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Sample records for multisystemic therapy mst

  1. Transportability of Multisystemic Therapy to Community Settings: Can a Program Sustain Outcomes without MST Services Oversight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Boydston, Julianne M.; Holtzman, Rochelle J.; Roberts, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multisystemic therapy (MST) has been shown to be effective in treating delinquent behavior in youth. However, some community agencies with MST programs are unable to afford the ongoing costs of licensure and quality assurance oversight provided by MST services. Objective: The present study utilized retrospective archival analyses of…

  2. Blueprints in Sweden. Symptom load in Swedish adolescents in studies of Functional Family Therapy (FFT), Multisystemic Therapy (MST) and Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC).

    PubMed

    Gustle, Lars-Henry; Hansson, Kjell; Sundell, Knut; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Löfholm, Cecilia Andrée

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare symptom load in youth groups treated with three Swedish Blueprint programmes - Functional Family Therapy (FFT), Multisystemic Therapy (MST) and Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) - to see if symptom load matches the intensity of the treatment model as expected. These youth groups were also compared with in- and outpatients from child and adolescent psychiatry, and a normal comparison group. In addition, we compared the symptom load of their mothers. Symptom load was measured by the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) in the adolescents, and by the Symptom Checklist 90 in their mothers. The results showed that youth in the MST and MTFC studies had a higher symptom load than in the FFT study, and the same pattern of results was found in their mothers. It is concluded that there seems to be a reasonable correspondence between the offered resources and the symptom load among youth and parents; treatment methods with higher intensity have been offered to youth with higher symptom load. The correlation between internalized and externalized symptoms was high in all study groups. The MST and MTFC groups had an equally high total symptom load as the psychiatric inpatient sample.

  3. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Externalizing problems are multi-determined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who were at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research has established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. Further, research points to the importance of maintaining high treatment fidelity through systematic quality assurance procedures to replicate positive clinical outcomes. This paper presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as two adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  4. [Multisystemic therapy of adolescents with conduct disorders].

    PubMed

    de la Peña-Olvera, Francisco R

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the main features of conduct disorder (CD), as well as the principles for diagnosis and multisystemic treatment (MST). MST includes biological, psychological and social interventions, and considers the ecological environment of conduct manifestations. Some outcomes of MST delivery are discussed, along with its advantages and potential applications.

  5. Mediators of Change for Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Chapman, Jason E.; Borduin, Charles M.; Schewe, Paul A.; McCart, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The mediators of favorable multisystemic therapy (MST) outcomes achieved at 12 months postrecruitment were examined within the context of a randomized effectiveness trial with 127 juvenile sexual offenders and their caregivers. Outcome measures assessed youth delinquency, substance use, externalizing symptoms, and deviant sexual interest/risk…

  6. Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

  7. An Independent Effectiveness Trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Justice Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons-Mitchell, Jane; Bender, Monica B.; Kishna, Maureen A.; Mitchell, Clare C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of an evidence-based practice, multisystemic therapy (MST), conducted in a real-world mental health setting with juvenile justice involved youth and their families. Importantly, this is the first randomized clinical trial of MST with juvenile offenders in the United States conducted without direct oversight by…

  8. Multisystemic Therapy for Child Non-Externalizing Psychological and Health Problems: A Preliminary Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…

  9. Heterogeneity in Response during Multisystemic Therapy: Exploring Subgroups and Predictors.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Esther C A; Deković, Maja; Asscher, Jessica J; Manders, Willeke A

    2016-12-29

    Multiple studies have shown that Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is, at group level, an effective treatment for adolescents showing serious externalizing problem behavior. The current study expands previous research on MST by, first, examining whether subgroups of participants who respond differently to treatment could be identified. Second, we investigated if the different trajectories of change during MST could be predicted by individual (hostile attributions) and contextual (parental sense of parenting competence and deviant and prosocial peer involvement) pre-treatment factors. Participants were 147 adolescents (mean age = 15.91 years, 104 (71%) boys) and their parents who received MST. Pre-treatment assessment of the predictors and 5 monthly assessments of externalizing behavior during treatment took place using both adolescent and parents' self-reports. Six distinct subgroups, showing different trajectories of change in externalizing problem behavior during MST, were identified. Two of the 6 trajectories of change showed a poor treatment response, as one class did not change in externalizing problem behavior and the other class even increased. The remaining 4 trajectories displayed a positive effect of MST, by showing a decrease in externalizing behavior. Most of these trajectories could be predicted by parental sense of parenting competence. Additionally, lower involvement with prosocial peers was a predictor of the group that appeared to be resistant to MST. Adolescents do respond differently to MST, which indicates the importance of personalizing treatment. Protective factors, such as parental sense of parenting competence and prosocial peers, seem to require additional attention in the first phase of MST.

  10. Multisystemic Therapy(®) : Clinical Overview, Outcomes, and Implementation Research.

    PubMed

    Henggeler, Scott W; Schaeffer, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is an evidence-based treatment originally developed for youth with serious antisocial behavior who are at high risk for out-of-home placement and their families; and subsequently adapted to address other challenging clinical problems experience by youths and their families. The social-ecological theoretical framework of MST is presented as well as its home-based model of treatment delivery, defining clinical intervention strategies, and ongoing quality assurance/quality improvement system. With more than 100 peer-reviewed outcome and implementation journal articles published as of January 2016, the majority by independent investigators, MST is one of the most extensively evaluated family based treatments. Outcome research has yielded almost uniformly favorable results for youths and families, and implementation research has demonstrated the importance of treatment and program fidelity in achieving such outcomes.

  11. Melding Infant Mental Health and Multisystemic Therapy Approaches to Community-Based Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Jay C.; Carubia, Beau A.; Murgolo, Marisa A.; Carter, Debbie R.; Frankel, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    A recent partnership between the Irving Harris Program in Child Development and Infant Mental Health and the Community Based Psychiatry Program at University of Colorado Hospital joined two different approaches to child mental health treatment: infant mental health and multisystemic therapy (MST). This article illustrates the compatibility of…

  12. Within-Intervention Change: Mediators of Intervention Effects during Multisystemic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekovic, Maja; Asscher, Jessica J.; Manders, Willeke A.; Prins, Pier J. M.; van der Laan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that improvements in parental sense of competence during multisystemic therapy (MST) lead to positive changes in parenting, which in turn lead to a decrease of adolescent externalizing problems. Mediational models were tested separately for 3 dimensions of parenting (positive discipline, inept…

  13. Effects of Multisystemic Therapy through Midlife: A 21.9-Year Follow-Up to a Randomized Clinical Trial with Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Aaron M.; Borduin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although current evidence suggests that the positive effects of multisystemic therapy (MST) on serious crime reach as far as young adulthood, the longer term impact of MST on criminal and noncriminal outcomes in midlife has not been evaluated. In the present study, the authors examined a broad range of criminal and civil court outcomes…

  14. Multisystemic Therapy for Adolescents with Poorly Controlled Type I Diabetes: Stability of Treatment Effects in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Deborah A.; Templin, Thomas; Naar-King, Sylvie; Frey, Maureen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Podolski, Cheryl-Lynn; Cakan, Nedim

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to determine whether multisystemic therapy (MST), an intensive, home-based psychotherapy, improved regimen adherence, metabolic control, and rates of hospitalization for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among adolescents with chronically poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes 6 months after the completion of…

  15. Multisystemic Therapy Improves the Patient-Provider Relationship in Families of Adolescents with Poorly Controlled Insulin Dependent Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carcone, April Idalski; Ellis, Deborah A.; Chen, Xinguang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Moltz, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an intensive, home and community-based family treatment, significantly improved patient-provider relationships in families where youth had chronic poor glycemic control. Methods One hundred forty-six adolescents with type 1 or 2 diabetes in chronic poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to MST or a telephone support condition. Caregiver perceptions of their relationship with the diabetes multidisciplinary medical team were assessed at baseline and treatment termination with the Measure of Process of Care-20. Results At treatment termination, MST families reported significant improvement on the Coordinated and Comprehensive Care scale and marginally significant improvement on the Respectful and Supportive Care scale. Improvements on the Enabling and Partnership and Providing Specific Information scales were not significant. Conclusions Results suggest MST improves the ability of the families and the diabetes treatment providers to work together. PMID:25940767

  16. Predicting Early Positive Change in Multisystemic Therapy with Youth Exhibiting Antisocial Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n=185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the CBCL Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquency Scale. Overall, families showed significant positive changes by 6-12 weeks into treatment; these early changes were maintained into mid-treatment 6-12 weeks later. Families who exhibited clinically significant gains early in treatment were more likely to terminate treatment successfully compared to those who did not show these gains. Low youth internalizing behaviors and absence of youth drug use predicted early positive changes in MST. High levels of parental monitoring and low levels of affiliation with deviant peers (mechanisms known to be associated with MST success) were also associated with early positive change. PMID:24866967

  17. Multisystemic therapy for child non-externalizing psychological and health problems: a preliminary review.

    PubMed

    Pane, Heather T; White, Rachel S; Nadorff, Michael R; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A

    2013-03-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors, specifically difficulties related to child maltreatment, serious psychiatric illness [Serious psychiatric illness was defined throughout the current review paper as the "presence of symptoms of suicidal ideation, homicidal ideation, psychosis, or threat of harm to self or others due to mental illness severe enough to warrant psychiatric hospitalization based on the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Level of care placement criteria for psychiatric illness. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC, 1996) level of care placement criteria for psychiatric illness" (Henggeler et al. in J Am Acad Child Psy 38:1331-1345, p. 1332, 1999b). Additionally, youth with "serious emotional disturbance (SED)" defined as internalizing and/or externalizing problems severe enough to qualify for mental health services in public school who were "currently in or at imminent risk of a costly out-of-home placement" (Rowland et al. in J Emot Behav Disord 13:13-23, pp. 13-14, 2005) were also included in the serious psychiatric illness category.], and health problems (i.e., obesity and treatment adherence for diabetes). PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases; Clinicaltrials.gov; DARE; Web of Knowledge; and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched; and MST developers were queried to ensure identification of all relevant articles. Of 242 studies identified, 18 met inclusion criteria for review. These were combined in a narrative synthesis and critiqued in the context of review questions. Study quality ratings were all above mean scores reported in prior reviews. Mixed support was

  18. Placement and Delinquency Outcomes Among System-Involved Youth Referred to Multisystemic Therapy: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Sarah; Steeger, Christine M; Caron, Colleen; Lasher, Leanne; Connell, Christian M

    2017-03-17

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) was developed to help youth with serious social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Research on the efficacy and effectiveness of MST has shown positive outcomes in different domains of development and functioning among various populations of youth. Nonetheless, even with a large body of literature investigating the treatment effects of MST, few studies have focused on the effectiveness of MST through large-scale dissemination efforts. Utilizing a large sample of youth involved in a statewide dissemination of MST (n = 740; 43% females; 14% Black; 29% Hispanic; 49% White; Mage = 14.9 years), propensity score matching was employed to account for baseline differences between the treatment (n = 577) and comparison (n = 163) groups. Treatment effects were examined based on three outcomes: out-of-home placement, adjudication, and placement in a juvenile training school over a 6-year period. Significant group differences remained after adjusting for baseline differences, with youth who received MST experiencing better outcomes in offending rates than youth who did not have an opportunity to complete MST due to non-clinical or administrative reasons. Survival analyses revealed rates of all three outcomes were approximately 40% lower among the treatment group. Overall, this study adds to the body of literature supporting the long-term effectiveness of MST in reducing offending among high-risk youth. The findings underscore the potential benefits of taking evidence-based programs such as MST to scale to improve the well-being and functioning of high-risk youth. However, strategies to effectively deliver the program in mental health service settings, and to address the specific needs of high-risk youth are necessary.

  19. Multisystemic Therapy for Juvenile Sexual Offenders: 1-Year Results from a Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    PubMed Central

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Borduin, Charles M.; Schewe, Paul A.; McCart, Michael R.; Chapman, Jason E.; Saldana, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the serious and costly problems presented by juvenile sexual offenders, rigorous tests of promising interventions have rarely been conducted. This study presents a community-based effectiveness trial comparing multisystemic therapy (MST) adapted for juvenile sexual offenders with services that are typical of those provided to juvenile sexual offenders in the U.S. Youth were randomized to MST (n = 67) or treatment as usual for juvenile sexual offenders (TAU-JSO; n = 60). Outcomes through 12 months post recruitment were assessed for problem sexual behavior, delinquency, substance use, mental health functioning, and out-of-home placements. Relative to youth who received TAU-JSO, youth in the MST condition evidenced significant reductions in sexual behavior problems, delinquency, substance use, externalizing symptoms, and out-of-home placements. The findings suggest that family- and community-based interventions, especially those with an established evidence-base in treating adolescent antisocial behavior, hold considerable promise in meeting the clinical needs of juvenile sexual offenders. PMID:19203163

  20. Predictors of Therapist Adherence and Emotional Bond in Multisystemic Therapy: Testing Ethnicity as a Moderator

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Brock, Rebecca L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interaction between problem severity and race\\ethnicity as a predictor of therapist adherence and family-therapist emotional bond. Data for this study came from a longitudinal evaluation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) provided by licensed MST provider organizations in community settings. Outcome variables included mid-treatment levels of caregiver report of therapist adherence, changes in caregiver report of therapist adherence over the course of treatment, and overall levels of caregiver-therapist and youth-therapist emotional bond. Hypothesized predictors included race\\ethnicity and levels of poly-substance use, externalizing behavior, and youth self-report of delinquency early in treatment as well as pre-treatment number of arrests. Participants were 185 adolescents (M age = 15.35, SD = 1.29) and their caregivers. Of the participating youth, 48 % self-identified as Caucasian, 20 % as African-American, 28 % as Hispanic\\Latino, and 4 % as “other.” Two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that for Caucasian youth, lower rates of self-reported delinquency were associated with greater increases in caregiver report of therapist adherence over the course of MST. For His-panic\\Latino caregivers, higher externalizing behavior and poly-substance use were associated with reports of lower therapist adherence at mid-treatment and poorer overall levels of emotional bonding with therapists. In contrast, for African-American participants, higher levels of youth externalizing behavior and poly-substance use were associated with higher overall levels of caregiver and youth report of emotional bonding with therapists, respectively. Results provide evidence that race\\ethnicity interacts with problem severity in predicting therapist adherence and family-therapist emotional bond within real-world practice settings and suggest possible therapeutic process differences across race. PMID:26045651

  1. Multisystemic Therapy Compared to Telephone Support for Youth with Poorly Controlled Diabetes: Findings From A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Deborah A.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Chen, Xinguang; Moltz, Kathleen; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Idalski-Carcone, April

    2012-01-01

    Background Few interventions have effectively improved health outcomes among youth with diabetes in chronic poor metabolic control. Purpose To determine whether Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an intensive, home-based, tailored family treatment, was superior to weekly telephone support for improving regimen adherence and metabolic control among adolescents with chronic poor metabolic control. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 146 adolescents with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Data were collected at baseline, seven months (treatment termination) and twelve months (six month follow-up). Results Adolescents receiving MST had significantly improved metabolic control at seven (1.01% decrease) and twelve months (0.74% decrease) compared to adolescents in telephone support. Parents of adolescents receiving MST reported significant improvements in adolescent adherence. However, adolescent-reported adherence was unchanged. Conclusions MST improved health outcomes among adolescents with chronic poor metabolic control when compared to telephone support. Home-based approaches may provide a viable means to improve access to behavioral interventions for such youth. PMID:22644587

  2. Toward Evidence-Based Transport of Evidence-Based Treatments: MST as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the journey toward evidence-based transport and implementation in usual care settings of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for youth with drug abuse and behavioral problems (Henggeler, Schoenwald, Borduin, Rowland, & Cunningham, 1998). Research and experience informing the design of the MST transport strategy, progress in…

  3. Changes in Maternal Depression Are Associated with MST Outcomes for Adolescents with Co-Occurring Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimbos, Teresa; Granic, Isabela

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of Multisystemic therapy (MST) in treating adolescent aggression has been established, however, not all youth and their families benefit from MST. One reason for this treatment variability could be the failure to distinguish between different aggressive subtypes with different risk factors, developmental prognoses and treatment needs.…

  4. Ethnic Similarity, Therapist Adherence, and Long-Term Multisystemic Therapy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Jason E.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated relations among ethnic similarity in caregiver-therapist pairs of youth participating in Multisystemic Therapy, therapist adherence, and youth long-term behavioral and criminal outcomes. Participants were 1,979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across provider organizations in 45 sites. Relations were…

  5. A review of "music and movement" therapies for children with autism: embodied interventions for multisystem development.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sudha M; Bhat, Anjana N

    2013-01-01

    The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Musical training impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, and motor development in children with ASDs and other developmental disorders as well as typically developing children. In this review, we will highlight the multisystem impairments of ASDs, explain why music and movement therapies are a powerful clinical tool, as well as describe mechanisms and offer evidence in support of music therapies for children with ASDs. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies reporting on music therapy effects in children with autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research.

  6. Common and Specific Factors Approaches to Home-Based Treatment: I-FAST and MST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mo Yee; Greene, Gilbert J.; Fraser, J. Scott; Edwards, Shivani G.; Grove, David; Solovey, Andrew D.; Scott, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the treatment outcomes of integrated families and systems treatment (I-FAST), a moderated common factors approach, in reference to multisystemic therapy (MST), an established specific factor approach, for treating at risk children and adolescents and their families in an intensive community-based setting. Method:…

  7. Bridging the Gap between Science and Practice: The Effective Nationwide Transport of MST Programs in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Terje; Christensen, Bernadette; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Holth, Per

    2008-01-01

    The successful nationwide transport and evaluation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) programs in Norway is described. This description is provided within the context of the nation's movement towards the adoption of evidence-based practices (EBPs) during the past decade, the conduct of a multisite randomized clinical trial to examine the effectiveness…

  8. Taking Effective Treatments to Scale: Organizational Effects on Outcomes of Multisystemic Therapy for Youths with Co-Occurring Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Chapman, Jason E.; Henry, David B.; Sheidow, Ashli J.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective multisite study examined organizational climate and structure effects on the behavior and functioning of delinquent youths with and without co-occurring substance use treated with an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy). Participants were 1,979 youths treated by 429 therapists…

  9. A review of “music and movement” therapies for children with autism: embodied interventions for multisystem development

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Bhat, Anjana N.

    2013-01-01

    The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Musical training impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, and motor development in children with ASDs and other developmental disorders as well as typically developing children. In this review, we will highlight the multisystem impairments of ASDs, explain why music and movement therapies are a powerful clinical tool, as well as describe mechanisms and offer evidence in support of music therapies for children with ASDs. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies reporting on music therapy effects in children with autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research. PMID:23576962

  10. Evaluation of multisystemic therapy pilot services in the Systemic Therapy for At Risk Teens (START) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for clinically effective and cost-effective methods to manage antisocial and criminal behaviour in adolescents. Youth conduct disorder is increasingly prevalent in the UK and is associated with a range of negative outcomes. Quantitative systematic reviews carried out for the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have identified multisystemic therapy, an intensive, multimodal, home-based, family intervention for youth with serious antisocial behaviour, as one of the most promising interventions for reducing antisocial or offending behaviour and improving individual and family functioning. Previous international trials of multisystemic therapy have yielded mixed outcomes, and it is questionable to what extent positive US findings can be generalised to a wider UK mental health and juvenile justice context. This paper describes the protocol for the Systemic Therapy for At Risk Teens (START) trial, a multicentre UK-wide randomised controlled trial of multisystemic therapy in antisocial adolescents at high risk of out-of-home placement. Methods/Design The trial is being conducted at 10 sites across the UK. Seven hundred participants and their families will be recruited and randomised on a 1:1 basis to multisystemic therapy or management as usual. Treatments are offered over a period of 3 to 5 months, with follow-up to 18 months post-randomisation. The primary outcome is out-of-home placement at 18 months. Secondary outcomes include offending rates, total service and criminal justice sector costs, and participant well-being and educational outcomes. Data will be gathered from police computer records, the National Pupil Database, and interview and self-report measures administered to adolescents, parents and teachers. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis, using a logistic regression with random effects for the primary outcome and Cox regressions and linear mixed-effects models for secondary outcomes

  11. Outcomes from Wraparound and Multisystemic Therapy in a Center for Mental Health Services System-of-Care Demonstration Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Mustillo, Sarah A.; Burns, Barbara J.; Stephens, Robert L.; Baxter, Beth; Edwards, Dan; DeKraai, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This study examined outcomes for 320 youth in a Center for Mental Health Services system-of-care demonstration site. Youth received wraparound-only (n = 213), MST-only (n = 54), or wraparound + MST (n = 53). Participants were 12 years old on average and mostly White (90%), and 75% were Medicaid-eligible. Service use and functional and clinical…

  12. Comprehensive treatment for co-occurring child maltreatment and parental substance abuse: outcomes from a 24-month pilot study of the MST-Building Stronger Families program.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Cindy M; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit; Tuerk, Elena Hontoria; Henggeler, Scott W

    2013-08-01

    This manuscript presents outcomes from a pilot study of Multisystemic Therapy-Building Stronger Families (MST-BSF), an integrated treatment model for the co-occurring problem of parental substance abuse and child maltreatment among families involved in the child welfare system. Participants were 25 mother-youth dyads who participated in MST-BSF and an additional 18 families with similar demographic and case characteristics who received Comprehensive Community Treatment (CCT). At post-treatment, mothers who received MST-BSF showed significant reductions in alcohol use, drug use, and depressive symptoms; they also significantly reduced their use of psychological aggression with the youth. Youth reported significantly fewer anxiety symptoms following MST-BSF treatment. Relative to families who received CCT, mothers who received MST-BSF were three times less likely to have another substantiated incident of maltreatment over a follow-up period of 24 months post-referral. The overall number of substantiated reabuse incidents in this time frame also was significantly lower among MST-BSF families, and youth who received MST-BSF spent significantly fewer days in out-of-home placements than did their CCT counterparts. These promising preliminary outcomes support the viability of a more rigorous (i.e., randomized) evaluation of the MST-BSF model.

  13. Bravemind: Advancing the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan PTSD Exposure Therapy for MST

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    The four original (a) ( b ) (c) (d) (e) ( f ) Figure 1. Images from 4 of the 14 scenario settings available in Bravemind, a virtual reality system for...reality exposure therapy: Posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraq combat Veterans. Atlanta: Virtually Better Inc. Rothbaum, B . O., & Hodges, L. F . (1999...The use of virtual reality exposure in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Behavior Modification, 23, 507–525. Rothbaum, B . O., Hodges, L. F

  14. Genetic characterization drives personalized therapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and survivors with metachronous second primary tumor (MST)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xingchen; Wang, Linlin; Liu, Xijun; Sun, Xindong; Yu, Jinming; Meng, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: The pathogenesis and progression of lung cancer is a complicated process in which many genes take part. But molecular gene testing is typically only performed in advanced-stage non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The value of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) administration is not widely recognized with respect to early-stage NSCLC. Patient concerns: Here, we present a case of a man, heavy smoker who initially presented with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Three years after a lung lobectomy, he was diagnosed with advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), according to laboratory, imaging, and pathological examinations. Diagnoses The case initially had an early-stage LADC with an L858R epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. A subsequent advanced SCC bearing EGFR L858R/T790M mutations occurred 3 years after surgery. Interventions: The comprehensive therapy we utilized, including surgical resection for the early-stage lesion and GP chemotherapy and local radiotherapy as the first line therapy along with gefitinib maintenance treatment for the advanced metachronous second primary tumors (MST). Outcomes: The synthetical therapy, have resulted in our patient with remaining alive and progression free for 4.5 years. Lessons: This case suggests that changes in molecular pathology should be monitored closely throughout cancer progression to guide personalized therapy and improve prognosis. We further review administration of TKI to early-stage NSCLC and to the metachronous second primary tumors (MST) in survivors. PMID:28272214

  15. Increased endogenous H2S generation by CBS, CSE, and 3MST gene therapy improves ex vivo renovascular relaxation in hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Sen, Utpal; Sathnur, Pushpakumar B; Kundu, Sourav; Givvimani, Srikanth; Coley, Denise M; Mishra, Paras K; Qipshidze, Natia; Tyagi, Neetu; Metreveli, Naira; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2012-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has recently been identified as a regulator of various physiological events, including vasodilation, angiogenesis, antiapoptotic, and cellular signaling. Endogenously, H(2)S is produced as a metabolite of homocysteine (Hcy) by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). Although Hcy is recognized as vascular risk factor at an elevated level [hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)] and contributes to vascular injury leading to renovascular dysfunction, the exact mechanism is unclear. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether conversion of Hcy to H(2)S improves renovascular function. Ex vivo renal artery culture with CBS, CSE, and 3MST triple gene therapy generated more H(2)S in the presence of Hcy, and these arteries were more responsive to endothelial-dependent vasodilation compared with nontransfected arteries treated with high Hcy. Cross section of triple gene-delivered renal arteries immunostaining suggested increased expression of CD31 and VEGF and diminished expression of the antiangiogenic factor endostatin. In vitro endothelial cell culture demonstrated increased mitophagy during high levels of Hcy and was mitigated by triple gene delivery. Also, dephosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated FoxO3 in HHcy were reversed by H(2)S or triple gene delivery. Upregulated matrix metalloproteinases-13 and downregulated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in HHcy were normalized by overexpression of triple genes. Together, these results suggest that H(2)S plays a key role in renovasculopathy during HHcy and is mediated through Akt/FoxO3 pathways. We conclude that conversion of Hcy to H(2)S by CBS, CSE, or 3MST triple gene therapy improves renovascular function in HHcy.

  16. Intensified and prolonged therapy comprising cytarabine, vincristine and prednisolone improves outcome in patients with multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis: results of the Japan Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Study Group-02 Protocol Study.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Akira; Shioda, Yoko; Imamura, Toshihiko; Kudo, Kazuko; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Kazuo; Yasui, Masahiro; Koga, Yuhki; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ishii, Eiichi; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Horibe, Keizo; Bessho, Fumio; Tsunematsu, Yukiko; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2016-07-01

    The JLSG-96 study reported very low mortality rates for children newly diagnosed with multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). The JLSG-02 study was performed to further improve the prognosis from 2002 to 2009. The present study compared the therapeutic results of these two studies in terms of multisystem disease. All patients were treated with 6 weeks of the Induction A regimen, comprising cytarabine, vincristine and prednisolone, followed by maintenance therapy. Poor responders to Induction A were switched to Induction B. JLSG-02 has been revised from JLSG-96 in the following respects: prednisolone dosage during Induction A increased; duration of maintenance therapy extended from 24 to 48 weeks; cyclosporine introduced to Induction B for progressive disease. One hundred forty-seven children with multisystem LCH were evaluated. Of these, 84 were positive for risk of organ involvement (RO) and 63 were RO-negative. At the 6-week point, 76.2 % of RO+ and 93.7 % of RO- patients responded to Induction A. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) was 46.2 % [95 % confidence (CI), 35.5-56.9] for RO+ and 69.7 % (58.4-81.1) for RO-, which was significantly superior to that in JLSG-96 [26.8 % (13.3-40.4) and 38.9 % (16.4-61.4), respectively]. The intensified induction and prolonged maintenance regimens in JLSG-02 improved EFS in patients with multisystem LCH.

  17. Differentiating skin-limited and multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Simko, Stephen J.; Garmezy, Benjamin; Abhyankar, Harshal; Lupo, Philip J.; Chakraborty, Rikhia; Lim, Karen Phaik Har; Shih, Albert; Hicks, M. John; Wright, Teresa S.; Levy, Moise L.; McClain, Kenneth L.; Allen, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify features associated with multisystem involvement and therapeutic failure in patients with skin Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Study design We reviewed medical records of 71 consecutive LCH patients with skin involvement evaluated at Texas Children’s Hospital and analyzed clinical features, laboratory results, and presence of circulating cells with the BRAF-V600E mutation, with respect to initial staging and clinical outcomes. Results Skin disease in patients older than 18 months at diagnosis was associated with presence of multisystem disease (OR 9.65, 95% CI 1.17–79.4). Forty percent of patients referred for presumed skin-limited LCH had underlying multisystem involvement, half of these with risk-organ involvement. Patients with skin-limited LCH had 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 89% after initial therapy, and none developed multisystem disease. Patients with skin/multisystem involvement had 3 year PFS of 44% with vinblastine/prednisone therapy, and risk-organ involvement did not correlate with failure to achieve non-active disease. Circulating cells with BRAF-V600E were detected at higher frequency in multisystem patients (8/11 skin/multisystem, 1/13 skin-limited, P=0.002). Conclusions Skin-limited LCH requires infrequent therapeutic intervention and has lower risk of progression relative to skin plus multisystem LCH. The less aggressive clinical course and lack of circulating cells with BRAF-V600E mutation in skin-limited LCH suggest a different mechanism of disease origin compared with multisystem or risk-organ disease. PMID:25441388

  18. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  19. MST Filterability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Burket, P. R.; Duignan, M. R.

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  20. Overview of MST Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.

    2016-10-01

    MST progress in advancing the RFP for (1) fusion plasma confinement with ohmic heating and minimal external magnetization, (2) predictive capability in toroidal confinement physics, and (3) basic plasma physics is summarized. Validation of key plasma models is a program priority. Programmable power supplies (PPS) are being developed to maximize inductive capability. Well-controlled flattops with current as low as 0.02 MA are produced with an existing PPS, and Ip <= 0.8 MA is anticipated with a second PPS under construction. The Lundquist number spans S =10(4 - 9) for 0.02-0.8 MA, allowing nonlinear MHD validation using NIMROD and DEBS at low S to be connected to highest S experiments. The PPS also enables MST tokamak operation for studying transients and runaway electron suppression with RMPs. Gyrokinetic modeling with GENE predicts unstable TEM in improved-confinement plasmas. Fluctuations are measured with TEM properties including a density-gradient threshold larger than for tokamak plasmas. Probe measurements hint that drift waves are also excited via the turbulent cascade in standard RFP plasmas. Turbulent energization of an electron tail occurs during sawtooth reconnection. New diagnostics are being developed to measure the energetic ion profile and transport from EP instabilities with NBI. Supported by US DoE and NSF.

  1. MST kinases in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian MST kinase family, which is related to the Hippo kinase in Drosophila melanogaster, includes five related proteins: MST1 (also called STK4), MST2 (also called STK3), MST3 (also called STK24), MST4, and YSK1 (also called STK25 or SOK1). MST kinases are emerging as key signaling molecules that influence cell proliferation, organ size, cell migration, and cell polarity. Here we review the regulation and function of these kinases in normal physiology and pathologies, including cancer, endothelial malformations, and autoimmune disease. PMID:26370497

  2. RADIUM AND THORIUM SORPTION BY MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST) AND MODIFIED MST (mMST)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-15

    A series of tests were planned to examine the removal of Ra and Th by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST). Simulated waste solutions were prepared containing Ra and Th, along with Sr, Np, Pu, and U. Following simulant preparation the simulants were filtered through 0.45-m filters. Analysis of the simulants indicated no Th in the filtered solution. This is due to the very low solubility of Th in alkaline solutions. Based on the reported detection limits for {sup 228}Th by gamma analyses, the solubility of Th in the simulant solutions is < 3.0E-10 g/L or < 1.3E-12 M. Therefore, data could not be obtained regarding the removal of Th by MST and mMST; however, testing proceeded to examine the removal of Ra. Sorption testing indicated that Ra, like Sr, is very rapidly removed from solution by both MST and mMST. The Ra concentration in solution fell below the method detection limit (MDL) within 30 minutes of contact with MST, and within 2 hours of contact with mMST, when tested at 25 C using a 5.6 M Na simulant. Additional testing examined the effects of ionic strength and temperature on the MST and mMST performance. Results from these tests showed that the majority of samples still reached a Ra concentration below the MDL, indicating excellent removal. For the highest ionic strength solution (6.6 M Na), there did appear to be a slight decrease in the Ra removal by mMST, as indicated by a larger number of samples just above the MDL. The effect of temperature on {sup 226}Ra removal is indeterminate for either MST or mMST in the temperature range (25-60 C) and concentrations studied since the final soluble concentration of Ra remained at or below the detection limits for all tests. Desorption testing was also performed using decontaminated salt solution (DSS) diluted to sodium concentrations of 2 M and 0.5 M, to represent the intermediate and final stages of washing. Results from these tests indicated no desorption of any sorbents, with the

  3. How to investigate multisystem disease.

    PubMed

    Watts, Richard A

    2014-12-01

    The investigation of the patient with possible systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease is potentially one of the most challenging areas of rheumatology as the differential diagnosis is potentially very broad. The investigative approach should not only be directed at confirming the diagnosis of an autoimmune rheumatic disease but also at excluding as best as possible the major alternative diagnoses of malignancy and infection. A systematic approach should yield a positive diagnosis in the majority of cases based on excluding infection by appropriate cultures and serology, malignancy using imaging including 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (FDG PET/CT). The most important part of the assessment is the history, in particular covering systems that may not previously been assessed such as ears, nose, throat or eyes. The clue to the diagnosis of an autoimmune rheumatic disease often lies in detecting the multisystem nature of the condition and the cumulative effects of multiorgan involvement. Investigation may therefore need to cover different systems. Although stratified approaches have been described, they have not been subjected to a detailed investigation as to their effectiveness.

  4. MST-80B microcomputer trainer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.D.; Fisher, E.R.; Spann, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    The microcomputer revolution in electronics is spreading so rapidly that it is difficult to educate enough people quickly and thoroughly in the new technology. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's MST-80B was developed as a way to speed learning in in-house training courses, and it is now being widely used outside LLL. The MST-80B trainer is a complete, self-contained, microcomputer system housed in a briefcase. The trainer uses the Intel 8080A 8-Bit Microprocessor (CPU), and it has its own solid-state memory, a built-in keyboard, input and output ports, and a display for visual output. The trainer is furnished with a permanent Monitor Program (in Read-Only Memory) that allows users to enter, debug, modify, and run programs of their own easily. 8 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Budd-Chiari Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation of Multisystemic Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Bacha, Dhouha; Romdhane, Hayfa; Cheikh, Myriam; Nejma, Houda Ben; BelHadj, Najet

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown origin. All organs may be affected. Liver involvement is common but it is rarely symptomatic. Only a few cases of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) secondary to a hepatic sarcoidosis have been described so far. We describe a case of multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with BCS. A 42-year old female was referred to our department for chronic and anicteric cholestasis. Laboratory and imaging investigations disclosed features of chronic BCS associated with multisystemic sarcoidosis. The positive diagnosis was based on microscopic features, which showed hepatic, gastric and cutaneous non-caseating granulomas. Screening for an underlying thrombophilic disorder was negative. The diagnosis of BCS complicating hepatic sarcoidosis was the most likely. She was put on corticosteroids and anticoagulation therapy. To our knowledge, few cases of sarcoidosis-related BCS have been reported in the literature. In addition to being an uncommon presentation of sarcoidosis, this case illustrates the importance of recognizing an unusual cause of BCS and its therapeutic difficulties. PMID:26900444

  6. MST radar detection of middle atmosphere tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Meteorological and dynamical requirements pertaining to the specification of middle atmosphere tides by the MST radar technique are outlined. Major issues addressed include: (1) the extraction of tidal information from measurements covering a fraction of a day; (2) the ramifications of transient effects (tidal variability) on the determination and interpretation of tides; (3) required temporal and spatial resolutions and; (4) global distributions of MST radars, so as to complement existing MST, meteor wind, and partial reflection drift radar locations.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST) PURCHASE SPECIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D

    2006-04-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the previous monosodium titanate (MST) purchase specifications for particle size and strontium decontamination factor. Based on the measured particle size and filtration performance characteristics of several MST samples with simulated waste solutions and various filter membranes we recommend changing the particle size specification as follows. The recommended specification varies with the size and manufacturer of the filter membrane as shown below. We recommend that future batches of MST received at SRS be tested for particle size and filtration performance. This will increase the available database and provide increased confidence that particle size parameters are an accurate prediction of filtration performance. Testing demonstrated the feasibility of a non-radiochemical method for evaluating strontium removal performance of MST samples. Using this analytical methodology we recommend that the purchase specification include the requirement that the MST exhibits a strontium DF factor of >1.79 upon contact with a simulated waste solution with composition as reported for simulated waste solution SWS-7-2005-1 in Table 1 and containing 5.2 to 5.7 mg L{sup -1} strontium with 0.1 g L{sup -1} of the MST. We also recommend performing additional tests with these simulants and MST samples and, if available, new MST samples, to determine the reproducibility and increase the available database for the measurements by the ICP-ES instrument. These measurements will provide increased confidence that the non-radiological method provides a reliable method for evaluating the strontium and actinide removal performance for MST samples.

  8. MST1 is a novel regulator of apoptosis in pancreatic beta-cells

    PubMed Central

    Ardestani, Amin; Khobragade, Vrushali; Yuan, Ting; Frogne, Thomas; Tao, Wufan; Oberholzer, Jose; Pattou, Francois; Conte, Julie Kerr; Maedler, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is a hallmark of the loss of insulin producing beta-cells in all forms of diabetes mellitus. Current treatment fails to halt the decline in functional beta-cell mass. Strategies to prevent beta-cell apoptosis and dysfunction are urgently needed. Here, we identified Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) as a critical regulator of apoptotic beta-cell death and function. MST1 was strongly activated in beta-cells under diabetogenic conditions and correlated with beta-cell apoptosis. MST1 specifically induced the mitochondrial-dependent pathway of apoptosis in beta-cells through up-regulation of the BH3-only protein Bim. MST1 directly phosphorylated PDX1 at Thr11, resulting in its ubiquitination, degradation and impaired insulin secretion. Mst1 deficiency completely restored normoglycemia, beta-cell function and survival in vitro and in vivo. We show MST1 as novel pro-apoptotic kinase and key mediator of apoptotic signaling and beta-cell dysfunction, which may serve as target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. PMID:24633305

  9. Multisystem Dysregulation in Painful Temporomandibular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Nackley, Andrea; Miller, Vanessa; Diatchenko, Luda; Maixner, William

    2013-01-01

    Multiple physiological and psychological regulatory domains may contribute to the pathophysiology of pain in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and other bodily pain conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between multisystem dysregulation and the presence of TMD pain, as well as the presence of different numbers of comorbid pain conditions in TMD. Secondary data analysis was conducted in 131 non-TMD (without comorbid pain) controls, 14 TMD subjects without comorbid pain, 78 TMD subjects with 1 comorbid pain, and 67 TMD subjects with multiple comorbid pain conditions who participated in a TMD genetic study. Twenty markers from sensory, autonomic, inflammatory, and psychological domains were evaluated. The results revealed that 1) overall dysregulation in multiple system domains (OR [odds ratio] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–1.8), particularly in the sensory (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3–2.9) and the psychological (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 2.1–2.7) domains, were associated with increased likelihood of being a painful TMD case; and 2) dysregulations in individual system domains were selectively associated with the increased odds of being a TMD case with different levels of comorbid persistent pain conditions. These outcomes indicate that heterogeneous multisystem dysregulations may exist in painful TMD subgroups, and multidimensional physiological and psychological assessments can provide important information regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of pain in TMD patients. Perspective The concurrent assessment of multiple physiological and psychological systems is critical to our understanding of the pathophysiological processes that contribute to painful TMD and associated comorbid conditions, which will ultimately guide and inform appropriate treatment strategies that address the multisystem dysregulation associated with complex and common persistent pain conditions. PMID:23721875

  10. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  11. 21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. MST e-News June 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth

    2016-06-17

    This is Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) June 2016 newsletter of the Materials Science and Technology Division. The following are major topics in this newsletter: MST-8 scientists guide national efforts to overcome nuclear energy technical challenges, first-ever scanning probe microscopy capabilities for plutonium, laboratory metallurgists make thorium targets for production of cancer-fighting isotopes, and a spotlight on Veronica Livescu.

  13. Pharmacological targeting of kinases MST1 and MST2 augments tissue repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fuqin; He, Zhixiang; Kong, Lu-Lu; Chen, Qinghua; Yuan, Quan; Zhang, Shihao; Ye, Jinjin; Liu, Hao; Sun, Xiufeng; Geng, Jing; Yuan, Lunzhi; Hong, Lixin; Xiao, Chen; Zhang, Weiji; Sun, Xihuan; Li, Yunzhan; Wang, Ping; Huang, Lihong; Wu, Xinrui; Ji, Zhiliang; Wu, Qiao; Xia, Ning-Shao; Gray, Nathanael S; Chen, Lanfen; Yun, Cai-Hong; Deng, Xianming; Zhou, Dawang

    2016-08-17

    Tissue repair and regenerative medicine address the important medical needs to replace damaged tissue with functional tissue. Most regenerative medicine strategies have focused on delivering biomaterials and cells, yet there is the untapped potential for drug-induced regeneration with good specificity and safety profiles. The Hippo pathway is a key regulator of organ size and regeneration by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Kinases MST1 and MST2 (MST1/2), the mammalian Hippo orthologs, are central components of this pathway and are, therefore, strong target candidates for pharmacologically induced tissue regeneration. We report the discovery of a reversible and selective MST1/2 inhibitor, 4-((5,10-dimethyl-6-oxo-6,10-dihydro-5H-pyrimido[5,4-b]thieno[3,2-e][1,4]diazepin-2-yl)amino)benzenesulfonamide (XMU-MP-1), using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based high-throughput biochemical assay. The cocrystal structure and the structure-activity relationship confirmed that XMU-MP-1 is on-target to MST1/2. XMU-MP-1 blocked MST1/2 kinase activities, thereby activating the downstream effector Yes-associated protein and promoting cell growth. XMU-MP-1 displayed excellent in vivo pharmacokinetics and was able to augment mouse intestinal repair, as well as liver repair and regeneration, in both acute and chronic liver injury mouse models at a dose of 1 to 3 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection. XMU-MP-1 treatment exhibited substantially greater repopulation rate of human hepatocytes in the Fah-deficient mouse model than in the vehicle-treated control, indicating that XMU-MP-1 treatment might facilitate human liver regeneration. Thus, the pharmacological modulation of MST1/2 kinase activities provides a novel approach to potentiate tissue repair and regeneration, with XMU-MP-1 as the first lead for the development of targeted regenerative therapeutics.

  14. Rassf Proteins as Modulators of Mst1 Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bitra, Aruna; Sistla, Srinivas; Mariam, Jessy; Malvi, Harshada; Anand, Ruchi

    2017-01-01

    Rassf1A/5 tumor suppressors serve as adaptor proteins possessing a modular architecture with the C-terminal consisting of a coiled-coil SARAH (Salvador-Rassf-Hippo) domain and the central portion being composed of Ras associated (RA) domain. Here, we investigate the effect of Rassf effectors on Mst1 function by mapping the interaction of various domains of Rassf1A/5 and Mst1 kinase using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The results revealed that apart from the C-terminal SARAH domain of Mst1 which interacts to form heterodimers with Rassf1A/5, the N-terminal kinase domain of Mst1 plays a crucial role in the stabilization of this complex. In addition, SPR experiments show that the RA domains play an important role in fine-tuning the Mst1-Rassf interaction, with Rassf5 being a preferred partner over a similar Rassf1A construct. It was also demonstrated that the activity profile of Mst1 in presence of Rassf adaptors completely switches. A Rassf-Mst1 complexed version of the kinase becomes apoptotic by positively regulating Mst1-H2B mediated serine 14 histone H2B phosphorylation, a hallmark of chromatin condensation. In contrast, the heterodimerization of Mst1 with Rassf1A/5 suppresses the phosphorylation of FoxO, thereby inhibiting the downstream Mst1-FoxO signalling pathway. PMID:28327630

  15. Examining therapist comfort in delivering family therapy in home and community settings: development and evaluation of the Therapist Comfort Scale.

    PubMed

    Glebova, Tatiana; Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia A; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-03-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric properties of a new measure assessing therapist comfort in the home treatment context and the relationship between therapist comfort, related process variables, and therapist characteristics. Data were drawn from a longitudinal evaluation of 185 families treated by 51 therapists using Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Therapist comfort was measured at four time points. Psychometric evaluation indicated that the measure was internally and temporally consistent. Examination of the measure's validity indicated that therapists' feelings of safety and comfort during the provision of home-based treatment were associated with family neighborhood characteristics and family socioeconomic factors. Furthermore, the therapist's reported level of alliance (as measured by the Emotional Bonding subscale of the Working Alliance Inventory) was related to her/his feeling of comfort. Analyses also indicated that therapists with greater belief in the clinical utility of the MST model felt more comfortable when delivering MST. Together the results suggest that economically disadvantaged families treated in home and community settings may be most at risk for erosions in the therapeutic relationship over time as a function of lower therapist comfort. Because therapist comfort was associated with therapeutic alliance-a factor found to be associated with clinical outcomes across studies and treatment models-findings imply that psychotherapists should regularly examine their own level of comfort, especially when providing services in nontraditional settings, and that therapist comfort should be routinely assessed as part of clinical supervision and training.

  16. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  17. Fast Particle Resonant Modes on MST*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliner, J. J.; Forest, C. B.; Sarff, J. S.; Anderson, J. K.; Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Spong, D. A.

    2011-10-01

    The interaction between fast particles and Alfvén eigenmodes (AE's) is an important process critical to magnetically confined fusion plasmas. An effort is in progress to understand AE's through theory and experiment on MST, a reversed-field pinch. Coupling of energetic particle dynamics to one or more continuum modes can introduce undamped AE's. This coupling can drive modes unstable, a condition pertinent to NBI on MST and fusion alpha particles in future RFP devices. Computational studies for MST have predicted toroidal AE's with frequencies in the 200-300 kHz range and global structure. Alfvén-wave-frequency modes have been observed with up to 1 MW of NBI. Toroidal and poloidal arrays of magnetic loops are utilized to find edge amplitudes, frequencies and mode numbers. Frequencies are in the 60-150 kHz range with n=4 and n=5, m=1. The strongest coherent activity scales inversely with density, as expected for AE's, but does not scale with magnetic field strength. Additional experiments to investigate resonance conditions and beam energy scaling have been performed. An FIR interferometer-polarimeter has been used to find internal structure of the detected modes through correlation analysis. *Supported by USDoE and NSF.

  18. TESTING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERED FORMS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-05-14

    Engineered forms of MST and mMST were prepared at ORNL using an internal gelation process. Samples of these two materials were characterized at SRNL to examine particle size and morphology, peroxide content, tapped densities, and Na, Ti, and C content. Batch contact tests were also performed to examine the performance of the materials. The {sup E}mMST material was found to contain less than 10% of the peroxide found in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. This was also evidenced in batch contact testing with both simulated and actual waste, where little difference in performance was seen between the two engineered materials, {sup E}MST and {sup E}mMST. Based on these results, attempts were made to increase the peroxide content of the materials by post-treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide treatment resulted in a slight ({approx}10%) increase in peroxide content; however, the peroxide:Ti molar ratio was still much lower ({approx}0.1 X) than what is seen in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. Testing with simulated waste showed the performance of the peroxide treated materials was improved. Batch contact tests were also performed with an earlier (2003) prepared lot of {sup E}MST to examine the effect of ionic strength on the performance of the material. In general the results showed a decrease in removal performance with increasing ionic strength, which is consistent with previous testing with MST. A Sr loading isotherm was also determined, and the {sup E}MST material was found to reach a Sr loading as high as 13.2 wt % after 100 days of contact at a phase ratio of 20000 mL/g. At the typical MST phase ratio of 2500 mL/g (0.4 g/L), a Sr loading of 2.64 wt % was reached after 506 hours of contact. Samples of {sup E}MST and the post-peroxide treated {sup E}mMST were also tested in a column configuration using simulated waste solution. The breakthrough curves along with analysis of the sorbent beds at the conclusion of the experiments showed that the peroxide treated

  19. Preface: Recent progress from networked studies based around MST radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Wayne K.; Lehmann, Volker; Singer, Werner; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2014-10-01

    Studies of the mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere by radar, application of networks, and multi-instrument studies have grown significantly in recent years, and have covered a wide range of areas in technology, fundamental research, and application. This special issue of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics on "Recent progress from networked studies based around MST radar" focuses primarily on selected papers presented at the 13th International Workshops on Scientific and Technical Aspects of MST Radar (MST13).

  20. Combination treatment with flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST-312 reduces cancer stem cell traits by targeting STAT3 and telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seyung S.; Oliva, Bryant; Dwabe, Sami; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The malignant CRC that undergoes metastasis in the advanced stage is usually refractory to existing chemotherapy and shows a poor prognosis. However, to date, efficient targeted-therapy for metastatic CRC is ill-defined. We tested the hypothesis that combined treatment of flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST-312 may reduce the cancer stem cell (CSC) traits. To characterize CSC phenotype, we performed the CD133/CD44 subpopulation profiling, tumorsphere formation assay, cell invasion assay and wound healing assay. We have examined the augmenting effects of the combined treatment of morin and MST-312 for 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) efficacy in human colorectal cancer. Morin and MST-312 combined treatment reduced CD133 (+) and CD44 (+) subpopulations in human colorectal and breast cancer cells, respectively. Tumorsphere formation and cell invasiveness were decreased with the morin and MST-312 combination treatment. Consistent with these data, morin and MST-312 treatment decreased the wound healing capacity of human breast cancer cells. Stress and apoptosis antibody arrays revealed that there were specific upregulated and downregulated proteins resulting from different treatments. Phosphorylation levels of BAD, p53 and Chk1 were enhanced upon morin/MST-312 treatments in HT-29 cells, whereas caspase-3 cleavage level and expression of IκBα were down-regulated by combined morin/MST-312 treatment in SW620 cells. Finally, morin and MST-312 co-treatment further augmented the 5-FU efficacy, chemosensitizing the 5-FU resistant human colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, our study suggests that novel targeted-therapy can be implemented by using flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST-312 for improved cancer prognosis. PMID:27279256

  1. DE-FG02-05ER64001 Overcoming the hurdles of multi-step targeting (MST) for effective radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    P.I. Steven M. Larson MD Co P.I. Nai-Kong Cheung MD, Ph.D.

    2009-09-21

    The 4 specific aims of this project are: (1) Optimization of MST to increase tumor uptake; (2) Antigen heterogeneity; (3) Characterization and reduction of renal uptake; and (4) Validation in vivo of optimized MST targeted therapy. This proposal focussed upon optimizing multistep immune targeting strategies for the treatment of cancer. Two multi-step targeting constructs were explored during this funding period: (1) anti-Tag-72 and (2) anti-GD2.

  2. MST-312 induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in APL cells through inhibition of telomerase activity and suppression of NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Ahmad; Safa, Majid; Kazemi, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Telomerase-targeted therapy for cancer has received great attention because telomerase is expressed in almost all cancer cells but is inactive in most normal somatic cells. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of telomerase inhibitor MST-312, a chemically modified derivative of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. Our results showed that MST-312 exerted a dose-dependent short-term cytotoxic effect on APL cells, with G2/M cell cycle arrest. Moreover, MST-312 induced apoptosis of APL cells in caspase-mediated manner. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay revealed significant reduction in telomerase activity of APL cells following short-term exposure to MST-312. Interestingly, MST-312-induced telomerase inhibition was coupled with suppression of NF-κB activity as evidenced by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and its degradation and decreased NF-κB DNA binding activity. In addition, gene expression analysis showed downregulation of genes regulated by NF-κB, such as antiapoptotic (survivin, Bcl-2, Mcl-1), proliferative (c-Myc), and telomerase-related (hTERT) genes. Importantly, MST-312 did not show any apoptotic effect in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In conclusion, our data suggest that dual inhibition of telomerase activity and NF-κB pathway by MST-312 represents a novel treatment strategy for APL.

  3. Dynamics of helical states in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaretto, Stefano; Auriemma, F.; Brower, D.; Chapman, B. E.; den Hartog, D. J.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J.; Franz, P.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D.; Lin, L.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Morton, L.; Nornberg, M. D.; Parke, E.; Sarff, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    The thermal and the magnetic dynamics of quasi-single-helicity (QSH) plasmas evolve independently during the formation and sustainment of the core helical structure. At higher plasma current (and Lundquist number) MST plasmas transition from an axisymmetric multi-helicity state to a QSH state characterized by a strong core helical mode and reduced secondary mode amplitudes. Plasmas in the QSH state tend to wall-lock, often in an orientation that is unfavorable for optimized measurements of the 3D structure using MST's advanced diagnostics. Recently a technique to control the locking position through an applied resonant magnetic perturbation has been developed. Using this technique it is possible to adjust the 3D phase more optimally for specific diagnostics, to study the dynamics of the QSH structure and thermal features. The multi-chord FIR interferometer shows the presence of a density structure for the duration of the QSH state. Measurements of the time evolution of the electron temperature profile using the Thomson Scattering diagnostic reveal that the transition to QSH allows the presence of a 3D thermal structure, but this structure is intermittent. Understanding the mechanism(s) driving these dynamics is the goal of this work. Work supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  4. 22. DETAIL OF CHILLERS 1 AND 2 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF CHILLERS 1 AND 2 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, NORTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. 1. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF MOBILE SERVICE TOWER (MST). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF MOBILE SERVICE TOWER (MST). CABLE TRAY SHED IN FOREGROUND. MICROWAVE ANTENNAS AND AIR-CONDITIONING PORCH ON EAST SIDE OF MST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 70.5 (LOWEST PAYLOAD SERVICE STATION). NOTE RING ATTACHMENT FOR PERSONNEL SAFETY HARNESS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 14. VIEW OF MST, FACING SOUTHEAST, AND LAUNCH PAD TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF MST, FACING SOUTHEAST, AND LAUNCH PAD TAKEN FROM NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN. FEATURES LEFT TO RIGHT: SOUTH TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER, SOUTHWEST PHOTO TOWER, LAUNCHER, UMBILICAL MAST, MST, AND OXIDIZER APRON. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. 73. LIQUID NITROGEN PUMPING STATION ON WEST SIDE OF MST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. LIQUID NITROGEN PUMPING STATION ON WEST SIDE OF MST; NITROGEN EXCHANGERS ON RIGHT. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF MST VISIBLE; ENVIRONMENTAL CURTAIN SWING AND PLATFORM EXTENDED. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. NOTE CANVAS CURTAIN (RIGHT) USED TO COVER SOUTH SIDE OF MST BELOW LOWEST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Long-Term Youth Criminal Outcomes in MST Transport: The Impact of Therapist Adherence and Organizational Climate and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Chapman, Jason E.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Carter, Rickey E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and youth criminal charges on average 4 years posttreatment. Participants were 1,979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45…

  11. Archival of Poker Flat MST radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, A. C.; Balsley, B. B.; Gage, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    The Poker Flat MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radar has operated from early 1979 to 1985. The data recorded during that time resides on some 1100 magnetic tapes. A second set containing only the derived parameters of velocity, width and signal to noise of the primary echo at each height, plus the noise spectra, occupies another 250 tapes. While processing to generate the compressed data set does correct some known errors, no attempt has been made to identify or remove spurious echoes. Because the Poker Flat data set is such a unique and valuable resource, a proposal is made to archive the data in forms more useful for analysis. The archived data set would contain only the parameters for significant echoes with contamination from airplanes, unwanted ionospheric returns, frequently aliased Doppler signals and other sources removed. The archived set should be as good or better than the example shown and may occupy only 25 to 50 tapes.

  12. Dendritic cell MST1 inhibits Th17 differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunxiao; Bi, Yujing; Li, Yan; Yang, Hui; Yu, Qing; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yu; Su, Huilin; Jia, Anna; Hu, Ying; Han, Linian; Zhang, Jiangyuan; Li, Simin; Tao, Wufan; Liu, Guangwei

    2017-01-01

    Although the differentiation of CD4+T cells is widely studied, the mechanisms of antigen-presenting cell-dependent T-cell modulation are unclear. Here, we investigate the role of dendritic cell (DC)-dependent T-cell differentiation in autoimmune and antifungal inflammation and find that mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) signalling from DCs negatively regulates IL-17 producing-CD4+T helper cell (Th17) differentiation. MST1 deficiency in DCs increases IL-17 production by CD4+T cells, whereas ectopic MST1 expression in DCs inhibits it. Notably, MST1-mediated DC-dependent Th17 differentiation regulates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and antifungal immunity. Mechanistically, MST1-deficient DCs promote IL-6 secretion and regulate the activation of IL-6 receptor α/β and STAT3 in CD4+T cells in the course of inducing Th17 differentiation. Activation of the p38 MAPK signal is responsible for IL-6 production in MST1-deficient DCs. Thus, our results define the DC MST1–p38MAPK signalling pathway in directing Th17 differentiation. PMID:28145433

  13. 12. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF MST AND PARTIALLY ERECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF MST AND PARTIALLY ERECTED UMBILICAL MAST. UMBILICAL MAST TRENCH AND DOORS IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 14. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF MST, FULLY ERECTED UMBILICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF MST, FULLY ERECTED UMBILICAL MAST, LAUNCHER, AND FLAME BUCKET - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 40. VIEW INTO MST CUPOLA FROM STATION 124. DUCT HEATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. VIEW INTO MST CUPOLA FROM STATION 124. DUCT HEATER FOR STATION 135 AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. SARAH Domain-Mediated MST2-RASSF Dimeric Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Matallanas, David; Romano, David; Nguyen, Lan K.; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Rosta, Edina; Kolch, Walter

    2016-01-01

    RASSF enzymes act as key apoptosis activators and tumor suppressors, being downregulated in many human cancers, although their exact regulatory roles remain unknown. A key downstream event in the RASSF pathway is the regulation of MST kinases, which are main effectors of RASSF-induced apoptosis. The regulation of MST1/2 includes both homo- and heterodimerization, mediated by helical SARAH domains, though the underlying molecular interaction mechanism is unclear. Here, we study the interactions between RASSF1A, RASSF5, and MST2 SARAH domains by using both atomistic molecular simulation techniques and experiments. We construct and study models of MST2 homodimers and MST2-RASSF SARAH heterodimers, and we identify the factors that control their high molecular stability. In addition, we also analyze both computationally and experimentally the interactions of MST2 SARAH domains with a series of synthetic peptides particularly designed to bind to it, and hope that our approach can be used to address some of the challenging problems in designing new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27716844

  17. Electron Bernstein Wave Studies in MST

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzman, Andrew H.; Anderson, Jay K.; Nonn, Paul D.; Kauffold, Jason X.; Forest, Cary B.; Diem, Stephanie J.

    2011-12-23

    The overdense plasma in an RFP prevents electromagnetic waves from propagating past the edge, however use of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) has the potential to heat and drive current in the plasma. MHD simulations have demonstrated that resistive tearing mode stability is very sensitive to gradients in the edge current density profile allowing EBW to potentially be a stabilizing influence. A new MW level experiment is being commissioned on MST to evaluate the potential use of the EBW for current profile control on the RFP. The development of new equipment includes a 5.5 GHz klystron driven by a novel switchmode power supply. A quartz window has been constructed and coupling with a cylindrical molybdenum wave guide antenna has been studied. Due to the steep edge density gradient in the RFP, it is possible to efficiently couple to the EBW with O or X mode launch. The EBW is strongly damped at the electron cyclotron resonance where it couples to the electron gyromotion and alters the electron distribution. Either Fisch-Boozer or Ohkawa current drive mechanisms can be activated to drive off axis current in the plasma. Preliminary experiments have been performed to verify high power coupling and understand heating via observed x-ray emission when compared to Fokker-Plank modeling in CQL3D.

  18. Optimum coding techniques for MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzer, M. P.; Woodman, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    The optimum coding technique for MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radars is that which gives the lowest possible sidelobes in practice and can be implemented without too much computing power. Coding techniques are described in Farley (1985). A technique mentioned briefly there but not fully developed and not in general use is discussed here. This is decoding by means of a filter which is not matched to the transmitted waveform, in order to reduce sidelobes below the level obtained with a matched filter. This is the first part of the technique discussed here; the second part consists of measuring the transmitted waveform and using it as the basis for the decoding filter, thus reducing errors due to imperfections in the transmitter. There are two limitations to this technique. The first is a small loss in signal to noise ratio (SNR), which usually is not significant. The second problem is related to incomplete information received at the lowest ranges. An appendix shows a technique for handling this problem. Finally, it is shown that the use of complementary codes on transmission and nonmatched decoding gives the lowest possible sidelobe level and the minimum loss in SNR due to mismatch.

  19. Prognostic significance of MST1R dysregulation in renal cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pires-Luís, Ana S; Vieira-Coimbra, Márcia; Ferreira, Maria João; Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Antunes, Luís; Dias, Paula C; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge; Graça, Inês; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) is a C-MET proto-oncogene family receptor tyrosine kinase. Promoter methylation patterns determine transcription of MST1R variants as hypermethylation of a region upstream of transcription start site (TSS) is associated with lack of MST1R long transcript (MST1R long) and expression of a short transcript with oncogenic potential. Thus, we aimed to investigate MST1R variant transcript regulation in renal cell tumors (RCT) and assess their prognostic potential. We found, in a series of 120 RCT comprising the four main subtypes (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma), that higher methylation levels close to TSS were associated with total MST1R expression levels (MST1R total) in primary tumors (p=0.049) and renal cancer cell lines. After demethylating treatment, MST1R long/MST1R total ratio increased, as expected, in two renal cell carcinoma cell lines tested. However, in primary tumors with hypermethylation upstream of TSS, a decrease in MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was not detected, although higher expression ratio of nuclear factor-κB was apparent. Furthermore, survival analysis demonstrated that MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was independently associated with shorter disease-specific and disease-free survival, whereas MST1R total expression associated with shorter disease-specific survival. In conclusion, although promoter methylation patterns seem to determine MST1R global transcription regulation in renal cell carcinoma, other mechanisms might contribute to deregulate MST1R variant expression in RCT. Nevertheless, MST1R total expression and MST1R long/MST1R total ratio modulate the biological and clinical aggressiveness of renal cell carcinoma, as depicted by its prognostic significance, a finding that requires validation in a larger independent series. PMID:27648366

  20. Pheochromocytoma Multisystem Crisis Behaving Like Interstitial Pneumonia: An Autopsy Case

    PubMed Central

    Nomoto, Yohta; Kawano, Kiyoshi; Fujisawa, Naoki; Yoshida, Keiko; Yamashita, Tomoko; Makita, Naoki; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Kamimori, Kimio; Yanagi, Shiro; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis is a rare and life-threatening disease that is associated with numerous symptoms and which is also difficult to diagnose. We herein report an autopsy case of a 61-year-old man who died due to pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis. The patient complained of vomiting and breathlessness. Computed tomography showed a shadow-like region with a similar appearance to interstitial pneumonia. The patient was diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathy induced by severe lung disease based on the results of echocardiography and coronary angiography. The patient was treated for interstitial pneumonia. However, his condition rapidly deteriorated and he died 6 hours after arrival. We were later informed of his extremely high catecholamine serum levels. We found pheochromocytoma with hemorrhage at autopsy. The patient's lungs showed acute passive congestion with edema and extravasation. PMID:28090043

  1. A Multi-System View of Wintertime NAO Seasonal Predictions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoccimarro, E.; Athanasiadis, P.; Gualdi, S.; Scaife, A. A.; Bellucci, A.; Hermanson, L.; Materia, S.; Sanna, A.; Borrelli, A.; MacLachlan, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the mid-latitudes the seasonal predictability has been known to be low to moderate. However, significant predictive skill for the mean winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) has been recently reported for a number of different seasonal forecasting systems [e.g., Riddle et al. (2013), Scaife et al. (2014), Stockdale et al. (2015)]. Here we present results from a multi-system analysis, including CFSv2 (24 members), UKMO (24 members) and CMCC (9 members) seasonal prediction systems. For their common hindcast period (1997-2011) the skill for the NAO/AO reaches as high as +0.85 for the multi-system ensemble mean. Certainly, part of the skill increase in respect to the individual systems is related to the larger size of the multi-system ensemble, though blending different systems together may bring additional improvements since each system benefits differently from the various sources of natural seasonal predictability. Therefore, initiatives similar to the North American Multi-Model Ensemble can bring added value to seasonal predictions even if individual systems —sooner or later— exploit all their potential skill by increasing their ensemble size. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the NAO skill actually translates to better predictions of near-surface air temperature and precipitation anomalies in the domain influenced by the NAO (lower root-mean square errors and higher spatial correlation in respect to the corresponding observed anomalies).

  2. LEACHING OF TITANIUM FROM MONOSODIUM TITANATE AND MODIFIED MST

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-01

    Analysis of a fouled coalescer and pre-filters from Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) operations showed evidence of Ti containing solids. Based on these results a series of tests were planned to examine the extent of Ti leaching from monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) in various solutions. The solutions tested included a series of salt solutions with varying free hydroxide concentrations, two sodium hydroxide concentrations, 9 wt % and 15 wt %, nitric and oxalic acid solutions. Overall, the amount of Ti leached from the MST and mMST was much greater in the acid solutions compared to the sodium hydroxide or salt solutions, which is consistent with the expected trend. The leaching data also showed that increasing hydroxide concentration, whether pure NaOH solution used for filter cleaning in ARP or the waste salt solution, increased the amount of Ti leached from both the MST and mMST. For the respective nominal contact times with the MST solids - for filter cleaning or the normal filter operation, the dissolved Ti concentrations are comparable suggesting either cause may contribute to the increased Ti fouling on the MCU coalescers. Tests showed that Ti containing solids could be precipitated from solution after the addition of scrub acid and a decrease in temperature similar to expected in MCU operations. FTIR analysis of these solids showed some similarity to the solids observed on the fouled coalescer and pre-filters. Although only a cursory study, this information suggests that the practice of increasing free hydroxide in feed solutions to MCU as a mitigation to aluminosilicate formation may be offset by the impact of formation of Ti solids in the overall process. Additional consideration of this finding from MCU and SWPF operation is warranted.

  3. EDITORIAL: MST Best Paper Award for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    For the last 13 years, Measurement Science and Technology has awarded a Best Paper prize. The Editorial Board of the journal believes that such a prize is an opportunity to thank authors for submitting their work, and serves as an integral part of the on-going quality review of the journal. An Editorial Board working party, comprising Patrick Gill (Chairman), David Birch and Ralph Tatam undertook the task of selecting as Best Paper 2004 a single contributed paper describing new and significant work, well aligned with the measurement scope of the journal, and presented in clear and rigorous form. They received a number of recommendations from the Editorial and International Advisory Board Members, and they would like to record their thanks to the Members for these recommendations, as they form an all-important first stage in the assessment process. There were responses from some five Board Members. In total, there were 16 papers nominated, plus another six from the working party. All these papers had quality ratings of 2 or higher from the referees, and note was also taken of the total electronic accesses for those papers subsequently short-listed. Review Articles, and papers that included a Board Member as an author, were automatically excluded. From the submitted nominations and working party deliberations, a short list of two papers was drawn up. The winning paper was then selected on the totality of criteria. Thus the paper recommended by the working party for the MST Best Paper Award for 2004 is: 'Adsorptive pressure-sensitive coatings on porous anodised aluminium' by Masaharu Kameda, Norikazu Tezuka, Tomohiro Hangai, Keisuke Asai, Kazuyuki Nakakita and Yutaka Amao, 15 489-500 (2004) This paper describes a novel pressure sensor based on a luminescent coating applied to a porous anodized aluminium layer, with application to the measurement of fluctuating pressures on short timescales with high spatial resolution. The research has particular application to

  4. Maximizing MST's inductive capability with a Bp programmable power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B. E.; Holly, D. J.; Jacobson, C. M.; McCollam, K. J.; Morin, J. C.; Sarff, J. S.; Squitieri, A.

    2016-10-01

    A major goal of the MST program is the advancement of inductive control for the development of both the RFP's fusion potential and, synergistically, the predictive capability of fusion science. This entails programmable power supplies (PPS's) for the Bt and Bp circuits. A Bt PPS is already in place, allowing advanced RFP operation and the production of tokamak plasmas, and a Bp PPS prototype is under construction. To explore some of the new capabilities to be provided by the Bp PPS, the existing Bt PPS has been temporarily connected to the Bp circuit. One key result is new-found access to very low Ip (20 kA) and very low Lundquist number, S (104). At this low S, simulation of RFP plasmas with the MHD code NIMROD is readily achievable, and work toward validation of extended MHD models using NIMROD is underway with direct comparisons to these MST plasmas. The full Bp PPS will also provide higher Ip and S than presently possible, allowing MST to produce plasmas with S spanning as much as five orders of magnitude, a dramatic extension of MST's capability. In these initial tests, the PPS has also increased five-fold MST's Ip flattop duration, to about 100 ms. This, coupled with the recently demonstrated PPS ability to drive large-amplitude sinusoidal oscillations in Ip, will allow tests of extended-duration oscillating field current drive, the goal of which is ac sustainment of a quasi-dc plasma current. Work supported by US DOE.

  5. Properties of echo spectra observed by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakasugi, K.

    1983-01-01

    Turbulent scatter and Fresnel reflection are the fundamental echoing mechanisms to interpret the signals observed by Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars. Turbulent scattered echoes provide information about the turbulence structure and mean flow of the atmosphere. Observational results with VHF MST radars, however, show the importance of Fresnel reflection due to the infinite gradient of reflectivity at the edges of a scattering layer. This condition is excluded for the weak fluctuation models but it is still possible to include the observed aspect sensitivity by assuming an anisotropic structure of fluctuations. Another explanation of the aspect sensitivity observed by MST radars is advanced. Spectral estimates by the widely used periodogram were related to a four-dimensional spectrum of atmospheric fluctuations with anisotropic structure. Effects of the radar system such as antenna beam width, beam direction and Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) data length were discussed for the anisotropic turbulent atmosphere. Echo parameters were also estimated.

  6. Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.

    2014-09-29

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

  7. System aspects of the Indian MST radar facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Program is to investigate the motions of the middle atmosphere on temporal and spatial scales and the interaction between the three height regions of the middle atmosphere. Realizing the fact that radar technique has proven to be a very powerful tool for the study of Earth atmosphere, the Indian Middle Atmosphere Program has recommended establishing a mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar as a national facility for atmospheric research. The major landmarks in this attempt to setup the MST radar as a national facility are described.

  8. Mst1 inhibits CMECs autophagy and participates in the development of diabetic coronary microvascular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jie; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Mingming; Hu, Jianqiang; Wang, Tingting; Duan, Yu; Man, Wanrong; Wu, Bin; Feng, Jiaxu; Sun, Lei; Li, Congye; Zhang, Rongqing; Wang, Haichang; Sun, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications account for a substantial proportion of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Abnormalities of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) lead to impaired cardiac microvascular vessel integrity and subsequent cardiac dysfunction, underlining the importance of coronary microvascular dysfunction. In this study, experimental diabetes models were constructed using Mst1 transgenic, Mst1 knockout and sirt1 knockout mice. Diabetic Mst1 transgenic mice exhibited impaired cardiac microvessel integrity and decreased cardiac function. Mst1 overexpression deceased CMECs autophagy as evidenced by decreased LC3 expression and enhanced protein aggregation when subjected to high glucose culture. Mst1 knockout improved cardiac microvessel integrity and enhanced cardiac functions in diabetic mice. Mst1 knockdown up-regulated autophagy as indicated by more typical autophagosomes and increased LC3 expression in CMECs subjected to high glucose cultures. Mst1 knockdown also promoted autophagic flux in the presence of bafilomycin A1. Mst1 overexpression increased CMECs apoptosis, whereas Mst1 knockout decreased CMECs apoptosis. Sirt1 knockout abolished the effects of Mst1 overexpression in cardiac microvascular injury and cardiac dysfunction. In conclusion, Mst1 knockout preserved cardiac microvessel integrity and improved cardiac functions in diabetic mice. Mst1 decreased sirt1 activity, inhibited autophagy and enhanced apoptosis in CMECs, thus participating in the pathogenesis of diabetic coronary microvascular dysfunction. PMID:27680548

  9. MST50 Is Involved in Multiple MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Guotian; Zhang, Xue; Tian, Huan; Choi, Yoon-E; Andy Tao, W; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2017-02-28

    Appressorium formation plays a critical role in Magnaporthe oryzae. Mst50 is an adapter protein of the Mst11-Mst7-Pmk1 cascade that is essential for appressorium formation. To further characterize its functions, affinity purification was used to identify Mst50-interacting proteins (MIPs) in this study. Two of the MIPs are Mst11 and Mst7 that are known to interact with Mst50 for Pmk1 activation. Surprisingly, two other MIPs are Mck1 and Mkk2 that are the upstream kinases of the Mps1 pathway. Domain deletion analysis showed that the sterile alpha-motif of Mst50 but not the Ras-association domain was important for its interaction with Mck1 and responses to cell wall and oxidative stresses. The mst50 mutant was reduced in Mps1 activation under stress conditions. MIP11 encodes a RACK1 protein that also interacted with Mck1. Deletion of MIP11 resulted in defects in cell wall integrity, Mps1 phosphorylation, and plant infection. Furthermore, Mst50 interacted with histidine kinase Hik1, and the mst50 mutant was reduced in Osm1 phosphorylation. These results indicated that Mst50 is involved in all three MAPK pathways in M. oryzae although its functions differ in each pathway. Several MIPs are conserved hypothetical proteins and may be involved in responses to various signals and crosstalk among signaling pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. 41. VIEW OF DOOR FROM WEST ANTEROOM ON MST STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW OF DOOR FROM WEST ANTEROOM ON MST STATION 111 INTO SERVICE AREA SHOWING SECURITY LOCK ON DOOR AND CONTROLS FOR WEST PLATFORMS IMMEDIATELY SOUTH (RIGHT) OF DOOR - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Borchardt, M.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D. J.; Kim, J.-H.; King, J.; Ko, J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J. D.; Liu, D.; Magee, R.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Mirnov, V. V.; Nornberg, M. D.; Nonn, P. D.; Oliva, S. P.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J. P.; Seltzman, A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Stephens, H.; Stone, D.; Theucks, D.; Thomas, M.; Triana, J.; Terry, P. W.; Waksman, J.; Bergerson, W. F.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P.; Titus, J.; Auriemma, F.; Cappello, S.; Franz, P.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Piovesan, P.; Puiatti, M.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Belykh, V.; Davydenko, V. I.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S.; Stupishin, N. V.; Spong, D.; Craig, D.; Harvey, R. W.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST programme on physics important for the advancement of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as well as for improved understanding of toroidal magnetic confinement more generally is reported. Evidence for the classical confinement of ions in the RFP is provided by analysis of impurity ions and energetic ions created by 1 MW neutral beam injection (NBI). The first appearance of energetic-particle-driven modes by NBI in a RFP plasma is described. MST plasmas robustly access the quasi-single-helicity state that has commonalities to the stellarator and ‘snake’ formation in tokamaks. In MST the dominant mode grows to 8% of the axisymmetric field strength, while the remaining modes are reduced. Predictive capability for tearing mode behaviour has been improved through nonlinear, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamic computation using the measured resistivity profile and Lundquist number, which reproduces the sawtooth cycle dynamics. Experimental evidence and computational analysis indicates two-fluid effects, e.g., Hall physics and gyro-viscosity, are needed to understand the coupling of parallel momentum transport and current profile relaxation. Large Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, plus separately measured kinetic stress, indicate an intricate momentum balance and a possible origin for MST's intrinsic plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic analysis indicates that micro-tearing modes can be unstable at high beta, with a critical gradient for the electron temperature that is larger than for tokamak plasmas by roughly the aspect ratio.

  12. 18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS 3 AND 12, FACING WEST. COMPRESSED AIR TANK AND GENERATOR AT STATION 3. CURTAIN FOR NORTH ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR VISIBLE ON LEFT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH; RAIL VISIBLE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 15. BASE OF MST, SOUTHEAST SIDE, FACING SOUTHWEST. AIR COMPRESSOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BASE OF MST, SOUTHEAST SIDE, FACING SOUTHWEST. AIR COMPRESSOR SHED AT STATION 3; PLATFORM AT STATION 12; ENVIRONMENTAL CURTAIN SWING AT STATION 21. ELECTRICAL HOOKUPS ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER OF MST. NOTE: ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER OF MST. NOTE: ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR ON THE LOWER EAST SIDE OF THE NORTH FACE IS MISSING. NORTH CAMERA TOWER IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 4. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF MST. NOTE: ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF MST. NOTE: ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR ON THE LOWER EAST SIDE OF THE NORTH FACE IS MISSING. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Borchardt, M.; Cappechi, W.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C. B.; Galante, M.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D. J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J. D.; Liu, D.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Mirnov, V. V.; Morton, L.; Munaretto, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Nonn, P. D.; Oliva, S. P.; Parke, E.; Pueschel, M. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J.; Seltzman, A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Stone, D.; Theucks, D.; Thomas, M.; Triana, J.; Terry, P. W.; Waksman, J.; Whelan, G. C.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P.; Titus, J.; Auriemma, F.; Cappello, S.; Franz, P.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Piovesan, P.; Puiatti, M.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S.; Stupishin, N. V.; Spong, D.; Craig, D.; Stephens, H.; Harvey, R. W.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Breizman, B. N.; Li, M.; Zheng, L. J.

    2015-10-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST reversed field pinch programme is presented. With neutral beam injection, bursty energetic particle (EP) modes are observed. The profiles of the magnetic and density fluctuations associated with these EP modes are measured using a far infrared interferometer-polarimeter. Equilibrium reconstructions of the quasi-single-helicity 3D helical state are provided by the V3FIT code that now incorporates several of MST's advanced diagnostics. The orientation of the helical structure is controlled using a new resonant magnetic perturbation technique. Gyrokinetic simulations based on experimental equilibria predict unstable trapped-electron modes (TEMs), and small-scale density fluctuations are detected in improved-confinement plasmas with TEM-like features. Upgraded pellet injection permits study of density and beta limits over MST's full range of operation, and an MST-record line-average density of 0.9 × 1020 m3 (n/nG = 1.4) has been obtained. Impurity ion temperature measurements reveal a charge-to-mass-ratio dependence in the rapid heating that occurs during a sawtooth crash. Runaway of NBI-born fast ions during the impulsive sawtooth event agrees with test-particle theory. Magnetic self-organization studies include measurements of the dynamo emf with an applied ac inductive electric field using oscillating field current drive.

  17. MST1-dependent vesicle trafficking regulates neutrophil transmigration through the vascular basement membrane

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Angela R.M.; Pruenster, Monika; Rohwedder, Ina; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Schäfer, Kerstin; Harrison, Ute; Nussbaum, Claudia; Immler, Roland; Wiessner, Johannes R.; Lim, Dae-Sik; Walzog, Barbara; Dietzel, Steffen; Moser, Markus; Klein, Christoph; Vestweber, Dietmar; Catz, Sergio D.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils need to penetrate the perivascular basement membrane for successful extravasation into inflamed tissue, but this process is incompletely understood. Recent findings have associated mammalian sterile 20–like kinase 1 (MST1) loss of function with a human primary immunodeficiency disorder, suggesting that MST1 may be involved in immune cell migration. Here, we have shown that MST1 is a critical regulator of neutrophil extravasation during inflammation. Mst1-deficient (Mst1–/–) neutrophils were unable to migrate into inflamed murine cremaster muscle venules, instead persisting between the endothelium and the basement membrane. Mst1–/– neutrophils also failed to extravasate from gastric submucosal vessels in a murine model of Helicobacter pylori infection. Mechanistically, we observed defective translocation of VLA-3, VLA-6, and neutrophil elastase from intracellular vesicles to the surface of Mst1–/– neutrophils, indicating that MST1 is required for this crucial step in neutrophil transmigration. Furthermore, we found that MST1 associates with the Rab27 effector protein synaptotagmin-like protein 1 (JFC1, encoded by Sytl1 in mice), but not Munc13-4, thereby regulating the trafficking of Rab27-positive vesicles to the cellular membrane. Together, these findings highlight a role for MST1 in vesicle trafficking and extravasation in neutrophils, providing an additional mechanistic explanation for the severe immune defect observed in patients with MST1 deficiency. PMID:27701149

  18. Involvement of Mst1 in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsubo, Hideki; Ichiki, Toshihiro Imayama, Ikuyo; Ono, Hiroki; Fukuyama, Kae; Hashiguchi, Yasuko; Sadoshima, Junichi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2008-03-07

    Mammalian sterile 20-kinase 1 (Mst1), a member of the sterile-20 family protein kinase, plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis. However, little is know about the physiological activator of Mst1 and the role of Mst1 in endothelial cells (ECs). We examined whether Mst1 is involved in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of ECs. Western blot analysis revealed that TNF-{alpha} induced activation of caspase 3 and Mst1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. TNF-{alpha}-induced Mst1 activation is almost completely prevented by pretreatment with Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase 3 inhibitor. Nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 and fluorescence-activated cell sorting of propidium iodide-stained cells showed that TNF-{alpha} induced apoptosis of EC. Diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and N-acetylcysteine, a potent antioxidant, also inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced activation of Mst1 and caspase 3, as well as apoptosis. Knockdown of Mst1 expression by short interfering RNA attenuated TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis but not cleavage of caspase 3. These results suggest that Mst1 plays an important role in the induction of TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of EC. However, positive feedback mechanism between Mst1 and caspase 3, which was shown in the previous studies, was not observed. Inhibition of Mst1 function may be beneficial for maintaining the endothelial integrity and inhibition of atherogenesis.

  19. Multi-system influences on adolescent risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Thompson, Elaine Adams; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2010-12-01

    We examined multi-system influences on risky sexual behavior measured by cumulative sexual risk index and number of nonromantic sexual partners among 4,465 single, sexually experienced adolescents. Hierarchical Poisson regression analyses were conducted with Wave I-II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Individual and family factors predicted both outcome measures. Neighborhood set predicted cumulative sexual risk index only, and peer factors predicted the number of nonromantic sexual partners only. School set did not predict either outcome. There were significant associations among risky sexual behavior, drug use, and delinquent behaviors. The results highlight the need for multifaceted prevention programs that address relevant factors related to family, peer and neighborhood influence as well as individual factors among sexually active adolescents.

  20. Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silas W; Graber, Nathan M; Johnson, Rudolph C; Barr, John R; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of multisystem organ failure after large volume subcutaneous injection of castor oil for cosmetic enhancement. An unlicensed practitioner injected 500 mL of castor oil bilaterally to the hips and buttocks of a 28-year-old male to female transsexual. Immediate local pain and erythema were followed by abdominal and chest pain, emesis, headache, hematuria, jaundice, and tinnitus. She presented to an emergency department 12 hours postinjection. Persistently hemolyzed blood samples complicated preliminary laboratory analysis. She rapidly deteriorated despite treatment and developed fever, tachycardia, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, respiratory distress, and anuric renal failure. An infectious diseases evaluation was negative. After intensive supportive care, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis, she was discharged 11 days later, requiring dialysis for an additional 1.5 months. Castor oil absorption was inferred from recovery of the Ricinus communis biomarker, ricinine, in the patient's urine (41 ng/mL). Clinicians should anticipate multiple complications after unapproved methods of cosmetic enhancement.

  1. Hypermethylation of MST1 in IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis and rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, Takataro; Tomiyama, Takashi; Yasuda, Kaneki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Yoshio; Son, Yonsu; Nomura, Shosaku; Uchida, Kazushige; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2015-08-07

    The serine/threonine kinase Mst1 plays important roles in the control of immune cell trafficking, proliferation, and differentiation. Previously, we reported that Mst1 was required for thymocyte selection and regulatory T-cell functions, thereby the prevention of autoimmunity in mice. In humans, MST1 null mutations cause T-cell immunodeficiency and hypergammaglobulinemia with autoantibody production. RASSF5C(RAPL) is an activator of MST1 and it is frequently methylated in some tumors. Herein, we investigated methylation of the promoter regions of MST1 and RASSF5C(RAPL) in leukocytes from patients with IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Increased number of CpG methylation in the 5′ region of MST1 was detected in AIP patients with extrapancreatic lesions, whereas AIP patients without extrapancreatic lesions were similar to controls. In RA patients, we detected a slight increased CpG methylation in MST1, although the overall number of methylation sites was lower than that of AIP patients with extrapancreatic lesions. There were no significant changes of the methylation levels of the CpG islands in the 5′ region of RASSF5C(RAPL) in leukocytes from AIP and RA patients. Consistently, we found a significantly down-regulated expression of MST1 in regulatory T cells of AIP patients. Our results suggest that the decreased expression of MST1 in regulatory T cells due to hypermethylation of the promoter contributes to the pathogenesis of IgG4-related AIP. - Highlights: • Mst1 controls immune cells trafficking, cell proliferation and differentiation. • Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is an idiopathic pancreatitis affecting multiple organs. • Decreased MST1 expression and increased CpG methylation of promoter of MST1 in AIP. • Slight increased CpG methylation of MST1 in rheumatoid arthritis patients. • MST1 contributes pathogenesis of IgG4-related AIP.

  2. Overexpression of MYC and EZH2 cooperates to epigenetically silence MST1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Kuser-Abali, Gamze; Alptekin, Ahmet; Cinar, Bekir

    2014-01-01

    Hippo-like MST1 protein kinase regulates cell growth, organ size, and carcinogenesis. Reduction or loss of MST1 expression is implicated in poor cancer prognosis. However, the mechanism leading to MST1 silencing remains elusive. Here, we report that both MYC and EZH2 function as potent suppressors of MST1 expression in human prostate cancer cells. We demonstrated that concurrent overexpression of MYC and EZH2 correlated with the reduction or loss of MST1 expression, as shown by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. Methylation sensitive PCR and bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing showed that DNA methylation caused MST1 silencing. Pharmacologic and RNAi experiments revealed that MYC and EZH2 silenced MST1 expression by inhibiting its promoter activity, and that EZH2 was a mediator of the MYC-induced silencing of MST1. In addition, MYC contributed to MST1 silencing by partly inhibiting the expression of microRNA-26a/b, a negative regulator of EZH2. As shown by ChIP assays, EZH2-induced DNA methylation and H3K27me3 modification, which was accompanied by a reduced H3K4me3 mark and RNA polymerase II occupancy on the MST1 promoter CpG region, were the underlying cause of MST1 silencing. Moreover, potent pharmacologic inhibitors of MYC or EZH2 suppressed prostate cancer cell growth in vitro, and the knockdown of MST1 caused cells’ resistance to MYC and EZH2 inhibitor-induced growth retardation. These findings indicate that MYC, in concert with EZH2, epigenetically attenuates MST1 expression and suggest that the loss of MST1/Hippo functions is critical for the MYC or EZH2 mediation of cancer cell survival. PMID:24499724

  3. Criteria and algorithms for spectrum parameterization of MST radar signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The power spectra S(f) of MST radar signals contain useful information about the variance of refractivity fluctuations, the mean radial velocity, and the radial velocity variance in the atmosphere. When noise and other contaminating signals are absent, these quantities can be obtained directly from the zeroth, first and second order moments of the spectra. A step-by-step procedure is outlined that can be used effectively to reduce large amounts of MST radar data-averaged periodograms measured in range and time to a parameterized form. The parameters to which a periodogram can be reduced are outlined and the steps in the procedure, that may be followed selectively, to arrive at the final set of reduced parameters are given. Examples of the performance of the procedure are given and its use with other radars are commented on.

  4. Studying Filamentary Currents with Thomson Scattering on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, D. J.; Young, W. C.; Kubala, S. Z.

    2016-10-01

    The MST reversed-field pinch plasma generates bursts of toroidally localized magnetic activity associated with m = 0 modes resonant at the reversal surface near the plasma edge. Previously, using data from an array of edge magnetic probes, these bursts were connected to poloidal current filaments. Now the MST Thomson scattering diagnostic is being used to measure the net drift in the electron distribution due to these currents. An additional long-wavelength spectral bin has been added to several Thomson scattering polychromators, in addition to 5-7 pre-existing short wavelength spectral bins, to improve discrimination between shifted vs. broadened spectra. The bursts are examined in plasma conditions that display spontaneous periods of low tearing-mode activity, with higher confinement and higher temperatures that improve Thomson scattering measurement performance. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  5. Recent Ion Energy Distribution Observations on MST RFP Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Jerry; Titus, J. B.; Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A., III; Almagri, A. F.; Andeson, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Ion energy distribution and temperature measurements have been made on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) using the Florida A&M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA). The CNPA is a low energy (0.34-5.2 keV), high energy resolution (25 channels) neutral particle analyzer, with a radial view on MST. Recently, a retarding potential system was built to allow CNPA measurements to ensemble a complete ion energy distribution with high-energy resolution, providing insight into the dynamics of the bulk and fast ion populations. Recent work has also been done to improve the analysis techniques used to infer the ion temperature measurements, allowing us to understand temperature dynamics better during global magnetic reconnection events. Work supported in part by grants to FAMU and to UW from NSF and from Fusion Energy Sciences at DOE.

  6. A Role for MST Neurons in Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, L. S.; Perrone, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    A template model of human visual self-motion perception, which uses neurophysiologically realistic "heading detectors", is consistent with numerous human psychophysical results including the failure of humans to estimate their heading (direction of forward translation) accurately under certain visual conditions. We tested the model detectors with stimuli used by others in single-unit studies. The detectors showed emergent properties similar to those of MST neurons: (1) Sensitivity to non-preferred flow; Each detector is tuned to a specific combination of flow components and its response is systematically reduced by the addition of nonpreferred flow, and (2) Position invariance; The detectors maintain their apparent preference for particular flow components over large regions of their receptive fields. It has been argued that this latter property is incompatible with MST playing a role in heading perception. The model however demonstrates how neurons with the above response properties could still support accurate heading estimation within extrastriate cortical maps.

  7. Signal processing at the Poker Flat MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Signal processing for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar is carried out by a combination of hardware in high-speed, special-purpose devices and software in a general-purpose, minicomputer/array processor. A block diagram of the signal processing system is presented, and the steps in the processing pathway are described. The current processing capabilities are given, and a system offering greater coherent integration speed is advanced which hinges upon a high speed preprocessor.

  8. Comparison of Beijing MST radar and radiosonde horizontal wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yufang; Lü, Daren

    2017-01-01

    To determine the performance and data accuracy of the 50 MHz Beijing Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar, comparisons of radar measured horizontal winds in the height range 3-25 km with radiosonde observations were made during 2012. A total of 427 profiles and 15 210 data pairs were compared. There was very good agreement between the two types of measurement. Standard deviations of difference (mean difference) for wind direction, wind speed, zonal wind and meridional wind were 24.86° (0.77°), 3.37 (-0.44), 3.33 (-0.32) and 3.58 (-0.25) m s-1, respectively. The annual standard deviations of differences for wind speed were within 2.5-3 m s-1 at all heights apart from 10-15 km, the area of strong winds, where the values were 3-4 m s-1. The relatively larger differences were mainly due to wind field variations in height regions with larger wind speeds, stronger wind shear and the quasi-zero wind layer. A lower MST radar SNR and a lower percentage of data pairs compared will also result in larger inconsistencies. Importantly, this study found that differences between the MST radar and radiosonde observations did not simply increase when balloon drift resulted in an increase in the real-time distance between the two instruments, but also depended on spatiotemporal structures and their respective positions in the contemporary synoptic systems. In this sense, the MST radar was shown to be a unique observation facility for atmospheric dynamics studies, as well as an operational meteorological observation system with a high temporal and vertical resolution.

  9. 38. STATION 124 OF MST, NORTH SIDE. FEATURES LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. STATION 124 OF MST, NORTH SIDE. FEATURES LEFT TO RIGHT: COMMUNICATIONS PANEL, CONTROL REEL (120 VOLTS), HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT, DOOR CONTROLS (480 VOLTS), POWER REEL (480 VOLTS), CRANE NORTH/CRANE SOUTH DOORS (480 VOLTS), CIRCUIT BREAKER FOR TEN-TON BRIDGE CRANE, DUCT HEATER 122. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Teng; Ji, Jiang; Guo, Yong-li

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Curcumin activates MST1 in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. •ROS production is involved in curcumin-induced MST1 activation. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced JNK activation in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced Foxo3a nuclear translocation and Bim expression. -- Abstract: Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells.

  11. Simulation of MST tokamak discharges with resonant magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornille, B. S.; Sovinec, C. R.; Chapman, B. E.; Dubois, A.; McCollam, K. J.; Munaretto, S.

    2016-10-01

    Nonlinear MHD modeling of MST tokamak plasmas with an applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) reveals degradation of flux surfaces that may account for the experimentally observed suppression of runaway electrons with the RMP. Runaway electrons are routinely generated in MST tokamak discharges with low plasma density. When an m = 3 RMP is applied these electrons are strongly suppressed, while an m = 1 RMP of comparable amplitude has little effect. The computations are performed using the NIMROD code and use reconstructed equilibrium states of MST tokamak plasmas with q (0) < 1 and q (a) = 2.2 . Linear computations show that the (1 , 1) -kink and (2 , 2) -tearing modes are unstable, and nonlinear simulations produce sawtoothing with a period of approximately 0.5 ms, which is comparable to the period of MHD activity observed experimentally. Adding an m = 3 RMP in the computation degrades flux surfaces in the outer region of the plasma, while no degradation occurs with an m = 1 RMP. The outer flux surface degradation with the m = 3 RMP, combined with the sawtooth-induced distortion of flux surfaces in the core, may account for the observed suppression of runaway electrons. Work supported by DOE Grant DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  12. Physics and optimization of plasma startup in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, W.; Chapman, B. E.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; den Hartog, D. J.; Ko, J.; Kumar, S. T. A.; Morton, L.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Waksman, J.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.

    2012-10-01

    MST's Bp circuit relies on an iron core transformer, and the 2 V-s flux swing of the iron sets limits on the peak Ip and discharge duration. A substantial fraction of this flux is consumed during startup of each discharge. To some extent, this flux consumption can be reduced by applying a larger vacuum Bt at discharge initiation, a fact long known in RFP research. However, the detailed physics of this Bt dependence is not completely understood. Toward better understanding, MST's profile diagnostics are being employed to try to measure the temporal evolution of, e.g., the magnetic equilibrium and plasma resistance. Initial target plasmas have a peak Ip of about 600 kA but with different vacuum Bt. Initial results include the observation of m = 1 modes, with n = 1, 2, 3... growing and decaying in succession. This occurs as the Bt profile evolves rapidly from that of a tokamak to that of an RFP. Preliminary reconstructions of the toroidal current profile suggest that it is initially quite hollow. This work should help optimize startup with MST's new Bt programmable power supply.

  13. REVIEW OF ACTINIDE AND STRONTIUM LOADING DATA FOR MST AND MMST

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Hobbs, D.; Fink, S.

    2010-10-20

    SRNL reviewed the relevant data from MST and mMST fissile loading studies to determine if further studies were required. With respect to MST, SRNL found that the published results adequately bound the expected conditions that Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process will operate under. The lack of strontium data does not represent an issue as strontium is not relevant to criticality. There is no threat to criticality safety from the lack of strontium loading data. However, SRNL proposes a single test with MST to ensure that future SCIX operations are conservatively bounded and strontium maximum loading is understood. With respect to attempts to maximally load mMST, SRNL's knowledge on actinide and strontium loading is limited to uranium behavior. mMST has a very weak affinity for uranium, and even extended contact time at high uranium concentration shows minimal loading onto mMST. This leaves questions about the ability to load plutonium, neptunium and strontium. SRNL proposes to perform two tests with mMST to ensure that questions on plutonium, neptunium, and strontium sorption are answered, as well as ensuring that future mMST operations are conservatively bounded.

  14. Prospective IS-MST radar. Potential and diagnostic capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potehin, Aleksandr; Medvedev, Andrey; Kushnarev, Dmitriy; Setov, Artyom; Lebedev, Valentin

    2016-09-01

    In the next few years, a new radar is planned to be built near Irkutsk. It should have capabilities of incoherent scatter (IS) radars and mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars [Zherebtsov et al., 2011]. The IS-MST radar is a phased array of two separated antenna panels with a multichannel digital receiving system, which allows detailed space-time processing of backscattered signal. This paper describes characteristics, configuration, and capabilities of the antenna and transceiver systems of this radar. We estimate its potential in basic operating modes to study the ionosphere by the IS method at heights above 100 km and the atmosphere with the use of signals scattered from refractive index fluctuations, caused by turbulent mixing at heights below 100 km. The modeling shows that the radar will allow us to regularly measure neutral atmosphere parameters at heights up to 26 km as well as to observe mesosphere summer echoes at heights near 85 km in the presence of charged ice particles (an increase in Schmidt number) and mesosphere winter echoes at heights near 65 km with increasing background electron density. Evaluation of radar resources at the IS mode in two height ranges 100-600 and 600-2000 km demonstrates that in the daytime and with the accumulation time of 10 min, the upper boundaries of electron density and ionospheric plasma temperature are ~1500 and ~1300 km respectively, with the standard deviation of no more than 10 %. The upper boundary of plasma drift velocity is ~1100 km with the standard deviation of 45 m/s. The estimation of interferometric capabilities of the MST radar shows that it has a high sensitivity to objects of angular size near 7.5 arc min, and its potential accuracy in determining target angles can reach 40 arc sec.

  15. Further developments of EISCAT as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rottger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The principal capabilities of EISCAT as an MST radar were described. Since the VHF transmitter of the EISCAT system is not yet delivered, only the UHF system could be used for radar experiments. Considerable developments in the year 1983 have now strongly improved the reliability of the operations. Most of the experiments were and will be done to investigate the high latitude ionosphere and thermosphere, but some time was also devoted to observations of the lower and middle atmosphere, particularly during the MAP/WINE compaign.

  16. Locked modes and magnetic field errors in MST

    SciTech Connect

    Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Kerst, D.W.

    1992-06-01

    In the MST reversed field pinch magnetic oscillations become stationary (locked) in the lab frame as a result of a process involving interactions between the modes, sawteeth, and field errors. Several helical modes become phase locked to each other to form a rotating localized disturbance, the disturbance locks to an impulsive field error generated at a sawtooth crash, the error fields grow monotonically after locking (perhaps due to an unstable interaction between the modes and field error), and over the tens of milliseconds of growth confinement degrades and the discharge eventually terminates. Field error control has been partially successful in eliminating locking.

  17. Doppler effects on velocity spectra observed by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, wind data from mesophere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars have been used to study the spectra of gravity waves in the atmosphere (Scheffler and Liu, 1985; VanZandt et al., 1985). Since MST radar measures the line-of-sight Doppler velocities, it senses the components of the wave-associated velocities along its beam directions. These components are related through the polarization relations which depend on the frequency and wave number of the wave. Therfore, the radar-observed velocity spectrum will be different from the original gravity-wave spectrum. Their relationship depends on the frequency and wave number of the wave as well as the propagation geometry. This relation can be used to interpret the observed data. It can also be used to test the assumption of gravity-wave spectrum (Scheffler and Liu, 1985). In deriving this relation, the background atmosphere has been assumed to be motionless. Obviously, the Doppler shift due to the background wind will change the shape of the gravity-wave power spectrum as well as its relation with the radar-observed spectrum. Here, researcher's investigate these changes.

  18. Impurity Profiles in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woehrer, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Chapman, J. T.

    1996-11-01

    We have spectroscopically measured the radial distribution of several impurities in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch plasma.(This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy.) For several years we have operated a passive high-speed Doppler spectrometer [D. J. Den Hartog and R. J. Fonck, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3238 (1994)] on MST to measure impurity flow velocity and ion temperature. We have evidence that the flow velocity radial profile has substantial structure, with the flow at the edge sometimes oppositely directed to that in the core. These measurements were taken by comparing the flow of an edge state (C III, for example) to a core state (C V). It is crucial that we precisely measure this flow profile and its variation during a sawtooth cycle. Therefore, we must accurately measure the location of the various emission shells of the impurity ionization states. This is being accomplished with an array of small f = 20 cm holographic grating monochromators. Light is coupled into them via separate fused silica fiber optic bundles from a radial array of light collection chords. We will make measurements of emission profiles from ions such as B III, B IV, C III, C V, and O V.

  19. Ion Heating Anisotropy during Dynamo Activity in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, D. J.; Chapman, J. T.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P. W.

    1999-11-01

    MHD dynamo activity is large in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch during sawtooth crashes, and small otherwise. During a sawtooth crash, ion temperature increases rapidly to a level several times as high as the temperature between sawteeth, which itself can be larger than the electron temperature. Several theories have been developed to explain this ion heating, some indicating a possible asymmetry in perpendicular to parallel heating [C. G. Gimblett, Europhys. Lett. 11, 541 (1990); Z. Yoshida, Nucl. Fusion 31, 386 (1991); N. Mattor, P. W. Terry, and S. C. Prager, Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 15, 65 (1992)]. In standard MST discharges, impurity ion temperature measured perpendicular to the magnetic field (T_⊥) is higher than impurity ion temperature parallel to the magnetic field (T_allel) during a sawtooth crash. Throughout the rest of the sawtooth cycle, T_⊥ <= T_allel. This is in contrast to results obtained on the EXTRAP-T2 RFP which showed T_⊥ < T_allel throughout the discharge [K. Sasaki et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 39, 333 (1997)

  20. Recent upgrades to MST's soft-x-ray spectroscopy diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, M. D.; Scherer, A. C.; Clark, J.; Dubois, A. M.; Almagri, A. F.; Chapman, B. E.

    2016-10-01

    In MST RFP plasmas, electron energization during tearing mode reconnection events was recently observed via soft-x-ray (sxr) emission. X-ray measurements from 3-25 keV during these short-lived (< 100 μs) events were achieved with a detector consisting of an avalanche photodiode and a 20 ns Gaussian shaping amplifier (GSA) whose output was digitized at 500 MHz. A radially resolved measurement of x-ray emission from 2-10 keV can also be made with an existing array of six Amptek XR-100CR sxr detectors, each comprised of a Si photodiode, a charge-sensitive preamplifier, a thermoelectric cooler, and a Cremat GSA CR-200-500ns having a pulse FWHM of about 1200 ns. One upgrade to this system entails a CR-200-25ns GSA which will reduce the FWHM to 60 ns. The digitization rate is also increased from 60 MHz to 240 MHz, sufficient to resolve a 60 ns Gaussian pulse. The upgrade will also incorporate improved shielding from IGBT switching noise arising from MST's Bt and Bp programmable power supplies. Housing the detector assembly within Compac-SRF-series enclosures attenuates noise at 20 MHz by 80 dB. Initial measurements will be presented. Work supported by US DOE.

  1. Helical Equilibrium Reconstruction using V3FIT on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliner, J. J.; Chapman, B. E.; Sarff, J. S.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Reusch, J. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Terranova, D.

    2013-10-01

    Plasmas in the MST reversed field pinch bifurcate to a helical equilibrium, forming a Single Helical Axis (SHAx) at high plasma current (Ip ~ 500 kA) and low density (ne ~ 0.5 × 1019 m-3) . Modeling of these plasmas requires an equilibrium solver that does not assume axisymmetry. The V3FIT 3D equilibrium reconstruction code is applied to helical equilibria with diagnostic measurements as constraints. The 11-chord interferometer-polarimeter, 22-point Thomson scattering system, and 4-camera soft X-ray probes have been included in addition to external magnetics. Inputs have been adapted for MST's close-fitting conducting shell. Investigations into the role of shell eddy currents have been made, including comparison to eigenfunctions generated from the Newcomb equation. At the plasma boundary, ~60% of the static n = 5 toroidal field BT seen by magnetic probes is generated by currents in the shell. The generated VMEC equilibrium serves as the input for applications relevant to the 1 MW, 25 keV neutral beam injector. During beam injection, fast ion confinement is reduced in periods with a SHAx compared to axisymmetric plasmas. A single particle orbit code has been applied to calculate particle trajectories in the 3D case, confirming a strong influence of SHAx equilibria on fast ion orbits. EPM magnetic bursts terminate at the transition to SHAx. Alfvén continua have been generated to study this phenomenon with the reduced-MHD code STELLGAP. Work Supported by USDoE and NSF.

  2. A Role for MST Neurons in Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland Scott; Perrone, J. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A template model of human visual self-motion perception (Perrone, JOSA, 1992; Perrone & Stone, Vis. Res., in press), which uses neurophysiologically realistic "heading detectors", is consistent with numerous human psychophysical results (Warren & Hannon, Nature, 1988; Stone & Perrone, Neuro. Abstr., 1991) including the failure of humans to estimate their heading (direction of forward translation) accurately under certain visual conditions (Royden et al., Nature, 1992). We tested the model detectors with stimuli used by others in- single-unit studies. The detectors showed emergent properties similar to those of MST neurons: 1) Sensitivity to non-preferred flow. Each detector is tuned to a specific combination of flow components and its response is systematically reduced by the addition of nonpreferred flow (Orban et al., PNAS, 1992), and 2) Position invariance. The detectors maintain their apparent preference for particular flow components over large regions of their receptive fields (e.g. Duffy & Wurtz, J. Neurophys., 1991; Graziano et al., J. Neurosci., 1994). It has been argued that this latter property is incompatible with MST playing a role in heading perception. The model however demonstrates how neurons with the above response properties could still support accurate heading estimation within extrastriate cortical maps.

  3. Schizosaccharomyces pombe mst2+ Encodes a MYST Family Histone Acetyltransferase That Negatively Regulates Telomere Silencing†

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Eliana B.; Espinosa, Joaquín M.; Forsburg, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation are associated with transcriptional activity and the formation of constitutively silent heterochromatin. Increasingly, histone acetylation is also implicated in other chromosome transactions, including replication and segregation. We have cloned the only Schizosaccharomyces pombe MYST family histone acetyltransferase genes, mst1+ and mst2+. Mst1p, but not Mst2p, is essential for viability. Both proteins are localized to the nucleus and bound to chromatin throughout the cell cycle. Δmst2 genetically interacts with mutants that affect heterochromatin, cohesion, and telomere structure. Mst2p is a negative regulator of silencing at the telomere but does not affect silencing in the centromere or mating type region. We generated a census of proteins and histone modifications at wild-type telomeres. A histone acetylation gradient at the telomeres is lost in Δmst2 cells without affecting the distribution of Taz1p, Swi6p, Rad21p, or Sir2p. We propose that the increased telomeric silencing is caused by histone hypoacetylation and/or an increase in the ratio of methylated to acetylated histones. Although telomere length is normal, meiosis is aberrant in Δmst2 diploid homozygote mutants, suggesting that telomeric histone acetylation contributes to normal meiotic progression. PMID:16199868

  4. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC3W MST WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS OPEN AND SERVICE PLATFORMS DOWN. SLC-3E MST IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. MST1 functions as a key modulator of neurodegeneration in a mouse model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Keun; Shin, Jin Hee; Hwang, Sang Gil; Gwag, Byoung Joo; McKee, Ann C.; Lee, Junghee; Kowall, Neil W.; Ryu, Hoon; Lim, Dae-Sik; Choi, Eui-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of motor neurons. Dominant mutations in the gene for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) give rise to familial ALS by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that genetic deficiency of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) delays disease onset and extends survival in mice expressing the ALS-associated G93A mutant of human SOD1. SOD1(G93A) induces dissociation of MST1 from a redox protein thioredoxin-1 and promotes MST1 activation in spinal cord neurons in a reactive oxygen species–dependent manner. Moreover, MST1 was found to mediate SOD1(G93A)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and caspases as well as impairment of autophagy in spinal cord motoneurons of SOD1(G93A) mice. Our findings implicate MST1 as a key determinant of neurodegeneration in ALS. PMID:23818595

  6. New insight on antimicrobial therapy adjustment strategies for gram-negative bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei; Chen, Hong; Xiao, Shuzhen; Tang, Wei; Shi, Guochao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gram-negative bacterial infections, especially multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection, are becoming a serious threat to public health. Although it is widely accepted that both appropriate initial empirical therapy and targeted therapy are important, but for patients needing therapy adjustment, few studies have explored whether adjustment strategy based on microbiologic susceptibility test (MST) brings better outcome compared with empirical adjustment. A total of 320 patients with gram-negative bacterial infection (airway, blood, or pleural effusion) were selected and a prospective cohort study was conducted. Baseline characteristics and outcomes (microbiologic, clinical, and economic) were documented during follow-up. MDR and nosocomial infections were common among subjects. Initial therapies consistent with MST could result in reduced in-hospital mortality, treatment failure rate, infection-related death, percentages of patients needing therapy adjustment, and daily hospitalization cost with increased successful treatment rate compared with inconsistent with MST, and microbiologic outcomes were also better with appropriate therapies. For patients needing therapy adjustment, relying on MST gained no significant benefit on mortality, clinical, or microbiologic outcomes compared with depending on clinical experience. But for patients with MDR infection, adjustment relying on MST gained more benefit than non-MDR infection. Appropriate initial therapy significantly improved the prognosis of patients with gram-negative bacterial infections, but improvement was not that obvious for patients needing therapy adjustment which was based on MST compared with clinical experience, and more beneficial effects of adjustment relying on MST were obtained for patients with MDR bacterial infection. PMID:28353572

  7. Whole-exome sequencing identifies MST1R as a genetic susceptibility gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Zheng, Hong; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Tang, Clara Sze-man; Ko, Josephine Mun Yee; Wong, Bonnie Wing Yan; Leong, Merrin Man Long; Sham, Pak Chung; Cheung, Florence; Kwong, Dora Lai-Wan; Ngan, Roger Kai Cheong; Ng, Wai Tong; Yau, Chun Chung; Pan, Jianji; Peng, Xun; Tung, Stewart; Zhang, Zengfeng; Ji, Mingfang; Chiang, Alan Kwok-Shing; Lee, Anne Wing-Mui; Lee, Victor Ho-fun; Lam, Ka-On; Au, Kwok Hung; Cheng, Hoi Ching; Yiu, Harry Ho-Yin; Lung, Maria Li

    2016-01-01

    Multiple factors, including host genetics, environmental factors, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection, contribute to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) development. To identify genetic susceptibility genes for NPC, a whole-exome sequencing (WES) study was performed in 161 NPC cases and 895 controls of Southern Chinese descent. The gene-based burden test discovered an association between macrophage-stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) and NPC. We identified 13 independent cases carrying the MST1R pathogenic heterozygous germ-line variants, and 53.8% of these cases were diagnosed with NPC aged at or even younger than 20 y, indicating that MST1R germ-line variants are relevant to disease early-age onset (EAO) (age of ≤20 y). In total, five MST1R missense variants were found in EAO cases but were rare in controls (EAO vs. control, 17.9% vs. 1.2%, P = 7.94 × 10−12). The validation study, including 2,160 cases and 2,433 controls, showed that the MST1R variant c.G917A:p.R306H is highly associated with NPC (odds ratio of 9.0). MST1R is predominantly expressed in the tissue-resident macrophages and is critical for innate immunity that protects organs from tissue damage and inflammation. Importantly, MST1R expression is detected in the ciliated epithelial cells in normal nasopharyngeal mucosa and plays a role in the cilia motility important for host defense. Although no somatic mutation of MST1R was identified in the sporadic NPC tumors, copy number alterations and promoter hypermethylation at MST1R were often observed. Our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of NPC by highlighting the involvement of the MST1R-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:26951679

  8. Desmin common mutation is associated with multi-systemic disease manifestations and depletion of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Elizabeth M; Kenyon, Lawrence; Falk, Marni J

    2015-01-01

    Desmin (DES) is a major muscle scaffolding protein that also functions to anchor mitochondria. Pathogenic DES mutations, however, have not previously been recognized as a cause of multi-systemic mitochondrial disease. Here, we describe a 45-year-old man who presented to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Mitochondrial-Genetics Diagnostic Clinic for evaluation of progressive cardiac, neuromuscular, gastrointestinal, and mood disorders. Muscle biopsy at age 45 was remarkable for cytoplasmic bodies, as well as ragged red fibers and SDH positive/COX negative fibers that were suggestive of a mitochondrial myopathy. Muscle also showed significant reductions in mitochondrial content (16% of control mean for citrate synthase activity) and mitochondrial DNA (35% of control mean). His family history was significant for cardiac conduction defects and myopathy in multiple maternal relatives. Multiple single gene and panel-based sequencing studies were unrevealing. Whole exome sequencing identified a known pathogenic p.S13F mutation in DES that had previously been associated with desmin-related myopathy. Desmin-related myopathy is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by right ventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myopathy, and arrhythmias. However, neuropathy, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and depletion of both mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA have not previously been widely recognized in this disorder. Recognition that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in desmin-related myopathy clarifies the basis for the multi-systemic manifestations, as are typical of primary mitochondrial disorders. Understanding the mitochondrial pathophysiology of desmin-related myopathy highlights the possibility of new therapies for this otherwise untreatable and often fatal class of disease. We postulate that drug treatments aimed at improving mitochondrial biogenesis or reducing oxidative stress may be effective therapies to ameliorate the effects of desmin-related disease.

  9. DESORPTION OF SORBATES FROM MST, MMST, AND CST UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-06-10

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Program (formerly referred to as the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) Project) seeks to deploy equipment to remove the {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (principally {sup 238,239,240}Pu and {sup 237}Np) from the high level waste salt solutions. The equipment is installed within a high level waste tank to take advantage of the shielding provided by the waste tank. The process will involve adding monosodium titanate (MST) to the waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to sorb the Sr and select actinides, removing the MST and entrained sludge with in-riser rotary microfilters, and subsequently using ion-exchange columns containing crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to remove the Cs. After being loaded with Cs, the CST will be ground to reduce the particle size and then transferred into another waste tank (e.g., Tank 40H). The MST and sludge solids stream will be transported to a sludge batch preparation tank (i.e., Tank 42H or Tank 51H) once the SCIX batch is processed. Both streams, MST/solids and CST, will ultimately be transported into and vitrified inside the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A series of experiments were performed to examine desorption from monosodium titanate (MST), modified monosodium titanate (mMST), and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) under various conditions. The first two experiments examined desorption from MST and CST under two different sludge treatment processes, aluminum dissolution and sludge washing. Desorption of all sorbates was observed to varying degrees under the aluminum dissolution conditions. The extent of desorption ranged from < 3% to about 50% after 4 weeks, with Pu exhibiting the lowest desorption. At the end of the experiment, the temperature was reduced from 65 C to 25 C and the tests monitored for an additional two weeks. After reducing the temperature, partial resorption of the sorbates was observed with both MST and CST. Under the sludge washing conditions, no

  10. The Mitochondrial Replacement 'Therapy' Myth.

    PubMed

    Rulli, Tina

    2016-12-30

    This article argues that two forms of mitochondrial replacement therapy, maternal spindle transfer (MST) and pro-nuclear transfer (PNT), are not therapies at all because they do not treat children who are coming into existence. Rather, these technologies merely create healthy children where none was inevitable. Even if creating healthy lives has some value, it is not to be confused with the medical value of a cure or therapy. The article addresses a recent Bioethics article, 'Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity,' by Wrigley, Wilkinson, and Appleby, who argue that PNT is morally favorable to MST due to the Non-Identity Problem. Wrigley et al. claim that PNT, since it occurs post-conception, preserves the identity of the resulting child, whereas MST, since it occurs pre-conception, is an identity-altering technique. As such, a child born with mitochondrial disease could complain that her parents failed to use PNT, but not MST. The present article argues that the authors are mistaken: both MST and PNT are identity-affecting techniques. But this is of little matter, for we should be cautious in drawing any moral conclusions from the application of the Non-Identity Problem to cases. The article then argues that the authors are mistaken in inferring that PNT is a type of embryonic cure or therapy for children with mitochondrial disease. The article cautions against the mistaken life-saving rhetoric that is common in bioethics discussions of MRTs.

  11. Neutral beam heating of a RFP plasma in MST

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, J.; Anderson, J. K.; Nornberg, M. D.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Liu, D.; Fiksel, G.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Stupishin, N.; Deichuli, P. P.; Sakakita, H.

    2012-12-15

    Electron temperature is observed to rise due to neutral beam injection (NBI) in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). Heating is observed to be 100 {+-} 50 eV in the core of 200 kA plasmas. This is the first definitive measurement of auxiliary heating of a reversed-field pinch (RFP). This heating is consistent with a 1D classical model which was developed. This 1D model calculates the evolving thermal conductivity and ohmic power input profiles during enhanced confinement, and can calculate NBI deposition and classical fast ion diffusion and slowing. The predicted temperature change is consistent with measured beam heating both during and after enhanced confinement, which is consistent with previous observations that fast ions are well confined and behave roughly classically in the RFP.

  12. Time-resolved measurements of equilibrium profiles in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B. H.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Yates, T. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Caspary, K.; McCollam, K. J.; Prager, S. C.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Craig, D.

    2007-11-01

    Based on the high-speed, three-wave, far-infrared polarimeter-interferometer measurement of Bpol profiles and external coil measurements of Btave and Btw, a new method is developed to derive Btor and other equilibrium profiles (J// and q) with high time resolution. Using Faraday's law, the inductive electric field (E//) profile is also deduced from the temporal derivatives of the time-resolved magnetic field profiles. The derived B(0) values have excellent agreement with direct measurements using a Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic. Evolution of equilibrium profiles during single sawtooth events in MST, both the slow linear ramp and crash phases, are presented. Profile scaling with plasma current Ip and reversal parameter F is also explored. MHD stability is tested from the spatial gradients of the J// and q profiles, and correlation with fluctuation mode amplitude is investigated. Future improvements to equilibrium reconstruction are expected by measuring Btor(r,t) directly via Cotton-Mouton interferometry.

  13. The MST radar technique: Requirements for operational weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    There is a feeling that the accuracy of mesoscale forecasts for spatial scales of less than 1000 km and time scales of less than 12 hours can be improved significantly if resources are applied to the problem in an intensive effort over the next decade. Since the most dangerous and damaging types of weather occur at these scales, there are major advantages to be gained if such a program is successful. The interest in improving short term forecasting is evident. The technology at the present time is sufficiently developed, both in terms of new observing systems and the computing power to handle the observations, to warrant an intensive effort to improve stormscale forecasting. An assessment of the extent to which the so-called MST radar technique fulfills the requirements for an operational mesoscale observing network is reviewed and the extent to which improvements in various types of forecasting could be expected if such a network is put into operation are delineated.

  14. Momentum and Current Transport in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. X.; Lin, Liang; Brower, D. L.; Almagri, A. F.; Chapman, B. E.; Hartog, D. J. Den; Duff, J.; Sarff, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Self-generated flows and current (dynamo effects) are routinely observed in the MST RFP where both parallel flow and electric field reverse sign compared to the edge. In the absence of external torque and applied poloidal electric field, both the flow and electric field may arise from kinetic effects. Kinetic effects, defined as the correlated product of parallel pressure and radial magnetic field fluctuations, have been measured by using a high-speed polarimetry-interferometry diagnostic (for combined radial magnetic field and density fluctuation measurement). Between sawtooth crashes it is found that the measured kinetic effects associated with density fluctuations (a component of parallel pressure fluctuation) has a finite amplitude that may account for the observed flow in the core. In addition, the same fluctuations also influence electron dynamics via the kinetic dynamo. These results suggest kinetic effects may play an important role in coupling between momentum transport and current transport. Work supported by US DOE and NSF.

  15. Discrimination against interfering signals at the Poker Flat MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Several on line and off line data processing techniques are used to remove interfering signals due to ground clutter, aircraft, instrumental effects, and external transmissions from the desired atmospheric echoes of Mesosphere Stratosphere, Troposphere (MST) radar. The on line, real time techniques are necessarily simple in order to minimize processing delays. This algorithm examines the individual Doppler spectra which are computed every two to four seconds (for oblique antenna beams). The total spectral power in each individual spectrum is computed by summing all the spectral points. If this integrated power increases from one spectrum to the next by a factor greater than a preselected threshold, then that spectrum is not added to the spectral sum. Succeeding spectra are compared to the last acceptable spectrum. Only a certain maximum number of spectra are allowed to be rejected in succession.

  16. Capabilities and limitations of existing MST radars: Poker Flat. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.; Ecklund, W. L.; Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Designed as a prototype system to continuously monitor the atmosphere up to approximately 100 km, the Poker Flat MST radar began operating in 1979 at a relatively low sensitivity. In almost continuous operation since then, the system is steadily increasing in sensitivity to its ultimate design characteristics. Current and final parameters are listed. The advantages of its modular design, which uses 64 transmitting modules distributed through the 200 mx 200 m antenna array include: easy maintenance, beam switching using very low power switching, air cooled transmitting tubes, lower feedline costs, and no moving parts. Continuous, uninterrupted operation ( 4 years) and less man-made interference because of the remote location) are other assets. Most disadvantages are related to its not-yet-finished status, climate, moose excursions, and operating expenses.

  17. Interpretation of MST radar returns from clear air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the scattering and reflection mechanisms that give rise to the MST radar echoes from the clear air is essential in the correct interpretation of the data about winds, waves, turbulence and stability in the atmosphere. There are two main aspects: the nature of the targets the radar sees and their generation mechanisms; and the signatures of the radar signals returned from the different targets. Volume scatterings from isotropic or anisotropic turbulence, and partial reflections from horizontally stratified, sharp refractive index gradients are believed the main contributors to radar echoes. Combined effects from all the mechanisms probably produce the observed data. The signature of the echo signals for these different scatterers under realistic experimental conditions should be studied. It is hoped from these studies, the nature of the targets can be better understood, and related to atmospheric dynamic processes.

  18. Interdigital Line Antennas for Launching LH Waves in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. A.; Goetz, J. A.; Oliva, S. P.

    2002-11-01

    RF current drive has been proposed as a method for reducing the tearing fluctuations that are responsible for anomalous energy transport in the RFP. A system for launching lower hybrid slow waves at 800 MHz and n_||= 7.5 is now in operation on MST. The antenna is an enclosed interdigital line using λ/4 resonators with an opening in the cavity through which the wave is coupled to the plasma. A new antenna has been built incorporating several design improvements. These include larger vacuum feedthroughs, better impedance matching, internal instrumentation and improved directionality. Power handling is 3-4 times that of the original and continues to improve with conditioning. Further design improvements are underway to optimize impedance matching and damping rate along the traveling wave structure.

  19. Feeder line fault detection in the Indian MST radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, B. K.

    1993-08-01

    The MST Radar uses semi-rigid cables and directional couplers for feeding power from the transmitters to the antennas. Coaxial directional couplers used in the feeder network are made of aluminum. Since the feeder network is exposed to the sun, it heats up and expands its length. At night the feeder network cools down and the coaxial directional couplers contract in length. Due to the expansion and contraction, sometimes it is found that the contact between the center conductors of two consecutive directional couplers are separated and thereby make part of the antenna array ineffective. Contact between directional couplers may be broken also due to oxidation of aluminum. Although steps are taken to remove this problem using anti-corrosive grease, it is worthwhile to monitor the 'health' of the feeder line from time to time. A measurement scheme is suggested which helps to detect the faulty contact of the directional couplers and the location of the fault.

  20. Runaway electrons and mitigation studies in MST tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, J. A.; Chapman, B. E.; Almagri, A. F.; Cornille, B. S.; Dubois, A.; McCollam, K. J.; Munaretto, S.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-10-01

    Studies of runaway electrons generated in low-density MST tokamak plasmas are being undertaken. The plasmas have Bt <= 0.14 T, Ip <= 50 kA, q (a) = 2.2 , and an electron density and temperature of about 5 ×1017m-3 and 150 eV. Runaway electrons are detected via x-ray bremsstrahlung emission. The density and electric field thresholds for production and suppression have been previously explored with variations in gas puffing for density control. Runaway electrons are now being probed with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP's). An m = 3 RMP strongly suppresses the runaway electrons and initial NIMROD modeling shows that this may be due to degradation of flux surfaces. The RMP is produced by a poloidal array of 32 saddle coils at the narrow vertical insulated cut in MST's thick conducting shell, with each RMP having a single m but a broad n spectrum. While a sufficiently strong m = 3 RMP suppresses the runaway electrons, an RMP with m = 1 and comparable amplitude has little effect. The impact of the RMP's on the magnetic topology of these plasmas is being studied with the nonlinear MHD code NIMROD. With an m = 3 RMP, stochasticity is introduced in the outer third of the plasma but no such flux surface degradation is observed with an m = 1 RMP. NIMROD also predicts regularly occurring MHD activity similar to that observed in the experiment. These studies have also been done in q (a) = 2.7 plasmas and analysis and modeling is ongoing. This work supported by USDoE.

  1. Comparable seizure characteristics in magnetic seizure therapy and electroconvulsive therapy for major depression.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Sarah; Bewernick, Bettina H; Hurlemann, René; Soehle, Martin; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is highly effective for treatment-resistant depression (TRD); however, its use for less severe forms of depression is somewhat limited by a lack of control over current spreading to medial temporal lobe memory structures, resulting in various cognitive side effects. In contrast, magnetic seizure therapy (MST), which uses high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for local seizure induction, has been associated with reduced cognitive side effects. To assess whether different characteristics of seizures induced by both methods are responsible for the differences in neuropsychological side-effect profile, we studied seven TRD-patients undergoing both MST and ECT in an open-label, within subject, controlled crossover pilot study. Comparison parameters included seizure-related ictal characteristics, including motor activity, electromyogram (EMG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and postictal recovery and reorientation times.Our results showed no differences in motor activity or EMG and EEG characteristics, thus implicating similar electrophysiological processes in seizure induction with MST and ECT. In line with previous studies, we observed shorter postictal recovery and reorientation times following MST.The ictal characteristics of induced seizures were found similar with ECT and MST suggesting that the more focal seizure induction associated with MST may account for the more beneficial neuropsychological side effect profile of MST.

  2. Mst1-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-xL is required for myocardial reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Peiyong; Del Re, Dominic P.; Maejima, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Mst1 is a central Ser-Thr kinase in the Hippo pathway, which promotes apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation. We have shown previously that, in cardiomyocytes, oxidative stress activates Mst1 at mitochondria, where Mst1 phosphorylates Bcl-xL at Ser14, inducing dissociation of Bcl-xL from Bax and thereby promoting apoptosis. However, the functional significance of Ser14 phosphorylation of endogenous Bcl-xL in vivo remains elusive. We generated knockin (KI) mice in which Ser14 of Bcl-xL is replaced with Ala. KI mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratio, and adult KI mice exhibited normal cardiac morphology and function at baseline. However, KI mice were protected from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and exhibited reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Although suppression of endogenous Mst1 also reduced I/R injury, there was no additive protective effect when Mst1 was inhibited in KI mice. The development of dilated cardiomyopathy induced by cardiac-specific overexpression of Mst1 was also ameliorated in KI mice. Lats2 and YAP, two other key components of the Hippo pathway, were not affected in KI mice. These results suggest that Ser14 phosphorylation of Bcl-xL plays an essential role in mediating both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial injury by acting as a key downstream mediator of Mst1 independently of the canonical Hippo pathway. PMID:27218122

  3. Mst1 shuts off cytosolic antiviral defense through IRF3 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fansen; Zhou, Ruyuan; Wu, Shiying; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Qiuheng; Zhou, Yao; Plouffe, Steven W.; Liu, Shengduo; Song, Hai; Xia, Zongping; Zhao, Bin; Ye, Sheng; Feng, Xin-Hua; Guan, Kun-Liang; Zou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Cytosolic RNA/DNA sensing elicits primary defense against viral pathogens. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key signal mediator/transcriptional factor of the antiviral-sensing pathway, is indispensible for interferon production and antiviral defense. However, how the status of IRF3 activation is controlled remains elusive. Through a functional screen of the human kinome, we found that mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1), but not Mst2, profoundly inhibited cytosolic nucleic acid sensing. Mst1 associated with IRF3 and directly phosphorylated IRF3 at Thr75 and Thr253. This Mst1-mediated phosphorylation abolished activated IRF3 homodimerization, its occupancy on chromatin, and subsequent IRF3-mediated transcriptional responses. In addition, Mst1 also impeded virus-induced activation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), further attenuating IRF3 activation. As a result, Mst1 depletion or ablation enabled an enhanced antiviral response and defense in cells and mice. Therefore, the identification of Mst1 as a novel physiological negative regulator of IRF3 activation provides mechanistic insights into innate antiviral defense and potential antiviral prevention strategies. PMID:27125670

  4. Mst1 controls lymphocyte trafficking and interstitial motility within lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Koko; Katakai, Tomoya; Ebisuno, Yukihiko; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Okada, Takaharu; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of lymphocyte adhesion and migration plays crucial roles in lymphocyte trafficking during immunosurveillance. However, our understanding of the intracellular signalling that regulates these processes is still limited. Here, we show that the Ste20-like kinase Mst1 plays crucial roles in lymphocyte trafficking in vivo. Mst1−/− lymphocytes exhibited an impairment of firm adhesion to high endothelial venules, resulting in an inefficient homing capacity. In vitro lymphocyte adhesion cascade assays under physiological shear flow revealed that the stopping time of Mst1−/− lymphocytes on endothelium was markedly reduced, whereas their L-selectin-dependent rolling/tethering and transition to LFA-1-mediated arrest were not affected. Mst1−/− lymphocytes were also defective in the stabilization of adhesion through α4 integrins. Consequently, Mst1−/− mice had hypotrophic peripheral lymphoid tissues and reduced marginal zone B cells and dendritic cells in the spleen, and defective emigration of single positive thymocytes. Furthermore, Mst1−/− lymphocytes had impaired motility over lymph node-derived stromal cells and within lymph nodes. Thus, our data indicate that Mst1 is a key enzyme involved in lymphocyte entry and interstitial migration. PMID:19339990

  5. Unary and binary multisystems; topologic classification of phase diagrams and relation to Euler's theorem on polyhedra.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, E.H.; Zen, E.-A.

    1982-01-01

    A representation polyhedron summarizing the topology of a large number of possible nets previously devised by Zen (M.A. 18-167) is extended from n + 3 unary to n + 6 phase unary systems. A general way for constructing n + 4 phase nets is outlined. With the technique described, 62 multisystems are recognized, of which 26 contain all 16 possible divariant fields and represent the most nearly complete closed nets possible for a binary six-phase (n + 4) multisystem.-M.S.

  6. Electric field strength and focality in electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a finite element simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.

    2011-02-01

    We present the first computational study comparing the electric field induced by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) paradigms. Four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, and focal electrically administered seizure therapy) and three MST coil configurations (circular, cap, and double cone) were modeled. The model incorporated a modality-specific neural activation threshold. ECT (0.3 ms pulse width) and MST induced the maximum electric field of 2.1-2.5 V cm-1 and 1.1-2.2 V cm-1 in the brain, corresponding to 6.2-7.2 times and 1.2-2.3 times the neural activation threshold, respectively. The MST electric field is more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. The brain volume stimulated was much larger with ECT (up to 100%) than with MST (up to 8.2%). MST with the double-cone coil was the most focal, and bilateral ECT was the least focal. Our results suggest a possible biophysical explanation of the reduced side effects of MST compared to ECT. Our results also indicate that the conventional ECT pulse amplitude (800-900 mA) is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. Reducing the ECT pulse amplitude should be explored as a potential means of diminishing side effects.

  7. STABLE SR VS 85SR SORPTION FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTIONS BY MST AND MMST

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-04-02

    A series of tests were performed to examine the sorption of stable Sr versus the sorption of {sup 85}Sr by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) from simulated waste solutions. Earlier testing indicated a discrepancy between the decontamination factors (DFs) obtained by measuring the stable Sr concentrations by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and the {sup 85}Sr activities by gamma spectroscopy. One hypothesis to explain this discrepancy was that the stable Sr and {sup 85}Sr were in different chemical forms in the simulated solutions. Several simulants were prepared using different methods for adding the Sr and performance tests were carried out using MST and mMST to determine the Sr and {sup 85}Sr DFs with the various simulants. Testing indicated no discrepancy between the Sr and {sup 85}Sr DFs in tests with these simulants.

  8. 8. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS OPEN AND SERVICE PLATFORMS RAISED - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS OPEN AND SERVICE PLATFORMS DOWN - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Mst1 is an interacting protein that mediates PHLPPs' induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Meng; Wang, Yaqi; Xu, Xiaoen; Lu, Jing; Dong, Yongli; Tao, Wufan; Stein, Janet; Stein, Gary S; Iglehart, James D; Shi, Qian; Pardee, Arthur B

    2010-05-28

    PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 phosphatases exert their tumor-suppressing functions by dephosphorylation and inactivation of Akt in several breast cancer and glioblastoma cells. However, Akt, or other known targets of PHLPPs that include PKC and ERK, may not fully elucidate the physiological role of the multifunctional phosphatases, especially their powerful apoptosis induction function. Here, we show that PHLPPs induce apoptosis in cancer cells independent of the known targets of PHLPPs. We identified Mst1 as a binding partner that interacts with PHLPPs both in vivo and in vitro. PHLPPs dephosphorylate Mst1 on the T387 inhibitory site, which activate Mst1 and its downstream effectors p38 and JNK to induce apoptosis. The same T387 site can be phosphorylated by Akt. Thus, PHLPP, Akt, and Mst1 constitute an autoinhibitory triangle that controls the fine balance of apoptosis and proliferation that is cell type and context dependent.

  11. The MST radar technique: A tool for investigations of turbulence spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of the MST radar as a tool for investigating turbulence spectra is discussed. Power spectral measurements using radar data are discussed. The characteristics of stratospheric turbulence are described. A model of the mesoscale turbulent process is developed.

  12. 28. VIEW SOUTH FROM SLC3W MST STATION 63. FOREGROUND LEFT: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW SOUTH FROM SLC-3W MST STATION 63. FOREGROUND LEFT: THEODOLITE SHELTER (BLDG. 786) CENTER LEFT TO RIGHT: GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM AZIMUTH STATION (BLDG. 775), PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757), PORTABLE GUARD SHED, METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756), METEOROLOGICAL TOWER. BACKGROUND CENTER TO RIGHT: STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 776), LIQUID OXYGEN APRON, SLC-3E MST, TOP OF SLC-3E FUEL STORAGE TANK. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Multimerization of Drosophila sperm protein Mst77F causes a unique condensed chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Nils; Kaiser, Sophie; Ostwal, Yogesh; Riedel, Dietmar; Stützer, Alexandra; Nikolov, Miroslav; Rathke, Christina; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Despite insights on the cellular level, the molecular details of chromatin reorganization in sperm development, which involves replacement of histone proteins by specialized factors to allow ultra most condensation of the genome, are not well understood. Protamines are dispensable for DNA condensation during Drosophila post-meiotic spermatogenesis. Therefore, we analyzed the interaction of Mst77F, another very basic testis-specific protein with chromatin and DNA as well as studied the molecular consequences of such binding. We show that Mst77F on its own causes severe chromatin and DNA aggregation. An intrinsically unstructured domain in the C-terminus of Mst77F binds DNA via electrostatic interaction. This binding results in structural reorganization of the domain, which induces interaction with an N-terminal region of the protein. Via putative cooperative effects Mst77F is induced to multimerize in this state causing DNA aggregation. In agreement, overexpression of Mst77F results in chromatin aggregation in fly sperm. Based on these findings we postulate that Mst77F is crucial for sperm development by giving rise to a unique condensed chromatin structure. PMID:25735749

  14. Emulating the Visual Receptive Field Properties of MST Neurons with a Template Model of Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, John A.; Stone, Leland S.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously proposed a computational neural-network model by which the complex patterns of retinal image motion generated during locomotion (optic flow) can be processed by specialized detectors acting as templates for specific instances of self-motion. The detectors in this template model respond to global optic flow by sampling image motion over a large portion of the visual field through networks of local motion sensors with properties similar to neurons found in the middle temporal (MT) area of primate extrastriate visual cortex. The model detectors were designed to extract self-translation (heading), self-rotation, as well as the scene layout (relative distances) ahead of a moving observer, and are arranged in cortical-like heading maps to perform this function. Heading estimation from optic flow has been postulated by some to be implemented within the medial superior temporal (MST) area. Others have questioned whether MST neurons can fulfill this role because some of their receptive-field properties appear inconsistent with a role in heading estimation. To resolve this issue, we systematically compared MST single-unit responses with the outputs of model detectors under matched stimulus conditions. We found that the basic physiological properties of MST neurons can be explained by the template model. We conclude that MST neurons are well suited to support heading estimation and that the template model provides an explicit set of testable hypotheses which can guide future exploration of MST and adjacent areas within the primate superior temporal sulcus.

  15. Improvements in SXR and Te Measurements on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, J. A.; McGarry, M. B.; Franz, P.; den Hartog, D. J.; Johnson, J.

    2014-10-01

    A diagnostic that uses soft-x-ray (SXR) emission to provide both tomographically reconstructed x-ray emissivity and double-foil electron temperature from either brightness or emissivity has been in use on MST. Analysis of the data from this system has revealed several effects that were not accounted for in past diagnostics. For example, the purity (>99.8%) of the beryllium foils used to block visible light and to select the SXR energy range can produce significant changes in the data by altering the transmission function. In addition, the detailed geometry of the SXR detectors (silicon photodiodes) must be taken into account, including any difference in material composition such as the presence of oxides, front windows and frames, etc., to avoid misinterpretation of the data. All of these effects have been studied and will be presented in this work. Modifications of the diagnostic have been implemented in order to decrease the impact of these features on the measurements and have thus led to improved measurements and a validation of the results from the diagnostic. Time-resolved SXR emissivity and full radial profiles of electron temperature have been analyzed. In particular, high current improved confinement discharges often exhibit enhanced emission from island structures, both rotating and locked. Analysis has been concentrated on the correlation of SXR structures with temperature profiles in locked plasmas. Work supported by USDoE.

  16. 3-D Measurement of Recycling and Radiation in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norval, Ryan; Goetz, John; Schmitz, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    The MST reversed-field pinch (RFP) can undergo spontaneous transition to a helical core state, associated with the growth of the innermost resonant magnetic mode. Currently multiple 2-D imaging cameras are in place allowing for nearly full vessel viewing and measurement of recycling and impurities fluxes. The transition from the standard to helical RFP causes an observable change in edge plasma. While in the helical state the plasma wall interaction (PWI) on MSTs poloidal limiter strongly correlates with the helicity of the core mode. PWI on the toroidal limiter overall is reduced, with the remaining PWI sites corresponding the helicity of the core mode, or the locations of diagnostic limiters and the error fields they create. EIRENE, a neutral particle code use for modeling edge plasmas, is used to compute the neutral profiles based on measured recycling fluxes. EIRENE computes the radiative and charge exchange power losses. Comparison is made between the standard and helical RFP plasmas. Bolometer measurements of total radiation are currently in progress to supplement the modeling. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Localized SXR Emission During Electron Bernstein Wave Injection in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jay; Forest, Cary; Seltzman, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    The electron Bernstein wave has been suggested as a solution to the RFP confinement problem: sustained, off-axis current drive stabilizes the resistive tearing modes which govern thermal transport. A staged experiment to test the feasibility of EBW heating and current drive is underway on MST. Experiments (˜10^5 W) aimed at a demonstration of EBW heating have produced a localized increase in SXR emission. This measured emission is consistent with modeling in its location, energy spectrum and dependence on radial diffusion within the plasma. Preliminary analysis indicates that the emission is strongest in the region where ray tracing predicts maximum deposition of the injected power. The multi-chord SXR camera used is sensitive to 4-7 keV photons which is consistent with Fokker-Plank modeling of EBW injection. The enhanced SXR emission vanishes quickly when radial diffusion in the plasma is high (as indicated by m=0 magnetic activity); this is also consistent with Fokker-Plank modeling. An increase of boron emission (and presumably boron within the plasma) is also observed during EBW injection. This presents an alternative explanation to the enhanced SXR emission; recent efforts have been made to isolate the two effects.

  18. System studies of rf current drive for MST

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J. K.; Burke, D. R.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Hendries, E. R.; Seltzman, A. H.; Thomas, M. A.; Diem, S.; Harvey, R. W.; Kaufman, M. C.

    2011-12-23

    Two rf schemes are being studied on the MST reversed field pinch for their potential in current profile control experiments. MHD modeling has shown that a substantial externally-driven off axis parallel current can improve stability of the dominant core tearing modes. A radially localized axisymmetric population of fast electrons has been observed by SXR emission during LH injection (100kW at 800MHz), and is consistent with CQL3D modeling which predicts a small driven current. Computational work suggests that doubling the input power will statistically improve the LH-induced SXR signal to background ratio, and that about 2MW of injected power (an order of magnitude increase) will drive enough current for stabilization of tearing modes. Additionally, a 1 MW 5.5 GHz electron Bernstein wave (EBW) experiment is under construction, which utilizes a very simple and compact antenna compatible with the demands of the RFP. EBW allows access to electron cyclotron heating and current drive in the overdense plasma. Coupling of the external electromagnetic wave to the EBW has been demonstrated, and initial tests at {approx}100kW power have produced a small, localized xray flux consistent with rf heating and high diffusivity of fast electrons. Computational work is currently underway to answer the very important questions of how much power is required, and what level of electron diffusivity is tolerable, to generate a consequential amount of EBW current.

  19. Nutrition and metabolism in sepsis and multisystem organ failure.

    PubMed

    Baue, A E

    1991-06-01

    Sepsis and organ failure produce profound metabolic changes that contribute to hepatic and musculoskeletal failure. When multiple organ failure develops, the mortality rate is high, and therapy is unlikely to be effective unless the causative process (e.g., infection, low cardiac output) can be eliminated. Thus, the prevention of multiple organ failure and the prevention or early treatment of infection are paramount. Organ and nutritional support to prevent complications is necessary. The gastrointestinal tract should be used for nutrition whenever possible with a blenderized regular diet with fiber, glutamine, and short-chain fatty acids to protect and preserve the gut. If parenteral nutrition is necessary, special solutions may be necessary for the liver, kidneys, or lungs. If not, protein with 45% branched-chain amino acid, medium- and short-chain triglycerides, glutamine supplementation, and carbohydrates seem best. Other substances are being evaluated that may be helpful in nutrition and organ support, including arginine, xylitol, growth hormone, and anabolic steroids. Multiple organ failure should be prevented, if at all possible, by stopping or controlling the injury, removing as much necrotic tissue as possible, improving blood flow and oxygen consumption, supporting metabolism, and preventing infection or treating it early and adequately. Nutritional support plays a key role in preventing metabolic failure.

  20. MHD simulation of RF current drive in MST

    SciTech Connect

    Hendries, E. R.; Anderson, J. K.; Forest, C. B.; Reusch, J. A.; Seltzman, A. H.; Sovinec, C. R.; Diem, S.; Harvey, R. W.

    2014-02-12

    Auxiliary heating and current drive using RF waves such as the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) promises to advance the performance of the reversed field pinch (RFP). In previous computational work [1], a hypothetical edge-localized current drive is shown to suppress the tearing activity which governs the macroscopic transport properties of the RFP. The ideal conditions for tearing stabilization include a reduced toroidal induction, and precise width and radial position of the Gaussian-shaped external current drive. In support of the EBW experiment on the Madison Symmetric Torus, an integrated modeling scheme now incorporates ray tracing and Fokker-Plank predictions of auxiliary current into single fluid MHD. Simulations at low Lundquist number (S ∼ 10{sup 4}) generally agree with the previous work; significantly more burdensome simulations at MST-like Lundquist number (S ∼ 3×10{sup 6}) show unexpected results. The effect on nonlinearly saturated current profile by a particular RF-driven external force decreases in magnitude and widens considerably as the Lundquist number increases toward experimental values. Simulations reproduce the periodic current profile relaxation events observed in experiment (sawteeth) in the absence of current profile control. Reduction of the tearing mode amplitudes is still observable; however, reduction is limited to periods between the large bursts of magnetic activity at each sawtooth. The sawtoothing pattern persists with up to 10 MW of externally applied RF power. Periods with prolonged low tearing amplitude are predicted with a combination of external current drive and a reduced toroidal loop voltage, consistent with previous conclusions. Finally, the resistivity profile is observed to have a strong effect on the optimal externally driven current profile for mode stabilization.

  1. MHD simulation of RF current drive in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendries, E. R.; Anderson, J. K.; Diem, S.; Forest, C. B.; Harvey, R. W.; Reusch, J. A.; Seltzman, A. H.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2014-02-01

    Auxiliary heating and current drive using RF waves such as the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) promises to advance the performance of the reversed field pinch (RFP). In previous computational work [1], a hypothetical edge-localized current drive is shown to suppress the tearing activity which governs the macroscopic transport properties of the RFP. The ideal conditions for tearing stabilization include a reduced toroidal induction, and precise width and radial position of the Gaussian-shaped external current drive. In support of the EBW experiment on the Madison Symmetric Torus, an integrated modeling scheme now incorporates ray tracing and Fokker-Plank predictions of auxiliary current into single fluid MHD. Simulations at low Lundquist number (S ˜ 104) generally agree with the previous work; significantly more burdensome simulations at MST-like Lundquist number (S ˜ 3×106) show unexpected results. The effect on nonlinearly saturated current profile by a particular RF-driven external force decreases in magnitude and widens considerably as the Lundquist number increases toward experimental values. Simulations reproduce the periodic current profile relaxation events observed in experiment (sawteeth) in the absence of current profile control. Reduction of the tearing mode amplitudes is still observable; however, reduction is limited to periods between the large bursts of magnetic activity at each sawtooth. The sawtoothing pattern persists with up to 10 MW of externally applied RF power. Periods with prolonged low tearing amplitude are predicted with a combination of external current drive and a reduced toroidal loop voltage, consistent with previous conclusions. Finally, the resistivity profile is observed to have a strong effect on the optimal externally driven current profile for mode stabilization.

  2. MST3 Kinase Phosphorylates TAO1/2 to Enable Myosin Va Function in Promoting Spine Synapse Development

    PubMed Central

    Ultanir, Sila K.; Yadav, Smita; Hertz, Nicholas T.; Oses-Prieto, Juan A.; Claxton, Suzanne; Burlingame, Alma L.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Jan, Lily Y.; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mammalian Sterile 20 (Ste20)-like kinase 3 (MST3) is a ubiquitously expressed kinase capable of enhancing axon outgrowth. Whether and how MST3 kinase signaling might regulate development of dendritic filopodia and spine synapses is unknown. Through shRNA-mediated depletion of MST3 and kinase-dead MST3 expression in developing hippocampal cultures, we found that MST3 is necessary for proper filopodia, dendritic spine, and excitatory synapse development. Knockdown of MST3 in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons via in utero electroporation also reduced spine density in vivo. Using chemical genetics, we discovered thirteen candidate MST3 substrates and identified the phosphorylation sites. Among the identified MST3 substrates, TAO kinases regulate dendritic filopodia and spine development, similar to MST3. Furthermore, using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in culture (SILAC), we show that phosphorylated TAO1/2 associates with Myosin Va and is necessary for its dendritic localization, thus revealing a mechanism for excitatory synapse development in the mammalian CNS. PMID:25456499

  3. MST3 kinase phosphorylates TAO1/2 to enable Myosin Va function in promoting spine synapse development.

    PubMed

    Ultanir, Sila K; Yadav, Smita; Hertz, Nicholas T; Oses-Prieto, Juan A; Claxton, Suzanne; Burlingame, Alma L; Shokat, Kevan M; Jan, Lily Y; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2014-12-03

    Mammalian Sterile 20 (Ste20)-like kinase 3 (MST3) is a ubiquitously expressed kinase capable of enhancing axon outgrowth. Whether and how MST3 kinase signaling might regulate development of dendritic filopodia and spine synapses is unknown. Through shRNA-mediated depletion of MST3 and kinase-dead MST3 expression in developing hippocampal cultures, we found that MST3 is necessary for proper filopodia, dendritic spine, and excitatory synapse development. Knockdown of MST3 in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons via in utero electroporation also reduced spine density in vivo. Using chemical genetics, we discovered thirteen candidate MST3 substrates and identified the phosphorylation sites. Among the identified MST3 substrates, TAO kinases regulate dendritic filopodia and spine development, similar to MST3. Furthermore, using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in culture (SILAC), we show that phosphorylated TAO1/2 associates with Myosin Va and is necessary for its dendritic localization, thus revealing a mechanism for excitatory synapse development in the mammalian CNS.

  4. The Tumor Suppressor Mst1 Promotes Changes in the Cellular Redox State by Phosphorylation and Inactivation of Peroxiredoxin-1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Sonali Jalan; Creasy, Caretha L.; Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The serine/threonine protein kinases Mst1 and Mst2 can be activated by cellular stressors including hydrogen peroxide. Using two independent protein interaction screens, we show that these kinases associate, in an oxidation-dependent manner, with Prdx1, an enzyme that regulates the cellular redox state by reducing hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Mst1 inactivates Prdx1 by phosphorylating it at Thr-90 and Thr-183, leading to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in cells. These results suggest that hydrogen peroxide-stimulated Mst1 activates a positive feedback loop to sustain an oxidizing cellular state. PMID:23386615

  5. Recessive mutations in EPG5 cause Vici syndrome, a multisystem disorder with defective autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Cullup, Thomas; Kho, Ay L.; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Brandmeier, Birgit; Smith, Frances; Urry, Zoe; Simpson, Michael A.; Yau, Shu; Bertini, Enrico; McClelland, Verity; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Koelker, Stefan; Koerner, Christian; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Hoedt, Amber E. ten; Rogers, Curtis; Manchester, David; Miyata, Rie; Hayashi, Masaharu; Said, Elizabeth; Soler, Doriette; Kroisel, Peter M.; Windpassinger, Christian; Filloux, Francis M.; Al-Kaabi, Salwa; Hertecant, Jozef; Del Campo, Miguel; Buk, Stefan; Bodi, Istvan; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Sewry, Caroline A.; Abbs, Stephen; Mohammed, Shehla; Josifova, Dragana; Gautel, Mathias; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Vici syndrome is a recessively inherited multisystem disorder characterized by callosal agenesis, cataracts, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency and hypopigmentation. To investigate the molecular basis of Vici syndrome, we carried out exome and Sanger sequence analysis in a cohort of 18 patients. We identified recessive mutations in EPG5 (previously KIAA1632), indicating a causative role in Vici syndrome. EPG5 is the human homologue of the metazoan-specific autophagy gene epg-5, encoding a key autophagy regulator (ectopic P-granules autophagy protein 5) implicated in the formation of autolysosomes. Further studies demonstrated a severe block of autophagosomal clearance in muscle and fibroblasts from EPG5 mutant patients, resulting in autophagic cargo accumulation in autophagosomes. These findings indicate Vici syndrome as a paradigm of a human multisystem disorder associated with defective autophagy, and suggest a fundamental role of the autophagy pathway in the anatomical and functional formation of organs such as the brain, the heart and the immune system. PMID:23222957

  6. DECONTAMINATION FACTORS AND FILTRATION FLUX IMPACT TO ARP AT REDUCED MST CONCENTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-06-27

    Tank Farm and Closure Engineering is evaluating changes to the Actinide Removal Process facility operations to decrease the MST concentration from 0.4 g/L to 0.2 g/L and the contact time from 12 hours to between 6 and 8 hours. For this evaluation, SRNL reviewed previous datasets investigating the performance of MST at 0.2 g/L in salt solutions ranging from 4.5 to 7.5 M in sodium concentration. In general, reducing the MST concentration from 0.4 to 0.2 g/L and increasing the ionic strength from 4.5 to 7.5 M in sodium concentration will decrease the measured decontamination factors for plutonium, neptunium, uranium and strontium. The decontamination factors as well as single standard deviation values for each sorbate are reported. These values are applicable within the sorbate and sodium concentrations used in the experimental measurements. Decreasing the MST concentration in the ARP from 0.4 g/L to 0.2 g/L will produce an increase in the filter flux, and could lead to longer operating times between filter cleaning. The increase in flux is a function of a number of operating parameters, and is difficult to quantify. However, it is estimated that the reduction in MST could result in a reduction of filtration time of up to 20%.

  7. Structural insights into the activation of MST3 by MO25

    PubMed Central

    Mehellou, Youcef; Alessi, Dario R.; Macartney, Thomas J.; Szklarz, Marta; Knapp, Stefan; Elkins, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    The MO25 scaffolding protein operates as critical regulator of a number of STE20 family protein kinases (e.g. MST and SPAK isoforms) as well as pseudokinases (e.g. STRAD isoforms that play a critical role in activating the LKB1 tumour suppressor). To better understand how MO25 interacts and stimulates the activity of STE20 protein kinases, we determined the crystal structure of MST3 catalytic domain (residues 19–289) in complex with full length MO25β. The structure reveals an intricate web of interactions between MST3 and MO25β that function to stabilise the kinase domain in a closed, active, conformation even in the absence of ATP or an ATP-mimetic inhibitor. The binding mode of MO25β is reminiscent of the mechanism by which MO25α interacts with the pseudokinase STRADα. In particular we identified interface residues Tyr223 of MO25β and Glu58 and Ile71 of MST3 that when mutated prevent activation of MST3 by MO25β. These data provide molecular understanding of the mechanism by which MO25 isoforms regulates the activity of STE20 family protein kinases. PMID:23296203

  8. Extrastriate Area MST and Parietal Area VIP Similarly Represent Forward Headings

    PubMed Central

    Maciokas, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have documented the involvement of medial superior temporal extrastriate area (MST) in the perception of heading based on optic flow information. Furthermore, both heading perception and the responses of MST neurons are relatively stable in the presence of eye movements that distort the retinal flow information on which perception is based. Area VIP in the posterior parietal cortex also contains a robust representation of optic flow cues for heading. However, the studies in the two areas were frequently conducted using different stimuli, making quantitative comparison difficult. To remedy this, we studied MST using a family of random dot heading stimuli that we have previously used in the study of VIP. These stimuli simulate observer translation through a three-dimensional cloud of points, and a range of forward headings was presented both with and without horizontal smooth pursuit eye movements. We found that MST neurons, like VIP neurons, respond robustly to these stimuli and partially compensate for the presence of pursuit. Quantitative comparison of the responses revealed no substantial difference between the heading responses of MST and VIP neurons or in their degree of pursuit tolerance. PMID:20427618

  9. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  10. Hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for the multisystemic lysosomal storage disorder cystinosis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Frank; Yeagy, Brian A; Rocca, Celine J; Kohn, Donald B; Salomon, Daniel R; Cherqui, Stephanie

    2013-02-01

    Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease that belongs to the family of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). The defective gene is CTNS encoding the lysosomal cystine transporter, cystinosin. Cystine accumulates in all tissues and leads to organ damage including end-stage renal disease. Using the Ctns(-/-) murine model for cystinosis, we tested the use of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) genetically modified to express a functional CTNS transgene using a self-inactivating-lentiviral vector (SIN-LV). We showed that transduced cells were capable of decreasing cystine content in all tissues and improved kidney function. Transduced HSPC retained their differentiative capabilities, populating all tissue compartments examined and allowing long-term expression of the transgene. Direct correlation between the levels of lentiviral DNA present in the peripheral blood and the levels present in tissues were demonstrated, which could be useful to follow future patients. Using a new model of cystinosis, the DsRed Ctns(-/-) mice, and a LV driving the expression of the fusion protein cystinosin-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), we showed that cystinosin was transferred from CTNS-expressing cells to Ctns-deficient adjacent cells in vitro and in vivo. This transfer led to cystine decreases in Ctns-deficient cells in vitro. These data suggest that the mechanism of cross-correction is possible in cystinosis.

  11. Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar (PANSY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Sato, Toru; Nakamura, Takuji; Saito, Akinori; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Koji; Kohma, Masashi; Yamagishi, Hisao; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    The PANSY radar is the first Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere/Incoherent Scatter (MST/IS) radar in the Antarctic region. It is a large VHF monostatic pulse Doppler radar operating at 47 MHz, consisting of an active phased array of 1045 Yagi antennas and an equivalent number of transmit-receive (TR) modules with a total peak output power of 500 kW. The first stage of the radar was installed at Syowa Station (69°00‧S, 39°35‧E) in early 2011, and is currently operating with 228 antennas and modules. This paper reports the project's scientific objectives, technical descriptions, and the preliminary results of observations made to date. The radar is designed to clarify the role of atmospheric gravity waves at high latitudes in the momentum budget of the global circulation in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere, and to explore the dynamical aspects of unique polar phenomena such as polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). The katabatic winds as a branch of Antarctic tropospheric circulation and as an important source of gravity waves are also of special interest. Moreover, strong and sporadic energy inputs from the magnetosphere by energetic particles and field-aligned currents can be quantitatively assessed by the broad height coverage of the radar which extends from the lower troposphere to the upper ionosphere. From engineering points of view, the radar had to overcome restrictions related to the severe environments of Antarctic research, such as very strong winds, limited power availability, short construction periods, and limited manpower availability. We resolved these problems through the adoption of specially designed class-E amplifiers, light weight and tough antenna elements, and versatile antenna arrangements. Although the radar is currently operating with only about a quarter of its full designed system components, we have already obtained interesting results on the Antarctic troposphere, stratosphere and

  12. Antarctic meteor observations using the Davis MST and meteor radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, David A.; Murphy, Damian J.; Reid, Iain M.; Morris, Ray J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the meteor observations obtained using two radars installed at Davis (68.6°S, 78.0°E), Antarctica. The Davis MST radar was installed primarily for observation of polar mesosphere summer echoes, with additional transmit and receive antennas installed to allow all-sky interferometric meteor radar observations. The Davis meteor radar performs dedicated all-sky interferometric meteor radar observations. The annual count rate variation for both radars peaks in mid-summer and minimizes in early Spring. The height distribution shows significant annual variation, with minimum (maximum) peak heights and maximum (minimum) height widths in early Spring (mid-summer). Although the meteor radar count rate and height distribution variations are consistent with a similar frequency meteor radar operating at Andenes (69.3°N), the peak heights show a much larger variation than at Andenes, while the count rate maximum-to-minimum ratios show a much smaller variation. Investigation of the effects of the temporal sampling parameters suggests that these differences are consistent with the different temporal sampling strategies used by the Davis and Andenes meteor radars. The new radiant mapping procedure of [Jones, J., Jones, W., Meteor radiant activity mapping using single-station radar observations, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 367(3), 1050-1056, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10025.x, 2006] is investigated. The technique is used to detect the Southern delta-Aquarid meteor shower, and a previously unknown weak shower. Meteoroid speeds obtained using the Fresnel transform are presented. The diurnal, annual, and height variation of meteoroid speeds are presented, with the results found to be consistent with those obtained using specular meteor radars. Meteoroid speed estimates for echoes identified as Southern delta-Aquarid and Sextantid meteor candidates show good agreement with the theoretical pre-atmospheric speeds of these showers (41 km s -1 and 32 km s -1

  13. Impact of MST on the Rheology of the Neutralized Am/Cm Slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.; Peters, T.B.

    2001-08-20

    The americium (Am) and curium (Cm) solution, currently stored in F-Canyon Tank 17.1 will be neutralized and diluted prior to addition to High Level Waste (HLW) sludge batch 3 to eliminate the cost and uncertainty of processing and vitrifying this solution. One of the processing alternatives involves the addition of monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb any soluble Am, Cm or Pu present in the slurry. This paper discusses the impact of the MST on the rheology of the neutralized Am/Cm slurry.

  14. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  15. STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SORPTION BY MST AND MMST UNDER CONDITIONS REVELANT TO THE SMALL COLUMN ION-EXCHANGE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.; Poirier, M.

    2011-05-06

    A series of tests were performed to examine the kinetics of Sr and actinide removal by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) under mixing conditions similar to what will be provided in the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Program. Similar removal kinetics were seen for two different mixing energies, indicating that under these conditions bulk solution transport is not the rate limiting step for Sr and actinide removal. Sr removal was found to be rapid for both MST and mMST, reaching steady-state conditions within six hours. In contrast, at least six weeks is necessary to reach steady-state conditions for Pu with MST. For mMST, steady-state conditions for Pu were achieved within two weeks. The actual contact time required for the SCIX process will depend on starting sorbate concentrations as well as the requirements for the decontaminated salt solution. During testing leaks occurred in both the MST and mMST tests and evidence of potential desorption was observed. The desorption likely occurred as a result of the change in solids to liquid phase ratio that occurred due to the loss of solution. Based on these results, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommended additional testing to further study the effect of changing phase ratios on desorption. This testing is currently in progress and results will be documented in a separate report.

  16. The Effects of Family Therapies for Adolescent Delinquency and Substance Abuse: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Scott A.; Christian, Sarah; Berkeljon, Arjan; Shadish, William R.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes results from k = 24 studies comparing either Brief Strategic Family Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, Multidimensional Family Therapy, or Multisystemic Therapy to either treatment-as-usual, an alternative therapy, or a control group in the treatment of adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. Additionally, the…

  17. PDCD10 interacts with Ste20-related kinase MST4 to promote cell growth and transformation via modulation of the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xi; Zhao, Hongshan; Shan, Jingxuan; Long, Feng; Chen, Yaoyao; Chen, Yingyu; Zhang, Yingmei; Han, Xiao; Ma, Dalong

    2007-06-01

    PDCD10 (programmed cell death 10, TFAR15), a novel protein associated with cell apoptosis has been recently implicated in mutations associated with Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCM). Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that PDCD10 interacts with MST4, a member of Ste20-related kinases. This interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization assays in mammalian cells. Furthermore, the co-overexpression of PDCD10 and MST4 promoted cell proliferation and transformation via modulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Potent short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against PDCD10 (siPDCD10) and MST4 (siMST4) were designed to specifically inhibit the expression of PDCD10 and MST4 mRNA, respectively. The induction of siPDCD10 or siMST4 resulted in decreased expression of endogenous PDCD10 or MST4, which was accompanied by reduced ERK activity and attenuated cell growth and anchorage-independent growth. On the other hand, siMST4 had similar effects in PDCD10-overexpressed cells. And more importantly, we confirmed that either overexpressing or endogenous PDCD10 can increase the MST4 kinase activity in vitro. Our results demonstrated that PDCD10 modulation of ERK signaling was mediated by MST4, and PDCD10 could be a regulatory adaptor necessary for MST4 function, suggesting a link between cerebral cavernous malformation pathogenesis and the ERK-MAPK cascade via PDCD10/MST4.

  18. Neonatal-Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease Responsive to Interleukin-1β Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Dailey, Natalie J.; Canna, Scott W.; Gelabert, Ana; Jones, Janet; Rubin, Benjamin I.; Kim, H. Jeffrey; Brewer, Carmen; Zalewski, Christopher; Wiggs, Edythe; Hill, Suvimol; Turner, Maria L.; Karp, Barbara I.; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Pucino, Frank; Penzak, Scott R.; Haverkamp, Margje H.; Stein, Leonard; Adams, Barbara S.; Moore, Terry L.; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C.; Shaham, Bracha; Jarvis, James N.; O’Neil, Kathleen; Vehe, Richard K.; Beitz, Laurie O.; Gardner, Gregory; Hannan, William P.; Warren, Robert W.; Horn, William; Cole, Joe L.; Paul, Scott M.; Hawkins, Philip N.; Pham, Tuyet Hang; Snyder, Christopher; Wesley, Robert A.; Hoffmann, Steven C.; Holland, Steven M.; Butman, John A.; Kastner, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease is characterized by fever, urticarial rash, aseptic meningitis, deforming arthropathy, hearing loss, and mental retardation. Many patients have mutations in the cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome 1 (CIAS1) gene, encoding cryopyrin, a protein that regulates inflammation. METHODS We selected 18 patients with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (12 with identifiable CIAS1 mutations) to receive anakinra, an interleukin-1–receptor antagonist (1 to 2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day subcutaneously). In 11 patients, anakinra was withdrawn at three months until a flare occurred. The primary end points included changes in scores in a daily diary of symptoms, serum levels of amyloid A and C-reactive protein, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate from baseline to month 3 and from month 3 until a disease flare. RESULTS All 18 patients had a rapid response to anakinra, with disappearance of rash. Diary scores improved (P<0.001) and serum amyloid A (from a median of 174 mg to 8 mg per liter), C-reactive protein (from a median of 5.29 mg to 0.34 mg per deciliter), and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate decreased at month 3 (all P<0.001), and remained low at month 6. Magnetic resonance imaging showed improvement in cochlear and leptomeningeal lesions as compared with baseline. Withdrawal of anakinra uniformly resulted in relapse within days; retreatment led to rapid improvement. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Daily injections of anakinra markedly improved clinical and laboratory manifestations in patients with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, with or without CIAS1 mutations. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00069329.) PMID:16899778

  19. 26. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC3W MST STATION 63 (TOP SERVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC-3W MST STATION 63 (TOP SERVICE STATION FOR DELIVERY VEHICLE) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER SHOWING REMOVABLE SAFETY RAILS SURROUNDING CENTRAL OPENING, PULLEY AND WINCH SYSTEM FOR RAISING SERVICE PLATFORM, AND PLATFORM HINGES - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE NORTH DOORS AT TOP; WEST DOOR MOTOR DISCONNECT ABOVE ACTUATOR; WINCH AND PULLEY SYSTEM AT BOTTOM; HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT ABOVE WINCHES; MOTOR COMPRESSOR FOR DOORS ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. High-Repetition-Rate Laser for Thomson Scattering on the MST Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, William C.; Morton, L. A.; Parke, E.; den Hartog, D. J.; MST Team

    2013-10-01

    The MST Thomson scattering diagnostic has operated with a new, high-repetition-rate laser system, demonstrating 2 J pulses at repetition rates up to 50 kHz. The pulse repetition rate can maintain 2 J pulses for bursts of 5 kHz (sustained for 5 ms), to 50 kHz (for 10 bursts of 240 μs each). The 1064 nm laser currently employs a q-switched, diode pumped Nd:YVO4 master oscillator, four Nd:YAG amplifier stages, and a Nd:glass amplifier. The future implementation of the full laser as designed, including a second Nd:glass amplifier, is expected to produce bursts of 2 J pulses at a repetition rate of at least 250 kHz. The new laser integrates with the same collection optics and detectors as used by the present MST Thomson scattering system: 21 spatial points across the MST minor radius with sensitivity over a 10 eV-5 keV range. Initial results will be presented from application of this diagnostic to parametric scans of MST plasmas, evolution of energy confinement during spontaneous enhanced confinement periods, and non-Maxwellian electron distributions. Work Supported by the U. S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation.

  2. '"My Land, Your Social Transformation": Conflicts within the Landless People Movement (MST), Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldeira, Rute

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian "Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra" (MST) is one of the best-known and most prominent rural social movements. The unequal distribution of land in Brazil, and the neglect of this problem by successive Brazilian governments contributed greatly to the organisation of rural movements striving for the implementation…

  3. 63. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST AND LAUNCH DECK SHOWING FLAME BUCKET AND DELUGE CHANNEL. RETENTION BASIN IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 2. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST SHOWING FLAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST SHOWING FLAME BUCKET BENEATH LAUNCH DECK, AND DELUGE CHANNEL. THEODOLITE SHELTER (BLDG. 786) IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. 64. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST, LAUNCH DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST, LAUNCH DECK, AND FLAME BUCKET FROM DELUGE CHANNEL. NOTE SQUARED CORNERS OF FLAME BUCKET. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Mesospheric wave number spectra from Poker Flat MST radar measurements compared with gravity-wave model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Fritts, D. C.; Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a comparison of mesospheric wind fluctuation spectra computed from radial wind velocity estimates made by the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar are compared with a gravity-wave model developed by VanZandt (1982, 1985). The principal conclusion of this comparison is that gravity waves can account for 80% of the mesospheric power spectral density.

  7. PHLPP1 regulates contact inhibition by dephosphorylating Mst1 at the inhibitory site

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Sujin; Kang, Jeong Gu; Lee, Ju Hee; Song, Kyoung Jin; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Sam

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • PHLPP1 regulates contact inhibition by dephosphorylating Mst1 at Thr{sup 387}. • Overexpression of PHLPP1 sensitizes contact inhibition. • Tumor cells with suppressed PHLPP1 expression are refractory to apoptosis and highly proliferative. • Loss or down-regulation of PHLPP1 may drive tumor development and progression. - Abstract: Contact inhibition has been largely elusive despite that a loss of contact inhibition is a critical event for cancer development and progression. Here, we report that PHLPP1 is a binding protein for Mst1 and it modulates the Hippo pathway by dephosphorylating Mst1 at the inhibitory Thr{sup 387} of Mst1. Yap1 was localized predominantly in the nucleus but marginally in the cytoplasm in HeLa cells under sparse conditions, whereas the functional protein was more directed to sequestration in the cytoplasm under dense environments. Furthermore, loss of PHLPP1 resulted in a failure of the apoptotic control. It is interesting that down-regulated expression of PHLPP1 appears to mimic the loss of contact inhibition, a hallmark of cancer.

  8. 37. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC3W MST STATION 85.5 FROM NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC-3W MST STATION 85.5 FROM NORTHEAST CORNER SHOWING PLATFORM CONTROLS IN SOUTHWEST CORNER, COMMUNICATION STATION AND ELEVATOR ON WEST SIDE. STRETCH SLING CYLINDER PRESSURE GAUGE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF STATION 78 VISIBLE THROUGH CENTRAL OPENING. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 22. DOOR CONTROL BOX AT STATION 70.5 OF MST FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DOOR CONTROL BOX AT STATION 70.5 OF MST FOR CONTROL OF SOUTH DOORS. NITROGEN PRESSURE REGULATOR ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Empirical vs. Expected IRT-Based Reliability Estimation in Computerized Multistage Testing (MST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yanwei; Breithaupt, Krista; Tessema, Aster; Chuah, David

    2006-01-01

    Two IRT-based procedures to estimate test reliability for a certification exam that used both adaptive (via a MST model) and non-adaptive design were considered in this study. Both procedures rely on calibrated item parameters to estimate error variance. In terms of score variance, one procedure (Method 1) uses the empirical ability distribution…

  11. 39. NORTH WALL OF MST AT STATION 124. 480VOLT MASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. NORTH WALL OF MST AT STATION 124. 480-VOLT MASTER POWER SHUTOFF AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS FOR CRANE NORTH DOORS/CRANE SOUTH DOORS ON LEFT; FOR BRIDGE CRANE AND DUCT HEATER 122 ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 21. STATION 70.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. AIRCONDITIONING DUCT AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. STATION 70.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. AIR-CONDITIONING DUCT AT TOP; POWER BOX ON RIGHT; WINCH ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 36. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC3W MST STATION 85.5 FROM SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC-3W MST STATION 85.5 FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER SHOWING REMOVABLE SAFETY RAILS AROUND CENTRAL OPENING, STRETCH SLING CYLINDER, AND PULLEY ON WEST SIDE, AIR-CONDITIONING DUCTING IN NORTHWEST CORNER, PLATFORM SEGMENTS AND HINGES - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 9. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS OPEN AND SERVICE PLATFORMS RAISED. LAUNCHER VISIBLE BELOW LOWEST SET OF ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 30. DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR SLC3W MST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR SLC-3W MST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. CONTROL PANEL LOCATED IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF STATION 70.5. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Reframing the Public in Public Education: The Landless Workers Movement (MST) and Adult Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapliyal, Nisha

    2013-01-01

    Education for rural Brazilians has historically been dominated by two imperatives: human capital and political patronage. For the last four decades, the Landless Workers Movement (MST) have maintained a struggle to democratise public education and democracy itself. In this article, I make a situated analysis of the educational politics of the MST…

  17. [The involvement of pulmonary interstitial tissue in multisystemic lupus erythematosus: interdisciplinarity and role of the pneumologists].

    PubMed

    Salvati, F

    2015-01-01

    The Author remarks the interstitial lung involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. This secondary respiratory manifestation is infrequent as well as the consequent pulmonary hypertension making it possible to miss or delay the diagnosis. Therefore the interdisciplinary evaluation of the multisystemic disease lupus erythematosus needs. In this context the role of the pneumologists is relevant for the global treatment of the patients with LES in particular as concerns the early detection of the clinical and functional respiratory symptoms as well as the appropriate treatment plan within their specialistic competence.

  18. Evaluation of no-MST operations in the SRS ARP for Hanford LAWPS

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.

    2016-11-14

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Actinide Removal Process has been processing salt waste since 2008. This process includes a filtration step in the 512-S facility. Initial operations included the addition, or strike, of monosodium titanate (MST) to remove soluble actinides and strontium. The added MST and any entrained sludge solids were then separated from the supernate by cross flow filtration. During this time, the filter operations have, on many occasions, been the bottleneck process limiting the rate of salt processing. Recently, 512-S- has started operations utilizing “No-MST” where the MST actinide removal strike was not performed and the supernate was simply pre-filtered prior to Cs removal processing. Direct filtration of decanted tank supernate, as demonstrated in 512-S, is the proposed method of operation for the Hanford Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) facility. Processing decanted supernate without MST solids has been demonstrated for cross flow filtration to provide a significant improvement in production with the SRS Salt Batches 8 and 9 feed chemistries. The average filtration rate for the first 512-S batch processing cycle using No-MST has increased filtrate production by over 35% of the historical average. The increase was sustained for more than double the amount of filtrate batches processed before cleaning of the filter was necessary. While there are differences in the design of the 512-S and Hanford filter systems, the 512-S system should provide a reasonable indication of LAWPS filter performance with similar feed properties. Based on the data from the 512-S facility and with favorable feed properties, the LAWPS filter, as currently sized at over twice the size of the 512-S filter (532 square feet filtration area versus 235 square feet), has the potential to provide sustained filtrate production at the upper range of the planned LAWPS production rate of 17 gpm.

  19. Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela; Martinelli, Diego; Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Nobili, Valerio; Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico; and others

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

  20. Multisystemic Eosinophilia Resembling Hypereosinophilic Syndrome in a Colony-Bred Owl Monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    PubMed Central

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Rosenberg, Helene F; Elkins, William R; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    In animals, multisystemic eosinophilic disease is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in various organs. This disorder resembles the human disease known as hypereosinophilic syndrome, a condition defined by prolonged peripheral eosinophilia in the absence of recognizable etiology and associated with end-organ damage. In this report we describe a research-naïve, colony-born, juvenile female owl monkey (Aotus vociferans) who presented clinically with severe respiratory distress and histologically with multiple end-organ infiltration with phenotypically mature eosinophils, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. No tumors or infectious agents were noted either macroscopically or microscopically. Cultures from lung samples revealed no bacteria or fungi. Histologic examination of lung, heart, thymus, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, and colon revealed no migrating nematode larvae, other parasites, or foreign material that might trigger eosinophilia, nor was there any evidence of or history consistent with an allergic etiology. Given that we ruled out most exogenous and endogenous triggers of eosinophilia, the signs, symptoms, and pathologic findings support the diagnosis of multisystemic eosinophilic disease. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of presumptive hypereosinophilic syndrome in a nonhuman primate. PMID:19476722

  1. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

  2. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multifocal bone lesions: comparative clinical features between single and multi-systems.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Shinsaku; Kinugawa, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Akinobu; Kitoh, Toshiyuki; Ohki, Kentaro; Shioda, Yoko; Tsunematsu, Yukiko; Imamura, Toshihiko; Morimoto, Akira

    2009-11-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can be a single system or multi-system disease. Both disease types can be associated with multi-focal bone lesions, but their bone involvement patterns have not been compared systematically. Of the new pediatric LCH cases enrolled into the JLSG-02 study during 2002-2007, 67 cases of single system multifocal bone (SMFB) LCH and 97 cases of multi-system bone (MSB) LCH were analyzed to determine if the bone involvement patterns differ in these two types, and whether these differences correlate with outcome. Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test, and other measures. Onset ages were higher for SMFB (P < 0.001), but the two types did not differ in the number of bone lesions per patient. The skull was most frequently affected in both types, followed by the spine. Lesions in the temporal bone (P = 0.002), ear-petrous bone (P < 0.001), orbita (P = 0.003), and zygomatic bone (P = 0.016) were significantly more common in MSB. The two types did not differ in response to treatment, but MSB was associated with a significantly higher incidence of diabetes insipidus (DI) (P < 0.001). Novel measures are required in preventing the development of DI in MSB-type LCH patients with "risk" bone lesions.

  3. Corticosteroid Responsive Sarcoidosis with Multisystemic Involvement Years after Initial Diagnosis: A Lymphoma Mimicker on 18-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Turker; Savas, Recep; Kocacelebi, Kenan; Ucan, Eyup Sabri

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic inflammatory disease characterized by noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas. 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computer tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is increasingly used in routine clinical practice to assess active sarcoidosis because it can detect active inflammatory granulomatous disease. However, active sarcoidosis lesions are observed to be hypermetabolic on FDG-PET/CT much like malignancies, which may lead to misinterpretation on imaging. In this case report, we present a rare case of sarcoidosis with multisystem involvement including lung, lymph nodes, bone, pleura, and soft tissue that mimicked lymphoma on FDG-PET/CT and responded to corticosteroid treatment. PMID:26312138

  4. Transtracheal oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Kent L; Schwartz, Michael D

    2011-02-01

    Transtracheal oxygen therapy (TTO) has been used for long-term oxygen therapy for nearly 30 years. Numerous investigators have explored the potential benefits of TTO. Those results are reviewed in this article. TTO is best viewed not as a catheter but as a program for care. This article discusses patient selection for TTO. Publications evaluating complications are reviewed. In the past, a modified Seldinger technique (MST) was used for the creation of the tracheocutaneous fistula. The rather long program required for tract maturation with MST was labor-intensive and required substantial patient education and monitoring, particularly during the immature tract phase. Minor complications were not infrequent. More recently, the Lipkin method has been used to create a surgical tract under conscious sedation with topical anesthesia. The procedure is safe and well tolerated. Transtracheal oxygen is initiated the day following the procedure. Similarly, the tract matures in 7 to 10 days rather than the 6 to 8 weeks with MST. More rapid healing time and superior tract characteristics substantially reduce complications. The TTO program tailored for the Lipkin procedure is shortened, streamlined, and much less labor-intensive. Optimal outcomes with the TTO program require a committed pulmonologist, respiratory therapist, nurse, and surgeon (for the Lipkin procedure). This article discusses new directions in the use of transtracheal gas delivery, including the management of obstructive sleep apnea. Preliminary investigations regarding transtracheal augmented ventilation are presented. These include nocturnal use in severe chronic lung disease and liberation from prolonged mechanical ventilation.

  5. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure to Bed Rest Deconditioning: Pilot Study Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Young, L. R.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient, effective, multi-system countermeasures will likely be required to protect the health, safety, and performance of crews aboard planned exploration-class space flight missions to Mars and beyond. To that end, NASA, DLR, and IMBP initiated a multi-center international project to begin systematically exploring the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure in ground based venues using test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. The goal of this project is to explore the efficacy of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensory-motor adaptations to hypogravity. This session reports the results from a pilot study commissioned to validate a standardized protocol to be used by all centers involved in the project. Subject selection criteria, medical monitoring requirements, medical care procedures, experiment control procedures, and standardized dependent measures were established jointly. Testing was performed on 15 rigorously screened male volunteers subjected to 21 days of 6deg HDT bed rest. (All provided written consent to volunteer after the nature of the study and its hazards were clearly explained to them.) Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple tests of multiple dependent measures were made in each of the primary physiological systems of interest during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period was complete. Analyses of these data (presented in other papers in this session) suggest the AG prescription had salutary effects on aspects of the bone, muscle, and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Furthermore, treatment subjects were able to tolerate 153/160 centrifuge sessions over

  6. Capabilities and limitations of the Jicamarca radar as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.; Farley, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    The Jicamarca radar (Long. 76.52W, Lat. 11.56S), located at 20 km from Lima at approximately 500 meters over sea level, is surrounded by mountains which provide a good shield from man-made interference. The radio horizon goes from a few hundred meters, across the dry valley where it is located, to 15 km, along the valley in the direction of the continental divide. This limits the clutter to 15 km, except for one high peak at 21 km. It is the most equatorial of all existing MST radars. Its proximity to the Andes, makes its location unique for the study of lee waves and orographic-induced turbulence. Vertical as well as horizontal projections of MST velocities are obtained by simultaneously pointing with different sections of the antenna into three or four different directions. The transmitters, receivers, and systems for data acquisition, processing, and control are included.

  7. The economics of data acquisition computers for ST and MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Some low cost options for data acquisition computers for ST (stratosphere, troposphere) and MST (mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere) are presented. The particular equipment discussed reflects choices made by the University of Alaska group but of course many other options exist. The low cost microprocessor and array processor approach presented here has several advantages because of its modularity. An inexpensive system may be configured for a minimum performance ST radar, whereas a multiprocessor and/or a multiarray processor system may be used for a higher performance MST radar. This modularity is important for a network of radars because the initial cost is minimized while future upgrades will still be possible at minimal expense. This modularity also aids in lowering the cost of software development because system expansions should rquire little software changes. The functions of the radar computer will be to obtain Doppler spectra in near real time with some minor analysis such as vector wind determination.

  8. A note on the use of coherent integration in periodogram analysis of MST radar signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of coherent integration on the periodogram method to estimate the power spectra of MST radar signals is examined. The spectrum estimate usually is biased, even when care is taken to reduce the aliasing effects. Due to this bias, the signal power for Doppler shifted signals is underestimated by as much as 4 dB. The use of coherent integration in reducing the effect of aliased power line harmonics is pointed out.

  9. Probing RFP Density Limits and the Interaction of Pellet Fueling and NBI Heating on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspary, K. J.; Chapman, B. E.; Anderson, J. K.; Limbach, S. T.; Oliva, S. P.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Combs, S. K.; Foust, C. R.

    2013-10-01

    Pellet fueling on MST has previously achieved Greenwald fractions of up to 1.5 in 200 kA improved confinement discharges. Additionally, pellet fueling to densities above the Greenwald limit in 200 kA standard discharges resulted in early termination of the plasma, but pellet size was insufficient to exceed the limit for higher current discharges. To this end, the pellet injector on MST has been upgraded to increase the maximum fueling capability by increasing the size of the pellet guide tubes, which constrain the lateral motion of the pellet in flight, to accommodate pellets of up to 4.0 mm in diameter. These 4.0 mm pellets are capable of triggering density limit terminations for MST's peak current of 600 kA. An unexpected improvement in the pellet speed and mass control was also observed compared to the smaller diameter pellets. Exploring the effect of increased density on NBI particle and heat deposition shows that for MST's 1 MW tangential NBI, core deposition of 25 keV neutrals is optimized for densities of 2-3 × 1019 m-3. This is key for beta limit studies in pellet fueled discharges with improved confinement where maximum NBI heating is desired. An observed toroidal deflection of pellets injected into NBI heated discharges is consistent with asymmetric ablation due to the fast ion population. In 200 kA improved confinement plasmas with NBI heating, pellet fueling has achieved a Greenwald fraction of 2.0. Work supported by US DoE.

  10. Multi-System Effects of Daily Artificial Gravity Exposures in Humans Deconditioned by Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2007-01-01

    We have begun to explore the utility of intermittent artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure to the untoward health and performance effects of adaptation to decreased gravity during prolonged space flight. The first study in this exploration was jointly designed by an international, multi-disciplinary team of scientists interested in standardizing an approach so that comparable data could be obtained from follow-on studies performed in multiple international locations. Fifteen rigorously screened male volunteers participated in the study after providing written informed consent. All were subjected to 21 days of 6deg head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple observations were made of dependent measures in the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immune, and behavioral systems during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period. Comparisons between the treatment and control subjects demonstrated salutary effects of the AG exposure on aspects of the muscle and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Bone deconditioning was similar between the treatment and control groups, suggesting that the loading provided by this specific AG paradigm was insufficient to protect that system from deconditioning. Future work will be devoted to varying the loading duty cycle and/or coupling the AG loading with exercise to provide maximum physiological protection across all systems. Testing will also be extended to female subjects. The results of this study suggest that intermittent AG could be an effective multi-system countermeasure.

  11. Turbulent diffusivity in the free atmosphere inferred from MST radar measurements: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R.

    2004-11-01

    The actual impact on vertical transport of small-scale turbulence in the free atmosphere is still a debated issue. Numerous estimates of an eddy diffusivity exist, clearly showing a lack of consensus. MST radars were, and continue to be, very useful for studying atmospheric turbulence, as radar measurements allow one to estimate the dissipation rates of energy (kinetic and potential) associated with turbulent events. The two commonly used methods for estimating the dissipation rates, from the backscattered power and from the Doppler width, are discussed. The inference methods of a local diffusivity (local meaning here "within" the turbulent patch) by using the dissipation rates are reviewed, with some of the uncertainty causes being stressed. Climatological results of turbulence diffusivity inferred from radar measurements are reviewed and compared. As revealed by high resolution MST radar measurements, atmospheric turbulence is intermittent in space and time. Recent theoretical works suggest that the effective diffusivity of such a patchy turbulence is related to statistical parameters describing the morphology of turbulent events: filling factor, lifetime and height of the patches. It thus appears that a statistical description of the turbulent patches' characteristics is required in order to evaluate and parameterize the actual impact of small-scale turbulence on transport of energy and materials. Clearly, MST radars could be an essential tool in that matter.

  12. Parametric dependence and inductive control of 3D helical equilibria in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B. E.; den Hartog, D. J.; Kumar, S. T. A.; Nornberg, M.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Cappello, S.; Franz, P.; Piovesan, P.; Puiatti, M.; Spolaore, M.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.

    2012-10-01

    A stellarator-like equilibrium emerges in the core of RFP plasmas when the innermost resonant m = 1 tearing mode grows to large amplitude and the other, secondary m = 1 mode amplitudes are reduced. In MST, the likelihood and duration of these quasi-single-helicity (QSH) spectra increase strongly with Ip, similar to the trend observed in RFX-mod RFP plasmas which also develop a helical equilibrium. However, the Ip at which these spectra emerge in MST is nearly three times smaller than in RFX-mod. But due to additional differences in Te, Zeff, majority ion mass, and density, the two devices share a similar range of Lundquist number, S > 6 x 10^5, an important dimensionless parameter in resistive MHD, suggesting that S may be a predictive parameter for the onset of the helical equilibrium. At the largest S in MST, the amplitude of the dominant mode reaches 8% of the equilibrium field strength. The simultaneous reduction in secondary mode amplitudes leads to an increase in energy confinement time, reaching > 1 ms, about 50% larger than lower-S plasmas lacking a QSH spectrum. The secondary modes are reduced even further when the surface parallel electric field is inductively increased. This leads to a central Te > 1 keV and an energy confinement time ˜ 3 ms. There is also a 6 keV/m Te gradient in the core. Supported by USDOE.

  13. A new active array MST radar system with enhanced capabilities for high resolution atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durga rao, Meka; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Patra, Amit; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Narayana Rao, T.; Kamaraj, Pandian; Jayaraj, Katta; Kmv, Prasad; Kamal Kumar, J.; Raghavendra, J.; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Thriveni, A.; Yasodha, Polisetti

    2016-07-01

    A new version of the 53-MHz MST Radar, using the 1024 solid state Transmit-Receive Modules (TRM), necessary feeder network, multi-channel receiver and a modified radar controller has been established using the existing antenna array of 1024 crossed Yagis. The new system has been configured for steering the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis in all 360o azimuth and 20o zenith angle, providing enhanced capability to study the Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere and Ionosphere. The multi channel receiver system has been designed for Spaced Antenna (SA) and Interferometry/ Iamging applications. The new system has also been configured for radiating in circular polarization for its application in the Ionosphere Incoherent Scatter mode. The new active array MST radar at Very-High-Frequency (53-MHz) located at Gadanki (13.45°N, 79.18°E), a tropical station in India, will be used to enhance the observations of winds, turbulence during the passage of convective events over the radar site as deep convection occurs very often at tropical latitudes. The new configuration with enhanced average power, beam agility with multi-channel experiments will be a potential source for studying middle atmosphere and ionosphere. In this paper, we present the system configuration, new capabilities and the first results obtained using the new version of the MST Radar.

  14. Measuring viscosity with a resonant magnetic perturbation in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridström, Richard; Munaretto, Stefano; Frassinetti, Lorenzo; Chapman, Brett; Brunsell, Per; Sarff, John; MST Team

    2016-10-01

    Application of an m = 1 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) causes braking and locking of naturally rotating m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) in the MST RFP. The experimental TM dynamics are replicated by a theoretical model including the interaction between the RMP and multiple TMs [Fridström PoP 23, 062504 (2016)]. The viscosity is the only free parameter in the model, and it is chosen such that model TM velocity evolution matches that of the experiment. The model does not depend on the means by which the natural rotation is generated. The chosen value of the viscosity, about 40 m2/s, is consistent with separate measurements in MST using a biased probe to temporarily spin up the plasma. This viscosity is about 100 times larger than the classical prediction, likely due to magnetic stochasticity in the core of these plasmas. Viscosity is a key parameter in visco-resistive MHD codes like NIMROD. The validation of these codes requires measurement of the viscosity over a broad parameter range, which will now be possible with the RMP technique that, unlike the biased probe, is not limited to low-energy-density plasmas. Estimation with the RMP technique of the viscosity in several MST discharges suggests that the viscosity decreases as the electron beta increases. Work supported by USDOE.

  15. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Qureshi, Z.

    2011-01-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that MST can be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations).

  16. Quantitative Simulations of MST Visual Receptive Field Properties Using a Template Model of Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Perrone, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    We previously developed a template model of primate visual self-motion processing that proposes a specific set of projections from MT-like local motion sensors onto output units to estimate heading and relative depth from optic flow. At the time, we showed that that the model output units have emergent properties similar to those of MSTd neurons, although there was little physiological evidence to test the model more directly. We have now systematically examined the properties of the model using stimulus paradigms used by others in recent single-unit studies of MST: 1) 2-D bell-shaped heading tuning. Most MSTd neurons and model output units show bell-shaped heading tuning. Furthermore, we found that most model output units and the finely-sampled example neuron in the Duffy-Wurtz study are well fit by a 2D gaussian (sigma approx. 35deg, r approx. 0.9). The bandwidth of model and real units can explain why Lappe et al. found apparent sigmoidal tuning using a restricted range of stimuli (+/-40deg). 2) Spiral Tuning and Invariance. Graziano et al. found that many MST neurons appear tuned to a specific combination of rotation and expansion (spiral flow) and that this tuning changes little for approx. 10deg shifts in stimulus placement. Simulations of model output units under the same conditions quantitatively replicate this result. We conclude that a template architecture may underlie MT inputs to MST.

  17. Advanced control of MST's poloidal field with a programmable power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B. E.; Holly, D. J.; McCollam, K. J.; Morin, J. C.; Sarff, J. S.; Squitieri, A.; Anderson, J. K.; Seltzman, A. H.

    2015-11-01

    One thrust of the MST program is to advance inductive control for the development of both the RFP's fusion potential and the predictive capability of fusion science. This entails programmable power supplies (PPS's) for the Bt and Bp circuits. A Bt PPS is in place, and a Bp PPS is being designed. Together, these supplies will provide inductive capability rivaling that of any fusion device in the world. To better inform the design of the Bp PPS, and to demonstrate some of the new capabilities that will be provided, the existing Bt PPS has been connected to MST's Bp circuit. While limited to lower voltage and current than the planned Bp PPS, this has already more than quadrupled the Ip flattop duration. It has also allowed access to very low Ip, down to 20 kA, substantially increasing MST's range of Lundquist number, important for the validation of MHD computational models. Low Ip has also allowed electron energization by high-harmonic EBW. At higher Ip, work has begun on self-similar ramp-down of Ip, a potential route to improved confinement. Work supported by U.S.D.O.E.

  18. Suppression of runaway electrons with a resonant magnetic perturbation in MST tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaretto, Stefano; Chapman, B. E.; Almagri, A. F.; Cornille, B. S.; Dubois, A. M.; Goetz, J. A.; McCollam, K. J.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-10-01

    Runaway electrons generated in MST tokamak plasmas are now being probed with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP's). An RMP with m =3 strongly suppresses the runaway electrons. Initial modeling of these plasmas with NIMROD shows the degradation of flux surfaces with an m =3 RMP, which may account for the runaway electron suppression. These MST tokamak plasmas have Bt =0.14 T, Ip =50kA, and q(a) =2.2, with a bulk electron density and temperature of 5x1017 m-3 and 150 eV. Runaway electrons are detected via x-ray emission. The RMP is produced by a poloidal array of 32 saddle coils at the narrow vertical insulated cut in MST's thick conducting shell. Each RMP has a single m but a broad n spectrum. A sufficiently strong m =3 RMP completely suppresses the runaway electrons, while a comparable m =1 RMP has little effect. The impact of the RMP's on the magnetic topology of these plasmas is being studied with the nonlinear MHD code, NIMROD. With an m =3 RMP, stochasticity is introduced in the outer third of the plasma. No such change is observed with the m =1 RMP. NIMROD also predicts regularly occurring sawtooth oscillations with a period comparable to MHD activity observed in the experiment. Work supported by USDOE.

  19. Long-Read Single Molecule Sequencing to Resolve Tandem Gene Copies: The Mst77Y Region on the Drosophila melanogaster Y Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Krsticevic, Flavia J.; Schrago, Carlos G.; Carvalho, A. Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The autosomal gene Mst77F of Drosophila melanogaster is essential for male fertility. In 2010, Krsticevic et al. (Genetics 184: 295−307) found 18 Y-linked copies of Mst77F (“Mst77Y”), which collectively account for 20% of the functional Mst77F-like mRNA. The Mst77Y genes were severely misassembled in the then-available genome assembly and were identified by cloning and sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The genomic structure of the Mst77Y region and the possible existence of additional copies remained unknown. The recent publication of two long-read assemblies of D. melanogaster prompted us to reinvestigate this challenging region of the Y chromosome. We found that the Illumina Synthetic Long Reads assembly failed in the Mst77Y region, most likely because of its tandem duplication structure. The PacBio MHAP assembly of the Mst77Y region seems to be very accurate, as revealed by comparisons with the previously found Mst77Y genes, a bacterial artificial chromosome sequence, and Illumina reads of the same strain. We found that the Mst77Y region spans 96 kb and originated from a 3.4-kb transposition from chromosome 3L to the Y chromosome, followed by tandem duplications inside the Y chromosome and invasion of transposable elements, which account for 48% of its length. Twelve of the 18 Mst77Y genes found in 2010 were confirmed in the PacBio assembly, the remaining six being polymerase chain reaction−induced artifacts. There are several identical copies of some Mst77Y genes, coincidentally bringing the total copy number to 18. Besides providing a detailed picture of the Mst77Y region, our results highlight the utility of PacBio technology in assembling difficult genomic regions such as tandemly repeated genes. PMID:25858959

  20. Long-Read Single Molecule Sequencing to Resolve Tandem Gene Copies: The Mst77Y Region on the Drosophila melanogaster Y Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Krsticevic, Flavia J; Schrago, Carlos G; Carvalho, A Bernardo

    2015-04-09

    The autosomal gene Mst77F of Drosophila melanogaster is essential for male fertility. In 2010, Krsticevic et al. (Genetics 184: 295-307) found 18 Y-linked copies of Mst77F ("Mst77Y"), which collectively account for 20% of the functional Mst77F-like mRNA. The Mst77Y genes were severely misassembled in the then-available genome assembly and were identified by cloning and sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The genomic structure of the Mst77Y region and the possible existence of additional copies remained unknown. The recent publication of two long-read assemblies of D. melanogaster prompted us to reinvestigate this challenging region of the Y chromosome. We found that the Illumina Synthetic Long Reads assembly failed in the Mst77Y region, most likely because of its tandem duplication structure. The PacBio MHAP assembly of the Mst77Y region seems to be very accurate, as revealed by comparisons with the previously found Mst77Y genes, a bacterial artificial chromosome sequence, and Illumina reads of the same strain. We found that the Mst77Y region spans 96 kb and originated from a 3.4-kb transposition from chromosome 3L to the Y chromosome, followed by tandem duplications inside the Y chromosome and invasion of transposable elements, which account for 48% of its length. Twelve of the 18 Mst77Y genes found in 2010 were confirmed in the PacBio assembly, the remaining six being polymerase chain reaction-induced artifacts. There are several identical copies of some Mst77Y genes, coincidentally bringing the total copy number to 18. Besides providing a detailed picture of the Mst77Y region, our results highlight the utility of PacBio technology in assembling difficult genomic regions such as tandemly repeated genes.

  1. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood.

  2. BRAVEMIND: Advancing the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan PTSD Exposure Therapy for MST

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    ambient atmospheric, weather , lighting, and audio settings, in addition to the introduction of strategic trigger stimuli, all within the standard clinical... Acoustic startle response, skin conductance, and heart rate will be assessed during a viewing of three VR scenes. The VR scenes will be presented...using the EMG module of the Biopac MP150 for Windows (Biopac Systems, Inc., Aero Camino, CA).  The acoustic startle response (eye blink component

  3. Differential expression of MST4, STK25 and PDCD10 between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heyu; Ma, Xi; Peng, Saihui; Nan, Xu; Zhao, Hongshan

    2014-01-01

    Both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PC) are common diseases for men around the world. Both serine/threonine protein kinase MST4 (MST4) and serine/threonine kinase 25 (STK25) belong to the Ste20-like kinases and interact with programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10) which is closely linked to cancer diseases. To clarify the roles of MST4, STK25 and PDCD10 in prostate carcinogenesis, we examined MST4, STK25 and PDCD10 expression in tissue microarray blocks containing 110 cores of BPH and 160 cores of PC immunohistochemically and evaluated their correlation with clinicopathological findings. MST4 was not expressed in all the BPH cases and expressed in 38.7% of PC cases (P < 0.0001). STK25 expression was found in 77.3% of BPH cases and 93.1% of PC cases (P < 0.0001). PDCD10 staining was considered weak in 82 (74.5%) and strong in 28 (25.5%) of BPH cases. However, in prostate cancer cases, PDCD10 staining was weak in 95 (59.4%) and strong in 65 (40.6%) (P < 0.05). PDCD10 and STK25 immunostaining were associated with age in prostatic hyperplasia cases (P < 0.05). The staining intensity for STK25 was significantly greater in Gleason grades 3-5 (47.1% of such cases staining strongly) compared with other grades of prostate cancer (only 26.5% of these cases staining strongly; P < 0.05). Our results suggest that MST4, STK25 and PDCD10 are unregulated in prostate cancer and may play roles in prostate tumorigenesis. MST4 may be a helpful marker for identifying prostate cancer.

  4. Sugar exchanges in arbuscular mycorrhiza: RiMST5 and RiMST6, two novel Rhizophagus irregularis monosaccharide transporters, are involved in both sugar uptake from the soil and from the plant partner.

    PubMed

    Ait Lahmidi, Nassima; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brulé, Daphnée; Chatagnier, Odile; Arnould, Christine; Doidy, Joan; Berta, Graziella; Lingua, Guido; Wipf, Daniel; Bonneau, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are associated with about 80% of land plants. AM fungi provide inorganic nutrients to plants and in return up to 20% of the plant-fixed CO2 is transferred to the fungal symbionts. Since AM fungi are obligate biotrophs, unraveling how sugars are provided to the fungus partner is a key for understanding the functioning of the symbiosis. In this study, we identified two new monosaccharide transporters from Rhizophagus irregularis (RiMST5 and RiMST6) that we characterized as functional high affinity monosaccharide transporters. RiMST6 was characterized as a glucose specific, high affinity H(+) co-transporter. We provide experimental support for a primary role of both RiMST5 and RiMST6 in sugar uptake directly from the soil. The expression patterns of RiMSTs in response to partial light deprivation and to interaction with different host plants were investigated. Expression of genes coding for RiMSTs was transiently enhanced after 48 h of shading and was unambiguously dependent on the host plant species. These results cast doubt on the 'fair trade' principle under carbon-limiting conditions. Therefore, in light of these findings, the possible mechanisms involved in the modulation between mutualism and parasitism in plant-AM fungus interactions are discussed.

  5. The Drosophila chromosomal protein Mst77F is processed to generate an essential component of mature sperm chromatin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In most animals, the bulk of sperm DNA is packaged with sperm nuclear basic proteins (SNBPs), a diverse group of highly basic chromosomal proteins notably comprising mammalian protamines. The replacement of histones with SNBPs during spermiogenesis allows sperm DNA to reach an extreme level of compaction, but little is known about how SNBPs actually function in vivo. Mst77F is a Drosophila SNBP with unique DNA condensation properties in vitro, but its role during spermiogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that Mst77F is required for the compaction of sperm DNA and the production of mature sperm, through its cooperation with protamine-like proteins Mst35Ba/b. We demonstrate that Mst77F is incorporated in spermatid chromatin as a precursor protein, which is subsequently processed through the proteolysis of its N-terminus. The cleavage of Mst77F is very similar to the processing of protamine P2 during human spermiogenesis and notably leaves the cysteine residues in the mature protein intact, suggesting that they participate in the formation of disulfide cross-links. Despite the rapid evolution of SNBPs, sperm chromatin condensation thus involves remarkably convergent mechanisms in distantly related animals. PMID:27810970

  6. Effect of food on the comparative pharmacokinetics of modified-release morphine tablet formulations: Oramorph SR and MST Continus

    PubMed Central

    DRAKE, J.; KIRKPATRICK, C. T.; ALIYAR, C. A.; CRAWFORD, F. E.; GIBSON, P.; HORTH, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    The relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of Oramorph SR (OSR) and MST Continus (MST), were evaluated by a randomized, four-way cross-over study in 24 healthy, male volunteers given single oral (30 mg) doses whilst fasting or after a high-fat breakfast. Mean Cmax, tmax, AUC(0,24h), AUC and tlag were significantly greater in fed compared with fasting subjects. Overall relative bioavailability of the two formulations (log AUC), was within the acceptable 80–125% limits for bioequivalence both fed and fasting. Mean fasting Cmax for OSR was greater than MST (P<0.05) but there was no difference between formulations in mean fed Cmax. No statistically significant difference between OSR and MST was found for other parameters nor in the incidence of adverse events. These results suggest that OSR and MST are bioequivalent and that if patients were to transfer between formulations, dosage adjustment would be unnecessary, irrespective of their meal schedules or food intake. PMID:8735684

  7. An Open and Shut Case: The Interaction of Magnesium with MST Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The shikimate pathway of bacteria, fungi, and plants generates chorismate, which is drawn into biosynthetic pathways that form aromatic amino acids and other important metabolites, including folates, menaquinone, and siderophores. Many of the pathways initiated at this branch point transform chorismate using an MST enzyme. The MST enzymes (menaquinone, siderophore, and tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes) are structurally homologous and magnesium-dependent, and all perform similar chemical permutations to chorismate by nucleophilic addition (hydroxyl or amine) at the 2-position of the ring, inducing displacement of the 4-hydroxyl. The isomerase enzymes release isochorismate or aminodeoxychorismate as the product, while the synthase enzymes also have lyase activity that displaces pyruvate to form either salicylate or anthranilate. This has led to the hypothesis that the isomerase and lyase activities performed by the MST enzymes are functionally conserved. Here we have developed tailored pre-steady-state approaches to establish the kinetic mechanisms of the isochorismate and salicylate synthase enzymes of siderophore biosynthesis. Our data are centered on the role of magnesium ions, which inhibit the isochorismate synthase enzymes but not the salicylate synthase enzymes. Prior structural data have suggested that binding of the metal ion occludes access or egress of substrates. Our kinetic data indicate that for the production of isochorismate, a high magnesium ion concentration suppresses the rate of release of product, accounting for the observed inhibition and establishing the basis of the ordered-addition kinetic mechanism. Moreover, we show that isochorismate is channeled through the synthase reaction as an intermediate that is retained in the active site by the magnesium ion. Indeed, the lyase-active enzyme has 3 orders of magnitude higher affinity for the isochorismate complex relative to the chorismate complex. Apparent negative-feedback inhibition by ferrous

  8. Terminology and global standardization of endoscopic information: Minimal Standard Terminology (MST).

    PubMed

    Fujino, Masayuki A; Bito, Shigeru; Takei, Kazuko; Mizuno, Shigeto; Yokoi, Hideto

    2006-01-01

    Since 1994, following the leading efforts by the European Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Organisation Mondiale d'Endoscopie Digestive (OMED) has succeeded in compiling minimal number of terms required for computer generation of digestive endoscopy reports nicknamed MST (Minimal Standard Terminology). Though with some insufficiencies, and though developed only for digestive endoscopy, MST has been the only available terminology that is globally standardized in medicine. By utilizing the merits of a unified, structured terminology that can be used in multiple languages we can utilize the data stored in different languages as a common database. For this purpose, a standing, terminology-managing organization that manages and maintains and, when required, expands the terminology on a global level, is absolutely necessary. Unfortunately, however, the organization that performs version control of MST (OMED terminology, standardization and data processing committee) is currently suspending its activity. Medical practice of the world demands more and more specialization, with resultant needs for information exchange among specialized territories. As the cooperation between endoscopy and pathology has become currently the most important problem in the Endoscopy Working Group of Integrating Healthcare Enterprise-Japan (IHE-J,) the cooperation among different specialties is essential. There are DICOM or HL7 standards as the protocols for storage, and exchange (communication) of the data, but there is yet no organization that manages the terminology itself astride different specialties. We hereby propose to establish, within IEEE, for example, a system that promotes standardization of the terminology that can transversely describe a patient, and that can control different societies and groups, as far as the terminology is concerned.

  9. Studying small molecule-aptamer interactions using MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST).

    PubMed

    Entzian, Clemens; Schubert, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Aptamers are potent and versatile binding molecules recognizing various classes of target molecules. Even challenging targets such as small molecules can be identified and bound by aptamers. Studying the interaction between aptamers and drugs, antibiotics or metabolites in detail is however difficult due to the lack of sophisticated analysis methods. Basic binding parameters of these small molecule-aptamer interactions such as binding affinity, stoichiometry and thermodynamics are elaborately to access using the state of the art technologies. The innovative MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST) is a novel, rapid and precise method to characterize these small molecule-aptamer interactions in solution at microliter scale. The technology is based on the movement of molecules through temperature gradients, a physical effect referred to as thermophoresis. The thermophoretic movement of a molecule depends - besides on its size - on charge and hydration shell. Upon the interaction of a small molecule and an aptamer, at least one of these parameters is altered, leading to a change in the movement behavior, which can be used to quantify molecular interactions independent of the size of the target molecule. The MST offers free choice of buffers, even measurements in complex bioliquids are possible. The dynamic affinity range covers the pM to mM range and is therefore perfectly suited to analyze small molecule-aptamer interactions. This section describes a protocol how quantitative binding parameters for aptamer-small molecule interactions can be obtained by MST. This is demonstrated by mapping down the binding site of the well-known ATP aptamer DH25.42 to a specific region at the adenine of the ATP molecule.

  10. Application of the quantum mechanical IEF/PCM-MST hydrophobic descriptors to selectivity in ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Ginex, Tiziana; Muñoz-Muriedas, Jordi; Herrero, Enric; Gibert, Enric; Cozzini, Pietro; Luque, F Javier

    2016-06-01

    We have recently reported the development and validation of quantum mechanical (QM)-based hydrophobic descriptors derived from the parametrized IEF/PCM-MST continuum solvation model for 3D-QSAR studies within the framework of the Hydrophobic Pharmacophore (HyPhar) method. In this study we explore the applicability of these descriptors to the analysis of selectivity fields. To this end, we have examined a series of 88 compounds with inhibitory activities against thrombin, trypsin and factor Xa, and the HyPhar results have been compared with 3D-QSAR models reported in the literature. The quantitative models obtained by combining the electrostatic and non-electrostatic components of the octanol/water partition coefficient yield results that compare well with the predictive potential of standard CoMFA and CoMSIA techniques. The results also highlight the potential of HyPhar descriptors to discriminate the selectivity of the compounds against thrombin, trypsin, and factor Xa. Moreover, the graphical representation of the hydrophobic maps provides a direct linkage with the pattern of interactions found in crystallographic structures. Overall, the results support the usefulness of the QM/MST-based hydrophobic descriptors as a complementary approach for disclosing structure-activity relationships in drug design and for gaining insight into the molecular determinants of ligand selectivity. Graphical Abstract Quantum Mechanical continuum solvation calculations performed with the IEF/PCM-MST method are used to derived atomic hydrophobic descriptors, which are then used to discriminate the selectivity of ligands against thrombin, trypsin and factor Xa. The descriptors provide complementary view to standard 3D-QSAR analysis, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of ligand recognition.

  11. Isolation of circovirus from lesions of pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J; Hassard, L; Clark, E; Harding, J; Allan, G; Willson, P; Strokappe, J; Martin, K; McNeilly, F; Meehan, B; Todd, D; Haines, D

    1998-01-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), an apparently new disease, has been recognized in swine herds in western Canada. Young pigs with this disease have progressive weight loss, tachypnea, dyspnea, and jaundice, accompanied by interstitial pneumonia, lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, and nephritis. We examined more than 400 pigs from more than 70 herds in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba with cases of PMWS. A small virus was isolated from a range of tissues from 8 of 8 affected pigs examined. The agent was identified as a circovirus-like virus using electron microscopy, immunohistochemical staining with porcine and rabbit immune serum, and in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemical examination of tissues from more than 100 affected pigs has revealed widespread viral antigen, often contained in circovirus-like inclusion bodies, in lesions from numerous organs. Although Koch's postulates remain to be fulfilled, these results demonstrate a high degree of association between the presence of the circovirus-like virus and PMWS in affected swine. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. PMID:9442952

  12. A multisystemic Acanthamoeba infection in a dog in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Valladares, María; Reyes-Batlle, María; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; Comyn-Afonso, Estefanía; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Maciver, Sutherland K; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-10-15

    A 22-month-old male Spanish water dog was hospitalized after its physical examination revealed fever and movement difficulty. After 24h, the dog was found to have a high fever (39.5 °C) and was treated empirically with doxycycline/ciprofloxacin. At 48 h, after submission the fever rose to 41 °C and the animal presented with a stiff neck and dehydration. Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were sampled and trophozoites with an Acanthamoeba-like morphology were observed in the CSF. PCR specific for Acanthamoeba, Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris were performed and the CSF sample found positive for Acanthamoeba. Lungs, kidney, liver and spleen samples were collected post mortem. All collected organ samples were positive for Acanthamoeba by PCR, thus confirming a multisystemic infection. Water samples taken at a suspected site of infection yielded an almost identical PCR fragment to those of the clinical samples, indicating that this was probably where the infection originated. This is the first report of a fatal case of Acanthamoeba disseminated infection in a dog in Spain.

  13. Lack of evidence of conserved lentiviral sequences in pigs with post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bratanich, A; Lairmore, M; Heneine, W; Konoby, C; Harding, J; West, K; Vasquez, G; Allan, G; Ellis, J

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of retroviruses in the recently described porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) serum and leukocytes were screened for reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, and tissues were examined for the presence of conserved lentiviral sequences using degenerate primers in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum and stimulated leukocytes from the blood and lymph nodes from pigs with PMWS, as well as from control pigs had RT activity that was detected by the sensitive Amp-RT assay. A 257-bp fragment was amplified from DNA from the blood and bone marrow of pigs with PMWS. This fragment was identical in size to conserved lentiviral sequences that were amplified from plasmids containing DNA from several lentiviruses. Cloning and sequencing of the fragment from affected pigs, however, did not reveal homology with the recognized lentiviruses. Together the results of these analyses suggest that the RT activity present in tissues from control and affected pigs is the result of endogenous retrovirus expression, and that a lentivirus is not a primary pathogen in PMWS. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480463

  14. Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome—Hypermobility Type: A Much Neglected Multisystemic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gazit, Yael; Jacob, Giris; Grahame, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS)—hypermobility type (HT) is considered to be the most common subtype of EDS and the least severe one; EDS-HT is considered to be identical to the joint hypermobility syndrome and manifests with musculoskeletal complaints, joint instability, and soft tissue overuse injury. Musculoskeletal complaints manifest with joint pain of non-inflammatory origin and/or spinal pain. Joint instability leads to dislocation or subluxation and involves peripheral joints as well as central joints, including the temporomandibular joints, sacroiliac joints, and hip joints. Soft tissue overuse injury may lead to tendonitis and bursitis without joint inflammation in most cases. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome-HT carries a high potential for disability due to recurrent dislocations and subluxations and chronic pain. Throughout the years, extra-articular manifestations have been described, including cardiovascular, autonomic nervous system, gastrointestinal, hematologic, ocular, gynecologic, neurologic, and psychiatric manifestations, emphasizing the multisystemic nature of EDS-HT. Unfortunately, EDS-HT is under-recognized and inadequately managed, leading to neglect of these patients, which may lead to severe disability that almost certainly could have been avoided. In this review article we will describe the known manifestations of the extra-articular systems. PMID:27824552

  15. Adolescent pregnancy: combating the problem from a multi-systemic health perspective.

    PubMed

    Atwood, J D; Donnelly, J W

    1993-01-01

    Presented is a multi-systemic theoretical model of adolescent pregnancy that incorporates the school-peer-family-community systems and defines a role for health educators. It is noted that teenagers receive conflicting messages from the adolescent socialization community--all the institutions, individuals, and mass media that influence and shape development. To cope with these multiple, inconsistent messages, many adolescents respond with inconsistent behavior given the impossibility of pleasing all sources of influence. Health educators must coordinate the school-peer-family-community systems to achieve more congruence and less competition surrounding inputs into the daily life of young people. The potential to disseminate sex education is greatest in the school context, where information can be provided on a systematic, regular basis to reinforce learning. Since peers are a major reference group during adolescence, per counseling can be used effectively to discuss factors that lead to unwanted pregnancy and help clarify values. Sex education programs are strengthened by the involvement of parents, and interventions aimed at promoting parent-child communication around sexual issues have been demonstrated to delay the onset of sexual activity. The availability of an adolescent health clinic, either in the school or close by, has been shown to reduce adolescent pregnancy. Overall, the most effective adolescent pregnancy prevention programs are those that are comprehensive in substance and duration.

  16. Neuroimaging to Investigate Multisystem Involvement and Provide Biomarkers in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pradat, Pierre-François; El Mendili, Mohamed-Mounir

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging allows investigating the extent of neurological systems degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Advanced MRI methods can detect changes related to the degeneration of upper motor neurons but have also demonstrated the participation of other systems such as the sensory system or basal ganglia, demonstrating in vivo that ALS is a multisystem disorder. Structural and functional imaging also allows studying dysfunction of brain areas associated with cognitive signs. From a biomarker perspective, numerous studies using diffusion tensor imaging showed a decrease of fractional anisotropy in the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract but its diagnostic value at the individual level remains limited. A multiparametric approach will be required to use MRI in the diagnostic workup of ALS. A promising avenue is the new methodological developments of spinal cord imaging that has the advantage to investigate the two motor system components that are involved in ALS, that is, the lower and upper motor neuron. For all neuroimaging modalities, due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of ALS, larger pooled banks of images with standardized image acquisition and analysis procedures are needed. In this paper, we will review the main findings obtained with MRI, PET, SPECT, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ALS. PMID:24949452

  17. Judging sound rotation when listeners and sounds rotate: Sound source localization is a multisystem process.

    PubMed

    Yost, William A; Zhong, Xuan; Najam, Anbar

    2015-11-01

    In four experiments listeners were rotated or were stationary. Sounds came from a stationary loudspeaker or rotated from loudspeaker to loudspeaker around an azimuth array. When either sounds or listeners rotate the auditory cues used for sound source localization change, but in the everyday world listeners perceive sound rotation only when sounds rotate not when listeners rotate. In the everyday world sound source locations are referenced to positions in the environment (a world-centric reference system). The auditory cues for sound source location indicate locations relative to the head (a head-centric reference system), not locations relative to the world. This paper deals with a general hypothesis that the world-centric location of sound sources requires the auditory system to have information about auditory cues used for sound source location and cues about head position. The use of visual and vestibular information in determining rotating head position in sound rotation perception was investigated. The experiments show that sound rotation perception when sources and listeners rotate was based on acoustic, visual, and, perhaps, vestibular information. The findings are consistent with the general hypotheses and suggest that sound source localization is not based just on acoustics. It is a multisystem process.

  18. Protection of newborn calves against fatal multisystemic infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by feeding colostrum from vaccinated cows.

    PubMed Central

    Mechor, G D; Rousseaux, C G; Radostits, O M; Babiuk, L A; Petrie, L

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether consumption of colostrum with high levels of serum neutralizing antibody to bovine herpesvirus 1 would protect neonatal calves from the frequently fatal multisystemic form of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Holstein calves were fed for 48 h after birth with either pooled colostrum from seropositive vaccinated cows or colostrum from seronegative unvaccinated cows. The serum neutralizing antibody achieved in the former calves was between 64 and 256 and the titer in the latter calves was below 8. At 48 h of age the calves were challenged by aerosolization with bovine herpesvirus 1. All five seronegative calves died or were euthanized in a moribund state between days 5 and 7 of the trial, whereas all five seropositive animals remained healthy throughout the study. Twice daily clinical examination revealed significantly lower scores in the seronegative group from 60 h postinfection. Relative lung weights were greater in the seronegative group, associated with a severe acute necrotizing bronchiolitis with fibrin exudation. The seronegative group of calves also demonstrated an acute necrotizing rumenitis, pharyngitis, glossitis, esophagitis, laryngitis and tracheitis. The seropositive animals had only small areas of subacute necrotizing fibrinopurulent rhinitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1 virus was isolated from all nasal passages of all calves but isolation of virus in the seronegative calves was made from the trachea (5/5), lung (4/5), bronchial lymph nodes (4/5), spleen (4/5), thymus (3/5), liver (2/5), rumen (2/5) and brain (1/5).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2839276

  19. Ultrastructural findings in lymph nodes from pigs suffering from naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Cariño, C; Segalés, J

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate ultrastructural lesions in lymph nodes from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pigs and to correlate these alterations with detection of viral-like particles (VLPs). Samples of lymph nodes were taken from 4 PMWS-affected pigs and 2 healthy animals and processed by transmission electron microscopy. Significant ultrastructural alterations were only noted in PMWS-affected pigs, mainly in histiocytes and rarely in other cell types. Histiocytes showed severe swelling and proliferation of mitochondria, and proliferation and dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Infected histiocytes contained large numbers of intracytoplasmic inclusion (ICI) bodies with VLPs; some histiocytes also had intranuclear inclusions (INIs). Small inclusions were surrounded by double membrane, with a granular appearance or containing paracrystalline arrays; icosahedral VLPs were 8-17 nm in diameter. Large ICIs were double-membrane bounded or not and contained VLPs usually forming paracrystalline arrays. ICIs were often found next to mitochondria with severe swelling, and also inside them. INIs were not surrounded by membranes and contained virions of 10-13 nm diameter. Lymphocyte depletion was a striking finding of lymph nodes from PMWS-affected pigs. The inclusion bodies containing VLPs referred to in the present study should be classified as viral factories, suggesting that viral replication is probably a frequent event in macrophages, in which mitochondria might play a role.

  20. MS&T'13 Symposium Preview: Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Paramsothy, Muralidharan

    2013-08-01

    The Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites symposium at Materials Science & Technology 2013 (MS&T'13) conference is planned to provide a platform to researchers working on various aspects of composite materials and capture the state of the art in this area. The dialogue among leading researchers is expected to provide insight into the future of this field and identify the future directions in terms of research, development, and applications of composite materials. In the 2 day program, the symposium includes 34 presentations, including 10 invited presentations. The contributions have come from 16 different countries including USA, Mexico, Switzerland, India, Egypt, and Singapore.

  1. Mesospheric momentum fluxes observed by the MST radar at Poker Flat, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ding-Yi; Fritts, David C.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the wave motions observed with the Poker Flat MST radar during the winter, summer, and fall of 1986 is presented. Monthly and daily mean winds, momentum fluxes, and velocity variances are investigated in detail. While several features are in agreement with previous measurements, some significant differences also are found to exist in the observations. Monthly mean horizontal winds between 82 and 89 km have amplitudes of 20-40 m/s westward and 10-25 m/s southward in July and August. In fall and winter, the horizontal winds between 58 and 75 km are weaker and essentially eastward.

  2. Effect of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations on 3D equilibria in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaretto, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    The orientation of 3D, stellarator-like equilibria in the MST RFP can now be controlled with application of an m = 1 RMP. This has led to greatly improved diagnosis, revealing enhancements in both the central electron temperature and density. Coupled to a recent advance in the V3FIT code, reconstructions of the 3D equilibria have also been dramatically improved. The RMP also inhibits the generation of high-energy >20 keV electrons that is otherwise common with the 3D state. This state occurs when the normally broad spectrum of core-resonant m = 1 tearing modes condenses, with the innermost resonant mode growing to large amplitude, reaching ~ 8% of the axisymmetric field strength. This occurs in plasmas of sufficiently large Lundquist number ~ IpTe3/2, and the duration of the state is maximized with zero applied Bt (infinite toroidal beta). As the dominant mode grows, eddy current in MST's conducting shell slows the mode's rotation. This leads to locking of the 3D structure, but with an orientation that varies randomly shot to shot, making diagnosis difficult. An m = 1 RMP can now be applied with an array of saddle coils at the vertical insulated cut in the shell. With an amplitude br/B ~ 10% and a tailored temporal waveform, the RMP can force the 3D structure into any desired orientation relative to MST's diagnostics. A recent advance in V3FIT allows calculation of the substantial helical image current flowing in MST's shell, which has in turn allowed self-consistent utilization of both external and internal (Faraday rotation) measurements of the magnetic field. The ORBIT code predicts reduced stochasticity and improved confinement of high-energy electrons within the 3D structure. The suppression of these electrons by the m = 1 RMP may reflect a change to the central magnetic topology. The generation of these electrons is unaffected by non-resonant perturbations, such as m = 3. Supported by the US DOE.

  3. Emulating the visual receptive-field properties of MST neurons with a template model of heading estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, J. A.; Stone, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    We have proposed previously a computational neural-network model by which the complex patterns of retinal image motion generated during locomotion (optic flow) can be processed by specialized detectors acting as templates for specific instances of self-motion. The detectors in this template model respond to global optic flow by sampling image motion over a large portion of the visual field through networks of local motion sensors with properties similar to those of neurons found in the middle temporal (MT) area of primate extrastriate visual cortex. These detectors, arranged within cortical-like maps, were designed to extract self-translation (heading) and self-rotation, as well as the scene layout (relative distances) ahead of a moving observer. We then postulated that heading from optic flow is directly encoded by individual neurons acting as heading detectors within the medial superior temporal (MST) area. Others have questioned whether individual MST neurons can perform this function because some of their receptive-field properties seem inconsistent with this role. To resolve this issue, we systematically compared MST responses with those of detectors from two different configurations of the model under matched stimulus conditions. We found that the characteristic physiological properties of MST neurons can be explained by the template model. We conclude that MST neurons are well suited to support self-motion estimation via a direct encoding of heading and that the template model provides an explicit set of testable hypotheses that can guide future exploration of MST and adjacent areas within the superior temporal sulcus.

  4. Density Fluctuation Induced Kinetic Dynamo and Tearing Mode Nonlinear Saturation in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Weixing; Lin, Liang; Duff, J. R.; Brower, D. L.; Sarff, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    In the MST reversed field pinch (RFP), the evolution of core tearing mode nonlinear evolution is partially determined by the electron current density profile along with nonlinear interactions among multiple tearing modes. Density fluctuations driven by intrinsic magnetic perturbations are usually large, approximately 1%, in RFP plasmas. These density fluctuations can modify the current density profile via the kinetic dynamo effect, defined as the correlated product of parallel electron pressure and radial magnetic field fluctuations, which alters the temporal dynamics of tearing modes in MST. A component of the kinetic dynamo originating from the correlated product of density and radial magnetic fluctuations has been measured using a high-speed, low phase noise polarimetry-interferometry diagnostic. Between sawtooth crashes it is found that the measured kinetic dynamo has finite amplitude that generates an anti-dynamo in the plasma core, which would tend to flatten the current density profile. These measurements suggest that density fluctuations passively driven by magnetic fluctuations can actively alter tearing modes via fluctuation-induced current transport. Work supported by US DOE and NSF.

  5. Measurements of beam-driven instabilities with the upgraded MST interferometer-polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parke, E.; Anderson, J. K.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.

    2016-10-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) in MST produces a core-localized fast ion population that modifies the plasma equilibrium and drives a rich variety of instabilities. These instabilities include energetic particle modes (EPMs) and Alfvénic modes that can produce an avalanche process leading to significantly enhanced fast ion transport, as well as chirping modes. The MST FIR interferometer-polarimeter system has high-bandwidth and low phase noise and has previously been used to characterize density fluctuations correlated with many of these instabilities, as well as internal magnetic fluctuations associated with the dominant, n = 5 EPM. However, many of the Alfvénic and chirping modes were too weak to observe in polarimetry measurements in previous studies. Recent upgrades to the interferometer-polarimeter have further reduced the noise floor and extended the accessible bandwidth for fluctuation measurements. Initial measurements of fast ion driven instabilities with the upgraded system will be presented. Improved measurements of internal structure may be important for understanding mode dynamics and particle transport. Work supported by U.S. D.O.E.

  6. Fast ion generation and runaway through magnetic reconnection events in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungha; Anderson, Jay; Capecchi, William; Bonofiglo, Phillip; Sears, Stephanie

    2016-10-01

    Fokker-Planck and full orbit modeling are used to investigate how global reconnection events in MST plasmas generate an anisotropic fast ion distribution. A multi-step process is hypothesized. First, thermal ions are heated by a perpendicular heating mechanism, possibly a stochastic process that relies on turbulent diffusion and strong radial electric fields, or ion cyclotron damping in the tearing-driven turbulent cascade. Second, a small fraction of the heated ions have sufficient speed to develop substantial guiding center drifts that are relatively immune to stochastic magnetic transport. In the RFP, these fast ion drift orbits are favorable to confinement. Finally, these fast ions are accelerated by a parallel inductive electric field (up to 80 V/m) associated with the abruptly changing magnetic equilibrium. This strong impulsive field does not include any magnetic-fluctuation-based contribution as experienced by thermal particles or electrons, which do not run away like fast ions. CQL3D, a Fokker-Planck solver, and RIO, a full orbit tracing code, are used to model this multi-step process that is responsible for anisotropy in fast ion distribution in MST. Work supported by US DOE. Supported by US DOE.

  7. Observation of Electron Bernstein Wave Heating in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzman, Andrew; Anderson, Jay; Dubois, Ami; Almagri, Abdulgader; Nonn, Paul; McCollam, Karsten; Chapman, Brett; Goetz, John; Forest, Cary

    2016-10-01

    We report the first observation of electron Bernstein wave heating in the MST RFP. Similar to a high density stellarator, the RFP is inaccessible to electromagnetic ECRH. The plasma current and |B|operating range of MST allows a 5.5 GHz RF source (100kW, 4ms pulse) to heat on the fundamental and up to 4th harmonic EC resonances. With an x-ray diagnostic most sensitive to edge electrons located +12 degrees toroidally from the antenna, the measured emission is a strong function of predicted heating inside versus outside the Bt =0 reversal layer of the RFP. Measured during a scan of plasma current, distinct edges in a plot of emissivity versus predicted deposition layer align with the deposition layers crossing of this reversal layer and confirm EBW heating on the fundamental through 4th EC harmonic. Additional confirmation of the absorption location has been demonstrated by using auxiliary poloidal current drive to reduce electron diffusion rates and sweep the location of the Bt =0 surface across a static RF absorption location in RFP discharges. In these discharges EBW enhancement of the 15-40keV x-ray energies has been observed. Work supported by USDOE.

  8. Prediction Models for Plutonium, Strontium, Uranium and Neptunium Loading onto Monosodium Titanate (MST)

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F. F.; Hobbs, D. T.; Barnes, M. J.; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-07-11

    The DA isotherm parameters for U, Pu, Sr and Np have been updated to include additional data obtained since the original derivation. The DA isotherms were modified to include a kinetic function derived by Rahn to describe sorbate loading from the beginning of sorption up to equilibrium. The final functions describe both kinetic and thermodynamic sorption. We selected the Rahn function to describe radionuclide sorption because it originates from diffusion and absorption controlled sorption. An investigation of the thermal behavior of radionuclide sorption on MST as shown by this data revealed the sorption process is diffusion (or transport) controlled (in solution). Transport in solution can in theory be accelerated by vigorous mixing but the range of available mixing speed in the facility design will probably not be sufficient to markedly increase radionuclide sorption rate on MST from diffusion-controlled sorption. The laboratory studies included mixing energies hydraulically-scaled to match those of the Actinide Removal Process and these likely approximate the range of energies available in the Salt Waste Processing Facility.

  9. Identification of an Island-induced Alfvén Eigenmode in MST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. K.; Cook, C. R.; Hegna, C. C.; Boguski, J.; Feng, R.; McCollam, K. M.; Sears, S. H.; Spong, D. A.; Hirshman, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    Recent theoretical work analytically computes the effect of a magnetic island on the shear Alfvén continuum and may explain unresolved Alfvénic activity observed in neutral beam-heated MST plasmas. Consideration of the previously-ignored core-localized n=5 island leads to theoretical Alfvén continua that provide a gap in which the observed n=4 Alfvénic bursts reside. Numerical simulations using the STELLGAP/AE3D codes, as well as a new code called SIESTAlfvén have identified the bursts as the first observation of an Island-induced Alfvén Eigenmode (IAE). The IAE arises from a helical coupling of mode numbers, similar to the helicity-induced Alfvén eigenmode, but occurs in the core of an island. The observed frequency of bursting n=4 Alfvénic modes fall within the island-induced gap over a wide range of MST operating parameters. Characteristics such as mode frequency, width and damping rate are measured as a function of experimentally-varied magnetic island width. Coincident bursts with toroidal mode number n=1 may exhibit frequency scaling of an Alfvénic eigenmode; the possibility of an island induced extremum mode is explored as an explanation. Work supported by US DoE under grants DE-FG02-99ER54546, DE-SC0006103 and DE-FC02-05ER54814.

  10. MST Fitness Index and implicit data narratives: A comparative test on alternative unsupervised algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscema, Massimo; Sacco, Pier Luigi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new methodology for the evaluation of alternative algorithms in capturing the deep statistical structure of datasets of different types and nature, called MST Fitness, and based on the notion of Minimum Spanning Tree (MST). We test this methodology on six different databases, some of which artificial and widely used in similar experimentations, and some related to real world phenomena. Our test set consists of eight different algorithms, including some widely known and used, such as Principal Component Analysis, Linear Correlation, or Euclidean Distance. We moreover consider more sophisticated Artificial Neural Network based algorithms, such as the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and a relatively new algorithm called Auto-Contractive Map (AutoCM). We find that, for our benchmark of datasets, AutoCM performs consistently better than all other algorithms for all of the datasets, and that its global performance is superior to that of the others of several orders of magnitude. It is to be checked in future research if AutoCM can be considered a truly general-purpose algorithm for the analysis of heterogeneous categories of datasets.

  11. Two-fluid Magnetic Relaxation in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triana, Joseph; Almagri, Af; McCollam, Kj; Sarff, Js; Sovinec, Cr

    2016-10-01

    Recent measurements and extended MHD simulations expose the importance of two-fluid physics in the relaxation and self-organization of the current and momentum profiles in RFP plasmas. A hallmark of relaxation is that the inductive electric field is not balanced by resistive dissipation, prompting the study of fluctuation-induced emfs in the generalized Ohm's law, E- ηJ =- +/ne, the two terms on the right known as the MHD and Hall dynamo terms, respectively. The Hall emf is measured in the outer half of the MST plasma minor radius using an armored deep-insertion probe. The emf matches previous measurements in the edge (r/a>0.8) but in the new region examined (0.8>r/a>0.6) it is much larger than E- ηJ, implying the MHD dynamo must also be large and oppositely directed. Recent nonlinear simulations that include two-fluid effects using the extended-MHD NIMROD code show complex radial structure for the emf terms, but the size of the measured Hall emf is much larger than predicted by the simulations. In the two-fluid model, the Hall dynamo couples to the parallel momentum as the mean-field Maxwell stress. The simulations predict relaxation of the parallel flow profiles that is also qualitatively consistent with measurements in MST plasmas. Work supported by US DoE and NSF.

  12. CoMStOC '92: The Coronal Magnetic Structures Observing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Holman, G. D.; Brosius, J. W.

    1992-05-01

    A primary goal of CoMStOC '92 is to directly measure the magnetic field strength and determine its structure in the solar corona, especially for pre- and post-flare active regions. New instrumentation and analysis techniques were combined with experience gained during a previous campaign to improve the observing strategies and data interpretation. 15 days of VLA observation were scheduled between 03 April -- 12 May 1992. Observations were also obtained by the instruments on the Japanese Yohkoh spacecraft, ground-based magnetographs, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. At the time of writing, the Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment rocket payload (M. Bruner, Lockheed) planned to launch and the Tunable Filter (T. Tarbell, Lockheed) planned to observe during the campaign. The basic CoMStOC method for determining the magnetic field is as follows: When the microwave emission is dominated by gyroresonance, the magnetic field strength is B(Gauss) = 357times nu (GHz)/n, where nu is the microwave observing frequency and n is the harmonic. When thermal bremsstrahlung dominates, the field is determined by the microwave polarization. Maps of the electron temperature and emission measure of the coronal plasma are made from images taken with the Soft X-ray Telescope on Yohkoh; these maps are then used to calculate which microwave emission mechanism dominates. Once this dominant mechanism is known, the magnetic field strength can be calculated. The values obtained using this method are then compared with extrapolations photospheric magnetograms into the corona. (*) NAS/NRC Resident Research Associate

  13. Simultaneous rocket and MST radar observation of an internal gravity wave breaking in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Fritts, D. C.; Balsley, B. B.; Philbrick, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    In June, 1983, the Structure and Atmospheric Turbulence Environment (STATE) rocket and Poker Flat Mesophere-Stratosphere-Troposphere radar campaign was conducted to measure the interaction between turbulence, electron density and electron density gradient that has produced unusually strong MST radar echoes from the summer mesosphere over Poker Flat, Alaska. Analysis or radar wind measurements and a concurrent wind and temperature profile obtained from a rocket probe carrying a three-axis accelerometer are given. The two data sets provide a fairly complete (and in some cases, redundant) picture of the breaking (or more correctly, the saturation) of a large-amplitude, low-frequency, long-wavelength internal gravity wave. The data show that small-scale turbulence and small-scale wave intensity is greatest at those altitudes where the large-scale wave-induced temperature lapse rate is most negative or most nearly unstable, but the wind shear due to the large-scale wave is a minimum. A brief review of linear gravity-wave theory is presented as an aid to the identification of the gravity-wave signature in the radar and rocket data. Analysis of the time and height cross sections of wind speed and turbulence intensity observed by the Poker Flat MST radar follows. Then, the vertical profile of temperature and winds measured by a rocket probe examined. Finally, the use of the independent data sets provided by the rocket and the radar are discussed and implications for theories of wave saturation are presented.

  14. First Absolutely Calibrated Localized Measurements of Ion Velocity in the MST in Locked and Rotating Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Munaretto, S.

    2015-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used on MST for high time-resolution passive and active measurements of impurity ion emission. Absolutely calibrated measurements of flow are difficult because the spectrometer records data within 0.3 nm of the C+5 line of interest, and commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range . A novel optical system was designed to absolutely calibrate the IDS. The device uses an UV LED to produce a broad emission curve in the desired region. A Fabry-Perot etalon filters this light, cutting transmittance peaks into the pattern of the LED emission. An optical train of fused silica lenses focuses the light into the IDS with f/4. A holographic diffuser blurs the light cone to increase homogeneity. Using this light source, the absolute Doppler shift of ion emissions can be measured in MST plasmas. In combination with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, localized ion velocities can now be measured. Previously, a time-averaged measurement along the chord bisecting the poloidal plane was used to calibrate the IDS; the quality of these central chord calibrations can be characterized with our absolute calibration. Calibration errors may also be quantified and minimized by optimizing the curve-fitting process. Preliminary measurements of toroidal velocity in locked and rotating plasmas will be shown. This work has been supported by the US DOE.

  15. First absolutely calibrated on-axis ion flow measurements in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, B.; Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nishizawa, T.; Nornberg, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    Improvements in absolute calibration techniques allow for the first direct measurements of the flow profile in the core of MST. We use both active charge exchange recombination spectroscopy and passive emission near 343 nm to measure ion temperature and flow. It is generally assumed that O VI is the brightest passive emission source. However, we show that there are cases, such as high temperature, pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) plasmas where the passive emission is dominated by C VI. Differences in the fine structure for O VI and C VI result in a systematic velocity error of about 12 km/s if the wrong model is assumed. Active measurements, however, are relatively insensitive to background model choice. The dominant source of error in active velocity measurements remains the systematic errors in calibration. The first absolutely calibrated, localized toroidal velocity measurements were obtained using an updated calibration technique. During PPCD, the on-axis ion flow is up to 40 km/s larger than both the n = 6 mode velocity and the line-averaged ion velocity. These measurements provide the first direct look at the flow profile in the core of MST. This work has been supported by the US DOE and the Wheaton College summer research program.

  16. Effect of anatomical variability on electric field characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a parametric modeling study.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H; Peterchev, Angel V

    2015-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) are conventionally applied with a fixed stimulus current amplitude, which may result in differences in the neural stimulation strength and focality across patients due to interindividual anatomical variability. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of head anatomical variability associated with age, sex, and individual differences on the induced electric field characteristics in ECT and MST. Six stimulation modalities were modeled including bilateral and right unilateral ECT, focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST), and MST with circular, cap, and double-cone coils. The electric field was computed using the finite element method in a parameterized spherical head model representing the variability in the general population. Head tissue layer thicknesses and conductivities were varied to examine the impact of interindividual anatomical differences on the stimulation strength, depth, and focality. Skull conductivity most strongly affects the ECT electric field, whereas the MST electric field is independent of tissue conductivity variation in this model but is markedly affected by differences in head diameter. Focal ECT electrode configurations such as FEAST is more sensitive to anatomical variability than that of less focal paradigms such as BL ECT. In MST, anatomical variability has stronger influence on the electric field of the cap and circular coils compared to the double-cone coil, possibly due to the more superficial field of the former. The variability of the ECT and MST electric fields due to anatomical differences should be considered in the interpretation of existing studies and in efforts to improve dosing approaches for better control of stimulation strength and focality across patients, such as individualization of the current amplitude. The conventional approach to individualizing dosage by titrating the number of pulses cannot compensate for differences in

  17. Integrated multisystem analysis in a mental health and criminal justice ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Erin; El-Hay, Tal; Alevras, Dimitris; Docherty, John; Yanover, Chen; Kalton, Alan; Goldschmidt, Yaara; Rosen-Zvi, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a serious mental illness often receive care that is fragmented due to reduced availability of or access to resources, and inadequate, discontinuous, and uncoordinated care across health, social services, and criminal justice organizations. These gaps in care may lead to increased mental health disease burden and relapse, as well as repeated incarcerations. Further, the complex health, social service, and criminal justice ecosystem within which the patient may be embedded makes it difficult to examine the role of modifiable risk factors and delivered services on patient outcomes, particularly given that agencies often maintain isolated sets of relevant data. Here we describe an approach to creating a multisystem analysis that derives insights from an integrated data set including patient access to case management services, medical services, and interactions with the criminal justice system. We combined data from electronic systems within a US mental health ecosystem that included mental health and substance abuse services, as well as data from the criminal justice system. We applied Cox models to test the associations between delivery of services and re-incarceration. Using this approach, we found an association between arrests and crisis stabilization services in this population. We also found that delivery of case management or medical services provided after release from jail was associated with a reduced risk for re-arrest. Additionally, we used machine learning to train and validate a predictive model linking non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors and outcomes. A predictive model, constructed using elastic net regularized logistic regression, and considering age, past arrests, mental health diagnosis, as well as use of a jail diversion program, outpatient, medical and case management services predicted the probability of re-arrests with fair accuracy (AUC=.67). By modeling the complex interactions between risk factors, service delivery and

  18. Isolated inclusion body myopathy caused by a multisystem proteinopathy–linked hnRNPA1 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Rumiko; Warita, Hitoshi; Niihori, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tateyama, Maki; Suzuki, Naoki; Nishiyama, Ayumi; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Funayama, Ryo; Nakayama, Keiko; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Nishino, Ichizo; Aoki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the genetic cause of isolated inclusion body myopathy (IBM) with autosomal dominant inheritance in 2 families. Methods: Genetic investigations were performed using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 gene (hnRNPA1). The clinical and pathologic features of patients in the 2 families were evaluated with neurologic examinations, muscle imaging, and muscle biopsy. Results: We identified a missense p.D314N mutation in hnRNPA1, which is also known to cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in 2 families with IBM. The affected individuals developed muscle weakness in their 40s, which slowly progressed toward a limb-girdle pattern. Further evaluation of the affected individuals revealed no apparent motor neuron dysfunction, cognitive impairment, or bone abnormality. The muscle pathology was compatible with IBM, lacking apparent neurogenic change and inflammation. Multiple immunohistochemical analyses revealed the cytoplasmic aggregation of hnRNPA1 in close association with autophagosomes and myonuclei. Furthermore, the aberrant accumulation was characterized by coaggregation with ubiquitin, sequestome-1/p62, valosin-containing protein/p97, and a variety of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Conclusions: The present study expands the clinical phenotype of hnRNPA1-linked multisystem proteinopathy. Mutations in hnRNPA1, and possibly hnRNPA2B1, will be responsible for isolated IBM with a pure muscular phenotype. Although the mechanisms underlying the selective skeletal muscle involvement remain to be elucidated, the immunohistochemical results suggest a broad sequestration of RBPs by the mutated hnRNPA1. PMID:27066560

  19. A multisystem approach for development and evaluation of inactivated vaccines for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV).

    PubMed

    Fine, Donald L; Jenkins, Erin; Martin, Shannon S; Glass, Pamela; Parker, Michael D; Grimm, Brad

    2010-02-01

    A multisystem approach was used to assess the efficiency of several methods for inactivation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine candidates. A combination of diverse assays (plaque, in vitro cytopathology and mouse neurovirulence) was used to verify virus inactivation, along with the use of a specific ELISA to measure retention of VEEV envelope glycoprotein epitopes in the development of several inactivated VEEV candidate vaccines derived from an attenuated strain of VEEV (V3526). Incubation of V3526 aliquots at temperatures in excess of 64 degrees C for periods >30 min inactivated the virus, but substantially reduced VEEV specific monoclonal antibody binding of the inactivated material. In contrast, V3526 treated either with formalin at concentrations of 0.1% or 0.5% (v/v) for 4 or 24 h, or irradiated with 50 kGy gamma radiation rendered the virus non-infectious while retaining significant levels of monoclonal antibody binding. Loss of infectivity of both the formalin inactivated (fV3526) and gamma irradiated (gV3526) preparations was confirmed via five successive blind passages on BHK-21 cells. Similarly, loss of neurovirulence for fV3526 and gV3526 was demonstrated via intracerebral inoculation of suckling BALB/c mice. Excellent protection against subcutaneous challenge with VEEV IA/B Trinidad donkey strain was demonstrated using a two dose immunization regimen with either fV3526 or gV3526. The combination of in vitro and in vivo assays provides a practical approach to optimize manufacturing process parameters for development of other inactivated viral vaccines.

  20. Integrated Multisystem Analysis in a Mental Health and Criminal Justice Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Erin; El-Hay, Tal; Alevras, Dimitris; Docherty, John; Yanover, Chen; Kalton, Alan; Goldschmidt, Yaara; Rosen-Zvi, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a serious mental illness often receive care that is fragmented due to reduced availability of or access to resources, and inadequate, discontinuous, and uncoordinated care across health, social services, and criminal justice organizations. These gaps in care may lead to increased mental health disease burden and relapse, as well as repeated incarcerations. Further, the complex health, social service, and criminal justice ecosystem within which the patient may be embedded makes it difficult to examine the role of modifiable risk factors and delivered services on patient outcomes, particularly given that agencies often maintain isolated sets of relevant data. Here we describe an approach to creating a multisystem analysis that derives insights from an integrated data set including patient access to case management services, medical services, and interactions with the criminal justice system. We combined data from electronic systems within a US mental health ecosystem that included mental health and substance abuse services, as well as data from the criminal justice system. We applied Cox models to test the associations between delivery of services and re-incarceration. Using this approach, we found an association between arrests and crisis stabilization services in this population. We also found that delivery of case management or medical services provided after release from jail was associated with a reduced risk for re-arrest. Additionally, we used machine learning to train and validate a predictive model linking non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors and outcomes. A predictive model, constructed using elastic net regularized logistic regression, and considering age, past arrests, mental health diagnosis, as well as use of a jail diversion program, outpatient, medical and case management services predicted the probability of re-arrests with fair accuracy (AUC=.67). By modeling the complex interactions between risk factors, service delivery and

  1. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure to Bed Rest Deconditioning: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Paloski, William H.; Young, L. R.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial gravity paradigms may offer effective, efficient, multi-system protection from the untoward effects of adaptation to the microgravity of space or the hypogravity of planetary surfaces. Intermittent artificial gravity (AG) produced by a horizontal short-radius centrifuge (SRC) has recently been utilized on human test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. This presentation will review preliminary results of a 41 day study conducted at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX bed rest facility. During the first eleven days of the protocol, subjects were ambulatory, but confined to the facility. They began a carefully controlled diet, and participated in multiple baseline tests of bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immunological, and psychological function. On the twelfth day, subjects entered the bed rest phase of the study, during which they were confined to strict 6deg head down tilt bed rest for 21 days. Beginning 24 hrs into this period, treatment subjects received one hour daily exposures to artificial gravity which was produced by spinning the subjects on a 3.0 m radius SRC. They were oriented radially in the supine position so that the centrifugal force was aligned with their long body axis, and while spinning, they "stood" on a force plate, supporting the centrifugal loading (2.5 g at the feet, 1.0 g at the heart). The subject station allowed free translation over approximately 10 cm to ensure full loading of the lower extremities and to allow for anti-orthostatic muscle contractions. Control subjects were positioned on the centrifuge but did not spin. Following the bed rest phase, subjects were allowed to ambulate again, but remained within the facility for an additional 9 days and participated in multiple follow-up tests of physiological function.

  2. Structural insight into dimeric interaction of the SARAH domains from Mst1 and RASSF family proteins in the apoptosis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eunha; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Pääkkönen, Kimmo; Güntert, Peter; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Lim, Dae-Sik; Lee, Jie-Oh; Jeon, Young Ho; Cheong, Chaejoon

    2007-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by the Ras → RASSF → MST pathway are controlled by the interaction of SARAH (for Salvador/Rassf/Hippo) domains in the C-terminal part of tumor suppressor proteins. The Mst1 SARAH domain interacts with its homologous domain of Rassf1 and Rassf5 (also known as Nore1) by forming a heterodimer that mediates the apoptosis process. Here, we describe the homodimeric structure of the human Mst1 SARAH domain and its heterotypic interaction with the Rassf5 and Salvador (Sav) SARAH domain. The Mst1 SARAH structure forms a homodimer containing two helices per monomer. An antiparallel arrangement of the long α-helices (h2/h2′) provides an elongated binding interface between the two monomers, and the short 310 helices (h1/h1′) are folded toward that of the other monomer. Chemical shift perturbation experiments identified an elongated, tight-binding interface with the Rassf5 SARAH domain and a 1:1 heterodimer formation. The linker region between the kinase and the SARAH domain is shown to be disordered in the free protein. These results imply a novel mode of interaction with RASSF family proteins and provide insight into the mechanism of apoptosis control by the SARAH domain. PMID:17517604

  3. MST 1: Proceedings of a conference on the integration of mathematics, science and technology in precollege education

    SciTech Connect

    Swyler, K.

    1995-11-01

    Example MST activities examined here show: (1) an inquiry-driven learning stimulus, involving (2) the synthesis of concepts in math, science and technology, through (3) the application of the scientific method and engineering problem solving/test protocols, and provoking (4) a stimulus for further exploration. A semi-exploratory learning approach offered background aimed at enabling participants to take meaningful courses of investigation; this approach must be balanced by maintaining contact with framework content standards. On the whole, the philosophy underlying the MST learning approach--as envisioned in the draft NYS Framework, and embodied in the example activities--is strongly endorsed. This endorsement is broad-based: those represented include teachers of mathematics, science, and technology, and school district administrators--in roughly equal numbers. Discussion centers not on whether the MST approach should be pursued, but on what is involved in doing it. Teams of conference participants were given time to plan or extend MST initiatives in their own districts. Outlines of the initiatives proposed by ten of the teams are disseminated herein.

  4. The Social("ist") Pedagogies of the MST: Towards New Relations of Production in the Brazilian Countryside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the social("ist") pedagogies of the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST), a large agrarian social movement that fights for socialism in the Brazilian countryside, meaning that workers own their own means of production and collectively produce the food and other products necessary for their communities'…

  5. Registration of TARS-MST1 and SB-DT1 multiple-stress tolerant black bean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-ambient-temperature stress, drought stress, root rot disease, and common bacterial blight [CBB; caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye] cause widespread yield reductions in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. TARS-MST1 (Reg. No. GP-284, PI 661512) and SB-DT1 (Reg. ...

  6. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 14: URSI/SCOSTEP Workshop on Technical Aspects of MST Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A. (Editor); Edwards, B. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various topics relative to middle atmosphere research were discussed. meteorological and aeronomical requirements for mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar networks, general circulation of the middle atmosphere, the interpretation of radar returns from clear air, spaced antenna and Doppler techniques for velocity measurement, and techniques for the study of gravity waves and turbulence are among the topics discussed.

  7. Sample results from the integrated salt disposition program macrobatch 6 tank 21H qualifications MST solids sample

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2013-02-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 6 processing. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) test. From this test, the residual monosodium titanate (MST) was analyzed for radionuclide uptake. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  8. Multi-system Component Phenotypes of Bipolar Disorder for Genetic Investigations of Extended Pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Fears, Scott C.; Service, Susan K.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Ramirez, Margarita; Castrillón, Gabriel; Gomez-Franco, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C.; Montoya, Gabriel; Montoya, Patricia; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M.; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B.; Ericson, Marissa; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Luykx, Jurjen J.; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A.; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier; Glahn, David C.; Ospina-Duque, Jorge; Risch, Neil; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Thompson, Paul M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I.; Sabatti, Chiara; Freimer, Nelson B.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Genetic factors contribute to risk for bipolar disorder (BP), yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. A focus on measuring multi-system quantitative traits that may be components of BP psychopathology may enable genetic dissection of this complex disorder, and investigation of extended pedigrees from genetically isolated populations may facilitate the detection of specific genetic variants that impact on BP as well as its component phenotypes. OBJECTIVE To identify quantitative neurocognitive, temperament-related, and neuroanatomic phenotypes that appear heritable and associated with severe bipolar disorder (BP-I), and therefore suitable for genetic linkage and association studies aimed at identifying variants contributing to BP-I risk. DESIGN Multi-generational pedigree study in two closely related, genetically isolated populations: the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) and Antioquia, Colombia (ANT). PARTICIPANTS 738 individuals, all from CVCR and ANT pedigrees, of whom 181 are affected with BP-I. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Familial aggregation (heritability) and association with BP-I of 169 quantitative neurocognitive, temperament, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) phenotypes. RESULTS Seventy-five percent (126) of the phenotypes investigated were significantly heritable, and 31% (53) were associated with BP-I. About 1/4 of the phenotypes, including measures from each phenotype domain, were both heritable and associated with BP-I. Neuroimaging phenotypes, particularly cortical thickness in prefrontal and temporal regions, and volume and microstructural integrity of the corpus callosum, represented the most promising candidate traits for genetic mapping related to BP based on strong heritability and association with disease. Analyses of phenotypic and genetic covariation identified substantial correlations among the traits, at least some of which share a common underlying genetic architecture. CONCLUSIONS AND

  9. LRPPRC mutations cause early-onset multisystem mitochondrial disease outside of the French-Canadian population

    PubMed Central

    Oláhová, Monika; Hardy, Steven A.; Hall, Julie; Yarham, John W.; Haack, Tobias B.; Wilson, William C.; Alston, Charlotte L.; He, Langping; Aznauryan, Erik; Brown, Ruth M.; Brown, Garry K.; Morris, Andrew A. M.; Mundy, Helen; Broomfield, Alex; Barbosa, Ines A.; Simpson, Michael A.; Deshpande, Charu; Moeslinger, Dorothea; Koch, Johannes; Stettner, Georg M.; Bonnen, Penelope E.; Prokisch, Holger; Lightowlers, Robert N.; McFarland, Robert; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M. A.

    2015-01-01

    -state levels of mitochondrial mRNAs, although the length of poly(A) tails of mitochondrial transcripts were unaffected. Our study identifies LRPPRC as an important disease-causing gene in an early-onset, multisystem and neurological mitochondrial disease, which should be considered as a cause of COX deficiency even in patients originating outside of the French-Canadian population. PMID:26510951

  10. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with severe renal impairment associated with multisystem IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Rafael Coimbra Ferreira; Friderichs, Maurício; Fior, Bárbara Rayanne; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Thomé, Gustavo Gomes; Silva, Dirceu Reis da; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Seligman, Renato; Veronese, Francisco Veríssimo

    2016-01-01

    The IgG4-related disease has a wide clinical spectrum where multiple organs can be affected, and the diagnosis depends on typical histopathological findings and an elevated IgG4 expression in plasma cells in the affected tissue. We describe the clinical presentation and evolution of a patient with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, severe kidney failure and systemic manifestations such as lymphadenomegaly and chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by the clinical picture and kidney and lymph node histopathology, in which immunohistochemistry of the lymphoid tissue showed policlonality and increased expression of IgG4, with a IgG4/total IgG ratio > 80%. The patient was treated with prednisone at a dose of 60 mg/day, followed by mycophenolate mofetil, and showed clinical and renal function improvement at 6 months of follow-up. The high index of suspicion of IgG4-related disease with multisystem involvement and the early treatment of this condition are essential to improve the prognosis of affected patients. Resumo A doença relacionada à IgG4 tem um espectro clínico amplo em que múltiplos órgãos podem ser afetados, e o diagnóstico depende de achados histopatológicos típicos e elevada expressão de IgG4 em plasmócitos no tecido afetado. Descrevemos o quadro clínico e a evolução de um paciente com nefrite túbulo-intersticial aguda, insuficiência renal grave e manifestações sistêmicas como linfoadenomegalias e pancreatite crônica. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelas características clínicas e pela histopatologia renal e de linfonodo, na qual a imunohistoquímica mostrou tecido linfoide com policlonalidade e expressão aumentada de IgG4, com uma relação IgG4/IgG total > 80%. O paciente foi tratado com prednisona na dose de 60 mg/dia, seguido de micofenolato mofetil, e apresentou melhora clínica e da função renal depois de 6 meses de tratamento. O alto índice de suspeição da doença relacionada ao IgG4 com comprometimento multissist

  11. Multisystem Anomalies in Severe Combined Immunodeficiency with Mutant BCL11B.

    PubMed

    Punwani, Divya; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Jason; Cowan, Morton J; Rana, Sadhna; Kwan, Antonia; Adhikari, Aashish N; Lizama, Carlos O; Mendelsohn, Bryce A; Fahl, Shawn P; Chellappan, Ajithavalli; Srinivasan, Rajgopal; Brenner, Steven E; Wiest, David L; Puck, Jennifer M

    2016-12-01

    BCL11B mutation caused human multisystem anomalies with SCID and also revealed a prethymic role for BCL11B in hematopoietic progenitors. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

  12. Alfvén Modes in the MST Revised Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Breizman, Boris; Zheng, Linjin; Lin, Liang; Ding, Weixing; Brower, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents a theoretical and computational analysis of core-localized energetic particle driven modes observed near the magnetic axis in MST. Using the measured safety factor and plasma pressure profiles as input, the linear ideal MHD code AEGIS [L. J. Zheng and M. Kotschenreuther, J. Comp. Phys. 211, 748 (2006)] reveals Alfvénic modes close to the measured frequencies. The AEGIS results together with a reduced analytical model demonstrate that the modes are essentially cylindrical and dominated by a single poloidal component (m = 1). The calculated modes are localized in the plasma core where the magnetic shear is weak and continuum damping is minimal. Detailed analysis establishes constraints on the safety factor and plasma pressure under which two modes can exist simultaneously as seen in experiment. The work is supported by US DOE.

  13. Symposium Review: Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites at MS&T 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Paramsothy, Muralidharan

    2014-06-01

    This article reflects on the presentations made during the Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites symposium at Materials Science and Technology 2013 (MS&T'13) held in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) from October 27 to 31. The symposium had three sessions on metal matrix composites and one session on polymer matrix composites containing a total of 23 presentations. While the abstracts and full-text papers are available through databases, the discussion that took place during the symposium is often not captured in writing and gets immediately lost. We have tried to recap some of the discussion in this article and hope that it will supplement the information present in the proceedings. The strong themes in the symposium were porous composites, aluminum matrix composites, and nanocomposites. The development of processing methods was also of interest to the speakers and attendees.

  14. Confinement and dynamics of neutral beam injected fast ions in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Almagri, F.; Anderson, J. K.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Fiksel, G.; Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Stupishin, N.; Andre, R.; McCune, D.

    2010-11-01

    The new 1MW neutral beam injector (97% H, 3% D) on MST provides a good test-bed for study of fast ions in the RFP. Analysis of the D-D fusion neutron flux decay at beam turn-off reveals that the confinement time of the fast ions is at least 10 ms, ten-fold larger than the thermal conferment times for particles and energy in standard stochastic plasmas. Also, the fast ion confinement increases with magnetic field strength. Dependence of fast ion confinement on plasma parameters, beam energy, and injection direction will be characterized and compared with TRANSP simulations. In addition, an advanced neutral particle analyzer and a prototype of fast ion charge exchange spectroscopy are under construction to measure neutralized fast ions and induced Doppler-shifted Hα light, respectively, thereby resolving fast ion density and energy distribution. Initial measurements of fast-ion dynamics during magnetic reconnection events will be presented.

  15. DLG5 connects cell polarity and Hippo signaling protein networks by linking PAR-1 with MST1/2.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Julian; Sczaniecka, Anna; Arash, Emad Heidary; Nguyen, Liem; Chen, Chia-Chun; Ratkovic, Srdjana; Klezovitch, Olga; Attisano, Liliana; McNeill, Helen; Emili, Andrew; Vasioukhin, Valeri

    2016-12-15

    Disruption of apical-basal polarity is implicated in developmental disorders and cancer; however, the mechanisms connecting cell polarity proteins with intracellular signaling pathways are largely unknown. We determined previously that membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein discs large homolog 5 (DLG5) functions in cell polarity and regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation via undefined mechanisms. We report here that DLG5 functions as an evolutionarily conserved scaffold and negative regulator of Hippo signaling, which controls organ size through the modulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Affinity purification/mass spectrometry revealed a critical role of DLG5 in the formation of protein assemblies containing core Hippo kinases mammalian ste20 homologs 1/2 (MST1/2) and Par-1 polarity proteins microtubule affinity-regulating kinases 1/2/3 (MARK1/2/3). Consistent with this finding, Hippo signaling is markedly hyperactive in mammalian Dlg5(-/-) tissues and cells in vivo and ex vivo and in Drosophila upon dlg5 knockdown. Conditional deletion of Mst1/2 fully rescued the phenotypes of brain-specific Dlg5 knockout mice. Dlg5 also interacts genetically with Hippo effectors Yap1/Taz Mechanistically, we show that DLG5 inhibits the association between MST1/2 and large tumor suppressor homologs 1/2 (LATS1/2), uses its scaffolding function to link MST1/2 with MARK3, and inhibits MST1/2 kinase activity. These data reveal a direct connection between cell polarity proteins and Hippo, which is essential for proper development of multicellular organisms.

  16. Interaction of Tearing Modes and Fast Ions in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, J. A.; Anderson, J. K.; Eilerman, S.; Falk, J.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Waksman, J.; Lin, L.; Liu, D.; Tsidulko, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Energetic ions sourced by a 1 MW, 25 keV, tangential neutral-beam injector (NBI) are well confined in RFP discharges in MST. In beam blip experiments, classical slowing and charge exchange loss can often account for the measured neutron flux decay. While these experiments give a sense of the global fast ion confinement, there are many important details that are lost in such an analysis. To gain insight into the effects of tearing modes on the fast ion distribution, a full orbit particle tracing code (RIO) has been used. RIO is capable of taking as input the 3D time varying electric and magnetic field output from the nonlinear resistive MHD code DEBS. While the tearing modes present in MST do not appear to cause significant direct loss of the highest energy ions due to drift orbit averaging, the ions do begin to interact with the tearing modes as they slow down, leading to a flattening of the ion density profile and an enhancement in the fast ion loss rate. While RIO allows the study of the effect of tearing modes on the fast ions we have also observed, in a separate set of long pulse NBI experiments, that the fast ions affect the tearing modes. Specifically, the core-most tearing mode amplitude is suppressed during NBI with the degree of suppression tracking directly with neutral particle analyzer measurements of the core localized circulating fast ions. The interaction of fast ions with the tearing modes in both beam blip and long pulse experiments will be presented. This work supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  17. Part II: Multisystemic Therapy--Addressing Racial Disparity and Its Effectiveness with Families from Diverse Racial and Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in health and mental health care delivered to racial and ethnic minorities became a focus of national policy following reports of the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002) and the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001). The Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001) reported racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and quality of…

  18. Necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis presenting with preserved renal function in patients with underlying multisystem autoimmune disease: a retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Tanna, Anisha; Randone, Olga; Tam, Frederick W. K.; Tarzi, Ruth M.; Levy, Jeremy B.; Griffith, Megan; Lightstone, Liz; Cook, H. Terence; Cairns, Tom; Pusey, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Necrotizing and crescentic GN usually presents with rapidly declining renal function, often in association with multisystem autoimmune disease, with a poor outcome if left untreated. We aimed to describe the features of patients who have presented with these histopathological findings but minimal disturbance of renal function. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review (1995–2011) of all adult patients with native renal biopsy–proven necrotizing or crescentic GN and normal serum creatinine (<120 μmol/l) at our centre. Results. Thirty-eight patients were identified. The median creatinine at presentation was 84 μmol/l and the median proportion of glomeruli affected by necrosis or crescents was 32%. Clinicopathological diagnoses were ANCA-associated GN (74%), LN (18%), anti-GBM disease (5%) and HScP (3%). Only 18% of cases had pre-existing diagnoses of underlying multisystem autoimmune disease, although the majority (89%) had extra-renal manifestations accompanying the renal diagnosis. All patients received immunosuppression and most had good long-term renal outcomes (median duration of follow-up 50 months), although two progressed to end-stage renal disease within 3 years. We estimate that renal biopsy had an important influence on treatment decisions in 82% of cases. Conclusion. Necrotizing and crescentic GN may present in patients with no or only minor disturbance of renal function. This often occurs in patients with underlying systemic autoimmune disease; early referral for biopsy may affect management and improve long-term outcomes in these cases. PMID:25431483

  19. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE APPLICATION OF MST METHODOLOGIES TO DIFFERENTIATE SOURCES OF FECAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal variability in the gastrointestinal flora of animals impacting water resources with fecal material can be one of the factors producing low source identification rates when applying microbial source tracking (MST) methods. Understanding how bacterial species and genotype...

  20. Review of magnetostrictive transducers (MsT) utilizing reversed Wiedemann effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Sergey; Cobb, Adam; Light, Glenn

    2017-02-01

    Magnetostrictive transduction has been widely utilized in NDE applications, specifically for generation and reception of guided waves for long-range inspection of components such as pipes, vessels, and small tubes. Transverse-motion guided wave modes (e.g., torsional vibrations in pipes) are the most typical choice for long-range inspection applications because the wave motion is in the plane of the structure. Magnetostrictive-based sensors have been available for several years for these wave modes based on the Wiedemann effect. For these sensors, a permanent magnetic bias is applied that is perpendicular to the direction of the propagated guided wave. This bias field strains the material that the guided wave is generated in preferentially in the desired particle motion direction. A time-varying magnetic field oriented parallel to the direction of guided wave propagation is also induced in the material. This time-varying field is induced using an electric coil located near the material surface. The interaction of these two fields produces the guided waves; an inverse effect is used for the receive process. An alternative configuration of a sensor for generating and receiving these traverse-motion guided waves is to swap the biasing and time-varying magnetic fields directions. Since transverse-motion guided wave sensors are typically much longer in the particle motion direction than in the bias field direction, the net effect of this alternative design is that the magnetic biasing length is shorter and different coil designs can be used. Because of this, the alternative design, known as a magnetostrictive transducer (MsT), exhibits a number of unique features compared to the Wiedemann sensor described above, such as: 1) the ability to use smaller rare earth permanent magnets and achieve uniform and self-sustained bias field strengths, 2) the choice of more efficient electric coil arrangements to induce a stronger time-varying magnetic field for a given coil

  1. Identification and mitigation of stray laser light in the Thomson scattering system on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, C. M.; Borchardt, M. T.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Falkowski, A. F.; Morton, L. A.; Thomas, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) records excessive levels of stray Nd:YAG laser light. Stray light saturates the 1064 nm spectral channel in all polychromators, which prevents absolute electron density measurements via Rayleigh scattering calibration. Furthermore, stray light contaminates adjacent spectral channels for r/a ≥ 0.75, which renders the diagnostic unable to make electron temperature measurements at these radii. In situ measurements of stray light levels during a vacuum vessel vent are used to identify stray light sources and strategies for reduction of stray light levels. Numerical modeling using Zemax OpticStudio supports these measurements. The model of the vacuum vessel and diagnostic includes synthetic collection optics to enable direct comparison of measured and simulated stray light levels. Modeling produces qualitatively similar stray light distributions to MST measurements, and quantifies the mitigation effects of stray light mitigation strategies prior to implementation.

  2. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  3. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 8 tank 21H qualification MST solids sample

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-02-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) processing. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction, Scrub, Strip (ESS) tests. This document reports characterization of the monosodium titanate (MST) solids from the ARP test. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  4. Discovery and Mechanistic Characterization of Selective Inhibitors of H2S-producing Enzyme: 3-Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase (3MST) Targeting Active-site Cysteine Persulfide

    PubMed Central

    Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Sasakura, Kiyoshi; Suwanai, Yusuke; Toma-Fukai, Sachiko; Shimamoto, Kazuhito; Takano, Yoko; Shibuya, Norihiro; Terai, Takuya; Komatsu, Toru; Ueno, Tasuku; Ogasawara, Yuki; Tsuchiya, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Yasuo; Kimura, Hideo; Wang, Chao; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Urano, Yasuteru; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Very recent studies indicate that sulfur atoms with oxidation state 0 or −1, called sulfane sulfurs, are the actual mediators of some physiological processes previously considered to be regulated by hydrogen sulfide (H2S). 3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST), one of three H2S-producing enzymes, was also recently shown to produce sulfane sulfur (H2Sn). Here, we report the discovery of several potent 3MST inhibitors by means of high-throughput screening (HTS) of a large chemical library (174,118 compounds) with our H2S-selective fluorescent probe, HSip-1. Most of the identified inhibitors had similar aromatic ring-carbonyl-S-pyrimidone structures. Among them, compound 3 showed very high selectivity for 3MST over other H2S/sulfane sulfur-producing enzymes and rhodanese. The X-ray crystal structures of 3MST complexes with two of the inhibitors revealed that their target is a persulfurated cysteine residue located in the active site of 3MST. Precise theoretical calculations indicated the presence of a strong long-range electrostatic interaction between the persulfur anion of the persulfurated cysteine residue and the positively charged carbonyl carbon of the pyrimidone moiety of the inhibitor. Our results also provide the experimental support for the idea that the 3MST-catalyzed reaction with 3-mercaptopyruvate proceeds via a ping-pong mechanism. PMID:28079151

  5. OSM mitigates post-infarction cardiac remodeling and dysfunction by up-regulating autophagy through Mst1 suppression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Zhijing; Zhang, Mingming; Lin, Jie; Wang, Jiaxing; Yu, Wenjun; Man, Wanrong; Li, Congye; Zhang, Rongqing; Gao, Erhe; Wang, Haichang; Sun, Dongdong

    2016-11-04

    The incidence and prevalence of heart failure (HF) in the world are rapidly rising possibly attributed to the worsened HF following myocardial infarction (MI) in recent years. Here we examined the effects of oncostatin M (OSM) on postinfarction cardiac remodeling and the underlying mechanisms involved. MI model was induced using left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation. In addition, cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes were subjected to simulated MI. Our results revealed that OSM alleviated left ventricular remodeling, promoted cardiac function, restored mitochondrial cristae density and architecture disorders after 4weeks of MI. Enhanced autophagic flux was indicated in cardiomyocytes transduced with Ad-GFP -LC3 in the OSM treated group as compared with the MI group. OSM receptor Oβ knockout blocked the beneficial effects of OSM in postinfarction cardiac remodeling and cardiomyocytes autophagy. OSM pretreatment significantly alleviated left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in Mst1 transgenic mice, while it failed to reverse further the postinfarction left ventricular dilatation and cardiac function in the Mst1 knockout mice. Our data revealed that OSM alleviated postinfarction cardiac remodeling and dysfunction by enhancing cardiomyocyte autophagy. OSM holds promise as a therapeutic target in treating HF after MI through Oβ receptor by inhibiting Mst1 phosphorylation.

  6. Improvements to the Interpretation and Understanding of SXR Tomography Measurements on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanmeter, Patrick; Franz, Paolo; Reusch, Lisa; Goetz, John; den Hartog, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The soft x-ray (SXR) tomography system on MST uses four cameras in a double foil configuration to determine the emissivity and temperature structures of the plasma. The emissivity is due to a combination of bremsstrahlung, recombination, and line radiation due to impurities in the plasma. At higher energies recombination steps and line radiation are no longer present and can therefore be removed using thick filters. However, this limits the range of measurements to high temperature, high performance plasmas. Recent analysis focuses on including these additional sources of radiation in order to extend the effective range of SXR measurements and to explore the agreement of SXR measurements with other diagnostics like the external magnetic sensing coils. The SXR emissivity structure should directly correspond to the structure of the magnetic field; however, there is a discrepancy between the phase of the emissivity reconstructions and magnetic field reconstructions when using a cylindrical approximation to interpret the magnetic signals. This discrepancy was measured for each SXR camera viewing angle and for two distinct plasma conditions, with results supporting the interpretation that it emerges from physical effects of the toroidal geometry. Improving the understanding of these toroidal effects and the effects of radiation from impurity ions will aid in the interpretation of all SXR measurements. Supported by the US DOE.

  7. Density fluctuation measurements by far-forward collective scattering in the MST reversed-field pincha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Duff, J. R.; Brower, D. L.; Sarff, J. S.

    2012-10-01

    The multichannel polarimeter-interferometer system on the MST reversed-field pinch can be utilized to measure far-forward collective scattering from electron density fluctuations. The collective scattering system has 11 viewing chords with ˜8 cm spacing. The source is a 432 μm (694 GHz) far infrared laser and the scattered power is measured using a heterodyne detection scheme. Collective scattering provides a line-integrated measurement of fluctuations within the divergence of the probe beam covering wavenumber range: k⊥ < 1.3 cm-1, corresponding k⊥ρs < 1.3 (ρs is the ion-sound Larmor radius), the region of primary interest for turbulent fluctuation-induced transport. The perpendicular wavenumber consists of toroidal, poloidal, and radial contributions, which vary with chord position. Coherent modes associated with tearing instabilities and neutral-beam driven fast particles are observed along with broadband turbulence at frequencies up to 500 kHz. Changes in frequency are consistent with a Doppler shift due to parallel plasma flow.

  8. Density fluctuation measurements by far-forward collective scattering in the MST reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Duff, J. R.; Sarff, J. S.

    2012-10-15

    The multichannel polarimeter-interferometer system on the MST reversed-field pinch can be utilized to measure far-forward collective scattering from electron density fluctuations. The collective scattering system has 11 viewing chords with {approx}8 cm spacing. The source is a 432 {mu}m (694 GHz) far infrared laser and the scattered power is measured using a heterodyne detection scheme. Collective scattering provides a line-integrated measurement of fluctuations within the divergence of the probe beam covering wavenumber range: k{sub Up-Tack} < 1.3 cm{sup -1}, corresponding k{sub Up-Tack }{rho}{sub s} < 1.3 ({rho}{sub s} is the ion-sound Larmor radius), the region of primary interest for turbulent fluctuation-induced transport. The perpendicular wavenumber consists of toroidal, poloidal, and radial contributions, which vary with chord position. Coherent modes associated with tearing instabilities and neutral-beam driven fast particles are observed along with broadband turbulence at frequencies up to 500 kHz. Changes in frequency are consistent with a Doppler shift due to parallel plasma flow.

  9. Impact of diagnostic neutral beam optimization on active spectroscopy in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiande; Nornberg, Mark. D.; den Hartog, Daniel. J.; Oliva, Steven. P.; Craig, Darren; Univ of Wisconsin, Madison Team; Wheaton College, IL Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam on MST provides local measurements of impurity ion emission through charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) and of core-localized magnetic field through the motional Stark effect (MSE). The beam has been optimized to operate at 50kV, 4A steady beam current with 20ms beam pulse and 75% primary energy ion fraction. It's achieved by tuning the beam voltage, arc current, fuel line pressure, arc and high voltage module timing, and the magnetic isolation field. Electron density measurements in the ion source revealed that ion extraction is maximized under low density conditions which are thought to affect the shape of the ion sheath at the extraction grid. The sheath may be transitioning from a planar or convex shape at high density to one which is concave which helps focus the ion trajectories and produce higher beam current. With the improvements in beam operation, the CHERS signal is expected to increase by 20%-30%, and the Stark broadening is expected to increase by 10%. These signal increases will help resolve convolved fine-structure components in both analyses. Beam voltage ripple is also measured to better quantify the accuracy of spectral MSE and CHERS measurement. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE.

  10. High Power Antenna Design for Lower Hybrid Current Drive in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. A.; Goetz, J. A.; Kaufman, M. C.; Oliva, S. P.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Ryan, P. M.

    2003-10-01

    RF current drive has been proposed as a method for reducing the tearing fluctuations that are responsible for anomalous energy transport in the RFP. A system for launching lower hybrid slow waves at 800 MHz and n_||= 7.5 is now in operation at up to 50 kW on MST. The antenna is an enclosed interdigital line using λ/4 resonators with an opening in the cavity through which the wave is coupled to the plasma. It has an untuned VSWR of ˜2, and is instrumented on 5 of its 23 elements to allow measurement of damping length. The antenna design is being optimized for higher power handling. Improvements include larger vacuum feedthroughs, better impedance matching, and RF instrumentation on all resonators. The new antenna will be modeled in Microwave Studio^TM. The goal is a design which can handle ˜250 kW and presents a VSWR of 1.4 or better without external tuning. Full instrumentation will allow more detailed power deposition measurements.

  11. Redesign of MST enzymes to target lyase activity instead promotes mutase and dehydratase activities.

    PubMed

    Meneely, Kathleen M; Luo, Qianyi; Lamb, Audrey L

    2013-11-01

    The isochorismate and salicylate synthases are members of the MST family of enzymes. The isochorismate synthases establish an equilibrium for the conversion chorismate to isochorismate and the reverse reaction. The salicylate synthases convert chorismate to salicylate with an isochorismate intermediate; therefore, the salicylate synthases perform isochorismate synthase and isochorismate-pyruvate lyase activities sequentially. While the active site residues are highly conserved, there are two sites that show trends for lyase-activity and lyase-deficiency. Using steady state kinetics and HPLC progress curves, we tested the "interchange" hypothesis that interconversion of the amino acids at these sites would promote lyase activity in the isochorismate synthases and remove lyase activity from the salicylate synthases. An alternative, "permute" hypothesis, that chorismate-utilizing enzymes are designed to permute the substrate into a variety of products and tampering with the active site may lead to identification of adventitious activities, is tested by more sensitive NMR time course experiments. The latter hypothesis held true. The variant enzymes predominantly catalyzed chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase activities, sequentially generating prephenate and phenylpyruvate, augmenting previously debated (mutase) or undocumented (dehydratase) adventitious activities.

  12. SUT Sucrose and MST Monosaccharide Transporter Inventory of the Selaginella Genome

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Sylvie; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2012-01-01

    Most metazoa use hexose transporters to acquire hexoses from their diet and as a transport form for distributing carbon and energy within their bodies; insects use trehalose, and plants use sucrose as their major form for translocation. Plant genomes contain at least three families of mono- and disaccharide transporters: monosaccharide/polyol transporters that are evolutionary closely related to the yeast and human glucose transporters, sucrose transporters of the SUT family, which similar to the hexose transporters belong to the major facilitator superfamily, but share only minimal amino acid sequence homology with the hexose transporters, and the family of SWEET sugar transporters conserved between animals and plants. Recently, the genome sequence of the spikemoss Selaginella has been determined. In order to study the evolution of sugar transport in plants, we carefully annotated of the complement of sugar transporters in Selaginella. We review the current knowledge regarding sugar transport in spikemoss and provide phylogenetic analyses of the complement of MST and SUT homologs in Selaginella (and Physcomitrella). PMID:22645575

  13. Prospects for measuring shifted- and non-Maxwellian electron distributions with Thomson scattering on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, S. Z.; den Hartog, D. J.; Dubois, A. M.; Morton, L. A.; Young, W. C.

    2016-10-01

    Recent measurements using a high-time-resolution soft x-ray spectrometer on MST suggest that a non-Maxwellian, energetic electron tail is generated during magnetic reconnection events. This has motivated the addition to the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic of the capability to measure shifted- and non-Maxwellian distribution functions. To that end, an 1140 nm centerline filter with 80 nm bandwidth has been installed in nine of 21 polychromators. This filter supplements a filter set that covers from approximately 715 nm to 1065 nm, used to measure Thomson scattered light from the 1064 nm YAG laser line. Simulations being performed will assess whether the TS diagnostic with the upgraded filter set will be capable of detecting a small population (around 5% of the electron density) of energetic electrons, and whether an eight-channel polychromator, which has increased resolution but also is inherently more noisy, provides a better fit than a six-channel polychromator. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE and NSF.

  14. Design of an RF System for Electron Bernstein Wave Studies in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffold, J. X.; Seltzman, A. H.; Anderson, J. K.; Nonn, P. D.; Forest, C. B.

    2010-11-01

    Motivated by the possibility of current profile control a 5.5GHz RF system for EBW is being developed. The central component is a standard radar Klystron with 1.2MW peak power and 4μs typical pulse length. Meaningful experiments require RF pulse lengths similar to the characteristic electron confinement times in MST necessitating the creation of a power supply providing 80kV at 40A for 10ms. A low inductance IGBT network switches power at 20kHz from an electrolytic capacitor bank into the primary of a three-phase resonant transformer system that is then rectified and filtered. The system uses three magnetically separate transformers with microcrystalline iron cores to provide suitable volt-seconds and low hysteresis losses. Each phase has a secondary with a large leakage inductance and a parallel capacitor providing a boost ratio greater than 60:1 with a physical turns ratio of 13.5:1. A microprocessor feedback control system varies the drive frequency around resonance to regulate the boost ratio and provide a stable output as the storage bank discharges. The completed system will deliver RF to the plasma boundary where coupling to the Bernstein mode and subsequent heating and current drive can occur.

  15. Characterization and initial results from the upgraded MST interferometer-polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parke, E.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The FIR interferometer-polarimeter diagnostic on MST is a high-bandwidth system with unique capabilities for measuring high-frequency density and internal magnetic fluctuations. Installation of new planar-diode mixers improves both the signal strength and the noise floor compared to the corner-cube mixers previously used. The new mixer technology also offers a simpler detection configuration that eliminates the need for additional amplifiers. We characterize the bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded heterodyne receiver system and present initial measurements in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas. High wavenumber resolution becomes possible when operating without focusing elements, using only the 2-3 mm aperture on the mixer to determine the sampled chord width. This configuration will provide better resolution of small-scale fluctuations observed in the RFP during periods of improved, tokamak-like confinement. Finally, cross-correlation techniques between two mixers viewing the same chord further reduce measurement noise and improve the resolution of high-frequency, small-amplitude magnetic and density fluctuations. Initial tests of this technique in neutral-beam heated plasmas will be presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE.

  16. Characterization and initial results from the upgraded MST interferometer-polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. X.; Parke, E.; Brower, D. L.; Duff, J.

    2016-10-01

    The FIR interferometer-polarimeter diagnostic on MST is a high-bandwidth system with unique capabilities for measuring high-frequency density and internal magnetic fluctuations. Installation of new planar-diode mixers improves both the signal strength and the noise floor compared to the corner-cube mixers previously used. Measurements of density and Faraday rotation angle in standard reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas and plasmas with improved, tokamak-like confinement are presented. The noise floor in the Faraday rotation power spectrum is reduced by nearly an order of magnitude, with fluctuations observed up to 250 kHz. Cross-correlation between multiple mixers is an additional, novel technique for reducing the noise floor and improving the resolution of high-frequency, small-amplitude magnetic and density fluctuations. Correlation of signals from two independent mixers viewing the same chord reduces the noise floor by another order of magnitude. High wavenumber resolution may be possible when operating without focusing elements, using only the 2-3 mm aperture on the mixer to determine the sampled chord width. This configuration will provide better resolution of small-scale fluctuations observed in the RFP during periods of improved confinement. Work supported by U.S. D.O.E.

  17. Redesign of MST enzymes to target lyase activity instead promotes mutase and dehydratase activities

    PubMed Central

    Meneely, Kathleen M.; Luo, Qianyi; Lamb, Audrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The isochorismate and salicylate synthases are members of the MST family of enzymes. The isochorismate synthases establish an equilibrium for the conversion chorismate to isochorismate and the reverse reaction. The salicylate synthases convert chorismate to salicylate with an isochorismate intermediate; therefore, the salicylate synthases perform isochorismate synthase and isochorismate-pyruvate lyase activities sequentially. While the active site residues are highly conserved, there are two sites that show trends for lyase-activity and lyase-deficiency. Using steady state kinetics and HPLC progress curves, we tested the “interchange” hypothesis that interconversion of the amino acids at these sites would promote lyase activity in the isochorismate synthases and remove lyase activity from the salicylate synthases. An alternative, “permute” hypothesis, that chorismate-utilizing enzymes are designed to permute the substrate into a variety of products and tampering with the active site may lead to identification of adventitious activities, is tested by more sensitive NMR time course experiments. The latter hypothesis held true. The variant enzymes predominantly catalyzed chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase activities, sequentially generating prephenate and phenylpyruvate, augmenting previously debated (mutase) or undocumented (dehydratase) adventitious activities. PMID:24055536

  18. Upgrades to improve the usability, reliability, and spectral range of the MST Thomson scattering diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, S. Z.; Borchardt, M. T.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Holly, D. J.; Jacobson, C. M.; Morton, L. A.; Young, W. C.

    2016-11-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on MST records both equilibrium and fluctuating electron temperature with a range capability of 10 eV-5 keV. Standard operation with two modified commercial Nd:YAG lasers allows measurements at rates of 1 kHz-25 kHz. Several subsystems of the diagnostic are being improved. The power supplies for the avalanche photodiode detectors (APDs) that record the scattered light are being replaced to improve usability, reliability, and maintainability. Each of the 144 APDs will have an individual rack mounted switching supply, with bias voltage adjustable to match the APD. Long-wavelength filters (1140 nm center, 80 nm bandwidth) have been added to the polychromators to improve capability to resolve non-Maxwellian distributions and to enable directed electron flow measurements. A supercontinuum (SC) pulsed white light source has replaced the tungsten halogen lamp previously used for spectral calibration of the polychromators. The SC source combines substantial brightness produced in nanosecond pulses with a spectrum that covers the entire range of the polychromators.

  19. Edge fluctuations in the MST (Madison Symmetric Torus) reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Almagri, A.; Assadi, S.; Beckstead, J.; Chartas, G.; Crocker, N.; Den Hartog, D.; Dexter, R.; Hokin, S.; Holly, D.; Nilles, E.; Prager, S.; Rempel, T.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Spragins, C.; Sprott, J.; Starr, G.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C.

    1990-10-01

    Edge magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations are measured in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch. At low frequency (<25 kHz), the mode number spectra of magnetic fluctuations agree very well with theoretical prediction for nonlinearly saturated tearing fluctuations resonant in the core. At high frequency (50 kHz to 100 kHz) the magnetic spectra broaden and the modes become resonant in the reversal region. Nonlinear phenomena are under experimental investigation. The low frequency fluctuations phase-lock together to produce a rotating localized disturbance. Bi-spectral analysis in frequency also reveals nonlinear three-wave mode-coupling at low frequency. Electrostatic fluctuations are substantial and do not appear to obey a Boltzmann relation (i.e. e{tilde {phi}}/kT{sub e} > {tilde p}{sub e}/p{sub e} where {tilde {phi}} and {tilde p}{sub e} are the fluctuating potential and pressure, respectively). From measurements of the fluctuating density, temperature, and potential we infer that the electrostatic fluctuation induced transport of particles and energy can be substantial. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Application Of Metric Space Technique (mst) In 2-d And 3-d To Sdss Dr5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongfeng; Batuski, D. J.; Khalil, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Metric Space Technique (MST) is a 2-D analysis method using multiple measures for quantitative analysis of any type of structure in an `image'. All potential values of the measures for such distributions are thus coordinates in a multi-parameter space, and the analysis is based on considering a sample's measures (called `output functions'), and their distance from the origin, which corresponds to the measures of the observed SDSS sample, in this multi-parameter space. Applications of this method to thin (approximately 2-D) slices of SDSS DR5 have yielded a detailed comparison of numerical models (Berlind et al. 2006, Croton et al. 2005) against the SDSS galaxy 2-D distribution structure in multi-parameter space. We present those results, including discussion of the effects of transforming from physical space to redshift space on the statistics at different scales. We also extended this 2-D method into 3-D, and we present comparisons of the SDSS galaxy 3-D distribution versus the same numerical simulations.

  1. Constraining Zeff and Particle Diffusion using X-ray Spectroscopy on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. D.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Chapman, B. E.; Sarff, J. S.; Harvey, R. W.

    2013-10-01

    The X-ray spectroscopy diagnostic on MST consists of six SXR detectors and six HXR detectors capable of measuring photons in the energy range 3-25 keV and 10-60 keV, respectively. The detectors can be installed on any of 17 ports viewing a poloidal cross-section, with tangency radii from r / a = 0 . 87 inboard to r / a = 0 . 84 outboard. Measurements have been made in enhanced confinement plasmas with plasma current of ~ 400 kA, electron density of ~ 0 . 6 ×1019 m-3, and electron temperature of ~ 1200 eV . Measured spectra are used to constrain radial profiles of Zeff and Dr by comparison with spectra calculated from CQL3D, a Fokker-Planck solver [R.W. Harvey and M.G. McCoy, ``The CQL3D Fokker-Planck Code,'' General Atomics (2011)]. The plasma equilibria required for CQL3D are produced by the reconstruction code MSTfit. Minimization is performed using a custom parallel simplex algorithm on a 248 core cluster. Work supported by US DoE.

  2. Fragmentation of specular overdense meteor trail echoes observed with Gadanki MST radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenna Reddy, K.; Yellaiah, G.

    2016-02-01

    The pulse-integrated signal to noise ratio as a function of time known as radar meteor light curve (analogous to optical light curve), is an indicative of ablation processes during meteoroid flight in the atmosphere. In this study, we present and discuss few examples of light curves of long duration specular overdense meteor echoes detected with 53 MHz Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) MST radar. These echoes are of several seconds duration, where pulsation in amplitude is about ten cycles within few seconds. This means the fluctuations in amplitude are much slower than typical Fresnel oscillations of underdense as well as the head echo fluctuations. These light curves reveal several features unreported previously in the radar meteor returns that are consistent with meteoroid fragmentation. Some of them provide the strong observational evidence of a sub-millimeter-sized meteoroid, breaking apart into two distinct fragments. The pulsations in light curves are interpreted as being due to interference from two distinct scattering centers. Some other meteor events such as meteoroids undergoing quasi-continuous disintegration are also discussed.

  3. Drift wave turbulence in the edge region of MST reversed field pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuecks, D. J.; Almagri, A. F.; Sarff, J. S.; Terry, P. W.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of electric field fluctuations reveal activity consistent with drift waves in the edge region of standard-confinement MST plasmas. The fluctuations are broadband and strongly anisotropic, with a power spectral index that is steeper in the direction parallel to the mean magnetic field direction than it is in the perpendicular direction. The power in the fluctuating kinetic energy, 1/2 minivẼ×B0 2 , exceeds the power in magnetic fluctuation energy for frequencies above 80 kHz. At lower frequencies (20-40 kHz), magnetic energy associated with unstable global tearing modes dominates. A lack of equipartition in the turbulent cascade coincides with measured signatures of independent fluctuation activity broadly consistent with drift-wave fluctuations. Statistical coherence measurements reveal mode activity at high frequencies (>=80 kHz) that is compressive, has high coherence in regions of the plasma with strong density gradients, and has a phase speed comparable to the electron drift speed. Elevated coherency associated with this fluctuation feature of the drift wave fluctuations return more quickly following magnetic reconnection events than corresponding coherence associated with the tearing activity. This suggests the drift-wave fluctuations may be excited by the large edge-localized thermal pressure gradient, but they could also be excited nonlinearly in a turbulent cascade driven by the tearing modes. Work supported by DOE and NSF.

  4. Intensive Quality Assurance of Therapist Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holth, Per; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Ogden, Terje; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    This study was a cross-cultural replication of a study that investigated therapist adherence to behavioral interventions as a result of an intensive quality assurance system which was integrated into Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Thirty-three therapists and eight supervisors were block randomized to either an Intensive Quality Assurance or a…

  5. Key Elements of a Successful Multi-System Collaboration for School-Based Mental Health: In-Depth Interviews with District and Agency Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joelle D.; Edwards, Jeffrey D.; Blackman, Kate F.; Wegmann, Kate M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming number of youth with unmet mental health needs in the US is a significant social problem. The pilot school-based mental health project described here established an innovative multi-system partnership between an urban school district, a public mental health agency, and a local university to better meet the mental health needs of youth…

  6. Spectroscopic measurement of the MHD dynamo in the MST reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, James Tharp

    1998-09-01

    The author has directly observed the coupling of ion velocity fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations to produce an MHD dynamo electric field in the interior of the MST reversed field pinch. Chord averaged ion velocity fluctuations were measured with a fast spectroscopic diagnostic which collects line radiation from intrinsic carbon impurities simultaneously along two lines of sight. The chords employed for the measurements resolved long wavelength velocity fluctuations of several km/s at 8-20 kHz as tiny, fast Doppler shifts in the emitted line profile. During discrete dynamo events the velocity fluctuations, like the magnetic fluctuations, increase dramatically. The toroidal and poloidal chords with impact parameters of 0.3 a and 0.6 a respectively, resolved fluctuation wavenumbers with resonance surfaces near or along the lines of sight indicating a radial velocity fluctuation width for each mode which spans only a fraction of the plasma radius. The phase between the measured toroidal velocity fluctuations and the magnetic fluctuations matches the predictions of resistive MHD while the poloidal velocity fluctuations exhibit a phase consistent with the superposition of MHD effects and the advection of a mean flow gradient past the poloidal line of sight. Radial velocity fluctuations resolved by a chord through the center of the plasma were small compared to the poloidal and toroidal fluctuations and exhibited low coherence with the magnetic fluctuations. The ensembled nonlinear product of the ion velocity fluctuations and fluctuations in the magnetic field indicates a substantial dynamo electric field which peaks during the periods of spontaneous flux generation.

  7. Human american cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania b. braziliensis) in Brazil: lymphoproliferative responses and influence of therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, S C; Coutinho, S G; Amendoeira, R R; Marzochi, M C; Pirmez, C

    1986-01-01

    The host defence to Leishmania parasites is believed to depend on cell-mediated immune responses. Three groups of inhabitants from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro were studied: Group I consisted of 28 patients with cutaneous lesions, Group II of 28 healthy persons (without ulcers) but with positive Montenegro skin tests (MST) and Group III of 29 healthy persons with negative MST. The peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferative responses induced by leishmanial-antigens (Leishmania b. braziliensis lymphoproliferative response) as well as by Concanavalin A (Con A-lymphoproliferative response), both measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation were tested in each group. The results showed that: The Leishmania b. braziliensis lymphoproliferative response (L.b.b.-LPR) in healthy persons with positive MST (Group II) was higher than in patients prior to therapy (Group I); A significantly higher L.b.b.-LPR was found in patients and healthy persons with positive MST as compared to Group III (negative MST); The L.b.b.-LPR of Group I (patients) increased during antimonial therapy--this might possibly be related to the destruction of parasites; The levels of L.b.b.-LPR after therapy became similar to the ones before therapy; All individuals from the three groups had a positive Con A-lymphoproliferative response (Con A-LPR); All patients who had a histopathological picture of granulomatous reaction also had a positive L.b.b.-LPR; A poor response to antimonial therapy observed in six patients was associated with a low L.b.b.-LPR. PMID:3742876

  8. Multi-System Verification of Registrations for Image-Guided Radiotherapy in Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Yunfeng; Galvin, James M.; Straube, William L.; Bosch, Walter R.; Purdy, James A.; Li, X. Allen; Xiao Ying

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To provide quantitative information on the image registration differences from multiple systems for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) credentialing and margin reduction in clinical trials. Methods and Materials: Images and IGRT shift results from three different treatment systems (Tomotherapy Hi-Art, Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy) have been sent from various institutions to the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center (ITC) for evaluation for the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Nine patient datasets (five head-and-neck and four prostate) were included in the comparison, with each patient having 1-4 daily individual IGRT studies. In all cases, daily shifts were re-calculated by re-registration of the planning CT with the daily IGRT data using three independent software systems (MIMvista, FocalSim, VelocityAI). Automatic fusion was used in all calculations. The results were compared with those submitted from institutions. Similar regions of interest (ROIs) and same initial positions were used in registrations for inter-system comparison. Different slice spacings for CBCT sampling and different ROIs for registration were used in some cases to observe the variation of registration due to these factors. Results: For the 54 comparisons with head-and-neck datasets, the absolute values of differences of the registration results between different systems were 2.6 {+-} 2.1 mm (mean {+-} SD; range 0.1-8.6 mm, left-right [LR]), 1.7 {+-} 1.3 mm (0.0-4.9 mm, superior-inferior [SI]), and 1.8 {+-} 1.1 mm (0.1-4.0 mm, anterior-posterior [AP]). For the 66 comparisons in prostate cases, the differences were 1.1 {+-} 1.0 mm (0.0-4.6 mm, LR), 2.1 {+-} 1.7 mm (0.0-6.6 mm, SI), and 2.0 {+-} 1.8 mm (0.1-6.9 mm, AP). The differences caused by the slice spacing variation were relatively small, and the different ROI selections in FocalSim and MIMvista also had limited impact. Conclusion: The extent of differences was reported when different systems were used for image

  9. High-repetition-rate pulse-burst laser for Thomson scattering on the MST reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, W. C.; Morton, L. A.; Parke, E.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2013-11-01

    A new, high-repetition-rate pulse-burst laser system for the MST Thomson scattering diagnostic has operated with 2 J pulses at repetition rates up to 75 kHz within a burst. The 1064 nm laser currently employs a q-switched, diode pumped Nd:YVO4 master oscillator, four Nd:YAG amplifier stages, and a Nd:glass amplifier, with plans for an additional Nd:glass amplifier. The laser can maintain 1.5-2 J pulses in two operating modes: either at a uniform repetition rate of 5-10 kHz (sustained for 5-8 ms), or reach rates of up to 75 kHz in pulse-burst operation (for 10 bursts of 15 pulses each), limited by flashlamp explosion energy and wall loading. The full system, including an additional Nd:glass amplifier, is designed to produce bursts of 2 J pulses at a repetition rate of at least 250 kHz. Custom programmable square-pulse power supplies drive the amplifier flashlamps, providing fine control of pulse timing, duration, and repetition, and allow for pulse-burst operation. The new laser system integrates with the same collection optics and detectors as used by the previous MST Thomson laser: 21 spatial points across the MST minor radius, filter polychromators with 6 to 8 channels (10 eV-5 keV range), avalanche photodiode detectors, and 1 GSample/s/channel digitization. Use of the previous pulse-burst laser continues concurrently with new laser development. Additional notes on optimization of flashlamp simmering will also be covered, showing that an increase in simmer currents can improve pulse-to-pulse energy consistency on both the new and older lasers.

  10. Reducing and measuring fluctuations in the MST RFP: Enhancement of energy confinement and measurement of the MHD dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Almagri, A.F.; Cekic, M.

    1996-09-01

    A three- to five-fold enhancement of the energy confinement time in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been achieved in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) by reducing the amplitude of tearing mode fluctuations responsible for anomalous transport in the core of the RFP. By applying a transient poloidal inductive electric field to flatten the current density profile, the fluctuation amplitude {tilde b}/B decreases from 1.5% to 0.8%, the electron temperature T{sub e0} increases from 250 eV to 370 eV, the ohmic input power decreases from 4.5 MW to approximately 1.5 MW, the poloidal beta {beta}{sub 0} increases from 6% to 9%, and the energy confinement time {tau}{sub E} increases from 1 ms to {approximately}5 ms in I{sub {phi}} = 340 kA plasmas with density {tilde n} = 1 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}. Current profile control methods are being developed for the RFP in a program to eliminate transport associated with these current-gradient-driven fluctuations. In addition to controlling the amplitude of the tearing modes, we are vigorously pursuing an understanding of the physics of these fluctuations. In particular, plasma flow, both equilibrium and fluctuating, plays a critical role in a diversity of physical phenomena in MST. The key results: 1) Edge probe measurements show that the MHD dynamo is active in low collisionality plasmas, while at high collisionality a new mechanism, the `electron diamagnetic dynamo,` is observed. 2) Core spectroscopic measurements show that the toroidal velocity fluctuations of the plasma are coherent with the large-scale magnetic tearing modes; the scalar product of these two fluctuating quantities is similar to that expected for the MHD dynamo electromotive force. 3) Toroidal plasma flow in MST exhibits large radial shear and can be actively controlled, including unlocking locked discharges, by modifying E{sub r} with a robust biased probe. 24 refs.

  11. Novel nervous and multi-system regenerative therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus with mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the globe, diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in incidence with limited therapies presently available to prevent or resolve the significant complications of this disorder. DM impacts multiple organs and affects all components of the central and peripheral nervous systems that can range from dementia to diabetic neuropathy. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a promising agent for the development of novel regenerative strategies for the treatment of DM. mTOR and its related signaling pathways impact multiple metabolic parameters that include cellular metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, pancreatic β-cell function, and programmed cell death with apoptosis and autophagy. mTOR is central element for the protein complexes mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) and is a critical component for a number of signaling pathways that involve phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), protein kinase B (Akt), AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SIRT1), Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), and growth factors. As a result, mTOR represents an exciting target to offer new clinical avenues for the treatment of DM and the complications of this disease. Future studies directed to elucidate the delicate balance mTOR holds over cellular metabolism and the impact of its broad signaling pathways should foster the translation of these targets into effective clinical regimens for DM. PMID:27127460

  12. The instrumental principles of MST radars and incoherent scatter radars and the configuration of radar system hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, Juergen

    1989-01-01

    The principle of pulse modulation used in the case of coherent scatter radars (MST radars) is discussed. Coherent detection and the corresponding system configuration is delineated. Antenna requirements and design are outlined and the phase-coherent transmitter/receiver system is described. Transmit/receive duplexers, transmitters, receivers, and quadrature detectors are explained. The radar controller, integrator, decoder and correlator design as well as the data transfer and the control and monitoring by the host computer are delineated. Typical operation parameters of some well-known radars are summarized.

  13. Low Level Laser Therapy to Reduce Recurrent Oral Ulcers in Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Babu, D. B. Gandhi; Chavva, Sunanda; Waghray, Shefali

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing multisystemic vascular condition. Behçet's disease was described by Hulusi Behçet in 1937. This rare multisystem relapsing-remitting inflammatory disease is poorly understood but is thought to be an autoimmune inflammatory vasculitic process in a genetically predisposed population. Diagnosis of Behçet's disease is based on International Criteria of Behçet's Disease (ICBD). The present paper describes a case report of Behçet's syndrome where aphthous stomatitis was treated with low level laser therapy. PMID:27555969

  14. Novel Multi-System Functional Gains via Task Specific Training in Spinal Cord Injured Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patricia J.; Herrity, April N.; Smith, Rebecca R.; Willhite, Andrea; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Harkema, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Locomotor training (LT) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is a rehabilitative therapy used to enhance locomotor recovery. There is evidence, primarily anecdotal, also associating LT with improvements in bladder function and reduction in some types of SCI-related pain. In the present study, we determined if a step training paradigm could improve outcome measures of locomotion, bladder function, and pain/allodynia. After a T10 contusive SCI trained animals (adult male Wistar rats), trained animals began quadrupedal step training beginning 2 weeks post-SCI for 1 h/day. End of study experiments (3 months of training) revealed significant changes in limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns relative to non-trained controls. Importantly, micturition function, evaluated with terminal transvesical cystometry, was significantly improved in the step trained group (increased voiding efficiency, intercontraction interval, and contraction amplitude). Because both SCI and LT affect neurotrophin signaling, and neurotrophins are involved with post-SCI plasticity in micturition pathways, we measured bladder neurotrophin mRNA. Training regulated the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) but not BDNF or NT3. Bladder NGF mRNA levels were inversely related to bladder function in the trained group. Monitoring of overground locomotion and neuropathic pain throughout the study revealed significant improvements, beginning after 3 weeks of training, which in both cases remained consistent for the study duration. These novel findings, improving non-locomotor in addition to locomotor functions, demonstrate that step training post-SCI could contribute to multiple quality of life gains, targeting patient-centered high priority deficits. PMID:24294909

  15. Current status of Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar (PANSY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Saito, Akinori; Sato, Toru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Koji; Yamagishi, Hisao; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    The Syowa Station is one of the distinguished stations, where various atmospheric observations for research purposes by universities and institutes as well as operational observations by government agencies are performed continuously. The observation of the Antarctic is important in two senses. First, it is easy to monitor weak signal of the earth climate change because contamination due to human activity is quite low. Second, there are various unique atmospheric phenomena in the Antarctic having strong signals such as katabatic flows, the ozone hole, noctilucent clouds, and auroras. The middle atmosphere is regarded as an important region to connect the troposphere and ionosphere. However, its observation is retarded in the Antarctic compared with the other regions; nevertheless the vertical coupling through the mechanisms such as momentum transport by gravity waves is especially important in this region. Since 2000, we have developed an MST/IS radar to be operational in the Antarctic and have made feasibility studies. After solving various significant problems such as treatment against strong winds, energy saving, weight reduction, and efficient construction method, we reached the final system design which is a VHF (47MHz) Doppler pulse radar with an active phased array consisting of 1045 yagis. This project was authorized as a main observation plan for JARE52-57 in 2008, and finally funded by Japanese government in 2009. The radar construction started in late December, 2010. In the first summer since late December 2010, JARE52 installed all yagi antennas in a circular region with a diameter of 160m as scheduled regardless of the record-worst weather condition. Three groups out of 55, each of which is composed of 19 modules and antennas, were operated and the first echoes from the low and middle troposphere were successfully obtained in March 2011. In the second summer, JARE53 rearranged the shape of the antenna area to avoid snow accumulation which has recently

  16. Indian MST radar: A remote sensing tool for studying long- and short- term cross tropopause transports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddarth Shankar; Ratnam, Madineni Venkat; Suneeth, K. V.

    The stratospheric air is dry and ozone rich in nature, whereas the tropospheric air is enriched in humidity with high aerosol concentration. The tropopause is the stable layer which acts as a semi-permeable membrane between these two spheres (i.e. troposphere and stratosphere) and thus hinders the exchange of the minors constituents (e.g. water vapour and ozone) between these two spheres. This complex equilibrium region is known as the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. The major mixing process befalls over the tropical region, where the maximum convective systems occur through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Thus, it is necessary to understand the dynamical and chemical processes that occurring at UTLS region and quantative analysis of the mass exchange is essential. Ten years of data obtained from Indian MST radar located at a Tropical station Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2oE) is used to study the long- and short (event) term cross tropopause transport. The prime mechanisms responsible for the radar backscattering echoes are isotropic/anisotropic turbulence fluctuations in the refractive index and Fresnel reflection/scattering due to sharp gradients in the radio refractive index. The inhomogeneties in the radio refractive index are contributed by both humidity and temperature below 8 km height, whereas above it, it is only contributed by the temperature gradients. When the dry stratospheric air penetrates into the troposphere, it will take some time to mix with the humid air of troposphere. Due to two different constituents of the air, there will be strong refractive index gradient, which will be reflected as enhanced radar backscattering echoes. The dry stratospheric air will slowly mix with the humid tropospheric air by means of small scale turbulence. Using this scattering mechanism behavior, the long-term and its seasonal characteristics, and the short-term event wise (convective disturbances) stratospheric air intrusion into the troposphere

  17. Quantitative, Competitive PCR Analysis of Porcine Circovirus DNA in Serum from Pigs with Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Li; Willson, Phil; Babiuk, Lorne A.

    2000-01-01

    A competitive PCR (cPCR) assay was developed for monitoring porcine circovirus (PCV) DNA in serum samples from piglets. The cPCR was based on competitive coamplification of a 502- or 506-bp region of the PCV type 1 (PCV1) or PCV2 ORF2, respectively, with a known concentration of competitor DNA, which produced a 761- or 765-bp fragment, respectively. The cPCR was validated by quantification of a known amount of PCV wild-type plasmids. We also used this technique to determine PCV genome copy numbers in infected cells. Furthermore, we measured PCV DNA loads in clinical samples. More than 50% of clinically healthy piglets could harbor both types of PCV. While PCV1 was detected in only 3 of 16 pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), all the sick piglets contained PCV2. A comparison of the PCV2 DNA loads of healthy and sick animals revealed a significant difference, indicating that the development of PMWS may require a certain amount of PCV2. PMID:10970408

  18. Gravity waves and turbulence from troposphere to mesosphere over the Indian MST radar station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Subhas

    The Indian MST radar facility at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) has been utilised to study the backscattered signals received near simultaneously from troposphere, stratosphere and meso-sphere. The main objective is to identify the signatures of gravity waves in the troposphere/stratosphere and their upward propagation to produce mesospheric turbulence. The observations were car-ried out during different months of 2001-2003 using five beam positions for E-W, N-S at 10° beam angle and the Zenith direction, variable pulse widths (range bins between 150 m to 2.4 km) and minimum time resolution of 80 s (for one radar scan) covering the height range of 4-85 km. While results shown on the intermittent, inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of mesospheric scattering regions are explained by the neutral turbulence driven perturbations in the radio refractive index corresponding to the Bragg scale of about 3 m for the radar frequency of 53 MHz, the seasonal variation in the occurrence of scattering layer heights between 70-80 km (including stratification and multiple layers) and signal strengths are dependent on (but may not be limited to) the severe weather related tropical convective sources generating grav-ity waves in the troposphere, their propagation through the stratosphere and breaking in the mesosphere. The spectrum of gravity waves of a convective event with different phase velocities would go through various interaction regimes with the mean flows acting as filters as well as producing turbulence in all the three regions of interest. On a typical day (e.g. 25 June 2002) of well developed mesospheric scattering layer, the height profile of SNR (related to different turbulence patches) shows an average maximum value of 15 dB below 18 km with 3-4 prominent and continuous tropospheric scatter layers of 3 km thickness and 5 dB in the mesosphere with 2 km thick intermittent layer around 74 km. Wind velocity contours show a reversal in mean wind direction around 8-10 km

  19. Experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs by dual infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Opriessnig, T; Thacker, E L; Yu, S; Fenaux, M; Meng, X-J; Halbur, P G

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the interactions between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and to establish a model for studying the pathogenesis of and testing intervention strategies for the control of PCV2-associated porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Sixty-seven pigs were randomly assigned to four groups. Group 1 (n=17) pigs served as controls, group 2 (n=17) pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae, group 3 (n=17) pigs were dual infected with M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2, and group 4 (n=16) pigs were inoculated with PCV2. Pigs were inoculated intratracheally with M. hyopneumoniae at 4 weeks of age followed by intranasal inoculation with PCV2 at 6 weeks of age. Dual-infected pigs had moderate dyspnea, lethargy, and reduced weight gain. The overall severity of macroscopic lung lesions, PCV2-associated microscopic lesions in lung and lymphoid tissues, and the amount of PCV2-antigen associated with these lesions were significantly (P <0.05) higher in dual-infected pigs compared with all other groups. Four of 17 (23.5%) dual-infected pigs had decreased growth rate and severe lymphoid depletion and granulomatous lymphadenitis associated with high amounts of PCV2-antigen consistent with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). PCV2-antigen in lung tissue was most often associated with M. hyopneumoniae-induced peribronchial lymphoid hyperplasia, suggesting that this is an important site for PCV2 replication in the lung. This study indicates that M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of PCV2-associated lung and lymphoid lesions, increases the amount and prolongs the presence of PCV2-antigen, and increases the incidence of PMWS in pigs.

  20. PGC-1α Deficiency Causes Multi-System Energy Metabolic Derangements: Muscle Dysfunction, Abnormal Weight Control and Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Teresa C; Lehman, John J; Finck, Brian N; Schaeffer, Paul J; Wende, Adam R; Boudina, Sihem; Courtois, Michael; Wozniak, David F; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos; Chen, Zhouji; O. Holloszy, John; Medeiros, Denis M; Schmidt, Robert E; Saffitz, Jeffrey E; Abel, E. Dale; Semenkovich, Clay F

    2005-01-01

    The gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) was targeted in mice. PGC-1α null (PGC-1α−/−) mice were viable. However, extensive phenotyping revealed multi-system abnormalities indicative of an abnormal energy metabolic phenotype. The postnatal growth of heart and slow-twitch skeletal muscle, organs with high mitochondrial energy demands, is blunted in PGC-1α−/− mice. With age, the PGC-1α−/− mice develop abnormally increased body fat, a phenotype that is more severe in females. Mitochondrial number and respiratory capacity is diminished in slow-twitch skeletal muscle of PGC-1α−/− mice, leading to reduced muscle performance and exercise capacity. PGC-1α−/− mice exhibit a modest diminution in cardiac function related largely to abnormal control of heart rate. The PGC-1α−/− mice were unable to maintain core body temperature following exposure to cold, consistent with an altered thermogenic response. Following short-term starvation, PGC-1α−/− mice develop hepatic steatosis due to a combination of reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and an increased expression of lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, PGC-1α−/− mice were less susceptible to diet-induced insulin resistance than wild-type controls. Lastly, vacuolar lesions were detected in the central nervous system of PGC-1α−/− mice. These results demonstrate that PGC-1α is necessary for appropriate adaptation to the metabolic and physiologic stressors of postnatal life. PMID:15760270

  1. Clinical and Genetic Features of Korean Patients with Recurrent Fever and Multi-System Inflammation without Infectious or Autoimmune Evidence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autoinflammatory disease (AID) is a newly proposed category of disorders characterized by unprovoked episodes of inflammation without any infectious or autoimmune evidence. We aimed to characterize the clinical and genetic features of patients who had recurrent fever and multi-system inflammation but remain unclassified for any established AIDs. Medical records of 1,777 patients who visited our Rheumatology Clinic between March 2009 and December 2010 were reviewed to identify those who met the following criteria; 1) presence of fever, 2) inflammation in two or more organ systems, 3) recurrent nature of fever or inflammation, 4) no evidence of infection or malignancy, 5) absence of high titer autoantibodies, and 6) failure to satisfy any classification criteria for known AIDs. Genotyping was performed for common missense variants in MEFV, NOD2/CARD15, and TNFRSF1A. A small number of patients (17/1,777, 0.95%) were identified to meet the above criteria. Muco-cutaneous and musculoskeletal features were most common, but there was a considerable heterogeneity in symptom combination. Although they did not satisfy any established classification criteria for AIDs, substantial overlap was observed between the clinical spectrum of these patients and known AIDs. According to the newly proposed Eurofever criteria for periodic fevers, eleven of them were classified as TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome and two as mevalonate kinase deficiency. However, no examined genetic variants including those in TNFRSF1A were found in these patients. A new set of classification criteria needs to be developed and validated for Asian patients with unclassified AIDs. PMID:26839472

  2. Identification of Novel Rosavirus Species That Infects Diverse Rodent Species and Causes Multisystemic Dissemination in Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Zhang, Anna J. X.; Chan, Brandon C. C.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    While novel picornaviruses are being discovered in rodents, their host range and pathogenicity are largely unknown. We identified two novel picornaviruses, rosavirus B from the street rat, Norway rat, and rosavirus C from five different wild rat species (chestnut spiny rat, greater bandicoot rat, Indochinese forest rat, roof rat and Coxing's white-bellied rat) in China. Analysis of 13 complete genome sequences showed that “Rosavirus B” and “Rosavirus C” represent two potentially novel picornavirus species infecting different rodents. Though being most closely related to rosavirus A, rosavirus B and C possessed distinct protease cleavage sites and variations in Yn-Xm-AUG sequence in 5’UTR and myristylation site in VP4. Anti-rosavirus B VP1 antibodies were detected in Norway rats, whereas anti-rosavirus C VP1 and neutralizing antibodies were detected in Indochinese forest rats and Coxing's white-bellied rats. While the highest prevalence was observed in Coxing's white-bellied rats by RT-PCR, the detection of rosavirus C from different rat species suggests potential interspecies transmission. Rosavirus C isolated from 3T3 cells causes multisystemic diseases in a mouse model, with high viral loads and positive viral antigen expression in organs of infected mice after oral or intracerebral inoculation. Histological examination revealed alveolar fluid exudation, interstitial infiltration, alveolar fluid exudate and wall thickening in lungs, and hepatocyte degeneration and lymphocytic/monocytic inflammatory infiltrates with giant cell formation in liver sections of sacrificed mice. Since rosavirus A2 has been detected in fecal samples of children, further studies should elucidate the pathogenicity and emergence potential of different rosaviruses. PMID:27737017

  3. Identification of MST1/STK4 and SULF1 proteins as autoantibody targets for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer by using phage microarrays.

    PubMed

    Babel, Ingrid; Barderas, Rodrigo; Diaz-Uriarte, Ramón; Moreno, Víctor; Suarez, Adolfo; Fernandez-Aceñero, María Jesús; Salazar, Ramón; Capellá, Gabriel; Casal, J Ignacio

    2011-03-01

    The characterization of the humoral response in cancer patients is becoming a practical alternative to improve early detection. We prepared phage microarrays containing colorectal cancer cDNA libraries to identify phage-expressed peptides recognized by tumor-specific autoantibodies from patient sera. From a total of 1536 printed phages, 128 gave statistically significant values to discriminate cancer patients from control samples. From this, 43 peptide sequences were unique following DNA sequencing. Six phages containing homologous sequences to STK4/MST1, SULF1, NHSL1, SREBF2, GRN, and GTF2I were selected to build up a predictor panel. A previous study with high-density protein microarrays had identified STK4/MST1 as a candidate biomarker. An independent collection of 153 serum samples (50 colorectal cancer sera and 103 reference samples, including healthy donors and sera from other related pathologies) was used as a validation set to study prediction capability. A combination of four phages and two recombinant proteins, corresponding to MST1 and SULF1, achieved an area under the curve of 0.86 to correctly discriminate cancer from healthy sera. Inclusion of sera from other different neoplasias did not change significantly this value. For early stages (A+B), the corrected area under the curve was 0.786. Moreover, we have demonstrated that MST1 and SULF1 proteins, homologous to phage-peptide sequences, can replace the original phages in the predictor panel, improving their diagnostic accuracy.

  4. Some recent developments in the interpretation of MST radar returns from clear air (keynote paper), part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar returns from clear air come about through the interaction of electromagnetic waves with the inhomogeneous structures of refractive index in the atmosphere. In order to interpret the data correctly to obtain information concerning the dynamics of the atmosphere, one must first know how the various refractive index structures can affect the propagation and scattering of the radio waves. This can be achieved through theoretical and model studies. On the other hand, in order to carry out realistic theoretical studies, realistic models of the inhomogeneous structures of the atmospheric refractive index are needed. These are available only through observational data. Therefore the close interplays between theoretical and observational investigations are essential in making progress in this area. Some results on certain aspects of the problem are presented with emphasis on those aspects that may lead to new developments.

  5. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification MST Solids Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2013-09-19

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 7 processing. The Marcrobatch 7 material was received with visible fine particulate solids, atypical for these samples. The as received material was allowed to settle for a period greater than 24 hours. The supernatant was then decanted and utilized as our clarified feed material. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) test using the clarified feed material. From this test, the residual monosodium titanate (MST) was analyzed for radionuclide uptake after filtration from H-Tank Farm (HTF) feed salt solution. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  6. Tokamak-like confinement at a high beta and low toroidal field in the MST reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Biewer, T. M.; Blair, A. P.; Cengher, M.; Chapman, B. E.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Craig, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ebrahimi, F.; Fiksel, G.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D.; Hudson, B.; Lovell, T. W.; McCollam, K. J.; Nonn, P. D.; O'Connell, R.; Oliva, S. P.; Prager, S. C.; Reardon, J. C.; Thomas, M. A.; Wyman, M. D.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Terry, S. D.; Carter, M. D.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Harvey, R. W.; Pinsker, R. I.; Xiao, C.

    2003-12-01

    Energy confinement comparable with tokamak quality is achieved in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) at a high beta and low toroidal magnetic field. Magnetic fluctuations normally present in the RFP are reduced via parallel current drive in the outer region of the plasma. In response, the electron temperature nearly triples and beta doubles. The confinement time increases ten-fold (to ~10 ms), which is comparable with L- and H-mode scaling values for a tokamak with the same plasma current, density, heating power, size and shape. Runaway electron confinement is evidenced by a 100-fold increase in hard x-ray bremsstrahlung. Fokker-Planck modelling of the x-ray energy spectrum reveals that the high energy electron diffusion is independent of the parallel velocity, uncharacteristic of magnetic transport and more like that for electrostatic turbulence. The high core electron temperature correlates strongly with a broadband reduction of resonant modes at mid-radius where the stochasticity is normally most intense. To extend profile control and add auxiliary heating, rf current drive and neutral beam heating are in development. Low power lower-hybrid and electron Bernstein wave injection experiments are underway. Dc current sustainment via ac helicity injection (sinusoidal inductive loop voltages) is also being tested. Low power neutral beam injection shows that fast ions are well-confined, even in the presence of relatively large magnetic fluctuations. Presented at the 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference with the title Overview of Improved Confinement and Plasma Control in the MST Reversed Field Pinch.

  7. Decay kinetics of microbial source tracking (MST) markers and human adenovirus under the effects of sunlight and salinity.

    PubMed

    L, Liang; S G, Goh; K Y H, Gin

    2017-01-01

    Artificial seawater and freshwater microcosms inoculated with raw sewage were set up to compare the persistence of microbial source tracking (MST) markers (i.e. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta), Methanobrevibacter smithii (M. smithii), human polyomaviruses JC and BK (HPyVs)) and human adenoviruses under different sunlight intensity and salinity. PMA pretreatment successfully eliminated the false-positive detection of dead bacterial cells in the model-development experiment. The results were then validated using real environmental matrices in microcosms inoculated with raw sewage. The genome concentrations of the targets followed a first-order decay pattern with 90% reduction of the initial amounts in <5days for both artificial and natural surface waters. Decay rate constant (k1) were developed microorganisms in artificial water matrices. Due to the different water environment conditions, improved decay rates (k2) incorporated with sunlight, TSS and TOC adjustment coefficients were used for validation of the natural water matrices. Based on the predictive squared correlation coefficient (Q(2)F) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) validation criteria, the improved k2 were able to provide better prediction on the survival of target microorganisms in environmental surface waters (Q(2)F>0.6 and RMSE ranged from 0.05 to 1.81). For microbial source tracking purposes, HPyVs are suggested to be better MST markers in freshwater, while B. theta is recommended for seawater based on the decay models developed in this study. The targeted DNA of M. smithii should only be used to indicate recent human faecal pollution in surface waters due to their faster decay than human adenoviruses.

  8. Reproduction of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome in an animal disease model as a tool for vaccine testing under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    McKillen, John; McNair, Irene; Lagan, Paula; McKay, Karen; McClintock, Julie; Casement, Veronica; Charreyre, Catherine; Allan, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Snatch farrowed, colostrum deprived piglets were inoculated with different combinations of porcine circovirus 2, porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae candidate vaccines. 10 piglets were mock-vaccinated. Following virus challenge with a combined porcine circovirus 2/porcine parvovirus inoculum, all animals were monitored and samples taken for serology, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. At 24 dpc all non-vaccinated animals remaining were exhibiting signs of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Details of the study, analysis of samples and performance of the candidate vaccines are described.

  9. Wegener's granulomatosis: current and upcoming therapies

    PubMed Central

    Langford, Carol A

    2003-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a complex multisystem disease that can be associated with morbidity and mortality. The introduction of cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids brought about the potential for long-term survival and provided the opportunity and impetus to explore treatment options that can reduce the toxicity of therapy and lessen the likelihood of relapse. With the growth of knowledge regarding disease pathophysiology and the increasing ability to selectively target the immune system, the potential options for therapeutic investigation have continued to expand. Careful study of new agents through rigorously designed trials is essential to answering questions of safety and efficacy in Wegener's granulomatosis. PMID:12823849

  10. Feasibility, safety, and compliance in a randomized controlled trial of physical therapy for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Jennifer L; Martin, Clarissa; Huxham, Frances E; Menz, Hylton B; Danoudis, Mary; Murphy, Anna T; Watts, Jennifer J; Iansek, Robert; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Both efficacy and clinical feasibility deserve consideration in translation of research outcomes. This study evaluated the feasibility of rehabilitation programs within the context of a large randomized controlled trial of physical therapy. Ambulant participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) (n = 210) were randomized into three groups: (1) progressive strength training (PST); (2) movement strategy training (MST); or (3) control ("life skills"). PST and MST included fall prevention education. Feasibility was evaluated in terms of safety, retention, adherence, and compliance measures. Time to first fall during the intervention phase did not differ across groups, and adverse effects were minimal. Retention was high; only eight participants withdrew during or after the intervention phase. Strong adherence (attendance >80%) did not differ between groups (P = .435). Compliance in the therapy groups was high. All three programs proved feasible, suggesting they may be safely implemented for people with PD in community-based clinical practice.

  11. Task completion report for investigating why output signal-variable values differ from their output component-parameter values in test problem MST2

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, R.G.

    1997-09-10

    Signal-variable values and their component-parameter values differ in an end-of-timestep edit to the TRCOUT and TRCGRF files because signal variables have beginning-of-timestep values, and component parameters have end-of-timestep values. Oscillatory divergence in the MST2 standard test problem after 9000 s occurs because of TRAC-P`s numerical evaluation at a 1000 material Courant number. The magnitude of that divergence has diminished by a factor of 3.5 from Version 5.3.01 to 5.4.15 and by a factor of 25 from Version 5.4.15 to 5.4.28. That divergence can be eliminated by evaluating MST2 with a maximum material Courant number of 500.

  12. Application of the MST clustering to the high energy γ-ray sky. III—New detections of γ-ray emission from blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, R.; Massaro, E.; Bernieri, E.

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of a photon cluster search in the γ-ray sky observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, using the new Pass 8 dataset, at energies higher than 10 GeV. By means of the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) algorithm, we found 25 clusters associated with catalogued blazars not previously known as γ-ray emitters. The properties of these sources are discussed.

  13. Integrin α2β1 inhibits MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activates Yes-associated protein oncogenic signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kwong-Fai; Liu, Angela M.; Hong, Wanjin; Xu, Zhi; Luk, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo pathway regulates the down-stream target Yes-associated protein (YAP) to maintain organ homeostasis, which is commonly inactivated in many types of cancers. However, how cell adhesion dysregulates the Hippo pathway activating YAP oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Our findings demonstrate that α2β1 integrin (but not other β1 integrins) expressed in HCC cells, after binding to collagen extracellular matrix, could inhibit MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activate YAP pro-oncogenic activities. Knockdown of integrin α2 gene (ITGA2) suppressed YAP targeted gene expression in vitro. α2β1 and collagen binding resulted in suppressing Hippo signaling of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) and Large tumor suppressor homolog 1 (LATS1) with concomitant activation of YAP-mediated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene expression. In vitro kinase assay showed that MST1 is an immediate downstream target of integrin α2 with S1180 residue as the critical phosphorylation site. Clinical correlational analysis using a gene expression dataset of 228 HCC tumors revealed that ITGA2 expression was significantly associated with tumor progression, and co-expression with YAP targeted genes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, CTGF, cyclin D1, glypican 3, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, and SRY-box 4) correlated with survivals of HCC patients. In conclusion, α2β1 integrin activation through cellular adhesion impacts the Hippo pathway in solid tumors and modulates MST1-YAP signaling cascade. Targeting integrin α2 holds promises for treating YAP-positive HCC. PMID:27765911

  14. Integrin α2β1 inhibits MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activates Yes-associated protein oncogenic signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kwong-Fai; Liu, Angela M; Hong, Wanjin; Xu, Zhi; Luk, John M

    2016-11-22

    The Hippo pathway regulates the down-stream target Yes-associated protein (YAP) to maintain organ homeostasis, which is commonly inactivated in many types of cancers. However, how cell adhesion dysregulates the Hippo pathway activating YAP oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Our findings demonstrate that α2β1 integrin (but not other β1 integrins) expressed in HCC cells, after binding to collagen extracellular matrix, could inhibit MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activate YAP pro-oncogenic activities. Knockdown of integrin α2 gene (ITGA2) suppressed YAP targeted gene expression in vitro. α2β1 and collagen binding resulted in suppressing Hippo signaling of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) and Large tumor suppressor homolog 1 (LATS1) with concomitant activation of YAP-mediated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene expression. In vitro kinase assay showed that MST1 is an immediate downstream target of integrin α2 with S1180 residue as the critical phosphorylation site. Clinical correlational analysis using a gene expression dataset of 228 HCC tumors revealed that ITGA2 expression was significantly associated with tumor progression, and co-expression with YAP targeted genes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, CTGF, cyclin D1, glypican 3, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, and SRY-box 4) correlated with survivals of HCC patients. In conclusion, α2β1 integrin activation through cellular adhesion impacts the Hippo pathway in solid tumors and modulates MST1-YAP signaling cascade. Targeting integrin α2 holds promises for treating YAP-positive HCC.

  15. Design considerations for high-power VHF radar transceivers: The Poker Flat MST radar phase control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Johnson, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty-four separate 50-kW peak-power transmitters are distributed throughout the 200 x 200 meter Poker Flat MST radar antenna array. The relative phase of each transmitter is automatically controlled by a 64-channel unit located in the main building at the edge of the antenna. The phase control unit is described. In operation the RF pulse from a transmitter coupler is power divided and compared with the phase reference in a mixer. The mixer output is low-pass filtered and sampled near the center of the resulting video pulse by an amplifying sample-and-hold integrated circuit. Phase control is effected by maintaining the mixer output pulse near zero volts by amplifying the sample-and-hold output which then drives the voltage-controlled phase shifter in the direction to null the mixer output. The voltage-controlled shifter achieves over 360 deg phase shift in the range from 0.7 to 24 volts. When the voltage into the shifter tracks to either voltage limit the wrap-around control resets the voltage so that the shifter is always operating within its control range.

  16. Feasibility of Adapting Multisystemic Therapy to Improve Illness Management Behaviors and Reduce Asthma Morbidity in High Risk African American Youth: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation…

  17. Emerging targets for antidepressant therapies

    PubMed Central

    Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2015-01-01

    Despite adequate antidepressant monotherapy, the majority of depressed patients do not achieve remission. Even optimal and aggressive therapy leads to a substantial number of patients who show minimal and often only transient improvement. In order to address this substantial problem of treatment-resistant depression, a number of novel targets for antidepressant therapy have emerged as a consequence of major advances in the neurobiology of depression. Three major approaches to uncover novel therapeutic interventions are: first, optimizing the modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission; second, developing medications that act upon neurotransmitter systems other than monoaminergic circuits; and third, using focal brain stimulation to directly modulate neuronal activity. We review the most recent data on novel therapeutic compounds and their antidepressant potential. These include triple monoamine reuptake inhibitors, atypical antipsychotic augmentation, and dopamine receptor agonists. Compounds affecting extra-monoamine neurotransmitter systems include CRF1 receptor antagonists, glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, substance P receptor antagonists, NMDA receptor antagonists, nemifitide, omega-3 fatty acids, and melatonin receptor agonists. Focal brain stimulation therapies include vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS). PMID:19501541

  18. Applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation and magnetic seizure therapy in the study and treatment of disorders related to cerebral aging.

    PubMed

    Luber, Bruce; McClintock, Shawn M; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2013-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to probe cortical function and treat neuropsychiatric illnesses. TMS has demonstrated neuroplastic effects akin to long-term potentiation and long-term depression, and therapeutic applications are in development for post-stroke recovery, Alzheimer's disease, and depression in seniors. Here, we discuss two new directions of TMS research relevant to cerebral aging and cognition. First, we introduce a paradigm for enhancing cognitive reserve, based on our research in sleep deprivation. Second, we discuss the use of magnetic seizure therapy (MST) to spare cognitive functions relative to conventional electroconvulsive therapy, and as a means of providing a more potent antidepressant treatment when subconvulsive TMS has shown modest efficacy in seniors. Whether in the enhancement of cognition as a treatment goal, or in the reduction of amnesia as a side effect, these approaches to the use of TMS and MST merit further exploration regarding their clinical potential.

  19. Multistimulation group therapy in Alzheimer's disease promotes changes in brain functioning.

    PubMed

    Baglio, Francesca; Griffanti, Ludovica; Saibene, Francesca Lea; Ricci, Cristian; Alberoni, Margherita; Critelli, Raffaella; Villanelli, Fabiana; Fioravanti, Raffaella; Mantovani, Federica; D'amico, Alessandra; Cabinio, Monia; Preti, Maria Giulia; Nemni, Raffaello; Farina, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Background. The growing social emergency represented by Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the lack of medical treatments able to modify the disease course have kindled the interest in nonpharmacological therapies. Objective. We introduced a novel nonpharmacological approach for people with AD (PWA) named Multidimensional Stimulation group Therapy (MST) to improve PWA condition in different disease domains: cognition, behavior, and motor functioning. Methods. Enrolling 60 PWA in a mild to moderate stage of the disease, we evaluated the efficacy of MST with a randomized-controlled study. Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were considered as outcome measures. Results. The following significant intervention-related changes were observed: reduction in Neuropsychiatric Inventory scale score, improvement in language and memory subscales of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale, and increased fMRI activations in temporal brain areas, right insular cortex, and thalamus. Conclusions. Cognitive-behavioral and fMRI results support the notion that MST has significant effects in improving PWA cognitive-behavioral status by restoring neural functioning.

  20. Performance evaluation of PBL and cumulus parameterization schemes of WRF ARW model in simulating severe thunderstorm events over Gadanki MST radar facility — Case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madala, Srikanth; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Rao, T. Narayana

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to simulate three severe thunderstorm events that occurred over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) region of the Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) Radar facility using Weather Research Forecasting (WRF ARW version 3.2) model. We examined the performance of five planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes namely, the Yonsei University (YSU), Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ), Mellor-Yamada Nakanishi and Niino Level 2.5 PBL (MYNN2), and Medium-Range Forecast (MRF) and Asymmetric Convective Model version 2 (ACM2) and three cumulus parameterization schemes Kain-Fritisch (KF), Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) and Grell-Devenyi ensemble scheme (GD) in simulating boundary layer parameters, thermodynamic structure and vertical velocity profiles on the days of the thunderstorm events. Triple nested domain having the inner-most domain of 3 km grid resolution over the study area is considered. The model simulated parameters are validated with the available in situ meteorological observations obtained from micro-meteorological tower, radiosonde, MST radar wind profiler and observed rainfall along with the surface fluxes at Gadanki. After validating the model simulations with the available PBL observations and the statistical assessment reveal that the MYJ scheme could be able to capture the characteristic variations of surface meteorological variables such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind component, vertical profiles of wind, relative humidity and equivalent potential temperature and surface layer fluxes during the study period. Cores of strong convective updrafts with a time lag and lead of one and half hour are better represented by the model with MYJ scheme with GD as seen in the vertical velocity profiles obtained from MST radar observations. The present study advocates that the MYJ-GD combination is suitable for the simulation of thunderstorm events over the study region.

  1. The Hippo/MST Pathway Member SAV1 Plays a Suppressive Role in Development of the Prehierarchical Follicles in Hen Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Tyasi, Thobela Louis; Zhu, Hongyan; Liu, Dehui; Yuan, Shuguo; Xu, Rifu

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo/MST signaling pathway is a critical player in controlling cell proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis of most tissues and organs in diverse species. Previous studies have shown that Salvador homolog 1 (SAV1), a scaffolding protein which functions in the signaling system is expressed in mammalian ovaries and play a vital role in governing the follicle development. But the exact biological effects of chicken SAV1 in prehierarchical follicle development remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the SAV1 protein is predominantly expressed in the oocytes and undifferentiated granulosa cells in the various sized prehierarchical follicles of hen ovary, and the endogenous expression level of SAV1 mRNA appears down-regulated from the primordial follicles to the largest preovulatory follicles (F2-F1) by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Moreover, we found the intracellular SAV1 physically interacts with each of the pathway members, including STK4/MST1, STK3/MST2, LATS1 and MOB2 using western blotting. And SAV1 significantly promotes the phosphorylation of LATS1 induced by the kinase of STK4 or STK3 in vitro. Furthermore, SAV1 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased proliferation of granulosa cells from the prehierarchical follicles (6–8 mm in diameter) by BrdU-incorporation assay, in which the expression levels of GDF9, StAR and FSHR mRNA was notably enhanced. Meanwhile, these findings were consolidated by the data of SAV1 overexpression. Taken together, the present results revealed that SAV1 can inhibit proliferation of the granulosa cells whereby the expression levels of GDF9, StAR and FSHR mRNA were negatively regulated. Accordingly, SAV1, as a member of the hippo/MST signaling pathway plays a suppressive role in ovarian follicle development by promoting phosphorylation and activity of the downstream LATS1, may consequently lead to prevention of the follicle

  2. Human-Driven Microbiological Contamination of Benthic and Hyporheic Sediments of an Intermittent Peri-Urban River Assessed from MST and 16S rRNA Genetic Structure Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Romain; Ribun, Sébastien; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Colinon, Céline; Petit, Stéphanie; Marjolet, Laurence; Gourmelon, Michèle; Schmitt, Laurent; Breil, Pascal; Cottet, Marylise; Cournoyer, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Rivers are often challenged by fecal contaminations. The barrier effect of sediments against fecal bacteria was investigated through the use of a microbial source tracking (MST) toolbox, and by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of V5-V6 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequences. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of V5-V6 16S rRNA gene sequences differentiated bacteriomes according to their compartment of origin i.e., surface water against benthic and hyporheic sediments. Classification of these reads showed the most prevalent operating taxonomic units (OTU) to be allocated to Flavobacterium and Aquabacterium. Relative numbers of Gaiella, Haliangium, and Thermoleophilum OTU matched the observed differentiation of bacteriomes according to river compartments. OTU patterns were found impacted by combined sewer overflows (CSO) through an observed increase in diversity from the sewer to the hyporheic sediments. These changes appeared driven by direct transfers of bacterial contaminants from wastewaters but also by organic inputs favoring previously undetectable bacterial groups among sediments. These NGS datasets appeared more sensitive at tracking community changes than MST markers. The human-specific MST marker HF183 was strictly detected among CSO-impacted surface waters and not river bed sediments. The ruminant-specific DNA marker was more broadly distributed but intense bovine pollution was required to detect transfers from surface water to benthic and hyporheic sediments. Some OTU showed distribution patterns in line with these MST datasets such as those allocated to the Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas. Fecal indicators (Escherichia coli and total thermotolerant coliforms) were detected all over the river course but their concentrations were not correlated with MST ones. Overall, MST and NGS datasets suggested a poor colonization of river sediments by bovine and sewer bacterial contaminants. No environmental outbreak of these bacterial contaminants was

  3. A diagnostic neutral beam system for the MST reversed-field pinch: Charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy and Rutherford scattering (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den Hartog, D. J.; Fiksel, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Mishagin, V.

    1999-01-01

    A diagnostic neutral beam system is being purchased for the MST reversed-field pinch. Initially, this beam will be used for charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) to measure impurity ion velocity and temperature, both equilibrium and fluctuating. This work is an extension of an existing MST spectroscopic diagnostic which has successfully measured chord-averaged flow with 10 μs time resolution [D. J. Den Hartog and R. J. Fonck, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3238 (1994)]. CHERS will provide high spatial resolution, critically needed for the investigation of fluctuations associated with the dynamo and transport. This beam will also be applied to Rutherford scattering for local measurements of majority ion velocity and temperature. Ion velocity is determined by the shift of the energy spectrum of the scattered neutral beam; ion temperature by the width of the energy spectrum. The scattered spectrum will be detected by two multichannel neutral particle analyzers. In order to achieve a time resolution of about 10 μs, the neutral beam equivalent current density and current must be high; both of these characteristics are hallmarks of the DINA beam design.

  4. IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease, an Emerging Entity: A Review of a Multi-System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Divatia, Mukul; Kim, Sun A

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) is a recently defined emerging entity characterized by a diffuse or mass forming inflammatory reaction rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with fibrosclerosis and obliterative phlebitis. IgG4-RSD usually affects middle aged and elderly patients, with a male predominance. It is associated with an elevated serum titer of IgG4, which acts as a marker for this recently characterized entity. The prototype is IgG4-related sclerosing pancreatitis or autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Other common sites of involvement are the hepatobiliary tract, salivary gland, orbit, and lymph node, however practically any organ can be involved, including upper aerodigestive tract, lung, aorta, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, soft tissue, skin, central nervous system, breast, kidney, and prostate. Fever or constitutional symptoms usually do not comprise part of the clinical picture. Laboratory findings detected include raised serum globulin, IgG and IgG4. An association with autoantibody detection (such as antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor) is seen in some cases. Steroid therapy comprises the mainstay of treatment. Disease progression with involvement of multiple organ-sites may be encountered in a subset of cases and may follow a relapsing-remitting course. The principal histopathologic findings in several extranodal sites include lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, lymphoid follicle formation, sclerosis and obliterative phlebitis, along with atrophy and destruction of tissues. Immunohistochemical staining shows increased IgG4+ cells in the involved tissues (>50 per high-power field, with IgG4/IgG ratio >40%). IgG4-RSD may potentially be rarely associated with the development of lymphoma and carcinoma. However, the nature and pathogenesis of IgG4-RSD are yet to be fully elucidated and provide immense scope for further studies. PMID:22187229

  5. A novel m.7539C>T point mutation in the mt-tRNA(Asp) gene associated with multisystemic mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Diana; Schubert, Kathrin; Joshi, Pushpa R; Baty, Karen; Blakely, Emma L; Zierz, Stephan; Taylor, Robert W; Deschauer, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial transfer RNA (mt-tRNA) mutations are the commonest sub-type of mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations associated with human disease. We report a patient with multisytemic disease characterised by myopathy, spinal ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, cataract and cognitive impairment in whom a novel m.7539C>T mt-tRNA(Asp) transition was identified. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive histopathological findings including cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibres. Pyrosequencing confirmed mtDNA heteroplasmy for the mutation whilst single muscle fibre segregation studies revealed statistically significant higher mutation loads in COX-deficient fibres than in COX-positive fibres. Absence from control databases, hierarchical mt-tRNA mutation segregation within tissues, and occurrence at conserved sequence positions, further confirm this novel mt-tRNA mutation to be pathogenic. To date only three mt-tRNA(Asp) gene mutations have been described with clear evidence of pathogenicity. The novel m.7539C>T mt-tRNA(Asp) gene mutation extends the spectrum of pathogenic mutations in this gene, further supporting the notion that mt-tRNA(Asp) gene mutations are associated with multisystemic disease presentations.

  6. Subcellular immunolocalization of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in lymph nodes from pigs with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cariño, C; Sánchez-Chardi, A; Segalés, J

    2010-05-01

    Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is one of the most significant porcine diseases worldwide. The causative agent is porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the smallest virus known to infect animals. Data related to the structural and ultrastructural aspects of this infectious disease are sparse and there is little knowledge of the subcellular localization of PCV2 and its replication in the tissues of pigs naturally affected by PMWS. The present study describes the cellular localization of PCV2 in the lymph nodes of pigs affected by PMWS by application of immunolabelling techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PCV2 particles were exclusively detected in histiocytes. Ultrastructural alterations including marked dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and swelling of mitochondria were associated with PCV2-labelled intracytoplasmic inclusions (ICIs) with recognizable virions. Within the ICIs icosahedral virus-like particles were specifically labelled with a PCV2 capsid antibody, whereas particles with a granular appearance were not labelled. Colocalization studies with confocal microscopy and double immunolabelling with TEM indicated a close relationship between virus and the mitochondria, suggesting that these organelles may play an important role in the replication of PCV2. The present findings further support the hypothesis that virus replicates within the histiocytes of lymph nodes.

  7. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Amengual, Julià L; Rojo, Nuria; Veciana de Las Heras, Misericordia; Montero, Jordi; Rubio, Francisco; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician's brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority of patients suffering from a stroke have motor impairments, preventing them to live independently. Thus, there is an increasing demand for effective restorative interventions for neurological deficits. Music-supported Therapy (MST) has been recently developed to restore motor deficits. We report data of a selected sample of stroke patients who have been enrolled in a MST program (1 month intense music learning). Prior to and after the therapy, patients were evaluated with different behavioral motor tests. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied to evaluate changes in the sensorimotor representations underlying the motor gains observed. Several parameters of excitability of the motor cortex were assessed as well as the cortical somatotopic representation of a muscle in the affected hand. Our results revealed that participants obtained significant motor improvements in the paretic hand and those changes were accompanied by changes in the excitability of the motor cortex. Thus, MST leads to neuroplastic changes in the motor cortex of stroke patients which may explain its efficacy.

  8. Efficacy of Warrior Renew group therapy for female veterans who have experienced military sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Katz, Lori S

    2016-11-01

    This is a program evaluation of the Warrior Renew treatment protocol delivered in an outpatient therapy group for survivors of military sexual trauma (MST) at a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. The group was delivered via a manualized protocol with 12 weekly topics. It includes coping skills for affect management (e.g., triggers and anxiety) and addresses unique aspects of MST including anger/resentments because of injustice and lack of closure, betrayal, and self-blame. It also addresses interpersonal factors such as relationship patterns and healthy interpersonal skills. This evaluation was conducted as part of routine clinical care in a naturalistic setting. Forty-three female veterans started and 34 completed treatment (21% dropout rate). Of the 34 graduates, 32 opted to complete pre- and posttreatment assessments. Findings revealed significant decreases in symptoms of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic negative thinking, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) all with large effect sizes. In addition, 75% of the sample had a reliable clinical change at the 95% confidence interval. These results are promising and further investigation is warranted to examine Warrior Renew to address the unique issues related to MST. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Hippo signaling pathway in liver and pancreas: the potential drug target for tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Kong, Delin; Zhao, Yicheng; Men, Tong; Teng, Chun-Bo

    2015-02-01

    Cell behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, are intricately controlled during organ development and tissue regeneration. In the past 9 years, the Hippo signaling pathway has been delineated to play critical roles in organ size control, tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis through regulating cell behaviors. In mammals, the core modules of the Hippo signaling pathway include the MST1/2-LATS1/2 kinase cascade and the transcriptional co-activators YAP/TAZ. The activity of YAP/TAZ is suppressed by cytoplasmic retention due to phosphorylation in the canonical MST1/2-LATS1/2 kinase cascade-dependent manner or the non-canonical MST1/2- and/or LATS1/2-independent manner. Hippo signaling pathway, which can be activated or inactivated by cell polarity, contact inhibition, mechanical stretch and extracellular factors, has been demonstrated to be involved in development and tumorigenesis of liver and pancreas. In addition, we have summarized several small molecules currently available that can target Hippo-YAP pathway for potential treatment of hepatic and pancreatic cancers, providing clues for other YAP initiated cancers therapy as well.

  10. Genotyping markers used for multi locus VNTR analysis with ompA (MLVA-ompA) and multi sequence typing (MST) retain stability in Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Labiran, Clare; Clarke, Ian N; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Wang, Yibing; Skilton, Rachel J; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Herrmann, Björn; Christerson, Linus; Marsh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the stability of the Chlamydia trachomatis multi locus VNTR analysis (MLVA-ompA) and multi sequence typing (MST) systems through multiple passages in tissue culture. Firstly, we analyzed the stability of these markers through adaptation of C. trachomatis to tissue culture and secondly, we examined the stability of a four-locus MLVA-ompA and a five-locus MST system after multiple passages in tissue culture. Marker sequences were monitored through successive chlamydial developmental cycles to evaluate the stability of the individual DNA markers through many bacterial divisions and this, in turn, informed us of the usefulness of using such typing systems for short and long-term molecular epidemiology. Southampton genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic isolates from endocervical swabs collected from C. trachomatis positive women were passaged through tissue culture. MLVA-ompA typing was applied to primary swab samples and to the same samples after C. trachomatis had been passaged through cell culture (eight passages). Sequence data from time-zero and passage-eight isolates were aligned with reference sequences to determine the stability of the markers. The Swedish new variant (nvCT) underwent 72 passages in cell culture and the markers of the two schemes were similarly analyzed. Analysis of genetic markers of the MLVA-ompA typing system before and after the isolates were introduced to tissue culture showed no change in the dominant sequence. The nvCT that had been passaged 72 times over the duration of a year also showed no variation in the dominant sequence for both the genotyping schemes. MLVA-ompA and MST markers are stable upon adaptation of C. trachomatis to tissue culture following isolation of strains from primary endocervical swab samples. These markers remain stable throughout multiple rounds of cell-division in tissue culture, concomitant with the incubation period and appearance of symptoms normally associated with host-infection. Both

  11. A 3.7 Mb Deletion Encompassing ZEB2 Causes a Novel Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome in the Progeny of a Somatic Mosaic Bull

    PubMed Central

    Capitan, Aurélien; Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Pinton, Alain; Marquant-Le Guienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Grohs, Cécile; Bouet, Stéphan; Clément, Laëtitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Weiss, Bernard; Delpeuch, Arnaud; Noé, Guy; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Barasc, Harmonie; Auguste, Aurélie; Pannetier, Maëlle; Deloche, Marie-Christine; Lhuilier, Emeline; Bouchez, Olivier; Esquerré, Diane; Salin, Gérald; Klopp, Christophe; Donnadieu, Cécile; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Hayes, Hélène; Gallard, Yves; Ponsart, Claire; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome (PMS) is a novel developmental disorder occurring in the progeny of a single bull. Its clinical spectrum includes polledness (complete agenesis of horns), facial dysmorphism, growth delay, chronic diarrhea, premature ovarian failure, and variable neurological and cardiac anomalies. PMS is also characterized by a deviation of the sex-ratio, suggesting male lethality during pregnancy. Using Mendelian error mapping and whole-genome sequencing, we identified a 3.7 Mb deletion on the paternal bovine chromosome 2 encompassing ARHGAP15, GTDC1 and ZEB2 genes. We then produced control and affected 90-day old fetuses to characterize this syndrome by histological and expression analyses. Compared to wild type individuals, affected animals showed a decreased expression of the three deleted genes. Based on a comparison with human Mowat-Wilson syndrome, we suggest that deletion of ZEB2, is responsible for most of the effects of the mutation. Finally sperm-FISH, embryo genotyping and analysis of reproduction records confirmed somatic mosaicism in the founder bull and male-specific lethality during the first third of gestation. In conclusion, we identified a novel locus involved in bovid horn ontogenesis and suggest that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition plays a critical role in horn bud differentiation. We also provide new insights into the pathogenicity of ZEB2 loss of heterozygosity in bovine and humans and describe the first case of male-specific lethality associated with an autosomal locus in a non-murine mammalian species. This result sets PMS as a unique model to study sex-specific gene expression/regulation. PMID:23152852

  12. Sequence analysis of old and new strains of porcine circovirus associated with congenital tremors in pigs and their comparison with strains involved with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiwon; Stevenson, Gregory W.; Kiupel, Matti; Harrach, Balázs; Anothayanontha, Lavun; Kanitz, Charles L.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2002-01-01

    The entire genomes of 7 isolates of porcine circovirus (PCV) from pigs with congenital tremors (CT), type A2, or postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were cloned and sequenced. One isolate (CT-PCV-P7) originated from the late 1960s from a neonatal pig with CT, type A2. Two recent PCV isolates (CT-PCV-P5, CT-PCV-P6) were from 2 affected neonatal pigs, from different farms, with unrelated outbreaks of CT; type A2. Four isolates (PMWS-PCV-P1, PMWS-PCV-P2, PMWS-PCV-P3, PMWS-PCV-P4) originated from pigs with PMWS from 4 different farms. A comparative analysis of these PMWS and PCV isolates demonstrated 99% sequence identity with each other, and over 96% sequence identity with previously sequenced PCV2 isolates. The CT-PCV-P5 and CT-PCV-P6 isolates, however, shared 99% of the same identity with each other, and interestingly also with PMWS PCV isolates. There were no consistent genomic differences between PMWS and recent CT isolates. The CT-PCV-P7 showed 98% identity similarity to PK-15-derived PCV1 and demonstrated only 72% identity similarity to either CT-PCV-P5 or CT-PCV-P6. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the old isolate (CT-PCV-P7), and the new isolates (CT-PCV-P5, CT-PCV-P6, PMWS-PCV-P1, PMWS-PCV-P2, PMWS-PCV-P3, PMWS-PCV-P4) were correctly classified as PCV1 and PCV2, respectively. PMID:12418776

  13. High-frequency fluctuation measurements by far-infrared laser Faraday-effect polarimetry-interferometry and forward scattering system on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Duff, J. R.; Brower, D. L.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic fluctuation-induced transport driven by global tearing modes has been measured by Faraday-effect polarimetry and interferometry (phase measurements) in the MST reversed field pinch. However, the role of small-scale broadband magnetic and density turbulence in transport remains unknown. In order to investigate broadband magnetic turbulence, we plan to upgrade the existing detector system by using planar-diode fundamental waveguide mixers optimized for high sensitivity. Initial tests indicate these mixers have ×10 sensitivity improvement compared to currently employed corner-cube Schottky-diode mixers and ×5 lower noise. Compact mixer design will allow us to resolve the wavenumbers up to k ˜ 1-2 cm-1 for beam width w = 1.5 cm and 15 cm-1 for beam width w = 2 mm. The system can also be used to measure the scattered signal (amplitude measurement) induced by both plasma density and magnetic fluctuations.

  14. A study of gravity-wave spectra in the troposphere and stratosphere at 5-min to 5-day periods with the Poker Flat MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bemra, R. S.; Rastogi, P. K.; Balsley, B. B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of frequency spectra at periods of about 5 days to 5 min from two 20-day sets of velocity measurements in the stratosphere and troposphere region obtained with the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar during January and June, 1984 is presented. A technique based on median filtering and averaged order statistics for automatic editing, smoothing and spectral analysis of velocity time series contaminated with spurious data points or outliers is outlined. The validity of this technique and its effects on the inferred spectral index was tested through simulation. Spectra obtained with this technique are discussed. The measured spectral indices show variability with season and height, especially across the tropopause. The discussion briefly outlines the need for obtaining better climatologies of velocity spectra and for the refinements of the existing theories to explain their behavior.

  15. Money Matters: Cost Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments.

    PubMed

    Sheidow, Ashli J; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W David; Henggeler, Scott W; Shapiro, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within Court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a four-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community services (DC), Drug Court with Multisystemic Therapy (DC/MST), and Drug Court with MST enhanced with a contingency management program (DC/MST/CM). Average cost effectiveness ratios for substance use and criminal behavior outcomes revealed that economic efficiency in achieving outcomes generally improved from FC to DC, with the addition of evidence-based treatments improving efficiency in obtaining substance use outcomes.

  16. Money Matters: Cost Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within Court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a four-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community services (DC), Drug Court with Multisystemic Therapy (DC/MST), and Drug Court with MST enhanced with a contingency management program (DC/MST/CM). Average cost effectiveness ratios for substance use and criminal behavior outcomes revealed that economic efficiency in achieving outcomes generally improved from FC to DC, with the addition of evidence-based treatments improving efficiency in obtaining substance use outcomes. PMID:22389577

  17. The Allocation of Sexually Transgressive Juveniles to Intensive Specialized Treatment: An Assessment of the Application of RNR Principles.

    PubMed

    Ter Beek, Ellis; van der Rijken, Rachel E A; Kuiper, Chris H Z; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare results of and develop guidelines for mandatory allocation of sexually transgressive juveniles to Multisystemic Therapy - Problem Sexual Behavior (MST-PSB), Secure Youth Care (SYC), or Forensic Youth Care (FYC), based on the risk-need-responsivity model. Results of current allocation showed a population with relatively less treatment needs to receive community-based MST-PSB, compared with populations receiving residential SYC and FYC. Furthermore, estimated recidivism risk levels did not always support the need for risk reduction by the imposition of limitation of freedom of movement and maximum supervision, provided by all three treatment modalities. Based on the assessed sexual recidivism risk, 38% of the juveniles in FYC, 7% in SYC, and 24% in MST-PSB received treatment that was too intensive, which is considered detrimental to motivation and development. Future allocation practices could benefit from assessing treatment needs and recidivism risk, by use of an actuarial tool.

  18. Mobile Multi-System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witoff, Robert J.; Doody, David F.

    2012-01-01

    At the time of this reporting, there are 2,589 rich mobile devices used at JPL, including 1,550 iPhones and 968 Blackberrys. Considering a total JPL population of 5,961 employees, mobile applications have a total addressable market of 43 percent of the employees at JPL, and that number is rising. While it was found that no existing desktop tools can realistically be replaced by a mobile application, there is certainly a need to improve access to these desktop tools. When an alarm occurs and an engineer is away from his desk, a convenient means of accessing relevant data can save an engineer a great deal of time and improve his job efficiency. To identify which data is relevant, an engineer benefits from a succinct overview of the data housed in 13+ tools. This need can be well met by a single, rich, mobile application that provides access to desired data across tools in the ops infrastructure.

  19. Multi-system geochronological and isotopic constraints on age and evolution of the Gaoligongshan metamorphic belt and shear zone system in western Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroğlu, Sümeyya; Siebel, Wolfgang; Danišík, Martin; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Chen, Fukun

    2013-09-01

    The Gaoligongshan metamorphic belt, located east of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) in the Yunnan province, southwestern China, is a compelling region in which to determine temporal constrains on crustal dynamic processes related to the Himalayan orogeny. We applied multi-system geo- and thermochronology (900 °C to <50 °C) to orthogneiss and mylonites from a major shear zone in the southern Gaoligongshan in order to elucidate the magmatic, cooling and exhumation history of this belt. Zircon U/Pb data reveal three magmatic events at ∼486 Ma, ∼136 Ma and ∼76 Ma. Similar ages are found in orthoderivative rocks of the neighboring Tengchong and Baoshan blocks, and the Gangdese batholith, suggesting that the southern Gaoligongshan is composed of an assemblage of Lhasa and Qiangtang terrane derived rocks. Muscovite Rb/Sr ages of 35-21 Ma are coeval with the onset of lateral crustal displacement along major shear zones in Eastern Tibet and Indochina, and with the post-collision volcanic activity in western Yunnan. Biotite Rb/Sr and mica 40Ar/39Ar ages provide evidence that mylonitization along the Gaoligongshan shear zone and crustal rotation of the Tengchong and Baoshan blocks proceeded during the Miocene, between 19 and 12 Ma, when the rocks rapidly cooled through the 350-280 °C temperature range. Almost identical 40Ar/39Ar ages reported for the Karakorum-Jiali-Parlung Fault system in Western Tibet suggest that the Gaoligongshan shear zone is the southeastern continuation of this fault, recording the eastward extrusion of Tibet and crustal movement around the EHS. The final stage of exhumation of the Gaoligongshan occurred between 8 and 5 Ma at an average exhumation rate of ∼3 km/Ma as documented by apatite fission-track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He data. This rapid exhumation was triggered by crustal root delamination and opening of the Andaman sea. Our results clearly show that the complex tectonothermal evolution of the Gaoligongshan was influenced by

  20. Do You Really Expect Me to Get MST Care in a VA Where Everyone is Male? Innovative Delivery of Evidence-Based Psychotherapy to Women with Military Sexual Trauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    one another, to communicate. We are interested in learning if this form of mental health service delivery is more acceptable than traditional face-to...and retain MST positive Veterans in VA mental healthcare. Additionally however, there is only one PTSD treatment outcome study focused exclusively on...significant contribution to mental health service delivery models for female Veterans and sexual assault victims more broadly. The major tasks of the

  1. Differential Processing of the Direction and Focus of Expansion of Optic Flow Stimuli in areas MST and V3A of the Human Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Strong, Samantha L; Silson, Edward H; Gouws, Andre D; Morland, Antony B; McKeefry, Declan J

    2017-03-15

    Human neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have raised the possibility that different attributes of optic flow stimuli, namely radial direction and the position of the focus of expansion (FOE), are processed within separate cortical areas. In the human brain, visual areas V5/MT+ and V3A have been proposed as integral to the analysis of these different attributes of optic flow stimuli. In order to establish direct causal relationships between neural activity in V5/MT+ and V3A and the perception of radial motion direction and FOE position, we used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to disrupt cortical activity in these areas whilst participants performed behavioural tasks dependent on these different aspects of optic flow stimuli. The cortical regions of interest were identified in seven human participants using standard fMRI retinotopic mapping techniques and functional localisers. TMS to area V3A was found to disrupt FOE positional judgements, but not radial direction discrimination, whilst the application of TMS to an anterior sub-division of hV5/MT+, MST/TO-2, produced the reverse effects, disrupting radial direction discrimination but eliciting no effect on the FOE positional judgement task. This double dissociation demonstrates that FOE position and radial direction of optic flow stimuli are signalled independently by neural activity in areas hV5/MT+ and V3A.

  2. Not Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Size of the Minimum Spanning Trees (MSTs) Forest and Branch Significance in MST-Based Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Andreia Sofia; Monteiro, Pedro T.; Carriço, João A; Ramirez, Mário; Francisco, Alexandre P.

    2015-01-01

    Trees, including minimum spanning trees (MSTs), are commonly used in phylogenetic studies. But, for the research community, it may be unclear that the presented tree is just a hypothesis, chosen from among many possible alternatives. In this scenario, it is important to quantify our confidence in both the trees and the branches/edges included in such trees. In this paper, we address this problem for MSTs by introducing a new edge betweenness metric for undirected and weighted graphs. This spanning edge betweenness metric is defined as the fraction of equivalent MSTs where a given edge is present. The metric provides a per edge statistic that is similar to that of the bootstrap approach frequently used in phylogenetics to support the grouping of taxa. We provide methods for the exact computation of this metric based on the well known Kirchhoff’s matrix tree theorem. Moreover, we implement and make available a module for the PHYLOViZ software and evaluate the proposed metric concerning both effectiveness and computational performance. Analysis of trees generated using multilocus sequence typing data (MLST) and the goeBURST algorithm revealed that the space of possible MSTs in real data sets is extremely large. Selection of the edge to be represented using bootstrap could lead to unreliable results since alternative edges are present in the same fraction of equivalent MSTs. The choice of the MST to be presented, results from criteria implemented in the algorithm that must be based in biologically plausible models. PMID:25799056

  3. Family Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Tests and Procedures Family therapy By Mayo Clinic Staff Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that helps family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided ...

  4. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Teens > Radiation Therapy A A ... how to cope with side effects. What Is Radiation Therapy? Cancer is a disease that causes cells ...

  5. Phase II Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial of conventional radiation therapy followed by treatment with recombinant interferon-{beta} for supratentorial glioblastoma: Results of RTOG 9710

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, Howard . E-mail: hcolman@mdanderson.org; Berkey, Brian A.; Maor, Moshe H.; Groves, Morris D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Vermeulen, Sandra; Mehta, Minesh P.; Yung, W.K. Alfred

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether recombinant human interferon {beta}-1a (rhIFN-{beta}), when given after radiation therapy, improves survival in glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: After surgery, 109 patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma were enrolled and treated with radiation therapy (60 Gy). A total of 55 patients remained stable after radiation and were treated with rhIFN-{beta} (6 MU/day i.m., 3 times/week). Outcomes were compared with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group glioma historical database. Results: RhIFN-{beta} was well tolerated, with 1 Grade 4 toxicity and 8 other patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity. Median survival time (MST) of the 55 rhIFN-{beta}-treated patients was 13.4 months. MST for the 34 rhIFN-{beta}-treated in RPA Classes III and IV was 16.9 vs. 12.4 months for historical controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89-1.81). There was also a trend toward improved survival across all RPA Classes comparing the 55 rhIFN-{beta} treated patients and 1,658 historical controls (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.94-1.63). The high rate of early failures (54/109) after radiation and before initiation of rhIFN-{beta} was likely caused by stricter interpretation of early radiographic changes in the current study. Matched-pair and intent-to-treat analyses performed to try to address this bias showed no difference in survival between study patients and controls. Conclusion: RhIFN-{beta} given after conventional radiation therapy was well tolerated, with a trend toward survival benefit in patients who remained stable after radiation therapy. These data suggest that rhIFN-{beta} warrants further evaluation in additional studies, possibly in combination with current temozolomide-based regimens.

  6. Cyclotron Produced Radionuclides for Diagnosis and Therapy of Human Neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Larson MD

    2009-09-21

    This project funded since 1986 serves as a core project for cancer research throughout MSKCC, producing key radiotracers as well as basic knowledge about thel physics of radiation decay and imaging, for nuclear medicine applications to cancer diagnosis and therapy. In recent years this research application has broadened to include experiments intended to lead to an improved understanding of cancer biology and into the discovery and testing of new cancer drugs. Advances in immune based radiotargeting form the basis for this project. Both antibody and cellular based immune targeting methods have been explored. The multi-step targeting methodologies (MST) developed by NeoRex (Seattle,Washington), have been adapted for use with positron emitting isotopes and PET allowing the quantification and optimization of targeted delivery. In addition, novel methods for radiolabeling immune T-cells with PET tracers have advanced our ability to track these cells of prolonged period of time.

  7. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: diagnosis, pathogenesis and modern therapy.

    PubMed

    Eldor, A

    1998-06-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is an uncommon multisystem disorder, sometimes associated with predisposing conditions such as pregnancy, cancer, exposure to certain drugs, bone marrow transplantation and HIV-1 infection. An abnormal interaction between the vascular endothelium and platelets which occurs in certain organs leads to thrombosis, endothelial proliferation, minimal inflammation and micro-angiopathic haemolysis. Recent studies suggest that endothelial cell perturbation and apoptosis caused by an as yet unknown plasma factor(s) may lead to the release of abnormal von Willebrand factor which facilitates the deposition of platelet microthrombi. Exchange transfusions of plasma or plasma-cryosupernatant remain the cornerstone of the treatment of TTP along with corticosteroids, platelet inhibitor drugs, vincristine and splenectomy. In most cases remissions can be attained, and cures are now common-although approximately one-half of the patients will relapse. While relapses are usually milder, they still carry a significant mortality and preventive therapies are not always effective.

  8. Physical therapy management of female chronic pelvic pain: Anatomic considerations.

    PubMed

    George, Susan E; Clinton, Susan C; Borello-France, Diane F

    2013-01-01

    The multisystem nature of female chronic pelvic pain (CPP) makes this condition a challenge for physical therapists and other health care providers to manage. This article uses a case scenario to illustrate commonly reported somatic, visceral, and neurologic symptoms and their associated health and participation impact in a female with CPP. Differential diagnosis of pain generators requires an in-depth understanding of possible anatomic and physiologic contributors to this disorder. This article provides a detailed discussion of the relevant clinical anatomy with specific attention to complex interrelationships between anatomic structures potentially leading to the patient's pain. In addition, it describes the physical therapy management specific to this case, including examination, differential diagnosis, and progression of interventions.

  9. Depression with psychotic features in a child with SLE: successful therapy with psychotropic medications--case report.

    PubMed

    Milovancevic, Milica Pejovic; Miletic, Vladimir; Deusic, Smiljka Popovic; Gajic, Saveta Draganic; Tosevski, Dusica Lecic

    2013-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic, autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, which affects multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system (CNS). Neuropsychiatric manifestations are seen in 13-75% of all SLE patients, with equal frequency in children and adults. Despite a high prevalence of psychiatric manifestations, there is no consensus on the proper treatment of such cases. We report here a case of an 11-year-old girl diagnosed with a severe depressive episode with psychotic features, treated successfully with risperidone and sertraline as an adjunct to immunosuppressive therapy.

  10. Radiation therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) Proton therapy is another kind of radiation used to ... than using x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  11. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  12. Play Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kool, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Play therapy represents a unique form of treatment that is not only geared toward young children, but is translated into a language children can comprehend and utilize—the language of play. For the referring provider or practitioner, questions may remain regarding the nature, course, and efficacy of play therapy. This article reviews the theoretical underpinnings of play therapy, some practical considerations, and finally a summary of the current state of research in regard to play therapy. The authors present the practicing psychiatrist with a road map for referring a patient to play therapy or initiating it in appropriate cases. PMID:21103141

  13. What Is Music Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  14. MAARSY - the new MST radar on Andøya: first results of spaced antenna and Doppler measurements of atmospheric winds in the troposphere and mesosphere using a partial array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stober, G.; Latteck, R.; Rapp, M.; Singer, W.; Zecha, M.

    2012-09-01

    MST radars have been used to study the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere over decades. These radars have proven to be a valuable tool to investigate atmospheric dynamics. MAARSY, the new MST radar at the island of Andøya uses a phased array antenna and is able to perform spaced antenna and Doppler measurements at the same time with high temporal and spatial resolution. Here we present first wind observations using the initial expansion stage during summer 2010. The tropospheric spaced antenna and Doppler beam swinging experiments are compared to radiosonde measurements, which were launched at the nearby Andøya Rocket Range (ARR). The mesospheric wind observations are evaluated versus common volume meteor radar wind measurements. The beam steering capabilities of MAARSY are demonstrated by performing systematic scans of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) using 25 and 91 beam directions. These wind observations permit to evaluate the new radar against independent measurements from radiosondes and meteor radar measurements to demonstrate its capabilities to provide reliable wind data from the troposphere up to the mesosphere.

  15. Effects of Family Treatment on Parenting Beliefs Among Caregivers of Youth with Poorly Controlled Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Deborah A.; King, Pamela; Naar-King, Sylvie; Lam, Phebe; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Secord, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective Caregiver involvement is critical to ensuring optimal adolescent asthma management. The study investigated whether Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an intensive, home-based family therapy, was superior to family support for changing beliefs regarding asthma-related positive parenting among caregivers of African-American youth with poorly controlled asthma. The relationship between parenting beliefs and asthma management at the conclusion of the intervention was also assessed. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 167 adolescents with moderate to severe persistent, poorly controlled asthma and their primary caregivers. Families were randomly assigned to MST or FS, a home-based family support condition. Data were collected at baseline and seven month post-test. Changes in caregiver ratings of importance and confidence for engaging in asthma-related positive parenting were assessed via questionnaire. Illness management was assessed by the Family Asthma Management System Scale (FAMSS). Results Participation in MST was associated with more change in caregiver beliefs as compared to FS for both importance (t =2.39, p=.02) and confidence (t =2.04, p=.04). Caregiver beliefs were also significantly related to youth controller medication adherence at the conclusion of treatment (importance: r=.21, p=.01; confidence: r=.23, p=.004). Conclusion Results support the effectiveness of MST for increasing parental beliefs in the value of asthma-related positive parenting behaviors and parental self-efficacy for these behaviors among families of minority adolescents with poorly controlled asthma. PMID:25186121

  16. Psychosexual therapy.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P

    Sexual problems are more likely to originate from psychological or relationship difficulties rather than 'mechanical failure'. Here Peter Gregory reveals the often closed world of psychosexual therapy.

  17. Electroconvulsive therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Shock treatment; Shock therapy; ECT; Depression - ECT; Bipolar - ECT ... ECT is a highly effective treatment for depression, most commonly ... who: Are having delusions or other psychotic symptoms with ...

  18. [Efficacy of rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and peritoneal vasculitis refractory to conventional inmunosupressive therapy].

    PubMed

    Garrido Rasco, Rocío; García Hernández, Francisco José; González León, Rocío; Castillo Palma, María Jesús; Ocaña Medina, Celia; Sánchez Román, Julio

    2009-02-01

    Peritoneal vasculitis is a rare and severe clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. We report a patient who presented with ascites due to peritoneal vasculitis and cutaneous, articular, hematological and renal inflammatory activity. Treatment with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive drugs was ineffective. In view of the resistance to different therapies, 4 weekly infusions of 375mg/m2 of rituximab (RTX) were started, in association with cyclophosphamide pulses during the first and the third weeks. With this treatment strategy, the patient reached a complete response which was achieved in later flares of inflammatory activity (the second and third flares were multisystemic and with ascites again, and the fourth flare with nephritis).

  19. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases: associations and potentials for gut microbiota therapies.

    PubMed

    West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Allen, Katrina J; Vuillermin, Peter; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity for multisystem effects. Changes in microbial composition are implicated in the increasing propensity for a broad range of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, and associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). There are also suggestive implications for neurodevelopment and mental health. These diverse multisystem influences have sparked interest in strategies that might favorably modulate the gut microbiota to reduce the risk of many NCDs. For example, specific prebiotics promote favorable intestinal colonization, and their fermented products have anti-inflammatory properties. Specific probiotics also have immunomodulatory and metabolic effects. However, when evaluated in clinical trials, the effects are variable, preliminary, or limited in magnitude. Fecal microbiota transplantation is another emerging therapy that regulates inflammation in experimental models. In human subjects it has been successfully used in cases of Clostridium difficile infection and IBD, although controlled trials are lacking for IBD. Here we discuss relationships between gut colonization and inflammatory NCDs and gut microbiota modulation strategies for their treatment and prevention.

  20. Sweat Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  1. Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  2. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Breast Esophagus Rectum Skull base sarcomas Pediatric brain tumors Head and neck - see the Head and Neck Cancer page Eye ... Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Brain Tumor Treatment Brain Tumors Prostate Cancer Lung Cancer ... related to Proton Therapy Videos related ...

  3. Poetry Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald V.

    Poetry therapy is the method of therapy based on the principle that a poem is a special medium for expressing emotions and that this expression can have psychotherapeutic value. A survey taken in 1973 showed there were over 400 therapists treating 3,500 drug addicts, alcoholics, and mental retardates around the country. Poetry therapists…

  4. Reducing recidivism and symptoms in emerging adults with serious mental health conditions and justice system involvement.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J; McCart, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18-21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n = 41) were aged 17-20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post-analyses revealed significant reductions in participants' MH symptoms, justice system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers.

  5. Reducing Recidivism and Symptoms in Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions and Justice System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J.; McCart, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18–21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n=41) were aged 17–20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post analyses revealed significant reductions in participants’ MH symptoms, justice-system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  6. A phase II study of conventional radiation therapy and thalidomide for supratentorial, newly-diagnosed glioblastoma (RTOG 9806).

    PubMed

    Alexander, Brian M; Wang, Meihua; Yung, W K Alfred; Fine, Howard A; Donahue, Bernadine A; Tremont, Ivo W; Richards, Ray S; Kerlin, Kevin J; Hartford, Alan C; Curran, Walter J; Mehta, Minesh P

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) initiated the single-arm, phase II study 9806 to determine the safety and efficacy of daily thalidomide with radiation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Patients were treated with thalidomide (200 mg daily) from day one of radiation therapy, increasing by 100-200 to 1,200 mg every 1-2 weeks until tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. The median survival time (MST) of all 89 evaluable patients was 10 months. When compared with the historical database stratified by recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, this end point was not different [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.18; 95 % CI: 0.95-1.46; P = 0.93]. The MST of RPA class III and IV patients was 13.9 versus 12.5 months in controls (HR = 0.99; 95 % CI: 0.73-1.36; P = 0.48), and 4.3 versus 8.6 months in RPA class V controls (HR = 1.63, 95 % CI: 1.17-2.27; P = 0.99). In all, 34 % of patients discontinued thalidomide because of adverse events or refusal. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities were venous thrombosis, fatigue, skin reactions, encephalopathy, and neuropathy. In conclusion, thalidomide given simultaneously with radiation therapy was safe, but did not improve survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

  7. Antiparasitic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kappagoda, Shanthi; Singh, Upinder; Blackburn, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect more than 2 billion people globally and cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly among the world's poorest people. This overview focuses on the treatment of the major protozoan and helminth infections in humans. Recent developments in antiparasitic therapy include the expansion of artemisinin-based therapies for malaria, new drugs for soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa, expansion of the indications for antiparasitic drug treatment in patients with Chagas disease, and the use of combination therapy for leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21628620

  8. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Proton Therapy SHARE Home > Treatment and Care > Treatments Listen ... a nucleus, which holds two types of particles—protons and neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by electrons. ...

  9. Play Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  10. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of the treatment. top of page What equipment is used? Proton beam therapy uses special machines, ... tumor cells. top of page Who operates the equipment? With backgrounds in mechanical, electrical, software, hardware and ...

  11. Hand Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Journal of Hand Surgery (JHS) Home Anatomy Hand Therapy Email to a friend * required fields From * ... ensure a healthy style of work. Find a Hand Therapist Search for a hand therapist in your ...

  12. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  13. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  14. Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Hans

    1977-01-01

    The current status of antiviral therapy is reviewed, including discussion of older approaches together with more recently developed chemotherapy. Following the introduction dealing with pathophysiological aspects of virus disease, the different approaches to antiviral therapy are presented. The reasons for the slow progress in antiviral therapy are discussed. These include: 1. the necessity of intracellular penetration of drugs acting on viral replication; 2. the severe toxicity of most antiviral drugs; 3. the narrow antiviral spectrum of most of these agents; 4. the difficulty of making a rapid etiological diagnosis in view of the necessity of starting (specific?) treatment early in the course of the disease; 5. the difficult evaluation of beneficial as compared with deleterious effects of antiviral therapy. After a detailed review of clinically tested substances, including immunoglobulins, synthetic antiviral drugs (amantadine, nucleoside analogs, thiosemicarbazones and photodynamic dyes) and interferon, a guide concerning indications and application of specific antiviral therapy is presented. Although at present there are few indications, clinicians should be aware of the (present and future) possibilities of antiviral therapy. PMID:341538

  15. β-Secretase-1 elevation in aged monkey and Alzheimer's disease human cerebral cortex occurs around vasculature in partnership with multisystem axon terminal pathogenesis and β-amyloid accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yan; Xiong, Kun; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Cai, Huaibin; Luo, Xue-Gang; Feng, Jia-Chun; Clough, Richard W.; Struble, Robert G.; Patrylo, Peter R.; Chu, Yaping; Kordower, Jeffrey H.; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common dementia-causing disorder in the elderly, which may relate to multiple risk factors and is pathologically featured by cerebral hypometabolism, paravascular β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, neuritic dystrophy and intra-neuronal aggregation of phosphorylated-tau. To explore potential pathogenic link among some of these lesions, we examined β-secretase-1 (BACE1) alteration relative to Aβ deposition, neuritic pathology and vascular organization in aged monkey and AD human cerebral cortex. Western blot analyses detected increased levels of BACE1 proteins and β-site-cleavage amyloid precursor protein C-terminal fragments in plaque-bearing human and monkey cortex relative to controls. In immunohistochemistry, locally elevated BACE1 immunoreactivity (IR) occurred in AD but not in control human cortex, with a trend of increased overall density among cases with greater plaque pathology. In double labeling preparations, BACE1 IR colocalized with immunolabeling for Aβ but not for phosphorylated tau. In perfusion-fixed monkey cortex, locally increased BACE1 IR co-existed with intra-axonal and extracellular Aβ IR among virtually all neuritic plaques ranging from primitive to typical cored forms. This BACE1 labeling localized to swollen/sprouting axon terminals that might co-express one or another neuronal phenotype marker (GABAergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic or catecholaminergic). Importantly, these BACE1-labeled dystrophic axons resided near or in direct contact with blood vessels. These finds implicate that plaque formation in AD or normal aging primates relate to a multisystem axonal pathogenesis that occurs in partnership with potential vascular or metabolic deficit. The data provide a tangible mechanistic explanation as to why senile plaques are present preferentially near cerebral vasculature. PMID:20726888

  16. Intermittent Antibody-based Combination Therapy Removes Allo-antibodies and Achieves Indefinite Heart Transplant Survival in Pre-sensitised Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, Hina; Tanriver, Yakup; Brown, Kathryn L.; Meader, Lucy; Greenlaw, Roseanna; Mamode, Nizam; Jurcevic, Stipo

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well established that primed/memory T cells play a critical role in heart transplant rejection. This contributes to the challenges faced in the transplant clinic since current treatments which are efficient in controlling naïve T cell alloresponses have limited efficacy on primed T cell responders. Methods Fully MHC mismatched heart transplantation was performed from BALB/c to C57BL/6 mice pre-sensitised with BALB/c splenocytes 14 days pre-transplantation. A combination therapy comprising CD70-, CD154- and CD8-specific antibodies was administered at day 0 and 4 post-transplantation with Rapamycin on days 0-4. Results The antibody combination therapy extended heart transplant survival in pre-sensitised recipients from MST 8 days (median survival time) to MST 78 days. A decrease in the number of splenic IFN-γ secreting cells measured by ELISpot assay was seen in the treated group compared to the untreated controls. However, graft-infiltrating CD8+ and CD4+ T cells persisted despite treatment and the number of intra-graft CD4+ T cells increased at day 30 post-transplantation. When an additional “rescue therapy” comprising the same antibodies was re-administered at days 30, 60 and 90 post-transplantation, T cell infiltration was reduced and indefinite graft survival was observed. Furthermore, rescue therapy resulted in gradual decrease in titre and, by day 90 post-transplantation the complete loss of the pre-existing, donor-specific antibodies. Conclusion We conclude that our antibody combination therapy extends allograft survival in pre-sensitised recipients. When combined with intermittent antibody-mediated rescue therapy, this results in indefinite allograft survival and a loss of the pre-existing, donor-specific antibodies from the circulation. PMID:20571468

  17. Cysteamine therapy delays the progression of nephropathic cystinosis in late adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Brodin-Sartorius, Albane; Tête, Marie-Josèphe; Niaudet, Patrick; Antignac, Corinne; Guest, Geneviève; Ottolenghi, Chris; Charbit, Marina; Moyse, Dominique; Legendre, Christophe; Lesavre, Philippe; Cochat, Pierre; Servais, Aude

    2012-01-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease caused by cystine accumulation, which is usually treated by oral cysteamine. In order to determine long-term effects of this therapy, we enrolled 86 adult patients (mean age 26.7 years) diagnosed with nephropathic cystinosis, 75 of whom received cysteamine. Therapy was initiated at a mean age of 9.9 years with a mean duration of 17.4 years. By last follow-up, 78 patients had end-stage renal disease (mean age 11.1 years), 62 had hypothyroidism (mean age 13.4), 48 developed diabetes (mean age 17.1 years), and 32 had neuromuscular disorders (mean age 23.3 years). Initiating cysteamine therapy before 5 years of age significantly decreased the incidence and delayed the onset of end-stage renal disease, and significantly delayed the onset of hypothyroidism, diabetes, and neuromuscular disorders. The development of diabetes and hypothyroidism was still significantly delayed, however, in patients in whom therapy was initiated after 5 years of age, compared with untreated patients. The life expectancy was significantly improved in cysteamine-treated versus untreated patients. Thus, cysteamine decreases and delays the onset of complications and improves life expectancy in cystinosis. Hence, cysteamine therapy should be introduced as early as possible during childhood and maintained lifelong.

  18. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: emerging targeted therapies to optimize treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Milic, Sandra; Mikolasevic, Ivana; Krznaric-Zrnic, Irena; Stanic, Marija; Poropat, Goran; Stimac, Davor; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera; Orlic, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Diet and lifestyle changes have led to worldwide increases in the prevalences of obesity and metabolic syndrome, resulting in substantially greater incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is related to diabetes, insulin resistance, central obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an entity that describes liver inflammation due to NAFLD. Growing evidence suggests that NAFLD is a multisystem disease with a clinical burden that is not only confined to liver-related morbidity and mortality, but that also affects several extra-hepatic organs and regulatory pathways. Thus, NAFLD is considered an important public health issue, but there is currently no effective therapy for all NAFLD patients in the general population. Studies seeking optimal therapy for NAFLD and NASH have not yet led to development of a universal protocol for treating this growing problem. Several pharmacological agents have been studied in an effort to improve insulin resistance and the proinflammatory mediators that may be responsible for NASH progression. Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among NASH patients, and the backbone of treatment regimens for these patients still comprises general lifestyle interventions, including dietary changes and increased physical activity. Vitamin E and thiazolidinedione derivatives are currently the most evidence-based therapeutic options, but only limited clinical evidence is available regarding their long-term efficacy and safety. Vitamin D and renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockers are promising drugs that are currently being intensively investigated for use in NAFLD/NASH patients. PMID:26316717

  19. [Testosterone therapy].

    PubMed

    Diemer, T; Hauptmann, A; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Hormone replacement therapy with testosterone has become well-established over the course of time. The initial substantial concerns with respect to complications and potential adverse events, particularly in older patients, were proven to be unfounded over time. Testosterone therapy has therefore gradually become a regular treatment modality in urological practice. It has also been shown to represent a valuable tool as supportive treatment for patients with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism. A variety of testosterone preparations are available for treatment. Recent pharmaceutical developments have greatly improved the practicability and ease of administration for patients. Several guidelines have been developed that provide clearly formulated standards and instructions for indications, contraindications, application, risk factors and monitoring of testosterone therapy. Adverse events affecting the cardiovascular system and especially diseases of the prostate gland are of great importance, thus making the urologist the primary partner in the treatment of patients with testosterone deficiency.

  20. Therapy insight: the changing spectrum of rheumatic disease in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Maganti, Rashmi M; Reveille, John D; Williams, Frances M

    2008-08-01

    HIV infection and AIDS have protean and multisystem manifestations throughout the various stages of infection. Progression from HIV infection to AIDS is associated with a gradual loss of immunocompetence and the occurrence of opportunistic infections and malignancies; it is also associated with immune dysregulation and persistent, prolonged immune activation that leads to autoimmune phenomena such as vasculitis and serological abnormalities. In people who are infected with HIV, the recognition of autoinflammatory disorders, their differentiation from infections or lymphoproliferative malignancies and their treatment using potentially immunosuppressive drugs is a challenging clinical scenario. The spectrum of rheumatologic diseases reported in HIV-infected individuals has changed dramatically since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1995. Complications such as metabolic abnormalities, osteoporosis, and immune restoration inflammatory syndrome have emerged.

  1. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - A multisystem disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mikolasevic, Ivana; Milic, Sandra; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Grgic, Ivana; Jakopcic, Ivan; Stimac, Davor; Wensveen, Felix; Orlic, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common comorbidities associated with overweight and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Importantly, NAFLD is one of its most dangerous complications because it can lead to severe liver pathologies, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity, NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease and therefore is a major global health problem. Currently, NAFLD is predominantly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of MetS. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver and are negatively associated with a range of chronic diseases, most notably cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is becoming increasingly clear that these diseases are the result of the same underlying pathophysiological processes associated with MetS, such as insulin resistance, chronic systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia. As a result, they have been shown to be independent reciprocal risk factors. In addition, recent data have shown that NAFLD actively contributes to aggravation of the pathophysiology of CVD, T2DM, and CKD, as well as several other pathologies. Thus, NAFLD is a direct cause of many chronic diseases associated with MetS, and better detection and treatment of fatty liver disease is therefore urgently needed. As non-invasive screening methods for liver disease become increasingly available, detection and treatment of NAFLD in patients with MetS should therefore be considered by both (sub-) specialists and primary care physicians. PMID:27920470

  2. Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Teitel, Jerome M.

    1984-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic diseases are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in Canada. Agents which interfere with the coagulation mechanism are highly effective in treating these disorders, but at the potentially high cost of serious hemorrhagic complications. The optimal prevention of both serious outcomes and complications of therapy can be achieved by prophylactic treatment of high risk patients. Heparin and vitamin K antagonists remain the mainstays of antithrombotic therapy. The pharmacology of these agents is reviewed, and a rational approach to their clinical use is presented. PMID:21279098

  3. Insights into the pathogenesis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: the development of targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, Caroline; Minkov, Milen

    2016-01-01

    More than a century after its first description, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) still remains an intriguing disease. Considerable progress in understanding its biology has been achieved recently. Description of the V600E BRAF mutation in samples of LCH tissue in 2010 was followed by description of additional mutations, all leading to constitutive ERK activation. Current experimental data suggest that LCH is a myeloid neoplasia with inflammatory properties, yet the exact pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Disease management paradigms have changed over time, closely reflecting the evolving view of the nature of the disease. The international Histiocyte Society have conducted three prospective clinical studies on multisystem LCH since the early 1990s. The standard frontline therapy for patients with multisystem LCH based on the cumulative knowledge of those trials consists of 6–12 weeks of initial therapy (daily oral steroids and weekly vinblastine injections), followed by pulses of prednisolone/vinblastine every 3 weeks, for a total treatment duration of 12 months. A currently ongoing study (LCH-IV) with a complex design (five interventional and two observational strata) targets further reduction of mortality and morbidity by tailoring treatment intensity depending on expected risk, as well as by exploring treatment regimens for special locations. Current knowledge on LCH pathobiology opens opportunities for improvement in the patient outcome. The activating BRAF and MAP2K1 mutations collectively accounting for about 75% of the LCH population as well as the resulting constitutive activation of downstream ERK offer an opportunity for targeted treatment. Related issues (eg, finding most effective and less toxic drugs or combinations, appropriate dosage, and optimal treatment duration) must be addressed in controlled prospective trials. Additional mechanisms, such as the interactions of the mutated dendritic cell clone with other inflammatory cells and

  4. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can watch you during the procedure. As you go through radiation treatment, you may feel like you're all ... treatment. Avoid exposing the treated area to the sun during the weeks you're getting radiation therapy. And when the treatment's over, wear sunscreen ...

  5. Dance Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  6. Gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Williamson, B

    1982-07-29

    Gene therapy is not yet possible, but may become feasible soon, particularly for well understood gene defects. Although treatment of a patient raises no ethical problems once it can be done well, changing the genes of an early embryo is more difficult, controversial and unlikely to be required clinically.

  7. Sex Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective for individuals of any age, sex or sexual orientation. Sex therapy is usually provided by psychologists, social workers, physicians or licensed therapists who have special training in issues related to sex ... do not have sexual contact with clients, in the office or anywhere ...

  8. Pet Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Kim

    1994-01-01

    This resource guide presents information on a variety of ways that animals can be used as a therapeutic modality with people having disabilities. Aspects addressed include: pet ownership and selection criteria; dogs (including service dogs, hearing/signal dogs, seeing leader dogs, and social/specialty dogs); horseriding for both therapy and fun;…

  9. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... them from spreading. About half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, from radioactive substances that a doctor places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including The ...

  10. Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your DNA — the code that controls much of your body's form and function, from making you grow taller to regulating your body systems. Genes that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds ...

  11. Deciding about hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding

  12. Economic efficiency analysis of different strategies to control post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome and porcine circovirus type 2 subclinical infection in 3-weekly batch system farms.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Pablo; Rushton, Jonathan; Nathues, Heiko; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-06-01

    The study assessed the economic efficiency of different strategies for the control of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine circovirus type 2 subclinical infection (PCV2SI), which have a major economic impact on the pig farming industry worldwide. The control strategies investigated consisted on the combination of up to 5 different control measures. The control measures considered were: (1) PCV2 vaccination of piglets (vac); (2) ensuring age adjusted diet for growers (diets); (3) reduction of stocking density (stock); (4) improvement of biosecurity measures (bios); and (5) total depopulation and repopulation of the farm for the elimination of other major pathogens (DPRP). A model was developed to simulate 5 years production of a pig farm with a 3-weekly batch system and with 100 sows. A PMWS/PCV2SI disease and economic model, based on PMWS severity scores, was linked to the production model in order to assess disease losses. This PMWS severity scores depends on the combination post-weaning mortality, PMWS morbidity in younger pigs and proportion of PCV2 infected pigs observed on farms. The economic analysis investigated eleven different farm scenarios, depending on the number of risk factors present before the intervention. For each strategy, an investment appraisal assessed the extra costs and benefits of reducing a given PMWS severity score to the average score of a slightly affected farm. The net present value obtained for each strategy was then multiplied by the corresponding probability of success to obtain an expected value. A stochastic simulation was performed to account for uncertainty and variability. For moderately affected farms PCV2 vaccination alone was the most cost-efficient strategy, but for highly affected farms it was either PCV2 vaccination alone or in combination with biosecurity measures, with the marginal profitability between 'vac' and 'vac+bios' being small. Other strategies such as 'diets', 'vac+diets' and 'bios

  13. Anecdotal therapies.

    PubMed

    Millikan, L E

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, many advances in medicine have been serendipitous. Are serendipitous and anecdotal synonymous? Many of our materia medica today relate to initial probes and anecdotal reports that matured to full investigation and therapeutic indications. The recent situation regarding Skin Cap is one that highlights the downside of this scenario. Several drugs in the US continue usage largely related to anecdotal indications, and anecdotal extension of legend indications is a standard for American Dermatology. The situation with systemic drugs, such as Trental, zinc preparations, imidazoles for extended indications, lysine and melatonin, all will be discussed. Topical preparations such as skin cap, cantharone, Vioform, all also are included in this category. It is important to place this topic in perspective in regards to geographic variation and therapeutic need. Many diseases lacking specific therapy are important targets for anecdotal therapy, and this will foster continued approaches in this area. The growing standardization of medicine and pharmaceutical regulation, threatens the anecdotal approach, but it provides still an important link to the future for some forms of therapy in diseases that are difficult to treat. Traditionally, the anecdote has been the first step in the therapeutic chain. Withering discovery of the benefits of the common fox glove in dropsy, was followed by many other anecdotes arriving via folk-medicine in the New World. This approach of utilizing folk medicine has now reached new heights, with very active searches by major pharmaceutical companies throughout the third world for remedies that may have potential. Couched with this is the history of anecdotal "snake-oil" remedies, that clearly had no benefit to anyone except the huckster marketing same. The excesses in this area of unproven and false therapies, led to the gradual organization of therapeutic trials and the Food and Drug Administration in the US as we know it today. The

  14. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  15. Clinical features, epidemiology, and therapy of lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Moss, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disease of women, characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells, leading to the formation of lung cysts, fluid-filled cystic structures in the axial lymphatics (eg, lymphangioleiomyomas), and renal angiomyolipomas. LAM is caused by mutations of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which encode, respectively, hamartin and tuberin, two proteins with a major role in control of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex, an autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by widespread hamartomatous lesions. LAM may present with progressive dyspnea, recurrent pneumothorax, or chylothorax. Pulmonary function tests show reduced flow rates (forced expiratory volume in the first second) and diffusion capacity. Exercise testing may reveal gas exchange abnormalities, ventilatory limitation, and hypoxemia. The severity and progression of disease may be assessed by lung histology scores, quantification of computed tomography, pulmonary function testing, 6-minute walk tests, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and measurement of serum vascular endothelial growth factor D levels. Sirolimus and everolimus, two mTOR inhibitors, are effective in stabilizing lung function and reducing the size of chylous effusions, lymphangioleiomyo-mas, and angiomyolipomas. However, inhibition of mTOR complex 1 increases autophagy, possibly enhancing LAM cell survival. Inhibition of autophagy with hydroxychloroquine, in combination with sirolimus, has been proposed as a possible treatment for LAM. Deficiency of tuberin results in increased RhoA GTPase activity and cell survival, an effect that is mediated through mTOR complex 2 signaling. Because sirolimus and everolimus only affect the activity of mTOR complex 1, therapies targeting RhoA GTPases with simvastatin, which inhibits Rho GTPases and promotes apoptosis, are being investigated. As in the case of

  16. Particle therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  17. Gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Drugan, A; Miller, O J; Evans, M I

    1987-01-01

    Severe genetic disorders are potentially correctable by the addition of a normal gene into tissues. Although the technical problems involving integration, stable expression, and insertional damage to the treated cell are not yet fully solved, enough scientific progress has already been made to consider somatic cell gene therapy acceptable from both the ethical and scientific viewpoints. The resolutions to problems evolving from somatic cell gene therapy will help to overcome the technical difficulties encountered presently with germ line gene manipulation. This procedure would then become morally permissible as it will cause, in time, a reduction in the pool of abnormal genes in the population. Enhancement genetic engineering is technically feasible but morally unacceptable. Eugenic genetic engineering is not technically possible or ethically permissible in the foreseeable future.

  18. BRAF Mutation Correlates With High-Risk Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis and Increased Resistance to First-Line Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Emile, Jean-François; Barkaoui, Mohamed-Aziz; Thomas, Caroline; Fraitag, Sylvie; Boudjemaa, Sabah; Renaud, Florence; Moreau, Anne; Peuchmaur, Michel; Chassagne-Clément, Catherine; Dijoud, Frédérique; Rigau, Valérie; Moshous, Despina; Lambilliotte, Anne; Mazingue, Françoise; Kebaili, Kamila; Miron, Jean; Jeziorski, Eric; Plat, Geneviève; Aladjidi, Nathalie; Ferster, Alina; Pacquement, Hélène; Galambrun, Claire; Brugières, Laurence; Leverger, Guy; Mansuy, Ludovic; Paillard, Catherine; Deville, Anne; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Lutun, Anne; Gillibert-Yvert, Marion; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Cohen-Aubart, Fleur; Haroche, Julien; Pellier, Isabelle; Millot, Frédéric; Lescoeur, Brigitte; Gandemer, Virginie; Bodemer, Christine; Lacave, Roger; Hélias-Rodzewicz, Zofia; Taly, Valérie; Geissmann, Frédéric; Donadieu, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an inflammatory myeloid neoplasia with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcomes in children. The somatic BRAFV600E mutation occurs frequently, but clinical significance remains to be determined. Patients and Methods BRAFV600E mutation was investigated in a French LCH cohort. We analyzed associations between mutation status and clinical presentation, extent of disease, reactivation rate, response to therapy, and long-term permanent sequelae. Results Among 315 patients with successfully determined BRAF status, 173 (54.6%) carried a BRAFV600E mutation. Patients with BRAFV600E manifested more severe disease than did those with wild-type BRAF. Patients with BRAFV600E comprised 87.8% of patients (43 of 49) with multisystem LCH with risk organ involvement (liver, spleen, hematology), 68.6% of patients (35 of 51) with multisystem LCH without risk organ involvement, 43.9% of patients (86 of 196) with single-system LCH, and 42.1% of patients (8 of 19) with lung-involved LCH (P < .001). BRAFV600E mutation was also associated with organ involvement that could lead to permanent, irreversible damage, such as neurologic (75%) and pituitary (72.9%) injuries. Compared with patients with wild-type BRAF, patients with BRAFV600E more commonly displayed resistance to combined vinblastine and corticosteroid therapy (21.9% v 3.3%; P = .001), showed a higher reactivation rate (5-year reactivation rate, 42.8% v 28.1%; P = .006), and had more permanent, long-term consequences from disease or treatment (27.9% v 12.6%; P = .001). Conclusion In children with LCH, BRAFV600E mutation was associated with high-risk features, permanent injury, and poor short-term response to chemotherapy. Further population-based studies should be undertaken to confirm our observations and to assess the impact of BRAF inhibitors for this subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy. PMID:27382093

  19. Art Therapy: What Is Art Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from art therapy? Art therapy is practiced in mental health, rehabilitation, medical, educational, forensic, wellness, private practice and community settings with diverse client populations in ...

  20. Digoxin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, J. K.; Grahame-Smith, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    1 Recommendations for correct therapy with digoxin from twenty-five sources are reviewed. 2 Some recommendations may be unsuitable for use with high bioavailability tablets; some are accompanied by insufficient data relating to factors affecting both the response to digoxin and its handling by the body. 3 Guidelines based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles are suggested to help decide optimal digoxin treatment schedules in the presence and absence of non-cardiac disease. PMID:22216507

  1. Cancer Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The patient shown is undergoing cancer radiation treatment in a hospital-like atmosphere but he is not in a hospital. The treatment room is at NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. It is a converted portion of the Center's cyclotron facility, originally designed for radiation studies related to nuclear propulsion for aircraft and spacecraft. Under an agreement between the Center and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the 50 million volt cyclotron is now being used to evaluate the effectiveness of "fast neutron" therapy in the treatment of cancerous tumors.

  2. [Gestalt therapy.].

    PubMed

    Corbeil, J; Poupard, D

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe Gestalt Therapy. They retrace its fundamental theoretical axes. These are psychoanalysis, character analysis, the german Gestalt theory of perception, existentialism, and the Orient. Some principal concepts are then elaborated more fully such as the cycle of awareness, desensitization, excitation anxiety and the five defense mechanisms: retroflection, introjection, projection, deflection, and confluence. The nature and goals of the therapeutic process are also described before the presentation of some techniques specific to this approach such as enactment and role playing. Finally, certain basic Gestalt rules, which aim at facilitating and intensifying the communication process among group members, are enunciated.

  3. Management of motor complications in Parkinson disease: current and emerging therapies.

    PubMed

    Espay, Alberto J

    2010-11-01

    Motor fluctuations and dyskinesias are common motor complications that manifest within the first few years from the initiation of therapy in patients with Parkinson disease. These complications negatively affect the quality of life and represent an important source of disability. A growing number of therapeutic options including treatments aimed at prolonging the efficacy of levodopa (eg, selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors and catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors), administration of longer-acting dopamine agonists (eg, rotigotine, sustained-release ropinirole), and continuous administration of intraduodenal levodopa exist or will soon become available. Patients who maintain a good response to levodopa but continue to experience disabling motor complications despite the best medical management may benefit from a regimen of subcutaneous apomorphine, ideally delivered by a subcutaneous pump, or deep-brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or internal portion of the pallidum. Emerging therapies for motor complications are expected to further enhance continuous (physiologic) delivery of dopaminergic drugs and extend the reach of therapies beyond the dopaminergic system to influence not only the motor but also the vast range of nonmotor complications of this multisystemic disease.

  4. Muckle-Wells cryopyrinopathy: complex phenotyping and response to therapy in a new multiplex kindred.

    PubMed

    Headley, Alexander P; Cordingley, Frank; Hawkins, Phillip N; Riminton, D Sean

    2014-04-01

    Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) is a member of the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome family of auto-inflammatory diseases, originally described as a triad of urticaria, sensorineural deafness and amyloidosis. IL-1 blockade is a proven therapy for MWS. The clinical, laboratory and genotypic characteristics of a novel kindred of five individuals with Muckle-Wells syndrome are described. Response to IL-1 blockade therapy in the proband was evaluated. All five affected family members experienced symptoms of multi-organ inflammation. Lead time between symptom onset and diagnosis was approximately 30 years in the proband. Fever was not a universal feature in all affected family members. Anti-IL-1 therapy in the proband resulted in improvements in patient-reported symptoms, inflammatory markers, auditory acuity and reversal of her infertility. Muckle-Wells syndrome is a rare, multisystem, auto-inflammatory syndrome. Delay in diagnosis prevents effective treatment. We propose reversal of infertility to be among the potential benefits of IL-1 inhibition in this disease.

  5. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  6. Estimating the differential costs of criminal activity for juvenile drug court participants: challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    McCollister, Kathryn E; French, Michael T; Sheidow, Ashli J; Henggeler, Scott W; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile drug court (JDC) programs have expanded rapidly over the past 20 years and are an increasingly popular option for rehabilitating juvenile offenders with substance use problems. Given the high cost of crime to society, an important economic question is whether and to what extent JDC programs reduce criminal activity among juvenile offenders. To address this question, the present study added an economic cost analysis to an ongoing randomized trial of JDC conducted in Charleston, South Carolina. Four treatment conditions were included in the parent study: Family Court with usual community-based treatment (FC, the comparison group), Drug Court with usual community-based treatment (DC), DC with Multisystemic Therapy (DC/MST), and DC/MST enhanced with Contingency Management (DC/MST/CM). The economic study estimated the cost of criminal activity for nine specific crimes at baseline (pretreatment) and 4 and 12 months thereafter. A number of methodological challenges were encountered, suggesting that it may be more difficult to economically quantify frequency and type of criminal activity for adolescents than for adults. The present paper addresses methodological approaches and challenges, and proposes guidelines for future economic evaluations of adolescent substance abuse and crime prevention programs.

  7. Laser therapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  8. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  9. American Art Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... more My AATA Collaborate Types & Benefits Local Chapters Education Art Therapy Education ...Read more Educational Standards Approved Art Therapy Master’s ... Art Therapy Credentials Board (ATCB) Institute for Continuing Education (ICE) Ethics Multicultural Conference Conference Information ...Read more ...

  10. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Who's Who in the Hospital Speech-Language Therapy Managing Home Health Care Physical Therapy Caring for a Seriously Ill Child Word! Occupational Therapist Word! Occupational Therapy Wheelchairs Going to an Occupational ...

  11. [Physical therapy].

    PubMed

    Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, pulmonary rehabilitation program is widely considered one of the most effective and evidence-based treatment for not only chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but many clinical situations including neuro-muscular disease, post-operative status and weaning period from the ventilator, etc. The essential components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program are team assessment, patient training, psycho-social intervention, exercise, and follow-up. In 2003, Japanese medical societies (J. Thoracic Society, J. Pul. Rehabilitation Society and J. Physiotherapist Society) made a new guideline for pulmonary rehabilitation, especially how to aproach the execise training. As for the duration after surgical operation, airway cleaning is the important technique to prevent post-operative complications including pneumonia. Postural dranage technique is well known for such condition, at the same time, several instruments (flutter vulve, positive expiratory mask, high frequecy oscillation, etc) were also used for the patient to expectrate airway mucus easier. Lung transplantation is a new method of treatment for the critically-ill patients with chronic respiratoy failure. Several techniques of physical therapy are must be needed before and after lung transplantation to prevent both pulmonary infection and osteoporosis.

  12. Expansion of a VR Exposure Therapy System for Combat-Related PTSD to Medics/Corpsman and Persons Following Military Sexual Trauma.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert; Hartholt, Arno; Rothbaum, Barbara; Difede, Joann; Reist, Chris; Kwok, David; Leeds, Andrew; Spitalnick, Josh; Talbot, Thomas; Adamson, Todd; Buckwalter, J Galen

    2014-01-01

    The stressful experiences that have been characteristic of the combat environments in Iraq and Afghanistan have produced significant numbers of returning service members at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychosocial/behavioral health conditions. This paper describes a set of projects that are expanding the content for inclusion in a newly updated "Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan" Virtual Reality system for the delivery of exposure therapy (VRET) for PTSD with Service Members and Veterans. In addition to the complete rebuilding of this VRET system using the latest version of the Unity Game Engine, the system's content and functionality has been expanded to now support the use of VRET with combat medics/corpsmen and persons who have experienced military sexual trauma (MST). The focus of this paper is to present the rationale and general overview of the progress on these projects that will provide new relevant and customizable options for conducting VRET with a wider range of trauma experiences.

  13. Apoptosis and Ki-67 as predictive factors for response to radiation therapy in feline nasal lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    FU, Dah-Renn; KATO, Daiki; ENDO, Yoshifumi; KADOSAWA, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Nasal lymphoma is the most common nasal tumor in cats and is generally a solitary and radiosensitive tumor. We retrospectively evaluated the response to radiation and survival time in relation to apoptosis and Ki-67 indices in feline nasal lymphomas treated with radiation therapy. The apoptotic and Ki-67 indices were evaluated with TUNEL and immunohistochemical staining in 30 biopsy tissues that were taken before any treatment. These two indices were compared, and differences between different treatment response groups were analyzed. The correlation between the median survival times (MST) and the indices was estimated using the Kaplan Meier method, and statistical differences between survival curves were analyzed using a log-rank method. With regard to apoptotic index, a statistical difference was observed between the samples taken from cats with complete response and stable disease (1.22% vs. 0.45%; P=0.045). The Ki-67 index in cats with both complete response and partial response was significantly higher than in cats with stable disease (44.4% and 39.6% vs. 16.3%; P<0.001 and P=0.008, respectively). The cats with a high level of apoptosis (>0.9%) nasal lymphoma were not significantly prolonged MSTs (P=0.202), however, high Ki-67-positive (>40%) cats experienced a statistically significant relationship with longer survival time (P=0.015). Our results indicate that spontaneous apoptotic and Ki-67 indices are strong predictors for response to radiation therapy in feline nasal lymphomas. PMID:27086717

  14. All Might Have Won, But Not All Have the Prize: Optimal Treatment for Substance Abuse Among Adolescents with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Spas, Jayson; Ramsey, Susan; Paiva, Andrea L.; Stein, L.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence from the literature on treatment outcomes indicates that substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems varies widely. Treatments commonly used among this population are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 12-step facilitation, multisystemic therapy (MST), psychoeducation (PE), and motivational interviewing (MI). This manuscript thoroughly and systematically reviews the available literature to determine which treatment is optimal for substance-abusing adolescents with conduct problems. Results suggest that although there are several evidence-based and empirically supported treatments, those that incorporate family-based intervention consistently provide the most positive treatment outcomes. In particular, this review further reveals that although many interventions have gained empirical support over the years, only one holds the prize as being the optimal treatment of choice for substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems. PMID:23170066

  15. Marriage or Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the differences between family therapy and marriage counseling in terms of professional organization, theory, and practice. Suggests that training in marriage therapy does not appear adequate for family therapy. The goal of the therapy field should be more consensus in theory and a single profession of therapists. (JAC)

  16. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  17. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  18. Polymeric MST - high precision at low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elderstig, Håkan; Larsson, Olle

    1997-09-01

    A low-cost production process for fabrication of polymeric microstructures from micromachined silicon is demonstrated in a splice for the splicing of optical fibers and an optical motherboard. Measurements on splices showed less than 0.5 dB insertion losses. The prototype polymeric motherboard concisted of an optical receiver module. The detector that was mounted on the polymeric optical motherboard detected about 70% of the transferred light. Measurements with modulated light indicates an optical bandwidth of 5 GHz at 2 V reverse current on the pin-diode.

  19. Nonsense suppressor therapies rescue peroxisome lipid metabolism and assembly in cells from patients with specific PEX gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Dranchak, Patricia K.; Di Pietro, Erminia; Snowden, Ann; Oesch, Nathan; Braverman, Nancy E.; Steinberg, Steven J.; Hacia, Joseph G.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) are multisystemic autosomal recessive disorders resulting from mutations in PEX genes required for normal peroxisome assembly and metabolic activities. Here, we evaluated the potential effectiveness of aminoglycoside G418 (geneticin) and PTC124 (ataluren) nonsense suppression therapies for the treatment of PBD patients with disease-causing nonsense mutations. PBD patient skin fibroblasts producing stable PEX2 or PEX12 nonsense transcripts and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with a Pex2 nonsense allele all showed dramatic improvements in peroxisomal very long chain fatty acid catabolism and plasmalogen biosynthesis in response to G418 treatments. Cell imaging assays provided complementary confirmatory evidence of improved peroxisome assembly in G418-treated patient fibroblasts. In contrast, we observed no appreciable rescue of peroxisome lipid metabolism or assembly for any patient fibroblast or CHO cell culture treated with various doses of PTC124. Additionally, PTC124 did not show measurable nonsense suppression in immunoblot assays that directly evaluated the read-through of PEX7 nonsense alleles found in PBD patients with rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1). Overall, our results support the continued development of safe and effective nonsense suppressor therapies that could benefit a significant subset of individuals with PBDs. Furthermore, we suggest that the described cell culture assay systems could be useful for evaluating and screening for novel nonsense suppressor therapies. PMID:21465523

  20. Office versus Home-Based Family Therapy for Runaway, Alcohol Abusing Adolescents: Examination of Factors Associated with Treatment Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Prestopnik, Jillian L.

    2008-01-01

    There is a dearth of research examining treatment engagement and attendance among runaway youth and their families. Such research is needed in order to inform treatment providers on factors associated with engagement and maintenance of these difficult to engage families into counseling. This study examined differential treatment attendance for alcohol abusing runaway youth residing at a local shelter. A traditional office-based family systems approach, Functional Family Therapy (FFT), was compared to a non-traditional, home-based, multi-systemic family therapy approach, Ecologically Based Family Therapy (EBFT). As expected, treatment engagement and attendance was significantly higher for those assigned to EBFT (N = 37) compared to FFT (N = 40). Predictors of treatment attendance (income, family chaos, externalization problems and level of youth substance use) were examined within each treatment modality. Findings suggest that home-based (compared to office-based) treatment modalities may significantly increase treatment attendance and engagement of runaway youth and their families. Non-traditional forms of treatment may need to be considered in order to best meet the needs of highly chaotic and disorganized family systems. PMID:18607515

  1. Appropriate Antibiotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; Heil, Emily L; Hayes, Bryan D

    2017-02-01

    Prescribing antibiotics is an essential component of initial therapy in sepsis. Early antibiotics are an important component of therapy, but speed of administration should not overshadow the patient-specific characteristics that determine the optimal breadth of antimicrobial therapy. Cultures should be drawn before antibiotic therapy if it does not significantly delay administration. Combination antibiotic therapy against gram-negative infections is not routinely required, and combination therapy involving vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam is associated with an increase in acute kidney injury. Emergency practitioners should be aware of special considerations in the administration and dosing of antibiotics in order to deliver optimal care to septic patients.

  2. High-dose immunosuppressive therapy for severe systemic sclerosis: initial outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, Peter A.; Nash, Richard A.; Sullivan, Keith M.; Storek, Jan; Crofford, Leslie J.; Dansey, Roger; Mayes, Maureen D.; McDonagh, Kevin T.; Nelson, J. Lee; Gooley, Theodore A.; Holmberg, Leona A.; Chen, C. S.; Wener, Mark H.; Ryan, Katherine; Sunderhaus, Julie; Russell, Ken; Rambharose, John; Storb, Rainer; Furst, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem disease of presumed autoimmune pathogenesis for which no proven effective treatment exists. High-dose immunosuppressive therapy (HDIT) has been proposed as an investigational treatment for severe autoimmune diseases. Nineteen patients with poor-prognosis SSc underwent HDIT. The median age was 40 years (range, 23–61 years), the median modified Rodnan skin score (a measure of dermal sclerosis) was 31, and the median DLCO was 57%. Conditioning therapy involved 800 cGy total body irradiation (TBI) (± lung shielding to approximately 200 cGy), 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, and 90 mg/kg equine antithymocyte globulin. CD34-selected granulocyte–colony-stimulating factor–mobilized autologous blood stem cells provided hematopoietic rescue. With median follow-up at 14.7 months, the Kaplan-Meier estimated 2-year survival rate was 79%. Three patients died of treatment complications and one of disease progression. Two of the first 8 patients had fatal regimen-related pulmonary injury, a complication not found among 11 subsequent patients who received lung shielding for TBI. Overall, internal organ functions were stable to slightly worse after HDIT, and 4 patients had progressive or nonresponsive disease. As measured by modified Rodnan skin scores and modified health assessment questionnaire disability index (mHAQ-DI) scores, significant disease responses occurred in 12 of 12 patients evaluated at 1 year after HDIT. In conclusion, though important treatment-related toxicities occurred after HDIT for SSc, modifications of initial approaches appear to reduce treatment risks. Responses in skin and mHAQ-DI scores exceed those reported with other therapies, suggesting that HDIT is a promising new therapy for SSc that should be evaluated in prospective randomized studies. PMID:12176878

  3. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  4. Gene therapy for blindness.

    PubMed

    Sahel, José-Alain; Roska, Botond

    2013-07-08

    Sight-restoring therapy for the visually impaired and blind is a major unmet medical need. Ocular gene therapy is a rational choice for restoring vision or preventing the loss of vision because most blinding diseases originate in cellular components of the eye, a compartment that is optimally suited for the delivery of genes, and many of these diseases have a genetic origin or genetic component. In recent years we have witnessed major advances in the field of ocular gene therapy, and proof-of-concept studies are under way to evaluate the safety and efficacy of human gene therapies. Here we discuss the concepts and recent advances in gene therapy in the retina. Our review discusses traditional approaches such as gene replacement and neuroprotection and also new avenues such as optogenetic therapies. We conjecture that advances in gene therapy in the retina will pave the way for gene therapies in other parts of the brain.

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002375.htm Hyperbaric oxygen therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase ...

  6. Sexual Health: Testosterone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Considering testosterone therapy to help you feel younger and more vigorous as you age? ... 01, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/testosterone-therapy/art-20045728 . ...

  7. Targeted Therapy for Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that targets the changes in cancer cells that help them grow, divide, and spread. Learn how targeted therapy works against cancer and about side effects that may occur.

  8. Myocardial gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isner, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy is proving likely to be a viable alternative to conventional therapies in coronary artery disease and heart failure. Phase 1 clinical trials indicate high levels of safety and clinical benefits with gene therapy using angiogenic growth factors in myocardial ischaemia. Although gene therapy for heart failure is still at the pre-clinical stage, experimental data indicate that therapeutic angiogenesis using short-term gene expression may elicit functional improvement in affected individuals.

  9. Bronchial hygiene therapy.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, W T; Smith, B

    1995-01-01

    Bronchial hygiene therapy is useful and effective in the presence of careful patient evaluation, clear definition of therapeutic goals, and application of appropriate modalities. This article defines the variable bronchial hygiene modalities and discusses their indications, contraindications, and applications. Prophylactic and therapeutic bronchial hygiene modalities, diagnostic methods associated with bronchial hygiene therapy, inhaled antibiotic therapy, and therapist driven protocols are also addressed.

  10. Musings on Adventure Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Antonio G.; Stauffer, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques various definitions of adventure therapy, then suggests that adventure therapy is any intentional, facilitated use of adventure tools and techniques to guide personal change toward desired therapeutic goals. Reflects on the nature of adventure therapy through a discussion of the application of this definition and its implications for…

  11. The physical therapy prescription.

    PubMed

    Onks, Cayce A; Wawrzyniak, John

    2014-07-01

    Physical therapy was first noted in the time of Hippocrates. The physical therapy visit includes a complete history, physical examination, and development of a treatment plan. Health care providers usually initiate a referral based on physical examination, symptoms, or a specific diagnosis. Physical therapy has been shown to be particularly helpful for musculoskeletal ailments, and has a growing body of evidence for use.

  12. Play Therapy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  13. Behavior Therapy of Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dengrove, Edward

    1971-01-01

    Behavior therapy approaches to the treatment of male sexual impotence, specifically premature ejaculation and erective impotence, are discussed. Included in the behavioral therapies are systematic desensitization, active graded therapy, assertive techniques, sexual responses, operant approaches and others. Often marriage counseling is also…

  14. Family Therapy and Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Guillermo; Ysern, Eduardo

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the family and the enterprise of family therapy are social systems and under the influence of the ideology particular to a given society. The strategic family therapy treatment of a family with a drug-addicted member serves as an example to clarify the ideological themes of contemporary family therapy. (Author/BL)

  15. Neutron therapy of cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.; Nellans, H. N.; Shaw, M. J.

    1969-01-01

    Reports relate applications of neutrons to the problem of cancer therapy. The biochemical and biophysical aspects of fast-neutron therapy, neutron-capture and neutron-conversion therapy with intermediate-range neutrons are presented. Also included is a computer program for neutron-gamma radiobiology.

  16. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  17. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  18. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    PubMed

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials.

  19. Gene therapy review.

    PubMed

    Moss, Joseph Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The use of genes to treat disease, more commonly known as gene therapy, is a valid and promising tool to manage and treat diseases that conventional drug therapies cannot cure. Gene therapy holds the potential to control a wide range of diseases, including cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and blood diseases. This review assesses the current status of gene therapy, highlighting therapeutic methodologies and applications, terminology, and imaging strategies. This article presents an overview of roadblocks associated with each therapeutic methodology, along with some of the scientific, social, and ethical issues associated with gene therapy.

  20. Gender, Race, and Survival: A Study in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases Patients Utilizing the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Chao, Samuel T.; Rice, Thomas W.; Adelstein, David J.; Barnett, Gene H.; Mekhail, Tarek M.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Suh, John H.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To explore whether gender and race influence survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with brain metastases, using our large single-institution brain tumor database and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) brain metastases classification. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of a single-institution brain metastasis database for the interval January 1982 to September 2004 yielded 835 NSCLC patients with brain metastases for analysis. Patient subsets based on combinations of gender, race, and RPA class were then analyzed for survival differences. Results: Median follow-up was 5.4 months (range, 0-122.9 months). There were 485 male patients (M) (58.4%) and 346 female patients (F) (41.6%). Of the 828 evaluable patients (99%), 143 (17%) were black/African American (B) and 685 (83%) were white/Caucasian (W). Median survival time (MST) from time of brain metastasis diagnosis for all patients was 5.8 months. Median survival time by gender (F vs. M) and race (W vs. B) was 6.3 months vs. 5.5 months (p = 0.013) and 6.0 months vs. 5.2 months (p = 0.08), respectively. For patients stratified by RPA class, gender, and race, MST significantly favored BFs over BMs in Class II: 11.2 months vs. 4.6 months (p = 0.021). On multivariable analysis, significant variables were gender (p = 0.041, relative risk [RR] 0.83) and RPA class (p < 0.0001, RR 0.28 for I vs. III; p < 0.0001, RR 0.51 for II vs. III) but not race. Conclusions: Gender significantly influences NSCLC brain metastasis survival. Race trended to significance in overall survival but was not significant on multivariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified gender and RPA classification as significant variables with respect to survival.

  1. Surface camouflage of pancreatic islets using 6-arm-PEG-catechol in combined therapy with tacrolimus and anti-CD154 monoclonal antibody for xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jee-Heon; Hong, Sung Woo; Hong, Seonki; Yook, Simmyung; Jung, Yoonsuk; Park, Jun-Beom; Khue, Cao Duy; Im, Bok-Hyeon; Seo, Jinwon; Lee, Haeshin; Ahn, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Dong Yun; Byun, Youngro

    2011-11-01

    This study proposes a new combination method of using 6-arm-PEG-catechol to enhance the PEG effect on one hand and another combination of using low doses of Tacrolimus (FK506) and anti-CD154 mAb (MR1) with PEGylation for effective immunoprotection on the other in a xenogenic islet transplantation model. The surface coverage of PEG, viability and functionality of islets were evaluated in vitro, and the effect of surface camouflage on immunoprotection for transplanted islets was evaluated. In addition, the synergistic effects of surface camouflaged islets with low doses of immunosuppressant drugs, such as FK506 and MR1, were evaluated in the xenotransplantation model. The median survival time (MST) of 6-arm-PEG-catechol grafted islets (12.0 ± 1.1 days) was not significantly increased, compared to that of unmodified islets (10.5 ± 1.3 days). However, when 0.2 mg/kg of FK506 was daily administered, the MST of 6-arm-PEG-catechol grafted islet (21.0 ± 1.9 days) was increased twice, compared to that of unmodified islets treated with 0.2 mg/kg of FK506 (10.0 ± 0.9 days). Interestingly, when the recipients of 6-arm-PEG-catechol grafted islets were treated with 0.2 mg/kg of FK506 and 0.1 mg/mouse of MR1, normoglycemia was maintained up to 50 days of transplantation without any fluctuation of glucose level. Therefore, a newly developed protocol using 6-arm-PEG-catechol with FK506 and MR1 would certainly be an effective combination therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.

  2. Art Therapy: What Is Art Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... skills, improve reality orientation, reduce anxiety, and increase self-esteem. A goal in art therapy is to improve ... supports federal and state policies, legislation, regulations, judicial actions, and initiatives that encourage, promote, and support efforts ...

  3. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle pulls in class activities. Depending on a child’s medical status, therapy sessions should include the practice of age appropriate gross motor skills such as running, jumping, climbing, and pedaling ...

  4. Phase 2 Study of Temozolomide-Based Chemoradiation Therapy for High-Risk Low-Grade Gliomas: Preliminary Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0424

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Barbara J.; Hu, Chen; Macdonald, David R.; Lesser, Glenn J.; Coons, Stephen W.; Brachman, David G.; Ryu, Samuel; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Liu, Junfeng; Chakravarti, Arnab; Mehta, Minesh

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0424 was a phase 2 study of a high-risk low-grade glioma (LGG) population who were treated with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), and outcomes were compared to those of historical controls. This study was designed to detect a 43% increase in median survival time (MST) from 40.5 to 57.9 months and a 20% improvement in 3-year overall survival (OS) rate from 54% to 65% at a 10% significance level (1-sided) and 96% power. Methods and Materials: Patients with LGGs with 3 or more risk factors for recurrence (age ≥40 years, astrocytoma histology, bihemispherical tumor, preoperative tumor diameter of ≥6 cm, or a preoperative neurological function status of >1) were treated with RT (54 Gy in 30 fractions) and concurrent and adjuvant TMZ. Results: From 2005 to 2009, 129 evaluable patients (75 males and 54 females) were accrued. Median age was 49 years; 91% had a Zubrod score of 0 or 1; and 69%, 25%, and 6% of patients had 3, 4, and 5 risk factors, respectively. Patients had median and minimum follow-up examinations of 4.1 years and 3 years, respectively. The 3-year OS rate was 73.1% (95% confidence interval: 65.3%-80.8%), which was significantly improved compared to that of prespecified historical control values (P<.001). Median survival time has not yet been reached. Three-year progression-free survival was 59.2%. Grades 3 and 4 adverse events occurred in 43% and 10% of patients, respectively. One patient died of herpes encephalitis. Conclusions: The 3-year OS rate of 73.1% for RTOG 0424 high-risk LGG patients is higher than that reported for historical controls (P<.001) and the study-hypothesized rate of 65%.

  5. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  6. [Physical therapy in osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Gnjidić, Zoja

    2010-01-01

    Physical therapy has an important role in treating rheumatic diseases; its goal is to reduced pain, swelling and to keep joints mobile. The properly manage osteoarthritis is nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Physical therapy applied as a remedy for osteoarthritis is a part of multimodal therapy. The basis for physical therapy management is determined by the recommendation of the physical therapeutic science and evidence-based medicine. When making a decision about application of different methods of treatment in physical therapy, it is important to correctly diagnose a structural transformation and functional problem. Systematic review of the scientific, evidence-based, international concensus recommendations for the management of the osteoarthritis published between 2000 and 2010 were identified high-quality evidence therapy practice that is efficient and effective in increasing movement capability function, and reduce pain, disability, medical intake and improved physical function for patients with osteoarthritis

  7. Genetic markers as therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis: A game changer in clinical therapy?

    PubMed

    Ali, A M Mohamed Thoufic; Vino, S

    2016-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, multi-systemic autoimmune disease unremitted by genetic and environmental factors. The factors are crucial but inadequate in the development of disease; however, these factors can be representative of potential therapeutic targets and response to clinical therapy. Insights into the contribution of genetic risk factors are currently in progress with studies querying the genetic variation, their role in gene expression of coding and non-coding genes and other mechanisms of disease. In this review, we describe the significance of genetic markers architecture of RA through genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis studies. Further, it also reveals the mechanism of disease pathogenesis investigated through the mutual findings of functional and genetic studies of individual RA-associated genes, which includes HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPB1, PADI4, PTPN22, TRAF1-C5, STAT4 and C5orf30. However, the genetic background of RA remains to be clearly depicted. Prospective efforts of the post-genomic and functional genomic period can travel toward real possible assessment of the genetic effect on RA. The discovery of novel genes associated with the disease can be appropriate in identifying potential biomarkers, which could assist in early diagnosis and aggressive treatment.

  8. Preeclampsia – Aetiology, Current Diagnostics and Clinical Management, New Therapy Options and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tallarek, A.-C.; Huppertz, B.; Stepan, H.

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease for which the exact causes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. However, in the past few years it has become clear that a placental imbalance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic proteins is the decisive pathogenetic factor for the occurrence of preeclampsia. With the possibility to measure these angiogenic factors (sFlt-1/PlGF ratio) in maternal blood full new diagnostic possibilities have been opened that enable the certain diagnosis or exclusion of the diseases as well as a short-term prognosis to be made. In secondary prevention the current data situation for ASA confirms a moderate but measurable utility. The management concept depends on gestational age. In the case of early clinical manifestations (< 34th week of pregnancy) the clinical management in a perinatal centre remains unchanged with foeto-maternal monitoring and induction of pulmonary maturation, symptomatic therapy under careful blood pressure lowering and determination of the optimal delivery time. A balance must be made here between foetal immaturity and maternal risks upon prolongations. The pathomechanism of anti-angiogenic overload with sFlt-1 provides a starting point for first therapeutic interventions. The present article gives an overview of current diagnostic options and presents possible future therapeutic perspectives for discussion. PMID:26640284

  9. About Occupational Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy New Evaluation Codes Learn how to use the new OT CPT® Evaluation codes correctly . Congressional Affairs AOTPAC Federal Regulatory Affairs Health ...

  10. American Occupational Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy New Evaluation Codes Learn how to use the new OT CPT® Evaluation codes correctly . Congressional Affairs AOTPAC Federal Regulatory Affairs Health ...

  11. Therapy and Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... trained in psychotherapy include professionals representing psychiatry, clinical psychology, mental health counseling, clinical social work, marriage and family therapy, rehabilitation counseling, and ...

  12. [Cognitive behavior therapy].

    PubMed

    Munezawa, Takeshi

    2009-08-01

    Insomnia is one of the most frequently encountered disorders in general clinical practices. At present, the most commonly used therapy for insomnia is pharmacotherapy. There are some problems in pharmacotherapy such as side effects. Therefore nonpharmacological therapy for insomnia is needed. The cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a nonpharmacological therapy attracting attention most. CBT-I not only alleviates insomnia symptoms in patients but also enables them to reduce/discontinue the use of hypnotics. I reviewed a study about the effectiveness of CBT-I and commented the future directions of CBT-I.

  13. Biological therapies for spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Vincenzo; Atteno, Mariangela; Spanò, Angelo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario

    2014-06-01

    Biological therapies and new imaging techniques have changed the therapeutic and diagnostic approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment is currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has failed. TNFα inhibitor treatment is more effective in preventing articular damage in peripheral joints than in axial ones. It is important to treat patients at an early stage of disease to reduce disease progression; moreover it is necessary to identify causes of therapy inefficacy in preventing joint damage in the axial subset.

  14. [Morita therapy over history].

    PubMed

    Usa, Shinichi

    2003-01-01

    At Sansei Hospital in Kyoto we performed Morita Therapy not only for Japanese clients but also foreign clients from several countries, like Germany, Switzerland, U.S.A., China, Korea, India and Indonesia. We could treat those foreign clients using Morita Therapy with good success although they came from various cultural backgrounds. One of the characteristic Approaches of Morita Therapy was that it avoided the conceptualization of self-consciousness and self image as a subjective fiction established by abstract and logical thinking. Secondary Morita Therapy moves clients to deal with activities in real life. These 2 approaches help clients not to be involved in symptom development or fixation mechanisms and break through self-centeredness. At the first stage of Morita Therapy, namely in the bed rest period clients can experience his psychic state as if he were a just born baby. The founder of Gestalt Therapy, Frederick S. Perls experienced by himself Morita Therapy. During bed rest therapy he behaved as if he were a baby. This behavior came out not from conscious abstract and logical thinking but from spontaneous "pre-conscious" state of mind. Morita called this "Jun-na-kokoro" (Pure mind). Morita knew that neurotic symptoms come out from those abstract and logical thinking which could lead to fixation of symptoms so that therapy principle might be the de-centralization of self and the pure mind experience which is found in our daily life and also in daily life of foreign people from various cultural backgrounds.

  15. Cell and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rajesh C; Zacks, David N

    2014-01-01

    Replacement or repair of a dysfunctional gene combined with promoting cell survival is a two-pronged approach that addresses an unmet need in the therapy of retinal degenerative diseases. In this chapter, we discuss various strategies toward achieving both goals: transplantation of wild-type cells to replace degenerating cells and to rescue gene function, sequential gene and cell therapy, and in vivo reprogramming of rods to cones. These approaches highlight cutting-edge advances in cell and gene therapy, and cellular lineage conversion in order to devise new therapies for various retinal degenerative diseases.

  16. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... reviewed: February 2017 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Delayed Speech or Language Development Autism Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Cerebral Palsy Occupational Therapy ...

  17. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... alike, but remember that many kids treated with radiation therapy go on to live healthy, full lives. Don't hesitate to discuss your questions and concerns with the doctor. The more you know about how radiation therapy will affect and help your child, the ...

  18. Narrative Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, William M.; Keenan, Robert

    1997-01-01

    States that narrative family therapy is informed by social constructionism and postmodern worldviews, and is a relatively significant departure from mainstream psychotherapy. Discusses the use of narrative family therapy. Uses the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden as an example. (MKA)

  19. Therapy of Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  20. Occupational Therapy Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

  1. Update on acne therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1999-06-01

    Current therapy of acne vulgaris is very effective. It consists of a combination of topical comedolytic agents, antibacterial agents, and combinations of both. The use of systemic therapy with antibiotics, isotretinoin, and hormones is necessary for cystic acne. The management of patients with the various combinations of topical and systemic medications is discussed.

  2. Antiangiogenic Eye Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Corydon, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    The idea of treating disease in humans with genetic material was conceived over two decades ago and with that a promising journey involving development and efficacy studies in cells and animals of a large number of novel therapeutic reagents unfolded. In the footsteps of this process, successful gene therapy treatment of genetic conditions in humans has shown clear signs of efficacy. Notably, significant advancements using gene supplementation and silencing strategies have been made in the field of ocular gene therapy, thereby pinpointing ocular gene therapy as one of the compelling "actors" bringing gene therapy to the clinic. Most of all, this success has been facilitated because of (1) the fact that the eye is an effortlessly accessible, exceedingly compartmentalized, and immune-privileged organ offering a unique advantage as a gene therapy target, and (2) significant progress toward efficient, sustained transduction of cells within the retina having been achieved using nonintegrating vectors based on recombinant adeno-associated virus and nonintegrating lentivirus vectors. The results from in vivo experiments and trials suggest that treatment of inherited retinal dystrophies, ocular angiogenesis, and inflammation with gene therapy can be both safe and effective. Here, the progress of ocular gene therapy is examined with special emphasis on the potential use of RNAi- and protein-based antiangiogenic gene therapy to treat exudative age-related macular degeneration.

  3. History of gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality.

  4. Targeted therapies for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... disables the cancer cells so they cannot spread. How Does Targeted Therapy Work? Targeted therapy drugs work in a few different ways. They may: Turn off the process in cancer cells that causes them to grow and spread Trigger cancer cells to die on their own Kill cancer cells directly People ...

  5. Electroconvulsive Therapy and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanney, Bryan L.

    1986-01-01

    When the effectiveness and mortality-morbidity of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are compared with those of drug therapies, it appears that ECT is an effective and preferred treatment strategy. It remains underutilized as a modality of suicide prevention. Addresses controversies that presently limit the use of this treatment. (Author/ABB)

  6. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  7. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  8. Massage Therapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Massage therapy has been notably effective in preventing prematurity, enhancing growth of infants, increasing attentiveness, decreasing depression and aggression, alleviating motor problems, reducing pain, and enhancing immune function. This review covers massage therapy research from the last decade, as an update to the American Psychologist 1998…

  9. [Conservative Therapy of Osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Krasselt, Marco; Baerwald, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The therapy of osteoarthritis is based on conservative therapeutic approaches, depending on the disease's severity. In this context, physical therapy and the use of sufficient analgesic regimes are of decisive importance. This article will discuss the current evidence based therapeutic concepts as well as promising new therapeutic approaches.

  10. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  11. Therapy in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costonis, Maureen Needham, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of articles on the subject of movement therapy. It can be used as a set of supplementary readings for an academic course in dance therapy or a psychiatric residency program. It includes an exhaustive bibliography on this field for students and practioners in this field. Four principal themes have been selected as a…

  12. Experiential Learning and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatala, Elaine

    This paper describes the experiential therapy program at the Bowling Green Adolescent Center (New Jersey). This model supports the view that the therapeutic process of addiction treatment is accelerated and enhanced by providing the patients with experiential interventions. Experiential therapy includes goal setting, hands-on participation,…

  13. Activity Therapy: An Alternative Therapy for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Terry T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of activity therapy for preteens and adolescents, where the client is engaged in nonverbal modes of relationship--games, free play, movement, drama, music, art or other activities, as the chief therapeutic media in which conflicts are resolved and intellectual and emotional energies freed. Reviews the literature, describes…

  14. [Gene therapy and ethics].

    PubMed

    Müller, H; Rehmann-Sutter, C

    1995-01-10

    Gene therapy represents a new strategy to treat human disorders. It was originally conceived as a cure for severe monogenetic disorders. Since its conception, the spectrum of possible application for gene therapy has been to include the treatment of acquired diseases, such as various forms of cancer and some viral infections, most notably human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus. Since somatic gene therapy does not cause substantially new ethical problems, it has gained broad approval. This is by no means the case with germ-line gene therapy. Practically all bodies who were evaluating the related ethical aspects wanted to ban its medical application on grounds of fundamental and pragmatic considerations. In this review, practical and ethical views concerning gene therapy are summarized which were presented at the "Junitagung 1994" of the Swiss Society for Biomedical Ethics in Basle.

  15. Immune Therapies for Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in 4 types of immune therapy – cytokine, vaccine, antibody, and cellular therapy – to treat neuroblastoma. We present preclinical research and clinical trials on several promising candidates such as IL-12, dendritic cell vaccines, anti-GD2 antibodies, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. An optimal treatment plan for neuroblastoma will most likely involve multimodal approaches and combinations of immune therapies. PMID:19342881

  16. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  17. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Upper GI What is Radiation Therapy? Find a Radiation Oncologist Last Name: Facility: City: State: Zip Code: ... infections. This is refered to as immunotherapy . Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy given during surgery is called ...

  18. The oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Corsonello, A; Pedone, C; Scarlata, S; Zito, A; Laino, I; Antonelli-Incalzi, R

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen (O(2)) is a vital element. Shortage of O(2) results in deranged metabolism and important changes in vascular tone with opposite effects on the systemic and pulmonary circulation. During hypoxemia, oxidative stress exposes the organism to a sort of accelerated senescence as well as to several acute untoward effects. Thus, hypoxemia should be promptly recognized and treated, hopefully by measures tailored to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying hypoxemia. However, O(2) therapy remains the most common therapy of hypoxemia, but it must be carefully tailored to relieve hypoxemia without provoking hyperoxia or hypercarbia. Then, the individual response to O(2) as well as changing needs of O(2) during sleep or exercise must be evaluated to provide the best O(2) therapy. Hyperoxia, the effect of overcorrection of hypoxia, can dramatically impact the health status and threaten the survival of the newborn and, through different mechanisms and effects, the adult. A thorough knowledge of the pathophysiological bases of hypoxemia and O(2) storage and delivery devices is then mandatory to administer O(2) therapy guaranteeing for optimal correction of hypoxemia and minimizing the risk of hyperoxia. Consistent with this aim also is a careful scrutiny of instruments and procedures for monitoring the individual response to O(2) over time. Thus, at variance from classical pharmacological therapy, performing O(2) therapy requires a vast array of clinical and technical competences. The optimal integration of these competences is needed to optimize O(2) therapy on individual bases.

  19. Massage therapy research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research.

  20. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2010-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication has been shown to have a prophylactic effect against gastric cancer. According to several international guidelines, the first-line therapy for treating H. pylori infection consists of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or ranitidine bismuth citrate, with any two antibiotics among amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole, given for 7-14 days. However, even with these recommended regimens, H. pylori eradication failure is still seen in more than 20% of patients. The failure rate for first-line therapy may be higher in actual clinical practice, owing to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The recommended second-line therapy is a quadruple regimen composed of tetracycline, metronidazole, a bismuth salt and a PPI. The combination of PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin is a good option as second-line therapy. In the case of failure of second-line therapy, the patients should be evaluated using a case-by-case approach. European guidelines recommend culture before the selection of a third-line treatment based on the microbial antibiotic sensitivity. H. pylori isolates after two eradication failures are often resistant to both metronidazole and clarithromycin. The alternative candidates for third-line therapy are quinolones, tetracycline, rifabutin and furazolidone; high-dose PPI/amoxicillin therapy might also be promising.