stevenson, Ryan A; Krueger Fister, Juliane; Barnett, Zachary P; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-07-29

    Several stimulus factors are important in multisensory integration, including the spatial and temporal relationships of the paired stimuli as well as their effectiveness. Changes in these factors have been shown to dramatically change the nature and magnitude of multisensory interactions. Typically, these factors are considered in isolation, although there is a growing appreciation for the fact that they are likely to be strongly interrelated. Here, we examined interactions between two of these factors - spatial location and effectiveness - in dictating performance in the localization of an audiovisual target. A psychophysical experiment was conducted in which participants reported the perceived location of visual flashes and auditory noise bursts presented alone and in combination. Stimuli were presented at four spatial locations relative to fixation (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°) and at two intensity levels (high, low). Multisensory combinations were always spatially coincident and of the matching intensity (high-high or low-low). In responding to visual stimuli alone, localization accuracy decreased and response times (RTs) increased as stimuli were presented at more eccentric locations. In responding to auditory stimuli, performance was poorest at the 30° and 60° locations. For both visual and auditory stimuli, accuracy was greater and RTs were faster for more intense stimuli. For responses to visual-auditory stimulus combinations, performance enhancements were found at locations in which the unisensory performance was lowest, results concordant with the concept of inverse effectiveness. RTs for these multisensory presentations frequently violated race-model predictions, implying integration of these inputs, and a significant location-by-intensity interaction was observed. Performance gains under multisensory conditions were larger as stimuli were positioned at more peripheral locations, and this increase was most pronounced for the low-intensity conditions. These

  4. Multisensory Integration, Aging, and the Sound-Induced Flash Illusion

    PubMed Central

    DeLoss, Denton J.; Pierce, Russell S.; Andersen, George J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in multisensory integration and the role of attention in age-related differences in multisensory integration. The sound-induced flash illusion---the misperception of the number of visual flashes due to the simultaneous presentation of a different number of auditory beeps---was used to examine the strength of multisensory integration in older and younger observers. The effects of integration were examined when discriminating 1–3 flashes, 1–3 beeps, or 1–3 flashes presented with 1–3 beeps. Stimulus conditions were blocked according to these conditions, with baseline (unisensory) performance assessed during the multisensory block. Older participants demonstrated greater multisensory integration--a greater influence of the beeps when judging the number of visual flashes--than younger observers. In a second experiment, the role of attention was assessed using a go/no-go paradigm. The results of Experiment 2 replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, the strength of the illusion was modulated by the sensory domain of the go/no-go task, though this did not differ by age group. In the visual go/no-go task we found a decrease in the illusion, while in the auditory go/no-go task we found an increase in the illusion. These results demonstrate that older individuals exhibit increased multisensory integration compared to younger individuals. Attention was also found to modulate the strength of the sound-induced flash illusion. However, the results also suggest that attention was not likely to be a factor in the age-related differences in multisensory integration. PMID:23978009

  5. Correlation versus causation in multisensory perception.

    PubMed

    Mitterer, Holger; Jesse, Alexandra

    2010-06-01

    Events are often perceived in multiple modalities. The co-occurring proximal visual and auditory stimuli events are mostly also causally linked to the distal event, which makes it difficult to evaluate whether learned correlation or perceived causation guides binding in multisensory perception. Piano tones are an interesting exception: They are associated with the act of the pianist striking keys, an event that is visible to the perceiver, but directly results from hammers hitting strings, an event that typically is not visible to the perceiver. We examined the influence of seeing the hammer or the keystroke on auditory temporal order judgments (TOJs). Participants judged the temporal order of a dog bark and a piano tone, while seeing the piano stroke shifted temporally relative to its audio signal. Visual lead increased "piano-first" responses in auditory TOJ, but more so if the associated keystroke was visible than if the sound-producing hammer was visible, even though both were equally visually salient. This provides evidence for a learning account of audiovisual perception. PMID:20551354

  6. How prior expectations shape multisensory perception.

    PubMed

    Gau, Remi; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-01-01

    The brain generates a representation of our environment by integrating signals from a common source, but segregating signals from different sources. This fMRI study investigated how the brain arbitrates between perceptual integration and segregation based on top-down congruency expectations and bottom-up stimulus-bound congruency cues. Participants were presented audiovisual movies of phonologically congruent, incongruent or McGurk syllables that can be integrated into an illusory percept (e.g. "ti" percept for visual «ki» with auditory /pi/). They reported the syllable they perceived. Critically, we manipulated participants' top-down congruency expectations by presenting McGurk stimuli embedded in blocks of congruent or incongruent syllables. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to fuse audiovisual signals into an illusory McGurk percept in congruent than incongruent contexts. At the neural level, the left inferior frontal sulcus (lIFS) showed increased activations for bottom-up incongruent relative to congruent inputs. Moreover, lIFS activations were increased for physically identical McGurk stimuli, when participants segregated the audiovisual signals and reported their auditory percept. Critically, this activation increase for perceptual segregation was amplified when participants expected audiovisually incongruent signals based on prior sensory experience. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the lIFS combines top-down prior (in)congruency expectations with bottom-up (in)congruency cues to arbitrate between multisensory integration and segregation.

  7. Development of multisensory reweighting for posture control in children.

    PubMed

    Bair, Woei-Nan; Kiemel, Tim; Jeka, John J; Clark, Jane E

    2007-12-01

    Reweighting to multisensory inputs adaptively contributes to stable and flexible upright stance control. However, few studies have examined how early a child develops multisensory reweighting ability, or how this ability develops through childhood. The purpose of the study was to characterize a developmental landscape of multisensory reweighting for upright postural control in children 4-10 years of age. Children were presented with simultaneous small-amplitude somatosensory and visual environmental movement at 0.28 and 0.2 Hz, respectively, within five conditions that independently varied the amplitude of the stimuli. The primary measure was body sway amplitude relative to each stimulus: touch gain and vision gain. We found that children can reweight to multisensory inputs from 4 years on. Specifically, intra-modal reweighting was exhibited by children as young as 4 years of age; however, inter-modal reweighting was only observed in the older children. The amount of reweighting increased with age indicating development of a better adaptive ability. Our results rigorously demonstrate the development of simultaneous reweighting to two sensory inputs for postural control in children. The present results provide further evidence that the development of multisensory reweighting contributes to more stable and flexible control of upright stance, which ultimately serves as the foundation for functional behaviors such as locomotion and reaching.

  8. Convergent approaches toward the study of multisensory perception

    PubMed Central

    Sarko, Diana K.; Ghose, Dipanwita; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Classical analytical approaches for examining multisensory processing in individual neurons have relied heavily on changes in mean firing rate to assess the presence and magnitude of multisensory interaction. However, neurophysiological studies within individual sensory systems have illustrated that important sensory and perceptual information is encoded in forms that go beyond these traditional spike-based measures. Here we review analytical tools as they are used within individual sensory systems (auditory, somatosensory, and visual) to advance our understanding of how sensory cues are effectively integrated across modalities (e.g., audiovisual cues facilitating speech processing). Specifically, we discuss how methods used to assess response variability (Fano factor, or FF), local field potentials (LFPs), current source density (CSD), oscillatory coherence, spike synchrony, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) represent particularly promising tools for understanding the neural encoding of multisensory stimulus features. The utility of each approach and how it might optimally be applied toward understanding multisensory processing is placed within the context of exciting new data that is just beginning to be generated. Finally, we address how underlying encoding mechanisms might shape—and be tested alongside with—the known behavioral and perceptual benefits that accompany multisensory processing. PMID:24265607

  9. Multisensory simultaneity judgment and proximity to the body

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Jean-Paul; Łukowska, Marta; Wallace, Mark; Serino, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The integration of information across different sensory modalities is known to be dependent upon the statistical characteristics of the stimuli to be combined. For example, the spatial and temporal proximity of stimuli are important determinants with stimuli that are close in space and time being more likely to be bound. These multisensory interactions occur not only for singular points in space/time, but over “windows” of space and time that likely relate to the ecological statistics of real-world stimuli. Relatedly, human psychophysical work has demonstrated that individuals are highly prone to judge multisensory stimuli as co-occurring over a wide range of time—a so-called simultaneity window (SW). Similarly, there exists a spatial representation of peripersonal space (PPS) surrounding the body in which stimuli related to the body and to external events occurring near the body are highly likely to be jointly processed. In the current study, we sought to examine the interaction between these temporal and spatial dimensions of multisensory representation by measuring the SW for audiovisual stimuli through proximal–distal space (i.e., PPS and extrapersonal space). Results demonstrate that the audiovisual SWs within PPS are larger than outside PPS. In addition, we suggest that this effect is likely due to an automatic and additional computation of these multisensory events in a body-centered reference frame. We discuss the current findings in terms of the spatiotemporal constraints of multisensory interactions and the implication of distinct reference frames on this process. PMID:26891828

  10. Creating Multisensory Environments: Practical Ideas for Teaching and Learning. David Fulton/Nasen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Multi-sensory environments in the classroom provide a wealth of stimulating learning experiences for all young children whose senses are still under development. "Creating Multisensory Environments: Practical Ideas for Teaching and Learning" is a highly practical guide to low-cost cost, easy to assemble multi-sensory environments. With a…

  11. Multisensory integration in complete unawareness: evidence from audiovisual congruency priming.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Schwartz, Naama; Koch, Christof

    2014-11-01

    Multisensory integration is thought to require conscious perception. Although previous studies have shown that an invisible stimulus could be integrated with an audible one, none have demonstrated integration of two subliminal stimuli of different modalities. Here, pairs of identical or different audiovisual target letters (the sound /b/ with the written letter "b" or "m," respectively) were preceded by pairs of masked identical or different audiovisual prime digits (the sound /6/ with the written digit "6" or "8," respectively). In three experiments, awareness of the audiovisual digit primes was manipulated, such that participants were either unaware of the visual digit, the auditory digit, or both. Priming of the semantic relations between the auditory and visual digits was found in all experiments. Moreover, a further experiment showed that unconscious multisensory integration was not obtained when participants did not undergo prior conscious training of the task. This suggests that following conscious learning, unconscious processing suffices for multisensory integration. PMID:25269620

  12. Multisensory information boosts numerical matching abilities in young children.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kerry E; Baker, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the first evidence that preschool children perform more accurately in a numerical matching task when given multisensory rather than unisensory information about number. Three- to 5-year-old children learned to play a numerical matching game on a touchscreen computer, which asked them to match a sample numerosity with a numerically equivalent choice numerosity. Samples consisted of a series of visual squares on some trials, a series of auditory tones on other trials, and synchronized squares and tones on still other trials. Children performed at chance on this matching task when provided with either type of unisensory sample, but improved significantly when provided with multisensory samples. There was no speed–accuracy tradeoff between unisensory and multisensory trial types. Thus, these findings suggest that intersensory redundancy may improve young children’s abilities to match numerosities.

  13. Voluntary initiation of movement: multifunctional integration of subjective agency

    PubMed Central

    Grüneberg, Patrick; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates subjective agency (SA) as a special type of efficacious action consciousness. Our central claims are, firstly, that SA is a conscious act of voluntarily initiating bodily motion. Secondly, we argue that SA is a case of multifunctional integration of behavioral functions being analogous to multisensory integration of sensory modalities. This is based on new perspectives on the initiation of action opened up by recent advancements in robot assisted neuro-rehabilitation which depends on the active participation of the patient and yields experimental evidence that there is SA in terms of a conscious act of voluntarily initiating bodily motion (phenomenal performance). Conventionally, action consciousness has been considered as a sense of agency (SoA). According to this view, the conscious subject merely echoes motor performance and does not cause bodily motion. Depending on sensory input, SoA is implemented by means of unifunctional integration (binding) and inevitably results in non-efficacious action consciousness. In contrast, SA comes as a phenomenal performance which causes motion and builds on multifunctional integration. Therefore, the common conception of the brain should be shifted toward multifunctional integration in order to allow for efficacious action consciousness. For this purpose, we suggest the heterarchic principle of asymmetric reciprocity and neural operators underlying SA. The general idea is that multifunctional integration allows conscious acts to be simultaneously implemented with motor behavior so that the resulting behavior (SA) comes as efficacious action consciousness. Regarding the neural implementation, multifunctional integration rather relies on operators than on modular functions. A robotic case study and possible experimental setups with testable hypotheses building on SA are presented. PMID:26052308

  14. Voluntary initiation of movement: multifunctional integration of subjective agency.

    PubMed

    Grüneberg, Patrick; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates subjective agency (SA) as a special type of efficacious action consciousness. Our central claims are, firstly, that SA is a conscious act of voluntarily initiating bodily motion. Secondly, we argue that SA is a case of multifunctional integration of behavioral functions being analogous to multisensory integration of sensory modalities. This is based on new perspectives on the initiation of action opened up by recent advancements in robot assisted neuro-rehabilitation which depends on the active participation of the patient and yields experimental evidence that there is SA in terms of a conscious act of voluntarily initiating bodily motion (phenomenal performance). Conventionally, action consciousness has been considered as a sense of agency (SoA). According to this view, the conscious subject merely echoes motor performance and does not cause bodily motion. Depending on sensory input, SoA is implemented by means of unifunctional integration (binding) and inevitably results in non-efficacious action consciousness. In contrast, SA comes as a phenomenal performance which causes motion and builds on multifunctional integration. Therefore, the common conception of the brain should be shifted toward multifunctional integration in order to allow for efficacious action consciousness. For this purpose, we suggest the heterarchic principle of asymmetric reciprocity and neural operators underlying SA. The general idea is that multifunctional integration allows conscious acts to be simultaneously implemented with motor behavior so that the resulting behavior (SA) comes as efficacious action consciousness. Regarding the neural implementation, multifunctional integration rather relies on operators than on modular functions. A robotic case study and possible experimental setups with testable hypotheses building on SA are presented.

  15. Voluntary initiation of movement: multifunctional integration of subjective agency.

    PubMed

    Grüneberg, Patrick; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates subjective agency (SA) as a special type of efficacious action consciousness. Our central claims are, firstly, that SA is a conscious act of voluntarily initiating bodily motion. Secondly, we argue that SA is a case of multifunctional integration of behavioral functions being analogous to multisensory integration of sensory modalities. This is based on new perspectives on the initiation of action opened up by recent advancements in robot assisted neuro-rehabilitation which depends on the active participation of the patient and yields experimental evidence that there is SA in terms of a conscious act of voluntarily initiating bodily motion (phenomenal performance). Conventionally, action consciousness has been considered as a sense of agency (SoA). According to this view, the conscious subject merely echoes motor performance and does not cause bodily motion. Depending on sensory input, SoA is implemented by means of unifunctional integration (binding) and inevitably results in non-efficacious action consciousness. In contrast, SA comes as a phenomenal performance which causes motion and builds on multifunctional integration. Therefore, the common conception of the brain should be shifted toward multifunctional integration in order to allow for efficacious action consciousness. For this purpose, we suggest the heterarchic principle of asymmetric reciprocity and neural operators underlying SA. The general idea is that multifunctional integration allows conscious acts to be simultaneously implemented with motor behavior so that the resulting behavior (SA) comes as efficacious action consciousness. Regarding the neural implementation, multifunctional integration rather relies on operators than on modular functions. A robotic case study and possible experimental setups with testable hypotheses building on SA are presented. PMID:26052308

  16. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  17. Accelerating Early Language Development with Multi-Sensory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorn, Piia M.; Kakkuri, Irma; Karvonen, Pirkko; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a multi-sensory intervention on infant language skills. A programme titled "Rhyming Game and Exercise Club", which included kinaesthetic-tactile mother-child rhyming games performed in natural joint attention situations, was intended to accelerate Finnish six- to eight-month-old infants' language development. The…

  18. Multisensory Information Boosts Numerical Matching Abilities in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; Baker, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the first evidence that preschool children perform more accurately in a numerical matching task when given multisensory rather than unisensory information about number. Three- to 5-year-old children learned to play a numerical matching game on a touchscreen computer, which asked them to match a sample numerosity with a…

  19. Early Visual Deprivation Alters Multisensory Processing in Peripersonal Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collignon, Olivier; Charbonneau, Genevieve; Lassonde, Maryse; Lepore, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Multisensory peripersonal space develops in a maturational process that is thought to be influenced by early sensory experience. We investigated the role of vision in the effective development of audiotactile interactions in peripersonal space. Early blind (EB), late blind (LB) and sighted control (SC) participants were asked to lateralize…

  20. Multisensory Emplaced Learning: Resituating Situated Learning in a Moving World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fors, Vaike; Backstrom, Asa; Pink, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the implications of a theory of "sensory-emplaced learning" for understanding the interrelationships between the embodied and environmental in learning processes. Understanding learning as multisensory and contingent within everyday place-events, this framework analytically describes how people establish themselves…

  1. Multisensory Emplaced Learning: Resituating Situated Learning in a Moving World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fors, Vaike; Backstrom, Asa; Pink, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the implications of a theory of "sensory-emplaced learning" for understanding the interrelationships between the embodied and environmental in learning processes. Understanding learning as multisensory and contingent within everyday place-events, this framework analytically describes how people establish themselves as…

  2. Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birsh, Judith R., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As new research shows how effective systematic and explicit teaching of language-based skills is for students with learning disabilities--along with the added benefits of multisensory techniques--discover the latest on this popular teaching approach with the third edition of this bestselling textbook. Adopted by colleges and universities across…

  3. Multisensory Speech Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Kwakye, Leslie D.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Stevenson, Ryan A.; Stone, Wendy L.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined unisensory and multisensory speech perception in 8-17 year old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing controls matched on chronological age, sex, and IQ. Consonant-vowel syllables were presented in visual only, auditory only, matched audiovisual, and mismatched audiovisual ("McGurk")…

  4. Detection of Iberian ham aroma by a semiconductor multisensorial system.

    PubMed

    Otero, Laura; Horrillo, M A Carmen; García, María; Sayago, Isabel; Aleixandre, Manuel; Fernández, M A Jesús; Arés, Luis; Gutiérrez, Javier

    2003-11-01

    A semiconductor multisensorial system, based on tin oxide, to control the quality of dry-cured Iberian hams is described. Two types of ham (submitted to different drying temperatures) were selected. Good responses were obtained from the 12 elements forming the multisensor for different operating temperatures. Discrimination between the two types of ham was successfully realised through principal component analysis (PCA). PMID:22063700

  5. Multisensory Integration Affects Visuo-Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botta, Fabiano; Santangelo, Valerio; Raffone, Antonino; Sanabria, Daniel; Lupianez, Juan; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate how spatial attention, driven by unisensory and multisensory cues, can bias the access of information into visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). In a series of four experiments, we compared the effectiveness of spatially-nonpredictive visual, auditory, or audiovisual cues in capturing participants' spatial…

  6. Evidence for Diminished Multisensory Integration in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Siemann, Justin K.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit alterations in sensory processing, including changes in the integration of information across the different sensory modalities. In the current study, we used the sound-induced flash illusion to assess multisensory integration in children with ASD and typically-developing (TD) controls.…

  7. Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birsh, Judith R., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    For students with dyslexia and other learning disabilities--and for their peers--creative teaching methods that use two or more senses can dramatically improve language skills and academic outcomes. That is why every current and future educator needs the second edition of this definitive guide to multisensory teaching. A core text for a variety of…

  8. Detection of Iberian ham aroma by a semiconductor multisensorial system.

    PubMed

    Otero, Laura; Horrillo, M A Carmen; García, María; Sayago, Isabel; Aleixandre, Manuel; Fernández, M A Jesús; Arés, Luis; Gutiérrez, Javier

    2003-11-01

    A semiconductor multisensorial system, based on tin oxide, to control the quality of dry-cured Iberian hams is described. Two types of ham (submitted to different drying temperatures) were selected. Good responses were obtained from the 12 elements forming the multisensor for different operating temperatures. Discrimination between the two types of ham was successfully realised through principal component analysis (PCA).

  9. Bringing Art to Life through Multi-Sensory Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodek, Wendy L.

    2012-01-01

    Learning occurs in myriad ways yet most art museums remain wedded to visual instruction. Adult visitors touring the galleries are offered audio guides or lecture style tours to complement the visual but are there other ways to enhance learning? This article reports on a case study that found that active, multi-sensory experiences in art museums…

  10. Multisensory Public Access Catalogs on CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Nancy; Murphy, Brower

    1987-01-01

    BiblioFile Intelligent Catalog is a CD-ROM-based public access catalog system which incorporates graphics and sound to provide a multisensory interface and artificial intelligence techniques to increase search precision. The system can be updated frequently and inexpensively by linking hard disk drives to CD-ROM optical drives. (MES)

  11. Multifunctionality in molecular magnetism.

    PubMed

    Pinkowicz, Dawid; Czarnecki, Bernard; Reczyński, Mateusz; Arczyński, Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    Molecular magnetism draws from the fundamental ideas of structural chemistry and combines them with experimental physics resulting in one of the highest profile current topics, namely molecular materials that exhibit multifunctionality. Recent advances in the design of new generations of multifunctional molecular magnets that retain the functions of the building blocks and exhibit non-trivial magnetic properties at higher temperatures provide promising evidence that they may be useful for the future construction of nanoscale devices. This article is not a complete review but is rather an introduction into thefascinating world of multifunctional solids with magnetism as the leitmotif. We provide a subjective selection and discussion of the most inspiring examples of multifunctional molecular magnets: magnetic sponges, guest-responsive magnets, molecular magnets with ionic conductivity, photomagnets and non-centrosymmetric and chiral magnets.

  12. Multifunctional cellulase and hemicellulase

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Brian G.; Takasuka, Taichi; Bianchetti, Christopher M.

    2015-09-29

    A multifunctional polypeptide capable of hydrolyzing cellulosic materials, xylan, and mannan is disclosed. The polypeptide includes the catalytic core (cc) of Clostridium thermocellum Cthe_0797 (CelE), the cellulose-specific carbohydrate-binding module CBM3 of the cellulosome anchoring protein cohesion region (CipA) of Clostridium thermocellum (CBM3a), and a linker region interposed between the catalytic core and the cellulose-specific carbohydrate binding module. Methods of using the multifunctional polypeptide are also disclosed.

  13. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOEpatents

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  14. Connections of Auditory and Visual Cortex in the Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster): Evidence for Multisensory Processing in Primary Sensory Areas

    PubMed Central

    Campi, Katharine L.; Bales, Karen L.; Grunewald, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In prairie voles, primary sensory areas are dominated by neurons that respond to one sensory modality, but some neurons also respond to stimulation of other modalities. To reveal the anatomical substrate for these multimodal responses, we examined the connections of the primary auditory area + the anterior auditory field (A1 + AAF), the temporal anterior area (TA), and the primary visual area (V1). A1 + AAF had intrinsic connections and connections with TA, multimodal cortex (MM), V1, and primary somatosensory area (S1). TA had intrinsic connections and connections with A1 + AAF, MM, and V2. Callosal connections were observed in homotopic locations in auditory cortex for both fields. A1 + AAF and TA receive thalamic input primarily from divisions of the medial geniculate nucleus but also from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd), the lateral posterior nucleus, and the ventral posterior nucleus (VP). V1 had dense intrinsic connections and connections with V2, MM, auditory cortex, pyriform cortex (Pyr), and, in some cases, somatosensory cortex. V1 had interhemispheric connections with V1, V2, MM, S1, and Pyr and received thalamic input from LGd and VP. Our results indicate that multisensory integration occurs in primary sensory areas of the prairie vole cortex, and this may be related to behavioral specializations associated with its niche. PMID:19395525

  15. Connections of auditory and visual cortex in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster): evidence for multisensory processing in primary sensory areas.

    PubMed

    Campi, Katharine L; Bales, Karen L; Grunewald, Rebecca; Krubitzer, Leah

    2010-01-01

    In prairie voles, primary sensory areas are dominated by neurons that respond to one sensory modality, but some neurons also respond to stimulation of other modalities. To reveal the anatomical substrate for these multimodal responses, we examined the connections of the primary auditory area + the anterior auditory field (A1 + AAF), the temporal anterior area (TA), and the primary visual area (V1). A1 + AAF had intrinsic connections and connections with TA, multimodal cortex (MM), V1, and primary somatosensory area (S1). TA had intrinsic connections and connections with A1 + AAF, MM, and V2. Callosal connections were observed in homotopic locations in auditory cortex for both fields. A1 + AAF and TA receive thalamic input primarily from divisions of the medial geniculate nucleus but also from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd), the lateral posterior nucleus, and the ventral posterior nucleus (VP). V1 had dense intrinsic connections and connections with V2, MM, auditory cortex, pyriform cortex (Pyr), and, in some cases, somatosensory cortex. V1 had interhemispheric connections with V1, V2, MM, S1, and Pyr and received thalamic input from LGd and VP. Our results indicate that multisensory integration occurs in primary sensory areas of the prairie vole cortex, and this may be related to behavioral specializations associated with its niche. PMID:19395525

  16. Verbal and novel multisensory associative learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Crewther, Sheila G

    2013-01-01

    To date, few studies have focused on the behavioural differences between the learning of multisensory auditory-visual and intra-modal associations. More specifically, the relative benefits of novel auditory-visual and verbal-visual associations for learning have not been directly compared. In Experiment 1, 20 adult volunteers completed three paired associate learning tasks: non-verbal novel auditory-visual (novel-AV), verbal-visual (verbal-AV; using pseudowords), and visual-visual (shape-VV). Participants were directed to make a motor response to matching novel and arbitrarily related stimulus pairs. Feedback was provided to facilitate trial and error learning. The results of Signal Detection Theory analyses suggested a multisensory enhancement of learning, with significantly higher discriminability measures (d-prime) in both the novel-AV and verbal-AV tasks than the shape-VV task. Motor reaction times were also significantly faster during the verbal-AV task than during the non-verbal learning tasks.  Experiment 2 (n = 12) used a forced-choice discrimination paradigm to assess whether a difference in unisensory stimulus discriminability could account for the learning trends in Experiment 1. Participants were significantly slower at discriminating unisensory pseudowords than the novel sounds and visual shapes, which was notable given that these stimuli produced superior learning. Together the findings suggest that verbal information has an added enhancing effect on multisensory associative learning in adults PMID:24627770

  17. Convergence of multisensory inputs in the Xenopus tadpole tectum

    PubMed Central

    Hiramoto, Masateru; Cline, Hollis

    2010-01-01

    The integration of multisensory information takes place in the optic tectum where visual and auditory/mechanosensory inputs converge and regulate motor outputs. The circuits which integrate multisensory information are poorly understood. In an effort to identify the basic components of a multisensory integrative circuit, we determined the projections of the mechanosensory input from the periphery to the optic tectum and compared their distribution to the retinotectal inputs in Xenopus laevis tadpoles using dye-labelling methods. The peripheral ganglia of the lateral line system project to the ipsilateral hindbrain and the axons representing mechanosensory inputs along the anterior/posterior body axis are mapped along the ventrodorsal axis in the axon tract in the dorsal column of the hindbrain. Hindbrain neurons project axons to the contralateral optic tectum. The neurons from anterior and posterior hindbrain regions project axons to the dorsal and ventral tectum, respectively. While the retinotectal axons project to a superficial lamina in the tectal neuropil, the hindbrain axons project to a deep neuropil layer. Calcium imaging showed that multimodal inputs converge on tectal neurons. The layer specific projections of the hindbrain and retinal axons suggest a functional segregation of sensory inputs to proximal and distal tectal cell dendrites, respectively. PMID:19813244

  18. Neuroscience robotics to investigate multisensory integration and bodily awareness.

    PubMed

    Duenas, J; Chapuis, D; Pfeiffer, C; Martuzzi, R; Ionta, S; Blanke, O; Gassert, R

    2011-01-01

    Humans experience the self as localized within their body. This aspect of bodily self-consciousness can be experimentally manipulated by exposing individuals to conflicting multisensory input, or can be abnormal following focal brain injury. Recent technological developments helped to unravel some of the mechanisms underlying multisensory integration and self-location, but the neural underpinnings are still under investigation, and the manual application of stimuli resulted in large variability difficult to control. This paper presents the development and evaluation of an MR-compatible stroking device capable of presenting moving tactile stimuli to both legs and the back of participants lying on a scanner bed while acquiring functional neuroimaging data. The platform consists of four independent stroking devices with a travel of 16-20 cm and a maximum stroking velocity of 15 cm/s, actuated over non-magnetic ultrasonic motors. Complemented with virtual reality, this setup provides a unique research platform allowing to investigate multisensory integration and its effects on self-location under well-controlled experimental conditions. The MR-compatibility of the system was evaluated in both a 3 and a 7 Tesla scanner and showed negligible interference with brain imaging. In a preliminary study using a prototype device with only one tactile stimulator, fMRI data acquired on 12 healthy participants showed visuo-tactile synchrony-related and body-specific modulations of the brain activity in bilateral temporoparietal cortex.

  19. Neuroscience robotics to investigate multisensory integration and bodily awareness.

    PubMed

    Duenas, J; Chapuis, D; Pfeiffer, C; Martuzzi, R; Ionta, S; Blanke, O; Gassert, R

    2011-01-01

    Humans experience the self as localized within their body. This aspect of bodily self-consciousness can be experimentally manipulated by exposing individuals to conflicting multisensory input, or can be abnormal following focal brain injury. Recent technological developments helped to unravel some of the mechanisms underlying multisensory integration and self-location, but the neural underpinnings are still under investigation, and the manual application of stimuli resulted in large variability difficult to control. This paper presents the development and evaluation of an MR-compatible stroking device capable of presenting moving tactile stimuli to both legs and the back of participants lying on a scanner bed while acquiring functional neuroimaging data. The platform consists of four independent stroking devices with a travel of 16-20 cm and a maximum stroking velocity of 15 cm/s, actuated over non-magnetic ultrasonic motors. Complemented with virtual reality, this setup provides a unique research platform allowing to investigate multisensory integration and its effects on self-location under well-controlled experimental conditions. The MR-compatibility of the system was evaluated in both a 3 and a 7 Tesla scanner and showed negligible interference with brain imaging. In a preliminary study using a prototype device with only one tactile stimulator, fMRI data acquired on 12 healthy participants showed visuo-tactile synchrony-related and body-specific modulations of the brain activity in bilateral temporoparietal cortex. PMID:22256283

  20. Multisensory interactions in the depth plane in front and rear space: a review.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Nijboer, T C W; Van der Stigchel, S; Spence, C

    2015-04-01

    In this review, we evaluate the neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and psychophysical evidence relevant to the claim that multisensory information is processed differently depending on the region of space in which it happens to be presented. We discuss how the majority of studies of multisensory interactions in the depth plane that have been conducted to date have focused on visuotactile and audiotactile interactions in frontal peripersonal space and underline the importance of such multisensory interactions in defining peripersonal space. Based on our review of studies of multisensory interactions in depth, we question the extent to which peri- and extra-personal space (both frontal and rear) are characterized by differences in multisensory interactions (as evidenced by multisensory stimuli producing a different behavioral outcome as compared to unisensory stimulation). In addition to providing an overview of studies of multisensory interactions in different regions of space, our goal in writing this review has been to demonstrate that the various kinds of multisensory interactions that have been documented may follow very similar organizing principles. Multisensory interactions in depth that involve tactile stimuli are constrained by the fact that such stimuli typically need to contact the skin surface. Therefore, depth-related preferences of multisensory interactions involving touch can largely be explained in terms of their spatial alignment in depth and their alignment with the body. As yet, no such depth-related asymmetry has been observed in the case of audiovisual interactions. We therefore suggest that the spatial boundary of peripersonal space and the enhanced audiotactile and visuotactile interactions that occur in peripersonal space can be explained in terms of the particular spatial alignment of stimuli from different modalities with the body and that they likely reflect the result of prior multisensory experience.

  1. Binding of Sights and Sounds: Age-Related Changes in Multisensory Temporal Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillock, Andrea R.; Powers, Albert R.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    We live in a multisensory world and one of the challenges the brain is faced with is deciding what information belongs together. Our ability to make assumptions about the relatedness of multisensory stimuli is partly based on their temporal and spatial relationships. Stimuli that are proximal in time and space are likely to be bound together by…

  2. Individual Differences in the Multisensory Temporal Binding Window Predict Susceptibility to Audiovisual Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Zemtsov, Raquel K.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Human multisensory systems are known to bind inputs from the different sensory modalities into a unified percept, a process that leads to measurable behavioral benefits. This integrative process can be observed through multisensory illusions, including the McGurk effect and the sound-induced flash illusion, both of which demonstrate the ability of…

  3. The Race that Precedes Coactivation: Development of Multisensory Facilitation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barutchu, Ayla; Crewther, David P.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: The facilitating effect of multisensory integration on motor responses in adults is much larger than predicted by race-models and is in accordance with the idea of coactivation. However, the development of multisensory facilitation of endogenously driven motor processes and its relationship to the development of complex cognitive skills…

  4. Contractive multifunctions, fixed point inclusions and iterated multifunction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, H. E.; La Torre, D.; Vrscay, E. R.

    2007-06-01

    We study the properties of multifunction operators that are contractive in the Covitz-Nadler sense. In this situation, such operators T possess fixed points satisfying the relation x[set membership, variant]Tx. We introduce an iterative method involving projections that guarantees convergence from any starting point x0[set membership, variant]X to a point x[set membership, variant]XT, the set of all fixed points of a multifunction operator T. We also prove a continuity result for fixed point sets XT as well as a "generalized collage theorem" for contractive multifunctions. These results can then be used to solve inverse problems involving contractive multifunctions. Two applications of contractive multifunctions are introduced: (i) integral inclusions and (ii) iterated multifunction systems.

  5. Multifunctional nanocomposite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.; Komarneni, S.

    1991-11-01

    Objective is to examine the low temperature nanocomposite route in the synthesis of multifunctional materials using two-dimensional clays as hosts. After about 8 months, a significant advance was made in the design and synthesis of novel nanocomposite materials, which are nanometal intercalated clays prepared by a low temperature route. A layered V[sub 2]O[sub 5] gel has been made hydrothermally and its cation exchange properties measured. Several pillared clays have also been synthesized and characterized.

  6. Multifunctional imaging nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    Jarzyna, Peter A.; Gianella, Anita; Skajaa, Torjus; Knudsen, Gitte; Deddens, Lisette H.; Cormode, David P.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Multifunctional imaging nanoprobes have proven to be of great value in the research of pathological processes, as well as the assessment of the delivery, fate, and therapeutic potential of encapsulated drugs. Moreover, such probes may potentially support therapy schemes by the exploitation of their own physical properties, e.g., through thermal ablation. This review will present four classes of nanoparticulate imaging probes used in this area: multifunctional probes (1) that can be tracked with at least three different and complementary imaging techniques, (2) that carry a drug and have bimodal imaging properties, (3) that are employed for nucleic acid delivery and imaging, and (4) imaging probes with capabilities that can be used for thermal ablation. We will highlight several examples where the suitable combination of different (bio)materials like polymers, inorganic nanocrystals, fluorophores, proteins/peptides, and lipids can be tailored to manufacture multifunctional probes to accomplish nanomaterials of each of the aforementioned classes. Moreover, it will be demonstrated how multimodality imaging approaches improve our understanding of in vivo nanoparticle behavior and efficacy at different levels, ranging from the subcellular level to the whole body. PMID:20039335

  7. Multisensory cueing for enhancing orientation information during flight.

    PubMed

    Albery, William B

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force still regards spatial disorientation (SD) and loss of situational awareness (SA) as major contributing factors in operational Class A aircraft mishaps ($1M in aircraft loss and/or pilot fatality). Air Force Safety Agency data show 71 Class A SD mishaps from 1991-2004 in both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft. These mishaps resulted in 62 fatalities and an aircraft cost of over $2.OB. These losses account for 21 % of the USAF's Class A mishaps during that 14-yr period. Even non-mishap SD events negatively impact aircrew performance and reduce mission effectiveness. A multisensory system has been developed called the Spatial Orientation Retention Device (SORD) to enhance the aircraft attitude information to the pilot. SORD incorporates multisensory aids including helmet mounted symbology and tactile and audio cues. SORD has been prototyped and demonstrated in the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. The technology has now been transitioned to a Rotary Wing Brownout program. This paper discusses the development of SORD and a potential application, including an augmented cognition application. Unlike automatic ground collision avoidance systems, SORD does not take over the aircraft if a pre-set altitude is broached by the pilot; rather, SORD provides complementary attitude cues to the pilot via the tactile, audio, and visual systems that allow the pilot to continue flying through disorienting conditions.

  8. Cortical hierarchies perform Bayesian causal inference in multisensory perception.

    PubMed

    Rohe, Tim; Noppeney, Uta

    2015-02-01

    To form a veridical percept of the environment, the brain needs to integrate sensory signals from a common source but segregate those from independent sources. Thus, perception inherently relies on solving the "causal inference problem." Behaviorally, humans solve this problem optimally as predicted by Bayesian Causal Inference; yet, the underlying neural mechanisms are unexplored. Combining psychophysics, Bayesian modeling, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and multivariate decoding in an audiovisual spatial localization task, we demonstrate that Bayesian Causal Inference is performed by a hierarchy of multisensory processes in the human brain. At the bottom of the hierarchy, in auditory and visual areas, location is represented on the basis that the two signals are generated by independent sources (= segregation). At the next stage, in posterior intraparietal sulcus, location is estimated under the assumption that the two signals are from a common source (= forced fusion). Only at the top of the hierarchy, in anterior intraparietal sulcus, the uncertainty about the causal structure of the world is taken into account and sensory signals are combined as predicted by Bayesian Causal Inference. Characterizing the computational operations of signal interactions reveals the hierarchical nature of multisensory perception in human neocortex. It unravels how the brain accomplishes Bayesian Causal Inference, a statistical computation fundamental for perception and cognition. Our results demonstrate how the brain combines information in the face of uncertainty about the underlying causal structure of the world.

  9. The multisensory body revealed through its cast shadows

    PubMed Central

    Pavani, Francesco; Galfano, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    One key issue when conceiving the body as a multisensory object is how the cognitive system integrates visible instances of the self and other bodies with one’s own somatosensory processing, to achieve self-recognition and body ownership. Recent research has strongly suggested that shadows cast by our own body have a special status for cognitive processing, directing attention to the body in a fast and highly specific manner. The aim of the present article is to review the most recent scientific contributions addressing how body shadows affect both sensory/perceptual and attentional processes. The review examines three main points: (1) body shadows as a special window to investigate the construction of multisensory body perception; (2) experimental paradigms and related findings; (3) open questions and future trajectories. The reviewed literature suggests that shadows cast by one’s own body promote binding between personal and extrapersonal space and elicit automatic orienting of attention toward the body-part casting the shadow. Future research should address whether the effects exerted by body shadows are similar to those observed when observers are exposed to other visual instances of their body. The results will further clarify the processes underlying the merging of vision and somatosensation when creating body representations. PMID:26042079

  10. Multisensory cueing for enhancing orientation information during flight.

    PubMed

    Albery, William B

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force still regards spatial disorientation (SD) and loss of situational awareness (SA) as major contributing factors in operational Class A aircraft mishaps ($1M in aircraft loss and/or pilot fatality). Air Force Safety Agency data show 71 Class A SD mishaps from 1991-2004 in both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft. These mishaps resulted in 62 fatalities and an aircraft cost of over $2.OB. These losses account for 21 % of the USAF's Class A mishaps during that 14-yr period. Even non-mishap SD events negatively impact aircrew performance and reduce mission effectiveness. A multisensory system has been developed called the Spatial Orientation Retention Device (SORD) to enhance the aircraft attitude information to the pilot. SORD incorporates multisensory aids including helmet mounted symbology and tactile and audio cues. SORD has been prototyped and demonstrated in the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. The technology has now been transitioned to a Rotary Wing Brownout program. This paper discusses the development of SORD and a potential application, including an augmented cognition application. Unlike automatic ground collision avoidance systems, SORD does not take over the aircraft if a pre-set altitude is broached by the pilot; rather, SORD provides complementary attitude cues to the pilot via the tactile, audio, and visual systems that allow the pilot to continue flying through disorienting conditions. PMID:17547319

  11. Multisensory perception of action in posterior temporal and parietal cortices.

    PubMed

    James, Thomas W; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Stevenson, Ryan A; James, Karin Harman

    2011-01-01

    Environmental events produce many sensory cues for identifying the action that evoked the event, the agent that performed the action, and the object targeted by the action. The cues for identifying environmental events are usually distributed across multiple sensory systems. Thus, to understand how environmental events are recognized requires an understanding of the fundamental cognitive and neural processes involved in multisensory object and action recognition. Here, we investigated the neural substrates involved in auditory and visual recognition of object-directed actions. Consistent with previous work on visual recognition of isolated objects, visual recognition of actions, and recognition of environmental sounds, we found evidence for multisensory audiovisual event-selective activation bilaterally at the junction of the posterior middle temporal gyrus and the lateral occipital cortex, the left superior temporal sulcus, and bilaterally in the intraparietal sulcus. The results suggest that recognition of events through convergence of visual and auditory cues is accomplished through a network of brain regions that was previously implicated only in visual recognition of action.

  12. Modeling Multisensory Enhancement with Self-organizing Maps

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jacob G.; Meredith, M. Alex; Ahmad, Khurshid

    2009-01-01

    Self-organization, a process by which the internal organization of a system changes without supervision, has been proposed as a possible basis for multisensory enhancement (MSE) in the superior colliculus (Anastasio and Patton, 2003). We simplify and extend these results by presenting a simulation using traditional self-organizing maps, intended to understand and simulate MSE as it may generally occur throughout the central nervous system. This simulation of MSE: (1) uses a standard unsupervised competitive learning algorithm, (2) learns from artificially generated activation levels corresponding to driven and spontaneous stimuli from separate and combined input channels, (3) uses a sigmoidal transfer function to generate quantifiable responses to separate inputs, (4) enhances the responses when those same inputs are combined, (5) obeys the inverse effectiveness principle of multisensory integration, and (6) can topographically congregate MSE in a manner similar to that seen in cortex. Thus, the model provides a useful method for evaluating and simulating the development of enhanced interactions between responses to different sensory modalities. PMID:19636382

  13. Perceptual learning shapes multisensory causal inference via two distinct mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, David P.; Roudaia, Eugenie; Newell, Fiona N.; Roach, Neil W.

    2016-01-01

    To accurately represent the environment, our brains must integrate sensory signals from a common source while segregating those from independent sources. A reasonable strategy for performing this task is to restrict integration to cues that coincide in space and time. However, because multisensory signals are subject to differential transmission and processing delays, the brain must retain a degree of tolerance for temporal discrepancies. Recent research suggests that the width of this ‘temporal binding window’ can be reduced through perceptual learning, however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these experience-dependent effects. Here, in separate experiments, we measure the temporal and spatial binding windows of human participants before and after training on an audiovisual temporal discrimination task. We show that training leads to two distinct effects on multisensory integration in the form of (i) a specific narrowing of the temporal binding window that does not transfer to spatial binding and (ii) a general reduction in the magnitude of crossmodal interactions across all spatiotemporal disparities. These effects arise naturally from a Bayesian model of causal inference in which learning improves the precision of audiovisual timing estimation, whilst concomitantly decreasing the prior expectation that stimuli emanate from a common source. PMID:27091411

  14. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Results Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. Conclusions The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin. PMID:23819918

  15. Evidence for training-induced plasticity in multisensory brain structures: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Multisensory learning and resulting neural brain plasticity have recently become a topic of renewed interest in human cognitive neuroscience. Music notation reading is an ideal stimulus to study multisensory learning, as it allows studying the integration of visual, auditory and sensorimotor information processing. The present study aimed at answering whether multisensory learning alters uni-sensory structures, interconnections of uni-sensory structures or specific multisensory areas. In a short-term piano training procedure musically naive subjects were trained to play tone sequences from visually presented patterns in a music notation-like system [Auditory-Visual-Somatosensory group (AVS)], while another group received audio-visual training only that involved viewing the patterns and attentively listening to the recordings of the AVS training sessions [Auditory-Visual group (AV)]. Training-related changes in cortical networks were assessed by pre- and post-training magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of an auditory, a visual and an integrated audio-visual mismatch negativity (MMN). The two groups (AVS and AV) were differently affected by the training. The results suggest that multisensory training alters the function of multisensory structures, and not the uni-sensory ones along with their interconnections, and thus provide an answer to an important question presented by cognitive models of multisensory training.

  16. Cell Nucleus-Targeting Zwitterionic Carbon Dots

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Shin, Eeseul; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2015-01-01

    An innovative nucleus-targeting zwitterionic carbon dot (CD) vehicle has been developed for anticancer drug delivery and optical monitoring. The zwitterionic functional groups of the CDs introduced by a simple one-step synthesis using β-alanine as a passivating and zwitterionic ligand allow cytoplasmic uptake and subsequent nuclear translocation of the CDs. Moreover, multicolor fluorescence improves the accuracy of the CDs as an optical code. The CD-based drug delivery system constructed by non-covalent grafting of doxorubicin, exhibits superior antitumor efficacy owing to enhanced nuclear delivery in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo, resulting in highly effective tumor growth inhibition. Since the zwitterionic CDs are highly biocompatible and effectively translocated into the nucleus, it provides a compelling solution to a multifunctional nanoparticle for substantially enhanced nuclear uptake of drugs and optical monitoring of translocation. PMID:26689549

  17. Cell Nucleus-Targeting Zwitterionic Carbon Dots.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Shin, Eeseul; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2015-12-22

    An innovative nucleus-targeting zwitterionic carbon dot (CD) vehicle has been developed for anticancer drug delivery and optical monitoring. The zwitterionic functional groups of the CDs introduced by a simple one-step synthesis using β-alanine as a passivating and zwitterionic ligand allow cytoplasmic uptake and subsequent nuclear translocation of the CDs. Moreover, multicolor fluorescence improves the accuracy of the CDs as an optical code. The CD-based drug delivery system constructed by non-covalent grafting of doxorubicin, exhibits superior antitumor efficacy owing to enhanced nuclear delivery in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo, resulting in highly effective tumor growth inhibition. Since the zwitterionic CDs are highly biocompatible and effectively translocated into the nucleus, it provides a compelling solution to a multifunctional nanoparticle for substantially enhanced nuclear uptake of drugs and optical monitoring of translocation.

  18. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  19. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  20. Templated biomimetic multifunctional coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chih-Hung; Gonzalez, Adriel; Linn, Nicholas C.; Jiang, Peng; Jiang, Bin

    2008-02-01

    We report a bioinspired templating technique for fabricating multifunctional optical coatings that mimic both unique functionalities of antireflective moth eyes and superhydrophobic cicada wings. Subwavelength-structured fluoropolymer nipple arrays are created by a soft-lithography-like process. The utilization of fluoropolymers simultaneously enhances the antireflective performance and the hydrophobicity of the replicated films. The specular reflectivity matches the optical simulation using a thin-film multilayer model. The dependence of the size and the crystalline ordering of the replicated nipples on the resulting antireflective properties have also been investigated by experiment and modeling. These biomimetic materials may find important technological application in self-cleaning antireflection coatings.

  1. The multi-sensory approach as a geoeducational strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    Geoscience knowledge has a strong impact in modern society as it relates to natural hazards, sustainability and environmental issues. The general public has a demanding attitude towards the understanding of crucial geo-scientific topics that is only partly satisfied by science communication strategies and/or by outreach or school programs. A proper knowledge of the phenomena might help trigger crucial inquiries when approaching mitigation of geo-hazards and geo-resources, while providing the right tool for the understanding of news and ideas floating from the web or other media, and, in other words, help communication to be more efficient. Nonetheless available educational resources seem to be inadequate in meeting the goal, while research institutions are facing the challenge to experience new communication strategies and non-conventional way of learning capable to allow the understanding of crucial scientific contents. We suggest the use of multi-sensory approach as a successful non-conventional way of learning for children and as a different perspective of learning for older students and adults. Sense organs stimulation are perceived and processed to build the knowledge of the surrounding, including all sorts of hazards. Powerfully relying in the sense of sight, Humans have somehow lost most of their ability for a deep perception of the environment enriched by all the other senses. Since hazards involve emotions we argue that new ways to approach the learning might go exactly through emotions that one might stress with a tactile experience, a hearing or smell stimulation. To test and support our idea we are building a package of learning activities and exhibits based on a multi-sensory experience where the sight is not allowed.

  2. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

    PubMed Central

    Noesselt, Tömme; Bergmann, Daniel; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas; Spence, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects judged the temporal relation of (a)synchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c) and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (a)synchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects' perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the “auditory leading (AL)” and “visual leading (VL) areas” lie closer to “synchrony areas” than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects' perception of (a)synchrony. PMID:22973202

  3. Hierarchical multifunctional nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2014-03-01

    Nanocomposites; including nano-materials such as nano-particles, nanoclays, nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanosheets; are of significant importance in the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology. Due to the nanometer size of these inclusions, their physicochemical characteristics differ significantly from those of micron size and bulk materials. The field of nanocomposites involves the study of multiphase materials where at least one of the constituent phases has one dimension less than 100 nm. This is the range where the phenomena associated with the atomic and molecular interaction strongly influence the macroscopic properties of materials. Since the building blocks of nanocomposites are at nanoscale, they have an enormous surface area with numerous interfaces between the two intermix phases. The special properties of the nano-composite arise from the interaction of its phases at the interface and/or interphase regions. By contrast, in a conventional composite based on micrometer sized filler such as carbon fibers, the interfaces between the filler and matrix constitutes have a much smaller surface-to-volume fraction of the bulk materials, and hence influence the properties of the host structure to a much smaller extent. The optimum amount of nanomaterials in the nanocomposites depends on the filler size, shape, homogeneity of particles distribution, and the interfacial bonding properties between the fillers and matrix. The promise of nanocomposites lies in their multifunctionality, i.e., the possibility of realizing unique combination of properties unachievable with traditional materials. The challenges in reaching this promise are tremendous. They include control over the distribution in size and dispersion of the nanosize constituents, and tailoring and understanding the role of interfaces between structurally or chemically dissimilar phases on bulk properties. While the properties of the matrix can be improved by the inclusions of nanomaterials, the

  4. Multisensory stimuli elicit altered oscillatory brain responses at gamma frequencies in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stone, David B; Coffman, Brian A; Bustillo, Juan R; Aine, Cheryl J; Stephen, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in auditory and visual unisensory responses are well documented in patients with schizophrenia; however, potential abnormalities elicited from multisensory audio-visual stimuli are less understood. Further, schizophrenia patients have shown abnormal patterns in task-related and task-independent oscillatory brain activity, particularly in the gamma frequency band. We examined oscillatory responses to basic unisensory and multisensory stimuli in schizophrenia patients (N = 46) and healthy controls (N = 57) using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Time-frequency decomposition was performed to determine regions of significant changes in gamma band power by group in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli relative to baseline levels. Results showed significant behavioral differences between groups in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli. In addition, time-frequency analysis revealed significant decreases and increases in gamma-band power in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls, which emerged both early and late over both sensory and frontal regions in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli. Unisensory gamma-band power predicted multisensory gamma-band power differently by group. Furthermore, gamma-band power in these regions predicted performance in select measures of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) test battery differently by group. These results reveal a unique pattern of task-related gamma-band power in schizophrenia patients relative to controls that may indicate reduced inhibition in combination with impaired oscillatory mechanisms in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25414652

  5. Multi-functional windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Nagendra; Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2013-06-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the physical properties of optically transparent materials currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows held in weight bearing frames. Novel material systems will have to be developed which combine different materials (e.g. ductile metals with transparent ceramics) into structures that combine transparency with structural integrity. Surmet's demonstrated ability to produce novel transparent ceramic/metal structures will allow us to produce such structures in the types of conformal shapes required for future aircraft applications. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate transparencies into such structures also holds out the promise of creating multi-functional windows which provide a broad range of capabilities that might include RF antennas and de-icing in addition to transparency. Recent results in this area will be presented.

  6. Multifunctional layered magnetic composites.

    PubMed

    Siglreitmeier, Maria; Wu, Baohu; Kollmann, Tina; Neubauer, Martin; Nagy, Gergely; Schwahn, Dietmar; Pipich, Vitaliy; Faivre, Damien; Zahn, Dirk; Fery, Andreas; Cölfen, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    A fabrication method of a multifunctional hybrid material is achieved by using the insoluble organic nacre matrix of the Haliotis laevigata shell infiltrated with gelatin as a confined reaction environment. Inside this organic scaffold magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are synthesized. The amount of MNPs can be controlled through the synthesis protocol therefore mineral loadings starting from 15 wt % up to 65 wt % can be realized. The demineralized organic nacre matrix is characterized by small-angle and very-small-angle neutron scattering (SANS and VSANS) showing an unchanged organic matrix structure after demineralization compared to the original mineralized nacre reference. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy studies of stained samples show the presence of insoluble proteins at the chitin surface but not between the chitin layers. Successful and homogeneous gelatin infiltration in between the chitin layers can be shown. The hybrid material is characterized by TEM and shows a layered structure filled with MNPs with a size of around 10 nm. Magnetic analysis of the material demonstrates superparamagnetic behavior as characteristic for the particle size. Simulation studies show the potential of collagen and chitin to act as nucleators, where there is a slight preference of chitin over collagen as a nucleator for magnetite. Colloidal-probe AFM measurements demonstrate that introduction of a ferrogel into the chitin matrix leads to a certain increase in the stiffness of the composite material. PMID:25671158

  7. Multifunctional layered magnetic composites

    PubMed Central

    Siglreitmeier, Maria; Wu, Baohu; Kollmann, Tina; Neubauer, Martin; Nagy, Gergely; Schwahn, Dietmar; Pipich, Vitaliy; Faivre, Damien; Zahn, Dirk; Fery, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Summary A fabrication method of a multifunctional hybrid material is achieved by using the insoluble organic nacre matrix of the Haliotis laevigata shell infiltrated with gelatin as a confined reaction environment. Inside this organic scaffold magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are synthesized. The amount of MNPs can be controlled through the synthesis protocol therefore mineral loadings starting from 15 wt % up to 65 wt % can be realized. The demineralized organic nacre matrix is characterized by small-angle and very-small-angle neutron scattering (SANS and VSANS) showing an unchanged organic matrix structure after demineralization compared to the original mineralized nacre reference. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy studies of stained samples show the presence of insoluble proteins at the chitin surface but not between the chitin layers. Successful and homogeneous gelatin infiltration in between the chitin layers can be shown. The hybrid material is characterized by TEM and shows a layered structure filled with MNPs with a size of around 10 nm. Magnetic analysis of the material demonstrates superparamagnetic behavior as characteristic for the particle size. Simulation studies show the potential of collagen and chitin to act as nucleators, where there is a slight preference of chitin over collagen as a nucleator for magnetite. Colloidal-probe AFM measurements demonstrate that introduction of a ferrogel into the chitin matrix leads to a certain increase in the stiffness of the composite material. PMID:25671158

  8. Musical expertise is related to neuroplastic changes of multisensory nature within the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Pantev, Christo; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Lu, Yao; Herholz, Sibylle C

    2015-03-01

    Recent neuroscientific evidence indicates that multisensory integration does not only occur in higher level association areas of the cortex as the hierarchical models of sensory perception assumed, but also in regions traditionally thought of as unisensory, such as the auditory cortex. Nevertheless, it is not known whether expertise-induced neuroplasticity can alter the multisensory processing that occurs in these low-level regions. The present study used magnetoencephalography to investigate whether musical training may induce neuroplastic changes of multisensory processing within the human auditory cortex. Magnetoencephalography data of four different experiments were used to demonstrate the effect of long-term and short-term musical training on the integration of auditory, somatosensory and visual stimuli in the auditory cortex. The cross-sectional design of three of the experiments allowed us to infer that long-term musical training is related to a significantly different way of processing multisensory information within the auditory cortex, whereas the short-term training design of the fourth experiment allowed us to causally infer that multisensory music reading training affects the multimodal processing within the auditory cortex.

  9. The Construct of the Multisensory Temporal Binding Window and its Dysregulation in Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Mark T.; Stevenson, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Behavior, perception and cognition are strongly shaped by the synthesis of information across the different sensory modalities. Such multisensory integration often results in performance and perceptual benefits that reflect the additional information conferred by having cues from multiple senses providing redundant or complementary information. The spatial and temporal relationships of these cues provide powerful statistical information about how these cues should be integrated or “bound” in order to create a unified perceptual representation. Much recent work has examined the temporal factors that are integral in multisensory processing, with many focused on the construct of the multisensory temporal binding window – the epoch of time within which stimuli from different modalities is likely to be integrated and perceptually bound. Emerging evidence suggests that this temporal window is altered in a series of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, dyslexia and schizophrenia. In addition to their role in sensory processing, these deficits in multisensory temporal function may play an important role in the perceptual and cognitive weaknesses that characterize these clinical disorders. Within this context, focus on improving the acuity of multisensory temporal function may have important implications for the amelioration of the “higher-order” deficits that serve as the defining features of these disorders. PMID:25128432

  10. Augmented multisensory feedback enhances locomotor adaptation in humans with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yen, Sheng-Che; Landry, Jill M; Wu, Ming

    2014-06-01

    Different forms of augmented feedback may engage different motor learning pathways, but it is unclear how these pathways interact with each other, especially in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to test whether augmented multisensory feedback could enhance aftereffects following short term locomotor training (i.e., adaptation) in patients with incomplete SCI. A total of 10 subjects with incomplete SCI were recruited to perform locomotor adaptation. Three types of augmented feedback were provided during the adaptation: (a) computerized visual cues showing the actual and target stride length (augmented visual feedback); (b) a swing resistance applied to the leg (augmented proprioceptive feedback); (c) a combination of the visual cues and resistance (augmented multisensory feedback). The results showed that subjects' stride length increased in all conditions following the adaptation, but the increase was greater and retained longer in the multisensory feedback condition. The multisensory feedback provided in this study may engage both explicit and implicit learning pathways during the adaptation and in turn enhance the aftereffect. The results implied that multisensory feedback may be used as an adjunctive approach to enhance gait recovery in humans with SCI. PMID:24746604

  11. Effect of mechanical tactile noise on amplitude of visual evoked potentials: multisensory stochastic resonance.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Huidobro, Nayeli; Silva, Mayte; Flores, Amira; Trenado, Carlos; Quintanar, Luis; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation documents the electrophysiological occurrence of multisensory stochastic resonance in the human visual pathway elicited by tactile noise. We define multisensory stochastic resonance of brain evoked potentials as the phenomenon in which an intermediate level of input noise of one sensory modality enhances the brain evoked response of another sensory modality. Here we examined this phenomenon in visual evoked potentials (VEPs) modulated by the addition of tactile noise. Specifically, we examined whether a particular level of mechanical Gaussian noise applied to the index finger can improve the amplitude of the VEP. We compared the amplitude of the positive P100 VEP component between zero noise (ZN), optimal noise (ON), and high mechanical noise (HN). The data disclosed an inverted U-like graph for all the subjects, thus demonstrating the occurrence of a multisensory stochastic resonance in the P100 VEP.

  12. Multisensory effects on somatosensation: a trimodal visuo-vestibular-tactile interaction.

    PubMed

    Kaliuzhna, Mariia; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Herbelin, Bruno; Blanke, Olaf; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular information about self-motion is combined with other sensory signals. Previous research described both visuo-vestibular and vestibular-tactile bilateral interactions, but the simultaneous interaction between all three sensory modalities has not been explored. Here we exploit a previously reported visuo-vestibular integration to investigate multisensory effects on tactile sensitivity in humans. Tactile sensitivity was measured during passive whole body rotations alone or in conjunction with optic flow, creating either purely vestibular or visuo-vestibular sensations of self-motion. Our results demonstrate that tactile sensitivity is modulated by perceived self-motion, as provided by a combined visuo-vestibular percept, and not by the visual and vestibular cues independently. We propose a hierarchical multisensory interaction that underpins somatosensory modulation: visual and vestibular cues are first combined to produce a multisensory self-motion percept. Somatosensory processing is then enhanced according to the degree of perceived self-motion. PMID:27198907

  13. Effect of mechanical tactile noise on amplitude of visual evoked potentials: multisensory stochastic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Huidobro, Nayeli; Silva, Mayte; Flores, Amira; Trenado, Carlos; Quintanar, Luis; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation documents the electrophysiological occurrence of multisensory stochastic resonance in the human visual pathway elicited by tactile noise. We define multisensory stochastic resonance of brain evoked potentials as the phenomenon in which an intermediate level of input noise of one sensory modality enhances the brain evoked response of another sensory modality. Here we examined this phenomenon in visual evoked potentials (VEPs) modulated by the addition of tactile noise. Specifically, we examined whether a particular level of mechanical Gaussian noise applied to the index finger can improve the amplitude of the VEP. We compared the amplitude of the positive P100 VEP component between zero noise (ZN), optimal noise (ON), and high mechanical noise (HN). The data disclosed an inverted U-like graph for all the subjects, thus demonstrating the occurrence of a multisensory stochastic resonance in the P100 VEP. PMID:26156387

  14. Effect of mechanical tactile noise on amplitude of visual evoked potentials: multisensory stochastic resonance.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Huidobro, Nayeli; Silva, Mayte; Flores, Amira; Trenado, Carlos; Quintanar, Luis; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation documents the electrophysiological occurrence of multisensory stochastic resonance in the human visual pathway elicited by tactile noise. We define multisensory stochastic resonance of brain evoked potentials as the phenomenon in which an intermediate level of input noise of one sensory modality enhances the brain evoked response of another sensory modality. Here we examined this phenomenon in visual evoked potentials (VEPs) modulated by the addition of tactile noise. Specifically, we examined whether a particular level of mechanical Gaussian noise applied to the index finger can improve the amplitude of the VEP. We compared the amplitude of the positive P100 VEP component between zero noise (ZN), optimal noise (ON), and high mechanical noise (HN). The data disclosed an inverted U-like graph for all the subjects, thus demonstrating the occurrence of a multisensory stochastic resonance in the P100 VEP. PMID:26156387

  15. Multisensory effects on somatosensation: a trimodal visuo-vestibular-tactile interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kaliuzhna, Mariia; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Herbelin, Bruno; Blanke, Olaf; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular information about self-motion is combined with other sensory signals. Previous research described both visuo-vestibular and vestibular-tactile bilateral interactions, but the simultaneous interaction between all three sensory modalities has not been explored. Here we exploit a previously reported visuo-vestibular integration to investigate multisensory effects on tactile sensitivity in humans. Tactile sensitivity was measured during passive whole body rotations alone or in conjunction with optic flow, creating either purely vestibular or visuo-vestibular sensations of self-motion. Our results demonstrate that tactile sensitivity is modulated by perceived self-motion, as provided by a combined visuo-vestibular percept, and not by the visual and vestibular cues independently. We propose a hierarchical multisensory interaction that underpins somatosensory modulation: visual and vestibular cues are first combined to produce a multisensory self-motion percept. Somatosensory processing is then enhanced according to the degree of perceived self-motion. PMID:27198907

  16. Nonvisual Multisensory Impairment of Body Perception in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review of Neuropsychological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Santino; Brooks, Samantha Jane; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background Body image distortion is a central symptom of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Even if corporeal awareness is multisensory majority of AN studies mainly investigated visual misperception. We systematically reviewed AN studies that have investigated different nonvisual sensory inputs using an integrative multisensory approach to body perception. We also discussed the findings in the light of AN neuroimaging evidence. Methods PubMed and PsycINFO were searched until March, 2014. To be included in the review, studies were mainly required to: investigate a sample of patients with current or past AN and a control group and use tasks that directly elicited one or more nonvisual sensory domains. Results Thirteen studies were included. They studied a total of 223 people with current or past AN and 273 control subjects. Overall, results show impairment in tactile and proprioceptive domains of body perception in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been poorly explored directly in AN patients. A limitation of this review is the relatively small amount of literature available. Conclusions Our results showed that AN patients had a multisensory impairment of body perception that goes beyond visual misperception and involves tactile and proprioceptive sensory components. Furthermore, impairment of tactile and proprioceptive components may be associated with parietal cortex alterations in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been weakly explored directly. Further research, using multisensory approaches as well as neuroimaging techniques, is needed to better define the complexity of body image distortion in AN. Key Findings The review suggests an altered capacity of AN patients in processing and integration of bodily signals: body parts are experienced as dissociated from their holistic and perceptive dimensions. Specifically, it is likely that not only perception but memory, and in particular sensorimotor/proprioceptive memory

  17. Taking a Call Is Facilitated by the Multisensory Processing of Smartphone Vibrations, Sounds, and Flashes

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, James; Prikhodko, Ivan; Senkowski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Many electronic devices that we use in our daily lives provide inputs that need to be processed and integrated by our senses. For instance, ringing, vibrating, and flashing indicate incoming calls and messages in smartphones. Whether the presentation of multiple smartphone stimuli simultaneously provides an advantage over the processing of the same stimuli presented in isolation has not yet been investigated. In this behavioral study we examined multisensory processing between visual (V), tactile (T), and auditory (A) stimuli produced by a smartphone. Unisensory V, T, and A stimuli as well as VA, AT, VT, and trisensory VAT stimuli were presented in random order. Participants responded to any stimulus appearance by touching the smartphone screen using the stimulated hand (Experiment 1), or the non-stimulated hand (Experiment 2). We examined violations of the race model to test whether shorter response times to multisensory stimuli exceed probability summations of unisensory stimuli. Significant violations of the race model, indicative of multisensory processing, were found for VA stimuli in both experiments and for VT stimuli in Experiment 1. Across participants, the strength of this effect was not associated with prior learning experience and daily use of smartphones. This indicates that this integration effect, similar to what has been previously reported for the integration of semantically meaningless stimuli, could involve bottom-up driven multisensory processes. Our study demonstrates for the first time that multisensory processing of smartphone stimuli facilitates taking a call. Thus, research on multisensory integration should be taken into consideration when designing electronic devices such as smartphones. PMID:25116195

  18. Taking a call is facilitated by the multisensory processing of smartphone vibrations, sounds, and flashes.

    PubMed

    Pomper, Ulrich; Brincker, Jana; Harwood, James; Prikhodko, Ivan; Senkowski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Many electronic devices that we use in our daily lives provide inputs that need to be processed and integrated by our senses. For instance, ringing, vibrating, and flashing indicate incoming calls and messages in smartphones. Whether the presentation of multiple smartphone stimuli simultaneously provides an advantage over the processing of the same stimuli presented in isolation has not yet been investigated. In this behavioral study we examined multisensory processing between visual (V), tactile (T), and auditory (A) stimuli produced by a smartphone. Unisensory V, T, and A stimuli as well as VA, AT, VT, and trisensory VAT stimuli were presented in random order. Participants responded to any stimulus appearance by touching the smartphone screen using the stimulated hand (Experiment 1), or the non-stimulated hand (Experiment 2). We examined violations of the race model to test whether shorter response times to multisensory stimuli exceed probability summations of unisensory stimuli. Significant violations of the race model, indicative of multisensory processing, were found for VA stimuli in both experiments and for VT stimuli in Experiment 1. Across participants, the strength of this effect was not associated with prior learning experience and daily use of smartphones. This indicates that this integration effect, similar to what has been previously reported for the integration of semantically meaningless stimuli, could involve bottom-up driven multisensory processes. Our study demonstrates for the first time that multisensory processing of smartphone stimuli facilitates taking a call. Thus, research on multisensory integration should be taken into consideration when designing electronic devices such as smartphones. PMID:25116195

  19. Subcellular Dynamics of Multifunctional Protein Regulation: Mechanisms of GAPDH Intracellular Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Sirover, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Multidimensional proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) exhibit distinct activities unrelated to their originally identified functions. Apart from glycolysis, GAPDH participates in iron metabolism, membrane trafficking, histone biosynthesis, the maintenance of DNA integrity and receptor mediated cell signaling. Further, multifunctional proteins exhibit distinct changes in their subcellular localization reflecting their new activities. As such, GAPDH is not only a cytosolic protein but is localized in the membrane, the nucleus, polysomes, the ER and the Golgi. In addition, although the initial subcellular localizations of multifunctional proteins may be of significance, dynamic changes in intracellular distribution may occur as a consequence of those new activities. As such, regulatory mechanisms may exist through which cells control multifunctional protein expression as a function of their subcellular localization. The temporal sequence through which subcellular translocation and the acquisition of new GAPDH functions is considered as well as post-translational modification as a basis for its intracellular transport. PMID:22388977

  20. Basic multisensory functions can be acquired after congenital visual pattern deprivation in humans.

    PubMed

    Putzar, Lisa; Gondan, Matthias; Röder, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    People treated for bilateral congenital cataracts offer a model to study the influence of visual deprivation in early infancy on visual and multisensory development. We investigated cross-modal integration capabilities in cataract patients using a simple detection task that provided redundant information to two different senses. In both patients and controls, redundancy gains were consistent with coactivation models, indicating an integrated processing of modality-specific information. This finding is in contrast with recent studies showing impaired higher-level multisensory interactions in cataract patients. The present results suggest that basic cross-modal integrative processes for simple short stimuli do not depend on visual and/or crossmodal input since birth.

  1. Multisensory Training Improves Auditory Spatial Processing following Bilateral Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Isaiah, Amal; Vongpaisal, Tara; King, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) partially restore hearing to the deaf by directly stimulating the inner ear. In individuals fitted with CIs, lack of auditory experience due to loss of hearing before language acquisition can adversely impact outcomes. For example, adults with early-onset hearing loss generally do not integrate inputs from both ears effectively when fitted with bilateral CIs (BiCIs). Here, we used an animal model to investigate the effects of long-term deafness on auditory localization with BiCIs and approaches for promoting the use of binaural spatial cues. Ferrets were deafened either at the age of hearing onset or as adults. All animals were implanted in adulthood, either unilaterally or bilaterally, and were subsequently assessed for their ability to localize sound in the horizontal plane. The unilaterally implanted animals were unable to perform this task, regardless of the duration of deafness. Among animals with BiCIs, early-onset hearing loss was associated with poor auditory localization performance, compared with late-onset hearing loss. However, performance in the early-deafened group with BiCIs improved significantly after multisensory training with interleaved auditory and visual stimuli. We demonstrate a possible neural substrate for this by showing a training-induced improvement in the responsiveness of auditory cortical neurons and in their sensitivity to interaural level differences, the principal localization cue available to BiCI users. Importantly, our behavioral and physiological evidence demonstrates a facilitative role for vision in restoring auditory spatial processing following potential cross-modal reorganization. These findings support investigation of a similar training paradigm in human CI users. PMID:25122908

  2. Somatosensory inputs modify auditory spike timing in dorsal cochlear nucleus principal cells

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Seth D; Pradhan, Shashwati; Manis, Paul B; Shore, Susan E

    2010-01-01

    In addition to auditory inputs, dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) pyramidal cells in the guinea pig receive and respond to somatosensory inputs and perform multisensory integration. DCN pyramidal cells respond to sounds with characteristic spike-timing patterns that are partially controlled by rapidly inactivating potassium conductances. Deactivating these conductances can modify both spike rate and spike timing of responses to sound. Somatosensory pathways are known to modify response rates to subsequent acoustic stimuli, but their effect on spike timing is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that preceding tonal stimulation with spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) stimulation significantly alters the first spike latency, the first interspike interval, and the average discharge regularity of firing evoked by the tone. These effects occur whether the neuron is excited or inhibited by Sp5 stimulation alone. Our results demonstrate that multisensory integration in DCN alters spike-timing representations of acoustic stimuli in pyramidal cells. These changes likely occur through synaptic modulation of intrinsic excitability or synaptic inhibition. PMID:21198989

  3. Multi-functional composite structures

    DOEpatents

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Halloran, John; Popovich, Dragan; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji; Fulcher, Michael L.; Knittel, Kenneth L.

    2010-04-27

    Fibrous monolith processing techniques to fabricate multifunctional structures capable of performing more than one discrete function such as structures capable of bearing structural loads and mechanical stresses in service and also capable of performing at least one additional non-structural function.

  4. Multi-functional composite structures

    DOEpatents

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Halloran, John; Popovich, Dragan; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji; Fulcher, Michael L.; Knittel, Kenneth L.

    2004-10-19

    Fibrous monolith processing techniques to fabricate multifunctional structures capable of performing more than one discrete function such as structures capable of bearing structural loads and mechanical stresses in service and also capable of performing at least one additional non-structural function.

  5. The Nucleus Introduced

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru

    2011-01-01

    Now is an opportune moment to address the confluence of cell biological form and function that is the nucleus. Its arrival is especially timely because the recognition that the nucleus is extremely dynamic has now been solidly established as a paradigm shift over the past two decades, and also because we now see on the horizon numerous ways in which organization itself, including gene location and possibly self-organizing bodies, underlies nuclear functions. PMID:20660024

  6. Multifunctional reactive nanocomposite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatis, Demitrios

    Many multifunctional nanocomposite materials have been developed for use in propellants, explosives, pyrotechnics, and reactive structures. These materials exhibit high reaction rates due to their developed reaction interfacial area. Two applications addressed in this work include nanocomposite powders prepared by arrested reactive milling (ARM) for burn rate modifiers and reactive structures. In burn rate modifiers, addition of reactive nanocomposite powders to aluminized propellants increases the burn rate of aluminum and thus the overall reaction rate of an energetic formulation. Replacing only a small fraction of aluminum by 8Al·MoO3 and 2B·Ti nanocomposite powders enhances the reaction rate with little change to the thermodynamic performance of the formulation; both the rate of pressure rise and maximum pressure measured in the constant volume explosion test increase. For reactive structures, nanocomposite powders with bulk compositions of 8Al·MoO3, 12Al·MoO3, and 8Al·3CuO were prepared by ARM and consolidated using a uniaxial die. Consolidated samples had densities greater than 90% of theoretical maximum density while maintaining their high reactivity. Pellets prepared using 8Al·MoO3 powders were ignited by a CO2 laser. Ignition delays increased at lower laser powers and greater pellet densities. A simplified numerical model describing heating and thermal initiation of the reactive pellets predicted adequately the observed effects of both laser power and pellet density on the measured ignition delays. To investigate the reaction mechanisms in nanocomposite thermites, two types of nanocomposite reactive materials with the same bulk compositions 8Al·MoO3 were prepared by different methods. One of the materials was manufactured by ARM and the other, so called metastable interstitial composite (MIC), by mixing of nano-scaled individual powders. Clear differences in the low-temperature redox reactions, welldetectable by differential scanning calorimetry

  7. Multi-Sensory Storytelling: A Tool for Teaching or an Intervention Technique?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, David; Zhao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on research undertaken to investigate how multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) was being used within schools for students with profound and multiple learning difficulties and other special educational needs. Semi-structured interviews (n?=?27) and observations (n?=?18) were undertaken in five schools in the East Midlands and…

  8. Effects of Multisensory Environments on Stereotyped Behaviours Assessed as Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lindsay; Trusler, Karen; Furniss, Frederick; Lancioni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the sensory equipment provided in a multi-sensory environment (MSE) and the level of social contact provided on levels of stereotyped behaviours assessed as being maintained by automatic reinforcement. Method: Stereotyped and engaged behaviours of two young people with severe…

  9. The Effects of Multisensory Imagery in Conjunction with Physical Movement Rehearsal on Golf Putting Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploszay, A. J.; Gentner, Noah B.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Wrisberg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    A multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of a pre-shot putting routine on the putting performance of four NCAA Division I golfers. The routine involved a combination of multisensory imagery and simulated putting movements. Results suggested that the intervention was effective for some participants. Discussion focuses on…

  10. Methods for Sight Word Recognition in Kindergarten: Traditional Flashcard Method vs. Multisensory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, William E.; Feng, Jay

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-experimental action research with a pretest-posttest same subject design was implemented to determine if there is a different effect of the flash card method and the multisensory approach on kindergarteners' achievement in sight word recognition, and which method is more effective if there is any difference. Instrumentation for pretest and…

  11. The maxillary palp of aedes aegypti, a model of multisensory integration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, are obligate blood-feeders and vectors of the pathogens that cause dengue fever, yellow fever and Chikungunya. This feeding behavior concludes a series of multisensory events guiding the mosquito to its host from a distance. The antennae and maxillary...

  12. Multi-Sensory Exercises: An Approach to Communicative Practice. 1975-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalivoda, Theodore B.

    A reprint of a 1975 article on multi-sensory exercises for communicative second language learning is presented. The article begins by noting that the use of drills as a language learning and practice technique had been lost in the trend toward communicative language teaching, but that drills can provide a means of gaining functional control of…

  13. Distinct Computational Principles Govern Multisensory Integration in Primary Sensory and Association Cortices.

    PubMed

    Rohe, Tim; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-02-22

    Human observers typically integrate sensory signals in a statistically optimal fashion into a coherent percept by weighting them in proportion to their reliabilities. An emerging debate in neuroscience is to which extent multisensory integration emerges already in primary sensory areas or is deferred to higher-order association areas. This fMRI study used multivariate pattern decoding to characterize the computational principles that define how auditory and visual signals are integrated into spatial representations across the cortical hierarchy. Our results reveal small multisensory influences that were limited to a spatial window of integration in primary sensory areas. By contrast, parietal cortices integrated signals weighted by their sensory reliabilities and task relevance in line with behavioral performance and principles of statistical optimality. Intriguingly, audiovisual integration in parietal cortices was attenuated for large spatial disparities when signals were unlikely to originate from a common source. Our results demonstrate that multisensory interactions in primary and association cortices are governed by distinct computational principles. In primary visual cortices, spatial disparity controlled the influence of non-visual signals on the formation of spatial representations, whereas in parietal cortices, it determined the influence of task-irrelevant signals. Critically, only parietal cortices integrated signals weighted by their bottom-up reliabilities and top-down task relevance into multisensory spatial priority maps to guide spatial orienting.

  14. A dynamical framework to relate perceptual variability with multisensory information processing

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Bhumika; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Sen, Abhijit; Banerjee, Arpan

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory processing involves participation of individual sensory streams, e.g., vision, audition to facilitate perception of environmental stimuli. An experimental realization of the underlying complexity is captured by the “McGurk-effect”- incongruent auditory and visual vocalization stimuli eliciting perception of illusory speech sounds. Further studies have established that time-delay between onset of auditory and visual signals (AV lag) and perturbations in the unisensory streams are key variables that modulate perception. However, as of now only few quantitative theoretical frameworks have been proposed to understand the interplay among these psychophysical variables or the neural systems level interactions that govern perceptual variability. Here, we propose a dynamic systems model consisting of the basic ingredients of any multisensory processing, two unisensory and one multisensory sub-system (nodes) as reported by several researchers. The nodes are connected such that biophysically inspired coupling parameters and time delays become key parameters of this network. We observed that zero AV lag results in maximum synchronization of constituent nodes and the degree of synchronization decreases when we have non-zero lags. The attractor states of this network can thus be interpreted as the facilitator for stabilizing specific perceptual experience. Thereby, the dynamic model presents a quantitative framework for understanding multisensory information processing. PMID:27502974

  15. Interactions between multisensory inputs with voluntary spatial attention: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tianyi; Geng, Yansong; Wu, Jinglong; Li, Chunlin

    2015-08-01

    Cross-modal attention and multisensory integration are very essential for us to perceive the world. The most intuitive feelings about the environment around us are based on what we see and what we hear. Therefore, it is important to understand the interactions between visual inputs and auditory inputs. Previous studies have shown that multisensory integration can be modulated by attention. However, how top-down attention is controlled or allocated across the sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study, we measured the cortical areas activated by the cue-target spatial attention paradigm in both visual and auditory fields using functional MRI. The reaction times of the behavioral results indicated that interactions between the two types of stimuli exist. The imaging results indicated that interactions between multisensory inputs can lead to enhancement or depression of the cortical response with top-down spatial attention. Moreover, the activation of the middle temporal gyrus and insula in tasks with irrelevant stimuli appears to indicate that multisensory integration proceeds automatically. PMID:26103115

  16. Program Evaluation of a School District's Multisensory Reading Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asip, Michael Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative program evaluation of a school district's multisensory reading initiative. The mixed methods study involved semi-structured interviews, online survey, focus groups, document review, and analysis of extant special education student reading achievement data. Participants included elementary…

  17. Multi-sensory Contexts and Support in Science for Special Needs Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, Jill

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity that was adapted from the Chemical Industry Education Center (CIEC) materials for use with special-needs students. The activity, "Transporting Chocolate," addresses a real-world problem and makes use of multisensory contexts to maximize the student's capabilities while minimizing limitations. (WRM)

  18. A Multisensory Language Approach to the Introduction of the Alphabet to Hearing Impaired Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Anne Porter; Schroder, Ann

    The project was designed to develop a multisensory, language-oriented curriculum to introduce the letters of the alphabet to six hearing impaired preschoolers. Every week a new letter is introduced via such tasks as art and cooking activities, snacks, beginning sound picture cards, yarn and lacing letters, sandpaper letters, alphabet string beads,…

  19. Technologically and Artistically Enhanced Multi-Sensory Computer-Programming Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katai, Zoltan; Toth, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decades more and more research has analysed relatively new or rediscovered teaching-learning concepts like blended, hybrid, multi-sensory or technologically enhanced learning. This increased interest in these educational forms can be explained by new exciting discoveries in brain research and cognitive psychology, as well as by the…

  20. Teaching a foreign language using multisensory structured language techniques to at-risk learners: a review.

    PubMed

    Sparks, R L; Miller, K S

    2000-01-01

    An overview of multisensory structured language (MSL) techniques used to teach a foreign language to at-risk students is outlined. Research supporting the use of MSL techniques is reviewed. Specific activities using the MSL approach to teach the phonology/orthography, grammar and vocabulary of the foreign language as well as reading and communicative activities in the foreign language are presented.

  1. A Teacher's Guide to Multisensory Learning: Improving Literacy by Engaging the Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Discover how teachers can motivate students and help them retain more knowledge longer by using sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and movement in the classroom. In this first-ever guide to multisensory learning, author Lawrence Baines explains how teachers in every grade and subject can change curriculum from a series of assignments to a series…

  2. A dynamical framework to relate perceptual variability with multisensory information processing.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhumika; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Sen, Abhijit; Banerjee, Arpan

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory processing involves participation of individual sensory streams, e.g., vision, audition to facilitate perception of environmental stimuli. An experimental realization of the underlying complexity is captured by the "McGurk-effect"- incongruent auditory and visual vocalization stimuli eliciting perception of illusory speech sounds. Further studies have established that time-delay between onset of auditory and visual signals (AV lag) and perturbations in the unisensory streams are key variables that modulate perception. However, as of now only few quantitative theoretical frameworks have been proposed to understand the interplay among these psychophysical variables or the neural systems level interactions that govern perceptual variability. Here, we propose a dynamic systems model consisting of the basic ingredients of any multisensory processing, two unisensory and one multisensory sub-system (nodes) as reported by several researchers. The nodes are connected such that biophysically inspired coupling parameters and time delays become key parameters of this network. We observed that zero AV lag results in maximum synchronization of constituent nodes and the degree of synchronization decreases when we have non-zero lags. The attractor states of this network can thus be interpreted as the facilitator for stabilizing specific perceptual experience. Thereby, the dynamic model presents a quantitative framework for understanding multisensory information processing. PMID:27502974

  3. Effect of multisensory stimulation on analgesia in term neonates: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Bagnoli, Franco; Perrone, Serafina; Nenci, Anna; Cordelli, Duccio Maria; Fusi, Mara; Ceccarelli, Simona; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2002-04-01

    Many attempts have been made to obtain safe and effective analgesia in newborns. Oral glucose-water has been found to have analgesic properties in neonates. We investigated whether other sensory stimulation added to oral glucose provided more effective analgesia than oral glucose alone. In a randomized prospective double-blind trial, we studied 120 term newborns during heel prick. The babies were divided randomly into six groups of 20, and each group was treated with a different procedure during heel prick: A) control; B) 1 mL 33% oral glucose given 2 min before the heel prick; C) sucking; D) 1 mL 33% oral glucose plus sucking; E) multisensory stimulation including 1 mL 33% oral glucose (sensorial saturation); F) multisensory stimulation without oral glucose. Sensorial saturation consisted in massage, voice, eye contact, and perfume smelling during heel prick. Each heel prick was filmed and assigned a point score according to the Douleur Aiguë du Nouveau-né (DAN) neonatal acute pain scale. Camera recording began 30 s before the heel prick, so it was impossible for the scorers to distinguish procedure A (control) from B (glucose given 2 min before), C (sucking water) from D (sucking glucose), and E (multisensory stimulation and glucose) from F (multisensory stimulation and water) from the video. Procedure E (multisensory stimulation and glucose) was found to be the most effective procedure, and the analgesia was even more effective than that produced by procedure D (sucking glucose). We conclude that sensorial saturation is an effective analgesic technique that potentiates the analgesic effect of oral sugar. It can be used for minor painful procedures on newborns.

  4. Multisensory Stimulation to Improve Low- and Higher-Level Sensory Deficits after Stroke: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tinga, Angelica Maria; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; van der Smagt, Maarten Jeroen; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; van Ee, Raymond; Nijboer, Tanja Cornelia Wilhelmina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to integrate and assess evidence for the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation (i.e., stimulating at least two of the following sensory systems: visual, auditory, and somatosensory) as a possible rehabilitation method after stroke. Evidence was considered with a focus on low-level, perceptual (visual, auditory and somatosensory deficits), as well as higher-level, cognitive, sensory deficits. We referred to the electronic databases Scopus and PubMed to search for articles that were published before May 2015. Studies were included which evaluated the effects of multisensory stimulation on patients with low- or higher-level sensory deficits caused by stroke. Twenty-one studies were included in this review and the quality of these studies was assessed (based on eight elements: randomization, inclusion of control patient group, blinding of participants, blinding of researchers, follow-up, group size, reporting effect sizes, and reporting time post-stroke). Twenty of the twenty-one included studies demonstrate beneficial effects on low- and/or higher-level sensory deficits after stroke. Notwithstanding these beneficial effects, the quality of the studies is insufficient for valid conclusion that multisensory stimulation can be successfully applied as an effective intervention. A valuable and necessary next step would be to set up well-designed randomized controlled trials to examine the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation as an intervention for low- and/or higher-level sensory deficits after stroke. Finally, we consider the potential mechanisms of multisensory stimulation for rehabilitation to guide this future research. PMID:26490254

  5. Multifunctional nanocomposite materials. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.; Komarneni, S.

    1991-11-01

    Objective is to examine the low temperature nanocomposite route in the synthesis of multifunctional materials using two-dimensional clays as hosts. After about 8 months, a significant advance was made in the design and synthesis of novel nanocomposite materials, which are nanometal intercalated clays prepared by a low temperature route. A layered V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel has been made hydrothermally and its cation exchange properties measured. Several pillared clays have also been synthesized and characterized.

  6. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1989-01-01

    Two kinds of number density distributions of the nucleus, harmonic well and Woods-Saxon models, are used with the t-matrix that is taken from the scattering experiments to find a simple optical potential. The parameterized two body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are shown. The eikonal approximation was chosen as the solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  7. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Maung, Khin Maung; Wilson, John W.; Buck, Warren W.

    1989-01-01

    The derivations of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and Watson multiple scattering are given. A simple optical potential is found to be the first term of that series. The number density distribution models of the nucleus, harmonic well, and Woods-Saxon are used without t-matrix taken from the scattering experiments. The parameterized two-body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are presented. The eikonal approximation was chosen as our solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  8. Multifunctional Cascaded Metamaterials: Integrated Transmitarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsakka, Amr A.; Asadchy, Viktar S.; Faniayeu, Ihar A.; Tcvetkova, Svetlana N.; Tretyakov, Sergei A.

    2016-10-01

    Control of electromagnetic waves using engineered materials is very important in a wide range of applications, therefore there is always a continuous need for new and more efficient solutions. Known natural and artificial materials and surfaces provide a particular functionality in the frequency range they operate but cast a "shadow" and produce reflections at other frequencies. Here, we introduce a concept of multifunctional engineered materials that possess different predetermined functionalities at different frequencies. Such response can be accomplished by cascading metasurfaces (thin composite layers) that are designed to perform a single operation at the desired frequency and are transparent elsewhere. Previously, out-of-band transparent metasurfaces for control over reflection and absorption were proposed. In this paper, to complete the full set of functionalities for wave control, we synthesize transmitarrays that tailor transmission in a desired way, being "invisible" beyond the operational band. The designed transmitarrays for wavefront shaping and anomalous refraction are tested numerically and experimentally. To demonstrate our concept of multifunctional engineered materials, we have designed a cascade of three metasurfaces that performs three different functions for waves at different frequencies. Remarkably, applied to volumetric metamaterials, our concept can enable a single composite possessing desired multifunctional response.

  9. Convergence of the nucleus-nucleus Glauber multiple scattering series

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, A.A.; Ahmad, I. )

    1991-05-01

    The Glauber {ital S}-matrix operator for nucleus-nucleus scattering is expressed as a finite series of matrix elements involving Bell's polynomials. Analyzing {alpha}{sup 4}He elastic-scattering data at the incident momentum of 4.32 GeV/{ital c}, we infer that our expansion is appreciably converging. Further, by applying closure over target and projectile states and neglecting a certain class of terms involving intermediate excitations, we arrive at a recurrence relation for nucleus-nucleus multiple scattering series terms, which invites further study as it seems to provide a simple method for calculating the nucleus-nucleus elastic-scattering cross section.

  10. Keeping in touch with the visual system: spatial alignment and multisensory integration of visual-somatosensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Molholm, Sophie; Butler, John S; Sehatpour, Pejman; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Ritter, Walter; Foxe, John J

    2015-01-01

    Correlated sensory inputs coursing along the individual sensory processing hierarchies arrive at multisensory convergence zones in cortex where inputs are processed in an integrative manner. The exact hierarchical level of multisensory convergence zones and the timing of their inputs are still under debate, although increasingly, evidence points to multisensory integration (MSI) at very early sensory processing levels. While MSI is said to be governed by stimulus properties including space, time, and magnitude, violations of these rules have been documented. The objective of the current study was to determine, both psychophysically and electrophysiologically, whether differential visual-somatosensory (VS) integration patterns exist for stimuli presented to the same versus opposite hemifields. Using high-density electrical mapping and complementary psychophysical data, we examined multisensory integrative processing for combinations of visual and somatosensory inputs presented to both left and right spatial locations. We assessed how early during sensory processing VS interactions were seen in the event-related potential and whether spatial alignment of the visual and somatosensory elements resulted in differential integration effects. Reaction times to all VS pairings were significantly faster than those to the unisensory conditions, regardless of spatial alignment, pointing to engagement of integrative multisensory processing in all conditions. In support, electrophysiological results revealed significant differences between multisensory simultaneous VS and summed V + S responses, regardless of the spatial alignment of the constituent inputs. Nonetheless, multisensory effects were earlier in the aligned conditions, and were found to be particularly robust in the case of right-sided inputs (beginning at just 55 ms). In contrast to previous work on audio-visual and audio-somatosensory inputs, the current work suggests a degree of spatial specificity to the earliest

  11. Onset of deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdzicki, M.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Seyboth, P.

    2012-05-15

    The energy dependence of hadron production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions reveals anomalies-the kink, horn, and step. They were predicted as signals of the deconfinement phase transition and observed by the NA49 Collaboration in central PbPb collisions at the CERN SPS. This indicates the onset of the deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions at about 30 A GeV.

  12. Multifunctional gold nanorod theragnostics probed by multi-photon imaging.

    PubMed

    Book Newell, Brittany; Wang, Yuling; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    This study exhibits the fabrication of target-specific Gold nanorods (GNRs) coupled with an anti-tumorigenic apoptotic drug and provides tracking of the labeled particles as they migrate through cells and release their drug-load to targeted cancer cells. We utilize the photoluminescence property of GNRs and their ability to be conjugated with multiple agents to transform facile rods to a targeted drug delivery vehicle. GNRs of aspect ratio 2.8 were conjugated with a targeting ligand, folic acid and an anthracycline drug, Doxorubicin. The multifunctional nanorods were then used to target folate receptor expressing cancers cells for the delivery of a concentration dependent dosage of Doxorubicin (DOX). By utilizing the photoluminescence of GNRs and the innate fluorescence of DOX, multi-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging was utilized to monitor the uptake of functionalized nanorods, the release of the drug and its localization in living cells. We show that these nano-vehicles successfully targeted cancer cells over expressing folate receptors and showed low toxicity to control cell lines. Release of DOX was observed in the cytoplasmic region and after 16 h was found to be redistributed in the nucleus resulting in cell death. Our theragnostic approach demonstrates the fabrication of multifunctional GNRs for targeted drug delivery and monitoring of the drug and the vehicle by multi-photon microscopy using fluorescence intensity and lifetime imaging.

  13. Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data.

    1993-08-18

    Version 00 The Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data file PNESD contains the numerical data and the related bibliography for the differential elastic cross sections, polarization and integral nonelastic cross sections for elastic proton-nucleus scattering.

  14. Sign language and multisensory input training of children with communication and related developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Benaroya, S; Wesley, S; Ogilvie, H; Klein, L S; Meaney, M

    1977-03-01

    This report deals with the preliminary findings of a research project on simultaneous communication and multisensory input in the treatment of six autistic and communication disordered children. The children, aged 5 to 12, were taught manually signed English and speech using a multisensory-intrusion approach. The hypothesis was that such a technique would serve to alleviate the children's difficulties in information processing, organization of experience, and affect. The dependent measures were behavioral ratings derived from both structured (teaching) and unstructured (free play) sessions. The results indicate that the children manifested a consistent acquisition of sign lanuage, which in some cases transferred into verbal communication skills. Moreover, statistical analyses of some of the observed socioaffective behaviors (i.e., nonsolitary play, interaction with peers and adults, exploration, and detachment) revealed tendencies supportive of the hypothesis. The variability of the data preclude any categorical statement in relation to the hypothesis. However, the preliminary results strongly support the continuation of the study.

  15. Oscillatory brain activity during multisensory attention reflects activation, disinhibition, and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Uwe; Daume, Jonathan; Göschl, Florian; König, Peter; Wang, Peng; Engel, Andreas K.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a novel multisensory attention paradigm to investigate attention-modulated cortical oscillations over a wide range of frequencies using magnetencephalography in healthy human participants. By employing a task that required the evaluation of the congruence of audio-visual stimuli, we promoted the formation of widespread cortical networks including early sensory cortices as well as regions associated with cognitive control. We found that attention led to increased high-frequency gamma-band activity and decreased lower frequency theta-, alpha-, and beta-band activity in early sensory cortex areas. Moreover, alpha-band coherence decreased in visual cortex. Frontal cortex was found to exert attentional control through increased low-frequency phase synchronisation. Crossmodal congruence modulated beta-band coherence in mid-cingulate and superior temporal cortex. Together, these results offer an integrative view on the concurrence of oscillations at different frequencies during multisensory attention. PMID:27604647

  16. Is attentional prioritization on a location where pain is expected modality-specific or multisensory?

    PubMed

    Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Crombez, Geert; Durnez, Wouter; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2015-11-01

    Previous research suggests that anticipating pain at a particular body location prioritizes somatosensory input at that location. The present study tested whether this prioritization effect is limited to somatosensory information (modality-specific hypothesis) or generalizes to other sensory modalities (multisensory hypothesis). Thirty-four students performed tactile and visual Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) tasks while either expecting a painful stimulus on one of the hands (threat), or expecting no pain stimulus (control). Participants judged the order of either two visual stimuli (visual condition) or two tactile stimuli (tactile condition), one on each hand. Analyses revealed that only in threat trials, participants became aware of stimuli on the threatened hand more quickly as compared to the neutral hand, replicating the prioritization effect. Of particular interest, this effect was not different between the tactile and visual conditions. This suggests that the anticipation of pain results in multisensory prioritization of information at the threatened body location. PMID:26184378

  17. Spatiotemporal interplay between multisensory excitation and recruited inhibition in the lamprey optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Kardamakis, Andreas A; Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Grillner, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Animals integrate the different senses to facilitate event-detection for navigation in their environment. In vertebrates, the optic tectum (superior colliculus) commands gaze shifts by synaptic integration of different sensory modalities. Recent works suggest that tectum can elaborate gaze reorientation commands on its own, rather than merely acting as a relay from upstream/forebrain circuits to downstream premotor centers. We show that tectal circuits can perform multisensory computations independently and, hence, configure final motor commands. Single tectal neurons receive converging visual and electrosensory inputs, as investigated in the lamprey - a phylogenetically conserved vertebrate. When these two sensory inputs overlap in space and time, response enhancement of output neurons occurs locally in the tectum, whereas surrounding areas and temporally misaligned inputs are inhibited. Retinal and electrosensory afferents elicit local monosynaptic excitation, quickly followed by inhibition via recruitment of GABAergic interneurons. Multisensory inputs can thus regulate event-detection within tectum through local inhibition without forebrain control. PMID:27635636

  18. Temporary deafness can impair multisensory integration: a study of cochlear-implant users.

    PubMed

    Landry, Simon P; Guillemot, Jean-Paul; Champoux, François

    2013-07-01

    Previous investigations suggest that temporary deafness can have a dramatic impact on audiovisual speech processing. The aim of this study was to test whether temporary deafness disturbs other multisensory processes in adults. A nonspeech task involving an audiotactile illusion was administered to a group of normally hearing individuals and a group of individuals who had been temporarily auditorily deprived. Members of this latter group had their auditory detection thresholds restored to normal levels through the use of a cochlear implant. Control conditions revealed that auditory and tactile discrimination capabilities were identical in the two groups. However, whereas normally hearing individuals integrated auditory and tactile information, so that they experienced the audiotactile illusion, individuals who had been temporarily deprived did not. Given the basic nature of the task, failure to integrate multisensory information could not be explained by the use of the cochlear implant. Thus, the results suggest that normally anticipated audiotactile interactions are disturbed following temporary deafness.

  19. Synaptic diversity enables temporal coding of coincident multi-sensory inputs in single neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chabrol, François P.; Arenz, Alexander; Wiechert, Martin T.; Margrie, Troy W.; DiGregorio, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the brain to rapidly process information from multiple pathways is critical for reliable execution of complex sensory-motor behaviors, yet the cellular mechanisms underlying a neuronal representation of multimodal stimuli are poorly understood. Here we explored the possibility that the physiological diversity of mossy fiber (MF) to granule cell (GC) synapses within the mouse vestibulocerebellum may contribute to the processing of coincident multisensory information at the level of individual GCs. We found that the strength and short-term dynamics of individual MF-GC synapses can act as biophysical signatures for primary vestibular, secondary vestibular and visual input pathways. The majority of GCs receive inputs from different modalities, which when co-activated, produced enhanced GC firing rates and distinct first spike latencies. Thus, pathway-specific synaptic response properties permit temporal coding of correlated multisensory input by single GCs, thereby enriching sensory representation and facilitating pattern separation. PMID:25821914

  20. Oscillatory brain activity during multisensory attention reflects activation, disinhibition, and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Friese, Uwe; Daume, Jonathan; Göschl, Florian; König, Peter; Wang, Peng; Engel, Andreas K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a novel multisensory attention paradigm to investigate attention-modulated cortical oscillations over a wide range of frequencies using magnetencephalography in healthy human participants. By employing a task that required the evaluation of the congruence of audio-visual stimuli, we promoted the formation of widespread cortical networks including early sensory cortices as well as regions associated with cognitive control. We found that attention led to increased high-frequency gamma-band activity and decreased lower frequency theta-, alpha-, and beta-band activity in early sensory cortex areas. Moreover, alpha-band coherence decreased in visual cortex. Frontal cortex was found to exert attentional control through increased low-frequency phase synchronisation. Crossmodal congruence modulated beta-band coherence in mid-cingulate and superior temporal cortex. Together, these results offer an integrative view on the concurrence of oscillations at different frequencies during multisensory attention. PMID:27604647

  1. Locally rare species influence grassland ecosystem multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    Soliveres, Santiago; Manning, Peter; Prati, Daniel; Gossner, Martin M; Alt, Fabian; Arndt, Hartmut; Baumgartner, Vanessa; Binkenstein, Julia; Birkhofer, Klaus; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Boch, Steffen; Böhm, Stefan; Börschig, Carmen; Buscot, Francois; Diekötter, Tim; Heinze, Johannes; Hölzel, Norbert; Jung, Kirsten; Klaus, Valentin H; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kleinebecker, Till; Klemmer, Sandra; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Morris, E Kathryn; Müller, Jörg; Oelmann, Yvonne; Overmann, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Renner, Swen C; Rillig, Matthias C; Schaefer, H Martin; Schloter, Michael; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Sikorski, Johannes; Socher, Stephanie A; Solly, Emily F; Sonnemann, Ilja; Sorkau, Elisabeth; Steckel, Juliane; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stempfhuber, Barbara; Tschapka, Marco; Türke, Manfred; Venter, Paul; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Wolters, Volkmar; Wubet, Tesfaye; Wurst, Susanne; Fischer, Markus; Allan, Eric

    2016-05-19

    Species diversity promotes the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality). However, the relative functional importance of rare and common species in driving the biodiversity-multifunctionality relationship remains unknown. We studied the relationship between the diversity of rare and common species (according to their local abundances and across nine different trophic groups), and multifunctionality indices derived from 14 ecosystem functions on 150 grasslands across a land-use intensity (LUI) gradient. The diversity of above- and below-ground rare species had opposite effects, with rare above-ground species being associated with high levels of multifunctionality, probably because their effects on different functions did not trade off against each other. Conversely, common species were only related to average, not high, levels of multifunctionality, and their functional effects declined with LUI. Apart from the community-level effects of diversity, we found significant positive associations between the abundance of individual species and multifunctionality in 6% of the species tested. Species-specific functional effects were best predicted by their response to LUI: species that declined in abundance with land use intensification were those associated with higher levels of multifunctionality. Our results highlight the importance of rare species for ecosystem multifunctionality and help guiding future conservation priorities. PMID:27114572

  2. Locally rare species influence grassland ecosystem multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    Soliveres, Santiago; Manning, Peter; Prati, Daniel; Gossner, Martin M; Alt, Fabian; Arndt, Hartmut; Baumgartner, Vanessa; Binkenstein, Julia; Birkhofer, Klaus; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Boch, Steffen; Böhm, Stefan; Börschig, Carmen; Buscot, Francois; Diekötter, Tim; Heinze, Johannes; Hölzel, Norbert; Jung, Kirsten; Klaus, Valentin H; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kleinebecker, Till; Klemmer, Sandra; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Morris, E Kathryn; Müller, Jörg; Oelmann, Yvonne; Overmann, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Renner, Swen C; Rillig, Matthias C; Schaefer, H Martin; Schloter, Michael; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Sikorski, Johannes; Socher, Stephanie A; Solly, Emily F; Sonnemann, Ilja; Sorkau, Elisabeth; Steckel, Juliane; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stempfhuber, Barbara; Tschapka, Marco; Türke, Manfred; Venter, Paul; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Wolters, Volkmar; Wubet, Tesfaye; Wurst, Susanne; Fischer, Markus; Allan, Eric

    2016-05-19

    Species diversity promotes the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality). However, the relative functional importance of rare and common species in driving the biodiversity-multifunctionality relationship remains unknown. We studied the relationship between the diversity of rare and common species (according to their local abundances and across nine different trophic groups), and multifunctionality indices derived from 14 ecosystem functions on 150 grasslands across a land-use intensity (LUI) gradient. The diversity of above- and below-ground rare species had opposite effects, with rare above-ground species being associated with high levels of multifunctionality, probably because their effects on different functions did not trade off against each other. Conversely, common species were only related to average, not high, levels of multifunctionality, and their functional effects declined with LUI. Apart from the community-level effects of diversity, we found significant positive associations between the abundance of individual species and multifunctionality in 6% of the species tested. Species-specific functional effects were best predicted by their response to LUI: species that declined in abundance with land use intensification were those associated with higher levels of multifunctionality. Our results highlight the importance of rare species for ecosystem multifunctionality and help guiding future conservation priorities.

  3. Alpha-Band Oscillations Reflect Altered Multisensory Processing of the McGurk Illusion in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Roa Romero, Yadira; Keil, Julian; Balz, Johanna; Niedeggen, Michael; Gallinat, Jürgen; Senkowski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The formation of coherent multisensory percepts requires integration of stimuli across the multiple senses. Patients with schizophrenia (ScZ) often experience a loss of coherent perception and hence, they might also show dysfunctional multisensory processing. In this high-density electroencephalography study, we investigated the neural signatures of the McGurk illusion, as a phenomenon of speech-specific multisensory processing. In the McGurk illusion lip movements are paired with incongruent auditory syllables, which can induce a fused percept. In ScZ patients and healthy controls we compared neural oscillations and event-related potentials (ERPs) to congruent audiovisual speech stimuli and McGurk illusion trials, where a visual /ga/ and an auditory /pa/ was often perceived as /ka/. There were no significant group differences in illusion rates. The EEG data analysis revealed larger short latency ERPs to McGurk illusion compared with congruent trials in controls. The reversed effect pattern was found in ScZ patients, indicating an early audiovisual processing deficit. Moreover, we observed stronger suppression of medio-central alpha-band power (8–10 Hz, 550–700 ms) in response to McGurk illusion compared with control trials in the control group. Again, the reversed pattern was found in SCZ patients. Moreover, within groups, alpha-band suppression was negatively correlated with the McGurk illusion rate in ScZ patients, while the correlation tended to be positive in controls. The topography of alpha-band effects indicated an involvement of auditory and/or frontal structures. Our study suggests that short latency ERPs and long latency alpha-band oscillations reflect abnormal multisensory processing of the McGurk illusion in ScZ. PMID:26903845

  4. The effects of attention on the temporal integration of multisensory stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Sarah E.; Green, Jessica J.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2015-01-01

    In unisensory contexts, spatially-focused attention tends to enhance perceptual processing. How attention influences the processing of multisensory stimuli, however, has been of much debate. In some cases, attention has been shown to be important for processes related to the integration of audio-visual stimuli, but in other cases such processes have been reported to occur independently of attention. To address these conflicting results, we performed three experiments to examine how attention interacts with a key facet of multisensory processing: the temporal window of integration (TWI). The first two experiments used a novel cued-spatial-attention version of the bounce/stream illusion, wherein two moving visual stimuli with intersecting paths tend to be perceived as bouncing off rather than streaming through each other when a brief sound occurs near in time. When the task was to report whether the visual stimuli appeared to bounce or stream, attention served to narrow this measure of the TWI and bias perception toward “streaming”. When the participants’ task was to explicitly judge the simultaneity of the sound with the intersection of the moving visual stimuli, however, the results were quite different. Specifically, attention served to mainly widen the TWI, increasing the likelihood of simultaneity perception, while also substantially increasing the simultaneity judgment accuracy when the stimuli were actually physically simultaneous. Finally, in Experiment 3, where the task was to judge the simultaneity of a simple, temporally discrete, flashed visual stimulus and the same brief tone pip, attention had no effect on the measured TWI. These results highlight the flexibility of attention in enhancing multisensory perception and show that the effects of attention on multisensory processing are highly dependent on the task demands and observer goals. PMID:25954167

  5. Neuro-oscillatory phase alignment drives speeded multisensory response times: an electro-corticographic investigation.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Manuel R; Molholm, Sophie; Fiebelkorn, Ian C; Butler, John S; Schwartz, Theodore H; Foxe, John J

    2015-06-01

    Even simple tasks rely on information exchange between functionally distinct and often relatively distant neuronal ensembles. Considerable work indicates oscillatory synchronization through phase alignment is a major agent of inter-regional communication. In the brain, different oscillatory phases correspond to low- and high-excitability states. Optimally aligned phases (or high-excitability states) promote inter-regional communication. Studies have also shown that sensory stimulation can modulate or reset the phase of ongoing cortical oscillations. For example, auditory stimuli can reset the phase of oscillations in visual cortex, influencing processing of a simultaneous visual stimulus. Such cross-regional phase reset represents a candidate mechanism for aligning oscillatory phase for inter-regional communication. Here, we explored the role of local and inter-regional phase alignment in driving a well established behavioral correlate of multisensory integration: the redundant target effect (RTE), which refers to the fact that responses to multisensory inputs are substantially faster than to unisensory stimuli. In a speeded detection task, human epileptic patients (N = 3) responded to unisensory (auditory or visual) and multisensory (audiovisual) stimuli with a button press, while electrocorticography was recorded over auditory and motor regions. Visual stimulation significantly modulated auditory activity via phase reset in the delta and theta bands. During the period between stimulation and subsequent motor response, transient synchronization between auditory and motor regions was observed. Phase synchrony to multisensory inputs was faster than to unisensory stimulation. This sensorimotor phase alignment correlated with behavior such that stronger synchrony was associated with faster responses, linking the commonly observed RTE with phase alignment across a sensorimotor network. PMID:26041921

  6. A three-finger multisensory hand for dexterous space robotic tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murase, Yuichi; Komada, Satoru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Machida, Kazuo; Akita, Kenzo

    1994-01-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan will launch ETS-7 in 1997, as a test bed for next generation space technology of RV&D and space robot. MITI has been developing a three-finger multisensory hand for complex space robotic tasks. The hand can be operated under remote control or autonomously. This paper describes the design and development of the hand and the performance of a breadboard model.

  7. SUMOrganization of the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Heun, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    In the eukaryotic nucleus, gene expression and maintenance of genome integrity are tightly controlled at multiple levels, from the molecular details to the higher-order structure of the genome. The nucleus contains spatially and functionally distinct compartments in which these fundamental processes are carried out. While the dynamics and functions of some nuclear subdomains, like the nucleolus, have been well studied, other domains, like the PML-nuclear bodies, remain enigmatic. Recent evidence has now implicated the SUMOylation pathway as an important player in subnuclear architecture, particularly in the assembly of PML-nuclear bodies. Related functions include the organization of chromatin loops and maintenance of rDNA repeat stability. Consequently, complete loss of SUMO modification profoundly affects nuclear organization and cell viability.

  8. Antinucleon-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical results on anti p-nucleus interactions are reviewed. We focus on determinations of the anti p optical potential from elastic scattering, the use of (anti p, anti p') inelastic scattering to reveal aspects of the spin-isospin dependence of N anti N amplitudes, and some puzzling features of (anti p, anti n) charge exchange reactions on nuclei. 47 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Perceptuo-motor compatibility governs multisensory integration in bimanual coordination dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zelic, Gregory; Mottet, Denis; Lagarde, Julien

    2016-02-01

    The brain has the remarkable ability to bind together inputs from different sensory origin into a coherent percept. Behavioral benefits can result from such ability, e.g., a person typically responds faster and more accurately to cross-modal stimuli than to unimodal stimuli. To date, it is, however, largely unknown whether such multisensory benefits, shown for discrete reactive behaviors, generalize to the continuous coordination of movements. The present study addressed multisensory integration from the perspective of bimanual coordination dynamics, where the perceptual activity no longer triggers a single response but continuously guides the motor action. The task consisted in coordinating anti-symmetrically the continuous flexion-extension of the index fingers, while synchronizing with an external pacer. Three different configurations of metronome were tested, for which we examined whether a cross-modal pacing (audio-tactile beats) improved the stability of the coordination in comparison with unimodal pacing condition (auditory or tactile beats). We found a more stable bimanual coordination for cross-modal pacing, but only when the metronome configuration directly matched the anti-symmetric coordination pattern. We conclude that multisensory integration can benefit the continuous coordination of movements; however, this is constrained by whether the perceptual and motor activities match in space and time. PMID:26525707

  10. Multisensory representation of the space near the hand: from perception to action and interindividual interactions.

    PubMed

    Brozzoli, Claudio; Ehrsson, H Henrik; Farnè, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    When interacting with objects and other people, the brain needs to locate our limbs and the relevant visual information surrounding them. Studies on monkeys showed that information from different sensory modalities converge at the single cell level within a set of interconnected multisensory frontoparietal areas. It is largely accepted that this network allows for multisensory processing of the space surrounding the body (peripersonal space), whose function has been linked to the sensory guidance of appetitive and defensive movements, and localization of the limbs in space. In the current review, we consider multidisciplinary findings about the processing of the space near the hands in humans and offer a convergent view of its functions and underlying neural mechanisms. We will suggest that evolution has provided the brain with a clever tool for representing visual information around the hand, which takes the hand itself as a reference for the coding of surrounding visual space. We will contend that the hand-centered representation of space, known as perihand space, is a multisensory-motor interface that allows interaction with the objects and other persons around us.

  11. Catch the moment: multisensory enhancement of rapid visual events by sound.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2009-09-01

    Repetition blindness (RB) is a visual deficit, wherein observers fail to perceive the second occurrence of a repeated item in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Chen and Yeh (Psychon Bull Rev 15:404-408, 2008) recently observed a reduction of the RB effect when the repeated items were accompanied by two sounds. The current study further manipulated the pitch of the two sounds (same versus different) in order to examine whether this cross-modal facilitation effect is caused by the multisensory enhancement of the visual event by sound, or multisensory Gestalt (perceptual grouping) of a new representation formed by combining the visual and auditory inputs. The results showed robust facilitatory effects of sound on RB regardless of the pitch of the sounds (Experiment 1), despite an effort to further increase the difference in pitch (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 revealed a close link between participants' awareness of pitch and the effect of pitch on the RB effect. We conclude that the facilitatory effect of sound on RB results from multisensory enhancement of the perception of visual events by auditory signals. PMID:19444433

  12. Uni- and multisensory brain areas are synchronised across spectators when watching unedited dance recordings

    PubMed Central

    Jola, Corinne; McAleer, Phil; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Love, Scott A.; Morison, Gordon; Pollick, Frank E.

    2013-01-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) and gyrus (STG) are commonly identified to be functionally relevant for multisensory integration of audiovisual (AV) stimuli. However, most neuroimaging studies on AV integration used stimuli of short duration in explicit evaluative tasks. Importantly though, many of our AV experiences are of a long duration and ambiguous. It is unclear if the enhanced activity in audio, visual, and AV brain areas would also be synchronised over time across subjects when they are exposed to such multisensory stimuli. We used intersubject correlation to investigate which brain areas are synchronised across novices for uni- and multisensory versions of a 6-min 26-s recording of an unfamiliar, unedited Indian dance recording (Bharatanatyam). In Bharatanatyam, music and dance are choreographed together in a highly intermodal-dependent manner. Activity in the middle and posterior STG was significantly correlated between subjects and showed also significant enhancement for AV integration when the functional magnetic resonance signals were contrasted against each other using a general linear model conjunction analysis. These results extend previous studies by showing an intermediate step of synchronisation for novices: while there was a consensus across subjects' brain activity in areas relevant for unisensory processing and AV integration of related audio and visual stimuli, we found no evidence for synchronisation of higher level cognitive processes, suggesting these were idiosyncratic. PMID:24349687

  13. Impairments of Multisensory Integration and Cross-Sensory Learning as Pathways to Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Noemi; Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Two sensory systems are intrinsic to learning to read. Written words enter the brain through the visual system and associated sounds through the auditory system. The task before the beginning reader is quite basic. She must learn correspondences between orthographic tokens and phonemic utterances, and she must do this to the point that there is seamless automatic ‘connection’ between these sensorially distinct units of language. It is self-evident then that learning to read requires formation of cross-sensory associations to the point that deeply encoded multisensory representations are attained. While the majority of individuals manage this task to a high degree of expertise, some struggle to attain even rudimentary capabilities. Why do dyslexic individuals, who learn well in myriad other domains, fail at this particular task? Here, we examine the literature as it pertains to multisensory processing in dyslexia. We find substantial support for multisensory deficits in dyslexia, and make the case that to fully understand its neurological basis, it will be necessary to thoroughly probe the integrity of auditory-visual integration mechanisms. PMID:25265514

  14. Natural asynchronies in audiovisual communication signals regulate neuronal multisensory interactions in voice-sensitive cortex.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-01-01

    When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally imprecise but highly selective responses to communication signals. To address this, we exploited naturally occurring face- and voice-onset asynchronies in primate vocalizations. Using these as stimuli we recorded cortical oscillations and neuronal spiking responses from functional MRI (fMRI)-localized voice-sensitive cortex in the anterior temporal lobe of macaques. We show that the onset of the visual face stimulus resets the phase of low-frequency oscillations, and that the face-voice asynchrony affects the prominence of two key types of neuronal multisensory responses: enhancement or suppression. Our findings show a three-way association between temporal delays in audiovisual communication signals, phase-resetting of ongoing oscillations, and the sign of multisensory responses. The results reveal how natural onset asynchronies in cross-sensory inputs regulate network oscillations and neuronal excitability in the voice-sensitive cortex of macaques, a suggested animal model for human voice areas. These findings also advance predictions on the impact of multisensory input on neuronal processes in face areas and other brain regions.

  15. The sense of body ownership relaxes temporal constraints for multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Maselli, Antonella; Kilteni, Konstantina; López-Moliner, Joan; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Experimental work on body ownership illusions showed how simple multisensory manipulation can generate the illusory experience of an artificial limb as being part of the own-body. This work highlighted how own-body perception relies on a plastic brain representation emerging from multisensory integration. The flexibility of this representation is reflected in the short-term modulations of physiological states and perceptual processing observed during these illusions. Here, we explore the impact of ownership illusions on the temporal dimension of multisensory integration. We show that, during the illusion, the temporal window for integrating touch on the physical body with touch seen on a virtual body representation, increases with respect to integration with visual events seen close but separated from the virtual body. We show that this effect is mediated by the ownership illusion. Crucially, the temporal window for visuotactile integration was positively correlated with participants' scores rating the illusory experience of owning the virtual body and touching the object seen in contact with it. Our results corroborate the recently proposed causal inference mechanism for illusory body ownership. As a novelty, they show that the ensuing illusory causal binding between stimuli from the real and fake body relaxes constraints for the integration of bodily signals.

  16. The sense of body ownership relaxes temporal constraints for multisensory integration

    PubMed Central

    Maselli, Antonella; Kilteni, Konstantina; López-Moliner, Joan; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Experimental work on body ownership illusions showed how simple multisensory manipulation can generate the illusory experience of an artificial limb as being part of the own-body. This work highlighted how own-body perception relies on a plastic brain representation emerging from multisensory integration. The flexibility of this representation is reflected in the short-term modulations of physiological states and perceptual processing observed during these illusions. Here, we explore the impact of ownership illusions on the temporal dimension of multisensory integration. We show that, during the illusion, the temporal window for integrating touch on the physical body with touch seen on a virtual body representation, increases with respect to integration with visual events seen close but separated from the virtual body. We show that this effect is mediated by the ownership illusion. Crucially, the temporal window for visuotactile integration was positively correlated with participants’ scores rating the illusory experience of owning the virtual body and touching the object seen in contact with it. Our results corroborate the recently proposed causal inference mechanism for illusory body ownership. As a novelty, they show that the ensuing illusory causal binding between stimuli from the real and fake body relaxes constraints for the integration of bodily signals. PMID:27485049

  17. Impairments of multisensory integration and cross-sensory learning as pathways to dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Noemi; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    Two sensory systems are intrinsic to learning to read. Written words enter the brain through the visual system and associated sounds through the auditory system. The task before the beginning reader is quite basic. She must learn correspondences between orthographic tokens and phonemic utterances, and she must do this to the point that there is seamless automatic 'connection' between these sensorially distinct units of language. It is self-evident then that learning to read requires formation of cross-sensory associations to the point that deeply encoded multisensory representations are attained. While the majority of individuals manage this task to a high degree of expertise, some struggle to attain even rudimentary capabilities. Why do dyslexic individuals, who learn well in myriad other domains, fail at this particular task? Here, we examine the literature as it pertains to multisensory processing in dyslexia. We find substantial support for multisensory deficits in dyslexia, and make the case that to fully understand its neurological basis, it will be necessary to thoroughly probe the integrity of auditory-visual integration mechanisms.

  18. Heteromodal connections supporting multisensory integration at low levels of cortical processing in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Cappe, Céline; Barone, Pascal

    2005-12-01

    While multisensory integration is thought to occur in higher hierarchical cortical areas, recent studies in man and monkey have revealed plurisensory modulations of activity in areas previously thought to be unimodal. To determine the cortical network involved in multisensory interactions, we performed multiple injections of different retrograde tracers in unimodal auditory (core), somatosensory (1/3b) and visual (V2 and MT) cortical areas of the marmoset. We found three types of heteromodal connections linking unimodal sensory areas. Visuo-somatosensory projections were observed originating from visual areas [probably the ventral and dorsal fundus of the superior temporal area (FSTv and FSTd), and middle temporal crescent (MTc)] toward areas 1/3b. Somatosensory projections to the auditory cortex were present from S2 and the anterior bank of the lateral sulcus. Finally, a visuo-auditory projection arises from an area anterior to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) toward the auditory core. Injections in different sensory regions allow us to define the frontal convexity and the temporal opercular caudal cortex as putative polysensory areas. A quantitative analysis of the laminar distribution of projecting neurons showed that heteromodal connections could be either feedback or feedforward. Taken together, our results provide the anatomical pathway for multisensory integration at low levels of information processing in the primate and argue against a strict hierarchical model.

  19. Asymmetric Multisensory Interactions of Visual and Somatosensory Responses in a Region of the Rat Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lippert, Michael T.; Takagaki, Kentaroh

    2013-01-01

    Perception greatly benefits from integrating multiple sensory cues into a unified percept. To study the neural mechanisms of sensory integration, model systems are required that allow the simultaneous assessment of activity and the use of techniques to affect individual neural processes in behaving animals. While rodents qualify for these requirements, little is known about multisensory integration and areas involved for this purpose in the rodent. Using optical imaging combined with laminar electrophysiological recordings, the rat parietal cortex was identified as an area where visual and somatosensory inputs converge and interact. Our results reveal similar response patterns to visual and somatosensory stimuli at the level of current source density (CSD) responses and multi-unit responses within a strip in parietal cortex. Surprisingly, a selective asymmetry was observed in multisensory interactions: when the somatosensory response preceded the visual response, supra-linear summation of CSD was observed, but the reverse stimulus order resulted in sub-linear effects in the CSD. This asymmetry was not present in multi-unit activity however, which showed consistently sub-linear interactions. These interactions were restricted to a specific temporal window, and pharmacological tests revealed significant local intra-cortical contributions to this phenomenon. Our results highlight the rodent parietal cortex as a system to model the neural underpinnings of multisensory processing in behaving animals and at the cellular level. PMID:23667650

  20. Chronic pain and distorted body image: Implications for multisensory feedback interventions.

    PubMed

    Senkowski, Daniel; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with chronic pain often show a distorted body image. Various studies demonstrated that improvements in body image go along with symptom improvement in chronic pain. This renders distorted body images a promising target for feedback intervention programs. We propose that interventions that comprise of virtual reality (VR) multisensory feedback training provide a promising new avenue for the treatment of chronic pain. Thus far, VR-based interventions have been primarily applied to distract patients from pain. Recently, first attempts have been made to apply VR-based interventions as active sensory feedback training. VR-based feedback training allows the dynamic modification of virtual limbs that are perceived as one's own. This offers unique opportunities to target long-term associations between sensory input and pain in patients with chronic pain. We predict that multisensory VR feedback interventions could be effective in reducing fear-avoidance behavior and improving distorted body images. We review current developments and provide an outlook on future directions in the promising field of VR feedback interventions for the multisensory treatment of chronic pain.

  1. The Elicitation of Audiovisual Steady-State Responses: Multi-Sensory Signal Congruity and Phase Effects

    PubMed Central

    Rhone, Ariane E.; Idsardi, William J.; Simon, Jonathan Z.; Poeppel, David

    2013-01-01

    Most ecologically natural sensory inputs are not limited to a single modality. While it is possible to use real ecological materials as experimental stimuli to investigate the neural basis of multi-sensory experience, parametric control of such tokens is limited. By using artificial bimodal stimuli composed of approximations to ecological signals, we aim to observe the interactions between putatively relevant stimulus attributes. Here we use MEG as an electrophysiological tool and employ as a measure the steady-state response (SSR), an experimental paradigm typically applied to unimodal signals. In this experiment we quantify the responses to a bimodal audio-visual signal with different degrees of temporal (phase) congruity, focusing on stimulus properties critical to audiovisual speech. An amplitude modulated auditory signal (‘pseudo-speech’) is paired with a radius-modulated ellipse (‘pseudo-mouth’), with the envelope of low-frequency modulations occurring in phase or at offset phase values across modalities. We observe (i) that it is possible to elicit an SSR to bimodal signals; (ii) that bimodal signals exhibit greater response power than unimodal signals; and (iii) that the SSR power at specific harmonics and sensors differentially reflects the congruity between signal components. Importantly, we argue that effects found at the modulation frequency and second harmonic reflect differential aspects of neural coding of multisensory signals. The experimental paradigm facilitates a quantitative characterization of properties of multi-sensory speech and other bimodal computations. PMID:21380858

  2. Natural asynchronies in audiovisual communication signals regulate neuronal multisensory interactions in voice-sensitive cortex.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-01-01

    When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally imprecise but highly selective responses to communication signals. To address this, we exploited naturally occurring face- and voice-onset asynchronies in primate vocalizations. Using these as stimuli we recorded cortical oscillations and neuronal spiking responses from functional MRI (fMRI)-localized voice-sensitive cortex in the anterior temporal lobe of macaques. We show that the onset of the visual face stimulus resets the phase of low-frequency oscillations, and that the face-voice asynchrony affects the prominence of two key types of neuronal multisensory responses: enhancement or suppression. Our findings show a three-way association between temporal delays in audiovisual communication signals, phase-resetting of ongoing oscillations, and the sign of multisensory responses. The results reveal how natural onset asynchronies in cross-sensory inputs regulate network oscillations and neuronal excitability in the voice-sensitive cortex of macaques, a suggested animal model for human voice areas. These findings also advance predictions on the impact of multisensory input on neuronal processes in face areas and other brain regions. PMID:25535356

  3. Multi-Sensory and Sensorimotor Foundation of Bodily Self-Consciousness – An Interdisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ionta, Silvio; Gassert, Roger; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Scientific investigations on the nature of the self have so far focused on high-level mechanisms. Recent evidence, however, suggests that low-level bottom-up mechanisms of multi-sensory integration play a fundamental role in encoding specific components of bodily self-consciousness, such as self-location and first-person perspective (Blanke and Metzinger, 2009). Self-location and first-person perspective are abnormal in neurological patients suffering from out-of-body experiences (Blanke et al., 2004), and can be manipulated experimentally in healthy subjects by imposing multi-sensory conflicts (Lenggenhager et al., 2009). Activity of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) reflects experimentally induced changes in self-location and first-person perspective (Ionta et al., 2011), and dysfunctions in TPJ are causally associated with out-of-body experiences (Blanke et al., 2002). We argue that TPJ is one of the key areas for multi-sensory integration of bodily self-consciousness, that its levels of activity reflect the experience of the conscious “I” as embodied and localized within bodily space, and that these mechanisms can be systematically investigated using state of the art technologies such as robotics, virtual reality, and non-invasive neuroimaging. PMID:22207860

  4. The plausibility of visual information for hand ownership modulates multisensory synchrony perception.

    PubMed

    Zopf, Regine; Friedman, Jason; Williams, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    We are frequently changing the position of our bodies and body parts within complex environments. How does the brain keep track of one's own body? Current models of body ownership state that visual body ownership cues such as viewed object form and orientation are combined with multisensory information to correctly identify one's own body, estimate its current location and evoke an experience of body ownership. Within this framework, it may be possible that the brain relies on a separate perceptual analysis of body ownership cues (e.g. form, orientation, multisensory synchrony). Alternatively, these cues may interact in earlier stages of perceptual processing-visually derived body form and orientation cues may, for example, directly modulate temporal synchrony perception. The aim of the present study was to distinguish between these two alternatives. We employed a virtual hand set-up and psychophysical methods. In a two-interval force-choice task, participants were asked to detect temporal delays between executed index finger movements and observed movements. We found that body-specifying cues interact in perceptual processing. Specifically, we show that plausible visual information (both form and orientation) for one's own body led to significantly better detection performance for small multisensory asynchronies compared to implausible visual information. We suggest that this perceptual modulation when visual information plausible for one's own body is present is a consequence of body-specific sensory predictions. PMID:25980691

  5. The sense of body ownership relaxes temporal constraints for multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Maselli, Antonella; Kilteni, Konstantina; López-Moliner, Joan; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Experimental work on body ownership illusions showed how simple multisensory manipulation can generate the illusory experience of an artificial limb as being part of the own-body. This work highlighted how own-body perception relies on a plastic brain representation emerging from multisensory integration. The flexibility of this representation is reflected in the short-term modulations of physiological states and perceptual processing observed during these illusions. Here, we explore the impact of ownership illusions on the temporal dimension of multisensory integration. We show that, during the illusion, the temporal window for integrating touch on the physical body with touch seen on a virtual body representation, increases with respect to integration with visual events seen close but separated from the virtual body. We show that this effect is mediated by the ownership illusion. Crucially, the temporal window for visuotactile integration was positively correlated with participants' scores rating the illusory experience of owning the virtual body and touching the object seen in contact with it. Our results corroborate the recently proposed causal inference mechanism for illusory body ownership. As a novelty, they show that the ensuing illusory causal binding between stimuli from the real and fake body relaxes constraints for the integration of bodily signals. PMID:27485049

  6. Impairments of multisensory integration and cross-sensory learning as pathways to dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Noemi; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    Two sensory systems are intrinsic to learning to read. Written words enter the brain through the visual system and associated sounds through the auditory system. The task before the beginning reader is quite basic. She must learn correspondences between orthographic tokens and phonemic utterances, and she must do this to the point that there is seamless automatic 'connection' between these sensorially distinct units of language. It is self-evident then that learning to read requires formation of cross-sensory associations to the point that deeply encoded multisensory representations are attained. While the majority of individuals manage this task to a high degree of expertise, some struggle to attain even rudimentary capabilities. Why do dyslexic individuals, who learn well in myriad other domains, fail at this particular task? Here, we examine the literature as it pertains to multisensory processing in dyslexia. We find substantial support for multisensory deficits in dyslexia, and make the case that to fully understand its neurological basis, it will be necessary to thoroughly probe the integrity of auditory-visual integration mechanisms. PMID:25265514

  7. Multisensory integration and cross-modal learning in synaesthesia: A unifying model.

    PubMed

    Newell, Fiona N; Mitchell, Kevin J

    2016-07-29

    Recent research into synaesthesia has highlighted the role of learning, yet synaesthesia is clearly a genetic condition. Here we ask how can the idea that synaesthesia reflects innate, genetic differences be reconciled with models that suggest it is driven by learning. A number of lines of evidence suggest that synaesthesia relies on, or at least interacts with, processes of multisensory integration that are common across all people. These include multisensory activations that arise in early regions of the brain as well as feedback from longer-term cross-modal associations generated in memory. These cognitive processes may interact independently to influence the phenomenology of the synaesthetic experience, as well as the individual differences within particular types of synaesthesia. The theoretical framework presented here is consistent with both an innate difference as the fundamental driver of the condition of synaesthesia, and with experiential and semantic influences on the eventual phenotype that emerges. In particular, it proposes that the internally generated synaesthetic percepts are treated similarly to other sensory information as the brain is learning the multisensory attributes of objects and developing cross-modal associations that merge in the concept of the object. PMID:26231979

  8. Chronic pain and distorted body image: Implications for multisensory feedback interventions.

    PubMed

    Senkowski, Daniel; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with chronic pain often show a distorted body image. Various studies demonstrated that improvements in body image go along with symptom improvement in chronic pain. This renders distorted body images a promising target for feedback intervention programs. We propose that interventions that comprise of virtual reality (VR) multisensory feedback training provide a promising new avenue for the treatment of chronic pain. Thus far, VR-based interventions have been primarily applied to distract patients from pain. Recently, first attempts have been made to apply VR-based interventions as active sensory feedback training. VR-based feedback training allows the dynamic modification of virtual limbs that are perceived as one's own. This offers unique opportunities to target long-term associations between sensory input and pain in patients with chronic pain. We predict that multisensory VR feedback interventions could be effective in reducing fear-avoidance behavior and improving distorted body images. We review current developments and provide an outlook on future directions in the promising field of VR feedback interventions for the multisensory treatment of chronic pain. PMID:27524638

  9. Evaluation of multisensory stimuli--dimensions of meaning and electrical brain activity.

    PubMed

    Hiessl, Anna K; Skrandies, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    The semantic differential technique is used to statistically define connotative dimensions of meaning. The brain depends on these dimensions to process words. Earlier studies demonstrated that stimuli of the different semantic classes led to differences in neuronal processing. We investigated the influence of connotative meaning on multisensory processing (food words strongly related to odor, taste, vision or somatosensory texture). A group of 795 subjects rated 197 food words on the basis of 11 pairs of adjectives with opposite meanings. Factor analysis revealed three dimensions (Evaluation, Potency and Texture). Words with high positive or negative scores, and low scores on the other dimensions, were used as stimuli in an ERP experiment. EEG was recorded in 40 healthy adults from 30 channels and averaged according to semantic stimulus class. Component latency, global field power and topography were influenced by semantic meaning. These experiments determined that very early effects at 107 ms after stimulus presentation where latency and GFP were affected by stimulus class. When mapped topographically, different stimulus classes led to different scalp topography of evoked brain activity in sagittal direction already at an early state of processing (around 107 ms). The extent of lateralization of potential fields' centers of gravity was influenced by stimulus class around 304 ms. In summary, semantic dimensions influence neuronal processing of words related to multisensory perception. Such effects suggest a rapid and complex way of processing multisensory stimuli. PMID:23583966

  10. Perceptuo-motor compatibility governs multisensory integration in bimanual coordination dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zelic, Gregory; Mottet, Denis; Lagarde, Julien

    2016-02-01

    The brain has the remarkable ability to bind together inputs from different sensory origin into a coherent percept. Behavioral benefits can result from such ability, e.g., a person typically responds faster and more accurately to cross-modal stimuli than to unimodal stimuli. To date, it is, however, largely unknown whether such multisensory benefits, shown for discrete reactive behaviors, generalize to the continuous coordination of movements. The present study addressed multisensory integration from the perspective of bimanual coordination dynamics, where the perceptual activity no longer triggers a single response but continuously guides the motor action. The task consisted in coordinating anti-symmetrically the continuous flexion-extension of the index fingers, while synchronizing with an external pacer. Three different configurations of metronome were tested, for which we examined whether a cross-modal pacing (audio-tactile beats) improved the stability of the coordination in comparison with unimodal pacing condition (auditory or tactile beats). We found a more stable bimanual coordination for cross-modal pacing, but only when the metronome configuration directly matched the anti-symmetric coordination pattern. We conclude that multisensory integration can benefit the continuous coordination of movements; however, this is constrained by whether the perceptual and motor activities match in space and time.

  11. Testing sensory and multisensory function in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baum, Sarah H; Stevenson, Ryan A; Wallace, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    In addition to impairments in social communication and the presence of restricted interests and repetitive behaviors, deficits in sensory processing are now recognized as a core symptom in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our ability to perceive and interact with the external world is rooted in sensory processing. For example, listening to a conversation entails processing the auditory cues coming from the speaker (speech content, prosody, syntax) as well as the associated visual information (facial expressions, gestures). Collectively, the "integration" of these multisensory (i.e., combined audiovisual) pieces of information results in better comprehension. Such multisensory integration has been shown to be strongly dependent upon the temporal relationship of the paired stimuli. Thus, stimuli that occur in close temporal proximity are highly likely to result in behavioral and perceptual benefits--gains believed to be reflective of the perceptual system's judgment of the likelihood that these two stimuli came from the same source. Changes in this temporal integration are expected to strongly alter perceptual processes, and are likely to diminish the ability to accurately perceive and interact with our world. Here, a battery of tasks designed to characterize various aspects of sensory and multisensory temporal processing in children with ASD is described. In addition to its utility in autism, this battery has great potential for characterizing changes in sensory function in other clinical populations, as well as being used to examine changes in these processes across the lifespan.

  12. Multisensory integration of colors and scents: insights from bees and flowers.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Anne S; Masek, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    Karl von Frisch's studies of bees' color vision and chemical senses opened a window into the perceptual world of a species other than our own. A century of subsequent research on bees' visual and olfactory systems has developed along two productive but independent trajectories, leaving the questions of how and why bees use these two senses in concert largely unexplored. Given current interest in multimodal communication and recently discovered interplay between olfaction and vision in humans and Drosophila, understanding multisensory integration in bees is an opportunity to advance knowledge across fields. Using a classic ethological framework, we formulate proximate and ultimate perspectives on bees' use of multisensory stimuli. We discuss interactions between scent and color in the context of bee cognition and perception, focusing on mechanistic and functional approaches, and we highlight opportunities to further explore the development and evolution of multisensory integration. We argue that although the visual and olfactory worlds of bees are perhaps the best-studied of any non-human species, research focusing on the interactions between these two sensory modalities is vitally needed.

  13. Neurocomputational approaches to modelling multisensory integration in the brain: a review.

    PubMed

    Ursino, Mauro; Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    The Brain's ability to integrate information from different modalities (multisensory integration) is fundamental for accurate sensory experience and efficient interaction with the environment: it enhances detection of external stimuli, disambiguates conflict situations, speeds up responsiveness, facilitates processes of memory retrieval and object recognition. Multisensory integration operates at several brain levels: in subcortical structures (especially the Superior Colliculus), in higher-level associative cortices (e.g., posterior parietal regions), and even in early cortical areas (such as primary cortices) traditionally considered to be purely unisensory. Because of complex non-linear mechanisms of brain integrative phenomena, a key tool for their understanding is represented by neurocomputational models. This review examines different modelling principles and architectures, distinguishing the models on the basis of their aims: (i) Bayesian models based on probabilities and realizing optimal estimator of external cues; (ii) biologically inspired models of multisensory integration in the Superior Colliculus and in the Cortex, both at level of single neuron and network of neurons, with emphasis on physiological mechanisms and architectural schemes; among the latter, some models exhibit synaptic plasticity and reproduce development of integrative capabilities via Hebbian-learning rules or self-organizing maps; (iii) models of semantic memory that implement object meaning as a fusion between sensory-motor features (embodied cognition). This overview paves the way to future challenges, such as reconciling neurophysiological and Bayesian models into a unifying theory, and stimulates upcoming research in both theoretical and applicative domains. PMID:25218929

  14. Multifunctional Nanoprobes for Cancer Cell Targeting, Imaging and Anticancer Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkov, Pavel; Laronze-Cochard, Marie; Sapi, Janos; Sidorov, Lev N.; Nabiev, Igor

    The diagnosis and treatment of cancer have been greatly improved with recent developments in bio-nanotechnology, including engineering of multifunctional probes. One of the promising nanoscale tools for cancer imaging is fluorescent quantum dots (QDs), whose small size and unique optical properties allow them to penetrate into cells and ensure highly sensitive optical diagnosis of cancer at the cellular level. Furthermore, novel multi-functional probes have been developed in which QDs are conjugated with one or several functional molecules, including targeting moieties and therapeutic agents. Here, the strategy for engineering novel nanocarriers for controlled nucleus-targeted antitumor drug delivery and real-time imaging by single- or two-photon microscopy is described. A triple multifunctional nanoprobe is being developed that consists of a nitrogen-based heterocyclic derivative, an anticancer agent interacting with a DNA in living cells; a recognized molecule serving as a vector responsible for targeted delivery of the probe into cancer cells; and photoluminescent QDs providing the imaging capability of the probe. Subsequent optimization of the multifunctional nanoprobe will offer new possibilities for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Electrospun multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chong; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Tissue engineering holds great promises in providing successful treatments of human body tissue loss that current methods are unable to treat or unable to achieve satisfactory clinical outcomes. In scaffold-based tissue engineering, a highperformance scaffold underpins the success of a tissue engineering strategy and a major direction in the field is to create multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds for enhanced biological performance and for regenerating complex body tissues. Electrospinning can produce nanofibrous scaffolds that are highly desirable for tissue engineering. The enormous interest in electrospinning and electrospun fibrous structures by the science, engineering and medical communities has led to various developments of the electrospinning technology and wide investigations of electrospun products in many industries, including biomedical engineering, over the past two decades. It is now possible to create novel, multicomponent tissue engineering scaffolds with multiple functions. This article provides a concise review of recent advances in the R & D of electrospun multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds. It also presents our philosophy and research in the designing and fabrication of electrospun multicomponent scaffolds with multiple functions.

  16. Compensatory Recovery after Multisensory Stimulation in Hemianopic Patients: Behavioral and Neurophysiological Components

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Paolo A.; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Bertini, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Lateralized post-chiasmatic lesions of the primary visual pathway result in loss of visual perception in the field retinotopically corresponding to the damaged cortical area. However, patients with visual field defects have shown enhanced detection and localization of multisensory audio-visual pairs presented in the blind field. This preserved multisensory integrative ability (i.e., crossmodal blindsight) seems to be subserved by the spared retino-colliculo-dorsal pathway. According to this view, audio-visual integrative mechanisms could be used to increase the functionality of the spared circuit and, as a consequence, might represent an important tool for the rehabilitation of visual field defects. The present study tested this hypothesis, investigating whether exposure to systematic multisensory audio-visual stimulation could induce long-lasting improvements in the visual performance of patients with visual field defects. A group of 10 patients with chronic visual field defects were exposed to audio-visual training for 4 h daily, over a period of 2 weeks. Behavioral, oculomotor and electroencephalography (EEG) measures were recorded during several visual tasks before and after audio-visual training. After audio-visual training, improvements in visual search abilities, visual detection, self-perceived disability in daily life activities and oculomotor parameters were found, suggesting the implementation of more effective visual exploration strategies. At the electrophysiological level, after training, patients showed a significant reduction of the P3 amplitude in response to stimuli presented in the intact field, reflecting a reduction in attentional resources allocated to the intact field, which might co-occur with a shift of spatial attention towards the blind field. More interestingly, both the behavioral improvements and the electrophysiological changes observed after training were found to be stable at a follow-up session (on average, 8 months after training

  17. Analytic optical potentials for nucleon-nucleus nucleus-nucleus collisions involving light and medium nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidasaria, H. B.; Townsend, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing an optical model potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, optical potentials for nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are analytically derived. These expressions are applicable to light and medium cosmic ray nuclei as their single-particle density distributions are analytically determined, without approximation, from their actual harmonic well charge density distributions. Pauli correlation effects are included through the use of a simple Gaussian function to replace the usual expression obtained in the infinite nuclear matter approximation.

  18. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, H.; Garvey, G.; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  19. Nucleus from string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Morita, Takeshi

    2011-08-01

    In generic holographic QCD, we find that baryons are bound to form a nucleus, and that its radius obeys the empirically-known mass-number (A) dependence r∝A1/3 for large A. Our result is robust, since we use only a generic property of D-brane actions in string theory. We also show that nucleons are bound completely in a finite volume. Furthermore, employing a concrete holographic model (derived by Hashimoto, Iizuka, and Yi, describing a multibaryon system in the Sakai-Sugimoto model), the nuclear radius is evaluated as O(1)×A1/3[fm], which is consistent with experiments.

  20. Impairments in multisensory processing are not universal to the autism spectrum: no evidence for crossmodal priming deficits in Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    David, Nicole; R Schneider, Till; Vogeley, Kai; Engel, Andreas K

    2011-10-01

    Individuals suffering from autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show a tendency for detail- or feature-based perception (also referred to as "local processing bias") instead of more holistic stimulus processing typical for unaffected people. This local processing bias has been demonstrated for the visual and auditory domains and there is evidence that multisensory processing may also be affected in ASD. Most multisensory processing paradigms used social-communicative stimuli, such as human speech or faces, probing the processing of simultaneously occuring sensory signals. Multisensory processing, however, is not limited to simultaneous stimulation. In this study, we investigated whether multisensory processing deficits in ASD persist when semantically complex but nonsocial stimuli are presented in succession. Fifteen adult individuals with Asperger syndrome and 15 control persons participated in a visual-audio priming task, which required the classification of sounds that were either primed by semantically congruent or incongruent preceding pictures of objects. As expected, performance on congruent trials was faster and more accurate compared with incongruent trials (crossmodal priming effect). The Asperger group, however, did not differ significantly from the control group. Our results do not support a general multisensory processing deficit, which is universal to the entire autism spectrum.

  1. The fMRI BOLD response to unisensory and multisensory smoking cues in nicotine-dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Bernadette M; Uhde, Thomas W; Brady, Kathleen T; McClernon, F Joseph; Yang, Qing X; Collins, Heather R; LeMatty, Todd; Hartwell, Karen J

    2015-12-30

    Given that the vast majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of drug cue reactivity use unisensory visual cues, but that multisensory cues may elicit greater craving-related brain responses, the current study sought to compare the fMRI BOLD response to unisensory visual and multisensory, visual plus odor, smoking cues in 17 nicotine-dependent adult cigarette smokers. Brain activation to smoking-related, compared to neutral, pictures was assessed under cigarette smoke and odorless odor conditions. While smoking pictures elicited a pattern of activation consistent with the addiction literature, the multisensory (odor+picture) smoking cues elicited significantly greater and more widespread activation in mainly frontal and temporal regions. BOLD signal elicited by the multisensory, but not unisensory cues, was significantly related to participants' level of control over craving as well. Results demonstrated that the co-presentation of cigarette smoke odor with smoking-related visual cues, compared to the visual cues alone, elicited greater levels of craving-related brain activation in key regions implicated in reward. These preliminary findings support future research aimed at a better understanding of multisensory integration of drug cues and craving.

  2. Learning multisensory representations for auditory-visual transfer of sequence category knowledge: a probabilistic language of thought approach.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Ilker; Jacobs, Robert A

    2015-06-01

    If a person is trained to recognize or categorize objects or events using one sensory modality, the person can often recognize or categorize those same (or similar) objects and events via a novel modality. This phenomenon is an instance of cross-modal transfer of knowledge. Here, we study the Multisensory Hypothesis which states that people extract the intrinsic, modality-independent properties of objects and events, and represent these properties in multisensory representations. These representations underlie cross-modal transfer of knowledge. We conducted an experiment evaluating whether people transfer sequence category knowledge across auditory and visual domains. Our experimental data clearly indicate that we do. We also developed a computational model accounting for our experimental results. Consistent with the probabilistic language of thought approach to cognitive modeling, our model formalizes multisensory representations as symbolic "computer programs" and uses Bayesian inference to learn these representations. Because the model demonstrates how the acquisition and use of amodal, multisensory representations can underlie cross-modal transfer of knowledge, and because the model accounts for subjects' experimental performances, our work lends credence to the Multisensory Hypothesis. Overall, our work suggests that people automatically extract and represent objects' and events' intrinsic properties, and use these properties to process and understand the same (and similar) objects and events when they are perceived through novel sensory modalities.

  3. Multifunctional surfaces produced by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we create a multifunctional metal surface by producing a hierarchical nano/microstructure with femtosecond laser pulses. The multifunctional surface exhibits combined effects of dramatically enhanced broadband absorption, superhydrophobicity, and self-cleaning. The superhydrophobic effect is demonstrated by a falling water droplet repelled away from a structured surface with 30% of the droplet kinetic energy conserved, while the self-cleaning effect is shown by each water droplet taking away a significant amount of dust particles on the altered surface. The multifunctional surface is useful for light collection and water/dust repelling.

  4. Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Cross-section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two-photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two-photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  6. Multifunction display system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and construction of a multifunction display man/machine interface for use with a 4 pi IBM-360 System are described. The system is capable of displaying superimposed volatile alphanumeric and graphical data on a 512 x 512 element plasma panel, and holographically stored multicolor archival information. The volatile data may be entered from a keyboard or by means of an I/O interface to the 360 system. A 2-page memory local to the display is provided for storing the entered data. The archival data is stored as a phase hologram on a vinyl tape strip. This data is accessible by means of a rapid transport system which responds to inputs provided by the I/O channel on the keyboard. As many as 500 frames may be stored on a tape strip for access in under 6 seconds.

  7. Multifunctionalities driven by ferroic domains

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J. C.; Huang, Y. L.; Chu, Y. H.; He, Q.

    2014-08-14

    Considerable attention has been paid to ferroic systems in pursuit of advanced applications in past decades. Most recently, the emergence and development of multiferroics, which exhibit the coexistence of different ferroic natures, has offered a new route to create functionalities in the system. In this manuscript, we step from domain engineering to explore a roadmap for discovering intriguing phenomena and multifunctionalities driven by periodic domain patters. As-grown periodic domains, offering exotic order parameters, periodic local perturbations and the capability of tailoring local spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom, are introduced as modeling templates for fundamental studies and novel applications. We discuss related significant findings on ferroic domain, nanoscopic domain walls, and conjunct heterostructures based on the well-organized domain patterns, and end with future prospects and challenges in the field.

  8. Multifunctional composites for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif I.; Karim, Hasanul; Rajib, Md; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical super-capacitors have become one of the most important topics in both academia and industry as novel energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide lighter structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area and fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and XRay Diffraction (XRD) measurements were used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing has been performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire hybrid carbon fiber provides 65.9% better performance than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  9. Microbial diversity drives multifunctionality in terrestrial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T.; Reich, Peter B.; Jeffries, Thomas C.; Gaitan, Juan J.; Encinar, Daniel; Berdugo, Miguel; Campbell, Colin D.; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of microbial communities for ecosystem services and human welfare, the relationship between microbial diversity and multiple ecosystem functions and services (that is, multifunctionality) at the global scale has yet to be evaluated. Here we use two independent, large-scale databases with contrasting geographic coverage (from 78 global drylands and from 179 locations across Scotland, respectively), and report that soil microbial diversity positively relates to multifunctionality in terrestrial ecosystems. The direct positive effects of microbial diversity were maintained even when accounting simultaneously for multiple multifunctionality drivers (climate, soil abiotic factors and spatial predictors). Our findings provide empirical evidence that any loss in microbial diversity will likely reduce multifunctionality, negatively impacting the provision of services such as climate regulation, soil fertility and food and fibre production by terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26817514

  10. Microbial diversity drives multifunctionality in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T; Reich, Peter B; Jeffries, Thomas C; Gaitan, Juan J; Encinar, Daniel; Berdugo, Miguel; Campbell, Colin D; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-01-28

    Despite the importance of microbial communities for ecosystem services and human welfare, the relationship between microbial diversity and multiple ecosystem functions and services (that is, multifunctionality) at the global scale has yet to be evaluated. Here we use two independent, large-scale databases with contrasting geographic coverage (from 78 global drylands and from 179 locations across Scotland, respectively), and report that soil microbial diversity positively relates to multifunctionality in terrestrial ecosystems. The direct positive effects of microbial diversity were maintained even when accounting simultaneously for multiple multifunctionality drivers (climate, soil abiotic factors and spatial predictors). Our findings provide empirical evidence that any loss in microbial diversity will likely reduce multifunctionality, negatively impacting the provision of services such as climate regulation, soil fertility and food and fibre production by terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. Microbial diversity drives multifunctionality in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T; Reich, Peter B; Jeffries, Thomas C; Gaitan, Juan J; Encinar, Daniel; Berdugo, Miguel; Campbell, Colin D; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of microbial communities for ecosystem services and human welfare, the relationship between microbial diversity and multiple ecosystem functions and services (that is, multifunctionality) at the global scale has yet to be evaluated. Here we use two independent, large-scale databases with contrasting geographic coverage (from 78 global drylands and from 179 locations across Scotland, respectively), and report that soil microbial diversity positively relates to multifunctionality in terrestrial ecosystems. The direct positive effects of microbial diversity were maintained even when accounting simultaneously for multiple multifunctionality drivers (climate, soil abiotic factors and spatial predictors). Our findings provide empirical evidence that any loss in microbial diversity will likely reduce multifunctionality, negatively impacting the provision of services such as climate regulation, soil fertility and food and fibre production by terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26817514

  12. Multifunctional imaging probe based on gadofulleride nanoplatform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun-Peng; Liu, Qiao-Ling; Zhen, Ming-Ming; Jiang, Feng; Shu, Chun-Ying; Jin, Chan; Yang, Yongji; Alhadlaq, Hisham A.; Wang, Chun-Ru

    2012-05-01

    A FAR over-expressed tumor targeting multifunctional imaging probe has been fabricated based on gadofulleride nanoplatform. The combination of highly efficient MRI contrast enhancement and sensitive fluorescence imaging along with the preferential uptake toward FAR tumor cells suggest that the obtained multifunctional imaging probe possesses complementary capabilities for anatomical resolution and detection sensitivity.A FAR over-expressed tumor targeting multifunctional imaging probe has been fabricated based on gadofulleride nanoplatform. The combination of highly efficient MRI contrast enhancement and sensitive fluorescence imaging along with the preferential uptake toward FAR tumor cells suggest that the obtained multifunctional imaging probe possesses complementary capabilities for anatomical resolution and detection sensitivity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials, instruments and methods, synthesis details, XPS characterization for estimation of average molecular formula, evaluation of conjugated FA and FITC ratio, zeta potential and fluorescent images. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30836c

  13. Meson multiplicity versus energy in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, T. W.; Freier, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic study of meson multiplicity as a function of energy at energies up to 100 GeV/u in nucleus-nucleus collisions has been made, using cosmic-ray data in nuclear emulsion. The data are consistent with simple nucleon-nucleon superposition models. Multiplicity per interacting nucleon in AA collisions does not appear to differ significantly from pp collisions.

  14. Scaling phenomenon in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C. Y.; Blankenbecler, R.

    1980-01-01

    New scaling variables for proton and pion production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are introduced which are the generalizations of the Feynmann scaling variable. They allow a simple description of the cross sections at forward and backward angles. 2 figures.

  15. Functional mobility and balance in community-dwelling elderly submitted to multisensory versus strength exercises

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Fábio Marcon; Riberto, Marcelo; Gatz, Lucila Silveira; Ribeiro, Carla Paschoal Corsi; Lopes, José Augusto Fernandes; Santarém, José Maria; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2010-01-01

    It is well documented that aging impairs balance and functional mobility. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of multisensory versus strength exercises on these parameters. We performed a simple blinded randomized controlled trial with 46 community-dwelling elderly allocated to strength ([GST], N = 23, 70.2-years-old ± 4.8 years) or multisensory ([GMS], N = 23, 68.8-years-old ± 5.9 years) exercises twice a week for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated by blinded raters using the timed ‘up and go’ test (TUG), the Guralnik test battery, and a force platform. By the end of the treatment, the GMS group showed a significant improvement in TUG (9.1 ± 1.9 seconds (s) to 8.0 ± 1.0 s, P = 0.002); Guralnik test battery (10.6 ± 1.2 to 11.3 ± 0.8 P = 0.009); lateromedial (6.1 ± 11.7 cm to 3.1 ± 1.6 cm, P = 0.02) and anteroposterior displacement (4.7 ± 4.2 cm to 3.4 ± 1.0 cm, P = 0.03), which were not observed in the GST group. These results reproduce previous findings in the literature and mean that the stimulus to sensibility results in better achievements for the control of balance and dynamic activities. Multisensory exercises were shown to be more efficacious than strength exercises to improve functional mobility. PMID:20711437

  16. Multisensory integration of dynamic emotional faces and voices: method for simultaneous EEG-fMRI measurements

    PubMed Central

    Schelenz, Patrick D.; Klasen, Martin; Reese, Barbara; Regenbogen, Christina; Wolf, Dhana; Kato, Yutaka; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Combined EEG-fMRI analysis correlates time courses from single electrodes or independent EEG components with the hemodynamic response. Implementing information from only one electrode, however, may miss relevant information from complex electrophysiological networks. Component based analysis, in turn, depends on a priori knowledge of the signal topography. Complex designs such as studies on multisensory integration of emotions investigate subtle differences in distributed networks based on only a few trials per condition. Thus, they require a sensitive and comprehensive approach which does not rely on a-priori knowledge about the underlying neural processes. In this pilot study, feasibility and sensitivity of source localization-driven analysis for EEG-fMRI was tested using a multisensory integration paradigm. Dynamic audiovisual stimuli consisting of emotional talking faces and pseudowords with emotional prosody were rated in a delayed response task. The trials comprised affectively congruent and incongruent displays. In addition to event-locked EEG and fMRI analyses, induced oscillatory EEG responses at estimated cortical sources and in specific temporo-spectral windows were correlated with the corresponding BOLD responses. EEG analysis showed high data quality with less than 10% trial rejection. In an early time window, alpha oscillations were suppressed in bilateral occipital cortices and fMRI analysis confirmed high data quality with reliable activation in auditory, visual and frontal areas to the presentation of multisensory stimuli. In line with previous studies, we obtained reliable correlation patterns for event locked occipital alpha suppression and BOLD signal time course. Our results suggest a valid methodological approach to investigate complex stimuli using the present source localization driven method for EEG-fMRI. This novel procedure may help to investigate combined EEG-fMRI data from novel complex paradigms with high spatial and temporal

  17. Deficits in voice and multisensory processing in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salles, Juliette; Strelnikov, Kuzma; Carine, Mantoulan; Denise, Thuilleaux; Laurier, Virginie; Molinas, Catherine; Tauber, Maïthé; Barone, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare neurodevelopmental and genetic disorder that is characterized by various expression of endocrine, cognitive and behavioral problems, among which a true obsession for food and a deficit of satiety that leads to hyperphagia and severe obesity. Neuropsychological studies have reported that PWS display altered social interactions with a specific weakness in interpreting social information and in responding to them, a symptom closed to that observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Based on the hypothesis that atypical multisensory integration such as face and voice interactions would contribute in PWS to social impairment we investigate the abilities of PWS to process communication signals including the human voice. Patients with PWS recruited from the national reference center for PWS performed a simple detection task of stimuli presented in an uni-o or bimodal condition, as well as a voice discrimination task. Compared to control typically developing (TD) individuals, PWS present a specific deficit in discriminating human voices from environmental sounds. Further, PWS present a much lower multisensory benefits with an absence of violation of the race model indicating that multisensory information do not converge and interact prior to the initiation of the behavioral response. All the deficits observed in PWS were stronger for the subgroup of patients suffering from Uniparental Disomy, a population known to be more sensitive to ASD. Altogether, our study suggests that the deficits in social behavior observed in PWS derive at least partly from an impairment in deciphering the social information carried by voice signals, face signals, and the combination of both. In addition, our work is in agreement with the brain imaging studies revealing an alteration in PWS of the "social brain network" including the STS region involved in processing human voices. PMID:26994593

  18. The rapid distraction of attentional resources toward the source of incongruent stimulus input during multisensory conflict

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Sarah E.; Todisco, Alexandra E.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging work on multisensory conflict suggests that the relevant modality receives enhanced processing in the face of incongruency. However, the degree of stimulus processing in the irrelevant modality and the temporal cascade of the attentional modulations in either the relevant or irrelevant modalities are unknown. Here, we employed an audiovisual conflict paradigm with a sensory probe in the task-irrelevant modality (vision) to gauge the attentional allocation to that modality. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded as subjects attended to and discriminated spoken auditory letters while ignoring simultaneous bilateral visual letter stimuli that were either fully congruent, fully incongruent, or partially incongruent (one side incongruent, one congruent) with the auditory stimulation. Half of the audiovisual letter stimuli were followed 500-700 ms later by a bilateral visual probe stimulus. As expected, ERPs to the audiovisual stimuli showed an incongruency ERP effect (fully incongruent versus fully congruent) of an enhanced, centrally distributed, negative-polarity wave starting ~250 ms. More critically here, the sensory ERP components to the visual probes were larger when they followed fully incongruent versus fully congruent multisensory stimuli, with these enhancements greatest on fully incongruent trials with the slowest response times. In addition, on the slowest-response partially incongruent trials, the P2 sensory component to the visual probes was larger contralateral to the preceding incongruent visual stimulus. These data suggest that, in response to conflicting multisensory stimulus input, the initial cognitive effect is a capture of attention by the incongruent irrelevant-modality input, pulling neural processing resources toward that modality, resulting in rapid enhancement, rather than rapid suppression, of that input. PMID:23249355

  19. Musicians have enhanced audiovisual multisensory binding: experience-dependent effects in the double-flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is associated with behavioral and neurophysiological enhancements in auditory processing for both musical and nonmusical sounds (e.g., speech). Yet, whether the benefits of musicianship extend beyond enhancements to auditory-specific skills and impact multisensory (e.g., audiovisual) processing has yet to be fully validated. Here, we investigated multisensory integration of auditory and visual information in musicians and nonmusicians using a double-flash illusion, whereby the presentation of multiple auditory stimuli (beeps) concurrent with a single visual object (flash) induces an illusory perception of multiple flashes. We parametrically varied the onset asynchrony between auditory and visual events (leads and lags of ±300 ms) to quantify participants' "temporal window" of integration, i.e., stimuli in which auditory and visual cues were fused into a single percept. Results show that musically trained individuals were both faster and more accurate at processing concurrent audiovisual cues than their nonmusician peers; nonmusicians had a higher susceptibility for responding to audiovisual illusions and perceived double flashes over an extended range of onset asynchronies compared to trained musicians. Moreover, temporal window estimates indicated that musicians' windows (<100 ms) were ~2-3× shorter than nonmusicians' (~200 ms), suggesting more refined multisensory integration and audiovisual binding. Collectively, findings indicate a more refined binding of auditory and visual cues in musically trained individuals. We conclude that experience-dependent plasticity of intensive musical experience extends beyond simple listening skills, improving multimodal processing and the integration of multiple sensory systems in a domain-general manner.

  20. Stepping to phase-perturbed metronome cues: multisensory advantage in movement synchrony but not correction

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rachel L.; Spurgeon, Laura C.; Elliott, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Humans can synchronize movements with auditory beats or rhythms without apparent effort. This ability to entrain to the beat is considered automatic, such that any perturbations are corrected for, even if the perturbation was not consciously noted. Temporal correction of upper limb (e.g., finger tapping) and lower limb (e.g., stepping) movements to a phase perturbed auditory beat usually results in individuals being back in phase after just a few beats. When a metronome is presented in more than one sensory modality, a multisensory advantage is observed, with reduced temporal variability in finger tapping movements compared to unimodal conditions. Here, we investigate synchronization of lower limb movements (stepping in place) to auditory, visual and combined auditory-visual (AV) metronome cues. In addition, we compare movement corrections to phase advance and phase delay perturbations in the metronome for the three sensory modality conditions. We hypothesized that, as with upper limb movements, there would be a multisensory advantage, with stepping variability being lowest in the bimodal condition. As such, we further expected correction to the phase perturbation to be quickest in the bimodal condition. Our results revealed lower variability in the asynchronies between foot strikes and the metronome beats in the bimodal condition, compared to unimodal conditions. However, while participants corrected substantially quicker to perturbations in auditory compared to visual metronomes, there was no multisensory advantage in the phase correction task—correction under the bimodal condition was almost identical to the auditory-only (AO) condition. On the whole, we noted that corrections in the stepping task were smaller than those previously reported for finger tapping studies. We conclude that temporal corrections are not only affected by the reliability of the sensory information, but also the complexity of the movement itself. PMID:25309397

  1. Multisensory integration in hemianopia and unilateral spatial neglect: Evidence from the sound induced flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Convento, Silvia; Casati, Carlotta; Mancini, Flavia; Brighina, Filippo; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Recent neuropsychological evidence suggests that acquired brain lesions can, in some instances, abolish the ability to integrate inputs from different sensory modalities, disrupting multisensory perception. We explored the ability to perceive multisensory events, in particular the integrity of audio-visual processing in the temporal domain, in brain-damaged patients with visual field defects (VFD), or with unilateral spatial neglect (USN), by assessing their sensitivity to the 'Sound-Induced Flash Illusion' (SIFI). The study yielded two key findings. Firstly, the 'fission' illusion (namely, seeing multiple flashes when a single flash is paired with multiple sounds) is reduced in both left- and right-brain-damaged patients with VFD, but not in right-brain-damaged patients with left USN. The disruption of the fission illusion is proportional to the extent of the occipital damage. Secondly, a reliable 'fusion' illusion (namely, seeing less flashes when a single sound is paired with multiple flashes) is evoked in USN patients, but neither in VFD patients nor in healthy participants. A control experiment showed that the fusion, but not the fission, illusion is lost in older participants (>50 year-old), as compared with younger healthy participants (<30 year-old). This evidence indicates that the fission and fusion illusions are dissociable multisensory phenomena, altered differently by impairments of visual perception (i.e. VFD) and spatial attention (i.e. USN). The occipital cortex represents a key cortical site for binding auditory and visual stimuli in the SIFI, while damage to right-hemisphere areas mediating spatial attention and awareness does not prevent the integration of audio-visual inputs in the temporal domain. PMID:27197073

  2. Musicians have enhanced audiovisual multisensory binding: experience-dependent effects in the double-flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is associated with behavioral and neurophysiological enhancements in auditory processing for both musical and nonmusical sounds (e.g., speech). Yet, whether the benefits of musicianship extend beyond enhancements to auditory-specific skills and impact multisensory (e.g., audiovisual) processing has yet to be fully validated. Here, we investigated multisensory integration of auditory and visual information in musicians and nonmusicians using a double-flash illusion, whereby the presentation of multiple auditory stimuli (beeps) concurrent with a single visual object (flash) induces an illusory perception of multiple flashes. We parametrically varied the onset asynchrony between auditory and visual events (leads and lags of ±300 ms) to quantify participants' "temporal window" of integration, i.e., stimuli in which auditory and visual cues were fused into a single percept. Results show that musically trained individuals were both faster and more accurate at processing concurrent audiovisual cues than their nonmusician peers; nonmusicians had a higher susceptibility for responding to audiovisual illusions and perceived double flashes over an extended range of onset asynchronies compared to trained musicians. Moreover, temporal window estimates indicated that musicians' windows (<100 ms) were ~2-3× shorter than nonmusicians' (~200 ms), suggesting more refined multisensory integration and audiovisual binding. Collectively, findings indicate a more refined binding of auditory and visual cues in musically trained individuals. We conclude that experience-dependent plasticity of intensive musical experience extends beyond simple listening skills, improving multimodal processing and the integration of multiple sensory systems in a domain-general manner. PMID:27334887

  3. Does multifunctionality matter to US farmers? Farmer motivations and conceptions of multifunctionality in dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Brummel, Rachel F; Nelson, Kristen C

    2014-12-15

    The concept of multifunctionality describes and promotes the multiple non-production benefits that emerge from agricultural systems. The notion of multifunctional agriculture was conceived in a European context and largely has been used in European policy arenas to promote and protect the non-production goods emerging from European agriculture. Thus scholars and policy-makers disagree about the relevance of multifunctionality for United States agricultural policy and US farmers. In this study, we explore lived expressions of multifunctional agriculture at the farm-level to examine the salience of the multifunctionality concept in the US. In particular, we investigate rotational grazing and confinement dairy farms in the eastern United States as case studies of multifunctional and productivist agriculture. We also analyze farmer motivations for transitioning from confinement dairy to rotational grazing systems. Through interviews with a range of dairy producers in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and New York, we found that farmers were motivated by multiple factors--including improved cow health and profitability--to transition to rotational grazing systems to achieve greater farm-level multifunctionality. Additionally, rotational grazing farmers attributed a broader range of production and non-production benefits to their farm practice than confinement dairy farmers. Further, rotational grazing dairy farmers described a system-level notion of multifunctionality based on the interdependence of multiple benefits across scales--from the farm to the national level--emerging from grazing operations. We find that the concept of multifunctionality could be expanded in the US to address the interdependence of benefits emerging from farming practices, as well as private benefits to farmers. We contend that understanding agricultural benefits as experienced by the farmer is an important contribution to enriching the multifunctionality concept in the US context, informing agri

  4. Does multifunctionality matter to US farmers? Farmer motivations and conceptions of multifunctionality in dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Brummel, Rachel F; Nelson, Kristen C

    2014-12-15

    The concept of multifunctionality describes and promotes the multiple non-production benefits that emerge from agricultural systems. The notion of multifunctional agriculture was conceived in a European context and largely has been used in European policy arenas to promote and protect the non-production goods emerging from European agriculture. Thus scholars and policy-makers disagree about the relevance of multifunctionality for United States agricultural policy and US farmers. In this study, we explore lived expressions of multifunctional agriculture at the farm-level to examine the salience of the multifunctionality concept in the US. In particular, we investigate rotational grazing and confinement dairy farms in the eastern United States as case studies of multifunctional and productivist agriculture. We also analyze farmer motivations for transitioning from confinement dairy to rotational grazing systems. Through interviews with a range of dairy producers in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and New York, we found that farmers were motivated by multiple factors--including improved cow health and profitability--to transition to rotational grazing systems to achieve greater farm-level multifunctionality. Additionally, rotational grazing farmers attributed a broader range of production and non-production benefits to their farm practice than confinement dairy farmers. Further, rotational grazing dairy farmers described a system-level notion of multifunctionality based on the interdependence of multiple benefits across scales--from the farm to the national level--emerging from grazing operations. We find that the concept of multifunctionality could be expanded in the US to address the interdependence of benefits emerging from farming practices, as well as private benefits to farmers. We contend that understanding agricultural benefits as experienced by the farmer is an important contribution to enriching the multifunctionality concept in the US context, informing agri

  5. From "Weak" to "Strong" Multifunctionality: Conceptualising Farm-Level Multifunctional Transitional Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Geoff A.

    2008-01-01

    Building on normative conceptualisations of multifunctionality as a decision-making spectrum bounded by productivist and non-productivist action and thought, this paper analyses farm-level multifunctional agricultural transitions. First, the paper suggests that it may be possible to categorise different farm types along the…

  6. Multifunctional self-assembled monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Zawodzinski, T.; Bar, G.; Rubin, S.; Uribe, F.; Ferrais, J.

    1996-06-01

    This is the final report of at three year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The specific goals of this research project were threefold: to develop multifunctional self-assembled monolayers, to understand the role of monolayer structure on the functioning of such systems, and to apply this knowledge to the development of electrochemical enzyme sensors. An array of molecules that can be used to attach electrochemically active biomolecules to gold surfaces has been synthesized. Several members of a class of electroactive compounds have been characterized and the factors controlling surface modification are beginning to be characterized. Enzymes have been attached to self-assembled molecules arranged on the gold surface, a critical step toward the ultimate goal of this project. Several alternative enzyme attachment strategies to achieve robust enzyme- modified surfaces have been explored. Several means of juxtaposing enzymes and mediators, electroactive compounds through which the enzyme can exchange electrons with the electrode surface, have also been investigated. Finally, the development of sensitive biosensors based on films loaded with nanoscale-supported gold particles that have surface modified with the self-assembled enzyme and mediator have been explored.

  7. Spatiotemporal interplay between multisensory excitation and recruited inhibition in the lamprey optic tectum

    PubMed Central

    Grillner, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Animals integrate the different senses to facilitate event-detection for navigation in their environment. In vertebrates, the optic tectum (superior colliculus) commands gaze shifts by synaptic integration of different sensory modalities. Recent works suggest that tectum can elaborate gaze reorientation commands on its own, rather than merely acting as a relay from upstream/forebrain circuits to downstream premotor centers. We show that tectal circuits can perform multisensory computations independently and, hence, configure final motor commands. Single tectal neurons receive converging visual and electrosensory inputs, as investigated in the lamprey - a phylogenetically conserved vertebrate. When these two sensory inputs overlap in space and time, response enhancement of output neurons occurs locally in the tectum, whereas surrounding areas and temporally misaligned inputs are inhibited. Retinal and electrosensory afferents elicit local monosynaptic excitation, quickly followed by inhibition via recruitment of GABAergic interneurons. Multisensory inputs can thus regulate event-detection within tectum through local inhibition without forebrain control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16472.001 PMID:27635636

  8. Comparison of multisensory and strength training for postural control in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Fábio Marcon; Riberto, Marcelo; Gatz, Lucila Silveira; Ribeiro, Carla Paschoal Corsi; Lopes, José Augusto Fernandes; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the efficacy of multisensory versus muscle strengthening to improve postural control in healthy community-dwelling elderly. Participants We performed a single-blinded study with 46 community-dwelling elderly allocated to strength (GS, n = 23; 70.18 ± 4.8 years 22 women and 1 man) and multisensory exercises groups (GM, n = 23; 68.8 ± 5.9 years; 22 women and 1 man) for 12 weeks. Methods We performed isokinetic evaluations of muscle groups in the ankle and foot including dorsiflexors, plantar flexors, inversion, and eversion. The oscillation of the center of pressure was assessed with a force platform. Results The GM group presented a reduction in the oscillation (66.8 ± 273.4 cm2 to 11.1 ± 11.6 cm2; P = 0.02), which was not observed in the GS group. The GM group showed better results for the peak torque and work than the GS group, but without statistical significance. Conclusion Although the GM group presented better results, it is not possible to state that one exercise regimen proved more efficacious than the other in improving balance control. PMID:22654512

  9. Multisensory distortions of the hand have differential effects on tactile perception.

    PubMed

    Treshi-marie Perera, A; Newport, Roger; McKenzie, Kirsten J

    2015-11-01

    Research has suggested that altering the perceived shape and size of the body image significantly affects perception of somatic events. The current study investigated how multisensory illusions applied to the body altered tactile perception using the somatic signal detection task. Thirty-one healthy volunteers were asked to report the presence or absence of near-threshold tactile stimuli delivered to the index finger under three multisensory illusion conditions: stretched finger, shrunken finger and detached finger, as well as a veridical baseline condition. Both stretching and shrinking the stimulated finger enhanced correct touch detections; however, the mechanisms underlying this increase were found to be different. In contrast, the detached appearance reduced false touch reports-possibly due to reduced tactile noise, as a result of attention being directed to the tip of the finger only. These findings suggest that distorted representations of the body could have different modulatory effects on attention to touch and provide a link between perceived body representation and somatosensory decision-making. PMID:26195170

  10. Multisensory brand search: How the meaning of sounds guides consumers' visual attention.

    PubMed

    Knoeferle, Klemens M; Knoeferle, Pia; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Building on models of crossmodal attention, the present research proposes that brand search is inherently multisensory, in that the consumers' visual search for a specific brand can be facilitated by semantically related stimuli that are presented in another sensory modality. A series of 5 experiments demonstrates that the presentation of spatially nonpredictive auditory stimuli associated with products (e.g., usage sounds or product-related jingles) can crossmodally facilitate consumers' visual search for, and selection of, products. Eye-tracking data (Experiment 2) revealed that the crossmodal effect of auditory cues on visual search manifested itself not only in RTs, but also in the earliest stages of visual attentional processing, thus suggesting that the semantic information embedded within sounds can modulate the perceptual saliency of the target products' visual representations. Crossmodal facilitation was even observed for newly learnt associations between unfamiliar brands and sonic logos, implicating multisensory short-term learning in establishing audiovisual semantic associations. The facilitation effect was stronger when searching complex rather than simple visual displays, thus suggesting a modulatory role of perceptual load. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27295466

  11. Multisensory Integration and Behavioral Plasticity in Sharks from Different Ecological Niches

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Jayne M.; Atema, Jelle; Hueter, Robert E.; Motta, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    The underwater sensory world and the sensory systems of aquatic animals have become better understood in recent decades, but typically have been studied one sense at a time. A comprehensive analysis of multisensory interactions during complex behavioral tasks has remained a subject of discussion without experimental evidence. We set out to generate a general model of multisensory information extraction by aquatic animals. For our model we chose to analyze the hierarchical, integrative, and sometimes alternate use of various sensory systems during the feeding sequence in three species of sharks that differ in sensory anatomy and behavioral ecology. By blocking senses in different combinations, we show that when some of their normal sensory cues were unavailable, sharks were often still capable of successfully detecting, tracking and capturing prey by switching to alternate sensory modalities. While there were significant species differences, odor was generally the first signal detected, leading to upstream swimming and wake tracking. Closer to the prey, as more sensory cues became available, the preferred sensory modalities varied among species, with vision, hydrodynamic imaging, electroreception, and touch being important for orienting to, striking at, and capturing the prey. Experimental deprivation of senses showed how sharks exploit the many signals that comprise their sensory world, each sense coming into play as they provide more accurate information during the behavioral sequence of hunting. The results may be applicable to aquatic hunting in general and, with appropriate modification, to other types of animal behavior. PMID:24695492

  12. Does media multitasking always hurt? A positive correlation between multitasking and multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kelvin F H; Wong, Alan C-N

    2012-08-01

    Heavy media multitaskers have been found to perform poorly in certain cognitive tasks involving task switching, selective attention, and working memory. An account for this is that with a breadth-biased style of cognitive control, multitaskers tend to pay attention to various information available in the environment, without sufficient focus on the information most relevant to the task at hand. This cognitive style, however, may not cause a general deficit in all kinds of tasks. We tested the hypothesis that heavy media multitaskers would perform better in a multisensory integration task than would others, due to their extensive experience in integrating information from different modalities. Sixty-three participants filled out a questionnaire about their media usage and completed a visual search task with and without synchronous tones (pip-and-pop paradigm). It was found that a higher degree of media multitasking was correlated with better multisensory integration. The fact that heavy media multitaskers are not deficient in all kinds of cognitive tasks suggests that media multitasking does not always hurt.

  13. Multisensory brand search: How the meaning of sounds guides consumers' visual attention.

    PubMed

    Knoeferle, Klemens M; Knoeferle, Pia; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Building on models of crossmodal attention, the present research proposes that brand search is inherently multisensory, in that the consumers' visual search for a specific brand can be facilitated by semantically related stimuli that are presented in another sensory modality. A series of 5 experiments demonstrates that the presentation of spatially nonpredictive auditory stimuli associated with products (e.g., usage sounds or product-related jingles) can crossmodally facilitate consumers' visual search for, and selection of, products. Eye-tracking data (Experiment 2) revealed that the crossmodal effect of auditory cues on visual search manifested itself not only in RTs, but also in the earliest stages of visual attentional processing, thus suggesting that the semantic information embedded within sounds can modulate the perceptual saliency of the target products' visual representations. Crossmodal facilitation was even observed for newly learnt associations between unfamiliar brands and sonic logos, implicating multisensory short-term learning in establishing audiovisual semantic associations. The facilitation effect was stronger when searching complex rather than simple visual displays, thus suggesting a modulatory role of perceptual load. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Behavioral, Perceptual, and Neural Alterations in Sensory and Multisensory Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Sarah H.; Stevenson, Ryan A.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Although sensory processing challenges have been noted since the first clinical descriptions of autism, it has taken until the release of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013 for sensory problems to be included as part of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the diagnostic profile. Because sensory information forms the building blocks for higher-order social and cognitive functions, we argue that sensory processing is not only an additional piece of the puzzle, but rather a critical cornerstone for characterizing and understanding ASD. In this review we discuss what is currently known about sensory processing in ASD, how sensory function fits within contemporary models of ASD, and what is understood about the differences in the underlying neural processing of sensory and social communication observed between individuals with and without ASD. In addition to highlighting the sensory features associated with ASD, we also emphasize the importance of multisensory processing in building perceptual and cognitive representations, and how deficits in multisensory integration may also be a core characteristic of ASD. PMID:26455789

  15. Wireless Wearable Multisensory Suite and Real-Time Prediction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T. S.

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced (“bigdata”) preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow). PMID:27170854

  16. Wireless Wearable Multisensory Suite and Real-Time Prediction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Episodes.

    PubMed

    Le, Trung Q; Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced ("bigdata") preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow).

  17. Temporal integration of multisensory stimuli in autism spectrum disorder: a predictive coding perspective.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason S; Langer, Anne; Kaiser, Jochen

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a growing number of studies have examined the role of multisensory temporal integration in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some studies have used temporal order judgments or simultaneity judgments to examine the temporal binding window, while others have employed multisensory illusions, such as the sound-induced flash illusion (SiFi). The SiFi is an illusion created by presenting two beeps along with one flash. Participants perceive two flashes if the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) between the two flashes is brief. The temporal binding window can be measured by modulating the SOA between the beeps. Each of these tasks has been used to compare the temporal binding window in people with ASD and typically developing individuals; however, the results have been mixed. While temporal order and simultaneity judgment tasks have shown little temporal binding window differences between groups, studies using the SiFi have found a wider temporal binding window in ASD compared to controls. In this paper, we discuss these seemingly contradictory findings and suggest that predictive coding may be able to explain the differences between these tasks. PMID:27324803

  18. A multi-sensorial hybrid control for robotic manipulation in human-robot workspaces.

    PubMed

    Pomares, Jorge; Perea, Ivan; García, Gabriel J; Jara, Carlos A; Corrales, Juan A; Torres, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous manipulation in semi-structured environments where human operators can interact is an increasingly common task in robotic applications. This paper describes an intelligent multi-sensorial approach that solves this issue by providing a multi-robotic platform with a high degree of autonomy and the capability to perform complex tasks. The proposed sensorial system is composed of a hybrid visual servo control to efficiently guide the robot towards the object to be manipulated, an inertial motion capture system and an indoor localization system to avoid possible collisions between human operators and robots working in the same workspace, and a tactile sensor algorithm to correctly manipulate the object. The proposed controller employs the whole multi-sensorial system and combines the measurements of each one of the used sensors during two different phases considered in the robot task: a first phase where the robot approaches the object to be grasped, and a second phase of manipulation of the object. In both phases, the unexpected presence of humans is taken into account. This paper also presents the successful results obtained in several experimental setups which verify the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:22163729

  19. A multi-sensorial hybrid control for robotic manipulation in human-robot workspaces.

    PubMed

    Pomares, Jorge; Perea, Ivan; García, Gabriel J; Jara, Carlos A; Corrales, Juan A; Torres, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous manipulation in semi-structured environments where human operators can interact is an increasingly common task in robotic applications. This paper describes an intelligent multi-sensorial approach that solves this issue by providing a multi-robotic platform with a high degree of autonomy and the capability to perform complex tasks. The proposed sensorial system is composed of a hybrid visual servo control to efficiently guide the robot towards the object to be manipulated, an inertial motion capture system and an indoor localization system to avoid possible collisions between human operators and robots working in the same workspace, and a tactile sensor algorithm to correctly manipulate the object. The proposed controller employs the whole multi-sensorial system and combines the measurements of each one of the used sensors during two different phases considered in the robot task: a first phase where the robot approaches the object to be grasped, and a second phase of manipulation of the object. In both phases, the unexpected presence of humans is taken into account. This paper also presents the successful results obtained in several experimental setups which verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  20. Perception of products by progressive multisensory integration. A study on hammers.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Mondragón, Salvador; Sancho-Bru, Joaquín Luis; Company, Pedro; Agost, María-Jesús

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the influence of multisensory (visual-haptic) integration and the level of interaction (seeing photographs, seeing the actual product, touching it and using it) on the perception of products, including perceived ergonomics. The product selected for the experiment was the hammer, as this will help to establish whether emotional design studies can also apply to 'commercial' products. Subjective opinions of users were evaluated through semantic differential tests. A factor analysis identified six semantic factors or axes (Quality/Robustness, Ergonomics/Appearance, Innovation, Lightness, Dynamic Effects, and Efficacy). Results show that Lightness and Dynamic Effects are quite sensitive to the level of interaction, while Ergonomics/Appearance is partially affected. However, the perceptions of Innovation, Quality/Robustness and Efficacy are not so affected and they could be detected through a lower level of interaction (i.e. seeing photographs). This suggests that commercial products seem sensitive to emotional design studies and that multisensory integration enhances the perception of the factors that are clearly linked with physical interaction between users and tools, i.e. Ergonomics/Appearance, Lightness and Dynamic Effects. Additionally, it should be highlighted that some aspects related with the ergonomics and ease of use of products are also perceived at different stages of interaction.

  1. A Multi-Sensorial Hybrid Control for Robotic Manipulation in Human-Robot Workspaces

    PubMed Central

    Pomares, Jorge; Perea, Ivan; García, Gabriel J.; Jara, Carlos A.; Corrales, Juan A.; Torres, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous manipulation in semi-structured environments where human operators can interact is an increasingly common task in robotic applications. This paper describes an intelligent multi-sensorial approach that solves this issue by providing a multi-robotic platform with a high degree of autonomy and the capability to perform complex tasks. The proposed sensorial system is composed of a hybrid visual servo control to efficiently guide the robot towards the object to be manipulated, an inertial motion capture system and an indoor localization system to avoid possible collisions between human operators and robots working in the same workspace, and a tactile sensor algorithm to correctly manipulate the object. The proposed controller employs the whole multi-sensorial system and combines the measurements of each one of the used sensors during two different phases considered in the robot task: a first phase where the robot approaches the object to be grasped, and a second phase of manipulation of the object. In both phases, the unexpected presence of humans is taken into account. This paper also presents the successful results obtained in several experimental setups which verify the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:22163729

  2. Multisensory integration and behavioral plasticity in sharks from different ecological niches.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Jayne M; Atema, Jelle; Hueter, Robert E; Motta, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    The underwater sensory world and the sensory systems of aquatic animals have become better understood in recent decades, but typically have been studied one sense at a time. A comprehensive analysis of multisensory interactions during complex behavioral tasks has remained a subject of discussion without experimental evidence. We set out to generate a general model of multisensory information extraction by aquatic animals. For our model we chose to analyze the hierarchical, integrative, and sometimes alternate use of various sensory systems during the feeding sequence in three species of sharks that differ in sensory anatomy and behavioral ecology. By blocking senses in different combinations, we show that when some of their normal sensory cues were unavailable, sharks were often still capable of successfully detecting, tracking and capturing prey by switching to alternate sensory modalities. While there were significant species differences, odor was generally the first signal detected, leading to upstream swimming and wake tracking. Closer to the prey, as more sensory cues became available, the preferred sensory modalities varied among species, with vision, hydrodynamic imaging, electroreception, and touch being important for orienting to, striking at, and capturing the prey. Experimental deprivation of senses showed how sharks exploit the many signals that comprise their sensory world, each sense coming into play as they provide more accurate information during the behavioral sequence of hunting. The results may be applicable to aquatic hunting in general and, with appropriate modification, to other types of animal behavior. PMID:24695492

  3. Wireless Wearable Multisensory Suite and Real-Time Prediction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Episodes.

    PubMed

    Le, Trung Q; Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced ("bigdata") preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow). PMID:27170854

  4. Mechanics of the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lammerding, Jan

    2011-04-01

    The nucleus is the distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells. Until recently, it was often considered simply as a unique compartment containing the genetic information of the cell and associated machinery, without much attention to its structure and mechanical properties. This article provides compelling examples that illustrate how specific nuclear structures are associated with important cellular functions, and how defects in nuclear mechanics can cause a multitude of human diseases. During differentiation, embryonic stem cells modify their nuclear envelope composition and chromatin structure, resulting in stiffer nuclei that reflect decreased transcriptional plasticity. In contrast, neutrophils have evolved characteristic lobulated nuclei that increase their physical plasticity, enabling passage through narrow tissue spaces in their response to inflammation. Research on diverse cell types further demonstrates how induced nuclear deformations during cellular compression or stretch can modulate cellular function. Pathological examples of disturbed nuclear mechanics include the many diseases caused by mutations in the nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C and associated proteins, as well as cancer cells that are often characterized by abnormal nuclear morphology. In this article, we will focus on determining the functional relationship between nuclear mechanics and cellular (dys-)function, describing the molecular changes associated with physiological and pathological examples, the resulting defects in nuclear mechanics, and the effects on cellular function. New insights into the close relationship between nuclear mechanics and cellular organization and function will yield a better understanding of normal biology and will offer new clues into therapeutic approaches to the various diseases associated with defective nuclear mechanics.

  5. The development of fluorescence turn-on probe for Al(III) sensing and live cell nucleus-nucleoli staining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Anoop Kumar; Sharma, Vinay; Mathur, Pradeep; Shaikh, Mobin M.

    2016-10-01

    The morphology of nucleus and nucleolus is powerful indicator of physiological and pathological conditions. The specific staining of nucleolus recently gained much attention due to the limited and expensive availability of the only existing stain “SYTO RNA-Select”. Here, a new multifunctional salen type ligand (L1) and its Al3+ complex (1) are designed and synthesized. L1 acts as a chemosensor for Al3+ whereas 1 demonstrates specific staining of nucleus as well as nucleoli. The binding of 1 with nucleic acid is probed by DNase and RNase digestion in stained cells. 1 shows an excellent photostability, which is a limitation for existing nucleus stains during long term observations. 1 is assumed to be a potential candidate as an alternative to expensive commercial dyes for nucleus and nucleoli staining.

  6. The development of fluorescence turn-on probe for Al(III) sensing and live cell nucleus-nucleoli staining

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Anoop Kumar; Sharma, Vinay; Mathur, Pradeep; Shaikh, Mobin M.

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of nucleus and nucleolus is powerful indicator of physiological and pathological conditions. The specific staining of nucleolus recently gained much attention due to the limited and expensive availability of the only existing stain “SYTO RNA-Select”. Here, a new multifunctional salen type ligand (L1) and its Al3+ complex (1) are designed and synthesized. L1 acts as a chemosensor for Al3+ whereas 1 demonstrates specific staining of nucleus as well as nucleoli. The binding of 1 with nucleic acid is probed by DNase and RNase digestion in stained cells. 1 shows an excellent photostability, which is a limitation for existing nucleus stains during long term observations. 1 is assumed to be a potential candidate as an alternative to expensive commercial dyes for nucleus and nucleoli staining. PMID:27721431

  7. Direct Instruction + UDL = Access for Diverse Learners: How to Plan and Implement an Effective Multisensory Spelling Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Debbie; Evans, Chan; Flynn, Hayley K.; Williams, Jennifer B.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a lesson plan model that applies principles of universal design for learning (UDL) and multisensory learning centers to the framework of a traditional direct instruction spelling lesson for elementary students with learning, social, and attention problems. It reviews essential components of UDL and demonstrates how to…

  8. Perception of the multisensory coherence of fluent audiovisual speech in infancy: its emergence and the role of experience.

    PubMed

    Lewkowicz, David J; Minar, Nicholas J; Tift, Amy H; Brandon, Melissa

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the developmental emergence of the perception of the multisensory coherence of native and non-native audiovisual fluent speech, we tested 4-, 8- to 10-, and 12- to 14-month-old English-learning infants. Infants first viewed two identical female faces articulating two different monologues in silence and then in the presence of an audible monologue that matched the visible articulations of one of the faces. Neither the 4-month-old nor 8- to 10-month-old infants exhibited audiovisual matching in that they did not look longer at the matching monologue. In contrast, the 12- to 14-month-old infants exhibited matching and, consistent with the emergence of perceptual expertise for the native language, perceived the multisensory coherence of native-language monologues earlier in the test trials than that of non-native language monologues. Moreover, the matching of native audible and visible speech streams observed in the 12- to 14-month-olds did not depend on audiovisual synchrony, whereas the matching of non-native audible and visible speech streams did depend on synchrony. Overall, the current findings indicate that the perception of the multisensory coherence of fluent audiovisual speech emerges late in infancy, that audiovisual synchrony cues are more important in the perception of the multisensory coherence of non-native speech than that of native audiovisual speech, and that the emergence of this skill most likely is affected by perceptual narrowing.

  9. Perception of the Multisensory Coherence of Fluent Audiovisual Speech in Infancy: Its Emergence & the Role of Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, David J.; Minar, Nicholas J.; Tift, Amy H.; Brandon, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the developmental emergence of the ability to perceive the multisensory coherence of native and non-native audiovisual fluent speech, we tested 4-, 8–10, and 12–14 month-old English-learning infants. Infants first viewed two identical female faces articulating two different monologues in silence and then in the presence of an audible monologue that matched the visible articulations of one of the faces. Neither the 4-month-old nor the 8–10 month-old infants exhibited audio-visual matching in that neither group exhibited greater looking at the matching monologue. In contrast, the 12–14 month-old infants exhibited matching and, consistent with the emergence of perceptual expertise for the native language, they perceived the multisensory coherence of native-language monologues earlier in the test trials than of non-native language monologues. Moreover, the matching of native audible and visible speech streams observed in the 12–14 month olds did not depend on audio-visual synchrony whereas the matching of non-native audible and visible speech streams did depend on synchrony. Overall, the current findings indicate that the perception of the multisensory coherence of fluent audiovisual speech emerges late in infancy, that audio-visual synchrony cues are more important in the perception of the multisensory coherence of non-native than native audiovisual speech, and that the emergence of this skill most likely is affected by perceptual narrowing. PMID:25462038

  10. Effects of Adding Multisensory Components to a Supplemental Reading Program on the Decoding Skills of Treatment Resisters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Monica L.; Helf, Shawnna; Cooke, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline across participants was used to analyze the effects of adding multisensory elements to an explicit, systematic phonics program on the reading achievement of six students identified as treatment resisters. Participants were given 10 minutes of daily instruction in the supplemental program in addition to instruction in the…

  11. Studying Multisensory Processing and Its Role in the Representation of Space through Pathological and Physiological Crossmodal Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Stéphane; Brozzoli, Claudio; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Meunier, Martine; Farnè, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The study of crossmodal extinction has brought a considerable contribution to our understanding of how the integration of stimuli perceived in multiple sensory modalities is used by the nervous system to build coherent representations of the space that directly surrounds us. Indeed, by revealing interferences between stimuli in a disturbed system, extinction provides an invaluable opportunity to investigate the interactions that normally exist between those stimuli in an intact system. Here, we first review studies on pathological crossmodal extinction, from the original demonstration of its existence, to its role in the exploration of the multisensory neural representation of space and the current theoretical accounts proposed to explain the mechanisms involved in extinction and multisensory competition. Then, in the second part of this paper, we report recent findings showing that physiological multisensory competition phenomena resembling clinical crossmodal extinction exist in the healthy brain. We propose that the development of a physiological model of sensory competition is fundamental to deepen our understanding of the cerebral mechanisms of multisensory perception and integration. In addition, a similar approach to develop a model of physiological sensory competition in non-human primates should allow combining functional neuroimaging with more invasive techniques, such as transient focal lesions, in order to bridge the gap between works done in the two species and at different levels of analysis. PMID:21687458

  12. Some Endpoint Results for β-Generalized Weak Contractive Multifunctions

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani, H.; Gopal, D.; Miandaragh, M. A.; Rezapour, Sh.; Shahzad, N.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce β-generalized weak contractive multifunctions and give some results about endpoints of the multifunctions. Also, we give some results about role of a point in the existence of endpoints. PMID:24348197

  13. Hyperon-nucleus potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dover, C. B.; Gal, A.

    We review models for the interaction of baryons ( N, Λ, Σ and Ξ) with nuclei, emphasizing the underlying meson exchange picture. Starting from a phenomenological one boson exchange model (the Nijmegen potential, as an example) which accounts for the available NN, ΛN and ΣN two-body scattering data, we show how to construct the effective baryon-nucleon interaction ( G-matrix). Employing the folding model, we then obtain the many-body potentials for bound states in terms of the nuclear density and the appropriate spin-isospin weighted G-matrices. The models we emphasize most impose SU(3) constraints on baryon-baryon coupling constants SU(3) is broken through the use of physical masses), although we also compare with rough estimates based on quark model relations between coupling constants. We stress the essential unity and economy of such models, in which nucleon and hyperon-nucleus potentials are intimately related via SU(3), and the connection between the two-body and many-body potentials is preserved. We decompose the nuclear potentials into central and spin-orbit parts, each of which is isospin dependent. For nucleons, the microscopic origin of the isospin dependent Lane potential V1 N is clarified. For Λ and Σ hyperons, the one boson exchange model with SU(3) constraints leads to one-body spin-orbit strengths VLSB which are relatively weak ( VLSΛ ≈ 1.5-2 MeV, VLSΣ ≈ 2.5-;3 MeV, compared to VLSN ≈ 7-9 MeV). We demonstrate the interplay between symmetric and antisymmetric two-body spin-orbit forces which give rise to these results, as well as the special role of K and K ∗ exchange for hyperons. We contrast these results with predictions based on the naive quark model. From S and P-wave two-body interactions, a Lane potential for the Σ of depth V1 Σ ≈ 50-60 MeV is predicted although this result is somewhat uncertain. For the Ξ, the nuclear potential is very different in various models for the two-body interaction based on SU(3) or the quark

  14. Multifunctional materials for bone cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Catarina; Ferreira, José MF; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ficai, Denisa; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the most recent findings in bone tissue engineering. Special attention is given to multifunctional materials based on collagen and collagen–hydroxyapatite composites used for skin and bone cancer treatments. The multi-functionality of these materials was obtained by adding to the base regenerative grafts proper components, such as ferrites (magnetite being the most important representative), cytostatics (cisplatin, carboplatin, vincristine, methotrexate, paclitaxel, doxorubicin), silver nanoparticles, antibiotics (anthracyclines, geldanamycin), and/or analgesics (ibuprofen, fentanyl). The suitability of complex systems for the intended applications was systematically analyzed. The developmental possibilities of multifunctional materials with regenerative and curative roles (antitumoral as well as pain management) in the field of skin and bone cancer treatment are discussed. It is worth mentioning that better materials are likely to be developed by combining conventional and unconventional experimental strategies. PMID:24920907

  15. Multisensory representation of frequency across audition and touch: high density electrical mapping reveals early sensory-perceptual coupling.

    PubMed

    Butler, John S; Foxe, John J; Fiebelkorn, Ian C; Mercier, Manuel R; Molholm, Sophie

    2012-10-31

    The frequency of environmental vibrations is sampled by two of the major sensory systems, audition and touch, notwithstanding that these signals are transduced through very different physical media and entirely separate sensory epithelia. Psychophysical studies have shown that manipulating frequency in audition or touch can have a significant cross-sensory impact on perceived frequency in the other sensory system, pointing to intimate links between these senses during computation of frequency. In this regard, the frequency of a vibratory event can be thought of as a multisensory perceptual construct. In turn, electrophysiological studies point to temporally early multisensory interactions that occur in hierarchically early sensory regions where convergent inputs from the auditory and somatosensory systems are to be found. A key question pertains to the level of processing at which the multisensory integration of featural information, such as frequency, occurs. Do the sensory systems calculate frequency independently before this information is combined, or is this feature calculated in an integrated fashion during preattentive sensory processing? The well characterized mismatch negativity, an electrophysiological response that indexes preattentive detection of a change within the context of a regular pattern of stimulation, served as our dependent measure. High-density electrophysiological recordings were made in humans while they were presented with separate blocks of somatosensory, auditory, and audio-somatosensory "standards" and "deviants," where the deviant differed in frequency. Multisensory effects were identified beginning at ∼200 ms, with the multisensory mismatch negativity (MMN) significantly different from the sum of the unisensory MMNs. This provides compelling evidence for preattentive coupling between the somatosensory and auditory channels in the cortical representation of frequency.

  16. Modeling development of natural multi-sensory integration using neural self-organisation and probabilistic population codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Johannes; Dávila-Chacón, Jorge; Wermter, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Humans and other animals have been shown to perform near-optimally in multi-sensory integration tasks. Probabilistic population codes (PPCs) have been proposed as a mechanism by which optimal integration can be accomplished. Previous approaches have focussed on how neural networks might produce PPCs from sensory input or perform calculations using them, like combining multiple PPCs. Less attention has been given to the question of how the necessary organisation of neurons can arise and how the required knowledge about the input statistics can be learned. In this paper, we propose a model of learning multi-sensory integration based on an unsupervised learning algorithm in which an artificial neural network learns the noise characteristics of each of its sources of input. Our algorithm borrows from the self-organising map the ability to learn latent-variable models of the input and extends it to learning to produce a PPC approximating a probability density function over the latent variable behind its (noisy) input. The neurons in our network are only required to perform simple calculations and we make few assumptions about input noise properties and tuning functions. We report on a neurorobotic experiment in which we apply our algorithm to multi-sensory integration in a humanoid robot to demonstrate its effectiveness and compare it to human multi-sensory integration on the behavioural level. We also show in simulations that our algorithm performs near-optimally under certain plausible conditions, and that it reproduces important aspects of natural multi-sensory integration on the neural level.

  17. Multisensory representation of frequency across audition and touch: high density electrical mapping reveals early sensory-perceptual coupling.

    PubMed

    Butler, John S; Foxe, John J; Fiebelkorn, Ian C; Mercier, Manuel R; Molholm, Sophie

    2012-10-31

    The frequency of environmental vibrations is sampled by two of the major sensory systems, audition and touch, notwithstanding that these signals are transduced through very different physical media and entirely separate sensory epithelia. Psychophysical studies have shown that manipulating frequency in audition or touch can have a significant cross-sensory impact on perceived frequency in the other sensory system, pointing to intimate links between these senses during computation of frequency. In this regard, the frequency of a vibratory event can be thought of as a multisensory perceptual construct. In turn, electrophysiological studies point to temporally early multisensory interactions that occur in hierarchically early sensory regions where convergent inputs from the auditory and somatosensory systems are to be found. A key question pertains to the level of processing at which the multisensory integration of featural information, such as frequency, occurs. Do the sensory systems calculate frequency independently before this information is combined, or is this feature calculated in an integrated fashion during preattentive sensory processing? The well characterized mismatch negativity, an electrophysiological response that indexes preattentive detection of a change within the context of a regular pattern of stimulation, served as our dependent measure. High-density electrophysiological recordings were made in humans while they were presented with separate blocks of somatosensory, auditory, and audio-somatosensory "standards" and "deviants," where the deviant differed in frequency. Multisensory effects were identified beginning at ∼200 ms, with the multisensory mismatch negativity (MMN) significantly different from the sum of the unisensory MMNs. This provides compelling evidence for preattentive coupling between the somatosensory and auditory channels in the cortical representation of frequency. PMID:23115172

  18. One-step fabrication of multifunctional micromotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wenlong; Liu, Mei; Liu, Limei; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Li, Christopher Y.

    2015-08-01

    Although artificial micromotors have undergone tremendous progress in recent years, their fabrication normally requires complex steps or expensive equipment. In this paper, we report a facile one-step method based on an emulsion solvent evaporation process to fabricate multifunctional micromotors. By simultaneously incorporating various components into an oil-in-water droplet, upon emulsification and solidification, a sphere-shaped, asymmetric, and multifunctional micromotor is formed. Some of the attractive functions of this model micromotor include autonomous movement in high ionic strength solution, remote control, enzymatic disassembly and sustained release. This one-step, versatile fabrication method can be easily scaled up and therefore may have great potential in mass production of multifunctional micromotors for a wide range of practical applications.Although artificial micromotors have undergone tremendous progress in recent years, their fabrication normally requires complex steps or expensive equipment. In this paper, we report a facile one-step method based on an emulsion solvent evaporation process to fabricate multifunctional micromotors. By simultaneously incorporating various components into an oil-in-water droplet, upon emulsification and solidification, a sphere-shaped, asymmetric, and multifunctional micromotor is formed. Some of the attractive functions of this model micromotor include autonomous movement in high ionic strength solution, remote control, enzymatic disassembly and sustained release. This one-step, versatile fabrication method can be easily scaled up and therefore may have great potential in mass production of multifunctional micromotors for a wide range of practical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Videos S1-S4 and Fig. S1-S3. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03574k

  19. Unexpected doubly-magic nucleus.

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, R. V. F.; Physics

    2009-01-01

    Nuclei with a 'magic' number of both protons and neutrons, dubbed doubly magic, are particularly stable. The oxygen isotope {sup 24}O has been found to be one such nucleus - yet it lies just at the limit of stability.

  20. Simple multifunction discriminator for multichannel triggers

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, M.R.

    1982-10-01

    A simple version of a multifunction timing discriminator using only two integrated circuits is presented. It can be configured as a leading edge, a constant fraction, a zero cross or a dual threshold timing discriminator. Since so few parts are used, it is well suited for building multichannel timing discriminators. Two versions of this circuit are described: a quadruple multifunction discriminator and an octal constant fraction trigger. The different compromises made in these units are discussed. Results for walk and jitter obtained with these are presented and possible improvements are disussed.

  1. Novel hybrid multifunctional magnetoelectric porous composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, P.; Gonçalves, R.; Lopes, A. C.; Venkata Ramana, E.; Mendiratta, S. K.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.

    2015-12-01

    Novel multifunctional porous films have been developed by the integration of magnetic CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanoparticles into poly(vinylidene fluoride)-Trifuoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)), taking advantage of the synergies of the magnetostrictive filler and the piezoelectric polymer. The porous films show a piezoelectric response with an effective d33 coefficient of -22 pC/N-1, a maximum magnetization of 12 emu g-1 and a maximum magnetoelectric coefficient of 9 mV cm-1 Oe-1. In this way, a multifunctional membrane has been developed suitable for advanced applications ranging from biomedical to water treatment.

  2. Complex Multifunctional Polymer/Carbon-Nanotube Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Pritesh; Balasubramaniyam, Gobinath; Chen, Jian

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for developing complex multifunctional materials that consist of or contain polymer/carbon-nanotube composites has been conceived. As used here, "multifunctional" signifies having additional and/or enhanced physical properties that polymers or polymer-matrix composites would not ordinarily be expected to have. Such properties include useful amounts of electrical conductivity, increased thermal conductivity, and/or increased strength. In the present methodology, these properties are imparted to a given composite through the choice and processing of its polymeric and CNT constituents.

  3. Sensitivity of cross sections for elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering to halo nucleus density distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Alkhazov, G. D.; Sarantsev, V. V.

    2012-12-15

    In order to clear up the sensitivity of the nucleus-nucleus scattering to the nuclear matter distributions in exotic halo nuclei, we have calculated differential cross sections for elastic scattering of the {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li nuclei on several nuclear targets at the energy of 0.8 GeV/nucleon with different assumed nuclear density distributions in {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li.

  4. Effects of multisensory yoga on behavior in a male child with Apert and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scroggins, Michaela L; Litchke, Lyn G; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child.

  5. Three-dimensional object recognition by monocular and multisensory perception: Space robotics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampagnin, Luc-Henry

    Three dimensional object recognition by computer vision is studied with particular consideration to modelization and graph utilization. First a polyhedral object is identified and located from one intensity image; the model is known and the object is convex or not. The model consists of a geometrical model and the perspective projection aspect graph. Recognition was based on construction and utilization of the compatibility graph, expressing geometrical and visual constraints between matchings of high level entities (object faces). A multisensory system is described, whose main advantage is the complementarity of different kinds of information, which eliminates the limitations due to the use of one image. The system included a black and white camera and a pan and tilt scanning laser range finder.

  6. The effect of manipulability and religion on the multisensory integration of objects in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    In this study participants were required to respond to vibrotactile stimuli applied to the hand while ignoring visual distractors superimposed on pictures representing Christian, Hindu, or profane objects that were categorized as manipulable or non-manipulable. Overall, participants responded slower when the visual distractor appeared at an incongruent location with respect to the vibrotactile stimulus, which is known as the crossmodal congruency effect (i.e., CCE). The CCE was modulated by the type of object involved (i.e., Christian, Hindu, or Profane), the object manipulability (i.e., manipulable vs. non-manipulable) and the religious background of the participant (i.e., Christian, Hindu, or non-religious). The finding that both object manipulability, the religious significance of the object, and the religious background of the participant have a combined effect on multisensory integration suggests important interactions between low-level body-object integration and the symbolic extension of the self. PMID:24168203

  7. Autonomous landing of a helicopter UAV with a ground-based multisensory fusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dianle; Zhong, Zhiwei; Zhang, Daibing; Shen, Lincheng; Yan, Chengping

    2015-02-01

    In this study, this paper focus on the vision-based autonomous helicopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) landing problems. This paper proposed a multisensory fusion to autonomous landing of an UAV. The systems include an infrared camera, an Ultra-wideband radar that measure distance between UAV and Ground-Based system, an PAN-Tilt Unit (PTU). In order to identify all weather UAV targets, we use infrared cameras. To reduce the complexity of the stereovision or one-cameral calculating the target of three-dimensional coordinates, using the ultra-wideband radar distance module provides visual depth information, real-time Image-PTU tracking UAV and calculate the UAV threedimensional coordinates. Compared to the DGPS, the test results show that the paper is effectiveness and robustness.

  8. Effects of multisensory yoga on behavior in a male child with Apert and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scroggins, Michaela L; Litchke, Lyn G; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child. PMID:26865777

  9. Design of a Multisensory Probe for Measuring Carbon Cycle Processes in Aqueous Subterranean Environments

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Timothy J; Kisner, Roger; Woodworth, Ken; Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Frank, Steven Shane; McKnight, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    The global carbon cycle describes the exchange of carbon between the atmosphere, terrestrial vegetation, oceans, and soil. Mechanisms involving carbon in sub-terrestrial ecosystems and their impact on climate are not well understood. This lack of understanding limits current climate models and prevents accurate soil-carbon storage predications for future climate conditions. To address the lack of instrumentation for conducting high fidelity measurements of appropriate parameters in the field, a multi-sensory probe using a mix of optical, fiber optic, and electronic technologies to measure CO2, temperature, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, and water level in subsurface environments has been developed. Details of the design, fabrication and laboratory performance verification are presented. Use cases and the anticipated impacts of such measurements on climate models are discussed.

  10. Multisensory systems integration for high-performance motor control in flies.

    PubMed

    Frye, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    Engineered tracking systems 'fuse' data from disparate sensor platforms, such as radar and video, to synthesize information that is more reliable than any single input. The mammalian brain registers visual and auditory inputs to directionally localize an interesting environmental feature. For a fly, sensory perception is challenged by the extreme performance demands of high speed flight. Yet even a fruit fly can robustly track a fragmented odor plume through varying visual environments, outperforming any human engineered robot. Flies integrate disparate modalities, such as vision and olfaction, which are neither related by spatiotemporal spectra nor processed by registered neural tissue maps. Thus, the fly is motivating new conceptual frameworks for how low-level multisensory circuits and functional algorithms produce high-performance motor control.

  11. Multisensory integration for odor tracking by flying Drosophila: Behavior, circuits and speculation.

    PubMed

    Duistermars, Brian J; Frye, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Many see fruit flies as an annoyance, invading our homes with a nagging persistence and efficiency. Yet from a scientific perspective, these tiny animals are a wonder of multisensory integration, capable of tracking fragmented odor plumes amidst turbulent winds and constantly varying visual conditions. The peripheral olfactory, mechanosensory, and visual systems of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have been studied in great detail;1-4 however, the mechanisms by which fly brains integrate information from multiple sensory modalities to facilitate robust odor tracking remain elusive. Our studies on olfactory orientation by flying flies reveal that these animals do not simply follow their "nose"; rather, fruit flies require mechanosensory and visual input to track odors in flight.5,6 Collectively, these results shed light on the neural circuits involved in odor localization by fruit flies in the wild and illuminate the elegant complexity underlying a behavior to which the annoyed and amazed are familiar.

  12. Multisensory stimulation with other-race faces and the reduction of racial prejudice.

    PubMed

    Estudillo, Alejandro J; Bindemann, Markus

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether multisensory stimulation with other-race faces can reduce racial prejudice. In three experiments, the faces of Caucasian observers were stroked with a cotton bud while they watched a black face being stroked in synchrony on a computer screen. This was compared with a neutral condition, in which no tactile stimulation was administered (Experiment 1 and 2), and with a condition in which observers' faces were stroked in asynchrony with the onscreen face (Experiment 3). In all experiments, observers experienced an enfacement illusion after synchronous stimulation, whereby they reported to embody the other-race face. However, this effect did not produce concurrent changes in implicit or explicit racial prejudice. This outcome contrasts with other procedures for the reduction of self-other differences that decrease racial prejudice, such as behavioural mimicry and intergroup contact. We speculate that enfacement is less effective for such prejudice reduction because it does not encourage perspective-taking.

  13. Multisensory systems integration for high-performance motor control in flies.

    PubMed

    Frye, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    Engineered tracking systems 'fuse' data from disparate sensor platforms, such as radar and video, to synthesize information that is more reliable than any single input. The mammalian brain registers visual and auditory inputs to directionally localize an interesting environmental feature. For a fly, sensory perception is challenged by the extreme performance demands of high speed flight. Yet even a fruit fly can robustly track a fragmented odor plume through varying visual environments, outperforming any human engineered robot. Flies integrate disparate modalities, such as vision and olfaction, which are neither related by spatiotemporal spectra nor processed by registered neural tissue maps. Thus, the fly is motivating new conceptual frameworks for how low-level multisensory circuits and functional algorithms produce high-performance motor control. PMID:20202821

  14. The effect of manipulability and religion on the multisensory integration of objects in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    In this study participants were required to respond to vibrotactile stimuli applied to the hand while ignoring visual distractors superimposed on pictures representing Christian, Hindu, or profane objects that were categorized as manipulable or non-manipulable. Overall, participants responded slower when the visual distractor appeared at an incongruent location with respect to the vibrotactile stimulus, which is known as the crossmodal congruency effect (i.e., CCE). The CCE was modulated by the type of object involved (i.e., Christian, Hindu, or Profane), the object manipulability (i.e., manipulable vs. non-manipulable) and the religious background of the participant (i.e., Christian, Hindu, or non-religious). The finding that both object manipulability, the religious significance of the object, and the religious background of the participant have a combined effect on multisensory integration suggests important interactions between low-level body-object integration and the symbolic extension of the self.

  15. Excellent biocompatibility of semiconductor quantum dots encased in multifunctional poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanoreservoirs and nuclear specific labeling of growing neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GhoshMitra, Somesree; Diercks, David R.; Mills, Nathaniel C.; Hynds, DiAnna L.; Ghosh, Santaneel

    2011-03-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received attention for labeling biomolecules; however, toxicity of these nanostructures in the intracellular environment has prevented a biomedical breakthrough. Here we report biocompatibility of a QD based multifunctional system on neuronal cells. Moreover, the designed nanostructures bind with high affinity in the cell nucleus. Nucleus specific binding and enhanced biocompatibility, coupled with no deleterious effects on neurite outgrowth, even at high dosages (500 μg/ml sphere conc.) suggest increased therapeutic potential of this system for specific targeting followed by controlled release of drugs in treating neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Transcutaneous induction of stimulus-timing-dependent plasticity in dorsal cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Calvin; Martel, David T.; Shore, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The cochlear nucleus (CN) is the first site of multisensory integration in the ascending auditory pathway. The principal output neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), fusiform cells, receive somatosensory information relayed by the CN granule cells from the trigeminal and dorsal column pathways. Integration of somatosensory and auditory inputs results in long-term enhancement or suppression in a stimulus-timing-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrate that stimulus-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can be induced in DCN fusiform cells using paired auditory and transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the face and neck to activate trigeminal and dorsal column pathways to the CN, respectively. Long-lasting changes in fusiform cell firing rates persisted for up to 2 h after this bimodal stimulation, and followed Hebbian or anti-Hebbian rules, depending on tone duration, but not somatosensory stimulation location: 50 ms paired tones evoked predominantly Hebbian, while 10 ms paired tones evoked predominantly anti-Hebbian plasticity. The tone-duration-dependent STDP was strongly correlated with first inter-spike intervals, implicating intrinsic cellular properties as determinants of STDP. This study demonstrates that transcutaneous stimulation with precise auditory–somatosensory timing parameters can non-invasively induce fusiform cell long-term modulation, which could be harnessed in the future to moderate tinnitus-related hyperactivity in DCN. PMID:26321928

  17. Interactions between the spatial and temporal stimulus factors that influence multisensory integration in human performance.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Fister, Juliane Krueger; Barnett, Zachary P; Nidiffer, Aaron R; Wallace, Mark T

    2012-05-01

    In natural environments, human sensory systems work in a coordinated and integrated manner to perceive and respond to external events. Previous research has shown that the spatial and temporal relationships of sensory signals are paramount in determining how information is integrated across sensory modalities, but in ecologically plausible settings, these factors are not independent. In the current study, we provide a novel exploration of the impact on behavioral performance for systematic manipulations of the spatial location and temporal synchrony of a visual-auditory stimulus pair. Simple auditory and visual stimuli were presented across a range of spatial locations and stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), and participants performed both a spatial localization and simultaneity judgment task. Response times in localizing paired visual-auditory stimuli were slower in the periphery and at larger SOAs, but most importantly, an interaction was found between the two factors, in which the effect of SOA was greater in peripheral as opposed to central locations. Simultaneity judgments also revealed a novel interaction between space and time: individuals were more likely to judge stimuli as synchronous when occurring in the periphery at large SOAs. The results of this study provide novel insights into (a) how the speed of spatial localization of an audiovisual stimulus is affected by location and temporal coincidence and the interaction between these two factors and (b) how the location of a multisensory stimulus impacts judgments concerning the temporal relationship of the paired stimuli. These findings provide strong evidence for a complex interdependency between spatial location and temporal structure in determining the ultimate behavioral and perceptual outcome associated with a paired multisensory (i.e., visual-auditory) stimulus.

  18. Multisensory perception of the six basic emotions is modulated by attentional instruction and unattended modality.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Sachiko; Hiramatsu, Saori; Tabei, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the perception of facial and vocal affective expressions interacts with each other. Facial expressions usually dominate vocal expressions when we perceive the emotions of face-voice stimuli. In most of these studies, participants were instructed to pay attention to the face or voice. Few studies compared the perceived emotions with and without specific instructions regarding the modality to which attention should be directed. Also, these studies used combinations of the face and voice which expresses two opposing emotions, which limits the generalizability of the findings. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the emotion perception is modulated by instructions to pay attention to the face or voice using the six basic emotions. Also we examine the modality dominance between the face and voice for each emotion category. Before the experiment, we recorded faces and voices which expresses the six basic emotions and orthogonally combined these faces and voices. Consequently, the emotional valence of visual and auditory information was either congruent or incongruent. In the experiment, there were unisensory and multisensory sessions. The multisensory session was divided into three blocks according to whether an instruction was given to pay attention to a given modality (face attention, voice attention, and no instruction). Participants judged whether the speaker expressed happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, or surprise. Our results revealed that instructions to pay attention to one modality and congruency of the emotions between modalities modulated the modality dominance, and the modality dominance is differed for each emotion category. In particular, the modality dominance for anger changed according to each instruction. Analyses also revealed that the modality dominance suggested by the congruency effect can be explained in terms of the facilitation effect and the interference effect.

  19. Designing Driver Assistance Systems with Crossmodal Signals: Multisensory Integration Rules for Saccadic Reaction Times Apply

    PubMed Central

    Steenken, Rike; Weber, Lars; Colonius, Hans; Diederich, Adele

    2014-01-01

    Modern driver assistance systems make increasing use of auditory and tactile signals in order to reduce the driver's visual information load. This entails potential crossmodal interaction effects that need to be taken into account in designing an optimal system. Here we show that saccadic reaction times to visual targets (cockpit or outside mirror), presented in a driving simulator environment and accompanied by auditory or tactile accessories, follow some well-known spatiotemporal rules of multisensory integration, usually found under confined laboratory conditions. Auditory nontargets speed up reaction time by about 80 ms. The effect tends to be maximal when the nontarget is presented 50 ms before the target and when target and nontarget are spatially coincident. The effect of a tactile nontarget (vibrating steering wheel) was less pronounced and not spatially specific. It is shown that the average reaction times are well-described by the stochastic “time window of integration” model for multisensory integration developed by the authors. This two-stage model postulates that crossmodal interaction occurs only if the peripheral processes from the different sensory modalities terminate within a fixed temporal interval, and that the amount of crossmodal interaction manifests itself in an increase or decrease of second stage processing time. A qualitative test is consistent with the model prediction that the probability of interaction, but not the amount of crossmodal interaction, depends on target–nontarget onset asynchrony. A quantitative model fit yields estimates of individual participants' parameters, including the size of the time window. Some consequences for the design of driver assistance systems are discussed. PMID:24800823

  20. Possible anatomical pathways for short-latency multisensory integration processes in primary sensory cortices.

    PubMed

    Henschke, Julia U; Noesselt, Tömme; Scheich, Henning; Budinger, Eike

    2015-03-01

    Multisensory integration does not only recruit higher-level association cortex, but also low-level and even primary sensory cortices. Here, we will describe and quantify two types of anatomical pathways, a thalamocortical and a corticocortical that possibly underlie short-latency multisensory integration processes in the primary auditory (A1), somatosensory (S1), and visual cortex (V1). Results were obtained from Mongolian gerbils, a common model-species in neuroscience, using simultaneous injections of different retrograde tracers into A1, S1, and V1. Several auditory, visual, and somatosensory thalamic nuclei project not only to the primary sensory area of their own (matched) but also to areas of other (non-matched) modalities. The crossmodal output ratios of these nuclei, belonging to both core and non-core sensory pathways, vary between 0.4 and 63.5 % of the labeled neurons. Approximately 0.3 % of the sensory thalamic input to A1, 5.0 % to S1, and 2.1 % to V1 arise from non-matched nuclei. V1 has most crossmodal corticocortical connections, projecting strongest to S1 and receiving a similar amount of moderate inputs from A1 and S1. S1 is mainly interconnected with V1. A1 has slightly more projections to V1 than S1, but gets just faint inputs from there. Concerning the layer-specific distribution of the retrogradely labeled somata in cortex, V1 provides the most pronounced feedforward-type outputs and receives (together with S1) most pronounced feedback-type inputs. In contrast, A1 has most pronounced feedback-type outputs and feedforward-type inputs in this network. Functionally, the different sets of thalamocortical and corticocortical connections could underlie distinctive types of integration mechanisms for different modality pairings. PMID:24384580

  1. Brain and language: evidence for neural multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L

    2014-01-01

    This review paper presents converging evidence from studies of brain damage and longitudinal studies of language in aging which supports the following thesis: the neural basis of language can best be understood by the concept of neural multifunctionality. In this paper the term "neural multifunctionality" refers to incorporation of nonlinguistic functions into language models of the intact brain, reflecting a multifunctional perspective whereby a constant and dynamic interaction exists among neural networks subserving cognitive, affective, and praxic functions with neural networks specialized for lexical retrieval, sentence comprehension, and discourse processing, giving rise to language as we know it. By way of example, we consider effects of executive system functions on aspects of semantic processing among persons with and without aphasia, as well as the interaction of executive and language functions among older adults. We conclude by indicating how this multifunctional view of brain-language relations extends to the realm of language recovery from aphasia, where evidence of the influence of nonlinguistic factors on the reshaping of neural circuitry for aphasia rehabilitation is clearly emerging.

  2. Magnetically Attached Multifunction Maintenance Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Joffe, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    A versatile mobile telerobot, denoted the magnetically attached multifunction maintenance rover (MAGMER), has been proposed for use in the inspection and maintenance of the surfaces of ships, tanks containing petrochemicals, and other large ferromagnetic structures. As its name suggests, this robot would utilize magnetic attraction to adhere to a structure. As it moved along the surface of the structure, the MAGMER would perform tasks that could include close-up visual inspection by use of video cameras, various sensors, and/or removal of paint by water-jet blasting, laser heating, or induction heating. The water-jet nozzles would be mounted coaxially within compressed-air-powered venturi nozzles that would collect the paint debris dislodged by the jets. The MAGMER would be deployed, powered, and controlled from a truck, to which it would be connected by hoses for water, compressed air, and collection of debris and by cables for electric power and communication (see Figure 1). The operation of the MAGMER on a typical large structure would necessitate the use of long cables and hoses, which can be heavy. To reduce the load of the hoses and cables on the MAGMER and thereby ensure its ability to adhere to vertical and overhanging surfaces, the hoses and cables would be paid out through telescopic booms that would be parts of a MAGMER support system. The MAGMER would move by use of four motorized, steerable wheels, each of which would be mounted in an assembly that would include permanent magnets and four pole pieces (see Figure 2). The wheels would protrude from between the pole pieces by only about 3 mm, so that the gap between the pole pieces and the ferromagnetic surface would be just large enough to permit motion along the surface but not so large as to reduce the magnetic attraction excessively. In addition to the wheel assemblies, the MAGMER would include magnetic adherence enhancement fixtures, which would comprise arrays of permanent magnets and pole pieces

  3. Multifunctional, High-Temperature Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Working, Dennis C.; Criss, Jim M.; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donavon M.; Ghose, Sayata

    2007-01-01

    In experiments conducted as part of a continuing effort to incorporate multifunctionality into advanced composite materials, blends of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a resin denoted gPETI-330 h (wherein gPETI h is an abbreviation for gphenylethynyl-terminated imide h) were prepared, characterized, and fabricated into moldings. PETI-330 was selected as the matrix resin in these experiments because of its low melt viscosity (<10 poise at a temperature of 280 C), excellent melt stability (lifetime >2 hours at 280 C), and high temperature performance (>1,000 hours at 288 C). The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), obtained from the University of Kentucky, were selected because of their electrical and thermal conductivity and their small diameters. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the combination of thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties achievable while still maintaining melt processability. The PETI-330/MWCNT mixtures were prepared at concentrations ranging from 3 to 25 weight-percent of MWCNTs by dry mixing of the constituents in a ball mill using zirconia beads. The resulting powders were characterized for degree of mixing and thermal and rheological properties. The neat resin was found to have melt viscosity between 5 and 10 poise. At 280 C and a fixed strain rate, the viscosity was found to increase with time. At this temperature, the phenylethynyl groups do not readily react and so no significant curing of the resin occurred. For MWCNT-filled samples, melt viscosity was reasonably steady at 280 C and was greater in samples containing greater proportions of MWCNTs. The melt viscosity for 20 weightpercent of MWCNTs was found to be .28,000 poise, which is lower than the initial estimated allowable maximum value of 60,000 poise for injection molding. Hence, MWCNT loadings of as much as 20 percent were deemed to be suitable compositions for scale-up. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) showed the MWCNTs to be well

  4. Cometary nucleus and active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the icy conglomerate model of cometary nuclei, various observations demonstrate the spotted nature of many or most nuclei, i.e., regions of unusual activity, either high or low. Rotation periods, spin axes and even precession of the axes are determined. The observational evidence for variations in activity over the surfaces of cometary nuclei are listed and discussed. On June 11 the comet IRAS-ARAKI-ALCOCK approached the Earth to a distance of 0.031 AU, the nearest since C/Lexell, 1770 I, providing a unique opportunity for near-nucleus observations. Preliminary analysis of these images establishes the spin axis of the nucleus, with an oblioquity to the orbit plane of approximately 50 deg, and a lag angle of sublimation approximately 35 deg from the solar meridian on the nucleus. Asymmetries of the inner coma suggests a crazy-quilt distribution of ices with differing volatility over the surface of the nucleus. The observations of Comet P/Homes 1892 III, exhibiting two 8-10 magnitude bursts, are carefully analyzed. The grazing encounter produced, besides the first great burst, an active area on the nucleus, which was rotating retrograde with a period of 16.3hr and inclination nearly 180 deg. After the first burst the total magnitude fell less than two magnitudes from November 7 to November 30 (barely naked eye) while the nuclear region remained diffuse or complex, rarely if ever showing a stellar appearance. The fading was much more rapid after the second burst. The grazing encounter distributed a volume of large chunks in the neighborhood of the nucleus, maintaining activity for weeks.

  5. Formin' actin in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Baarlink, Christian; Grosse, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many if not most proteins can, under certain conditions, change cellular compartments, such as, for example, shuttling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Thus, many proteins may exert functions in various and very different subcellular locations, depending on the signaling context. A large amount of actin regulatory proteins has been detected in the mammalian cell nucleus, although their potential roles are much debated and are just beginning to emerge. Recently, members of the formin family of actin nucleators were also reported to dynamically localize to the nuclear environment. Here we discuss our findings that specific diaphanous-related formins can promote nuclear actin assembly in a signal-dependent manner.

  6. Are the senses enough for sense? Early high-level feedback shapes our comprehension of multisensory objects

    PubMed Central

    Naci, Lorina; Taylor, Kirsten I.; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2012-01-01

    A key question in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain combines low-level features processed in remote sensory cortices to represent meaningful multisensory objects in our everyday environment. Models of visual object processing typically assume a feedforward cascade through the hierarchically organized ventral stream. We contrasted this feedforward view with an alternate hypothesis in which object processing is viewed as an interactive, feedforward and feedback process. We found that higher-order regions in anterior temporal (AT) and inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) performed audio-visual (AV) integration 100 ms earlier than a sensory-driven region in the posterior occipital (pO) cortex, and were modulated by semantic variables (congruency), from as early as 50–100 ms. We propose that the brain represents familiar and complex multisensory objects through early interactivity between higher-order and sensory-driven regions. This interactivity may underpin the enhanced behavioral performance reported for semantically congruent AV objects. PMID:23055957

  7. Judged and Remembered Trustworthiness of Faces Is Enhanced by Experiencing Multisensory Synchrony and Asynchrony in the Right Order.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Hugo; Schubert, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    This work builds on the enfacement effect. This effect occurs when experiencing a rhythmic stimulation on one's cheek while seeing someone else's face being touched in a synchronous way. This typically leads to cognitive and social-cognitive effects similar to self-other merging. In two studies, we demonstrate that this multisensory stimulation can change the evaluation of the other's face. In the first study, participants judged the stranger's face and similar faces as being more trustworthy after synchrony, but not after asynchrony. Synchrony interacted with the order of the stroking; hence trustworthiness only changed when the synchronous stimulation occurred before the asynchronous one. In the second study, a synchronous stimulation caused participants to remember the stranger's face as more trustworthy, but again only when the synchronous stimulation came before the asynchronous one. The results of both studies show that order of stroking creates a context in which multisensory synchrony can affect the trustworthiness of faces.

  8. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth

    2003-11-25

    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  9. Disentangling unisensory and multisensory components in audiovisual integration using a novel multifrequency fMRI spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2010-08-15

    Events in the world are mediated through multiple sensory inputs which are processed separately in specific unisensory areas according to the division-of-labor principle, and then need to be integrated to create a unified percept. How this is done is still not clear. For instance, recent evidence showed crossmodal activation in primary areas. We developed a novel approach to study multisensory integration using multifrequency spectral analysis to investigate the processing of audio and visual streams in a multisensory context. Auditory and visual stimuli were delivered in the same experimental condition, each in different presentation frequencies, and thus could be detected by applying Fourier spectral analysis in their different presentation frequencies. The cochleotopic and retinotopic organization of primary auditory and visual areas were found to remain intact in spite of the multisensory context. Auditory responses were also found in the Precuneus, suggesting that it might be a new auditory area responsive to pure tone stimuli, and serving as one end of a novel sensory preference gradient stretching across POG to the calcarine sulcus. Additional audiovisual areal convergence was detected both in areas in the middle of sensory preference gradients, and in primary auditory areas. Interestingly, the in/out synchronization rate of the auditory and visual streams yielded a third interaction frequency, which could be analyzed independently to reveal higher-order audiovisual interaction responses. These results were detected in one compact and natural multisensory experimental condition, which has several advantages over previous approaches. The method can be further implemented to study any type of interaction, within and across sensory modalities.

  10. Multisensory System for Fruit Harvesting Robots. Experimental Testing in Natural Scenarios and with Different Kinds of Crops

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Roemi; Salinas, Carlota; Montes, Héctor; Sarria, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The motivation of this research was to explore the feasibility of detecting and locating fruits from different kinds of crops in natural scenarios. To this end, a unique, modular and easily adaptable multisensory system and a set of associated pre-processing algorithms are proposed. The offered multisensory rig combines a high resolution colour camera and a multispectral system for the detection of fruits, as well as for the discrimination of the different elements of the plants, and a Time-Of-Flight (TOF) camera that provides fast acquisition of distances enabling the localisation of the targets in the coordinate space. A controlled lighting system completes the set-up, increasing its flexibility for being used in different working conditions. The pre-processing algorithms designed for the proposed multisensory system include a pixel-based classification algorithm that labels areas of interest that belong to fruits and a registration algorithm that combines the results of the aforementioned classification algorithm with the data provided by the TOF camera for the 3D reconstruction of the desired regions. Several experimental tests have been carried out in outdoors conditions in order to validate the capabilities of the proposed system. PMID:25615730

  11. In the footsteps of biological motion and multisensory perception: judgments of audiovisual temporal relations are enhanced for upright walkers.

    PubMed

    Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Driver, Jon; de Sa, Virginia R

    2008-05-01

    Observers judged whether a periodically moving visual display (point-light walker) had the same temporal frequency as a series of auditory beeps that in some cases coincided with the apparent footsteps of the walker. Performance in this multisensory judgment was consistently better for upright point-light walkers than for inverted point-light walkers or scrambled control stimuli, even though the temporal information was the same in the three types of stimuli. The advantage with upright walkers disappeared when the visual "footsteps" were not phase-locked with the auditory events (and instead offset by 50% of the gait cycle). This finding indicates there was some specificity to the naturally experienced multisensory relation, and that temporal perception was not simply better for upright walkers per se. These experiments indicate that the gestalt of visual stimuli can substantially affect multisensory judgments, even in the context of a temporal task (for which audition is often considered dominant). This effect appears to be constrained by the ecological validity of the particular pairings. PMID:18466408

  12. Sulfonamides as multifunctional agents for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bag, Seema; Tulsan, Rekha; Sood, Abha; Cho, Hyejin; Redjeb, Hana; Zhou, Weihong; LeVine, Harry; Török, Béla; Török, Marianna

    2015-02-01

    Sulfonamide linker-based inhibitors with extended linear structure were designed and synthesized with the aim of producing multifunctional agents against several processes involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The potency of the compounds were assessed in the inhibition of Aβ self-assembly (fibril and oligomer formation), in modulating cholinesterase (AChE, BuChE) activity, and scavenging free radicals. Several compounds exhibited promising Aβ self-assembly and cholinesterase inhibition and in parallel, showed good free radical scavenging properties. The investigation of the scaffold described in this study resulted in the identification of three compounds (14, 19 and 26) as promising leads for the further design of multifunctional drug candidates for AD.

  13. MULTIFUNCTIONAL AND STIMULI-SENSITIVE PHARMACEUTICAL NANOCARRIERS

    PubMed Central

    Torchilin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Currently used pharmaceutical nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles, demonstrate a broad variety of useful properties, such as longevity in the body; specific targeting to certain disease sites; enhanced intracellular penetration; contrast properties allowing for direct carrier visualization in vivo; stimili-sensitivity, and others. Some of those pharmaceutical carriers have already made their way into clinic, while others are still under preclinical development. In certain cases, the pharmaceutical nanocarriers combine several of the listed properties. Long-circulating immunoliposomes capable of prolonged residence in the blood and specific target recognition represent one of examples of this kind. The engineering of multifunctional pharmaceutical nanocarriers combining several useful properties in one particle can significantly enhance the efficacy of many therapeutic and diagnostic protocols. This paper considers the current status and possible future directions in the emerging area of multifunctional nanocarriers with primary attention on the combination of such properties as longevity, targetability, intracellular penetration, contrast loading, and stimuli sensitivity. PMID:18977297

  14. Photoresponsive polymer nanocarriers with multifunctional cargo.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Subramani; Garcia-Amorós, Jaume; Fraix, Aurore; Kandoth, Noufal; Sortino, Salvatore; Raymo, Françisco M

    2014-06-21

    Nanoparticles with photoresponsive character can be assembled from amphiphilic macromolecular components and hydrophobic chromophores. In aqueous solutions, the hydrophobic domains of these species associate to produce spontaneously nanosized hosts with multiple photoresponsive guests in their interior. The modularity of this supramolecular approach to nanostructured assemblies permits the co-encapsulation of distinct subsets of guests within the very same host. In turn, the entrapped guests can be designed to interact upon light excitation and exchange electrons, energy or protons. Such photoinduced processes permit the engineering of properties into these supramolecular constructs that would otherwise be impossible to replicate with the separate components. Alternatively, noninteracting guests with distinct functions can be entrapped in these supramolecular containers to ensure multifunctional character. In fact, biocompatible luminescent probes with unique photochemical and photophysical signatures have already emerged from these fascinating investigations. Thus, polymer nanocarriers can become invaluable supramolecular scaffolds for the realization of multifunctional and photoresponsive tools for a diversity of biomedical applications. PMID:24306531

  15. Higgs and Particle Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe

    We apply a diagrammatic approach to study Higgs boson, a color-neutral heavy particle, pro- duction in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the saturation framework without quantum evolution. We assume the strong coupling constant much smaller than one. Due to the heavy mass and colorless nature of Higgs particle, final state interactions are absent in our calculation. In order to treat the two nuclei dynamically symmetric, we use the Coulomb gauge which gives the appropriate light cone gauge for each nucleus. To further eliminate initial state interactions we choose specific prescriptions in the light cone propagators. We start the calculation from only two nucleons in each nucleus and then demonstrate how to generalize the calculation to higher orders diagrammatically. We simplify the diagrams by the Slavnov-Taylor-Ward identities. The resulting cross section is factorized into a product of two Weizsacker-Williams gluon distributions of the two nuclei when the transverse momentum of the produced scalar particle is around the saturation momentum. To our knowledge this is the first process where an exact analytic formula has been formed for a physical process, involving momenta on the order of the saturation momentum, in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the quasi-classical approximation. Since we have performed the calculation in an unconventional gauge choice, we further confirm our results in Feynman gauge where the Weizsacker-Williams gluon distribution is interpreted as a transverse momentum broadening of a hard gluons traversing a nuclear medium. The transverse momentum factorization manifests itself in light cone gauge but not so clearly in Feynman gauge. In saturation physics there are two different unintegrated gluon distributions usually encountered in the literature: the Weizsacker-Williams gluon distribution and the dipole gluon distribution. The first gluon distribution is constructed by solving classical Yang-Mills equation of motion in the Mc

  16. Multifunctional optical processor based on symbolic substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.; Botha, E.C. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors propose an optical multifunctional processor that can perform logic, numeric, pattern recognition, morphological, and inference operations. The ability to perform such diverse functions on one optical processor architecture is unique. The processor uses the technique of symbolic substitution and is based on an optical correlator architecture. Several inputs can be operated on in parallel, and different functions can be performed at one time, making it a multiple-instruction multiple-data processor.

  17. Approach to multifunction radar tracker design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casar Corredera, Jose R.; Harvey, Denis H.

    A new approach is presented to select optimally both the energy of the tracking waveforms and the track sampling rates which jointly minimize occupancy and satisfy angular accuracy requirements for a multifunction radar. The design process is illustrated for a particular system. The results suggest that the radar's energy should be managed as a function of target size and range so as to obtain an SNR as close as possible to its optimal value.

  18. Multiscale/Multifunctional Probabilistic Composite Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2010-01-01

    A multilevel (multiscale/multifunctional) evaluation is demonstrated by applying it to three different sample problems. These problems include the probabilistic evaluation of a space shuttle main engine blade, an engine rotor and an aircraft wing. The results demonstrate that the blade will fail at the highest probability path, the engine two-stage rotor will fail by fracture at the rim and the aircraft wing will fail at 109 fatigue cycles with a probability of 0.9967.

  19. Holmium laser for multifunctional use in urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Graham M.; Shroff, Sunil; Thomas, Robert; Kellett, Michael

    1994-05-01

    The holmium laser pulsed at 350 microsecond cuts tissue and fragments calculi. It has been assessed for minimally invasive urological intervention. It is useful for partly excising and partly coagulating tumors, incising strictures and the obstructed PUJ. It partly drill and partly fragments urinary calculi however hard. Other lasers are more effective at any one particular application, but this laser is a useful compromise as a multifunctional device.

  20. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  1. Multifunctional gold-based nanocomposites for theranostics.

    PubMed

    Dykman, Lev A; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2016-11-01

    Although Au-particle potential in nanobiotechnology has been recognized for the last 15 years, new insights into the unique properties of multifunctional nanostructures have just recently started to emerge. Multifunctional gold-based nanocomposites combine multiple modalities to improve the efficacy of the therapeutic and diagnostic treatment of cancer and other socially significant diseases. This review is focused on multifunctional gold-based theranostic nanocomposites, which can be fabricated by three main routes. The first route is to create composite (or hybrid) nanoparticles, whose components enable diagnostic and therapeutic functions. The second route is based on smart bioconjugation techniques to functionalize gold nanoparticles with a set of different molecules, enabling them to perform targeting, diagnostic, and therapeutic functions in a single treatment procedure. Finally, the third route for multifunctionalized composite nanoparticles is a combination of the first two and involves additional functionalization of hybrid nanoparticles with several molecules possessing different theranostic modalities. This last class of multifunctionalized composites also includes fluorescent atomic clusters with multiple functionalities. PMID:27614818

  2. Biomimetic multifunctional surfaces inspired from animals.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiwu; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yin, Wei; Li, Wen; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2016-08-01

    Over millions of years, animals have evolved to a higher intelligent level for their environment. A large number of diverse surface structures on their bodies have been formed to adapt to the extremely harsh environment. Just like the structural diversity existed in plants, the same also applies true in animals. Firstly, this article provides an overview and discussion of the most common functional surface structures inspired from animals, such as drag reduction, noise reduction, anti-adhesion, anti-wear, anti-erosion, anti-fog, water capture, and optical surfaces. Then, some typical characteristics of morphologies, structures, and materials of the animal multifunctional surfaces were discussed. The adaptation of these surfaces to environmental conditions was also analyzed. It mainly focuses on the relationship between their surface functions and their surface structural characteristics. Afterwards, the multifunctional mechanisms or principles of these surfaces were discussed. Models of these structures were provided for the development of structure materials and machinery surfaces. At last, fabrication techniques and existing or potential technical applications inspired from biomimetic multifunctional surfaces in animals were also discussed. The application prospects of the biomimetic functional surfaces are very broad, such as civil field of self-cleaning textile fabrics and non-stick pots, ocean field of oil-water separation, sports field of swimming suits, space development field of lens arrays. PMID:27085632

  3. Brain and Language: Evidence for Neural Multifunctionality

    PubMed Central

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    This review paper presents converging evidence from studies of brain damage and longitudinal studies of language in aging which supports the following thesis: the neural basis of language can best be understood by the concept of neural multifunctionality. In this paper the term “neural multifunctionality” refers to incorporation of nonlinguistic functions into language models of the intact brain, reflecting a multifunctional perspective whereby a constant and dynamic interaction exists among neural networks subserving cognitive, affective, and praxic functions with neural networks specialized for lexical retrieval, sentence comprehension, and discourse processing, giving rise to language as we know it. By way of example, we consider effects of executive system functions on aspects of semantic processing among persons with and without aphasia, as well as the interaction of executive and language functions among older adults. We conclude by indicating how this multifunctional view of brain-language relations extends to the realm of language recovery from aphasia, where evidence of the influence of nonlinguistic factors on the reshaping of neural circuitry for aphasia rehabilitation is clearly emerging. PMID:25009368

  4. Thick-walled carbon composite multifunctional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haake, John M.; Jacobs, Jack H.; McIlroy, Bruce E.

    1997-06-01

    Satellite programs are moving in the direction of smaller and lighter structures. Technological advances have permitted more sophisticated equipment to be consolidated into compact spaces. Micro-satellites, between 10 and 100 kg, will incorporate micro-electric devices into the lay-up of the satellite structure. These structures will be designed to carry load, provide thermal control, enhance damping, and include integrated passive electronics. These multifunctional structures offer lighter weight, reduced volume, and a 'smarter' overall package for incorporation of sensors, electronics, fiber optics, powered appendages or active components. McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) has applied technology from the synthesis and processing of intelligent cost effective structures (SPICES) and independent research and development (IRAD) programs to the modular instrument support system (MISS) for multifunctional space structures and micro-satellites. The SPICES program was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop affordable manufacturing processes for smart materials to be used in vibration control, and the MISS program was funded by NASA-Langley. The MISS program was conceived to develop concepts and techniques to make connections between different multifunctional structures. MDA fabricated a trapezoidal carbon composite structure out of IM7/977-3 tape prepreg. Flex circuits, thermal and optical conduits were embedded to realize a utility modular connector. These provide electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical connections between micro- satellite components. A quick disconnect mount was also developed to accommodate a variety of devices such as solar arrays, power sources, thermal transfer and vibration control modules.

  5. Multisensory Stimulation Can Induce an Illusion of Larger Belly Size in Immersive Virtual Reality

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Jean-Marie; Giannopoulos, Elias; Spanlang, Bernhard; Slater, Mel

    2011-01-01

    Background Body change illusions have been of great interest in recent years for the understanding of how the brain represents the body. Appropriate multisensory stimulation can induce an illusion of ownership over a rubber or virtual arm, simple types of out-of-the-body experiences, and even ownership with respect to an alternate whole body. Here we use immersive virtual reality to investigate whether the illusion of a dramatic increase in belly size can be induced in males through (a) first person perspective position (b) synchronous visual-motor correlation between real and virtual arm movements, and (c) self-induced synchronous visual-tactile stimulation in the stomach area. Methodology Twenty two participants entered into a virtual reality (VR) delivered through a stereo head-tracked wide field-of-view head-mounted display. They saw from a first person perspective a virtual body substituting their own that had an inflated belly. For four minutes they repeatedly prodded their real belly with a rod that had a virtual counterpart that they saw in the VR. There was a synchronous condition where their prodding movements were synchronous with what they felt and saw and an asynchronous condition where this was not the case. The experiment was repeated twice for each participant in counter-balanced order. Responses were measured by questionnaire, and also a comparison of before and after self-estimates of belly size produced by direct visual manipulation of the virtual body seen from the first person perspective. Conclusions The results show that first person perspective of a virtual body that substitutes for the own body in virtual reality, together with synchronous multisensory stimulation can temporarily produce changes in body representation towards the larger belly size. This was demonstrated by (a) questionnaire results, (b) the difference between the self-estimated belly size, judged from a first person perspective, after and before the experimental

  6. Analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions in emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a computer-assisted method is reported for the determination of the angular distribution data for secondary particles produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsions. The method is applied to emulsion detectors that were placed in a constant, uniform magnetic field and exposed to beams of 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon O-16 ions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) of the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Linear regression analysis is used to determine the azimuthal and polar emission angles from measured track coordinate data. The software, written in BASIC, is designed to be machine independent, and adaptable to an automated system for acquiring the track coordinates. The fitting algorithm is deterministic, and takes into account the experimental uncertainty in the measured points. Further, a procedure for using the track data to estimate the linear momenta of the charged particles observed in the detectors is included.

  7. Dynamical nucleus-nucleus potential at short distances

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yongying; Wang Ning; Li Zhuxia; Scheid, Werner

    2010-04-15

    The dynamical nucleus-nucleus potentials for fusion reactions {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca, {sup 48}Ca+{sup 208}Pb, and {sup 126}Sn+{sup 130}Te are studied with the improved quantum molecular dynamics model together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation for the kinetic energies of nuclei. The obtained fusion barrier for {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca is in good agreement with the extracted fusion barrier from the measured fusion excitation function, and the depths of the fusion pockets are close to the results of time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations. The energy dependence of the fusion barrier is also investigated. The fusion pocket becomes shallow for a heavy fusion system and almost disappears for heavy nearly symmetric systems, and the obtained potential at short distances is higher than the adiabatic potential.

  8. Azimuthal correlation and collective behavior in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Mali, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A. Sarkar, S.; Singh, G.

    2015-03-15

    Various flow effects of nuclear and hadronic origin are investigated in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Nuclear emulsion data collected from {sup 84}Kr + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 1.52 GeV per nucleon and from {sup 28}Si + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 14.5 GeV per nucleon are used in the investigation. The transverse momentum distribution and the flow angle analysis show that collective behavior, like a bounce-off effect of the projectile spectators and a sidesplash effect of the target spectators, are present in our event samples. From an azimuthal angle analysis of the data we also see a direct flow of the projectile fragments and of the produced charged particles. On the other hand, for both data samples the target fragments exhibit a reverse flow, while the projectile fragments exhibit an elliptic flow. Relevant flow parameters are measured.

  9. Single nucleon emission in relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment have previously been noted for nucleon emission via electromagnetic processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The present work investigates the hypothesis that these discrepancies have arisen due to uncertainties about how to deduce the experimental electromagnetic cross section from the total measured cross section. An optical-model calculation of single neutron removal is added to electromagnetic cross sections and compared to the total experimental cross sections. Good agreement is found thereby resolving some of the earlier noted discrepancies. A detailed comparison to the recent work of Benesh, Cook, and Vary is made for both the impact parameter and the nuclear cross section. Good agreement is obtained giving an independent confirmation of the parameterized formulas developed by those authors.

  10. DNA damage-induced translocation of S100A11 into the nucleus regulates cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteins are able to react in response to distinct stress stimuli by alteration of their subcellular distribution. The stress-responsive protein S100A11 belongs to the family of multifunctional S100 proteins which have been implicated in several key biological processes. Previously, we have shown that S100A11 is directly involved in DNA repair processes at damaged chromatin in the nucleus. To gain further insight into the underlying mechanism subcellular trafficking of S100A11 in response to DNA damage was analyzed. Results We show that DNA damage induces a nucleolin-mediated translocation of S100A11 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. This translocation is impeded by inhibition of the phosphorylation activity of PKCα. Translocation of S100A11 into the nucleus correlates with an increased cellular p21 protein level. Depletion of nucleolin by siRNA severely impairs translocation of S100A11 into the nucleus resulting in a decreased p21 protein level. Additionally, cells lacking nucleolin showed a reduced colony forming capacity. Conclusions These observations suggest that regulation of the subcellular distribution of S100A11 plays an important role in the DNA damage response and p21-mediated cell cycle control. PMID:21167017

  11. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  12. Computations underlying Drosophila photo-taxis, odor-taxis, and multi-sensory integration

    PubMed Central

    Gepner, Ruben; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Bernat, Natalie M; Kaplow, Margarita; Gershow, Marc

    2015-01-01

    To better understand how organisms make decisions on the basis of temporally varying multi-sensory input, we identified computations made by Drosophila larvae responding to visual and optogenetically induced fictive olfactory stimuli. We modeled the larva's navigational decision to initiate turns as the output of a Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson cascade. We used reverse-correlation to fit parameters to this model; the parameterized model predicted larvae's responses to novel stimulus patterns. For multi-modal inputs, we found that larvae linearly combine olfactory and visual signals upstream of the decision to turn. We verified this prediction by measuring larvae's responses to coordinated changes in odor and light. We studied other navigational decisions and found that larvae integrated odor and light according to the same rule in all cases. These results suggest that photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06229.001 PMID:25945916

  13. Objective fidelity evaluation in multisensory virtual environments: auditory cue fidelity in flight simulation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Georg F; Wong, Li Ting; Timson, Emma; Perfect, Philip; White, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    We argue that objective fidelity evaluation of virtual environments, such as flight simulation, should be human-performance-centred and task-specific rather than measure the match between simulation and physical reality. We show how principled experimental paradigms and behavioural models to quantify human performance in simulated environments that have emerged from research in multisensory perception provide a framework for the objective evaluation of the contribution of individual cues to human performance measures of fidelity. We present three examples in a flight simulation environment as a case study: Experiment 1: Detection and categorisation of auditory and kinematic motion cues; Experiment 2: Performance evaluation in a target-tracking task; Experiment 3: Transferrable learning of auditory motion cues. We show how the contribution of individual cues to human performance can be robustly evaluated for each task and that the contribution is highly task dependent. The same auditory cues that can be discriminated and are optimally integrated in experiment 1, do not contribute to target-tracking performance in an in-flight refuelling simulation without training, experiment 2. In experiment 3, however, we demonstrate that the auditory cue leads to significant, transferrable, performance improvements with training. We conclude that objective fidelity evaluation requires a task-specific analysis of the contribution of individual cues.

  14. Multi-sensory surgical support system incorporating, tactile, visual and auditory perception modalities.

    PubMed

    Omata, Sadao; Murayama, Yoshinobu; Constantinou, Christos E

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of novel broad band sensory modalities, integrating tactile technology, with visual and auditory signals into the evolution of the next generation of surgical robotic is likely to significantly enhance their utility and safety. In this paper considerations are made of a system, where tactile information together with visual and audio feedback are integrated into a multisensory surgical support platform. The tactile sensor system uses a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) system to evaluate the haptic properties of tissues. The spatial position of the sensor is tracked by a video camera, visualizing the location of the marker. Tactile information is additionally converted to an audio signal, to represent tissue properties in terms of a frequency/amplitude modulated signal. Representative data were obtained from biological tissues demonstrating that the technology developed has potential applications in virtual systems or robotic tele-medical care. In view of these technical developments, consideration is made as to whether visual audio and tactile modalities act as independent sources of information.

  15. Multisensory interaction mediates the social transmission of avoidance in rats: dissociation from social transmission of fear.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akira; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Someya, Nami; Aou, Shuji

    2013-09-01

    Social interaction enables animals to transmit various types of sensory information that can modulate learned avoidance behavior and fear responses, which are important to survival. We previously reported that, under a passive avoidance paradigm, avoidance behavior is facilitated when a rat observes another rat (demonstrator) receiving a shock when performing a specific behavior. However, the sensory mechanisms underlying this 'social facilitation of avoidance' are not well understood. The present study examined the role of sensory pathways for social transmission of avoidance, focusing on the olfactory and visual systems. The olfactory ability of observer rats was blocked by an intranasal application of ZnSO4, and their visual ability was blocked by an opaque partition placed between observer and demonstrator rats. We found that blocking either olfactory or visual input drastically diminished the social transmission of avoidance. Interestingly the social transmission of fear responses remained intact even when olfactory or visual information was blocked. These results indicate that the social transmission of avoidance is mediated not by any single sensory modality but by multisensory interaction in rats, suggesting a distinct sensory mechanism from that underlying the social transmission of fear.

  16. Objective Fidelity Evaluation in Multisensory Virtual Environments: Auditory Cue Fidelity in Flight Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Georg F.; Wong, Li Ting; Timson, Emma; Perfect, Philip; White, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    We argue that objective fidelity evaluation of virtual environments, such as flight simulation, should be human-performance-centred and task-specific rather than measure the match between simulation and physical reality. We show how principled experimental paradigms and behavioural models to quantify human performance in simulated environments that have emerged from research in multisensory perception provide a framework for the objective evaluation of the contribution of individual cues to human performance measures of fidelity. We present three examples in a flight simulation environment as a case study: Experiment 1: Detection and categorisation of auditory and kinematic motion cues; Experiment 2: Performance evaluation in a target-tracking task; Experiment 3: Transferrable learning of auditory motion cues. We show how the contribution of individual cues to human performance can be robustly evaluated for each task and that the contribution is highly task dependent. The same auditory cues that can be discriminated and are optimally integrated in experiment 1, do not contribute to target-tracking performance in an in-flight refuelling simulation without training, experiment 2. In experiment 3, however, we demonstrate that the auditory cue leads to significant, transferrable, performance improvements with training. We conclude that objective fidelity evaluation requires a task-specific analysis of the contribution of individual cues. PMID:22957068

  17. Rheotaxis of Larval Zebrafish: Behavioral Study of a Multi-Sensory Process

    PubMed Central

    Olive, Raphaël; Wolf, Sébastien; Dubreuil, Alexis; Bormuth, Volker; Debrégeas, Georges; Candelier, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Awake animals unceasingly perceive sensory inputs with great variability of nature and intensity, and understanding how the nervous system manages this continuous flow of diverse information to get a coherent representation of the environment is arguably a central question in systems neuroscience. Rheotaxis, the ability shared by most aquatic species to orient toward a current and swim to hold position, is an innate and robust multi-sensory behavior that is known to involve the lateral line and visual systems. To facilitate the neuroethological study of rheotaxic behavior in larval zebrafish we developed an assay for freely swimming larvae that allows for high experimental throughtput, large statistic and a fine description of the behavior. We show that there exist a clear transition from exploration to counterflow swim, and by changing the sensory modalities accessible to the fishes (visual only, lateral line only or both) and comparing the swim patterns at different ages we were able to detect and characterize two different mechanisms for position holding, one mediated by the lateral line and one mediated by the visual system. We also found that when both sensory modalities are accessible the visual system overshadows the lateral line, suggesting that at the larval stage the sensory inputs are not merged to finely tune the behavior but that redundant information pathways may be used as functional fallbacks. PMID:26941620

  18. HEBBIAN MECHANISMS HELP EXPLAIN DEVELOPMENT OF MULTISENSORY INTEGRATION IN THE SUPERIOR COLLICULUS: A NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Cuppini, C.; Magosso, E.; Rowland, B.; Stein, B.; Ursino, M.

    2013-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) integrates relevant sensory information (visual, auditory, somatosensory) from several cortical and subcortical structures, to program orientation responses to external events. However, this capacity is not present at birth, and it is acquired only through interactions with cross-modal events during maturation. Mathematical models provide a quantitative framework, valuable in helping to clarify the specific neural mechanisms underlying the maturation of the multisensory integration in the SC. We extended a neural network model of the adult SC (Cuppini et al. 2010) to describe the development of this phenomenon starting from an immature state, based on known or suspected anatomy and physiology, in which: 1) AES afferents are present but weak, 2) Responses are driven from non-AES afferents, and 3) The visual inputs have a marginal spatial tuning. Sensory experience was modelled by repeatedly presenting modality-specific and cross-modal stimuli. Synapses in the network were modified by simple Hebbian learning rules. As a consequence of this exposure, 1) Receptive fields shrink and come into spatial register, and 2) SC neurons gained the adult characteristic integrative properties: enhancement, depression, and inverse effectiveness. Importantly, the unique architecture of the model guided the development so that integration became dependent on the relationship between the cortical input and the SC. Manipulations of the statistics of the experience during the development changed the integrative profiles of the neurons, and results matched well with the results of physiological studies. PMID:23011260

  19. Multisensory integration in the developing tectum is constrained by the balance of excitation and inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Felch, Daniel L; Khakhalin, Arseny S; Aizenman, Carlos D

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory integration (MSI) is the process that allows the brain to bind together spatiotemporally congruent inputs from different sensory modalities to produce single salient representations. While the phenomenology of MSI in vertebrate brains is well described, relatively little is known about cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Here we use an isolated brain preparation to describe cellular mechanisms underlying development of MSI between visual and mechanosensory inputs in the optic tectum of Xenopus tadpoles. We find MSI is highly dependent on the temporal interval between crossmodal stimulus pairs. Over a key developmental period, the temporal window for MSI significantly narrows and is selectively tuned to specific interstimulus intervals. These changes in MSI correlate with developmental increases in evoked synaptic inhibition, and inhibitory blockade reverses observed developmental changes in MSI. We propose a model in which development of recurrent inhibition mediates development of temporal aspects of MSI in the tectum. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15600.001 PMID:27218449

  20. Distributed multisensory integration in a recurrent network model through supervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    Sensory integration between different modalities has been extensively studied. It is suggested that the brain integrates signals from different modalities in a Bayesian optimal way. However, how the Bayesian rule is implemented in a neural network remains under debate. In this work we propose a biologically plausible recurrent network model, which can perform Bayesian multisensory integration after trained by supervised learning. Our model is composed of two modules, each for one modality. We assume that each module is a recurrent network, whose activity represents the posterior distribution of each stimulus. The feedforward input on each module is the likelihood of each modality. Two modules are integrated through cross-links, which are feedforward connections from the other modality, and reciprocal connections, which are recurrent connections between different modules. By stochastic gradient descent, we successfully trained the feedforward and recurrent coupling matrices simultaneously, both of which resembles the Mexican-hat. We also find that there are more than one set of coupling matrices that can approximate the Bayesian theorem well. Specifically, reciprocal connections and cross-links will compensate each other if one of them is removed. Even though trained with two inputs, the network's performance with only one input is in good accordance with what is predicted by the Bayesian theorem.

  1. The cognitive and neural correlates of "tactile consciousness": a multisensory perspective.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2008-03-01

    People's awareness of tactile stimuli has been investigated in far less detail than their awareness of stimuli in other sensory modalities. In an attempt to fill this gap, we provide an overview of studies that are pertinent to the topic of tactile consciousness. We discuss the results of research that has investigated phenomena such as "change blindness", phantom limb sensations, and numerosity judgments in tactile perception, together with the results obtained from the study of patients affected by deficits that can adversely affect tactile perception such as neglect, extinction, and numbsense. The similarities as well as some of the important differences that have emerged when visual and tactile conscious information processing have been compared using similar experimental procedures are highlighted. We suggest that conscious information processing in the tactile modality cannot be separated completely from the more general processing of spatial information in the brain. Finally, the importance of considering tactile consciousness within the larger framework of multisensory information processing is also discussed. PMID:17398116

  2. Neural activity in monkey amygdala during performance of a multisensory operant task.

    PubMed

    Montes-Lourido, Pilar; Vicente, Ana F; Bermudez, Maria A; Gonzalez, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the potential involvement of monkey amygdala in the evaluation of value encoding of visual and auditive stimuli associated with reward or no reward. We recorded the activity of 93 extracellular neurons from the monkey right amygdala, while performing a multisensory operant task. The activity of 78 task-related neurons was studied. Of these, 13 neurons (16%) responded to the value of visual stimuli, 22 neurons (28%) responded after the presentation of visual stimuli, 22 neurons (28%) showed an inhibition around the lever-pressing and were classified as action related neurons and 22 neurons (28%) responded after reward delivery. These findings suggest that neurons in the amygdala play a role in encoding value and processing visual information, participate in motor regulation and are sensitive to reward. The activity of these neurons did not change in the evaluation of auditive stimuli. These data support the hypothesis that amygdala neurons are specific to each sensory modality and that different groups of amygdala neurons process visual and auditive information. PMID:26246438

  3. Multisensory non-photoperiodic cue advances the onset of seasonal breeding in Island canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Voigt, Cornelia; Meiners, Torsten; Ter Maat, Andries; Leitner, Stefan

    2011-10-01

    In most temperate zone vertebrates, photoperiodic change plays the major role in the timing of seasonal breeding. However, direct environmental stimuli such as temperature, rainfall, or availability of food are thought to be important for fine-tuning breeding activities. Building on evidence from wild Island canaries (Serinus canaria), the authors had shown advancing effects of green vegetation on breeding under captive, short-day conditions. So far, the precise, sensory modalities of this stimulatory cue are unknown. Here the authors present new data that confirm advanced breeding activities in the presence of green vegetation and narrow its stimulatory components. They found that direct exposure of the birds to fresh green vegetation represented the strongest stimulus and advanced breeding by up to 2 months compared to controls. In contrast, access to artificial green vegetation, extracts from green vegetation, or olfactory components alone had no such effects. This is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first experiment that examines sensory components of an effective, supplementary, non-photoperiodic cue in a temperate zone species. The data suggest that in order to use non-photoperiodic information to time breeding, birds must be able to integrate and process multisensory stimuli. Single non-photoperiodic sensory cues are insufficient to affect the timing of seasonal breeding. PMID:21921297

  4. Multisensory integration: the case of a time window of gesture-speech integration.

    PubMed

    Obermeier, Christian; Gunter, Thomas C

    2015-02-01

    This experiment investigates the integration of gesture and speech from a multisensory perspective. In a disambiguation paradigm, participants were presented with short videos of an actress uttering sentences like "She was impressed by the BALL, because the GAME/DANCE...." The ambiguous noun (BALL) was accompanied by an iconic gesture fragment containing information to disambiguate the noun toward its dominant or subordinate meaning. We used four different temporal alignments between noun and gesture fragment: the identification point (IP) of the noun was either prior to (+120 msec), synchronous with (0 msec), or lagging behind the end of the gesture fragment (-200 and -600 msec). ERPs triggered to the IP of the noun showed significant differences for the integration of dominant and subordinate gesture fragments in the -200, 0, and +120 msec conditions. The outcome of this integration was revealed at the target words. These data suggest a time window for direct semantic gesture-speech integration ranging from at least -200 up to +120 msec. Although the -600 msec condition did not show any signs of direct integration at the homonym, significant disambiguation was found at the target word. An explorative analysis suggested that gesture information was directly integrated at the verb, indicating that there are multiple positions in a sentence where direct gesture-speech integration takes place. Ultimately, this would implicate that in natural communication, where a gesture lasts for some time, several aspects of that gesture will have their specific and possibly distinct impact on different positions in an utterance. PMID:25061929

  5. Multisensory integration in the Muller-Lyer illusion: from vision to haptics.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Flavia; Bricolo, Emanuela; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2010-04-01

    The Muller-Lyer figure is a powerful illusion in both vision and touch, although it is still unclear whether the visual and haptic illusory effects are due to modality-specific or shared processes. In order to investigate the hypothesis of a common underlying mechanism, the performance of 24 undergraduates in a manual bisection task of the Judd variant of the Muller-Lyer figure was assessed under visual, haptic, and visuo-haptic presentations (Experiment 1). In the bimodal condition participants saw the arrowheads on the front and touched the shaft on the back of a stimulus-supporting board. Illusory effects were comparable in touch and vision and were present, albeit reduced, in the bimodal visuo-haptic condition. In Experiment 2 we used the bimodal task of Experiment 1, manipulating the spatial position of the horizontal shaft on the backside of the board. The visual arrowheads affected haptic bisection, bringing about the illusory effects, only when the shaft was aligned with them. In conclusion, illusory effects transfer cross-modally from vision to haptics only in the presence of spatial coincidence, which appears to be a crucial factor for cross-modal integration. Implications for multisensory processes are discussed.

  6. Vocalization–whisking coordination and multisensory integration of social signals in rat auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Rajnish P; Mielke, Falk; Bobrov, Evgeny; Brecht, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions involve multi-modal signaling. Here, we study interacting rats to investigate audio-haptic coordination and multisensory integration in the auditory cortex. We find that facial touch is associated with an increased rate of ultrasonic vocalizations, which are emitted at the whisking rate (∼8 Hz) and preferentially initiated in the retraction phase of whisking. In a small subset of auditory cortex regular-spiking neurons, we observed excitatory and heterogeneous responses to ultrasonic vocalizations. Most fast-spiking neurons showed a stronger response to calls. Interestingly, facial touch-induced inhibition in the primary auditory cortex and off-responses after termination of touch were twofold stronger than responses to vocalizations. Further, touch modulated the responsiveness of auditory cortex neurons to ultrasonic vocalizations. In summary, facial touch during social interactions involves precisely orchestrated calling-whisking patterns. While ultrasonic vocalizations elicited a rather weak population response from the regular spikers, the modulation of neuronal responses by facial touch was remarkably strong. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03185.001 PMID:25485525

  7. Hebbian mechanisms help explain development of multisensory integration in the superior colliculus: a neural network model.

    PubMed

    Cuppini, C; Magosso, E; Rowland, B; Stein, B; Ursino, M

    2012-12-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) integrates relevant sensory information (visual, auditory, somatosensory) from several cortical and subcortical structures, to program orientation responses to external events. However, this capacity is not present at birth, and it is acquired only through interactions with cross-modal events during maturation. Mathematical models provide a quantitative framework, valuable in helping to clarify the specific neural mechanisms underlying the maturation of the multisensory integration in the SC. We extended a neural network model of the adult SC (Cuppini et al., Front Integr Neurosci 4:1-15, 2010) to describe the development of this phenomenon starting from an immature state, based on known or suspected anatomy and physiology, in which: (1) AES afferents are present but weak, (2) Responses are driven from non-AES afferents, and (3) The visual inputs have a marginal spatial tuning. Sensory experience was modeled by repeatedly presenting modality-specific and cross-modal stimuli. Synapses in the network were modified by simple Hebbian learning rules. As a consequence of this exposure, (1) Receptive fields shrink and come into spatial register, and (2) SC neurons gained the adult characteristic integrative properties: enhancement, depression, and inverse effectiveness. Importantly, the unique architecture of the model guided the development so that integration became dependent on the relationship between the cortical input and the SC. Manipulations of the statistics of the experience during the development changed the integrative profiles of the neurons, and results matched well with the results of physiological studies. PMID:23011260

  8. The impact of an intensive multisensory reading program on a population of learning-disabled delinquents.

    PubMed

    Simpson, S B; Swanson, J M; Kunkel, K

    1992-12-01

    The high prevalence of learning disabilities in the juvenile delinquent population has been well documented, but attempts to remediate and have an impact on recidivism of this population of delinquents has produced limited results. The present study is a replication of the remediation phase of the 1976 LD/JD Project with methodological refinements to control for treatment integrity and strength of treatment. Delinquents in two detention facilities were screened for a developmental reading disorder. Subjects were selected for the study based on normal intelligence, full English proficiency, and a discrepancy of 15 points between reading achievement and IQ. Subjects in the treatment group received 90 minutes of remedial reading instruction per day using a multisensory (Orton/Gillingham) approach. A comparison group received 45 minutes of daily reading instruction in the regular classroom. There was no significant difference between the two groups in mean age of first arrest, mean age, and mean hours of reading instruction. Based on pre- and posttesting in reading and arrest records one year following release, the treatment group made significantly greater growth in reading (.33 year growth vs -.05 year growth per 10 hours of instruction) and had a significantly lower rate of recidivism (41 percent vs 63 percent) than the comparison group. Results were discussed in terms of hours of instruction necessary to improve reading, intervening treatment variables, and cost effectiveness of remedial program.

  9. Susceptibility to a multisensory speech illusion in older persons is driven by perceptual processes

    PubMed Central

    Setti, Annalisa; Burke, Kate E.; Kenny, RoseAnne; Newell, Fiona N.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that multisensory integration is enhanced in older adults but it is not known whether this enhancement is solely driven by perceptual processes or affected by cognitive processes. Using the “McGurk illusion,” in Experiment 1 we found that audio-visual integration of incongruent audio-visual words was higher in older adults than in younger adults, although the recognition of either audio- or visual-only presented words was the same across groups. In Experiment 2 we tested recall of sentences within which an incongruent audio-visual speech word was embedded. The overall semantic meaning of the sentence was compatible with either one of the unisensory components of the target word and/or with the illusory percept. Older participants recalled more illusory audio-visual words in sentences than younger adults, however, there was no differential effect of word compatibility on recall for the two groups. Our findings suggest that the relatively high susceptibility to the audio-visual speech illusion in older participants is due more to perceptual than cognitive processing. PMID:24027544

  10. Multifunctional Spider Silk Polymers for Gene Delivery to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tokareva, Olena; Glettig, Dean; Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery systems are important transport vehicles that can be safe and effective alternatives to currently available viral systems. A new family of multifunctional spider silk-based gene carriers was bioengineered and found capable of targeting human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). These carriers successfully delivered DNA to the nucleus of these mammalian cells. The presence of specific functional sequences in the recombinant proteins, such as a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of the large tumor (T) antigen of the Simian virus 40 (SV40), an hMSC high affinity binding peptide (HAB), and a translocation motif (TLM) of the hepatitis-B virus surface protein (PreS2), and their roles in mitigation and enhancement of gene transfection efficiency towards hMSCs were characterized. The results demonstrate that these bioengineered spider silk proteins serve as effective carriers, without the well-known complications associated with viral delivery systems. PMID:25399785

  11. Severe Multisensory Speech Integration Deficits in High-Functioning School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Their Resolution During Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie; Del Bene, Victor A.; Frey, Hans-Peter; Russo, Natalie N.; Blanco, Daniella; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ross, Lars A.

    2015-01-01

    Under noisy listening conditions, visualizing a speaker's articulations substantially improves speech intelligibility. This multisensory speech integration ability is crucial to effective communication, and the appropriate development of this capacity greatly impacts a child's ability to successfully navigate educational and social settings. Research shows that multisensory integration abilities continue developing late into childhood. The primary aim here was to track the development of these abilities in children with autism, since multisensory deficits are increasingly recognized as a component of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. The abilities of high-functioning ASD children (n = 84) to integrate seen and heard speech were assessed cross-sectionally, while environmental noise levels were systematically manipulated, comparing them with age-matched neurotypical children (n = 142). Severe integration deficits were uncovered in ASD, which were increasingly pronounced as background noise increased. These deficits were evident in school-aged ASD children (5–12 year olds), but were fully ameliorated in ASD children entering adolescence (13–15 year olds). The severity of multisensory deficits uncovered has important implications for educators and clinicians working in ASD. We consider the observation that the multisensory speech system recovers substantially in adolescence as an indication that it is likely amenable to intervention during earlier childhood, with potentially profound implications for the development of social communication abilities in ASD children. PMID:23985136

  12. Requirements for a multifunctional code architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Tiihonen, O.; Juslin, K.

    1997-07-01

    The present paper studies a set of requirements for a multifunctional simulation software architecture in the light of experiences gained in developing and using the APROS simulation environment. The huge steps taken in the development of computer hardware and software during the last ten years are changing the status of the traditional nuclear safety analysis software. The affordable computing power on the safety analysts table by far exceeds the possibilities offered to him/her ten years ago. At the same time the features of everyday office software tend to set standards to the way the input data and calculational results are managed.

  13. Ultrastrong, Stiff and Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin; Yong, Zhenzhong; Li, Qingwen; Bradford, Philip D.; Liu, Wei; Tucker, Dennis S.; Cai, Wei; Wang, Hsin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Zhu, Yuntian

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an order of magnitude stronger than any current engineering fiber. However, for the past two decades it has been a challenge to utilize their reinforcement potential in composites. Here we report CNT composites with unprecedented multifunctionalities, including record high strength (3.8 GPa), Young s modulus (293 GPa), electrical conductivity (1230 S cm-1) and thermal conductivity (41 W m-1 K-1). These superior properties are derived from the long length, high volume fraction, good alignment and reduced waviness of the CNTs, which were produced by a novel processing approach that can be easily scaled up for industrial production.

  14. Multifunctional epitaxial systems on silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; Prater, John Thomas; Narayan, Jagdish

    2016-09-01

    Multifunctional heterostructures can exhibit a wide range of functional properties, including colossal magneto-resistance, magnetocaloric, and multiferroic behavior, and can display interesting physical phenomena including spin and charge ordering and strong spin-orbit coupling. However, putting this functionality to work remains a challenge. To date, most of the work reported in the literature has dealt with heterostructures deposited onto closely lattice matched insulating substrates such as DyScO3, SrTiO3 (STO), or STO buffered Si(100) using concepts of lattice matching epitaxy (LME). However, strain in heterostructures grown by LME is typically not fully relaxed and the layers contain detrimental defects such as threading dislocations that can significantly degrade the physical properties of the films and adversely affect the device characteristics. In addition, most of the substrates are incompatible with existing CMOS-based technology, where Si (100) substrates dominate. This review discusses recent advances in the integration of multifunctional oxide and non-oxide materials onto silicon substrates. An alternative thin film growth approach, called "domain matching epitaxy," is presented which identifies approaches for minimizing lattice strain and unwanted defects in large misfit systems (7%-25% and higher). This approach broadly allows for the integration of multifunctional materials onto silicon substrates, such that sensing, computation, and response functions can be combined to produce next generation "smart" devices. In general, pulsed laser deposition has been used to epitaxially grow these materials, although the concepts developed here can be extended to other deposition techniques, as well. It will be shown that TiN and yttria-stabilized zirconia template layers provide promising platforms for the integration of new functionality into silicon-based computer chips. This review paper reports on a number of thin-film heterostructure systems that span a

  15. Gold nanocages as multifunctional materials for nanomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaohu; Xia, Younan

    2014-06-01

    Featured by tunable localized surface plasmon resonance peaks in the near-infrared region and hollow interiors, Au nanocages represent a novel class of multifunctional nanomaterials that have gained considerable attention in recent years. This short review summarizes our recent work on the capabilities of Au nanocages in nanomedicine. We start with a brief description of the synthesis of Au nanocages and highlight our recent protocols for the scaled-up production of Au nanocages. We then use a number of examples to illustrate how Au nanocages can contribute to nanomedicine with respect to both diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Predictive design of engineered multifunctional solid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Raja, Robert; Potter, Matthew E; Newland, Stephanie H

    2014-06-01

    The ability to devise and design multifunctional active sites at the nanoscale, by drawing on the intricate ability of enzymes to evolve single-sites with distinctive catalytic function, has prompted complimentary and concordant developments in the field of catalyst design and in situ operando spectroscopy. Innovations in design-application approach have led to a more fundamental understanding of the nature of the active site and its mechanistic influence at a molecular level, that have enabled robust structure-property correlations to be established, which has facilitated the dextrous manipulation and predictive design of redox and solid-acid sites for industrially-significant, sustainable catalytic transformations. PMID:24682048

  17. Development of thermoplastic coated multifunctional transmission elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golaz, B.; Michaud, V.; de Oliveira, R.; Månson, J.-A. E.

    2012-04-01

    We report on key challenges of the development of steel cords reinforced thermoplastic elastomer composites with smart functionalities: adhesion tailoring for a durable mechanical load transfer through steel cords or other transmission elements by the use of surface treatments and primers, and integrated distributed temperature and strain sensing by the use of embedded fiber optic sensors. Traditional surface treatments including silane coupling agent were outperformed in processing time, adhesion and durability by a fast-curing coupling method using a UV-curable primer; and the integrated distributed temperature and strain sensing capability was demonstrated. The practical applications of the resulting multifunctional transmission element are then discussed in light of these results.

  18. Photoproduction of lepton pairs in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, B. D.; Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T.

    2013-03-25

    In this contribution we study coherent interactions as a probe of the nonlinear effects in the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). In particular, we study the multiphoton effects in the production of leptons pairs for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for heavy nuclei. In the proton-nucleus we assume the ultrarelativistic proton as a source of photons and estimate the photoproduction of lepton pairs on nuclei at RHIC and LHC energies considering the multiphoton effects associated to multiple rescattering of the projectile photon on the proton of the nucleus. In nucleus - nucleus colllisions we consider the two nuclei as a source of photons. As each scattering contributes with a factor {alpha}Z to the cross section, this contribution must be taken into account for heavy nuclei. We consider the Coulomb corrections to calculate themultiple scatterings and estimate the total cross section for muon and tau pair production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies.

  19. Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands

    PubMed Central

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Quero, José L.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Escudero, Adriá; Ochoa, Victoria; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; García-Gómez, Miguel; Bowker, Matthew A.; Soliveres, Santiago; Escolar, Cristina; García-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Gozalo, Beatriz; Gallardo, Antonio; Aguilera, Lorgio; Arredondo, Tulio; Blones, Julio; Boeken, Bertrand; Bran, Donaldo; Conceição, Abel A.; Cabrera, Omar; Chaieb, Mohamed; Derak, Mchich; Eldridge, David J.; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitán, Juan; Gatica, M. Gabriel; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gómez-González, Susana; Gutiérrez, Julio R.; Hernández, Rosa M.; Huang, Xuewen; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Mau, Rebecca L.; Morici, Ernesto; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Polo, Vicente; Prina, Aníbal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramírez-Collantes, David A.; Romão, Roberto; Tighe, Matthew; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Val, James; Veiga, José P.; Wang, Deli; Zaady, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Experiments suggest that biodiversity enhances the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple functions, such as carbon storage, productivity, and buildup of nutrient pools (multifunctionality). However, the relationship between biodiversity and multifunctionality has never been assessed globally in natural ecosystems. We report on the first global empirical study relating plant species richness and abiotic factors to multifunctionality in drylands, which collectively cover 41% of Earth’s land surface and support over 38% of the human population. Multifunctionality was positively and significantly related to species richness. The best-fitting models accounted for over 55% of the variation in multifunctionality, and always included species richness as a predictor variable. Our results suggest that preservation of plant biodiversity is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change and desertification in drylands. PMID:22246775

  20. Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Quero, Jose L.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Escudero, Adrian; Ochoa, Victoria; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Garcia-Gomez, Miguel; Bowker, Matthew A.; Soliveres, Santiago; Escolar, Cristina; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Gozalo, Beatriz; Gallardo, Antonio; Aguilera, Lorgio; Arredondo, Tulio; Blones, Julio; Boeken, Bertrand; Bran, Donaldo; Conceicao, Abel A.; Cabrera, Omar; Chaieb, Mohamed; Derak, Mchich; Eldridge, David J.; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitan, Juan; Gatica, M. Gabriel; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gomez-Gonzalez, Susana; Gutie, Julio R.; Hernandez, Rosa M.; Huang, Xuewen; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Mau, Rebecca L.; Morici, Ernesto; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Polo, Vicente; Prina, Anibal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramirez-Collantes, David A.; Romao, Roberto; Tighe, Matthew; Torres-Diaz, Cristian; Val, James; Veiga, Jose P.; Wang, Deli; Zaady, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Experiments suggest that biodiversity enhances the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple functions, such as carbon storage, productivity, and the buildup of nutrient pools (multifunctionality). However, the relationship between biodiversity and multifunctionality has never been assessed globally in natural ecosystems. We report here on a global empirical study relating plant species richness and abiotic factors to multifunctionality in drylands, which collectively cover 41% of Earth's land surface and support over 38% of the human population. Multifunctionality was positively and significantly related to species richness. The best-fitting models accounted for over 55% of the variation in multifunctionality and always included species richness as a predictor variable. Our results suggest that the preservation of plant biodiversity is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change and desertification in drylands.

  1. Multisensory Integration of Visual and Vestibular Signals Improves Heading Discrimination in the Presence of a Moving Object

    PubMed Central

    Dokka, Kalpana; DeAngelis, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Humans and animals are fairly accurate in judging their direction of self-motion (i.e., heading) from optic flow when moving through a stationary environment. However, an object moving independently in the world alters the optic flow field and may bias heading perception if the visual system cannot dissociate object motion from self-motion. We investigated whether adding vestibular self-motion signals to optic flow enhances the accuracy of heading judgments in the presence of a moving object. Macaque monkeys were trained to report their heading (leftward or rightward relative to straight-forward) when self-motion was specified by vestibular, visual, or combined visual-vestibular signals, while viewing a display in which an object moved independently in the (virtual) world. The moving object induced significant biases in perceived heading when self-motion was signaled by either visual or vestibular cues alone. However, this bias was greatly reduced when visual and vestibular cues together signaled self-motion. In addition, multisensory heading discrimination thresholds measured in the presence of a moving object were largely consistent with the predictions of an optimal cue integration strategy. These findings demonstrate that multisensory cues facilitate the perceptual dissociation of self-motion and object motion, consistent with computational work that suggests that an appropriate decoding of multisensory visual-vestibular neurons can estimate heading while discounting the effects of object motion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Objects that move independently in the world alter the optic flow field and can induce errors in perceiving the direction of self-motion (heading). We show that adding vestibular (inertial) self-motion signals to optic flow almost completely eliminates the errors in perceived heading induced by an independently moving object. Furthermore, this increased accuracy occurs without a substantial loss in the precision. Our results thus demonstrate that

  2. Turbulent mixing condensation nucleus counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavliev, Rashid

    The construction and operating principles of the Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nucleus Counter (TM CNC) are described. Estimations based on the semiempirical theory of turbulent jets and the classical theory of nucleation and growth show the possibility of detecting particles as small as 2.5 nm without the interference of homogeneous nucleation. This conclusion was confirmed experimentally during the International Workshop on Intercomparison of Condensation Nuclei and Aerosol Particle Counters (Vienna, Austria). Number concentration, measured by the Turbulent Mixing CNC and other participating instruments, is found to be essentially equal.

  3. A subpopulation of dorsal raphe nucleus neurons retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin-B injected into the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Kim, D O; Yang, X M; Ye, Y

    2003-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that: (1) raphe neurons respond to acoustic and vestibular stimuli, some with a latency of 10-15 ms; (2) alterations of the raphe nuclei alter the acoustic startle reflex; (3) the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is the major source of serotonergic neurons; and (4) approximately 57% of the DRN neurons are nonserotonergic. In the present study, cholera toxin subunit-B (CTB) was injected into cat cochleas, and the brain tissue was examined after a survival period of 5-7 days. Aside from neurons which were known to project to the inner ear, i.e., olivocochlear and vestibular efferent neurons, a surprising new finding was made that somata of a subpopulation of DRN neurons were intensely labeled with CTB. These CTB-labeled neurons were densely distributed in a dorsomedian part of the DRN with some in a surrounding area outside the DRN. The present results suggest that a novel raphe-labyrinthine projection may exist. A future study of anterograde labeling with injections of a tracer in the DRN will be needed to establish the existence of a raphe-labyrinthine projection more thoroughly. A raphe-labyrinthine descending input, together with an ascending input from the inner ear to the DRN through intervening neurons, such as the juxta-acousticofloccular raphe neurons (JAFRNs) described by Ye and Kim, may mediate a brain stem reflex whereby a salient multisensory (including auditory and vestibular) stimulus may alter the sensitivity of the inner ear. As a mammal responds to a biologically important auditory-vestibular multisensory event, the raphe projections to the inner ear and other auditory and vestibular structures may enhance the mammal's ability to localize and recognize the sound and respond properly. The raphe-labyrinthine projection may also modulate the inner ear's sensitivity as a function of the sleep-wake arousal state of an organism on a slower time course. PMID:12961055

  4. Experience of Multisensory Environments in Public Space among People with Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Gavin R.; Yuen, Hon K.; Vogtle, Laura K.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the role of sensory characteristics embedded in the built environment and whether they support or hinder people with visual impairment in their use of public spaces. An online survey link was e-mailed to the presidents and committee members of each state’s chapters and associations of the National Federation of the Blind in the United States, resulting in 451 direct invitations to participate. Written responses of the survey questions from 48 respondents with visual impairment were analyzed. Three main themes: Barriers, Supporters, and Context-Dependence emerged from the respondents’ experience of multisensory characteristics within the built environment. The four subthemes subsumed in Barriers were: (1) Population specific design, (2) Extreme sensory backgrounds, (3) Uneven ground surfaces and objects, and (4) Inconsistent lighting. For Supporters, respondents provided specific examples of various sensory characteristics in built environments, including audible cues and echoes, smells, tactile quality of the ground surface, and temperature. Context-Dependence referred to the effects of sensory characteristics embedded in public spaces depending on one’s vision condition, the proximity to the sensory cues and the purpose of the activities one was performing at that moment. Findings provide occupational therapy practitioners an in-depth understanding of the transactional relationship between embedded sensory characteristics in the built environment, occupations, and people with visual impairment in order to make appropriate modifications or removal of barriers that affect occupational performance and engagement. Suggestions for occupational therapists as well as architects, designers, planners, policy makers/legislators related to functional sensory cues in the design of built environments were provided to increase accessibility in the use of public spaces by people with visual impairment. PMID:26213952

  5. Behavioral models for anxiety and multisensory integration in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle; Venault, Patrice; Chapouthier, Georges

    2011-08-01

    Complaints related to dizziness, balance problems and spatial disorientation in psychiatry have seldom been considered as a possible manifestation of a distorted multisensory integrative ability. Several kinds of mismatches among simultaneous sensory information are encountered in everyday life but despite these, the central nervous system usually manages to update the internal representation of the body in the surrounding space. In some cases, a sensory mismatch may elicit an erroneous perception of the body in space, resulting in anxiety, dizziness and balance problems. As vestibular system dysfunction leads to dizziness and disorientation, it has been hypothesized that a peripheral vestibular abnormality could explain the presence of certain symptoms related to sensory mismatches in anxiety disorders. Several studies tried to find a link between panic disorder with or without agoraphobia and vestibular system dysfunction. Yet, even though some vestibular abnormalities have been demonstrated in these patients, it is difficult to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between panic disorder and vestibular dysfunction. However, this does not rule out a possible influence of anxiety on normal vestibular function. The study of the relation between vestibular system and anxiety has to take into account that the vestibular system has three main functions: to maintain equilibrium through the vestibular spinal reflexes; to stabilize the visualization of the world through the vestibular-ocular reflex; to contribute to perception and orientation in space. We will review different studies in humans, which have particularly paid attention to the third function and its relation to anxiety. Animal experiments offer possibilities to more precisely analyze the different parameters underlying the behavioral results, as well as possible pharmacological actions on them. Two attempts have been made by our group to model, in mice, the preceding human data on integrated

  6. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dias E Dias de Macedo, Liliane; De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized – I) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized – NI). In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old) with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old). Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months) after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4–6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly affected by institutionalization and time, two variables that interacted and reduced these scores. Moreover, I group reduced the Montréal cognitive assessment battery language tests scores 4 months before NI group. It remains to be investigated what mechanisms may explain the earlier and more intense language losses in institutionalized elderly. PMID:26316730

  7. Adult plasticity in multisensory neurons: Short-term experience-dependent changes in the superior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Liping; Stein, Barry E.; Rowland, Benjamin A.

    2010-01-01

    Multisensory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) have the capability to integrate signals that belong to the same event, despite being conveyed by different senses. They develop this capability during early life as experience is gained with the statistics of cross-modal events. These adaptations prepare the SC to deal with the cross-modal events that are likely to be encountered throughout life. Here we found that neurons in the adult SC can also adapt to experience with sequentially-ordered cross-modal (visual-auditory or auditory-visual) cues, and that they do so over short periods of time (minutes), as if adapting to a particular stimulus configuration. This short-term plasticity was evident as a rapid increase in the magnitude and duration of responses to the first stimulus, and a shortening of the latency and increase in magnitude of the responses to the second stimulus when they are presented in sequence. The result was that the two responses appeared to merge. These changes were stable in the absence of experience with competing stimulus configurations, outlasted the exposure period, and could not be induced by equivalent experience with sequential within-modal (visual-visual or auditory-auditory) stimuli. A parsimonious interpretation is that the additional SC activity provided by the second stimulus became associated with, and increased the potency of, the afferents responding to the preceding stimulus. This interpretation is consistent with the principle of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP), which may provide the basic mechanism for short term or long term plasticity and be operative in both the adult and neonatal SC. PMID:20016107

  8. Experience of Multisensory Environments in Public Space among People with Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Gavin R; Yuen, Hon K; Vogtle, Laura K

    2015-07-23

    This qualitative study explored the role of sensory characteristics embedded in the built environment and whether they support or hinder people with visual impairment in their use of public spaces. An online survey link was e-mailed to the presidents and committee members of each state's chapters and associations of the National Federation of the Blind in the United States, resulting in 451 direct invitations to participate. Written responses of the survey questions from 48 respondents with visual impairment were analyzed. Three main themes: Barriers, Supporters, and Context-Dependence emerged from the respondents' experience of multisensory characteristics within the built environment. The four subthemes subsumed in Barriers were: (1) Population specific design, (2) Extreme sensory backgrounds, (3) Uneven ground surfaces and objects, and (4) Inconsistent lighting. For Supporters, respondents provided specific examples of various sensory characteristics in built environments, including audible cues and echoes, smells, tactile quality of the ground surface, and temperature. Context-Dependence referred to the effects of sensory characteristics embedded in public spaces depending on one's vision condition, the proximity to the sensory cues and the purpose of the activities one was performing at that moment. Findings provide occupational therapy practitioners an in-depth understanding of the transactional relationship between embedded sensory characteristics in the built environment, occupations, and people with visual impairment in order to make appropriate modifications or removal of barriers that affect occupational performance and engagement. Suggestions for occupational therapists as well as architects, designers, planners, policy makers/legislators related to functional sensory cues in the design of built environments were provided to increase accessibility in the use of public spaces by people with visual impairment.

  9. Multifunctional π-expanded oligothiophene macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Iyoda, Masahiko; Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2015-09-21

    This tutorial review summarizes recent progress in the design, synthesis, and multifunctional properties of fully conjugated macrocyclic π-systems. We focus on the π-expanded oligothiophene macrocycles after a short survey of macrocyclic conjugated loops and belts such as [n]cycloparaphenylenes, cyclic[n]para-phenylacetylenes, [4]cyclo-2,8-crysenylenes, and cyclo[n]thiophenes. Fully conjugated π-expanded oligothiophene macrocycles possess shape-persistent but sometimes pliable π-frames, and the electronic and optoelectronic properties of the macrocycles largely depend on the π-systems inserted into the oligothiophene macrocycles. Among them, the π-expanded oligothiophene macrocycle composed of 2,5-thienylenes, ethynylenes, and vinylenes is one of the most widely applicable macrocycles for constructing multifunctional π-systems. These π-expanded oligothiophene macrocycles from small to very large ring sizes can be prepared via a short step procedure, and their various solid state structures can be determined by X-ray analysis. Since these macrocycles have inner and outer domains, specific information concerning structural, electronic, and optical properties is expected. Furthermore, π-expanded oligothiophene macrocycles with alkyl substituents exhibit various morphologies depending on nanophase separation of molecules, and a morphological change is observed for the molecular switch. PMID:26204527

  10. Bi- or multifunctional opioid peptide drugs.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Peter W

    2010-04-10

    Strategies for the design of bi- or multifunctional drugs are reviewed. A distinction is made between bifunctional drugs interacting in a monovalent fashion with two targets and ligands containing two distinct pharmacophores binding in a bivalent mode to the two binding sites in a receptor heterodimer. Arguments are presented to indicate that some of the so-called "bivalent" ligands reported in the literature are unlikely to simultaneously interact with two binding sites. Aspects related to the development of bi- or multifunctional drugs are illustrated with examples from the field of opioid analgesics. The drug-like properties of the tetrapeptide Dmt(1)[DALDA] with triple action as a micro opioid agonist, norepinephrine uptake inhibitor and releaser of endogenous opioid peptides to produce potent spinal analgesia are reviewed. Rationales for the development of opioid peptides with mixed agonist/antagonist profiles as analgesics with reduced side effects are presented. Progress in the development of mixed micro opioid agonist/delta opioid antagonists with low propensity to produce tolerance and physical dependence is reviewed. Efforts to develop bifunctional peptides containing a micro opioid agonist and a cholecystokinin antagonist or an NK1 receptor antagonist as analgesics expected to produce less tolerance and dependence are also reviewed. A strategy to improve the drug-like properties of bifunctional opioid peptide analgesics is presented.

  11. Multifunction Habitat Workstation/OLED Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, Shawn; Salazar, George; Schmidt, Oron

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a general outline of both a multifunction habitat workstation and the research put into an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) device. It first covers the tests that the OLED device will go through to become flight ready along with reasoning. Guidelines for building an apparatus to house the display and its components are given next, with the build of such following. The three tests the OLED goes through are presented (EMI, Thermal/Vac, Radiation) along with the data recovered. The second project of a multifunction workstation is then discussed in the same pattern. Reasoning for building such a workstation with telepresence in mind is offered. Build guidelines are presented first, with the build timeline following. Building the workstation will then be shown in great detail along with accompanying photos. Once the workstation has been discussed, the versatility of its functions are given. The paper concludes with future views and concepts that can added when the time or technology presents itself.

  12. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott T.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion is a destructive process that often causes failure in metallic components and structures. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of other existing microcapsules designs, the corrosion controlled release function that allows the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand only when and where they are needed. Corrosion indicators as well as corrosion inhibitors have been incorporated into the microcapsules, blended into several paint systems, and tested for corrosion detection and protection efficacy.

  13. Identification of multifunctional peptides from human milk.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Bharti, Rashmi; Porto, William F; Gauri, Samiran S; Mandal, Mahitosh; Franco, Octavio L; Ghosh, Ananta K

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceutical industries have renewed interest in screening multifunctional bioactive peptides as a marketable product in health care applications. In this context, several animal and plant peptides with potential bioactivity have been reported. Milk proteins and peptides have received much attention as a source of health-enhancing components to be incorporated into nutraceuticals and functional foods. By using this source, 24 peptides have been fractionated and purified from human milk using RP-HPLC. Multifunctional roles including antimicrobial, antioxidant and growth stimulating activity have been evaluated in all 24 fractions. Nevertheless, only four fractions show multiple combined activities among them. Using a proteomic approach, two of these four peptides have been identified as lactoferrin derived peptide and kappa casein short chain peptide. Lactoferrin derived peptide (f8) is arginine-rich and kappa casein derived (f12) peptide is proline-rich. Both peptides (f8 and f12) showed antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fraction 8 (f8) exhibits growth stimulating activity in 3T3 cell line and f12 shows higher free radical scavenging activity in comparison to other fractions. Finally, both peptides were in silico evaluated and some insights into their mechanism of action were provided. Thus, results indicate that these identified peptides have multiple biological activities which are valuable for the quick development of the neonate and may be considered as potential biotechnological products for nutraceutical industry.

  14. Multifunctional porous silicon nanoparticles for cancer theranostics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Fang; Sarparanta, Mirkka P; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Hyvönen, Maija L K; Laakkonen, Pirjo M; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Airaksinen, Anu J; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-04-01

    Nanomaterials provide a unique platform for the development of theranostic systems that combine diagnostic imaging modalities with a therapeutic payload in a single probe. In this work, dual-labeled iRGD-modified multifunctional porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) were prepared from dibenzocyclooctyl (DBCO) modified PSi NPs by strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) click chemistry. Hydrophobic antiangiogenic drug, sorafenib, was loaded into the modified PSi NPs to enhance the drug dissolution rate and improve cancer therapy. Radiolabeling of the developed system with (111)In enabled the monitoring of the in vivo biodistribution of the nanocarrier by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in an ectopic PC3-MM2 mouse xenograft model. Fluorescent labeling with Alexa Fluor 488 was used to determine the long-term biodistribution of the nanocarrier by immunofluorescence at the tissue level ex vivo. Modification of the PSi NPs with an iRGD peptide enhanced the tumor uptake of the NPs when administered intravenously. After intratumoral delivery the NPs were retained in the tumor, resulting in efficient tumor growth suppression with particle-loaded sorafenib compared to the free drug. The presented multifunctional PSi NPs highlight the utility of constructing a theranostic nanosystems for simultaneous investigations of the in vivo behavior of the nanocarriers and their drug delivery efficiency, facilitating the selection of the most promising materials for further NP development.

  15. Faster Evolution of More Multifunctional Logic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Zebulum, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    A modification in a method of automated evolutionary synthesis of voltage-controlled multifunctional logic circuits makes it possible to synthesize more circuits in less time. Prior to the modification, the computations for synthesizing a four-function logic circuit by this method took about 10 hours. Using the method as modified, it is possible to synthesize a six-function circuit in less than half an hour. The concepts of automated evolutionary synthesis and voltage-controlled multifunctional logic circuits were described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A circuit is designed to perform one of several different logic functions, depending on the value of an applied control voltage. The circuit design is synthesized following an automated evolutionary approach that is so named because it is modeled partly after the repetitive trial-and-error process of biological evolution. In this process, random populations of integer strings that encode electronic circuits play a role analogous to that of chromosomes. An evolved circuit is tested by computational simulation (prior to testing in real hardware to verify a final design). Then, in a fitness-evaluation step, responses of the circuit are compared with specifications of target responses and circuits are ranked according to how close they come to satisfying specifications. The results of the evaluation provide guidance for refining designs through further iteration.

  16. Multifunctional porous silicon nanoparticles for cancer theranostics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Fang; Sarparanta, Mirkka P; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Hyvönen, Maija L K; Laakkonen, Pirjo M; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Airaksinen, Anu J; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-04-01

    Nanomaterials provide a unique platform for the development of theranostic systems that combine diagnostic imaging modalities with a therapeutic payload in a single probe. In this work, dual-labeled iRGD-modified multifunctional porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) were prepared from dibenzocyclooctyl (DBCO) modified PSi NPs by strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) click chemistry. Hydrophobic antiangiogenic drug, sorafenib, was loaded into the modified PSi NPs to enhance the drug dissolution rate and improve cancer therapy. Radiolabeling of the developed system with (111)In enabled the monitoring of the in vivo biodistribution of the nanocarrier by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in an ectopic PC3-MM2 mouse xenograft model. Fluorescent labeling with Alexa Fluor 488 was used to determine the long-term biodistribution of the nanocarrier by immunofluorescence at the tissue level ex vivo. Modification of the PSi NPs with an iRGD peptide enhanced the tumor uptake of the NPs when administered intravenously. After intratumoral delivery the NPs were retained in the tumor, resulting in efficient tumor growth suppression with particle-loaded sorafenib compared to the free drug. The presented multifunctional PSi NPs highlight the utility of constructing a theranostic nanosystems for simultaneous investigations of the in vivo behavior of the nanocarriers and their drug delivery efficiency, facilitating the selection of the most promising materials for further NP development. PMID:25701036

  17. Multifunctional nanoparticles for use in theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Cole, James T; Holland, Nolan B

    2015-06-01

    Theranostics is a promising field that combines therapeutics and diagnostics into single multifunctional formulations. This field is driven by advancements in nanoparticle systems capable of providing the necessary functionalities. By utilizing these powerful nanomedicines, the concept of personalized medicine can be realized by tailoring treatment strategies to the individual. This review gives a brief overview of the components of a theranostic system and the challenges that designing truly multifunctional nanoparticles present. Considerations when choosing a class of nanoparticle include the size, shape, charge, and surface chemistry, while classes of nanoparticles discussed are polymers, liposomes, dendrimers, and polymeric micelles. Targeting to disease states can be achieved either through passive or active targeting which uses specific ligands to target receptors that are overexpressed in tumors and common targeting elements are presented. To image the interactions with disease states, contrast agents are included in the nanoparticle formulation. Imaging options include optical imaging techniques, computed tomography, nuclear based, and magnetic resonance imaging. The interplay between all of these components needs to be carefully considered when designing a theranostic system. PMID:25787729

  18. Multifunctional Microtubule-Associated Proteins in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Krtková, Jana; Benáková, Martina; Schwarzerová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are involved in key processes in plant cells, including cell division, growth and development. MT-interacting proteins modulate MT dynamics and organization, mediating functional and structural interaction of MTs with other cell structures. In addition to conventional microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in plants, there are many other MT-binding proteins whose primary function is not related to the regulation of MTs. This review focuses on enzymes, chaperones, or proteins primarily involved in other processes that also bind to MTs. The MT-binding activity of these multifunctional MAPs is often performed only under specific environmental or physiological conditions, or they bind to MTs only as components of a larger MT-binding protein complex. The involvement of multifunctional MAPs in these interactions may underlie physiological and morphogenetic events, e.g., under specific environmental or developmental conditions. Uncovering MT-binding activity of these proteins, although challenging, may contribute to understanding of the novel functions of the MT cytoskeleton in plant biological processes. PMID:27148302

  19. Advanced Multifunctional MMOD Shield: Radiation Shielding Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Christiansen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    As NASA is looking to explore further into deep space, multifunctional materials are a necessity for decreasing complexity and mass. One area where multifunctional materials could be extremely beneficial is in the micrometeoroid orbital debris (MMOD) shield. A typical MMOD shield on the International Space Station (ISS) is a stuffed whipple shield consisting of multiple layers. One of those layers is the thermal blanket, or multi-layer insulation (MLI). Increasing the MMOD effectiveness of MLI blankets, while still preserving their thermal capabilities, could allow for a less massive MMOD shield. Thus, a study was conducted to evaluate a concept MLI blanket for an MMOD shield. In conjunction, this MLI blanket and the subsequent MMOD shield was also evaluated for its radiation shielding effectiveness towards protecting crew. The overall MMOD shielding system using the concept MLI blanket proved to only have a marginal increase in the radiation mitigating properties. Therefore, subsequent analysis was performed on various conceptual MMOD shields to determine the combination of materials that may prove superior for radiation mitigating purposes. The following paper outlines the evaluations performed and discusses the results and conclusions of this evaluation for radiation shielding effectiveness.

  20. Comet nucleus sample return mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A comet nucleus sample return mission in terms of its relevant science objectives, candidate mission concepts, key design/technology requirements, and programmatic issues is discussed. The primary objective was to collect a sample of undisturbed comet material from beneath the surface of an active comet and to preserve its chemical and, if possible, its physical integrity and return it to Earth in a minimally altered state. The secondary objectives are to: (1) characterize the comet to a level consistent with a rendezvous mission; (2) monitor the comet dynamics through perihelion and aphelion with a long lived lander; and (3) determine the subsurface properties of the nucleus in an area local to the sampled core. A set of candidate comets is discussed. The hazards which the spacecraft would encounter in the vicinity of the comet are also discussed. The encounter strategy, the sampling hardware, the thermal control of the pristine comet material during the return to Earth, and the flight performance of various spacecraft systems and the cost estimates of such a mission are presented.

  1. Multifunctional non-viral gene vectors with enhanced stability, improved cellular and nuclear uptake capability, and increased transfection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhe; Jiang, Zhaozhong; Cao, Zhong; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Di; Luo, Xingen; Zhang, Xiaofang; Luo, Huiyan; Jiang, Qing; Liu, Jie

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a new multifunctional, non-viral gene delivery platform consisting of cationic poly(amine-co-ester) (PPMS) for DNA condensation, PEG shell for nanoparticle stabilization, poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and mTAT (a cell-penetrating peptide) for accelerated cellular uptake, and a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS) for enhanced intracellular transport of DNA to the nucleus. In vitro study showed that coating of the binary PPMS/DNA polyplex with γ-PGA promotes cellular uptake of the polyplex particles, particularly by γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive cells through the GGT-mediated endocytosis pathway. Conjugating PEG to the γ-PGA led to the formation of a ternary PPMS/DNA/PGA-g-PEG polyplex with decreased positive charges on the surface of the polyplex particles and substantially higher stability in serum-containing aqueous medium. The cellular uptake rate was further improved by incorporating mTAT into the ternary polyplex system. Addition of the NLS peptide was designed to facilitate intracellular delivery of the plasmid to the nucleus--a rate-limiting step in the gene transfection process. As a result, compared with the binary PPMS/LucDNA polyplex, the new mTAT-quaternary PPMS/LucDNA/NLS/PGA-g-PEG-mTAT system exhibited reduced cytotoxicity, remarkably faster cellular uptake rate, and enhanced transport of DNA to the nucleus. All these advantageous functionalities contribute to the remarkable gene transfection efficiency of the mTAT-quaternary polyplex both in vitro and in vivo, which exceeds that of the binary polyplex and commercial Lipofectamine™ 2000/DNA lipoplex. The multifunctional mTAT-quaternary polyplex system with improved efficiency and reduced cytotoxicity represents a new type of promising non-viral vectors for the delivery of therapeutic genes to treat tumors.We have developed a new multifunctional, non-viral gene delivery platform consisting of cationic poly(amine-co-ester) (PPMS) for DNA condensation, PEG shell

  2. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  3. Biotic homogenization can decrease landscape-scale forest multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Pete; Soliveres, Santiago; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David Anthony; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C; Dawud, Seid Muhie; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Mueller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-03-29

    Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality. PMID:26979952

  4. Biotic homogenization can decrease landscape-scale forest multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Pete; Soliveres, Santiago; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David Anthony; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C; Dawud, Seid Muhie; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Mueller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-03-29

    Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality.

  5. Biotic homogenization can decrease landscape-scale forest multifunctionality

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Pete; Soliveres, Santiago; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C.; Dawud, Seid Muhie; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Mueller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality. PMID:26979952

  6. Next-Generation Multifunctional Electrochromic Devices.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guofa; Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-08-16

    The rational design and exploration of electrochromic devices will find a wide range of applications in smart windows for energy-efficient buildings, low-power displays, self-dimming rear mirrors for automobiles, electrochromic e-skins, and so on. Electrochromic devices generally consist of multilayer structures with transparent conductors, electrochromic films, ion conductors, and ion storage films. Synthetic strategies and new materials for electrochromic films and transparent conductors, comprehensive electrochemical kinetic analysis, and novel device design are areas of active study worldwide. These are believed to be the key factors that will help to significantly improve the electrochromic performance and extend their application areas. In this Account, we present our strategies to design and fabricate electrochromic devices with high performance and multifunctionality. We first describe the synthetic strategies, in which a porous tungsten oxide (WO3) film with nearly ideal optical modulation and fast switching was prepared by a pulsed electrochemical deposition method. Multiple strategies, such as sol-gel/inkjet printing methods, hydrothermal/inkjet printing methods, and a novel hybrid transparent conductor/electrochromic layer have been developed to prepare high-performance electrochromic films. We then summarize the recent advances in transparent conductors and ion conductor layers, which play critial roles in electrochromic devices. Benefiting from the developments of soft transparent conductive substrates, highly deformable electrochromic devices that are flexible, foldable, stretchable, and wearable have been achieved. These emerging devices have great potential in applications such as soft displays, electrochromic e-skins, deformable electrochromic films, and so on. We finally present a concept of multifunctional smart glass, which can change its color to dynamically adjust the daylight and solar heat input of the building or protect the users' privacy

  7. Next-Generation Multifunctional Electrochromic Devices.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guofa; Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-08-16

    The rational design and exploration of electrochromic devices will find a wide range of applications in smart windows for energy-efficient buildings, low-power displays, self-dimming rear mirrors for automobiles, electrochromic e-skins, and so on. Electrochromic devices generally consist of multilayer structures with transparent conductors, electrochromic films, ion conductors, and ion storage films. Synthetic strategies and new materials for electrochromic films and transparent conductors, comprehensive electrochemical kinetic analysis, and novel device design are areas of active study worldwide. These are believed to be the key factors that will help to significantly improve the electrochromic performance and extend their application areas. In this Account, we present our strategies to design and fabricate electrochromic devices with high performance and multifunctionality. We first describe the synthetic strategies, in which a porous tungsten oxide (WO3) film with nearly ideal optical modulation and fast switching was prepared by a pulsed electrochemical deposition method. Multiple strategies, such as sol-gel/inkjet printing methods, hydrothermal/inkjet printing methods, and a novel hybrid transparent conductor/electrochromic layer have been developed to prepare high-performance electrochromic films. We then summarize the recent advances in transparent conductors and ion conductor layers, which play critial roles in electrochromic devices. Benefiting from the developments of soft transparent conductive substrates, highly deformable electrochromic devices that are flexible, foldable, stretchable, and wearable have been achieved. These emerging devices have great potential in applications such as soft displays, electrochromic e-skins, deformable electrochromic films, and so on. We finally present a concept of multifunctional smart glass, which can change its color to dynamically adjust the daylight and solar heat input of the building or protect the users' privacy

  8. Judged and Remembered Trustworthiness of Faces Is Enhanced by Experiencing Multisensory Synchrony and Asynchrony in the Right Order

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Hugo; Schubert, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    This work builds on the enfacement effect. This effect occurs when experiencing a rhythmic stimulation on one’s cheek while seeing someone else’s face being touched in a synchronous way. This typically leads to cognitive and social-cognitive effects similar to self-other merging. In two studies, we demonstrate that this multisensory stimulation can change the evaluation of the other’s face. In the first study, participants judged the stranger’s face and similar faces as being more trustworthy after synchrony, but not after asynchrony. Synchrony interacted with the order of the stroking; hence trustworthiness only changed when the synchronous stimulation occurred before the asynchronous one. In the second study, a synchronous stimulation caused participants to remember the stranger’s face as more trustworthy, but again only when the synchronous stimulation came before the asynchronous one. The results of both studies show that order of stroking creates a context in which multisensory synchrony can affect the trustworthiness of faces. PMID:26716682

  9. It feels like it’s me: interpersonal multisensory stimulation enhances visual remapping of touch from other to self

    PubMed Central

    Cardini, Flavia; Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Serino, Andrea; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-01-01

    Understanding other people’s feelings in social interactions depends on the ability to map onto our body the sensory experiences we observed on other people’s bodies. It has been shown that the perception of tactile stimuli on the face is improved when concurrently viewing a face being touched. This Visual Remapping of Touch (VRT) is enhanced the more similar others are perceived to be to the self, and is strongest when viewing one’s face. Here, we ask whether altering self-other boundaries can in turn change the VRT effect. We used the enfacement illusion, which relies on synchronous interpersonal multisensory stimulation (IMS), to manipulate self-other boundaries. Following synchronous, but not asynchronous, IMS, the self-related enhancement of the VRT extended to the other individual. These findings suggest that shared multisensory experiences represent one key way to overcome the boundaries between self and others, as evidenced by changes in somatosensory processing of tactile stimuli on one’s own face when concurrently viewing another person’s face being touched. PMID:23276110

  10. Maturation of multisensory integration in the superior colliculus: expression of nitric oxide synthase and neurofilament SMI-32.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Santamaria, Veronica; McHaffie, John G; Stein, Barry E

    2008-11-25

    Nitric oxide (NO) containing (nitrergic) interneurons are well-positioned to convey the cortical influences that are crucial for multisensory integration in superior colliculus (SC) output neurons. However, it is not known whether nitrergic interneurons are in this position early in life, and might, therefore, also play a role in the functional maturation of this circuit. In the present study, we investigated the postnatal developmental relationship between these two populations of neurons using Beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH) histochemistry and SMI-32 immunocytochemistry to label presumptive interneurons and output neurons, respectively. SMI-32 immunostained neurons were proved to mature and retained immature anatomical features until approximately 8 postnatal weeks. In contrast, nitrergic interneurons developed more rapidly. They had achieved their adult-like anatomy by 4 postnatal weeks and were in a position to influence the dendritic elaboration of output neurons. It is this dendritic substrate through which much of the cortico-collicular influence is expressed. Double-labeling experiments showed that the dendritic and axonal processes of nitrergic interneurons already apposed the somata and dendrites of SMI-32 labeled neurons even at the earliest age examined. The results suggest that nitrergic interneurons play a role in refining the cortico-collicular projection patterns that are believed to be essential for SC output neurons to engage in multisensory integration and to support normal orientation responses to cross-modal stimuli.

  11. Neurobiological foundations of multisensory integration in people with autism spectrum disorders: the role of the medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sanchis, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to relate the sensory processing problems in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), especially multisensory integration (MSI), to the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) by exploring neuroanatomical findings; brain connectivity and Default Network (DN); global or locally directed attention; and temporal multisensory binding. The mPFC is part of the brain’s DN, which is deactivated when attention is focused on a particular task and activated on rest when spontaneous cognition emerges. In those with ASD, it is hypoactive and the higher the social impairment the greater the atypical activity. With an immature DN, cross-modal integration is impaired, resulting in a collection of disconnected fragments instead of a coherent global perception. The deficit in MSI may lie in the temporal synchronization of neural networks. The time interval in which the stimulation of one sensory channel could influence another would be higher, preventing integration in the typical shorter time range. Thus, the underconnectivity between distant brain areas would be involved in top-down information processes (relying on global integration of data from different sources) and would enhance low level perception processes such as over focused attention to sensory details. PMID:25538597

  12. Over my fake body: body ownership illusions for studying the multisensory basis of own-body perception

    PubMed Central

    Kilteni, Konstantina; Maselli, Antonella; Kording, Konrad P.; Slater, Mel

    2015-01-01

    Which is my body and how do I distinguish it from the bodies of others, or from objects in the surrounding environment? The perception of our own body and more particularly our sense of body ownership is taken for granted. Nevertheless, experimental findings from body ownership illusions (BOIs), show that under specific multisensory conditions, we can experience artificial body parts or fake bodies as our own body parts or body, respectively. The aim of the present paper is to discuss how and why BOIs are induced. We review several experimental findings concerning the spatial, temporal, and semantic principles of crossmodal stimuli that have been applied to induce BOIs. On the basis of these principles, we discuss theoretical approaches concerning the underlying mechanism of BOIs. We propose a conceptualization based on Bayesian causal inference for addressing how our nervous system could infer whether an object belongs to our own body, using multisensory, sensorimotor, and semantic information, and we discuss how this can account for several experimental findings. Finally, we point to neural network models as an implementational framework within which the computational problem behind BOIs could be addressed in the future. PMID:25852524

  13. The influence of a multisensory intervention for preterm infants provided by parents, on developmental abilities and on parental stress levels.

    PubMed

    Gabis, Lidia V; Hacham-Pilosof, Keren; Yosef, Omer Bar; Rabinovitz, Gila; Leshem, Gili; Shilon-Hadass, Aya; Biran, Yael; Reichman, Brian; Kuint, Jacob; Bart, Orit

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of a multisensory intervention based on the developmental approach provided by parents, during neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization of their preterm infants. After guidance of parents and implementation of intervention program, children were followed up to 2 to 3 years using scales for evaluation of parental stress levels and child's development. Our 2 to 3 years' follow-up study included 41 infants (20 controls and 21 who received parental-guided intervention) as part of a group of 95 preterm infants who participated in a short-term study. The intervention group showed significantly higher scores in receptive language and fine-motor domains of the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development-3rd Edition. Boys showed superior improvements in language skills. No differences were found in the cognitive and adaptive domains. There were no differences in parental stress levels. A multisensory intervention program for preterm infants provided by trained and supervised parents may improve language and motor outcomes at 2 to 3 years. PMID:25246304

  14. Multifunctional non-viral delivery systems based on conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gaomai; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Bing; Liu, Libing; Yang, Qiong; Wang, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Multifunctional nanomaterials with simultaneous therapeutic and imaging functions explore new strategies for the treatment of various diseases. Conjugated polymers (CPs) are considered as novel candidates to serve as multifunctional delivery systems due to their high fluorescence quantum yield, good photostability, and low cytotoxicity. Highly sensitive sensing and imaging properties of CPs are well reviewed, while the applications of CPs as delivery systems are rarely covered. This feature article mainly focuses on CP-based multifunctional non-viral delivery systems for drug, protein, gene, and cell delivery. Promising directions for the further development of CP-based delivery systems are also discussed.

  15. Artificial neural network for multifunctional areas.

    PubMed

    Riccioli, Francesco; El Asmar, Toufic; El Asmar, Jean-Pierre; Fagarazzi, Claudio; Casini, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The issues related to the appropriate planning of the territory are particularly pronounced in highly inhabited areas (urban areas), where in addition to protecting the environment, it is important to consider an anthropogenic (urban) development placed in the context of sustainable growth. This work aims at mathematically simulating the changes in the land use, by implementing an artificial neural network (ANN) model. More specifically, it will analyze how the increase of urban areas will develop and whether this development would impact on areas with particular socioeconomic and environmental value, defined as multifunctional areas. The simulation is applied to the Chianti Area, located in the province of Florence, in Italy. Chianti is an area with a unique landscape, and its territorial planning requires a careful examination of the territory in which it is inserted. PMID:26718948

  16. Multifunctional iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemen, M.; Denis, C.; Van Stappen, T.; De Meester, L.; Geukens, N.; Gils, A.; Verbiest, T.

    2015-03-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention since they can combine interesting properties like magnetism, fluorescence or plasmonic effects. As a core material, iron oxide nanoparticles have been the subject of intensive research. These cost-effective and non-toxic particles are used nowadays in many applications. We developed a heterobifunctional PEG ligand that can be used to introduce functional groups (carboxylic acids) onto the surface of the NP. Via click chemistry, a siloxane functionality was added to this ligand, for a subsequent covalent ligand exchange reaction. The functionalized nanoparticles have an excellent colloidal stability in complex environments like buffers and serum or plasma. Antibodies were coupled to the introduced carboxylic acids and these NP-antibody bioconjugates were brought into contact with Legionella bacteria for magnetic separation experiments.

  17. Multifunctional silk-tropoelastin biomaterial systems

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Chiara E.; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Weiss, Anthony S.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    New multifunctional, degradable, polymeric biomaterial systems would provide versatile platforms to address cell and tissue needs in both in vitro and in vivo environments. While protein-based composites or alloys are the building blocks of biological organisms, similar systems have not been largely exploited to dates to generate ad hoc biomaterials able to control and direct biological functions, by recapitulating their inherent structural and mechanical complexities. Therefore, we have recently proposed silk-tropoelastin material platforms able to conjugate a mechanically robust and durable protein, silk, to a highly flexible and biologically active protein, tropoelastin. This review focuses on the elucidation of the interactions between silk and tropoelastin in order to control material structure, properties, and ultimately functions. In addition, an approach is provided for novel material designs to provide tools to control biological outcomes via surface roughness, elasticity, and net charge for neuronal and mesenchymal stem cell-based tissue engineering. PMID:26005219

  18. Multifunction piezoelectric transducers for handheld electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Richard R.

    2001-06-01

    This paper explains how a piezoelectric bimorph actuator may be used as a multifunction device in a handheld electronics product - replacing traditional buzzers, rotary motors, and voice coil speakers to supply tone alert, vibrating alert and loudspeaker functions in a single device. The first development hurdle was to establish performance metrics which could be used to compare the piezoelectric device to traditional technologies. Subjective user testing was combined with mathematical modeling to create design specifications. The next challenge was to establish design guidelines, since the device performance is integrally tied to the OEM housing design. Finally, new production testing methodologies were developed that would correlate stand-alone component performance with final system performance.

  19. Multifunctional carbon nanohorn complexes for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Chechetka, Svetlana A; Pichon, Benoit; Zhang, Minfang; Yudasaka, Masako; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Bianco, Alberto; Miyako, Eijiro

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional carbon nanohorn (CNH) complexes were synthesized using oxidized CNH, magnetite (MAG) nanoparticles, and polyethyleneimine (PEI). The ferromagnetic MAG nanoparticles were loaded onto CNH (MAG-CNH) using iron(II) acetate and subsequent heat treatment. Chemical functionalization of the MAG-CNH complexes with PEI improved their water-dispersibility and allowed further conjugation with a fluorophore. The application of an external magnetic field significantly intensified the targeted vectorization of CNH complexes into human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. Following cell uptake, laser irradiation of the cells showed a significant enhancement in the photothermal effects of CNHs leading to cell death. We have confirmed that the photothermal properties and ferromagnetic characteristics of CNH complexes show efficient cell elimination. The present study is an essential step toward the development of an innovative cancer therapy and a highly sensitive detection of cancer cells at the single-cell level. PMID:25319234

  20. Multiscale Multifunctional Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells. Global fracture is enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads. The old reference denotes that nothing has been added to this comprehensive report since then.

  1. High Performance Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Alan; Collins, Steve; Munoz, Edgar; Razal, Joselito; Ebron, Von; Ferraris, John; Baughman, Ray

    2003-03-01

    Exploiting the extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes has remained somewhat elusive due to the inability to process the as produced insoluble soot into functional macroscopic assemblies. To this end we have developed a simple but effective method to produce continuous, homogeneous fibers containing carbon nanotubes having as-spun mechanical properties that compare very favorably to recognized synthetic and natural "super fibers" such as Kevlar and spider silk. By using novel spinning apparatus, spinning solutions, and spinning coagulants, we have spun nanotube fibers having record lengths, record tensile strengths, and having an energy-to-break (toughness) higher than any material that we have found. As an example of the potential multi-functionalities of our fibers, we have fabricated fiber supercapacitors, which we weave into textiles.

  2. On Multifunctional Collaborative Methods in Engineering Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.

    2001-01-01

    Multifunctional methodologies and analysis procedures are formulated for interfacing diverse subdomain idealizations including multi-fidelity modeling methods and multi-discipline analysis methods. These methods, based on the method of weighted residuals, ensure accurate compatibility of primary and secondary variables across the subdomain interfaces. Methods are developed using diverse mathematical modeling (i.e., finite difference and finite element methods) and multi-fidelity modeling among the subdomains. Several benchmark scalar-field and vector-field problems in engineering science are presented with extensions to multidisciplinary problems. Results for all problems presented are in overall good agreement with the exact analytical solution or the reference numerical solution. Based on the results, the integrated modeling approach using the finite element method for multi-fidelity discretization among the subdomains is identified as most robust. The multiple method approach is advantageous when interfacing diverse disciplines in which each of the method's strengths are utilized.

  3. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  4. Multifunctional carbon nanohorn complexes for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Chechetka, Svetlana A; Pichon, Benoit; Zhang, Minfang; Yudasaka, Masako; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Bianco, Alberto; Miyako, Eijiro

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional carbon nanohorn (CNH) complexes were synthesized using oxidized CNH, magnetite (MAG) nanoparticles, and polyethyleneimine (PEI). The ferromagnetic MAG nanoparticles were loaded onto CNH (MAG-CNH) using iron(II) acetate and subsequent heat treatment. Chemical functionalization of the MAG-CNH complexes with PEI improved their water-dispersibility and allowed further conjugation with a fluorophore. The application of an external magnetic field significantly intensified the targeted vectorization of CNH complexes into human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. Following cell uptake, laser irradiation of the cells showed a significant enhancement in the photothermal effects of CNHs leading to cell death. We have confirmed that the photothermal properties and ferromagnetic characteristics of CNH complexes show efficient cell elimination. The present study is an essential step toward the development of an innovative cancer therapy and a highly sensitive detection of cancer cells at the single-cell level.

  5. Multifunctional Micellar Nanomedicine for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Elvin; Kessinger, Chase W.; Sumer, Baran D.; Gao, Jinming

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric micelles are supramolecular, core-shell nanoparticles that offer considerable advantages for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Their relatively small size (10-100 nm), ability to solubilize hydrophobic drugs as well as imaging agents, and improved pharmacokinetics provide a useful bioengineering platform for cancer applications. Several polymeric micelle formulations are currently undergoing phase I/II clinical trials, which have shown improved antitumor efficacy and reduced systemic toxicity. This minireview will focus on recent advancements in the multifunctional design of micellar nanomedicine with tumor targeting, stimulated drug release, and cancer imaging capabilities. Such functionalization strategies result in enhanced micellar accumulation at tumor sites, higher drug bioavailability, as well as improved tumor diagnosis and visualization of therapy. Ultimately, integrated nanotherapeutic systems (e.g., theranostic nanomedicine) may prove essential to address the challenges of tumor heterogeneity and adaptive resistance to achieve efficacious treatment of cancer. PMID:19064945

  6. Modeling phase noise in multifunction subassemblies.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Obtaining requisite phase noise performance in hardware containing multifunction circuitry requires accurate modeling of the phase noise characteristics of each signal path component, including both absolute (oscillator) and residual (non-oscillator) circuit contributors. This includes prediction of both static and vibration-induced phase noise. The model (usually in spreadsheet form) is refined as critical components are received and evaluated. Additive (KTBF) phase noise data can be reasonably estimated, based on device drive level and noise figure. However, accurate determination of component near-carrier (multiplicative) and vibration-induced noise usually must be determined via measurement. The model should also include the effects of noise introduced by IC voltage regulators and properly discriminate between common versus independent signal path residual noise contributors. The modeling can be easily implemented using a spreadsheet.

  7. Artificial neural network for multifunctional areas.

    PubMed

    Riccioli, Francesco; El Asmar, Toufic; El Asmar, Jean-Pierre; Fagarazzi, Claudio; Casini, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The issues related to the appropriate planning of the territory are particularly pronounced in highly inhabited areas (urban areas), where in addition to protecting the environment, it is important to consider an anthropogenic (urban) development placed in the context of sustainable growth. This work aims at mathematically simulating the changes in the land use, by implementing an artificial neural network (ANN) model. More specifically, it will analyze how the increase of urban areas will develop and whether this development would impact on areas with particular socioeconomic and environmental value, defined as multifunctional areas. The simulation is applied to the Chianti Area, located in the province of Florence, in Italy. Chianti is an area with a unique landscape, and its territorial planning requires a careful examination of the territory in which it is inserted.

  8. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Byard Wood, Lance Seefeldt, Ronald Sims, Bradley Wahlen, and Dan Dye

    2012-06-29

    The solar energy available within the visible portion of the solar spectrum is about 300 W/m2 (43%) and that available in the UV and IR portion is about 400 W/m2 (57%). This provides opportunities for developing integrated energy systems that capture and use specific wavelengths of the solar spectrum for different purposes. For example: biofuels from photosynthetic microbes use only the visible light; solar cells use a narrow band of the solar spectrum that could be either mostly in the visible or in the IR regions of the solar spectrum, depending on the photovoltaic materials, e.g., gallium antimonide (GaSb) cells utilize predominately IR radiation; and finally, solar panels that heat water utilize a broad range of wavelengths (visible plus IR). The basic idea of this research is that sunlight has many possible end-use applications including both direct use and energy conversion schemes; it is technically feasible to develop multifunctional solar energy systems capable of addressing several end-use needs while increasing the overall solar energy utilization efficiency when compared to single-purpose solar technologies. Such a combination of technologies could lead to more cost-competitive ?multifunctional? systems that add value and broaden opportunities for integrated energy systems. The goal of this research is to increase the overall energy efficacy and cost competitiveness of solar systems. The specific objectives of this research were: 1) Evaluate the efficacy of a combined photobioreactor and electric power system; 2) Improve the reliability and cost effectiveness of hybrid solar lighting systems ? a technology in which sunlight is collected and distributed via optical fibers into the interior of a building; 3) Evaluate the efficacy of using filtered light to increase the production of biomass in photobioreactors and provide more solar energy for other uses; 4) Evaluates several concepts for wavelength shifting such that a greater percentage of the solar

  9. An Evaluation of an Intervention Using Sign Language and Multi-Sensory Coding to Support Word Learning and Reading Comprehension of Deaf Signing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Staden, Annalene

    2013-01-01

    The reading skills of many deaf children lag several years behind those of hearing children, and there is a need for identifying reading difficulties and implementing effective reading support strategies in this population. This study embraces a balanced reading approach, and investigates the efficacy of applying multi-sensory coding strategies…

  10. The Effect of a Suggested Multisensory Phonics Program on Developing Kindergarten Pre-Service Teachers' EFL Reading Accuracy and Phonemic Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghoneim, Nahed Mohammed Mahmoud; Elghotmy, Heba Elsayed Abdelsalam

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the effect of a suggested multisensory phonics program on developing kindergarten pre-service teachers' EFL reading accuracy and phonemic awareness. A total of 40 fourth year kindergarten pre-service teachers, Faculty of Education, participated in the study that involved one group experimental design. Pre-post tests…

  11. Look Closer: The Alertness of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Multi-Sensory Storytelling, a Time Sequential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the presentation of stimuli are likely to affect the…

  12. Multi-sensory rooms: comparing effects of the Snoezelen and the Stimulus Preference environment on the behavior of adults with profound mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether Snoezelen and Stimulus Preference environments have differential effects on disruptive and pro-social behaviors in adults with profound mental retardation and autism. In N=27 adults these target behaviors were recorded for a total of 20 sessions using both multi-sensory rooms. Three comparison groups were created by diagnosis and motor respective linguistic abilities. Each client was exposed to only one multi-sensory room. Results showed that Snoezelen intervention decreased disruptive behaviors only in individuals with autism, while Stimulus Preference increased pro-social behaviors only in participants with profound mental retardation with co-occurring poor motor and linguistic abilities. Furthermore, several trend analyses of the improved behaviors were conducted throughout all sessions toward short and mid term effects of the multi-sensory room applications. These findings support both the prudence of using the Snoezelen room in individuals with developmental disabilities and the importance of using a Stimulus Preference assessment in multi-sensory environments in clients with profound mental retardation.

  13. Multifunctional, Highly Flexible, Free-Standing 3D Polypyrrole Foam.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhui; Ding, Yujie; Yuan, Ye; Cao, Anyuan; He, Xiaodong; Peng, Qingyu; Li, Yibin

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional, highly flexible 3D polypyrrole (PPy) foam is fabricated via a simple electrodeposition method by using nickel foam as the template. The 3D PPy foam has a unique interior structure and is robust enough to manipulate directly.

  14. PERMEATION OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACRYLATES THROUGH SELECTED PROTECTIVE GLOVE MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) program of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances, the resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated through a program for the Office of Research ...

  15. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G V

    2014-01-21

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells.

  16. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells. PMID:24445418

  17. A review of multifunctional structure technology for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sairajan, K. K.; Aglietti, G. S.; Mani, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    The emerging field of multifunctional structure (MFS) technologies enables the design of systems with reduced mass and volume, thereby improving their overall efficiency. It requires developments in different engineering disciplines and their integration into a single system without degrading their individual performances. MFS is particularly suitable for aerospace applications where mass and volume are critical to the cost of the mission. This article reviews the current state of the art of multifunctional structure technologies relevant to aerospace applications.

  18. Comparative review of multifunctionality and ecosystem services in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiao; Tichit, Muriel; Poulot, Monique; Darly, Ségolène; Li, Shuangcheng; Petit, Caroline; Aubry, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Two scientific communities with broad interest in sustainable agriculture independently focus on multifunctional agriculture or ecosystem services. These communities have limited interaction and exchange, and each group faces research challenges according to independently operating paradigms. This paper presents a comparative review of published research in multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services. The motivation for this work is to improve communication, integrate experimental approaches, and propose areas of consensus and dialog for the two communities. This extensive analysis of publication trends, ideologies, and approaches enables formulation of four main conclusions. First, the two communities are closely related through their use of the term "function." However, multifunctional agriculture considers functions as agricultural activity outputs and prefers farm-centred approaches, whereas ecosystem services considers ecosystem functions in the provision of services and prefers service-centred approaches. Second, research approaches to common questions in these two communities share some similarities, and there would be great value in integrating these approaches. Third, the two communities have potential for dialog regarding the bundle of ecosystem services and the spectrum of multifunctional agriculture, or regarding land sharing and land sparing. Fourth, we propose an integrated conceptual framework that distinguishes six groups of ecosystem services and disservices in the agricultural landscape, and combines the concepts of multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services. This integrated framework improves applications of multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services for operational use. Future research should examine if the framework can be readily adapted for modelling specific problems in agricultural management.

  19. Low multifunctional redundancy of soil fungal diversity at multiple scales.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akira S; Isbell, Forest; Fujii, Saori; Makoto, Kobayashi; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Osono, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Theory suggests that biodiversity might help sustain multiple ecosystem functions. To evaluate possible biodiversity-multifunctionality relationships in a natural setting, we considered different spatial scales of diversity metrics for soil fungi in the northern forests of Japan. We found that multifunctionality increased with increasing local species richness, suggesting a limited degree of multifunctional redundancy. This diversity-multifunctionality relationship was independent of the compositional uniqueness of each community. However, we still found the importance of community composition, because there was a positive correlation between community dissimilarity and multifunctional dissimilarity across the landscape. This result suggests that functional redundancy can further decrease when spatial variations in identities of both species and functions are simultaneously considered at larger spatial scales. We speculate that different scales of diversity could provide multiple levels of insurance against the loss of functioning if high-levels of local species diversity and compositional variation across locations are both maintained. Alternatively, making species assemblages depauperate may result in the loss of multifunctionality. PMID:26689733

  20. Music and the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2015-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA.

  1. Multifunctional protein: cardiac ankyrin repeat protein*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Xie, Xiao-jie; Wang, Jian-an

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) not only serves as an important component of muscle sarcomere in the cytoplasm, but also acts as a transcription co-factor in the nucleus. Previous studies have demonstrated that CARP is up-regulated in some cardiovascular disorders and muscle diseases; however, its role in these diseases remains controversial now. In this review, we will discuss the continued progress in the research related to CARP, including its discovery, structure, and the role it plays in cardiac development and heart diseases. PMID:27143260

  2. Multifunctional hybrid optical/digital neural net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David P.

    1990-08-01

    A multi-functional hybrid neural net is described. It is hybrid since it uses a digital hardware Hecht-Nielsen Corporation (HNC) neural net for adaptive learning and an optical neural net for on-line processing/classification. It is also hybrid in its combination of pattern recognition and neural net techniques. The system is multi-functional. It can function as an optimization and adaptive pattern recognition neural net as well as an auto and heteroassociative processor. I . W. JTRODUCTION Neural nets (NNs) have recently received enormous attention [1 -2] with increasing attention to the use of optical processors and a variety of new learning algorithms. Section 2 describes our hybrid NN with attention to Its fabrication and the role for optical and digital processors. Section 3 details Its use as an associative processor. Section 4 highlights is use in 3 optimization NN problems (a mixture NN a multitarget tracker (MTT) NN and a matrix inversion NN). Section 5 briefly notes it use as a production NN system and symbolic NN. Section 6 describes its use as an adaptive pattern recognition (PR) NN (that marries PR and NN techniques). 2. HYBRID ARCHITECTURE Figure 1 shows our basic hybrid NN [3]. The optical portion of the system is a matrix-vector (M-V) processor whose vector output P3 is the product of the vector at P1 and the matrix at P2. An HNC digital hardware NN is used during learning determine the interconnection weights forP2. If P2 is a spatial light modulator (SLM) its contents can be updated (using gated learning) from thedigital NN. The operations in most adaptive PR NN learning algorithms are sufficiently complex thatthey are best implemented digitally. In addition the learning operations required are often not well suited for optical realization for optimization NNs the weights are fixed and in adaptive learning learning is off-line and once completed the weights can often be fixed. Four gates are shown that determine the final output or the new P1

  3. The effect of limb crossing and limb congruency on multisensory integration in peripersonal space for the upper and lower extremities.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Forget, Joachim; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated how multisensory integration in peripersonal space is modulated by limb posture (i.e. whether the limbs are crossed or uncrossed) and limb congruency (i.e. whether the observed body part matches the actual position of one's limb). This was done separately for the upper limbs (Experiment 1) and the lower limbs (Experiment 2). The crossmodal congruency task was used to measure peripersonal space integration for the hands and the feet. It was found that the peripersonal space representation for the hands but not for the feet is dynamically updated based on both limb posture and limb congruency. Together these findings show how dynamic cues from vision, proprioception, and touch are integrated in peripersonal limb space and highlight fundamental differences in the way in which peripersonal space is represented for the upper and lower extremity. PMID:23579198

  4. Nucleus accumbens stimulation in pathological obesity.

    PubMed

    Harat, Marek; Rudaś, Marcin; Zieliński, Piotr; Birska, Julita; Sokal, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    One of the potential treatment methods of obesity is deep brain stimulation (DBS) of nucleus accumbens. We describe the case of 19 years old woman with hypothalamic obesity. She weighted 151.4 kg before DBS and the non-surgical methods proved to be inefficient. She was treated with implantation of DBS electrode to nucleus accumbens bilaterally. Results were measured with body mass index and neuropsychological tests. Follow-up was 14 months. Fourteen months after surgery weight was 138 kg, BMI was 48.3. Neuropsychological test results were intact. The presented case supports the thesis of treatment of obesity with nucleus accumbens stimulation. PMID:27154450

  5. Patterns of neural activity in the human ventral premotor cortex reflect a whole-body multisensory percept

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Giovanni; Björnsdotter, Malin; Petkova, Valeria I.; Abdulkarim, Zakaryah; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the integration of multisensory signals from the body in fronto-parietal association areas underlies the perception of a body part as belonging to one's physical self. What are the neural mechanisms that enable the perception of one's entire body as a unified entity? In one behavioral and one fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis experiment, we used a full-body illusion to investigate how congruent visuo-tactile signals from a single body part facilitate the emergence of the sense of ownership of the entire body. To elicit this illusion, participants viewed the body of a mannequin from the first-person perspective via head-mounted displays while synchronous touches were applied to the hand, abdomen, or leg of the bodies of the participant and the mannequin; asynchronous visuo-tactile stimuli served as controls. The psychometric data indicated that the participants perceived ownership of the entire artificial body regardless of the body segment that received the synchronous visuo-tactile stimuli. Based on multivoxel pattern analysis, we found that the neural responses in the left ventral premotor cortex displayed illusion-specific activity patterns that generalized across all tested pairs of body parts. Crucially, a tripartite generalization analysis revealed the whole-body specificity of these premotor activity patterns. Finally, we also identified multivoxel patterns in the premotor, intraparietal, and lateral occipital cortices and in the putamen that reflected multisensory responses specific to individual body parts. Based on these results, we propose that the dynamic formation of a whole-body percept may be mediated by neuronal populations in the ventral premotor cortex that contain visuo-tactile receptive fields encompassing multiple body segments. PMID:25583608

  6. Multifunctional Magnetoliposomes for Sequential Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Annalisa; Montis, Costanza; Berti, Debora; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-08-23

    The simultaneous or sequential delivery of multiple therapeutic active principles to a specific target is one of the main challenges of nanomedicine. This goal requires the construction of complex devices often extremely time and cost consuming. Supramolecular self-assemblies, with building blocks of different nature, each providing a specific function to the final construct, can combine a facile synthetic route with a high tunability and structural control. In this study we provide the proof-of-principle of a drug delivery system, DDS, constituted of (i) liposomes, providing a fully biocompatible lipid scaffold suitable to host both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs; (ii) a double-stranded DNA conjugated with a cholesteryl unit that spontaneously inserts into the lipid membrane; and (iii) hydrophobic and hydrophilic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) embedded inside the lipid membrane of liposomes or connected to the DNA, respectively. Upon application of an alternating magnetic field, the SPIONs can trigger, through thermal activation, the release of a DNA strand or of the liposomal payload, depending on the frequency and the application time of the field, as proved by both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies. This feature is due to the different localization of the two kinds of SPIONS within the construct and demonstrates the feasibility of a multifunctional DDS, built up from self-assembly of biocompatible building blocks. PMID:27504891

  7. Counteraction of the multifunctional restriction factor tetherin.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The interferon-inducible restriction factor tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1.24) has emerged as a key component of the antiviral immune response. Initially, tetherin was shown to restrict replication of various enveloped viruses by inhibiting the release of budding virions from infected cells. More recently, it has become clear that tetherin also acts as a pattern recognition receptor inducing NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory gene expression in virus infected cells. Whereas the ability to restrict virion release is highly conserved among mammalian tetherin orthologs and thus probably an ancient function of this protein, innate sensing seems to be an evolutionarily recent activity. The potent and broad antiviral activity of tetherin is reflected by the fact that many viruses evolved means to counteract this restriction factor. A continuous arms race with viruses has apparently driven the evolution of different isoforms of tetherin with different functional properties. Interestingly, tetherin has also been implicated in cellular processes that are unrelated to immunity, such as the organization of the apical actin network and membrane microdomains or stabilization of the Golgi apparatus. In this review, I summarize our current knowledge of the different functions of tetherin and describe the molecular strategies that viruses have evolved to antagonize or evade this multifunctional host restriction factor.

  8. Angiography with a multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Vazquez, Vanessa; Husain, Deeba

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope (mLSO) was designed, constructed, and tested on human subjects. The mLSO could sequentially acquire wide-field, confocal, near-infrared reflectance, fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) retinal images. The system also included a retinal tracker (RT) and a photodynamic therapy laser treatment port. The mLSO was tested in a pilot clinical study on human subjects with and without retinal disease. The instrument exhibited robust retinal tracking and high-contrast line scanning imaging. The FA and ICGA angiograms showed a similar appearance of hyper- and hypo-pigmented disease features and a nearly equivalent resolution of fine capillaries compared to a commercial flood-illumination fundus imager. An mLSO-based platform will enable researchers and clinicians to image human and animal eyes with a variety of modalities and deliver therapeutic beams from a single automated interface. This approach has the potential to improve patient comfort and reduce imaging session times, allowing clinicians to better diagnose, plan, and conduct patient procedures with improved outcomes. PMID:22463040

  9. Development of multifunctional shape memory polymer foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Janice J.; Srivastava, Ijya; Naguib, Hani E.

    2015-05-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMP) are a class of stimuli-responsive materials which are able to respond to external stimulus such as temperature and deformation by changing their shape, and return to their original shape upon reversal or removal of the external stimulus. Although SMP materials have been studied extensively and have been used in a wide range of applications such as medicine, aerospace, and robotics, only few studies have looked at the potential of designing multifunctional SMP foams and blends. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a design of SMP foam materials and blends. The actuator construct will contain a core SMP epoxy and blend of polylactic acid and polyurethane. The effects of the processing parameters of shape memory polymer (SMP) foams on the shape memory effect (SME) were investigated. The solid state foaming technique was employed to obtain the desired foamed cellular structure. One particular point of interest is to understand how the processing parameters affect the SMP and its glass transition temperature (Tg). By correctly tailoring these parameters it is possible to modify the SMP to have an improved shape memory effect SME.

  10. "Smart" Multifunctional Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Andrew Lowe

    2005-10-15

    Herein we report the synthesis and solution characterization of a novel series of AB diblock copolymers with neutral, water-soluble A blocks comprised of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) and pH-responsive B blocks of N,N-dimethylvinylbenzylamine (DMVBA). To our knowledge, this represents the first example of an acrylamido-styrenic block copolymer prepared directly in homogeneous aqueous solution. The best blocking order (using polyDMA as a macro-CTA) was shown to yield well-defined block copolymers with minimal homopolymer impurity. Reversible aggregation of these block copolymers in aqueous media was studied by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Finally, an example of core-crosslinked micelles was demonstrated by the addition of a difunctional crosslinking agent to a micellar solution of the parent block copolymer. Our ability to form micelles directly in water that are responsive to pH represents an important milestone in developing ''smart'' multifunctional polymers that have potential for oil mobilization in Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes.

  11. Multifunction minimization for programmable logic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of minimizing two-level AND/OR Boolean algebraic functions of n inputs and m outputs for implementation on programmable logic arrays (PLA) is examined. The theory of multiple-output functions as well as the historically alternative approaches to reckoning the cost of an equation implementation are reviewed. The PLA is shown to be a realization of the least product gate equation cost criterion. The multi-function minimization is dealt with in the context of a directed tree search algorithm developed in previous research. The PLA oriented minimization is shown to alter the nature of each of the basic tenets of multiple-output minimization used in earlier work. The concept of a non-prime but selectable implicant is introduced. A new cost criterion, the quantum cost, is discussed, and an approximation algorithm utilizing this criterion is developed. A timing analysis of a cyclic resolution algorithm for PLA based functions is presented. Lastly, the question of efficiency in automated minimization algorithms is examined. The application of the PLA cost criterion is shown to exhibit intrinsic increases in computational efficiency. A minterm classification algorithm is suggested and a PLA minimization algorithm is implemented in the FORTRAN language.

  12. Multifunctional brushes made from carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Anyuan; Veedu, Vinod P; Li, Xuesong; Yao, Zhaoling; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2005-07-01

    Brushes are common tools for use in industry and our daily life, performing a variety of tasks such as cleaning, scraping, applying and electrical contacts. Typical materials for constructing brush bristles include animal hairs, synthetic polymer fibres and metal wires (see, for example, ref. 1). The performance of these bristles has been limited by the oxidation and degradation of metal wires, poor strength of natural hairs, and low thermal stability of synthetic fibres. Carbon nanotubes, having a typical one-dimensional nanostructure, have excellent mechanical properties, such as high modulus and strength, high elasticity and resilience, thermal conductivity and large surface area (50-200 m2 g(-1)). Here we construct multifunctional, conductive brushes with carbon nanotube bristles grafted on fibre handles, and demonstrate their several unique tasks such as cleaning of nanoparticles from narrow spaces, coating of the inside of holes, selective chemical adsorption, and as movable electromechanical brush contacts and switches. The nanotube bristles can also be chemically functionalized for selective removal of heavy metal ions.

  13. Multifunctional magnetoelectric materials for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, N.; Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade magnetoelectric (ME) mutiferroic (MF) materials and their devices are one of the highest priority research topics that has been investigated by the scientific ferroics community to develop the next generation of novel multifunctional materials. These systems show the simultaneous existence of two or more ferroic orders, and cross-coupling between them, such as magnetic spin, polarisation, ferroelastic ordering, and ferrotoroidicity. Based on the type of ordering and coupling, they have drawn increasing interest for a variety of device applications, such as magnetic field sensors, nonvolatile memory elements, ferroelectric photovoltaics, nano-electronics etc. Since single-phase materials exist rarely in nature with strong cross-coupling properties, intensive research activity is being pursued towards the discovery of new single-phase multiferroic materials and the design of new engineered materials with strong magneto-electric (ME) coupling. This review article summarises the development of different kinds of multiferroic material: single-phase and composite ceramic, laminated composite and nanostructured thin films. Thin-film nanostructures have higher magnitude direct ME coupling values and clear evidence of indirect ME coupling compared with bulk materials. Promising ME coupling coefficients have been reported in laminated composite materials in which the signal to noise ratio is good for device fabrication. We describe the possible applications of these materials.

  14. Ionic liquid based multifunctional double network gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kumkum; Higashihara, Tomoya; Arafune, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Toshio; Morinaga, Takashi; Sato, Takaya; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2015-04-01

    Gels are a promising class of soft and wet materials with diverse application in tissue engineering and bio-medical purpose. In order to accelerate the development of gels, it is required to synthesize multi-functional gels of high mechanical strength, ultra low surface friction and suitable elastic modulus with a variety of methods and new materials. Among many types of gel ionic gel made from ionic liquids (ILs) could be used for diverse applications in electrochemical devices and in the field of tribology. IL, a promising materials for lubrication, is a salt with a melting point lower than 100 °C. As a lubricant, ILs are characterized by an extremely low vapor pressure, high thermal stability and high ion conductivity. In this work a novel approach of making double network DN ionic gel using IL has been made utilizing photo polymerization process. A hydrophobic monomer Methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been used as a first network and a hydrophobic IL monomer, N,N-diethyl-N-(2-mthacryloylethyl)-N-methylammonium bistrifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEMM-TFSI) has been used as a second network using photo initiator benzophenon and crosslinker triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). The resulting DN ionic gel shows transparency, flexibility, high thermal stability, good mechanical toughness and low friction coefficient value which can be a potential candidate as a gel slider in different mechanical devices and can open a new area in the field of gel tribology.

  15. Microstructure Evolution of a Multifunctional Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yu Xing; Hao, Yu Lin

    2016-06-01

    To optimize both mechanical and functional properties of multifunctional titanium alloys via grain refinement, an example of such alloys termed as Ti2448 is adopted to investigate its microstructure evolution and strain rate sensitivity by compression in the single β-phase field. The results show that flow stress and strain rate follow a bilinear relation, which is in sharp contrast with other metallic materials exhibiting a monotonic linearity. Below the critical strain of 1 s-1, the alloy has a normal strain rate sensitivity factor of 0.265. Above the critical value, its hardening rate is ultra-low with a factor of 0.03. Inspite of ultra-low hardening, the alloy is plastic stable under the tested conditions. With the aid of electron back-scattering diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses, microstructure evolution via several mechanisms such as dynamic recovery and recrystallization is evaluated by quantitative measurements of grain misorientation and its distribution, sub-grain formation, and localized grain refinement. These results are helpful to obtain the homogenous ultrafine-grained alloy by multi-step thermo-mechanical processing.

  16. Multifunctional Stiff Carbon Foam Derived from Bread.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Ding, Yujie; Wang, Chunhui; Xu, Fan; Lin, Zaishan; Qin, Yuyang; Li, Ying; Yang, Minglong; He, Xiaodong; Peng, Qingyu; Li, Yibin

    2016-07-01

    The creation of stiff yet multifunctional three-dimensional porous carbon architecture at very low cost is still challenging. In this work, lightweight and stiff carbon foam (CF) with adjustable pore structure was prepared by using flour as the basic element via a simple fermentation and carbonization process. The compressive strength of CF exhibits a high value of 3.6 MPa whereas its density is 0.29 g/cm(3) (compressive modulus can be 121 MPa). The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness measurements (specific EMI shielding effectiveness can be 78.18 dB·cm(3)·g(-1)) indicate that CF can be used as lightweight, effective shielding material. Unlike ordinary foam structure materials, the low thermal conductivity (lowest is 0.06 W/m·K) with high resistance to fire makes CF a good candidate for commercial thermal insulation material. These results demonstrate a promising method to fabricate an economical, robust carbon material for applications in industry as well as topics regarding environmental protection and improvement of energy efficiency. PMID:27295106

  17. "Smart" Multifunctional Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Andrew Lowe

    2007-03-20

    Recent recommendations made by the Department of Energy, in conjunction with ongoing research at the University of Southern Mississippi, have signified a need for the development of 'smart' multi-functional polymers (SMFPs) for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Herein we summarize research from the period of September 2003 through March 2007 focusing on both Type I and Type II SMFPs. We have demonstrated the synthesis and behavior of materials that can respond in situ to stimuli (ionic strength, pH, temperature, and shear stress). In particular, Type I SMFPs reversibly form micelles in water and have the potential to be utilized in applications that serve to lower interfacial tension at the oil/water interface, resulting in emulsification of oil. Type II SMFPs, which consist of high molecular weight polymers, have been synthesized and have prospective applications related to the modification of fluid viscosity during the recovery process. Through the utilization of these advanced 'smart' polymers, the ability to recover more of the original oil in place and a larger portion of that by-passed or deemed 'unrecoverable' by conventional chemical flooding should be possible.

  18. Multifunctional Stiff Carbon Foam Derived from Bread.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Ding, Yujie; Wang, Chunhui; Xu, Fan; Lin, Zaishan; Qin, Yuyang; Li, Ying; Yang, Minglong; He, Xiaodong; Peng, Qingyu; Li, Yibin

    2016-07-01

    The creation of stiff yet multifunctional three-dimensional porous carbon architecture at very low cost is still challenging. In this work, lightweight and stiff carbon foam (CF) with adjustable pore structure was prepared by using flour as the basic element via a simple fermentation and carbonization process. The compressive strength of CF exhibits a high value of 3.6 MPa whereas its density is 0.29 g/cm(3) (compressive modulus can be 121 MPa). The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness measurements (specific EMI shielding effectiveness can be 78.18 dB·cm(3)·g(-1)) indicate that CF can be used as lightweight, effective shielding material. Unlike ordinary foam structure materials, the low thermal conductivity (lowest is 0.06 W/m·K) with high resistance to fire makes CF a good candidate for commercial thermal insulation material. These results demonstrate a promising method to fabricate an economical, robust carbon material for applications in industry as well as topics regarding environmental protection and improvement of energy efficiency.

  19. Angiography with a multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Vazquez, Vanessa; Husain, Deeba

    2012-02-01

    A multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope (mLSO) was designed, constructed, and tested on human subjects. The mLSO could sequentially acquire wide-field, confocal, near-infrared reflectance, fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) retinal images. The system also included a retinal tracker (RT) and a photodynamic therapy laser treatment port. The mLSO was tested in a pilot clinical study on human subjects with and without retinal disease. The instrument exhibited robust retinal tracking and high-contrast line scanning imaging. The FA and ICGA angiograms showed a similar appearance of hyper- and hypo-pigmented disease features and a nearly equivalent resolution of fine capillaries compared to a commercial flood-illumination fundus imager. An mLSO-based platform will enable researchers and clinicians to image human and animal eyes with a variety of modalities and deliver therapeutic beams from a single automated interface. This approach has the potential to improve patient comfort and reduce imaging session times, allowing clinicians to better diagnose, plan, and conduct patient procedures with improved outcomes.

  20. Multifunctional Deployment Hinges Rigidified by Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Simburger, Edward J.; Matusmoto, James; Giants, Thomas W.; Garcia, Alexander; Perry, Alan; Rawal, Suraj; Marshall, Craig; Lin, John Kun Hung; Day, Jonathan Robert; Scarborough, Stephen Emerson

    2005-01-01

    Multifunctional hinges have been developed for deploying and electrically connecting panels comprising planar arrays of thin-film solar photovoltaic cells. In the original intended application of these hinges, the panels would be facets of a 32-sided (and approximately spherical) polyhedral microsatellite (see figure), denoted a PowerSphere, that would be delivered to orbit in a compact folded configuration, then deployed by expansion of gas in inflation bladders. Once deployment was complete, the hinges would be rigidified to provide structural connections that would hold the panels in their assigned relative positions without backlash. Such hinges could also be used on Earth for electrically connecting and structurally supporting solar panels that are similarly shipped in compact form and deployed at their destinations. As shown in section A-A in the figure, a hinge of this type is partly integrated with an inflation bladder and partly integrated with the frame of a solar panel. During assembly of the hinge, strip extensions from a flexible circuit harness on the bladder are connected to corresponding thin-film conductors on the solar panel by use of laser welding and wrap-around contacts. The main structural component of the hinge is a layer of glass fiber impregnated with an ultraviolet-curable resin. After deployment, exposure to ultraviolet light from the Sun cures the resin, thereby rigidifying the hinge.

  1. Effects of multisensory resources on the achievement and science attitudes of seventh-grade suburban students taught science concepts on and above grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Patrice Helen

    This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent variables were the instructional strategy and students' perceptual preferences. The sample consisted of 74 educationally oriented seventh-grade students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to determine perceptual preferences. The control group was taught seventh-grade and tenth-grade science units using a traditional approach and the experimental group was instructed on the same units using multisensory instructional resources. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. The traditional unit included oral reading from the textbook, completing outlines, labeling diagrams, and correcting the outlines and diagrams as a class. The multisensory unit included five instructional stations established in different sections of the classroom to allow students to learn by: (a) manipulating Flip Chutes, (b) using Electroboards, (c) assembling Task Cards, (d) playing a kinesthetic Floor Game, and (e) reading an individual Programmed Learning Sequence. Audio tapes and scripts were provided at each location. Students circulated in groups of four from station to station. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of a multisensory, rather than a traditional approach, for teaching science content that is above-grade level. T-tests revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores (p < 0.0007). No significance was detected on grade-level achievement nor on the perceptual

  2. Dynamic risk control by human nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Sosa, Fernando; Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier Jesus; Galarza, Ana; Avecillas, Josue; Pineda-Pardo, Jose Angel; Lopez-Ibor, Juan José; Reneses, Blanca; Barcia, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Real-world decisions about reward often involve a complex counterbalance of risk and value. Although the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in the underlying neural substrate, its criticality to human behaviour remains an open question, best addressed with interventional methodology that probes the behavioural consequences of focal neural modulation. Combining a psychometric index of risky decision-making with transient electrical modulation of the nucleus accumbens, here we reveal profound, highly dynamic alteration of the relation between probability of reward and choice during therapeutic deep brain stimulation in four patients with treatment-resistant psychiatric disease. Short-lived phasic electrical stimulation of the region of the nucleus accumbens dynamically altered risk behaviour, transiently shifting the psychometric function towards more risky decisions only for the duration of stimulation. A critical, on-line role of human nucleus accumbens in dynamic risk control is thereby established. PMID:26428667

  3. Microtubules move the nucleus to quiescence.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Damien; Sagot, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus is a cellular compartment that hosts several macro-molecular machines displaying a highly complex spatial organization. This tight architectural orchestration determines not only DNA replication and repair but also regulates gene expression. In budding yeast microtubules play a key role in structuring the nucleus since they condition the Rabl arrangement in G1 and chromosome partitioning during mitosis through their attachment to centromeres via the kinetochore proteins. Recently, we have shown that upon quiescence entry, intranuclear microtubules emanating from the spindle pole body elongate to form a highly stable bundle that spans the entire nucleus. Here, we examine some molecular mechanisms that may underlie the formation of this structure. As the intranuclear microtubule bundle causes a profound re-organization of the yeast nucleus and is required for cell survival during quiescence, we discuss the possibility that the assembly of such a structure participates in quiescence establishment.

  4. Order and disorder in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Wallace F

    2002-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with three-dimensional microscopy has shown that chromosomes are not randomly strewn throughout the nucleus but are in fact fairly well organized, with different loci reproducibly found in different regions of the nucleus. At the same time, increasingly sophisticated methods to track and analyze the movements of specific chromosomal loci in vivo using four-dimensional microscopy have revealed that chromatin undergoes extensive Brownian motion. However, the diffusion of interphase chromatin is constrained, implying that chromosomes are physically anchored within the nucleus. This constraint on diffusion is the result of interactions between chromatin and structural elements within the nucleus, such as nuclear pores or the nuclear lamina. The combination of defined positioning with constrained diffusion has a strong impact on interactions between chromosomal loci, and appears to explain the tendency of certain chromosome rearrangements to occur during the development of cancer.

  5. Dynamic risk control by human nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Nachev, Parashkev; Lopez-Sosa, Fernando; Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier Jesus; Galarza, Ana; Avecillas, Josue; Pineda-Pardo, Jose Angel; Lopez-Ibor, Juan José; Reneses, Blanca; Barcia, Juan Antonio; Strange, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Real-world decisions about reward often involve a complex counterbalance of risk and value. Although the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in the underlying neural substrate, its criticality to human behaviour remains an open question, best addressed with interventional methodology that probes the behavioural consequences of focal neural modulation. Combining a psychometric index of risky decision-making with transient electrical modulation of the nucleus accumbens, here we reveal profound, highly dynamic alteration of the relation between probability of reward and choice during therapeutic deep brain stimulation in four patients with treatment-resistant psychiatric disease. Short-lived phasic electrical stimulation of the region of the nucleus accumbens dynamically altered risk behaviour, transiently shifting the psychometric function towards more risky decisions only for the duration of stimulation. A critical, on-line role of human nucleus accumbens in dynamic risk control is thereby established. PMID:26428667

  6. Comet encke: radar detection of nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, P G; Campbell, D B; Ostro, S J; Pettengill, G H; Shapiro, I I

    1982-04-16

    The nucleus of the periodic comet Encke was detected in November 1980 with the Arecibo Observatory's radar system (wavelength, 12.6 centimeters). The echoes in the one sense of circular polarization received imply a radar cross section of 1.1 +/- 0.7 square kilometers. The estimated bandwidth of these echoes combined with an estimate of the rotation vector of Encke yields a radius for the nucleus of l.5(+2.3)(-1.0) kilometers. The uncertainties given are dependent primarily on the range of models considered for the comet and for the manner in which its nucleus backscatters radio waves. Should this range prove inadequate, the true value of the radius of the nucleus might lie outside the limits given.

  7. Volumes of cochlear nucleus regions in rodents.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Donald A; Lee, Augustine C; Hamilton, Walter D; Benjamin, Louis C; Vishwanath, Shilpa; Simo, Hermann; Godfrey, Lynn M; Mustapha, Abdurrahman I A A; Heffner, Rickye S

    2016-09-01

    The cochlear nucleus receives all the coded information about sound from the cochlea and is the source of auditory information for the rest of the central auditory system. As such, it is a critical auditory nucleus. The sizes of the cochlear nucleus as a whole and its three major subdivisions - anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN), and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) - have been measured in a large number of mammals, but measurements of its subregions at a more detailed level for a variety of species have not previously been made. Size measurements are reported here for the summed granular regions, DCN layers, AVCN, PVCN, and interstitial nucleus in 15 different rodent species, as well as a lagomorph, carnivore, and small primate. This further refinement of measurements is important because the granular regions and superficial layers of the DCN appear to have some different functions than the other cochlear nucleus regions. Except for DCN layers in the mountain beaver, all regions were clearly identifiable in all the animals studied. Relative regional size differences among most of the rodents, and even the 3 non-rodents, were not large and did not show a consistent relation to their wide range of lifestyles and hearing parameters. However, the mountain beaver, and to a lesser extent the pocket gopher, two rodents that live in tunnel systems, had relative sizes of summed granular regions and DCN molecular layer distinctly larger than those of the other mammals. Among all the mammals studied, there was a high correlation between the size per body weight of summed granular regions and that of the DCN molecular layer, consistent with other evidence for a close relationship between granule cells and superficial DCN neurons. PMID:27435005

  8. Functional architecture in the cell nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Dundr, M; Misteli, T

    2001-01-01

    The major functions of the cell nucleus, including transcription, pre-mRNA splicing and ribosome assembly, have been studied extensively by biochemical, genetic and molecular methods. An overwhelming amount of information about their molecular mechanisms is available. In stark contrast, very little is known about how these processes are integrated into the structural framework of the cell nucleus and how they are spatially and temporally co-ordinated within the three-dimensional confines of the nucleus. It is also largely unknown how nuclear architecture affects gene expression. In order to understand how genomes are organized, and how they function, the basic principles that govern nuclear architecture and function must be uncovered. Recent work combining molecular, biochemical and cell biological methods is beginning to shed light on how the nucleus functions and how genes are expressed in vivo. It has become clear that the nucleus contains distinct compartments and that many nuclear components are highly dynamic. Here we describe the major structural compartments of the cell nucleus and discuss their established and proposed functions. We summarize recent observations regarding the dynamic properties of chromatin, mRNA and nuclear proteins, and we consider the implications these findings have for the organization of nuclear processes and gene expression. Finally, we speculate that self-organization might play a substantial role in establishing and maintaining nuclear organization. PMID:11368755

  9. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  10. Multifunctional PEGylated nanoclusters for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Erwin; Choo, Eugene Shi Guang; Tan, Cherie Shi Hua; Tang, Xiaosheng; Sheng, Yang; Xue, Junmin

    2013-06-01

    A simple and versatile synthesis method to form water soluble multifunctional nanoclusters using polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) amphiphilic brush copolymers (PMAO-g-PEG) was presented. Simply by tuning the core size and the initial nanocrystal concentration, manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MFNPs) were used to demonstrate the versatility of tuning the loading amount of the nanoclusters. The resultant nanoclusters were found to have a well-controlled spherical shape. When Zn-doped AgInS2 quantum dots (AIZS QDs) were loaded together with the MFNP nanocrystals, bi-functional nanoclusters with fluorescent and magnetic behaviors were obtained. Such bi-functional nanoclusters were also successfully demonstrated for cellular bio-imaging. Moreover, the presence of another type of nanocrystals together with MFNPs was found to have a negligible effect on the overall properties of the nanoclusters as demonstrated by the MR relaxivity test. From the time-dependent colloidal stability test, it was found that the presence of the PEG chain grafted onto PMAO was able to reduce protein adsorption onto the nanocluster surface. An in vitro study on NIH/3T3 demonstrated the biocompatibility of the nanoclusters. Such biocompatible and colloidally stable nanoclusters with an approximate size of 80-120 nm were suitable for both MRI and cell labeling applications.A simple and versatile synthesis method to form water soluble multifunctional nanoclusters using polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) amphiphilic brush copolymers (PMAO-g-PEG) was presented. Simply by tuning the core size and the initial nanocrystal concentration, manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MFNPs) were used to demonstrate the versatility of tuning the loading amount of the nanoclusters. The resultant nanoclusters were found to have a well-controlled spherical shape. When Zn-doped AgInS2 quantum dots (AIZS QDs) were loaded together

  11. Possibilities of Multi-Function Machining Systems as Tools for Complete Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajgalik, Michal; Czan, Andrej; Rakoci, Jozef

    2014-12-01

    This article deals with the use of a multi-function system for complete machining. It compares the use of conventional tools with multi-function system on the basis of main indicators of the quality of machining.

  12. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P.; Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E.; Divine, J.R.; Foster, G.M.

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  13. Advances in process intensification through multifunctional reactor engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes critical to process intensification and implementation in commercial applications. Physics of the heat and mass transfer and chemical kinetics and how these processes are ultimately scaled were investigated. Specifically, we progressed the knowledge and tools required to scale a multifunctional reactor for acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation to industrial dimensions. Understanding such process intensification strategies is crucial to improving the energy efficiency and profitability of multifunctional reactors, resulting in a projected energy savings of 100 trillion BTU/yr by 2020 and a substantial reduction in the accompanying emissions.

  14. A Potent Multi-functional Neuroprotective Derivative of Tetramethylpyrazine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Yun; Xu, Da-Ping; Tan, Guo-Lian; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Gao-Xiao; Cui, Wei; Wang, Jin-Zhao; Long, Cheng; Sun, Ye-Wei; Yu, Pei; Tsim, Karl Wahkeung; Zhang, Zai-Jun; Han, Yi-Fan; Wang, Yu-Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are one of the leading causes of death among the elderly. Therapeutic approaches with a single target have proven unsuccessful in treating these diseases. Structural combination of multi-functional compounds may lead to a molecule with multiple properties. In this study, we designed and synthesized T-006, a novel analog derived from two multi-functional neuroprotective chemicals, tetramethylpyrazine and J147. The methoxyphenyl group of J147 was replaced by tetramethylpyrazine. Bioactivity evaluation showed that T-006 at very low concentrations had multi-functional neuroprotective effects including rescuing iodoacetic acid-induced neuronal loss, preventing oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity and reducing glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro. Most importantly, T-006 significantly ameliorated memory impairments in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. These multiple functions of a single molecule suggest that T-006 is a promising novel neuroprotective agent for treating various neurodegenerative disorders, including and in particular Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25982925

  15. Targeting Strategies for Multifunctional Nanoparticles in Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mi Kyung; Park, Jinho; Jon, Sangyong

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials offer new opportunities for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Multifunctional nanoparticles harboring various functions including targeting, imaging, therapy, and etc have been intensively studied aiming to overcome limitations associated with conventional cancer diagnosis and therapy. Of various nanoparticles, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with superparamagnetic property have shown potential as multifunctional nanoparticles for clinical translation because they have been used asmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constrast agents in clinic and their features could be easily tailored by including targeting moieties, fluorescence dyes, or therapeutic agents. This review summarizes targeting strategies for construction of multifunctional nanoparticles including magnetic nanoparticles-based theranostic systems, and the various surface engineering strategies of nanoparticles for in vivo applications. PMID:22272217

  16. Multifunctional assembly of micrometer-sized colloids for cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Nie, Chenyao; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Jiangyan; Cheng, Yongqiang; Lv, Fengting; Liu, Libing; Wang, Shu

    2015-06-01

    Compared to the extensively studied nanometer-sized colloids, less attention has been paid to the assembly of micrometer-sized colloids with multifunctional characteristics. To address this need, a bottom-up approach is developed for constructing self-assemblies of micrometer-sized magnetic colloids possessing multifunctionality, including magnetic, optical, and biological activities. Biotinylated oligo (p-phenylene vinylene) (OPV) derivatives are designed to mediate the self-assembly of streptavidin-modified magnetic beads. The optical element OPV derivatives provide a fluorescence imaging ability for tracing the assembly process. Target cells can be recognized and assembled by the colloidal assembly with bioactive element antibodies. The colloidal assembly reveals better cell isolation performance by its amplified magnetic response in comparison to monodisperse colloids. The self-assembly of micrometer-sized magnetic colloids through a combination of different functional ingredients to realize multifunction is conceptually simple and easy to achieve.

  17. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy; Evans, Lindsay; Miller, Jim; Cooper, Marcia; Torczynski, John; Pena, Donovan; Gill, Walt; Groten, Will; Judzis, Arvids; Foley, Richard; Smith, Larry; Cross, Will; Vogt, T.

    2011-06-27

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  18. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy; Evans, Lindsay; Miller, Jim; Cooper, Marcia; Torczynski, John; Pena, Donovan; Gill, Walt

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  19. Three-dimensional multifunctional optical coherence tomography for skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, En; Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Young-Joo; Kasaragod, Deepa; Sasaoka, Tomoko; Yamanari, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) visualizes cross-sectional microstructures of biological tissues. Recent developments of multifunctional OCT (MF-OCT) provides multiple optical contrasts which can reveal currently unknown tissue properties. In this contribution we demonstrate multifunctional OCT specially designed for dermatological investigation. And by utilizing it to measure four different body parts of in vivo human skin, three-dimensional scattering OCT, OCT angiography, polarization uniformity tomography, and local birefringence tomography images were obtained by a single scan. They respectively contrast the structure and morphology, vasculature, melanin content and collagen traits of the tissue.

  20. Multifunctional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Diagnostics, Therapy and Macromolecule Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Swee Kuan; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of either metal (e.g. Au), or magnetic NP (e.g. iron oxide) with other fluorescent components such as quantum dots (QDs) or organic dyes have been emerging as versatile candidate systems for cancer diagnosis, therapy, and macromolecule delivery such as micro ribonucleic acid (microRNA). This review intends to highlight the recent advances in the synthesis and application of multifunctional NPs (mainly iron oxide) in theranostics, an area used to combine therapeutics and diagnostics. The recent applications of NPs in miRNA delivery are also reviewed. PMID:24396508

  1. [Multifunctional Nursing Beds Based on Intelligent Detection and Recovery].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiehuil; Pan, Xiaojie; Jiang, Xianbo; Yan, Zhuangzhi

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of the aging society, there will be a wide range of applications if novel intelligent multifunctional nursing beds can be developed for hospitals, bead houses and families at the same time. By listing and analyzing existing products, this paper summarized four function categories for multifunctional nursing beds, including security assurance, treatment aid, comfortability optimization, and human-machine interaction and communication. Finally, by comparing existing functions and potential user requirements, this paper proposed four function development trends, including physiological parameter monitoring, sleep aid, intelligent temperature control, and video communication. PMID:27197499

  2. Pressure sensitive multifunctional solar cells using carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somani, Prakash R.

    2010-04-01

    A unique multifunctional device combining the photovoltaic action and pressure sensitivity is demonstrated which is based on the heterojunction of n-Si and carbon nanotubes (double walled carbon nanotubes or multiwalled carbon nanotubes) and using copper phthalocyanine surface modified indium-tin-oxide electrode and shows pressure dependent photovoltaic action. The device can work as a solar cell, pressure sensor, or photovoltaic pressure sensor. Such multifunctional organic/organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells are expected to find many applications in the near future.

  3. [Multifunctional Nursing Beds Based on Intelligent Detection and Recovery].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiehuil; Pan, Xiaojie; Jiang, Xianbo; Yan, Zhuangzhi

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of the aging society, there will be a wide range of applications if novel intelligent multifunctional nursing beds can be developed for hospitals, bead houses and families at the same time. By listing and analyzing existing products, this paper summarized four function categories for multifunctional nursing beds, including security assurance, treatment aid, comfortability optimization, and human-machine interaction and communication. Finally, by comparing existing functions and potential user requirements, this paper proposed four function development trends, including physiological parameter monitoring, sleep aid, intelligent temperature control, and video communication.

  4. Enzyme screening with synthetic multifunctional pores: Focus on biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Sordé, Nathalie; Das, Gopal; Matile, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    This report demonstrates that a single set of identical synthetic multifunctional pores can detect the activity of many different enzymes. Enzymes catalyzing either synthesis or degradation of DNA (exonuclease III or polymerase I), RNA (RNase A), polysaccharides (heparinase I, hyaluronidase, and galactosyltransferase), and proteins (papain, ficin, elastase, subtilisin, and pronase) are selected to exemplify this key characteristic of synthetic multifunctional pore sensors. Because anionic, cationic, and neutral substrates can gain access to the interior of complementarily functionalized pores, such pores can be the basis for very user-friendly screening of a broad range of enzymes. PMID:14530413

  5. Carbon nanotubes as multifunctional biological transporters and near-infrared agents for selective cancer cell destruction.

    PubMed

    Kam, Nadine Wong Shi; O'Connell, Michael; Wisdom, Jeffrey A; Dai, Hongjie

    2005-08-16

    Biological systems are known to be highly transparent to 700- to 1,100-nm near-infrared (NIR) light. It is shown here that the strong optical absorbance of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in this special spectral window, an intrinsic property of SWNTs, can be used for optical stimulation of nanotubes inside living cells to afford multifunctional nanotube biological transporters. For oligonucleotides transported inside living cells by nanotubes, the oligos can translocate into cell nucleus upon endosomal rupture triggered by NIR laser pulses. Continuous NIR radiation can cause cell death because of excessive local heating of SWNT in vitro. Selective cancer cell destruction can be achieved by functionalization of SWNT with a folate moiety, selective internalization of SWNTs inside cells labeled with folate receptor tumor markers, and NIR-triggered cell death, without harming receptor-free normal cells. Thus, the transporting capabilities of carbon nanotubes combined with suitable functionalization chemistry and their intrinsic optical properties can lead to new classes of novel nanomaterials for drug delivery and cancer therapy.

  6. Multi-functional Textiles for Military Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malshe, Priyadarshini

    helped create a multi-functional fabric with an anti-bacterial bulk, hydrophilic back surface and repellent front surface for enhanced protective and aesthetic values.

  7. Dynamics of hadron-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    Recent progress in diffraction theory shows that proton-nucleus scattering at nonforward angles is dominated by the interference of waves from two or more bright spots. Analytic formulas based on asymptotic theories of diffraction yield valuable new insights into the scattering and these formulas can be readily extended to illuminate the role of dynamical ingredients, i.e., the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes. The governing parameters of the diffraction and some direct connections between the observed cross sections and the input dynamics are reviewed. New information regarding the nucleon-nucleon parameters based on recent phase shift analyses show some systematic differences from the effective NN amplitudes which produce fits to proton-nucleus diffraction data. Recent progress in understanding the role of ..delta..-isobars in proton-nucleus dynamics is reviewed. 126 references.

  8. The dynamic landscape of the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher M; Bellini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    While the cell nucleus was described for the first time almost two centuries ago, our modern view of the nuclear architecture is primarily based on studies from the last two decades. This surprising late start coincides with the development of new, powerful strategies to probe for the spatial organization of nuclear activities in both fixed and live cells. As a result, three major principles have emerged: first, the nucleus is not just a bag filled with nucleic acids and proteins. Rather, many distinct functional domains, including the chromosomes, resides within the confines of the nuclear envelope. Second, all these nuclear domains are highly dynamic, with molecules exchanging rapidly between them and the surrounding nucleoplasm. Finally, the motion of molecules within the nucleoplasm appears to be mostly driven by random diffusion. Here, the emerging roles of several subnuclear domains are discussed in the context of the dynamic functions of the cell nucleus.

  9. The nucleus: a black box being opened.

    PubMed

    van Driel, R; Humbel, B; de Jong, L

    1991-12-01

    Until recently our knowledge about the structural and functional organization of the cell nucleus was very limited. Recent technical developments in the field of ultrastructural analysis, combined with ongoing research on the properties of the nuclear matrix, give new insight into how the nucleus is structured. Two types of observations shape our ideas about nuclear organization. First, most nuclear functions (replication, transcription, RNA processing, and RNA transport) are highly localized within the nucleus, rather than diffusely distributed. Moreover, they are associated with the nuclear matrix. Second, chromatin is organized in discrete loops, bordered by nuclear matrix attachment sequences (MARs). Each loop may contain one or several genes. The arrangement of chromatin in loops has profound consequences for the regulation of gene expression.

  10. Interpretive monitoring in the caudate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Yanike, Marianna; Ferrera, Vincent P

    2014-01-01

    In a dynamic environment an organism has to constantly adjust ongoing behavior to adapt to a given context. This process requires continuous monitoring of ongoing behavior to provide its meaningful interpretation. The caudate nucleus is known to have a role in behavioral monitoring, but the nature of these signals during dynamic behavior is still unclear. We recorded neuronal activity in the caudate nucleus in monkeys during categorization behavior that changed rapidly across contexts. We found that neuronal activity maintained representation of the identity and context of a recently categorized stimulus, as well as interpreted the behavioral meaningfulness of the maintained trace. The accuracy of this cognitive monitoring signal was highest for behavior for which subjects were prone to make errors. Thus, the caudate nucleus provides interpretive monitoring of ongoing behavior, which is necessary for contextually specific decisions to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03727.001 PMID:25415238

  11. Hydrated nucleus pulposus herniation in seven dogs.

    PubMed

    Manunta, M L; Evangelisti, M A; Bergknut, N; Grinwis, G C M; Ballocco, I; Meij, B P

    2015-03-01

    The clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, treatment and follow-up in seven dogs with hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion (HNPE) are reported. All dogs had tetraparesis or tetraplegia. T2-weighted MRI revealed extradural hyperintense homogeneous material compressing the cervical spinal cord. After conservative treatment (five dogs) or surgical decompression (two dogs), all dogs returned to ambulatory function within 1 month. Follow-up MRI in conservatively treated dogs revealed complete disappearance of the extruded material. Histopathological examination of surgical specimens confirmed that the retrieved material was extruded nucleus pulposus with evidence of early degeneration. PMID:25599897

  12. Nucleus model for periodic Comet Tempel 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1991-01-01

    Observational data obtained primarily during 1988 are analyzed and synthesized to develop a comprehensive physical model for the nucleus of Periodic Comet Tempel 2, one of the best studied members of Jupiter's family of short-period comets. It is confirmed that a previous investigation provided reliable information on the comet's spin-axis orientation, which implies and obliquity of 54 degrees of the orbit plane to the equatorial plane and which appears to have varied little - if at all - with time. This conclusion is critical for fitting a triaxial ellipsoid to approximate the figure of the nucleus.

  13. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A.; Agüero, M. P.; Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M.; Bosch, G. E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  14. Compound Nucleus Contributions to the Optical Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, I J; Dietrich, F S; Escher, J E; Dupuis, M

    2008-01-28

    An ab-initio calculation of the optical potential for neutron-nucleus scattering has been performed by explicitly coupling the elastic channel to all the particle-hole (p-h) excitation states in the target. These p-h states may be regarded as doorway states through which the flux flows to more complicated configurations, and (in the end) to long-lived compound nucleus resonances. The random-phase approximation (RPA) provides the linear combinations of p-h states that include the residual interactions within the target, and we show preliminary results for elastic flux loss using both p-h and RPA descriptions of target excitations.

  15. Uncovering the Nucleus Candidate for NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Agüero, M. P.; Camperi, J. A.; Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Bosch, G.; Schirmer, M.

    2015-11-01

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H2 rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  16. The Impact of Multifunctional Genes on "Guilt by Association" Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Jesse; Pavlidis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that by using variants of “guilt-by-association”, gene function predictions can be made with very high statistical confidence. In these studies, it is assumed that the “associations” in the data (e.g., protein interaction partners) of a gene are necessary in establishing “guilt”. In this paper we show that multifunctionality, rather than association, is a primary driver of gene function prediction. We first show that knowledge of the degree of multifunctionality alone can produce astonishingly strong performance when used as a predictor of gene function. We then demonstrate how multifunctionality is encoded in gene interaction data (such as protein interactions and coexpression networks) and how this can feed forward into gene function prediction algorithms. We find that high-quality gene function predictions can be made using data that possesses no information on which gene interacts with which. By examining a wide range of networks from mouse, human and yeast, as well as multiple prediction methods and evaluation metrics, we provide evidence that this problem is pervasive and does not reflect the failings of any particular algorithm or data type. We propose computational controls that can be used to provide more meaningful control when estimating gene function prediction performance. We suggest that this source of bias due to multifunctionality is important to control for, with widespread implications for the interpretation of genomics studies. PMID:21364756

  17. Personal, Portable, Multifunction-Devices and School Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Anne

    2010-01-01

    To maximise learning value from one-to-one programs in schools, computing devices need to be personal, portable and multifunctional. It is likely that shared devices will not be as effective. The increased access provided by one-to-one devices creates great opportunities for school librarians to support their school technology directions and to…

  18. Single-cell electroporation using a multifunctional pipette†

    PubMed Central

    Ainla, Alar; Xu, Shijun; Sanchez, Nicolas; Jeffries, Gavin D. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present here a novel platform combination, using a multifunctional pipette to individually electroporate single-cells and to locally deliver an analyte, while in their culture environment. We demonstrate a method to fabricate low-resistance metallic electrodes into a PDMS pipette, followed by characterization of its effectiveness, benefits and limits in comparison with an external carbon microelectrode. PMID:22810424

  19. Multifunctional, Highly Flexible, Free-Standing 3D Polypyrrole Foam.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhui; Ding, Yujie; Yuan, Ye; Cao, Anyuan; He, Xiaodong; Peng, Qingyu; Li, Yibin

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional, highly flexible 3D polypyrrole (PPy) foam is fabricated via a simple electrodeposition method by using nickel foam as the template. The 3D PPy foam has a unique interior structure and is robust enough to manipulate directly. PMID:27357260

  20. Cyanate ester based multifunctional nanocomposites for structural capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weixing

    Two multifunctional cyanate ester based composites with nanofillers of core-shell microstructures were synthesized and investigated for dielectric, mechanical, and other particular properties for the application of multifunctional structural capacitors. The weight reduction and device integration in spacecraft can contribute to significant energy saving by employing multifunctional structural capacitors. Si nanoparticles/Bisphenol E cyanater ester (Si/BECy) nanocomposites show a significant increase in dielectric constant compared to neat BECy. A low dielectric loss tangent is still maintained in this system thanks to the core-shell (Si-SiO2) microstructure of Si particles. Incorporation of Si nanoparticles also results in a large increase in composite's storage modulus. Furthermore, the AC conductivity of the composite was observed to decrease under compressive mechanical stresses due to the piezoresistive effect of Si. Agglomerates of Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with SiO2 are synthesized and incorporated into BECy to obtain nanocomposites, revealing an enhanced dielectric constant and storage modulus, and a relatively low loss tangent over a wide frequency and temperature range similar to Si/BECy system. Therefore, these novel cyanate ester based nanocomposites simultaneously display mechanical load-carrying, electric energy-storing and other functional properties, promising for multifunctional devices, in this case, structural capacitors.

  1. Multifunctional materials exhibiting spin crossover and liquid-crystalline properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredyuk, M.; Gaspar, Ana B.; Ksenofontov, V.; Reiman, S.; Galyametdinov, Y.; Haase, W.; Rentschler, E.; Gütlich, P.

    2005-11-01

    The physical characterization of a new class of Fe(II) multifunctional SCO materials exhibiting spin crossover and liquid crystalline properties in the room temperatures region is reported. Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and optical polarizing microscopy studies have been performed on such materials.

  2. High-strength porous carbon and its multifunctional applications

    DOEpatents

    Wojtowicz, Marek A; Rubenstein, Eric P; Serio, Michael A; Cosgrove, Joseph E

    2013-12-31

    High-strength porous carbon and a method of its manufacture are described for multifunctional applications, such as ballistic protection, structural components, ultracapacitor electrodes, gas storage, and radiation shielding. The carbon is produced from a polymer precursor via carbonization, and optionally by surface activation and post-treatment.

  3. A Relativistic Multiple Scattering Theory for Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions with Delta Resonance Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werneth, Charles; Maung Maung, Khin; Norbury, John

    2012-10-01

    Non-relativistic multiple scattering theories (NRMST) are formulated by separating the unperturbed Hamiltonian from the interaction and writing the Lippmann-Schwinger equation as an infinite series in the multiple sums of pseudo two-body operators, known as the Watson tau-operators. The advantage of using the multiple scattering theory (MST) is that the pseudo two-body operators are often well approximated by free two-body nucleon-nucleon operators, which are obtained from parameterizations of experimental data. Relativistic theories are needed to properly describe the production of new particles, such as pions, from nucleus-nucleus collisions. Relativistic multiple scattering theories (RMST) have been developed for nucleon-nucleus scattering; however, no RMST for nucleus-nucleus scattering has yet been derived.footnotetextMaung K M, Norbury J W, and Coleman T 2007 J. Phys. G 34 1861. The purpose of this research is to derive an RMST for nucleus-nucleus scattering and to include delta degrees of freedom in the interaction, the minimum requirement for pion production.

  4. Multisensory Stimulation as an Intervention Strategy for Elderly Patients With Severe Dementia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alba; Marante-Moar, M Pilar; Sarabia, Carmen; de Labra, Carmen; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Maseda, Ana; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of multisensory stimulation environment (MSSE) and one-to-one activity sessions in the symptomatology of elderly individuals with severe dementia. Thirty-two participants were randomly assigned to the following 3 groups: MSSE, activity, and control group. The MSSE and activity groups participated in two 30-minute weekly sessions over 16 weeks. Pre-, mid-, and posttrial; 8-week follow-up behavior; mood; cognitive status; and dementia severity were registered. Patients in the MSSE group demonstrated a significant improvement in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Bedford Alzheimer Nursing Severity Scale scores compared with the activity group. Both MSSE and activity groups showed an improvement during the intervention in the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory aggressive behavior factor and total score, with no significant differences between groups. The MSSE may have better effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms and dementia severity in comparison with one-to-one activity sessions in patients with severe dementia. PMID:26631687

  5. Multisensory signals trigger approach behaviour in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: sex differences and call specificity.

    PubMed

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Laberge, Frédéric

    2011-12-01

    Animal communication often involves multimodal signals, and interactions between sensory modalities can trigger unique responses in receivers. Response to social signals was investigated in fire-bellied toads by exposing them to playback of male calls (advertisement and release calls) and a video clip of a male conspecific in the laboratory. The cues were presented in isolation and as a combined bimodal stimulus, and approach frequency, latency to approach and time spent around the stimulus source were measured. No positive phonotaxis was observed toward the advertisement call, both during the day and during a phonotaxis trial performed at night. However, females, but not males, approached with greater frequency, lower latency, and spent more time near the source of the bimodal stimulus in an experiment involving the advertisement call. Female response was specific to the advertisement call, as approach was not increased when the release call was used. Males, on the other hand, did not show increased approach in the advertisement call experiment, but approached with greater frequency the bimodal stimulus involving the release call within the first minute of stimulus presentation. The findings suggest that females orient toward calling males and that males eavesdrop on release calls, but in both cases a visual stimulus is also needed to trigger a response. Social approach in Bombina orientalis is thus dependent on multisensory cues, and the nature of the interaction between sensory modalities depends on receiver sex and call type. PMID:21993061

  6. Multisensory signals trigger approach behaviour in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: sex differences and call specificity.

    PubMed

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Laberge, Frédéric

    2011-12-01

    Animal communication often involves multimodal signals, and interactions between sensory modalities can trigger unique responses in receivers. Response to social signals was investigated in fire-bellied toads by exposing them to playback of male calls (advertisement and release calls) and a video clip of a male conspecific in the laboratory. The cues were presented in isolation and as a combined bimodal stimulus, and approach frequency, latency to approach and time spent around the stimulus source were measured. No positive phonotaxis was observed toward the advertisement call, both during the day and during a phonotaxis trial performed at night. However, females, but not males, approached with greater frequency, lower latency, and spent more time near the source of the bimodal stimulus in an experiment involving the advertisement call. Female response was specific to the advertisement call, as approach was not increased when the release call was used. Males, on the other hand, did not show increased approach in the advertisement call experiment, but approached with greater frequency the bimodal stimulus involving the release call within the first minute of stimulus presentation. The findings suggest that females orient toward calling males and that males eavesdrop on release calls, but in both cases a visual stimulus is also needed to trigger a response. Social approach in Bombina orientalis is thus dependent on multisensory cues, and the nature of the interaction between sensory modalities depends on receiver sex and call type.

  7. Comparing the Effects of Multisensory Stimulation and Individualized Music Sessions on Elderly People with Severe Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alba; Maseda, Ana; Marante-Moar, M Pilar; de Labra, Carmen; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a multisensory stimulation environment (MSSE) and individualized music sessions on agitation, emotional and cognitive status, and dementia severity in a sample of institutionalized patients with severe dementia. Twenty-two participants with a diagnosis of severe or very severe dementia were randomly assigned to two groups: MSSE and individualized music sessions. Both groups participated in two 30-min weekly sessions over 16 weeks. Outcomes were agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, CMAI), mood (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, CSDD), anxiety (Rating Anxiety in Dementia, RAID), cognitive function (Severe Mini-Mental State Examination, SMMSE), and the overall severity of dementia (Bedford Alzheimer Nursing Severity Scale, BANS-S). They were assessed at baseline (pre-trial), in the middle (mid-trial), at the end of the intervention (post-trial), and 8 weeks after the intervention (follow-up). Patients in the MSSE group showed significant improvement in their RAID and BANS-S scores compared with the individualized music group post- versus pre-trial. With regard to agitation, there was improvement during the intervention in both the MSSE and individualized music groups in the CMAI total score after 16 weeks of intervention, with no significant differences between the groups. The results suggest that MSSE could have better effects on anxiety symptoms and dementia severity in comparison with individualized music sessions in elderly patients with severe dementia.

  8. Visual and Haptic Shape Processing in the Human Brain: Unisensory Processing, Multisensory Convergence, and Top-Down Influences.

    PubMed

    Lee Masson, Haemy; Bulthé, Jessica; Op de Beeck, Hans P; Wallraven, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Humans are highly adept at multisensory processing of object shape in both vision and touch. Previous studies have mostly focused on where visually perceived object-shape information can be decoded, with haptic shape processing receiving less attention. Here, we investigate visuo-haptic shape processing in the human brain using multivoxel correlation analyses. Importantly, we use tangible, parametrically defined novel objects as stimuli. Two groups of participants first performed either a visual or haptic similarity-judgment task. The resulting perceptual object-shape spaces were highly similar and matched the physical parameter space. In a subsequent fMRI experiment, objects were first compared within the learned modality and then in the other modality in a one-back task. When correlating neural similarity spaces with perceptual spaces, visually perceived shape was decoded well in the occipital lobe along with the ventral pathway, whereas haptically perceived shape information was mainly found in the parietal lobe, including frontal cortex. Interestingly, ventrolateral occipito-temporal cortex decoded shape in both modalities, highlighting this as an area capable of detailed visuo-haptic shape processing. Finally, we found haptic shape representations in early visual cortex (in the absence of visual input), when participants switched from visual to haptic exploration, suggesting top-down involvement of visual imagery on haptic shape processing. PMID:26223258

  9. TWO-PHOTON PHYSICS IN NUCLEUS-NUCLEUS COLLISIONS AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    NYSTRAND,J.

    1998-09-10

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z{sup 2} up to an energy of {approx} 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented.

  10. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    PubMed

    Keklikoglu, Nurullah

    2009-01-01

    The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which can be applied with SCNT, showed us that it may be possible to obtain different versions of the original genetic constitution of a cell. Because of this opportunity which is provided by SCNT, in reproductive cloning, it would be possible to clone enhanced organisms which can adapt to different environmental conditions and survive. Furthermore, regaining the genetic characteristics of ancestors or reverse herediter variations would be possible. On the other hand, in therapeutic cloning, more precise and easily obtainable alternatives for cell replacement therapy could be presented. However, while producing healthier or different organisms from a nucleus, it is hard to foresee the side effects influencing natural processes in long term is rather difficult.

  11. The Checkerboard Model of the Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Theodore

    2015-04-01

    The Checker Board Model (CBM) of the nucleus and the associated extended standard model predicts that nature has 5 generations of quarks not 3 and that Nucleus is 2 dimensional. The CBM theory began with an insight into the structure of the He nucleus around the year 1989. Details of how this theory evolved which took many years, and is found on my web site (http://checkerboard.dnsalias.net) or in the following references One independent check of this model is that the wavelength of the ``up'' quark orbiting inside the proton at 84.8123% the speed of light (around the ``dn'' quark in the center of the proton) turns out to be exactly one de Broglie wavelength something determined after the mass and speed of the up quark were determined by other means. This theory explains the mass of the proton and neutron and their magnetic moments and this along with the beautiful symmetric 2D structure of the He nucleus led to the evolution of this theory. When this theory was first presented at Argonne in 1996, it was the first time that anyone had predicted the quarks orbited inside the proton at relativistic speeds and it was met with skepticism.

  12. The Nucleus and the Simple Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Brian J.

    1982-01-01

    The 150th anniversary of the naming of the nucleus by Robert Brown in 1831 was commemorated by re-creating some of his most important observations using two of his microscopes. Comments on Brown's career and the microtechnique employed during his time are provided. (Author/JN)

  13. Multifunctional Merkel cells: their roles in electromagnetic reception, finger-print formation, Reiki, epigenetic inheritance and hair form.

    PubMed

    Irmak, M Kemal

    2010-08-01

    passed onto the next generations. Merkel cells are multisensorial cells that can receive almost all environmental stimuli including electromagnetic and ultraviolet radiations, temperature, humidity and food type and they seem to transfer the environmental information to oocytes by affecting nuclear receptors in oocytes. (5) Hair form is categorized as straight, wavy and spiral. Merkel cells found at the bulge region of hair follicles may determine the hair form with their different paracrine secretions related to hair cycle producing variations between populations. In conclusion, Merkel cells are multifunctional cells which may close the gap between orthodox medicine and complementary medicine such as acupuncture and Reiki.

  14. Correlation of transverse momentum and multiplicity in a superposition model of nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2006-04-15

    In p-p collisions the average transverse momentum is known to be correlated with the multiplicity of produced particles. The correlation is shown to survive in a superposition model of nucleus-nucleus collisions. When properly parametrized, the correlation strength appears to be independent of the collision centrality--it is the same in p-p and central A-A collisions. However, the correlation is strongly suppressed by the centrality fluctuations.

  15. Average transverse momentum and energy density in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Emulsion chambers were used to measure the transverse momenta of photons or pi(0) mesons produced in high-energy cosmic-ray nucleus-nucleus collisions. A group of events having large average transverse momenta has been found which apparently exceeds the expected limiting values. Analysis of the events at early interaction times, of the order of 1 fm/c, indicates that the observed transverse momentum increases with both rapidity density and energy density.

  16. Characterization of multifunctional structural capacitors for embedded energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yirong; Sodano, Henry A.

    2009-12-01

    Multifunctional composites are a class of materials that combine structural and other functionalities such as sensing, actuation, energy harvesting, and vibration control in order to maximize structural performance while minimizing weight and complexity. Among all the multifunctional composites developed so far, piezoelectric composites have been widely studied due to the high coupling of energy between the electrical and mechanical domains and the inherently high dielectric constant. Several piezoelectric fiber composites have been developed for sensing and actuation applications; however, none of the previously studied composites fully embed all components of an energy storage device as load bearing members of the structure. A multifunctional fiber that can be embedded in a composite material to perform sensing and actuation has been recently developed [Y. Lin and H. A. Sodano, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 592 (2008)], in addition to providing load bearing functionality. The design was achieved by coating a common structural fiber, silicon carbide, with a barium titanate piezoelectric shell, and poling the active material radically by employing the structural fiber as one of the electrodes. The silicon carbide core fiber also carries external mechanical loading to protect the brittle barium titanate shell from fracture. The excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the barium titanate material make the active structural fiber an outstanding candidate for converting and storing ambient mechanical energy into electrical energy to power other electric devices in the system. This paper focuses on the characterization of energy storage capability of the multifunctional fiber provided by the dielectric properties of the barium titanate shell. The capacitances of the multifunctional fibers with four different aspect ratios are tested and compared with the theoretical expressions for the cylindrical capacitor, while the breakdown voltages of the multifunctional

  17. Functional and Multifunctional Polymers: Materials for Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S.; Pratt, L. M.; Li, J.; Wuagaman, M.; Khan, I. M.

    1996-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the research in smart structures and smart materials is the development of a new generation of products/devices which will perform better than products/devices built from passive materials. There are a few examples of multilayer polymer systems which function as smart structures, e.g. a synthetic muscle which is a multilayer assembly of a poly(ethylene) layer, a gold layer, and a poly(pyrrole) layer immersed in a liquid electrolyte. Oxidation and reductions of the active pyrrole layer causes the assembly to reversibly deflect and mimic biological muscles. The drawback of such a setup is slow response times and the use of a liquid electrolyte. We have developed multifunctional polymers which will eliminate the use of a liquid electrolyte, and also because the functionalities of the polymers are within a few hundred angstroms, an improved response time to changes in the external field should be possible. Such multifunctional polymers may be classified as the futuristic 'smart materials.' These materials are composed of a number of different functionalities which work in a synergistic fashion to function as a device. The device performs on the application of an external field and such multifunctional polymers may be scientifically labeled as 'field responsive polymers.' Our group has undertaken a systematic approach to develop functional and multifunctional polymers capable of functioning as field responsive polymers. Our approach utilizes multicomponent polymer systems (block copolymers and graft copolymers), the strategy involves the preparation of block or graft copolymers where the functionalities are limited to different phases in a microphase separated system. Depending on the weight (or volume) fractions of each of the components, different microstructures are possible. And, because of the intimate contact between the functional components, an increase in the synergism between the functionalities may be observed. In this presentation, three

  18. Nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross sections, and the nuclear interaction radius

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Ibrahim, Badawy

    2011-04-15

    We study the nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross sections for stable nuclei, in the energy region from 30A MeV to about 1A GeV, and find them to be in proportion to ({radical}({sigma}{sub pp}{sup tot}Z{sub 1}{sup 2/3}+{sigma}{sub pn}{sup tot}N{sub 1}{sup 2/3})+{radical}({sigma}{sub pp}{sup tot}Z{sub 2}{sup 2/3}+{sigma}{sub pn}{sup tot}N{sub 2}{sup 2/3})) {sup 2} in the mass range 8 to 100. Also, we find a parameter-free relation that enables us to predict a total reaction cross section for any nucleus-nucleus within 10% uncertainty at most, using the experimental value of the total reaction cross section of a given nucleus-nucleus. The power of the relation is demonstrated by several examples. The energy dependence of the nuclear interaction radius is deduced; it is found to be almost constant in the energy range from about 200A MeV to about 1A GeV; in this energy range and for nuclei with N=Z, R{sub I}(A)=(1.14{+-}0.02)A{sup 1/3} fm.

  19. The Neutrophil Nucleus and Its Role in Neutrophilic Function.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Leonardo Olivieri; Aquino, Elaine Nascimento; Neves, Anne Caroline Dias; Fontes, Wagner

    2015-09-01

    The cell nucleus plays a key role in differentiation processes in eukaryotic cells. It is not the nucleus in particular, but the organization of the genes and their remodeling that provides the data for the adjustments to be made according to the medium. The neutrophil nucleus has a different morphology. It is a multi-lobed nucleus where some researchers argue no longer function. However, studies indicate that it is very probable the occurrence of chromatin remodeling during activation steps. It may be that the human neutrophil nucleus also contributes to the mobility of neutrophils through thin tissue spaces. Questions like these will be discussed in this small review. The topics include morphology of human neutrophil nucleus, maturation process and modifications of the neutrophil nucleus, neutrophil activation and chromatin modifications, causes and consequences of multi-lobulated segmented morphology, and importance of the nucleus in the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).

  20. Multifunctional, stimuli-sensitive nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticulate pharmaceutical drug delivery systems (NDDSs) to enhance the in vivo effectiveness of drugs is now well established. The development of multifunctional and stimulus-sensitive NDDSs is an active area of current research. Such NDDSs can have long circulation times, target the site of the disease and enhance the intracellular delivery of a drug. This type of NDDS can also respond to local stimuli that are characteristic of the pathological site by, for example, releasing an entrapped drug or shedding a protective coating, thus facilitating the interaction between drug-loaded nanocarriers and target cells or tissues. In addition, imaging contrast moieties can be attached to these carriers to track their real-time biodistribution and accumulation in target cells or tissues. Here, I highlight recent developments with multifunctional and stimuli-sensitive NDDSs and their therapeutic potential for diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and infectious diseases. PMID:25287120