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Sample records for mung bean vigna

  1. Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) powder on chicken breast meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Ali, Jamshed

    2014-07-01

    Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) was investigated on meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics. Results showed that treatment of aqueous extract obtained from sprouted mung powder and mung powder have beneficial effect (P < 0.05) on tenderness of chicken breast meat. These extracts also showed (P < 0.05) antibacterial activity for meat bacteria; values of TPC and PPC (log cfu/gm) at 24 h of marination were also lower than initial values in SMP and MP groups thus SMP and MP may contain some antibacterial substances which have beneficial effect on meat bacterial count. There was better (P < 0.05) cooking and sensory scores observed for marinated meat samples than control groups.

  2. Biological effect of audible sound control on mung bean (Vigna radiate) sprout.

    PubMed

    Cai, W; He, H; Zhu, S; Wang, N

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20-20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000-1500 Hz, 1500-2000 Hz, and 2000-2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean.

  3. Biological Effect of Audible Sound Control on Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) Sprout

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W.; He, H.; Zhu, S.; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20–20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000–1500 Hz, 1500–2000 Hz, and 2000–2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean. PMID:25170517

  4. Purification and characterization of high salt-soluble vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Biswas, B B

    1990-01-01

    We report a method for the purification of vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata) mainly on the basis of solubility of mung bean vicilin even in high salt. Mung bean vicilin remains in solution even after 90% relative saturation of ammonium sulphate. The resulting supernatant after dialysis was subjected to gel filtration (Sephadex G-150) to remove other contaminant polypeptides, and finally the protein was purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography. This purified fraction exhibited 3 bands on SDS-PAGE compared with vicilin from other legumes which exhibite more than 3 bands generally. The results raise the possibility that the presence of the two small polypeptides in vicilin preparations is the breakdown product of the major larger one of mol.wt. 52 K and that vicilin may be a tetramer of four subunits of Mr 52000. That the high salt-soluble protein containing 52 K subunit is vicilin has been determined by several criteria.

  5. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  6. Metabolomic analysis of the polyphenols in germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata) seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dongyan; Dong, Yinmao; Guo, Na; Li, Li; Ren, Hankun

    2014-06-01

    The mung bean (Vigna radiata) is a key food crop in much of Asia and contains plentiful biological activities to prevent human disease. Mung bean sprouts have more plentiful metabolites and activities after germination. The metabolite profile of polyphenols in the germination process was described using the methods of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and partial least squares discriminant analysis. Sprouts from different periods were clearly discriminated from each other. Eight flavonoids - vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, isoquercitrin, genistein, daidzein and isorhamnetin - and two phenolic acids - shikimic acid and caffeic acid - were thought to be chemical markers of the sprouts. The method of high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was established to quantitatively analyze the eight chemical markers of flavonoids, and provides good linearity, repeatability, intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy and recovery. The main metabolic and transformation pathways of the polyphenols in the germination process were discussed. The proposed method is sensitive, rapid and robust. Understanding the complete profile of polyphenol metabolites in the germination process may be useful for better utilizing mung beans sprouts as the raw materials of functional food, health products and cosmetics. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effect of germination on phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinbo; Li, Tong; Tang, Kexuan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2012-11-07

    Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. It is recommended to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables to prevent chronic diseases related to free radical-induced oxidative stress. Different varieties of fruits and vegetables provide different vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids, minerals, and dietary fibers for optimal health benefits. Mung bean sprouts are one of the major vegetables in human diet. However, the profiles of phytochemicals and effect of germination on phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts have not been studied. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of germination on phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts. Germination of mung beans dramatically increased vitamin C content in mung bean sprouts in a time-dependent manner and reached the peak on day 8 of germination up to 285 mg/100 g DW, almost 24 times higher than the initial concentration in mung bean seeds (p < 0.05). On fresh weight basis, one serving of mung bean sprouts (about 104 g) provides 21.6 mg of vitamin C, which could meet 36% of Daily Value (DV). In addition, the germination dramatically increased total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in mung bean sprouts in a time-dependent manner, up to 4.5 and 6.8 times higher than the original concentration of mung bean seeds, respectively. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside content was significantly increased in mung bean sprouts after germination. The total antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts was increased by 6 times higher than that of mung bean seeds. Therefore, the germination of mung bean sprouts significantly increased phytochemical content, vitamin C content, and antioxidant activity.

  8. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  9. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Tang, Dongyan; Dong, Yinmao; Ren, Hankun; Li, Li; He, Congfen

    2014-01-17

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine.

  10. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kannan, A; Upreti, Raj K

    2008-05-01

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels.

  11. Isolation and Partial Characterization of a Subtilisin Inhibitor from the Mung Bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Kapur, R; Tan-Wilson, A L; Wilson, K A

    1989-09-01

    The subtilisin inhibitor (MBSI-A) from the mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) seed has been purified to homogeneity. MBSI-A consists of a single polypeptide chain of 119 residues, with a high content of glutamic acid/glutamine, aspartic acid/asparagine, valine, threonine, and proline (19, 12, 10, 9, and 8 residue percent, respectively). MBSI-A is a potent inhibitor of subtilisin Carlsberg, but is inactive toward bovine trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin and the plant cysteinyl proteinase papain. The MBSI is located exclusively in the cytosol of the seed cotyledon cell, unlike the mung bean trypsin inhibitor (MBTI), which is located primarily in the protein bodies. Both MBSI and MBTI accumulate in the seed during the most active period of reserve protein accumulation, 12 to 18 days after flowering. During germination MBSI, like MBTI, is broken down beginning 2 to 3 days after seed imbibition. The disappearance of MBSI-A is accompanied by the transient appearance of a new inhibitor species, MBSI-D. The amino acid composition of MBSI-D suggests that it may be produced by the loss of approximately 20 amino acid residues from MBSI-A.

  12. Alpha-amylase from mung beans (Vigna radiata)--correlation of biochemical properties and tertiary structure by homology modelling.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pallavi; Lo Leggio, Leila; Mansfeld, Johanna; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2007-06-01

    Alpha-amylase from germinated mung beans (Vigna radiata) has been purified 600-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final specific activity of 437 U/mg. SDS-PAGE of the final preparation revealed a single protein band of 46 kDa. The optimum pH was 5.6. The energy of activation was determined to be 7.03 kcal/mol in the temperature range 15-55 degrees C. Km for starch was 1.6 mg/mL in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.5. Thermal inactivation studies at 70 degrees C showed first-order kinetics with rate constant (k) equal to 0.005 min(-1). Mung bean alpha-amylase showed high specificity for its primary substrate starch. Addition of EDTA (10 mM) caused irreversible loss of activity. Mung bean alpha-amylase is inhibited in a non-competitive manner by heavy metal ions, for example, mercury with a Ki of 110 microM. Homology modelling studies with mung bean alpha-amylase using barley alpha-amylases Amy 1 and Amy 2 as templates showed a very similar structure as expected from the high sequence identity. The model showed that alpha-amylase from mung beans has no sugar-binding site, instead it has a methionine. Furthermore, instead of two tryptophans, it has Val(277) and Lys(278), which are the conserved residues, important for proper folding and conformational stability.

  13. Antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of black mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Yang, Xiushi; Tian, Jing; Liu, Changyou; Cheng, Xuzhen; Ren, Guixing

    2013-08-28

    Interest in mung bean as a functional food is growing. The objective of this study was to characterize the phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and antidiabetic activities of black mung beans. Five black mung beans were selected, and one green mung bean was included for comparison. The free phenolic acid and bound phenolic acid contents ranged from 16.68 to 255.51 μg/g and from 2284.53 to 5363.75 μg/g, respectively, whereas the total anthocyanin contents ranged from 0 to 810.55 μg/g with cyanidin-3-glucoside as the most dominant form, respectively. Among the mung beans tested, black mug bean Xiaoqu 7110 had the highest content of bound phenolic acids and exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) as compared to the other tested mung beans. Jiheilv 27-3 exhibited higher antidiabetic activities (inhibition of α-glucosidase and advanced glycation end products).

  14. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of spermine-induced cadmium stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Rahman, Motiar; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-11-01

    The role of exogenous spermine (0.25 mM Spm, a type of polyamine (PA) in reducing Cd uptake and alleviating Cd toxicity (containing 1 and 1.5 mM CdCl2 in the growing media) effects was studied in the mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2) plant. Exogenously applied Spm reduced Cd content, accumulation, and translocation in different plant parts. Increasing phytochelatin content, exogenous Spm reduced Cd accumulation and translocation. Spm application reduced the Cd-induced oxidative damage which was reflected from the reduction of H2O2 content, O2(•-) generation rate, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, and lipid peroxidation level and also reflected from the reduction of spots of H2O2 and O2(•-) from mung bean leaves (compared to control treatment). Spm pretreatment increased non-enzymatic antioxidant contents (ascorbate, AsA, and glutathione, GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) which reduced oxidative stress. The cytotoxicity of methylglyoxal (MG) is also reduced by exogenous Spm because it enhanced glyoxalase system enzymes and components. Through osmoregulation, Spm maintained a better water status of Cd-affected mung bean seedlings. Spm prevented the chl damage and increased its content. Exogenous Spm also modulated the endogenous free PAs level which might have the roles in improving physiological processes including antioxidant capacity, osmoregulation, and Cd and MG detoxification capacity. The overall Spm-induced tolerance of mung bean seedlings to Cd toxicity was reflected through improved growth of mung bean seedlings.

  15. Antioxidant and Myocardial Preservation Activities of Natural Phytochemicals from Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Chang, Jiawei; Xu, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Liu, Hongxin; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2016-06-08

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds (MBS) contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This study was aimed to isolate key bioactive components from MBS with antioxidant and myocardial preservation activities. A new flavonoid C-glycoside, isovitexin-6″-O-α-l-glucoside, and 14 known compounds were obtained. Their structures were identified by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and FT-ICR-MS spectroscopic analyses. The antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1-5 and 7-10 displayed 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, but only 5 and 7 exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity. The myocardial preservation effect of 2, 3, and MBS were investigated by measuring the serum levels of LDH, CK, and AST as well as the tissue level of MDA and SOD. The results demonstrated that 2, 3, and MBS had a significant protective effect against ISO-induced myocardial ischemia. MBS can be regarded as a potential new source of antioxidants and myocardial preservation agents.

  16. Characterization of the Proteinase that Initiates the Degradation of the Trypsin Inhibitor in Germinating Mung Beans (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Wilson, K A; Tan-Wilson, A L

    1987-05-01

    The proteinase (proteinase F) responsible for the initial proteolysis of the mung bean (Vigna radiata) trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) during germination has been purified 1400-fold from dry beans. The enzyme acts as an endopeptidase, cleaving the native inhibitor, MBTI-F, to produce the first modified inhibitor form, MBTI-E. The cleavage of the Asp76-Lys77 peptide bond of MBTI-F occurs at a pH optimum of 4.5, with the tetrapeptide Lys-Asp-Asp-Asp being released. Proteinase F exhibited no activity against the modified inhibitor forms MBTI-E and MBTI-C. Vicilin, the major storage protein of the mung bean, does not serve as a substrate for proteinase F between pH 4 and 7. Proteinase F is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, chymostatin, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and p-chlorophenylsulfonate, but not by iodoacetate and CuCl(2). It is not activated by dithiothreitol, and is stable for extended periods of time (10 months, 4 degrees C, pH 4.0) in the absence of reducing agents. An apparent molecular weight of 65,000 was found for proteinase F by gel filtration. Subcellular fractionation in glycerol suggests that greater than 85% of the proteinase F activity is found in the protein bodies of the ungerminated mung bean. The same studies indicate that at least 56% of the MBTI of the seed is also localized in the protein bodies.

  17. Purification and characterization of lipoxygenase from mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) germinating seedlings.

    PubMed

    Aanangi, Raveendra; Kotapati, Kasi Viswanath; Palaka, Bhagath Kumar; Kedam, Thyagaraju; Kanika, Nirmala Devi; Ampasala, Dinakara Rao

    2016-06-01

    This study reports purification and characterization of lipoxygenase protein from mung bean germinating seedlings. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are key enzymes in seed germination. The purified mung bean LOX has resolved into two peaks by chromatofocusing, one has highest LOX activity with an isoelectric point of 5.84 and the other has lowest LOX activity with an isoelectric point of 5.52. The purified LOX has molecular mass of approximately 97 kDa and showed high activity with linoleic acid than linolenic acid and arachidonic acid. The optimal activity of LOX was observed at pH 6.5 and temperature 35 °C. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) studies revealed that the purified mung bean LOX possess secondary structural elements with significant α-helix and β-strands. Further, the secondary structure of mung bean LOX was stable up to 60 °C at pH 6.5. Biophysical and chemical properties of the mung bean LOX are similar to the other legume LOXs and may be considered as type-1 LOX.

  18. Contents and digestibility of carbohydrates of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) as affected by domestic processing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Kataria, A; Chauhan, B M

    1988-01-01

    Effects of common processing and cooking methods on sugar and starch contents and starch digestibility (in vitro) of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) were investigated. Soaking reduced the level of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch and improved starch digestibility, significantly. Cooking (both ordinary and pressure cooking) increased the concentrations of the sugars and digestibility of starch of soaked as well a unsoaked seeds. Starch contents, however, were decreased. Germination decreased starch thereby raising the level of the soluble sugars. Starch digestibility was increased appreciably.

  19. Identification of aroma volatiles and understanding 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthetic mechanism in aromatic mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek).

    PubMed

    Attar, Usmangani; Hinge, Vidya; Zanan, Rahul; Adhav, Rahul; Nadaf, Altafhusain

    2017-04-01

    Mung bean having high food value and easily digestible proteins, is one of the socioeconomically important crop of India. Among the varied cultivars, Sona mung is having aroma and hence popularly cultivated in the pockets of Ganga river basin at Bhutnir char village of Malda District in the West Bengal state. In the present study, aroma volatiles with special reference to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) were analyzed using HS-SPME-GCMS from Sona mung bean and compared with non-scented mung bean (PHULE M-9339). 26 volatiles in seeds of Sona mung and 20 in non-scented mung bean were identified, in which 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal, (2E)-2-decen-1-ol, 2-ethyl-1-dodecanol and 3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one are first time reported. 0.19 ± 0.001 ppm 2AP was recorded in Sona mung seeds whereas it was not detected in non-scented mung bean. PCA analysis indicated that 2AP, octanal, 1 pentanol, decanal, phenylmethanol and 2-nonen-1-ol were the major contributors in the aroma of Sona mung bean. The significantly higher level proline, methylglyoxal and lower level of BADH2 transcript were detected in Sona mung than non-scented mung, suggesting similar 2AP biosynthesis mechanism in Sona mung bean as reported in scented rice, sorghum and soybean.

  20. Transcriptome sequencing of mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) genes and the identification of EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Liu, Chunji; Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek) is an important traditional food legume crop, with high economic and nutritional value. It is widely grown in China and other Asian countries. Despite its importance, genomic information is currently unavailable for this crop plant species or some of its close relatives in the Vigna genus. In this study, more than 103 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from mung bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The processed reads were assembled into 48,693 unigenes with an average length of 874 bp. Of these unigenes, 25,820 (53.0%) and 23,235 (47.7%) showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases, respectively. Furthermore, 19,242 (39.5%) could be classified into gene ontology categories, 18,316 (37.6%) into Swiss-Prot categories and 10,918 (22.4%) into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5). A total of 6,585 (8.3%) were mapped onto 244 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway database. Among the unigenes, 10,053 sequences contained a unique simple sequence repeat (SSR), and 2,303 sequences contained more than one SSR together in the same expressed sequence tag (EST). A total of 13,134 EST-SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers, with mono-nucleotide A/T repeats being the most abundant motif class and G/C repeats being rare. In this SSR analysis, we found five main repeat motifs: AG/CT (30.8%), GAA/TTC (12.6%), AAAT/ATTT (6.8%), AAAAT/ATTTT (6.2%) and AAAAAT/ATTTTT (1.9%). A total of 200 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by PCR amplification as EST-SSR markers. Of these, 66 marker primer pairs produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 31 mung bean accessions selected from diverse geographical locations. The large number of SSR-containing sequences found in this study will be valuable for the construction of a high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or

  1. Transcriptome Sequencing of Mung Bean (Vigna radiate L.) Genes and the Identification of EST-SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honglin; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Liu, Chunji; Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek) is an important traditional food legume crop, with high economic and nutritional value. It is widely grown in China and other Asian countries. Despite its importance, genomic information is currently unavailable for this crop plant species or some of its close relatives in the Vigna genus. In this study, more than 103 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from mung bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The processed reads were assembled into 48,693 unigenes with an average length of 874 bp. Of these unigenes, 25,820 (53.0%) and 23,235 (47.7%) showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases, respectively. Furthermore, 19,242 (39.5%) could be classified into gene ontology categories, 18,316 (37.6%) into Swiss-Prot categories and 10,918 (22.4%) into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5). A total of 6,585 (8.3%) were mapped onto 244 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway database. Among the unigenes, 10,053 sequences contained a unique simple sequence repeat (SSR), and 2,303 sequences contained more than one SSR together in the same expressed sequence tag (EST). A total of 13,134 EST-SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers, with mono-nucleotide A/T repeats being the most abundant motif class and G/C repeats being rare. In this SSR analysis, we found five main repeat motifs: AG/CT (30.8%), GAA/TTC (12.6%), AAAT/ATTT (6.8%), AAAAT/ATTTT (6.2%) and AAAAAT/ATTTTT (1.9%). A total of 200 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by PCR amplification as EST-SSR markers. Of these, 66 marker primer pairs produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 31 mung bean accessions selected from diverse geographical locations. The large number of SSR-containing sequences found in this study will be valuable for the construction of a high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or

  2. Expanding the repertoire of microsatellite markers for polymorphism studies in Indian accessions of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek).

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Divya; Verma, Priyanka; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2014-09-01

    Limited availability of validated, polymorphic microsatellite markers in mung bean (Vigna radiata), an important food legume of India, has been a major hurdle towards its improvement and higher yield. The present study was undertaken in order to develop a new set of microsatellite markers and utilize them for the analysis of genetic diversity within mung bean accessions from India. A GA/CT enriched library was constructed from V. radiata which resulted in 1,250 putative recombinant clones of which 850 were sequenced. SSR motifs were identified and their flanking sequences were utilized to design 328 SSR primer pairs. Of these, 48 SSR markers were employed for assessing genetic diversity among 76 mung bean accessions from various geographical locations in India. Two hundred and thirty four alleles with an average of 4.85 alleles per locus were detected at 48 loci. The polymorphic information content (PIC) per locus varied from 0.1 to 0.88 (average: 0.49 per locus). The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.40 to 0.95 and 0.40 to 0.81 respectively. Based on Jaccard's similarity matrix, a dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis which revealed that one accession from Bundi, Rajasthan was clustered out separately while remaining accessions were grouped into two major clusters. The markers generated in this study will help in expanding the repertoire of the available SSR markers thereby facilitating analysis of genetic diversity, molecular mapping and ultimately broadening the scope for genetic improvement of this legume.

  3. TiO2 nanoparticle biosynthesis and its physiological effect on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Raliya, Ramesh; Biswas, Pratim; Tarafdar, J C

    2015-03-01

    TiO2 nanoparticle (NPs) biosynthesis is a low cost, ecofriendly approach developed using the fungi Aspergillus flavus TFR 7. To determine whether TiO2 NPs is suitable for nutrient, we conducted a two part study; biosynthesis of TiO2 NP and evaluates their influence on mung bean. The characterized TiO2 NPs were foliar sprayed at 10 mgL(-1) concentration on the leaves of 14 days old mung bean plants. A significant improvement was observed in shoot length (17.02%), root length (49.6%), root area (43%), root nodule (67.5%), chlorophyll content (46.4%) and total soluble leaf protein (94%) as a result of TiO2 NPs application. In the rhizosphere microbial population increased by 21.4-48.1% and activity of acid phosphatase (67.3%), alkaline phosphatase (72%), phytase (64%) and dehydrogenase (108.7%) enzyme was observed over control in six weeks old plants owing to application of TiO2 NPs. A possible mechanism has also been hypothesized for TiO2 NPs biosynthesis.

  4. The Appearance of New Active Forms of Trypsin Inhibitor in Germinating Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Lorensen, E; Prevosto, R; Wilson, K A

    1981-07-01

    Ungerminated seeds of mung bean contain a single major species (F) of trypsin inhibitor with five minor species (A-E) separable on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose. During germination the level of trypsin inhibitory activity decreases from 1.8 units/grams dry weight in ungerminated cotyledons to 1.2 units/grams in cotyledons from seeds germinated 5 days. This decrease is accompanied by major changes in the distribution of inhibitory activity among the inhibitor species. By 48 hours of germination, inhibitor F has largely disappeared with an accompanying rapid increase in inhibitor C. Similarly, though less rapidly, inhibitor E decreases while inhibitor A increases. A similar sequence of changes is found in vitro when purified inhibitor F is incubated with extracts from seeds germinated 96 hours. The combined in vivo and in vitro data suggest a conversion sequence of: F --> E --> C --> A. The in vitro conversion is inhibited by phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride but not by iodoacetamide, indicating that at least the initial phases of inhibitor conversion are not catalyzed by the mung bean vicilin peptidohydrolase.

  5. Waterlogging-induced increase in sugar mobilization, fermentation, and related gene expression in the roots of mung bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Sairam, Raj K; Dharmar, Kumutha; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Meena, Ramesh C

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the role of root carbohydrate levels and metabolism in the waterlogging tolerance of contrasting mung bean genotypes. An experiment was conducted with two cultivated mung bean (Vigna radiata) genotypes viz., T44 (tolerant) and Pusa Baisakhi (PB) (susceptible), and a wild Vigna species Vigna luteola under pot-culture to study the physiological and molecular mechanism of waterlogging tolerance. Waterlogging resulted in decrease in relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) in root and leaf tissues, and chlorophyll (Chl) content in leaves, while the Chl a/b ratio increased. Waterlogging-induced decline in RWC, MSI, Chl and increase in Chl a/b ratio was greater in PB than V. luteola and T44. Waterlogging caused decline in total and non-reducing sugars in all the genotypes and reducing sugars in PB, while the content of reducing sugar increased in V. luteola and T44. The pattern of variation in reducing sugar content in the 3 genotypes was parallel to sucrose synthase (SS) activity. V. luteola and T44 also showed fewer declines in total and non-reducing sugars and greater increase in reducing sugar and SS activity than PB. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) increased up to 8d of waterlogging in V. luteola and T44, while in PB a marginal increase was observed only up to 4d of treatment. Gene expression studies done by RT-PCR in 24h waterlogged plants showed enhanced expression of ADH and SS in the roots of V. luteola and T44, while in PB there was no change in expression level in control or treated plants. PCR band products were cloned and sequenced, and partial cDNAs of 531, 626, and 667; 702, 736, and 744bp of SS and ADH, respectively were obtained. The partial cDNA sequences of cloned SS genes showed 93-100 homologies among different genotypes and with D10266, while in case of ADH the similarity was in the range of 97-100% amongst each other and with Z23170. The results suggest that the availability of

  6. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    PubMed

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  7. Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.)) coat extract modulates macrophage functions to enhance antigen presentation: A proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Akiko; Hitachi, Keisuke; Zhu, Wei; Tian, Jingkui; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-05-24

    The immunomodulatory effect of mung bean is mainly attributed to antioxidant properties of flavonoids; however, the precise machinery for biological effect on animal cells remains uncertain. To understand the physiological change produced by mung bean consumption, proteomic and metabolomic techniques were used. In vitro assay confirmed the importance of synergistic interaction among multiple flavonoids by IL-6 expression. Proteomic analysis detected that the abundance of 190 proteins was changed in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by treatment with coat extract. Pathway mapping revealed that a range of proteins were regulated including an interferon-responsive antiviral enzyme (2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase), antigen processing factors (immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein and protein disulfide-isomerase), and proteins related to proteasomal degradation. Major histocompatibility complex pathway was activated. These results suggest that mung bean consumption enhances immune response toward a Th2-promoting polarization. This study highlighted the immunomodulation of RAW264.7 cells in response to treatment with mung bean seed coat extract, using gel-free proteomic technique. The mechanism of immunomodulation by mung bean has not been described until today except for a report which identified HMGB1 suppression as a pathway underlying the protective effect against sepsis. This study suggested that the mung bean is involved in the regulation of antigen processing and presentation, and thus shifts immune response from acute febrile illness to specific/systemic and long-lasting immunity to protect the host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of microbial communities in mung bean (Vigna radiata) rhizosphere upon exposure to phytotoxic levels of Copper.

    PubMed

    Sharaff, Murali; Archana, G

    2015-11-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils by Cu is of concern as it could bring about alterations in microbial communities, ultimately eliminating certain plant beneficial bacteria thus disturbing soil fertility and plant growth. To understand the response of rhizobacterial communities upon Cu perturbation, mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants were grown in agricultural soil amended with CuSO4 (0-1000 mg kg(-1) ) under laboratory conditions. Culture-independent and -dependent Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (CI-DGGE and CD-DGGE) fingerprinting techniques were employed to monitor rhizobacterial community shifts upon Cu amendment. In group specific PCR-DGGE, a negative impact was seen on α-Proteobacteria followed by β-Proteobacteria resulting in a concomitant decrease in diversity indices with increased Cu concentration. No significant changes were observed in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes populations. In CD-DGGE rhizobacterial community shift was observed above 500 mg kg(-1) (CuSO4 ), however certain bands were predominantly present in all treatments. Plants showed toxic effects by reduction in growth and elevated Cu accumulation, with root system being affected prominently. From this study it is evident that above 250 mg kg(-1) , rhizobacterial communities are adversely affected. α-Proteobacteria was found to be a sensitive bio-indicator for Cu toxicity and is of particular significance since this group includes majority of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

  9. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-induced leaf senescence in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) and senescence inhibition by co-treatment with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Karuppanapandian, Thirupathi; Wang, Hong Wei; Prabakaran, Natarajan; Jeyalakshmi, Kandhavelu; Kwon, Mi; Manoharan, Kumariah; Kim, Wook

    2011-02-01

    Leaf senescence induced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and senescence inhibition caused by supplementation with silver (Ag(+)) ions in the form of silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated in 8-day-old mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings. Inhibition of root and shoot elongation were observed in mung bean seedlings treated with 500μM 2,4-D. Concomitantly, the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase was significantly induced in leaf tissue. Leaf senescence induced by 2,4-D was closely associated with lipid peroxidation as well as increased levels of cytotoxic hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide radicals (O(2)(·-)). Despite decreased catalase activity, the activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase were increased during 2,4-D-induced leaf senescence. Further, the levels of reduced ascorbate, oxidized ascorbate, and reduced glutathione were markedly decreased, whereas the level of oxidized glutathione increased. 2,4-D-induced leaf senescence in mung bean was accompanied by an increase in positive terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and the activity of a 15-kDa Ca(2+)-dependent DNase. Supplementation with 100μM AgNO(3) or AgNPs inhibited 2,4-D-induced leaf senescence. The present results suggest that increased oxidative stress (O(2)(·-) and H(2)O(2)) led to senescence in mung bean leaves. Furthermore, significantly induced antioxidative enzymes are not sufficient to protect mung bean cells from 2,4-D-induced harmful ROS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata)

    PubMed Central

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa; Brito, Miriam; Garrido, Mario José

    2017-01-01

    The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO3 (N)—prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens—were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO3. PMID:28914770

  11. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata).

    PubMed

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa; Brito, Miriam; Baral, Bikash; Garrido, Mario José

    2017-09-15

    The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO₃ (N)-prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens-were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO₃.

  12. Investigation of process and product parameters for physicochemical properties of rice and mung bean (Vigna radiata) flour based extruded snacks.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chetan; Singh, Baljit; Hussain, Syed Zameer; Sharma, Savita

    2017-05-01

    PR 106 and SML 668 cultivars of rice and mung bean respectively, were studied for their potential to serve as a nutritious snack with improved protein quality and quantity. The effect of extrusion conditions, including feed moisture content (14-18%), screw speed (400-550 rpm) and barrel temperature (130-170°C) on the physicochemical properties (bulk density, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and hardness) was investigated. The replacement of rice flour at 30% level with mung bean flour for making extruded snacks was evaluated. Pasting temperature increased (84-93 °C) while peak viscosity (2768-408 cP), hold viscosity (2018-369 cP), breakdown (750-39 cP), setback (2697-622 cP) and final viscosity (4715-991 cP) decreased with increasing mung bean flour addition. Increasing feed moisture lowered the specific mechanical energy (SME), WAI and WSI of extrudates whereas increased bulk density and hardness. Higher screw speed had linear positive effect on SME of extruder and negative linear effect on WAI. Positive curvilinear quadratic effect of screw speed was also observed on WSI and density. Higher barrel temperature linearly decreased the SME, density and hardness of extrudates. Developed extrusion cooked rice-mung bean snacks with increased protein content and improved protein quality along with higher dietary fibre and minerals have good potential in effectively delivering the nutrition to the population.

  13. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, [Formula: see text] generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth.

  14. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2•- generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  15. Germinating seeds of the mung bean, Vigna radiata (Fabaceae), as a model for the preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic effects of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay L; Singhal, Abhishek

    2009-04-01

    Cytotoxic properties of plant extracts and drugs being developed for cancer treatment are usually evaluated by a variety of in vivo and in vitro tests carried out in animal or plant based models. In the present study we have evaluated the possibility of using the germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata), for rapid and inexpensive screening of drugs exhibiting cytotoxic properties. Mung beans were allowed to germinate either in tap water or in different drug solutions, and parameters like percent germination, increase in radicle length, change in seedling weight and mitotic index of apical root meristems were determined at two time intervals coinciding with the time at which the radicle length in control group was 1.0 to 1.5 cm (time 0, T0) and 48 h later (T48). Methanol extract of Calotropis procera latex as well as drugs like podophyllotoxin, cyclophosphamide, cyproheptadine and aspirin produced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on seed germination, seed weight gain, radicle growth and mitotic index in the radicle meristems. The inhibitory effect of some of the drugs tested was associated with reduction in water imbibition. Some of the drugs at higher concentrations allowed seed germination to take place but produced radicle decay and seedling weight loss. Our study shows that germinating V radiata beans could be used as a convenient model for the preliminary screening of drugs exhibiting cytotoxic properties.

  16. Cell phone radiations affect early growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of wireless technologies, particularly of cell phones, has increased the health risks among living organisms including plants. We investigated the impact of cell phone electromagentic field (EMF) radiations (power density, 8.55 microW cm(-2)) on germination, early growth, proteins and carbohydrate contents, and activities of some enzymes in Vigna radiata. Cell phone EMF radiations significantly reduced the seedling length and dry weight of V radiata after exposure for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h. Furthermore, the contents of proteins and carbohydrates were reduced in EMF-exposed plants. However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF-exposed radicles indicating their role in providing protection against EMF-induced stress. The study concludes that cell phone EMFs impair early growth of V radiata seedlings by inducing biochemical changes.

  17. Biogenic green synthesis of monodispersed gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) iron nanocomposite material and its application in germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) as a plant model.

    PubMed

    Raju, Dugyala; Mehta, Urmil J; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao

    2016-06-01

    An eco-friendly green and one-pot synthesis of highly monodispersed iron (Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) by using a natural biopolymer, gum kondagogu (GK) as reducing and capping agent is proposed. The NPs synthesised were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. As the concentration of gum and time increases, the intensity of NPs formation increased. The NPs were highly monodispersed with uniform circular shapes of 2-6 nm in size. The formed NPs were crystalline in nature which was confirmed by diffraction analysis. The conversion ratio of Fe ionic form to NPs was 21% which was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Fe is essential for plant growth and development. A study was conducted to examine the effect of these NPs on the growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). The radical length and biomass was increased in seeds exposed to Fe NPs than the ions. The uptake of Fe NPs by the sprouts was also quantified by ICP-MS, in which Fe was more in mung bean seeds exposed to NPs. The α-amylase activity was increased in the seeds exposed to NPs. The observed increase in the biomass by Fe NPs and seed germination may facilitate its application in the agriculture as an important cost-effective method for plant growth.

  18. Identification of the cellular location of internalized Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mung bean, Vigna radiata, by immunocytochemical techniques.

    PubMed

    Deering, Amanda J; Pruitt, Robert E; Mauer, Lisa J; Reuhs, Bradley L

    2011-08-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been associated with numerous outbreaks involving fresh produce. Previous studies have shown that bacteria can be internalized within plant tissue and that this can be a source of protection from antimicrobial chemicals and environmental conditions. However, the types of tissue and cellular locations the bacteria occupy in the plant following internalization have not been addressed. In this study, immunocytochemical techniques were used to localize internalized E. coli O157:H7 expressing green fluorescent protein in germinated mung bean (Vigna radiata) hypocotyl tissue following contamination of intact seeds. An average of 13 bacteria per mm(3) were localized within the sampled tissue. The bacteria were found to be associated with every major tissue and corresponding cell type (cortex, phloem, xylem, epidermis, and pith). The cortical cells located on the outside of the vascular bundles contained the majority of the internalized bacteria (61%). In addition, the bacteria were localized primarily to the spaces between the cells (apoplast) and not within the cells. Growth experiments were also performed and demonstrated that mung bean plants could support the replication of bacteria to high levels (10(7) CFU per plant) following seed contamination and that these levels could be sustained over a 12-day period. Therefore, E. coli O157:H7 can be internalized in many different plant tissue types after a brief seed contamination event, and the bacteria are able to grow and persist within the plant.

  19. Biochemical perspectives of xylitol extracted from indigenous agricultural by-product mung bean (Vigna radiata) hulls in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Zarina; Imran, Muhammad; Salim-ur-Rehman; Zahoor, Tahir; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Arshad, Muhammad Umair

    2014-03-30

    The production of xylitol from lignocellulosic material is of great interest around the world. It can be used as bulk sweetener and its possible lower energy value has increased acceptance for discerning consumers. Xylitol was produced from indigenous agricultural by-product (mung bean hulls) through Candida tropicalis fermentation. Further, xylitol incorporation at different concentrations (0, 100 and 200 g kg⁻¹) was carried out with the purpose of appraising the suitability and claimed health benefits of this dietetic ingredient in food products. Asserted biochemical perspectives of the xylitol intake were evaluated through biological studies for normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The addition of xylitol significantly affected feed intake, weight gain, liver and cecum weight in both normal and diabetic rats. The biochemical profile of serum was improved with xylitol incorporation in the diet. Serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were decreased depending on xylitol intake level. The results of the present study demonstrated that mung bean hulls have high potential as a new feedstock for xylitol production. In addressing the current concerns of obesity and diabetes, xylitol extracted from such agricultural waste should be considered in diet-based therapies for weight loss programmes.

  20. Mung bean: technological and nutritional potential.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, P K; Linnemann, A R; Van Boekel, M A J S; Khetarpaul, N; Grewal, R B; Nout, M J R

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop's potential as food and to set research priorities. Results show that mung bean is a rich source of protein (14.6-33.0 g/100 g) and iron (5.9-7.6 mg/100 g). Grain color is correlated with compounds like polyphenols and carotenoids, while grain hardness is associated with fiber content. Physical properties like grain dimensions, sphericity, porosity, bulk, and true density are related to moisture content. Anti-nutrients are phytic acid, tannins, hemagglutinins, and polyphenols. Reported nutrient contents vary greatly, the causes of which are not well understood. Grain size and color have been associated with different regions and were used by plant breeders for selection purposes. Analytical methods require more accuracy and precision to distinguish biological variation from analytical variation. Research on nutrient digestibility, food processing properties, and bioavailability is needed. Furthermore, the effects of storage and processing on nutrients and food processing properties are required to enable optimization of processing steps, for better mung bean food quality and process efficiency.

  1. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating low temperature (LT) stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3) seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, increased H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC) and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA), increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury. PMID:26694373

  2. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-12-17

    The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating low temperature (LT) stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3) seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, increased H₂O₂ content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC) and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA), increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury.

  3. Induced drought tolerance through wild and mutant bacterial strain Pseudomonas simiae in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sarita; Vaishnav, Anukool; Jain, Shekhar; Varma, Ajit; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on the overproducing mutant of a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae strain AU (MTCC-12057) for significant drought tolerance in mung bean plants. Five mutants namely AU-M1, AU-M2, AU-M3, AU-M4 and AU-M5 were made after treatment of wild type strain with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Mutant strain AU-M4 was recorded for enhanced ACC deaminase (ACC-D) activity, indole acetic acid (IAA) production and inorganic phosphate (Pi) solubilization compared to wild strain and other four mutant strains under drought condition. AU-M4 showed higher phosphate solubilization index (8.17) together with higher ACC-D activity (98 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (69.35 µg/ml) compared with the wild type P. simiae strain AU ACC-D activity (79 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (38.98 µg/ml) respectively. In this report, we investigated the effect of both wild and mutant type bacterial strain on mung bean plants under drought stress. Results showed that mutant AU-M4 and wild type strain AU inoculated plants exhibited superior tolerance against drought stress, as shown by their enhanced plant biomass (fresh weight), higher water content, higher proline accumulation and lower osmotic stress injury. Mutant AU-M4 and wild strain AU inoculated plants reduced the ethylene level by 59 and 45% respectively, compared to the control under stress condition. Furthermore, bacterial inoculated plants showed enhanced induced systemic drought tolerance by reducing stomata size and net photosynthesis resulting higher water content in mung bean plants that may help in survival of plants during drought condition. To mitigate the effects of drought stress, use of PGPR will be needed to ensure sufficient production of food from crop plants. Taking current leads available, concerted future research is needed in this area, particularly on field evaluation with application of potential microorganisms.

  4. Purification and characterization of an allosteric fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Lal, Ashish; Plaxton, William C; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2005-05-01

    Cytosolic fructose-1,6-P(2) (FBP) aldolase (ALD(c)) from germinated mung beans has been purified 1078-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final specific activity of 15.1 micromol FBP cleaved/min per mg of protein. SDS-PAGE of the final preparation revealed a single protein-staining band of 40 kDa that cross-reacted strongly with rabbit anti-(carrot ALD(c))-IgG. The enzyme's native M(r) was determined by gel filtration chromatography to be 160 kDa, indicating a homotetrameric quaternary structure. This ALD is a class I ALD, since EDTA or Mg(2+) had no effect on its activity, and was relatively heat-stable losing 0-25% of its activity when incubated for 5 min at 55-65 degrees C. It demonstrated: (i) a temperature coefficient (Q(10)) of 1.7; (ii) an activation energy of 9.2 kcal/mol active site; and (iii) a broad pH-activity optima of 7.5. Mung bean ALD(c) is bifunctional for FBP and sedoheptulose-1,7-P(2) (K(m) approximately 17 microM for both substrates). ATP, ADP, AMP and ribose-5-P exerted inhibitory effects on the activity of the purified enzyme. Ribose-5-P, ADP and AMP functioned as competitive inhibitors (K(i) values=2.2, 3.1 and 7.5mM, respectively). By contrast, the addition of 2mM ATP: (i) reduced V(max) by about 2-fold, (ii) increased K(m)(FBP) by about 4-fold, and (iii) shifted the FBP saturation kinetic plot from hyperbolic to sigmoidal (h=1.0 and 2.6 in the absence and presence of 2mM ATP, respectively). Potent feedback inhibition of ALD(c) by ATP is suggested to help balance cellular ATP demands with the control of cytosolic glycolysis and respiration in germinating mung beans.

  5. Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of mung bean (Vigna radiata) germplasm using EST-based and genomic SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Qiao, Ling; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2015-07-25

    Mung bean is an important legume crop in tropical and subtropical countries of Asia and has high nutritional and economic value. However the genetic diversity of mung bean is poorly characterized. In this study, our goal was to develop and use microsatellite simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for germplasm evaluation. In total, 500 novel expression sequence tag EST-based SSRs (eSSRs) and genomic SSRs (gSSRs) were developed from mung bean transcriptome and genome sequences. Of these, only 58 were useful for diversity evaluation in a panel of 157 cultivated and wild mung bean accessions from different collection sites in East Asia. A total of 2.66 alleles were detected on average per locus which shows that polymorphism is generally low for the species. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) of gSSRs was higher than eSSRs and most of the polymorphic gSSRs were composed of di- and tri-nucleotide repeats (52.4% and 38.1% of all loci, respectively). The genotypes were differentiated into nine subgroups by cluster analysis, and the wild mung bean accessions separated well from the cultivated accessions. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that 22% of variance was observed among populations and 78% was due to differences within populations. Clustering, population structure analyses showed that non-Chinese cultivated and wild mung bean accessions were separated from Chinese accessions, but no geographical distinctions existed between genotypes collected in China. Interestingly, the average PIC value of cultivated mung bean (0.36) was higher than that of wild mung bean (0.25) showing that further collecting and wide crosses are necessary for mung bean improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biochemical and physiological characteristics of tropical mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars against chronic ozone stress: an insight to cultivar-specific response.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Agrawal, S B

    2015-05-01

    Surface-level ozone (O3) has been regarded as one of the most significant phytotoxic pollutants worldwide. Investigations addressing adverse impacts of elevated O3 on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), an important leguminous crop of the Indian subcontinent, are still limited. The present study analyzed the differences on the foliar injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidative defense system, physiology, and foliar protein profile of two tropical mung bean cultivars (HUM-2 and HUM-6) exposed to elevated O3 under near-natural conditions. Both cultivars were negatively affected by the pollutant, but the response was cultivar-specific. Results revealed that elevated O3 induced higher levels of ROS (O2 (·-) and H2O2) and lipid peroxidation leading to greater foliar injury in HUM-2 compared to HUM-6. Photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photochemical efficiency reduced under elevated O3 exposure and the extent of reduction was higher in HUM-2. Principal component analysis revealed that photosynthetic performance and quantum yield were drastically affected in HUM-2 as compared to HUM-6. Activities of antioxidative enzymes were also stimulated, suggesting generation of oxidative stress under elevated O3. HUM-6 showed higher induction of antioxidative enzymes than HUM-2. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed drastic reductions in the abundantly present ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) large and small subunits and the decrease was higher in HUM-2. Altogether, results suggested that higher accumulation of ROS and limited induction of antioxidant defense system led to more leaf injury and impairment of photosynthesis in HUM-2 than HUM-6 depicting its higher sensitivity towards elevated O3.

  7. Phytochemical distribution in hull and cotyledon of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiate L.), and their contribution to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiaqiang; Cai, Weixi; Wu, Tong; Xu, Baojun

    2016-06-15

    Total saponin content, total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, condensed tannin content in hull, cotyledon and whole grain of both adzuki bean and mung bean were determined by colorimetric methods. Vitexin and isovitexin contents in mung bean were determined by HPLC. Antioxidant effects were evaluated with DPPH scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of beans were evaluated by protease and aldose reductase inhibitory assays, respectively. The results indicated that the bean hulls were the most abundant in phytochemicals and largely contributed antioxidant activities, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-diabetic effects of whole grains. The result showed that mung bean hull was the most abundant with vitexin at 37.43 mg/g and isovitexin at 47.18 mg/g, respectively. Most of the phytochemicals and bioactivities were most predominantly contributed by the bean hulls with exception for condensed tannin of mung bean; which was more abundant in the cotyledon than its hull. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetic changes of nutrients and antioxidant capacities of germinated soybean (Glycine max L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) with germination time.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiya; Cai, Weixi; Xu, Baojun

    2014-01-15

    The objectives of this research were to systematically assess the functional values of germinated soybean and mung bean, and to determine the optimal germination time for yielding functional substances. Changes in phenolics, ascorbic acid, isoflavone, as well as antioxidant capacities of soybean and mung bean during germination were investigated. Results showed that germination had positive enhancement effects on bioactive compounds in beans. Both compositions and contents of isoflavones in soybean were influenced by germination, three-day germination was optimal time for production of germinated soybean with the highest total isoflavone content (4.68mg/g dry product), the contents of genistein, daidzein, total aglycone in germinated soybean were increased 3, 2.4, and 2.5 folds, respectively, as compared to non-germinated soybean. Current results indicate that germinated beans are better raw materials than non-germinated beans for gaining health beneficial substances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water dip and ethanol vapours treatment on keeping and sensory quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research work was to evaluate the effects of UV- irradiation, pulsed electric field (PEF), hot water dip (HWD) and ethanol vapours on the quality and storage life of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The sprouts were subjected to various treatments viz., UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h), PEF (10,000 V for 10s), HWD (50 °C for 2 min) and ethanol vapours (1 h); and then stored in thermocol cups wrapped with perforated cling films at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval for sprout length, sprout weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, non-enzymatic browning, total plate count and overall acceptability. Sprout length and weight increased during storage. There was no significant effect of various treatments on sprout length and weight, except in ethanol treatment, where suppression was observed. HWD showed higher TSS and acidity than that of control. The least browning was observed in ethanol treatment. The total plate count was not significantly affected by various treatments. Overall acceptability under various treatments decreased during storage period both at room and low temperature. Hot water and ethanol vapour treated sprouts showed higher acceptability than other treatments. However, the acceptability scores for sprouts remained within the acceptable range (≥6) up to 72 h at room temperature and 120 h at low temperature conditions.

  10. Discovering and Verifying DNA Polymorphism in a Mung Bean [V. radiata (L). R. Wilczek] Collection by Ecotilling and Sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ecotilling was used to identify various SNPs and small insertion/deletions (INDELS) in a collection of mung bean Vigna radiata, which was previously shown limited diversity. Ten primer sets were used to examine intervarietal and intravarietal DNA polymorphisms among various mung bean accessions and...

  11. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir A.; Nazli, Farheen; Akram, Fareeha; Arshad, Muhammad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m−1 under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean. PMID:24688532

  12. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir A; Nazli, Farheen; Akram, Fareeha; Arshad, Muhammad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m(-1) under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean.

  13. Solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy shows that the xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) occur in different domains: a new model for xyloglucan-cellulose interactions in the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Bootten, Tracey J; Harris, Philip J; Melton, Laurence D; Newman, Roger H

    2004-03-01

    Xyloglucans (XG) with different mobilities were identified in the primary cell walls of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. To improve the signal:noise ratios compared with unlabelled controls, Glc labelled at either C-1 or C-4 with 13C-isotope was incorporated into the cell-wall polysaccharides of mung bean hypocotyls. Using cell walls from seedlings labelled with d-[1-13C]glucose and, by exploiting the differences in rotating-frame and spin-spin proton relaxation, a small signal was detected which was assigned to Xyl of XGs with rigid glucan backbones. After labelling seedlings with d-[4-13C]glucose and using a novel combination of spin-echo spectroscopy with proton spin relaxation-editing, signals were detected that had 13C-spin relaxations and chemical shifts which were assigned to partly-rigid XGs surrounded by mobile non-cellulosic polysaccharides. Although quantification of these two mobility types of XG was difficult, the results indicated that the partly-rigid XGs were predominant in the cell walls. The results lend support to the postulated new cell-wall models in which only a small proportion of the total surface area of the cellulose microfibrils has XG adsorbed on to it. In these new models, the partly-rigid XGs form cross-links between adjacent cellulose microfibrils and/or between cellulose microfibrils and other non-cellulosic polysaccharides, such as pectic polysaccharides.

  14. Trypsin Inhibitor in Mung Bean Cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Baumgartner, Bruno

    1978-01-01

    Trypsin inhibitor was purified to homogeneity from seeds of the mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek). The protease inhibitor has the following properties: inhibitory activity toward trypsin, but not toward chymotrypsin; isoelectric point at pH 5.05; molecular weight of 11,000 to 12,000 (sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis) or 14,000 (gel filtration); immunological cross-reactivity against extracts of black gram and black-eyed pea, but not against soybean; no inhibitory activity against vicilin peptidohydrolase, the principal endopeptidase in the cotyledons of mung bean seedlings. The trypsin inhibitor content of the cotyledons declines in the course of seedling growth and the presence of an inactivating factor can be demonstrated by incubating crude extracts in the presence of β-mercaptoethanol. This inactivating factor may be a protease as vicilin peptidohydrolase rapidly inactivates the trypsin inhibitor. Removal of trypsin inhibitory activity from crude extracts by means of a trypsin affinity column does not result in an enhancement of protease activity in the extracts. The intracellular localization of trypsin inhibitor was determined by fractionation of crude extracts on isopycnic sucrose gradients and by cytochemistry with fluorescent antibodies. Both methods indicate that trypsin inhibitor is associated with the cytoplasm and not with the protein bodies where reserve protein hydrolysis occurs. No convincing evidence was obtained which indicates that the catabolism of trypsin inhibitor during germination and seedling growth is causally related to the onset of reserve protein breakdown. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9 PMID:16660348

  15. Effects of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Ethanol Extracts Decrease Proinflammatory Cytokine-Induced Lipogenesis in the KK-Ay Diabese Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Inhae; Choi, Seojin; Ha, Tae Joung; Choi, Munji; Wi, Hae-Ri; Lee, Byong Won; Lee, Myoungsook

    2015-08-01

    Rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity-related metabolic inflammatory diseases has led to research focused on nutraceuticals for their treatment. This study investigated the effects of the ethanol extracts of mung bean testa (MBT) on the metabolic inflammation-induced lipogenesis in gastrocnemius muscle of KK-Ay diabese mice. Ethanol extracts of MBT were orally administered to diabese KK-Ay mice for 4 weeks after diet-induced obesity model was generated by feeding a 60% high-fat diet for 3 weeks. Although there were no changes in body weight gain, MBT treatments decreased total weight of white adipose tissue. MBT also decreased triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels in the muscle by 30%, which was correlated with suppression of lipogenic genes such as ACC, C/EBP alpha, PGC-1 alpha, and PPAR gamma. In particular, decreased levels of p-ERK1/2, PPAR gamma, and C/EBP alpha in the MBT-treated groups suggest that MBT might inhibit adipogenesis and decrease differentiation via the MEK/ERK pathway. Furthermore, significantly lower amounts of plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and intramuscular tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were detected in MBT groups, confirming the anti-inflammatory effect of mung bean. In addition, our in vitro pilot study with 3T3-L1 cells showed that vitexin, the functional chemical in MBT, inhibited inflammation-induced lipogenesis with significantly lower amounts of IL-6 and MCP-1 after 14 days of vitexin treatment. Thus, the functional compounds in the mung bean ethanol extracts such as vitexin and isovitexin may regulate intracellular lipogenesis and adipogenesis via anti-inflammatory mechanisms and MEK/ERK pathway in the KK-Ay mouse model.

  16. Effects of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Ethanol Extracts Decrease Proinflammatory Cytokine-Induced Lipogenesis in the KK-Ay Diabese Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Inhae; Choi, Seojin; Ha, Tae Joung; Choi, Munji; Wi, Hae-Ri; Lee, Byong Won

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity-related metabolic inflammatory diseases has led to research focused on nutraceuticals for their treatment. This study investigated the effects of the ethanol extracts of mung bean testa (MBT) on the metabolic inflammation-induced lipogenesis in gastrocnemius muscle of KK-Ay diabese mice. Ethanol extracts of MBT were orally administered to diabese KK-Ay mice for 4 weeks after diet-induced obesity model was generated by feeding a 60% high-fat diet for 3 weeks. Although there were no changes in body weight gain, MBT treatments decreased total weight of white adipose tissue. MBT also decreased triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels in the muscle by 30%, which was correlated with suppression of lipogenic genes such as ACC, C/EBP alpha, PGC-1 alpha, and PPAR gamma. In particular, decreased levels of p-ERK1/2, PPAR gamma, and C/EBP alpha in the MBT-treated groups suggest that MBT might inhibit adipogenesis and decrease differentiation via the MEK/ERK pathway. Furthermore, significantly lower amounts of plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and intramuscular tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were detected in MBT groups, confirming the anti-inflammatory effect of mung bean. In addition, our in vitro pilot study with 3T3-L1 cells showed that vitexin, the functional chemical in MBT, inhibited inflammation-induced lipogenesis with significantly lower amounts of IL-6 and MCP-1 after 14 days of vitexin treatment. Thus, the functional compounds in the mung bean ethanol extracts such as vitexin and isovitexin may regulate intracellular lipogenesis and adipogenesis via anti-inflammatory mechanisms and MEK/ERK pathway in the KK-Ay mouse model. PMID:25826234

  17. Dimethoate modifies enhanced UV-B effects on growth, photosynthesis and oxidative stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings: implication of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Samiksha; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2014-11-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate implication of salicylic acid (SA) in regulation of dimethoate (30 and 150 ppm designated as D1 and D2, respectively) and enhanced UV-B radiation (ambient + supplemental; ambient + 4.0 kJ m(-2) and ambient + 8.0 kJ m(-2), designated as UV-B1 and UV-B2, respectively) induced responses in mung bean seedlings. Seeds of Vigna radiata L. cv. Narendra 1 were surface sterilized, washed thoroughly and soaked for 24 h in sterilized distilled water. Soaked seeds were sown in acid washed sterilized sand filled in plastic trays, and incubated in dark at 26 ± 2 °C for 2 days. The seedlings were grown in growth chamber at 26 ± 2 °C with 12 h photoperiod (350 µmol photons m(-2 )s(-1), PAR) and watered regularly. Six day old seedlings of equal size were gently transferred in 0.2 strength Rorison nutrient medium (pH 6.8) for acclimatization. Thereafter, dimethoate (30 and 150 ppm designated as D1 and D2, respectively) and enhanced UV-B radiation treatments were given. On the 12th day, seedlings of each set were harvested and various parameters related to growth, pigments, photosynthesis, oxidative stress and antioxidant system were analyzed. The D2 dose of dimethoate and UV-B1 and UV-B2 alone and together significantly (P < 0.05) declined growth, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthesis (Fv/Fm and qP except NPQ) which were accompanied by significant decrease in SA level. Similarly, D2 and UV-B also enhanced (P < 0.05) accumulation of reactive oxygen species and concomitantly damaging effects on lipids, proteins and membrane stability were observed. In contrast, in SA-pretreated seedlings damaging impacts of D2, UV-B1 and UV-B2 alone and together were significantly (P < 0.05) alleviated. Besides this, interestingly D1 dose of dimethoate alone had stimulatory effect on growth and it also ameliorated damaging effects of both the doses of UV-B. The activity of superoxide dismutase was

  18. Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients’ sera

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, Eva Elisabeth; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Lothar; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Scope Birch pollen associated allergy to mung bean sprouts is caused by cross-reactivity between the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the mung bean allergen Vig r 1. We aimed to determine the allergenicity of the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vig r 6), another allergen related to Bet v 1 with only 31% sequence identity. Methods and results Bet v 1, Gly m 4, Vig r 1, and Vig r 6 were produced in Escherichia coli. In an ELISA, 73 and 32% of Bet v 1-sensitized birch-allergic patients’ sera (n = 60) showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and Vig r 6, respectively. Of 19 patients who reported allergic reactions or had positive prick-to-prick tests to mung bean sprouts, 79% showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and 63% showed IgE binding to Vig r 6. Bet v 1 completely inhibited IgE binding to both mung bean allergens. Vig r 6 showed partial cross-reactivity with Vig r 1 and activated basophils sensitized with mung bean allergic patients’ sera. Conclusion We demonstrated IgE cross-reactivity despite low sequence identity between Vig r 6 and other Bet v 1-related allergens. Thus, IgE binding to Vig r 6 may contribute to birch pollinosis-associated mung bean sprout allergy. PMID:23996905

  19. Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients' sera.

    PubMed

    Guhsl, Eva Elisabeth; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Lothar; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Birch pollen associated allergy to mung bean sprouts is caused by cross-reactivity between the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the mung bean allergen Vig r 1. We aimed to determine the allergenicity of the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vig r 6), another allergen related to Bet v 1 with only 31% sequence identity. Bet v 1, Gly m 4, Vig r 1, and Vig r 6 were produced in Escherichia coli. In an ELISA, 73 and 32% of Bet v 1-sensitized birch-allergic patients' sera (n = 60) showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and Vig r 6, respectively. Of 19 patients who reported allergic reactions or had positive prick-to-prick tests to mung bean sprouts, 79% showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and 63% showed IgE binding to Vig r 6. Bet v 1 completely inhibited IgE binding to both mung bean allergens. Vig r 6 showed partial cross-reactivity with Vig r 1 and activated basophils sensitized with mung bean allergic patients' sera. We demonstrated IgE cross-reactivity despite low sequence identity between Vig r 6 and other Bet v 1-related allergens. Thus, IgE binding to Vig r 6 may contribute to birch pollinosis-associated mung bean sprout allergy. © 2013 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Tillage intensity and residue effects on early season evaporation and yield in mung bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early season evaporation losses from irrigated crops can significantly reduce water productivity. A field experiment was carried out at the Central Experiment Station of Uzbekistan's National Cotton Growing Research Institute (41.42 N, 69.49 E) on a silt loam soil with irrigated mung bean (Vigna rad...

  1. In situ immobilization of Cd by organic amendments and their effect on antioxidant enzyme defense mechanism in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Coyne, Mark S; Anjum, Shazia; Khan, Waqas-Ud-Din; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    In situ immobilization of Cd is desirable due to the damaging effects of ex situ remediation techniques on soil. In this greenhouse study, the role of biochar (BC), chitosan (CH), and green waste (GW) was studied for in-situ Cd immobilization and alleviating Cd toxicity in mung bean seedlings. Amendments were applied at rates of 0.5% and 1% (w/w). The minimum mean value of Cd, in root, shoot, and soil (DTPA-Cd) (12.2, 4.7, and 0.7 mg kg(-1), respectively), occurred in the Cd + 1% CH treatment compared to all Cd amended treatments. Shoot dry weight (21%) increased significantly in Cd + 1% BC amended soil compared to the control. Reactive oxygen species were affected significantly, with the lowest increased value of hydrogen peroxide (4%) in the Cd + 1% CH treatment while the minimum increase in the value of superoxide (O2(•-)) occurred in the Cd + 1% BC soil compared to the control. Malondialdehyde (20%) increased lowest with Cd + 1% CH treatment. Protein, ascorbate (AsA) contents, and catalase (CAT) activity increased the most (3, 2, and 15%, respectively) in the Cd + 1% BC treatment while dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased the most (9 and 234%, respectively) in the Cd + 1% CH soil compared to the control. Glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), activity were reduced the most in the Cd + 1.0% BC treatment while dehydroascorbate (DHA) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity decreased the most in the Cd + 1% CH soil. Overall, in situ immobilization by amendments improved growth and antioxidant defense mechanisms of mung bean seedlings and was reflected by tolerance to Cd-toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase on maize (Zea mays L.) growth under axenic conditions and on nodulation in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Shaharoona, B; Arshad, M; Zahir, Z A

    2006-02-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the bacterial strains possessing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-deaminase activity may also promote growth of inoculated plants and could increase nodulation in legumes upon co-inoculation with rhizobia. Several rhizobacteria were isolated from maize rhizosphere through enrichment on ACC as a sole N source. Purified isolates were screened for growth promotion in maize under axenic conditions and for in vitro ACC-deaminase activity. A significant positive correlation was observed between in vitro ACC-deaminase activity of bacterial cells and root elongation. None of the isolates produced auxins. Bradyrhizobium japonicum produced less amount of auxins but did not carry ACC-deaminase activity. Results of pot experiment revealed that co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolates enhanced the nodulation in mung bean compared with inoculation with Bradyrhizobium alone. It is highly expected that inoculation with rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase hydrolysed endogenous ACC into ammonia and alpha-ketobutyrate instead of ethylene. Consequently, root and shoot growth as well as nodulation were promoted. The ACC-deaminase trait could be employed as an efficient tool to screen effective PGPR, which could be successfully used as biofertilizers to increase the growth of inoculated plants as well as nodulation in legumes.

  3. Plasma Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability, and Tissue Distribution of Four C-Glycosyl Flavones from Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seed Extracts in Rat by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Zhang, Qili; Wang, Baoyu; Zhang, Meiyan; Xu, Yan; Li, Shasha; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2017-07-12

    The main polyphenols in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seed (MBS), an edible legume with various biological activities, are C-glycosyl flavones (vitexin, isovitexin, isovitexin-6″-O-α-l-glucoside, and dulcinoside). In our study, a validated ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to quantitate the concentrations of four C-glycosyl flavones from MBS extracts in the plasma and various tissues of rats and successfully applied to study their pharmacological profile and tissue distribution in vivo. Four C-glycosyl flavones were rapidly absorbed after oral administration, achieving a Cmax at around 1.5 h, and they could be distributed widely and rapidly in tested tissues. The concentrations of four C-glycosyl flavones in all of the tested tissues decreased obviously in 4 h, which indicated that there was not a trend of long-term accumulation of them. This is the first time to report on pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of four C-glycosyl flavones in rat. The results provided a significative basis for the application of MBS.

  4. The genetics of domestication of rice bean, Vigna umbellata

    PubMed Central

    Isemura, Takehisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Shimizu, Takehiko; Vaughan, Duncan Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The Asian genus Vigna, to which four cultivated species (rice bean, azuki bean, mung bean and black gram) belong, is suitable for comparative genomics. The aims were to construct a genetic linkage map of rice bean, to identify the genomic regions associated with domestication in rice bean, and to compare these regions with those in azuki bean. Methods A genetic linkage map was constructed by using simple sequence repeat and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers in the BC1F1 population derived from a cross between cultivated and wild rice bean. Using this map, 31 domestication-related traits were dissected into quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The genetic linkage map and QTLs of rice bean were compared with those of azuki bean. Key Results A total of 326 markers converged into 11 linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid number of rice bean chromosomes. The domestication-related traits in rice bean associated with a few major QTLs distributed as clusters on LGs 2, 4 and 7. A high level of co-linearity in marker order between the rice bean and azuki bean linkage maps was observed. Major QTLs in rice bean were found on LG4, whereas major QTLs in azuki bean were found on LG9. Conclusions This is the first report of a genetic linkage map and QTLs for domestication-related traits in rice bean. The inheritance of domestication-related traits was so simple that a few major QTLs explained the phenotypic variation between cultivated and wild rice bean. The high level of genomic synteny between rice bean and azuki bean facilitates QTL comparison between species. These results provide a genetic foundation for improvement of rice bean; interchange of major QTLs between rice bean and azuki bean might be useful for broadening the genetic variation of both species. PMID:20880934

  5. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from the Mung Bean Coat.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Gan, Ren-You; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-04-15

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprout is commonly consumed as a vegetable, while the coat of the germinated mung bean is a waste. In this paper, an ultrasound-assisted extraction method has been developed to extract natural antioxidants from the seed coat of mung bean. Several experimental parameters-which included ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, ultrasound extraction time, temperature, and power-were studied in single-factor experiments. The interaction of three key experimental parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, and ultrasonic extraction time) was further investigated by response surface method. Besides, traditional extracting methods, including maceration and Soxhlet extraction methods, were also carried out for comparison. The results suggested that the best extracting condition was 37.6% (v/v) of ethanol concentration, 35.1:1 mL/g of solvent/material ratio and ultrasonic extraction of 46.1 min at 70 °C under 500 W ultrasonic irradiation. The antioxidant capacity (178.28 ± 7.39 µmol Trolox/g DW) was much stronger than those obtained by the maceration extraction process (158.66 ± 4.73 µmol Trolox/g DW) and the Soxhlet extraction process (138.42 ± 3.63 µmol Trolox/g DW). In addition, several antioxidant components in the extract were identified and quantified. This study is helpful for value-added utilization of the waste from germinated mung bean.

  6. Growth characteristics of mung beans and water convolvuluses exposed to 425-MHz electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Jinapang, Peeraya; Prakob, Panida; Wongwattananard, Pongtorn; Islam, Naz E; Kirawanich, Phumin

    2010-10-01

    Effects of high-frequency, continuous wave (CW) electromagnetic fields on mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) and water convolvuluses (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) were studied at different growth stages (pre-sown seed and early seedling). Specifically, the effects of the electromagnetic source's power and duration (defined as power-duration level) on the growth of the two species were studied. Mung beans and water convolvuluses were exposed to electromagnetic fields inside a specially designed chamber for optimum field absorption, and the responses of the seeds to a constant frequency at various power levels and durations of exposure were monitored. The frequency used in the experiments was 425 MHz, the field strengths were 1 mW, 100 mW, and 10 W, and the exposure durations were 1, 2, and 4 h. Results show that germination enhancement is optimum for the mung beans at 100 mW/1 h power-duration level, while for water convolvuluses the optimum germination power-duration level was 1 mW/2 h. When both seed types were exposed at the early sprouting phase with their respective optimum power-duration levels for optimum seed growth, water convolvuluses showed growth enhancement while mung bean sprouts showed no effects. Water content analysis of the seeds suggests thermal effects only at higher field strength.

  7. Evidence for Orthologous Seed Weight Genes in Cowpea and Mung Bean Based on RFLP Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fatokun, C. A.; Menancio-Hautea, D. I.; Danesh, D.; Young, N. D.

    1992-01-01

    A well saturated genomic map is a necessity for a breeding program based on marker assisted selection. To this end, we are developing genomic maps for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 2N=22) and mung bean (Vigna radiata 2N=22) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Using these maps, we have located major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed weight in both species. Two unlinked genomic regions in cowpea contained QTLs accounting for 52.7% of the variation for seed weight. In mung bean there were four unlinked genomic regions accounting for 49.7% of the variation for seed weight. In both cowpea and mung bean the genomic region with the greatest effect on seed weight spanned the same RFLP markers in the same linkage order. This suggests that the QTLs in this genomic region have remained conserved through evolution. This inference is supported by the observation that a significant interaction (i.e., epistasis) was detected between the QTL(s) in the conserved region and an unlinked RFLP marker locus in both species. PMID:1361476

  8. Interactions of light and gravity on growth, orientation, and lignin biosynthesis in mung beans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahns, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings grown on the third Space Transport Mission (STS-3) showed marked orientation problems (some of the stems elongated horizontally and many of the roots were growing upward) and had a lower lignin content than the ground based controls. This research was initiated to determine if the atypical growth characteristics of mung beans grown in microgravity could be simulated using horizontal clinostats. Most of the effort focused on the design, construction and testing of the clinostats. In order to closely approximate the growth conditions of the plants grown in the plant growth unit on STS-3, cylindrical lexan minichambers were constructed. Results showed that plants grown using these clinostats in the horizontal position exhibit similar growth characteristics to the plants grown on STS-3 (disorientation of both stems and roots), while the vertical stationary and vertical rotating controls exhibit normal growth.

  9. Chloride Accumulation by Mung Bean Root Tips

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, Donald F.; Poole, Ronald J.

    1972-01-01

    Net uptake of Cl− into root tips of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) increases steadily with increasing external concentrations from 1 to 60 mm. Membrane potentials were measured to determine the equilibrium concentration of Cl− in the tissue which could be due to diffusion. This concentration was readily exceeded in both the relatively nonvacuolate tips (0 to 1 mm) and the vacuolate, mature upper sectons (1 to 11 mm) of the roots. The activity coefficient of both cytoplasmic and vacuolar Cl−, measured with Cl− sensitive microelectrodes, was approximately the same as that of a pure KCl solution of the same concentration. It is concluded that the “second mechanism” of ion uptake involves a large increase in the rate of active transport at the plasmalemma as the external concentration is increased above 1 mm. PMID:16658226

  10. Using Mung Beans as a Simple, Informative Means to Evaluate the Phytotoxicity of Engineered Nanomaterials and Introduce the Concept of Nanophytotoxicity to Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Shailise S.; Owen, Matthew J.; Pedersen, Brian P.; Liu, Gang-yu; Miller, William J. W.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a lecture and lab series that focuses on teaching the concept of nanophytotoxicity to undergraduate students in a relatively simple experiment. In this experiment, students evaluated the phytotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) using mung beans (i.e., "Vigna radiata") and industrially relevant, commercially…

  11. Using Mung Beans as a Simple, Informative Means to Evaluate the Phytotoxicity of Engineered Nanomaterials and Introduce the Concept of Nanophytotoxicity to Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Shailise S.; Owen, Matthew J.; Pedersen, Brian P.; Liu, Gang-yu; Miller, William J. W.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a lecture and lab series that focuses on teaching the concept of nanophytotoxicity to undergraduate students in a relatively simple experiment. In this experiment, students evaluated the phytotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) using mung beans (i.e., "Vigna radiata") and industrially relevant, commercially…

  12. Actin in mung bean mitochondria and implications for its function.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yih-Shan; Cheng, Ning; Hsiao, Lin-June; Annamalai, Arunachalam; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Dai, Hwa; Chiang, Kwen-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Here, a large fraction of plant mitochondrial actin was found to be resistant to protease and high-salt treatments, suggesting it was protected by mitochondrial membranes. A portion of this actin became sensitive to protease or high-salt treatment after removal of the mitochondrial outer membrane, indicating that some actin is located inside the mitochondrial outer membrane. The import of an actin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein into the mitochondria in a transgenic plant, actin:GFP, was visualized in living cells and demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunoblot analyses. Polymerized actin was found in mitochondria of actin:GFP plants and in mung bean (Vigna radiata). Notably, actin associated with mitochondria purified from early-developing cotyledons during seed germination was sensitive to high-salt and protease treatments. With cotyledon ageing, mitochondrial actin became more resistant to both treatments. The progressive import of actin into cotyledon mitochondria appeared to occur in concert with the conversion of quiescent mitochondria into active forms during seed germination. The binding of actin to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was demonstrated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Porin and ADP/ATP carrier proteins were also found in mtDNA-protein complexes. Treatment with an actin depolymerization reagent reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered the release of cytochrome C. The potential function of mitochondrial actin and a possible actin import pathway are discussed.

  13. Polyamines and Root Formation in Mung Bean Hypocotyl Cuttings 1

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Ra'Anan; Altman, Arie; Bachrach, Uriel

    1982-01-01

    The effect of several polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine), their precursors (l-arginine and l-ornithine), and some analogs and metabolic inhibitors (l-canavanine, l-canaline, and methylglyoxal-bis [guanylhydrazone]) on root formation have been studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek) hypocotyl cuttings. Exogenously applied polyamines did not promote adventitious root formation. Rooting was inhibited by l-canavanine and l-canaline, and this inhibition was reversed by the corresponding amino acids l-arginine and l-ornithine. Methylglyoxal-bis (guanylhydrazone), an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and polyamine biosynthesis, was also found to inhibit root formation. All compounds at concentrations of >10−4 molarity completely inhibited natural root formation, whereas at <10−5 molarity only the indole-butyric acid-induced root formation was inhibited. Indole-butyric acid-induced root formation was accompanied by a considerable increase in polyamine levels, more than 2-fold of the control. Whereas senescing (unrooted) cuttings evinced a rapid decline in polyamine content during 48 hours, indole-butyric acid treatment resulted in elevated levels of putrescine and increased putrescine to spermidine ratio. The changes in polyamines were dependent on indole-butyric acid concentration and were organ specific. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16662586

  14. Cloning and characterization of a DEAD box RNA helicase from the viable seedlings of aged mung bean.

    PubMed

    Li, S C; Chung, M C; Chen, C S

    2001-12-01

    Seeds stored under adverse conditions will reduce the viability of germination as a result of induced aging. We have established a procedure to induce accelerated aging for studying the process of aging in mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds at the molecular level. A full-length cDNA was isolated from acceleratedly aged mung bean seedlings. The cDNA, VrRH1 (Vigna radiata RNA helicase 1), contains an open reading frame of 2139 bp encoding a protein of 713 amino acids. VrRHI has seven highly conserved motifs including the DEAD box as in the case of other plant RNA helicases. VrRHI was sub-cloned into an expression vector pET-28b (+), over-expressed in Escherichia coli BL 21 and purified by a Ni2+-agarose column. The expressed protein showed double-stranded RNA unwinding and ATPase activities. Either ATP or dATP is required for the unwinding activity, indicating that VrRHI is an ATP/dATP-dependent RNA helicase. Northern blot analysis showed the presence of mRNAs hybridized with a full-length cDNA fragment of VrRHI (VrRH transcripts) in mung bean seeds that were imbibed for 16 to 32 h after accelerated aging treatment. The amount of these mRNAs reached a maximum in 24 h imbibed seeds after the treatment. The accumulation of VrRH transcripts was shown to lead to the appearance of 25S and 18S rRNAs in the imbibed aging mung bean seeds. The results suggest that VrRHI may play a role in the viability of mung bean seeds.

  15. Caffeic acid affects early growth, and morphogenetic response of hypocotyl cuttings of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).

    PubMed

    Batish, Daizy R; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Yadav, Surender Singh

    2008-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CA) is one of the most common cinnamic acids ubiquitously present in plants and implicated in a variety of interactions including allelopathy among plants and microbes. This study investigated the possible interference of CA with root growth and the process of rhizogenesis in hypocotyl cuttings of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus=Vigna radiata). Results indicated that CA (0-1000 microM) significantly suppressed root growth of mung bean, and impaired adventitious root formation and root length in the mung bean hypocotyl cuttings. Further investigations into the role of CA in hampering root formation indicated its interference with the biochemical processes involved in rooting process at the three stages - root initiation (third day; RI), root expression (fifth day; RE), and post-expression (seventh day; PE) - of rhizogenesis. CA caused significant changes in the activities of proteases, peroxidases (PODs), and polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) during root development and decreased the content of total endogenous phenolics (TP) in the hypocotyl cuttings. The enhanced activity of PODs and PPOs, though, relates to lignification and/or phenolic metabolism during rhizogenesis; yet their protective role to CA-induced stress, especially during the PE phase, is not ruled out. At 1000 microM CA, where rooting was significantly affected, TP content was very high during the RI phase, thus indicating its non-utilization. The study concludes that CA interferes with the rooting potential of mung bean hypocotyl cuttings by altering the activities of PODs and PPOs and the endogenous TP content that play a key role in rhizogenesis.

  16. Immunoregulatory activities of polysaccharides from mung bean.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-30

    Ultrasonic treatment was performed on water-extractable polysaccharides from the seed of mung beans. Purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, MWP-1' and MWP-2' were obtained. Average molecular weights (Mws) of MWP-1' and MWP-2' were 68.4 kDa, and 52.4 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharides components analysis indicated that MWP-1' was composed of Rha, Ara, Man and Gal in a molar percent of 0.4:2.6:5.3:0.7. MWP-2' was composed of Ara, Man, Gal and Glc in a molar percent of 0.5:1.4:2.1:0.4. In vitro study showed that both polysaccharides samples were able to stimulate the production of secretory molecules (NO, TNF-α and IL-6) of RAW264.7 murine macrophages in a dosage dependent manner. MWP-2' seemed to be the most potent and induced significantly higher the NO production. These findings suggest that the ultrasonic treatment polysaccharides isolated in our study have immune potentiation effects on macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of wheat-mung bean intercropping on English grain aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations and its natural enemy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hai-Cui; Chen, Ju-Lian; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Zhou, Hai-Bo; Sun, Jing-Rui; Liu, Yong; Francis, Frédéric

    2012-06-01

    The effects of intercropping wheat, Triticum aestivum L., with mung bean, Vigna radiate L., on the populations of English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and its natural enemies were evaluated by field and laboratory experiments. The population densities of aphids and their natural enemies were evaluated in the intercropped field against different row ratio combinations of wheat-mung bean. Results showed that wheat-mung bean intercropping caused a drop in aphid densities, and the ratio 12 wheat: 4 mung bean brought about the largest drop (> 8%). In addition, the population densities of coccinellids (ladybirds) and parasitoids and the species diversity of all the natural enemies of aphid were higher in the intercropped field than in the field planted only with wheat. However, intercropping did not influence the community indices (evenness and index of dominance concentration) of the natural enemies. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays were carried out in the laboratory to test whether odor blends of host and nonhost plants affect the host selection of S. avenae. Bioassays indicated that both apterous and alate aphids significantly preferred host plant odor over odor blends of host and intercropped species. Hence, the olfactory-based host location of aphids in the field might be affected by intercropping. The intercropping experiment clearly showed that increased crop species diversity suppresses aphid population growth and preserves the population of natural enemies of aphids. Our results also provide support for the "resource concentration hypothesis" and the "enemies hypothesis".

  18. Solubilization of an arabinan arabinosyltransferase activity from mung bean hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Kylie Joy; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2003-05-01

    The biosynthesis of polysaccharides destined for the plant cell wall and the subsequent assembly of the cell wall are poorly understood processes that are currently the focus of much research. Arabinan, a component of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I, is composed of arabinosyl residues connected via various glycosidic linkages, and therefore, the biosynthesis of arabinan is likely to involve more than one arabinosyltransferase. We have studied the transfer of [(14)C]arabinose (Ara) from UDP-L-arabinopyranose onto polysaccharides using microsomal membranes isolated from mung bean (Vigna radiata) hypocotyls. [(14)C]arabinosyl and [(14)C]xylosyl residues were incorporated into endogenous products due to the presence of UDP-Xyl-4-epimerase activity. Enzymatic digestion of endogenous products with endo-arabinanase released very little radiolabeled sugars, whereas digestion with arabinofuranosidase released some [(14)C]Ara. Microsomal membranes solubilized with the detergent octyl glucoside were able to add a single [(14)C]Ara residue onto (1-->5)-linked alpha-L-arabino-oligosaccharide acceptors. The reaction had a pH optimum of 6.5 and a requirement for manganese ions. However, enzymatic digestion of the radiolabeled oligosaccharides with endo-arabinanase and arabinofuranosidases could not fully release the radiolabeled Ara residue, indicating that the [(14)C]Ara residue was not a (1-->2)-, (1-->3)-, or (1-->5)-linked alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl residue. Rather, mild acid treatment of the product suggested that the radiolabeled Ara residue was in a pyranose conformation, and this result was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography of radiolabeled partially methylated sugars. Using microsomal membranes separated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient, the arabinosyltransferase activity appears to be mainly localized to Golgi membranes.

  19. Biochemical responses of Cr-tolerant and Cr-sensitive mung bean cultivars grown on varying levels of chromium.

    PubMed

    Samantary, S

    2002-06-01

    Biochemical investigations were carried out in Cr-tolerant and Cr-sensitive cultivars of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) with different concentrations of hexavalent chromium (as K2Cr2O7) in hydroponics culture. Seeds were germinated and grown in the presence or absence of chromium under controlled environmental conditions. Protein, pigment and enzyme analysis were conducted in both Cr-tolerant and Cr-sensitive cultivars of mung bean after 72 h of treatments. Chlorophyll and protein contents were reduced in Cr-sensitive cultivars more than those of the tolerant ones. The enzyme activity varied among the Cr-tolerant and Cr-sensitive ones. Activities of catalase, peroxidase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase were greater in Cr-sensitive than tolerant cultivars.

  20. Effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction between mung bean [Vigna radiate (L.)] protein isolates and glucose and on structural and physico-chemical properties of conjugates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongjiang; Han, Feifei; Sui, Xiaonan; Qi, Baokun; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Rui; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction between mung bean protein isolates (MBPIs) and glucose, and on structural and physico-chemical properties of the conjugates. The degree of glycosylation of MBPI-glucose conjugates treated by ultrasound treatment and wet heating (MBPI-GUH) was higher than that of MBPI-glucose conjugates only treated by wet heating (MBPI-GH). Solubility, emulsification activity, emulsification stability and surface hydrophobicity of MBPI-GUH were higher than that of MBPI-GH. Grafted MBPIs had a lower content of α-helix and unordered coil, but a higher content of β-sheet and β-turn structure than MBPIs. No significant structural changes were observed in β-turn and random coil structure of MBPI-GUH, while α-helix content increased with ultrasonic time, and decreased at 300 W ultrasonic power with the increase of β-sheet. MBPI-GUH had a less compact tertiary structure compared to MBPI-GH and MBPI. Grafting MBPIs with glucose formed conjugates of higher molecular weight, while no significant changes were observed in electrophoresis profiles of MBPI-GUH. Ultrasound-assisted wet heating Maillard reaction between MBPIs and glucose could be a promising way to improve functional properties of MBPIs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. In Vivo Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Effects of Fermented Mung Bean on Hypercholesterolemic Mice.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have previously been reported with hypolipidemic effect caused by the presence of flavonoid. This study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of fermented mung bean on hypercholesterolemic mice. Blood from all mice was collected and subjected to serum lipid and liver profiles biochemical analysis and quantitative RT-PCR for atherosclerosis related gene expressions. Besides, livers were collected for antioxidant assays and histopathology evaluation. Fermented mung bean was found to reduce the level of serum lipid and liver enzyme profiles of hypercholesterolemic mice. Furthermore, liver antioxidant and nitric oxide levels were also significantly restored by fermented mung bean in a dosage dependent manner. The gene expression study indicated that Apoe and Bcl2a1a were upregulated while Npy and Vwf expressions were downregulated after the treatment. The effects of fermented mung bean were greater than nonfermented mung bean. These results indicated that fermented mung bean possessed antioxidants that lead to its hypolipidemic effect on hypercholesterolemic mice.

  2. Mung bean decreases plasma cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Hao, Liu; Shi, Zhenxing; Wang, Lixia; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2014-06-01

    Our results affirmed that supplementation of 1 or 2% mung bean could decrease plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol level. Mung bean increased mRNA 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Most importantly, mung bean increased not only the protein level of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) but also mRNA CYP7A1. It was concluded that the hypocholesterolemic activity of mung bean was most probable mediated by enhancement of bile acid excretion and up-regulation of CYP7A1.

  3. It Is Not Just Folklore: The Aqueous Extract of Mung Bean Coat Is Protective against Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Li, Wei; Li, Jianhua; Jundoria, Arvin; Sama, Andrew E.; Wang, Haichao

    2012-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna Radiata) has been traditionally used in China both as nutritional food and herbal medicine against a number of inflammatory conditions since the 1050s. A nucleosomal protein, HMGB1, has recently been established as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation with a relatively wider therapeutic window for pharmacological interventions. Here we explored the HMGB1-inhibiting capacity and therapeutic potential of mung bean coat (MBC) extract in vitro and in vivo. We found that MBC extract dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced release of HMGB1 and several chemokines in macrophage cultures. Oral administration of MBC extract significantly increased animal survival rates from 29.4% (in saline group, N = 17 mice) to 70% (in experimental MBC extract group, N = 17 mice, P < 0.05). In vitro, MBC extract stimulated HMGB1 protein aggregation and facilitated both the formation of microtubule-associatedprotein-1-light-chain-3-(LC3-)containing cytoplasmic vesicles, and the production of LC3-II in macrophage cultures. Consequently, MBC extract treatment led to reduction of cellular HMGB1 levels in macrophage cultures, which was impaired by coaddition of two autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and 3-methyladenine). Conclusion. MBC extract is protective against lethal sepsis possibly by stimulating autophagic HMGB1 degradation. PMID:23193422

  4. Differential regulation of Ku gene expression in etiolated mung bean hypocotyls by auxins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Chang, Wen-Chi; Wang, Yung-Kai; Munisamy, Suresh-Babu; Hsu, Shen-Hsing; Chang, Hwan-You; Wu, Shu-Hsing; Pan, Rong-Long

    2007-01-01

    Plant Ku genes were identified very recently in Arabidopsis thaliana, and their roles in repair of double-stranded break DNA and maintenance of telomere integrity were scrutinized. In this study, the cDNAs encoding Ku70 (VrKu70) and Ku80 (VrKu80) were isolated from mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyls. Both genes were expressed widely among different tissues of mung bean with the highest levels in hypocotyls and leaves. The VrKu gene expression was stimulated by exogenous auxins in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The stimulation could be abolished by auxin transport inhibitors, N-(1-naphthyl) phthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid implicating that exogenous auxins triggered the effects following their uptake by the cells. Further analysis using specific inhibitors of auxin signaling showed that the stimulation of VrKu expression by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was suppressed by intracellular Ca(2+) chelators, calmodulin antagonists, and calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of calmodulin in the signaling pathway. On the other hand, exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) stimulated VrKu expression through the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Altogether, it is thus proposed that 2,4-D and IAA (or NAA) regulate the expression of VrKu through two distinct pathways.

  5. Amino Acid Sequence of Mung Bean Trypsin Inhibitor and Its Modified Forms Appearing during Germination.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K A; Chen, J C

    1983-02-01

    The amino acid sequence of the major trypsin inhibitor, F, of ungerminated mung beans (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek) was determined by a combination of automatic solid phase and manual sequencing techniques. F is a typical Bowman-Birk-type proteinase inhibitor with 80 amino acid residues and exhibits a high degree of identity with the other sequenced members of the Bowman-Birk family of inhibitors. Thin layer peptide maps of mung bean inhibitors E and C (which appear during germination) indicate that both are derived from inhibitor F by limited specific proteolysis. Loss of the carboxyl-terminal residues 77 to 80 from F produces inhibitor E, while the loss of an additional two carboxyl-terminal residues, the loss of the amino-terminal residues 1 to 8, and an internal cleavage at Ala(35)-Asp(36) produces inhibitor C from E. Another inhibitor species, E', was isolated from ungerminated seeds. It differs from F in the loss of residues 1 to 6. The majority of the proteolytic cleavages noted in the F-E-C-E' system are at peptide bonds involving aspartyl residues.

  6. Trypsin inhibitor in mung bean cotyledons: purification, characteristics, subcellular localization, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chrispeels, M J; Baumgartner, B

    1978-04-01

    Trypsin inhibitor was purified to homogeneity from seeds of the mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek). The protease inhibitor has the following properties: inhibitory activity toward trypsin, but not toward chymotrypsin; isoelectric point at pH 5.05; molecular weight of 11,000 to 12,000 (sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis) or 14,000 (gel filtration); immunological cross-reactivity against extracts of black gram and black-eyed pea, but not against soybean; no inhibitory activity against vicilin peptidohydrolase, the principal endopeptidase in the cotyledons of mung bean seedlings.The trypsin inhibitor content of the cotyledons declines in the course of seedling growth and the presence of an inactivating factor can be demonstrated by incubating crude extracts in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol. This inactivating factor may be a protease as vicilin peptidohydrolase rapidly inactivates the trypsin inhibitor. Removal of trypsin inhibitory activity from crude extracts by means of a trypsin affinity column does not result in an enhancement of protease activity in the extracts.The intracellular localization of trypsin inhibitor was determined by fractionation of crude extracts on isopycnic sucrose gradients and by cytochemistry with fluorescent antibodies. Both methods indicate that trypsin inhibitor is associated with the cytoplasm and not with the protein bodies where reserve protein hydrolysis occurs. No convincing evidence was obtained which indicates that the catabolism of trypsin inhibitor during germination and seedling growth is causally related to the onset of reserve protein breakdown.

  7. Arginine and Ornithine Decarboxylases, the Polyamine Biosynthetic Enzymes of Mung Bean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Arie; Friedman, Ra'Anan; Levin, Nitsa

    1982-01-01

    General properties and relative activities of l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC) (EC 4.1.1.19) and l-ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) (EC 4.1.1.17), two important enzymes in putrescine and polyamine biosynthesis, were investigated in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) tissues. Both activities increase linearly with increasing concentrations of crude enzyme, but the increase in ADC activity is considerably greater. The decarboxylation reaction is linear for up to 30 to 60 minutes, and both enzymes have a pH optimum of 7.2. α-Difluoromethyl-ornithine inhibits ODC activity of excised roots, while increasing ADC activity. High specific activity of both enzymes is detected in terminal buds and leaves, while root and hypocotyl activity is low. Different ADC-to-ODC activity ratios are found in various tissues of mung bean plants. Substantial increase in the activity of both enzymes is detected in incubated sections as compared with intact plants. A comparison of several plant species indicates a wide range of ADC-to-ODC activity ratio. It is suggested that both ADC and ODC are active in plant tissues and that their relative contribution to putrescine biosynthesis is dependent upon the type of tissue and growth process. PMID:16662312

  8. Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Delaquis, P J; Sholberg, P L; Stanich, K

    1999-08-01

    Mung bean seed inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (3 to 5 log CFU/g) was exposed to gaseous acetic acid in an aluminum fumigation chamber. Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected by enrichment of seeds treated with 242 microl of acetic acid per liter of air for 12 h at 45 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was recovered by enrichment from two of 10 25-g seed samples treated in this manner. Fumigation with gaseous acetic acid was also lethal to indigenous bacteria and fungi on mung bean seed. The treatment did not significantly reduce seed germination rates, and no differences in surface microstructure were observed between treated and untreated seed viewed by scanning electron microscopy.

  9. β-Glucoside Activators of Mung Bean UDP-Glucose: β-Glucan Synthase 1

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Theresa; Ross, Peter; Weinberger-Ohana, Patricia; Garden, Gwenn; Benziman, Moshe

    1988-01-01

    Heat-stable activators of membranous β-glucan synthase have been isolated from the supernatant fraction of crude mung bean (Vigna radiata) extracts by DEAE-cellulose and silica-gel chromatography. One of the activators has been partially purified and characterized on the basis of susceptibility to various enzymes and by analysis of the products formed upon total acid hydrolysis, alkaline-methanolysis, and β-glucosidase digestion. This activator has the characteristics of a 1,2-dioleoyl diglyceride containing β-linked glucose residue(s) at the C-3 position. When expressed per mole of glucosyl residues, the maximal Ka value of the activator is estimated to be 25 micromolar. Both the intact glucosyl and fatty acid moiety are essential to the stimulatory effect of the activator. PMID:16666038

  10. Characterization of a maturation-specific mRNA in dry mung bean embryonic axes.

    PubMed

    Carlier, A R; Manickam, A; Peumans, W J

    1980-08-01

    The poly(A)-rich RNA from dry mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek) embryonic axes has been isolated and translated in a wheat embryo cell-free system, and the products were analyzed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The fluorographyic patterns showed a heavy band at approximately MW 12,000. The messenger RNA coding for this polypeptide disappeared in the course of early germination. This messenger is translated in vivo but simultaneously degrades when the axes imbibe. The poly(A)-rich RNA from dry axes has been fractionated on sucrose-dimethyl sulfoxide gradients, and this messenger has been found to be distributed largely in the 9-14 S region. The polypeptide synthesized in vitro has been immunoprecipitated, using the antiserum raised against this protein purified from dry axes.

  11. Isolation and function of a low molecular weight protein of mung bean embryonic axes.

    PubMed

    Manickam, A; Carlier, A R

    1980-08-01

    A low molecular weight protein from dry mung bean (Vigna radiata) embryonic axes has been purified to near homogeneity by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and hydroxylapatite. It shows a molecular weight of about 12,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and a sedimentation coefficient of about 2 S in sucrose gradients. This protein occurs in greater amounts in dry axes than in dry cotyledons, and it dramatically disappears during early germination of the seed. Affinity chromatography tests do not indicate it as a trypsin inhibitor or as a glycoprotein. It is a water-soluble cytoplasmic protein exhibiting an amino acid composition characteristic of storage proteins with a high content of glutamic acid/glutamine. We suggest that it is a low molecular weight storage albumin.

  12. Localization of vicilin peptidohydrolase in the cotyledons of mung bean seedlings by immunofluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Vicilin peptidohydrolase, the protease that hydrolyzes the reserve proteins in the cotyledons of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings, has been localized intracellularly by immunofluorescence microscopy using monospecific antibodies against the enzyme and rhodamine-coupled goat- anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G's. The enzyme can first be visualized after 3 days of seedling growth and is associated with small foci within the cytoplasm of the storage parenchyma cells farthest from the vascular bundles. On the 4th day of growth, the protease is also present in the numerous large protein bodies within these cells. Vicilin peptidohydrolase is known to be synthesized de novo starting on the 3rd day of growth. Our observations are therefore consistent with the interpretation that the enzyme is synthesized in the cytoplasm and subsequently transported to the protein bodies. PMID:359572

  13. Practical evaluation of Mung bean seed pasteurization method in Japan.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Enomoto, K; Nei, D; Kawamoto, S

    2010-04-01

    The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Therefore, an effective method for inactivating these organisms on the seeds before sprouting is needed. The current pasteurization method for mung beans in Japan (hot water treatment at 85 degrees C for 10 s) was more effective for disinfecting inoculated E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and nonpathogenic E. coli on mung bean seeds than was the calcium hypochlorite treatment (20,000 ppm for 20 min) recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Hot water treatment at 85 degrees C for 40 s followed by dipping in cold water for 30 s and soaking in chlorine water (2,000 ppm) for 2 h reduced the pathogens to undetectable levels, and no viable pathogens were found in a 25-g enrichment culture and during the sprouting process. Practical tests using a working pasteurization machine with nonpathogenic E. coli as a surrogate produced similar results. The harvest yield of the treated seed was within the acceptable range. These treatments could be a viable alternative to the presently recommended 20,000-ppm chlorine treatment for mung bean seeds.

  14. Antinutrients in amphidiploids (black gram x Mung bean): varietal differences and effect of domestic processing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Kataria, A; Chauhan, B M; Punia, D

    1989-09-01

    Phytic acid, saponin and polyphenol contents in grains of various varieties of black gram (Vigna mungo) Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) amphidiploids ranged from 697 to 750, 2746 to 2972 and 702 to 783 mg/100 g, respectively. Domestic processing and cooking methods including soaking, ordinary and pressure cooking of soaked and unsoaked seeds, and sprouting significantly lowered phytic acid, saponin and polyphenol contents of the amphidiploid seeds. Soaking for 18 h removed 31 to 37% of the phytic acid; the extent of removal was higher with long periods of soaking. Saponins and polyphenols were relatively less affected. Loss of the antinutrients was greater when soaked instead of unsoaked seeds were cooked. Pressure cooking had a greater effect than ordinary cooking. Antinutrient concentrations declined following sprouting; the longer the period of germination the greater was the reduction.

  15. Photocount statistics of ultra-weak photon emission from germinating mung bean.

    PubMed

    Rafieiolhosseini, Neda; Poplová, Michaela; Sasanpour, Pezhman; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem; Alhossaini, Mahsa Rafiee; Cifra, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) is an endogenous bioluminescence phenomenon present in all biological samples with an active oxidative metabolism, even without an external pre-illumination. To verify the potential of UPE for non-invasive monitoring of metabolism and growth in germinating plants, the aim of this study was to investigate the UPE from a model system - germinating mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata) - and analyze the statistical properties of UPE during the growth in two different conditions of imbibition (pure water and 1% sucrose). We found that in all days and in both conditions, photocount distributions of UPE time series follow the negative binomial distribution whose parameters changed during the growth due to the increasing ratio of signal-to-detector dark count. Correspondingly for both groups, the mean values of UPE increased during the seedlings growth, while the values of Fano factor show a decreasing trend towards 1 during the 6day period. While our results do not show any significant difference in hypocotyl length and weight gain between the two groups of mung seedlings, there is an indication of a tiny suppressing effect of sucrose on UPE intensity. We believe that UPE can be exploited for a sensitive non-invasive analysis of oxidative metabolism during the plant development and growth with potential applications in agricultural research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A 64 kDa sucrose binding protein is membrane-associated and tonoplast-localized in developing mung bean seeds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junqi; Suen, Pui Kit; Xu, Zeng-Fu; Jiang, Liwen

    2009-01-01

    Sucrose binding proteins (SBPs) were predicted to be membrane-associated, but have been shown to localize in the lumen of protein storage vacuoles of various seeds. In this study, a new 64 kDa SBP has been identified from developing mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds (here termed VrSBP1) via MS/MS analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequencing analysis and specific antibodies were generated using purified VrSBP1 proteins. Western blot analysis with the new VrSBP1 antibodies showed that, similar to most seed storage proteins, VrSBP1 proteins accumulated during seed development and were subsequently mobilized once the mung bean seeds germinated. Immunogold electron microscope (EM) studies on ultra-thin sections of high-pressure freezing/frozen substituted developing mung bean cotyledons demonstrated that VrSBP1 was localized specifically to the tonoplast of the protein storage vacuole and to the limiting membrane of a novel putative prevacuolar compartment. Biochemical and subcellular fractionation studies further demonstrated that VrSBP1 proteins were membrane-associated in developing mung beans, consistent with their tonoplast localization. This study thus shows convincing evidence of tonoplast-localization of a plant SBP for its future functional characterization and provides a model of studying non-integral membrane proteins associated with the tonoplasts in plant cells. PMID:19129164

  17. A 64 kDa sucrose binding protein is membrane-associated and tonoplast-localized in developing mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junqi; Suen, Pui Kit; Xu, Zeng-Fu; Jiang, Liwen

    2009-01-01

    Sucrose binding proteins (SBPs) were predicted to be membrane-associated, but have been shown to localize in the lumen of protein storage vacuoles of various seeds. In this study, a new 64 kDa SBP has been identified from developing mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds (here termed VrSBP1) via MS/MS analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequencing analysis and specific antibodies were generated using purified VrSBP1 proteins. Western blot analysis with the new VrSBP1 antibodies showed that, similar to most seed storage proteins, VrSBP1 proteins accumulated during seed development and were subsequently mobilized once the mung bean seeds germinated. Immunogold electron microscope (EM) studies on ultra-thin sections of high-pressure freezing/frozen substituted developing mung bean cotyledons demonstrated that VrSBP1 was localized specifically to the tonoplast of the protein storage vacuole and to the limiting membrane of a novel putative prevacuolar compartment. Biochemical and subcellular fractionation studies further demonstrated that VrSBP1 proteins were membrane-associated in developing mung beans, consistent with their tonoplast localization. This study thus shows convincing evidence of tonoplast-localization of a plant SBP for its future functional characterization and provides a model of studying non-integral membrane proteins associated with the tonoplasts in plant cells.

  18. In Vivo Antistress and Antioxidant Effects of Fermented and Germinated Mung Bean

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Boon Kee; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Ho, Wan Yong; Koh, Soo Peng; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2014-01-01

    Mung bean has been traditionally used to alleviate heat stress. This effect may be contributed by the presence of flavonoids and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). On the other hand, fermentation and germination have been practised to enhance the nutritional and antioxidant properties of certain food products. The main focus of current study was to compare the antistress effect of none-process, fermented and germinated mung bean extracts. Acute and chronic restraint stresses were observed to promote the elevation of serum biochemical markers including cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, liver enzymes, and glucose. Chronic cold restraint stress was observed to increase theadrenal gland weight, brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level while reducing brain antioxidant enzyme level. However, these parameters were found reverted in mice treated with diazepam, high concentration of fermented mung bean and high concentration of germinated mung bean. Moreover, enhanced level of antioxidant on the chronic stress mice was observed in fermented and germinated mung bean treated groups. In comparison between germinated and fermented mung bean, fermented mung bean always showed better antistress and antioxidant effects throughout this study. PMID:24877129

  19. In vivo antistress and antioxidant effects of fermented and germinated mung bean.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Beh, Boon Kee; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Ho, Wan Yong; Koh, Soo Peng; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Long, Kamariah

    2014-01-01

    Mung bean has been traditionally used to alleviate heat stress. This effect may be contributed by the presence of flavonoids and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). On the other hand, fermentation and germination have been practised to enhance the nutritional and antioxidant properties of certain food products. The main focus of current study was to compare the antistress effect of none-process, fermented and germinated mung bean extracts. Acute and chronic restraint stresses were observed to promote the elevation of serum biochemical markers including cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, liver enzymes, and glucose. Chronic cold restraint stress was observed to increase the adrenal gland weight, brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level while reducing brain antioxidant enzyme level. However, these parameters were found reverted in mice treated with diazepam, high concentration of fermented mung bean and high concentration of germinated mung bean. Moreover, enhanced level of antioxidant on the chronic stress mice was observed in fermented and germinated mung bean treated groups. In comparison between germinated and fermented mung bean, fermented mung bean always showed better antistress and antioxidant effects throughout this study.

  20. In vitro starch digestibility, pasting and textural properties of mung bean: effect of different processing methods.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh; Ahlawat, RavinderPal; Sharma, Somesh

    2015-03-01

    Mung bean was subjected to different processing conditions (soaking, germination, cooking and autoclaving) and their textural, pasting and in vitro starch digestibility characteristics were studied. A significant reduction in textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness) after cooking and autoclaving treatment of mung bean was observed. Flours made from differently processed mung bean showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in their pastin g characteristics. Peak and final viscosity were the highest for flour from germinated mung bean whereas those made from autoclaved mung bean showed the lowest value. in vitro starch digestibility of mung bean flours was assessed enzymatically using modified Englyst method and the parameters studied were readily digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), resistant starch (RS) and total starch (TS) content. Various processing treatments increased the RDS contents of mung bean, while the SDS content was found to be the highest for soaked and the lowest for the autoclaved sample. Germinated sample showed higher amount of digestible starch (RDS + SDS) as compared to raw and soaked samples. Flours from raw and soaked samples showed significantly low starch hydrolysis rate at all the temperatures with total hydrolysis of 29.9 and 31.2 %, respectively at 180 min whereas cooked and autoclaved samples showed high hydrolysis rates with 50.2 and 53.8 % of these hydrolyzing within 30 min of hydrolysis.

  1. Evaluation and modeling of aerodynamic properties of mung bean seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazi, Feizollah

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamic properties of solid materials have long been used to convey and separate seeds and grains during post harvest operations. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the aerodynamic properties of mung bean seeds as a function of moisture content and two grades referred to above and below a cut point of 4.8 mm in length. The results showed that as the moisture content increased from 7.8 to 25% (w.b.), the terminal velocity of seeds increased following a polynomial relationship, from 7.28 to 8.79 and 6.02 to 7.12 m s-1, for grades A and B, respectively. Seeds at grade A had terminal velocities with a mean value of 8.05 m s-1, while at grade B had a mean value of 6.46 m s-1. The Reynolds number of both grades increased linearly with the increase of seeds moisture content, while the drag coefficient decreased with the increase of moisture content. Mathematical relationships were developed to relate the change in seeds moisture content with the obtained values of aerodynamic properties. The analysis of variance showed that moisture content had a significant effect, at 1% probability level, on all the aerodynamics properties of mung beans.

  2. The cytochromes in microsomal fractions of germinating mung beans.

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, G A; Houghton, J D; Jones, O T

    1981-01-01

    Detailed studies of microsomal cytochromes from mung-bean radicles showed the presence of cytochrome P-420, particularly in dark-grown seedlings, accompanied by smaller quantities of cytochrome P-450. Similar proportions of cytochrome P-420 to cytochrome P-450 were found spectrophotometrically in vivo with whole radicles and hypocotyls. Assayed in vitro, maximum concentrations of both cytochromes were attained after 4 days of growth, before undergoing rapid degradation. Illumination of seedlings stabilized cytochrome P-450 and decreased the amount of cytochrome P-420. Three b cytochromes were present in the microsomal fraction, namely cytochromes b-562.5 (Em + 105 +/- 23 mV), b-560.5 (Em + 49 +/- 13 mV) and b5 (Em - 45 +/- 14 mV), all at pH 7.0. Of the b cytochromes, cytochrome b5 alone undergoes a rapid degradation after day 4, Changes in cytochrome b concentrations were confined to the microsomal fraction: mitochondrial b cytochrome concentrations were unaltered with age. Protohaem degradation (of exogenous methaemalbumin) was detected in microsomal fractions of mung beans. The rates of degradation were highest in extracts of young tissue and declined after day 4. The degradation mechanism and products did not resemble those of mammalian haem oxygenase. PMID:7306021

  3. Detection of tannery effluents induced DNA damage in mung bean by use of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Raj, Abhay; Kumar, Sharad; Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Mahadeo

    2014-01-01

    Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) is employed for treatment of tannery effluent. However, the performance of CETP for reducing the genotoxic substances from the raw effluent is not known. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluents were investigated in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). For this purpose, untreated and treated tannery effluents were collected from CETP Unnao (UP), India. Seeds of mung bean were grown in soil irrigated with various concentrations of tannery effluents (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) for 15 days. Inhibition of seed germination was 90% by 25% untreated effluent and 75% treated effluent, compared to the control. Plant growth was inhibited by 51% and 41% when irrigated with untreated and treated effluents at 25% concentration. RAPD technique was used to evaluate the genotoxic effect of tannery effluents (untreated and treated) irrigation on the mung bean. The RAPD profiles obtained showed that both untreated and treated were having genotoxic effects on mung bean plants. This was discernible with appearance/disappearance of bands in the treatments compared with control plants. A total of 87 RAPD bands were obtained using eight primers and 42 (48%) of these showed polymorphism. Irrigating plants with untreated effluent caused 12 new bands to appear and 18 to disappear. Treated effluent caused 8 new bands and the loss of 15 bands. The genetic distances shown on the dendrogram revealed that control plants and those irrigated with treated effluent were clustered in one group (joined at distance of 0.28), whereas those irrigated with untreated effluent were separated in another cluster at larger distance (joined at distance of 0.42). This indicates that treated effluent is less genotoxic than the untreated. Nei's genetic similarity indices calculated between the treatments and the control plants showed that the control and the plants irrigated with treated tannery effluent had a similarity index of 0.75, the control

  4. Detection of Tannery Effluents Induced DNA Damage in Mung Bean by Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Mahadeo

    2014-01-01

    Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) is employed for treatment of tannery effluent. However, the performance of CETP for reducing the genotoxic substances from the raw effluent is not known. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluents were investigated in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). For this purpose, untreated and treated tannery effluents were collected from CETP Unnao (UP), India. Seeds of mung bean were grown in soil irrigated with various concentrations of tannery effluents (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) for 15 days. Inhibition of seed germination was 90% by 25% untreated effluent and 75% treated effluent, compared to the control. Plant growth was inhibited by 51% and 41% when irrigated with untreated and treated effluents at 25% concentration. RAPD technique was used to evaluate the genotoxic effect of tannery effluents (untreated and treated) irrigation on the mung bean. The RAPD profiles obtained showed that both untreated and treated were having genotoxic effects on mung bean plants. This was discernible with appearance/disappearance of bands in the treatments compared with control plants. A total of 87 RAPD bands were obtained using eight primers and 42 (48%) of these showed polymorphism. Irrigating plants with untreated effluent caused 12 new bands to appear and 18 to disappear. Treated effluent caused 8 new bands and the loss of 15 bands. The genetic distances shown on the dendrogram revealed that control plants and those irrigated with treated effluent were clustered in one group (joined at distance of 0.28), whereas those irrigated with untreated effluent were separated in another cluster at larger distance (joined at distance of 0.42). This indicates that treated effluent is less genotoxic than the untreated. Nei's genetic similarity indices calculated between the treatments and the control plants showed that the control and the plants irrigated with treated tannery effluent had a similarity index of 0.75, the control

  5. A 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean cultivars in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Ren, Guixing

    2015-02-01

    Mung bean has been traditionally and widely used as an edible and medicinal plant in the South and Southeast Asia. Bruchid resistance mung bean has more potential in commercial use, but scarcely been evaluated for safety through standard in vivo toxicological studies. In the present study, subchronic oral toxicity studies of bruchid-resistant mung bean were designed and conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 90 days. During the subchronic oral toxicity study, no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, food consumption, opthalmoscopic examination, hematology, clinical biochemistry, macroscopic findings, organ weights and histopathological examination were noted in animal administered diet containing bruchid-resistant mung bean. These results demonstrated that bruchid resistant mung bean is as safe as conventional mung bean.

  6. Antihyperglycemic Effects of Fermented and Nonfermented Mung Bean Extracts on Alloxan-Induced-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah

    2012-01-01

    Mung bean was reported as a potential antidiabetic agent while fermented food has been proposed as one of the major contributors that can reduce the risk of diabetes in Asian populations. In this study, we have compared the normoglycemic effect, glucose-induced hyperglycemic effect, and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic effect of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts. Our results showed that fermented mung bean extracts did not induce hypoglycemic effect on normal mice but significantly reduced the blood sugar levels of glucose- and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were also lowered while insulin secretion and antioxidant level as measured by malonaldehyde (MDA) assays were significantly improved in the plasma of the fermented mung bean-treated group in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mouse. These results indicated that fermentation using Mardi Rhizopus sp. strain 5351 inoculums could enhance the antihyperglycemic and the antioxidant effects of mung bean in alloxan-treated mice. The improvement in the antihyperglycemic effect may also be contributed by the increased content of GABA and the free amino acid that are present in the fermented mung bean extracts. PMID:23091343

  7. In Vivo Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Effects of Fermented Mung Bean on Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Koh, Soo Peng

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have previously been reported with hypolipidemic effect caused by the presence of flavonoid. This study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of fermented mung bean on hypercholesterolemic mice. Blood from all mice was collected and subjected to serum lipid and liver profiles biochemical analysis and quantitative RT-PCR for atherosclerosis related gene expressions. Besides, livers were collected for antioxidant assays and histopathology evaluation. Fermented mung bean was found to reduce the level of serum lipid and liver enzyme profiles of hypercholesterolemic mice. Furthermore, liver antioxidant and nitric oxide levels were also significantly restored by fermented mung bean in a dosage dependent manner. The gene expression study indicated that Apoe and Bcl2a1a were upregulated while Npy and Vwf expressions were downregulated after the treatment. The effects of fermented mung bean were greater than nonfermented mung bean. These results indicated that fermented mung bean possessed antioxidants that lead to its hypolipidemic effect on hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:26074993

  8. Antihyperglycemic effects of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts on alloxan-induced-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah

    2012-01-01

    Mung bean was reported as a potential antidiabetic agent while fermented food has been proposed as one of the major contributors that can reduce the risk of diabetes in Asian populations. In this study, we have compared the normoglycemic effect, glucose-induced hyperglycemic effect, and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic effect of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts. Our results showed that fermented mung bean extracts did not induce hypoglycemic effect on normal mice but significantly reduced the blood sugar levels of glucose- and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were also lowered while insulin secretion and antioxidant level as measured by malonaldehyde (MDA) assays were significantly improved in the plasma of the fermented mung bean-treated group in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mouse. These results indicated that fermentation using Mardi Rhizopus sp. strain 5351 inoculums could enhance the antihyperglycemic and the antioxidant effects of mung bean in alloxan-treated mice. The improvement in the antihyperglycemic effect may also be contributed by the increased content of GABA and the free amino acid that are present in the fermented mung bean extracts.

  9. Heat treatments to enhance the safety of mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haijing; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2004-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars and Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been associated with contaminated seed sprout outbreaks. The majority of these outbreaks have been traced to sprout seeds contaminated with low levels of pathogens. E. coli O157:H7 strains can grow an average of 2.3 log CFU/g over 2 days during seed germination, and Salmonella can achieve an average growth of 3.7 log CFU/g. Therefore, it is important to find an effective method to reduce possible pathogenic bacterial populations on the seeds prior to sprouting. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of various dry heat treatments on reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on mung beans intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination. Mung beans were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of E. coli O157:H7 and of Salmonella serovars harboring the green fluorescent protein gene and then air dried overnight. Heat treatments were performed by incubating the seeds at 55 degrees C for various periods of time. Heat-treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of the heat treatment and the effects of heat treatment on germination rates. After inoculation and drying, 6 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and 4 log CFU/g Salmonella were detected on the seeds. Following heat treatment, pathogenic bacterial populations on the seeds were below detectable levels (<1 log CFU/g), but the germination rate of the seed was not affected. Thus, the risk of contamination and the presence of pathogens in the finished sprouts were greatly reduced via the seed heat treatment process.

  10. Molecular Cloning of Vacuolar H+-Pyrophosphatase and Its Developmental Expression in Growing Hypocotyl of Mung Bean1

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Yoichi; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    Vacuolar proton-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase and H+-ATPase acidify the vacuoles and power the vacuolar secondary active transport systems in plants. Developmental changes in the transcription of the pyrophosphatase in growing hypocotyls of mung bean (Vigna radiata) were investigated. The cDNA clone for the mung bean enzyme contains an uninterrupted open reading frame of 2298 bp, coding for a polypeptide of 766 amino acids. Hypocotyls were divided into elongating and mature regions. RNA analysis revealed that the transcript level of the pyrophosphatase was high in the elongating region of the 3-d-old hypocotyl but was extremely low in the mature region of the 5-d-old hypocotyl. The level of transcript of the 68-kD subunit of H+-ATPase also decreased after cell maturation. In the elongating region, the proton-pumping activity of pyrophosphatase on the basis of membrane protein was 3 times higher than that of H+-ATPase. After cell maturation, the pyrophosphatase activity decreased to 30% of that in the elongating region. The decline in the pyrophosphatase activity was in parallel with a decrease in the enzyme protein content. These findings indicate that the level of the pyrophosphatase, a main vacuolar proton pump in growing cells, is negatively regulated after cell maturation at the transcriptional level. PMID:9489011

  11. Comparison of developmental gradients for growth, ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding activity in mung bean hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basel, L. E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the developmental gradients along a mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl of the growth rate, plasma membrane ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding protein (FCBP) activity to determine whether they are interrelated. The hook and four sequential 7.5 millimeter segments of the hypocotyl below the hook were cut. A plasma membrane-enriched fraction was isolated from each section by aqueous two-phase partitioning and assayed for vanadate-sensitive ATPase and FCBP activity. Each gradient had a distinctive and different pattern. Endogenous growth rate was maximal in the second section and much lower in the others. Vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was maximal in the third section, but remained high in the older sections. Amounts of ATPase protein, shown by specific antibody binding, did not correlate with the amount of vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in the three youngest sections. FCBP activity was almost absent in the first section, then increased to a maximum in the oldest sections. These data show that the growth rate is not determined by the ATPase activity, and that there are no fixed ratios between the ATPase and FCBP.

  12. Harvesting of the Microalga Nannochloropsis sp. by Bioflocculation with Mung Bean Protein Extract.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Ganesan; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2017-06-01

    Harvesting microalgae from medium is a major challenge due to their small size and low concentrations. In an attempt to find a cost-effective and eco-friendly harvesting technique, mung bean (Vigna radiata) protein extract (MBPE) was used for flocculation of Nannochloropsis sp. The effects of parameters such as pH, flocculant dose, algae concentration, and mixing time were used to study the flocculation efficiency (FE) of MBPE. Optimum parameters of MBPE dosage of 20 mL L(-1) and a mixing rate of 300 rpm for 6 min achieved a FE of >92% after 2 h of settling time. MBPE-aggregated microlga flocs were characterized by microscopy. Zeta potential values decreased with increasing flocculant dose, and the values obtained were -6.93 ± 0.60, -5.36 ± 0.64, and -4.44 ± 0.22 for doses of 10, 20, and 30 mL L(-1), respectively. In conclusion, MBPE flocculants used in this study are safe, nontoxic, and pollution free, so they could be used for an effective, convenient, and rapid harvesting of microalgae in an eco-friendly approach. These methods are sustainable and could be applied in industrial scale for aquaculture nutrition.

  13. Proteinases involved in the degradation of trypsin inhibitor in germinating mung beans.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K A; Tan-Wilson, A L

    1983-01-01

    The mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) is rapidly modified by limited proteolysis during the early stages of seedling growth. Using an electrophoretic assay that separates the unmodified inhibitor (MBTI-F) and the first two modified species (MBTI-E and -C), a pH optimum of approximately 4 was found for the modification reaction. The inhibitor modifying activity is initially low in ungerminated seeds, with the reaction F leads to E being the primary reaction catalyzed. Activity catalyzing the production of MBTI-C appears on the first day of germination. This activity (F leads to E leads to C) increases up to 6 days after inhibition, at which time the cotyledons begin to abscise. The activity converting MBTI-F and -E to MBTI-C was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (3.3 mM) but only weakly by iodoacetate (9 mM) and not at all by pepstatin A (9 microM), leupeptin (18 microM), or EDTA (5 mM). These results suggest the involvement of proteinases other than the major endopeptidase of the germinating seed, vicilin peptidohydrolase. This conclusion is further supported by gel filtration of the extracts of cotyledons on Sephacryl S-200. At least three proteinases are present in germinated cotyledons capable of modifying MBTI-F to MBTI-C and/or -E. All are distinguishable from vicilin peptidohydrolase on the basis of their molecular weight and inhibition by low molecular weight organic reagents.

  14. Actin in Mung Bean Mitochondria and Implications for Its Function[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yih-Shan; Cheng, Ning; Hsiao, Lin-June; Annamalai, Arunachalam; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Dai, Hwa; Chiang, Kwen-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Here, a large fraction of plant mitochondrial actin was found to be resistant to protease and high-salt treatments, suggesting it was protected by mitochondrial membranes. A portion of this actin became sensitive to protease or high-salt treatment after removal of the mitochondrial outer membrane, indicating that some actin is located inside the mitochondrial outer membrane. The import of an actin–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein into the mitochondria in a transgenic plant, actin:GFP, was visualized in living cells and demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunoblot analyses. Polymerized actin was found in mitochondria of actin:GFP plants and in mung bean (Vigna radiata). Notably, actin associated with mitochondria purified from early-developing cotyledons during seed germination was sensitive to high-salt and protease treatments. With cotyledon ageing, mitochondrial actin became more resistant to both treatments. The progressive import of actin into cotyledon mitochondria appeared to occur in concert with the conversion of quiescent mitochondria into active forms during seed germination. The binding of actin to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was demonstrated by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Porin and ADP/ATP carrier proteins were also found in mtDNA-protein complexes. Treatment with an actin depolymerization reagent reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered the release of cytochrome C. The potential function of mitochondrial actin and a possible actin import pathway are discussed. PMID:21984697

  15. Protein mobilization in germinating mung bean seeds involves vacuolar sorting receptors and multivesicular bodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junqi; Li, Yubing; Lo, Sze Wan; Hillmer, Stefan; Sun, Samuel S M; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

    2007-04-01

    Plants accumulate and store proteins in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) during seed development and maturation. Upon seed germination, these storage proteins are mobilized to provide nutrients for seedling growth. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of protein degradation during seed germination. Here we test the hypothesis that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins play a role in mediating protein degradation in germinating seeds. We demonstrate that both VSR proteins and hydrolytic enzymes are synthesized de novo during mung bean (Vigna radiata) seed germination. Immunogold electron microscopy with VSR antibodies demonstrate that VSRs mainly locate to the peripheral membrane of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), presumably as recycling receptors in day 1 germinating seeds, but become internalized to the MVB lumen, presumably for degradation at day 3 germination. Chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation with VSR antibodies have identified the cysteine protease aleurain as a specific VSR-interacting protein in germinating seeds. Further confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy studies demonstrate that VSR and aleurain colocalize to MVBs as well as PSVs in germinating seeds. Thus, MVBs in germinating seeds exercise dual functions: as a storage compartment for proteases that are physically separated from PSVs in the mature seed and as an intermediate compartment for VSR-mediated delivery of proteases from the Golgi apparatus to the PSV for protein degradation during seed germination.

  16. Interaction of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides with auxin in mung bean primary root.

    PubMed

    Kollárová, Karin; Vatehová, Zuzana; Slováková, L'udmila; Lisková, Desana

    2010-06-01

    In the present paper timing of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) with exogenously added indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) action on early germination stage (24 h) and primary root elongation of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) has been studied. GGMOs inhibited primary root elongation induced by low concentration (10(-8) M) of IBA. This inhibition was considerably higher after preincubation with GGMOs compared with other timing experiments. The most intensive inhibition of elongation has been ascertained at the 10(-8) M concentration of GGMOs. On the other hand GGMOs stimulated this elongation inhibited by high IBA concentration (10(-4) M). This stimulation was the most intensive by simultaneous addition of IBA and GGMOs at the beginning of the experiment and subsequent seeds incubation in distilled water. Our results indicate competition between GGMOs and auxin. The root growth inhibition, induced by GGMOs and/or IBA, was accompanied by the increase of cell wall-associated peroxidase activity and by a higher number of peroxidase isoenzymes. The presence of different peroxidase isoenzymes in experiments with distinct treatment of GGMOs and IBA could indicate variations in the mechanism of interaction between GGMOs and IBA.

  17. Purification and Characterization of Tonoplast ATPase from Etiolated Mung Bean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, May Yun; Lin, Ya Hui; Chou, Wing Ming; Chung, Tsuey Ping; Pan, Rong Long

    1989-01-01

    The tonoplast ATPase from etiolated seedlings of Vigna radiata L. (mung bean) was isolated using a two-step detergent solubilization modified from Mandala and Taiz (S Mandala, L Taiz [1985] Plant Physiol 78: 327-333). After ultracentrifugation on 10 to 28% sucrose gradient, the ATPase showed a 31.6-fold purification over the initial specific activity of the starting tonoplast-enriched membranes. The purified ATPase used Mg2+-ATP as the preferred substrate. The tonoplast ATPase was isolated in a form with characteristics similar to that on its native membrane environment. Analysis by SDS-PAGE revealed two prominent bands with molecular weights of 78,000 (α subunit) and 64,000 (β subunit). The intensity of Coomassie blue staining showed a 1:1 stoichiometry for α and β subunits. The amino acid composition of α and β subunits also confirmed the suggested stoichiometry of the subunit composition of the tonoplast ATPase. Moreover, radiation inactivation analysis yielded a functional size of 414 ± 24 and 405 ± 25 kilodaltons for soluble and membrane bound tonoplast ATPases, respectively. It is possible that the functioning tonoplast ATPase may be in a form of αβ-heteromultimer. Images Figure 3 PMID:16666796

  18. Seed-borne nature of a begomovirus, Mung bean yellow mosaic virus in black gram.

    PubMed

    Kothandaraman, Satya Vijayalakshmi; Devadason, Alice; Ganesan, Malathi Varagur

    2016-02-01

    The yellow mosaic viruses (YMV) infecting legumes are considered to be the most devastating begomoviruses as they incite considerable yield loss. The yellow discoloration of pods and seeds of infected plants and symptom emergence in the very first trifoliate leaf of the plants in the field were suggestive that the virus may be seed borne, which was investigated in the present study. The distribution of the virus in various parts of the seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) plants naturally infected in the field was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analysis, and sequencing. Nucleotide sequencing of the PCR amplicons from the seed parts from groups of ten seeds revealed the presence of mung bean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) in the seed coat, cotyledon, and embryonic axes. The presence of virion particles was confirmed through double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) even in a single whole seed. In confocal microscopy, positive fluorescent signals were obtained using coat protein gene-specific primers in the embryonic axes. However, in the growth tests performed with the same batch of seeds, there was no symptom development in the seedlings though the virus (both DNA A and B components) was detected in 32 % of tested seedlings. In this study, the MYMV was detected in seed coat, cotyledon, and embryo. This study revealed that the MYMV is a seed-borne virus.

  19. The toxicity and invasive effects of QDs on mung bean development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Peng; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Ruhua; Huang, Xuan; Feng, Gang; Lin, Guimiao; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Gaixia; Chen, Danni

    2014-09-01

    Objective: Nowadays, the nanomaterials have been applied in every aspects of our life, including cosmetics, fresh-keeping, antisepsis and medicines. However, we know little about the toxic effects of nanoparticles towards plants. In this thesis, we synthesized quantum dots (QDs), and then toxicity and invasive effects of QDs for mung beans were investigated. Methods: We synthesised red CdTe QDs in water sphase with L-Cystein stabilizers, then prepared different concentration of QDs solution to cultivate mung bean plant, the radical length of mung beans was measured after four days every day, after 7 days, the distribution of QDs in mung bean plant was recorded under the microscopic. Results: The result showed the QDs inhibited the growth of mung beans, the higher the concentration of QDs was, the greater the inhibition effect was. After 7 days, the radicle average lengths of mung beans in different concentrations of QDs solution - blank 0.1μmol/L 0.2μmol/L 0.5 μmol/L 1 μmol/L - were 19.350+/- 0.427, 14.050+/- 0.879, 10.525+/- 0.554, 7.250+/- 0.522, 7.650+/- 0.229. The QDs mostly adhered onto the root surface and hairs. Conclusion: In conclusion, the QDs synthesized with L-cystein have effects on the growth of mung beans. However, it is necessary to do more experiments to confirm the mechanism of the toxicity effect of QDs on plants.

  20. An ultrasensitive fluorescence method suitable for quantitative analysis of mung bean nuclease and inhibitor screening in vitro and vivo.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lan; Fan, Jialong; Tong, Chunyi; Xie, Zhenhua; Zhao, Chuan; Liu, Xuanming; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Bin

    2016-09-15

    Mung bean nuclease is a single stranded specific DNA and RNA endonuclease purified from mung bean sprouts. It yields 5'-phosphate terminated mono- and oligonucleotides. The activity level of this nuclease can act as a marker to monitor the developmental process of mung bean sprouts. In order to facilitate the activity and physiological analysis of this nuclease, we have developed a biosensing assay system based on the mung bean nuclease-induced single-stranded DNA scission and the affinity difference of graphene oxide for single-stranded DNA containing different numbers of bases. This end-point measurement method can detect mung bean nuclease in a range of 2×10(-4) to 4×10(-2) with a detection limit of 1×10(-4) unit/mL. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the assay for screening chemical antibiotics and metal ions, resulting in the identification of several inhibitors of this enzyme in vitro. Furthermore, we firstly report that inhibiting mung bean nuclease by gentamycin sulfate and kanamycin in vivo can suppress mung bean sprouts growth. In summary, this method provides an alternative tool for the biochemical analysis for mung bean nuclease and indicates the feasibility of high-throughput screening specific inhibitors of this nuclease in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of free amino acids, antioxidants, soluble phenolic acids, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation of fermented mung bean and soybean.

    PubMed

    Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Yeap, Swee-Keong; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Beh, Boon-Kee; Ho, Wan-Yong; Koh, Soo-Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Long, Kamariah

    2016-03-30

    Mung bean and soybean have been individually reported previously to have antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects, while fermentation is a well-known process to enhance the bioactive compounds that contribute to higher antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulation effects. In this study, the free amino acids profile, soluble phenolic acids content, antioxidants, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of fermented and non-fermented mung bean and soybean were compared. Fermented mung bean was recorded to have the highest level of free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids (especially protocatechuic acid) and antioxidant activities among all the tested products. Both fermented mung bean and soybean possessed cytotoxicity activities against breast cancer MCF-7 cells by arresting the G0/G1 phase followed by apoptosis. Moreover, fermented mung bean and soybean also induced splenocyte proliferation and enhanced the levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ. Augmented amounts of free amino acids and phenolic acids content after fermentation enhanced the antioxidants, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation effects of mung bean and soybean. More specifically, fermented mung bean showed the best effects among all the tested products. This study revealed the potential of fermented mung bean and soybean as functional foods for maintenance of good health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The Genetics of Domestication of the Azuki Bean (Vigna angularis)

    PubMed Central

    Kaga, Akito; Isemura, Takehisa; Tomooka, Norihiko; Vaughan, Duncan A.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic differences between azuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis) and its presumed wild ancestor (V. angularis var. nipponensis) were resolved into QTL for traits associated with adaptation to their respective distinct habits. A genetic linkage map constructed using progenies from a cross between Japanese cultivated and wild azuki beans covers 92.8% of the standard azuki bean linkage map. A reciprocal translocation between cultivated and wild azuki bean parents was identified on the basis of the linkage map having a pseudolinkage group and clustering of seed productivity-related QTL with large effect near the presumed breakpoints. In total, 162 QTL were identified for 46 domestication-related traits. Domestication of azuki bean has involved a trade-off between seed number and seed size: fewer but longer pods and fewer but larger seeds on plants with shorter stature in cultivated azuki bean being at the expense of overall seed yield. Genes found related to germination and flowering time in cultivated azuki bean may confer a selective advantage to the hybrid derivatives under some ecological conditions and may explain why azuki bean has evolved as a crop complex in Japan. PMID:18245368

  3. Polyamines-induced aluminum tolerance in mung bean: A study on antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the roles of exogenously applied Spd (0.3 mM spermidine) in alleviating Al (AlCl3, 0.5 mM, 48 and 72 h)- induced injury in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Aluminum toxicity induced oxidative damage overproducing reactive oxygen species (ROS; H2O2 and O2(•-)), increasing lipoxygenase activity and membrane lipid peroxidation. The toxic compound methylglyoxal (MG) also overproduced under Al stress. In order to circumvent Al-induced oxidative stress, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense were activated by the application of exogenous Spd. Exogenous Spd increased ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) content, AsA/dehydroascorbate (DHA) ratio, GSH/ glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) which reduced ROS production and oxidative stress under Al stress. Spd-induced improvement of GSH pool and Gly II activity alleviated injurious effects of MG. Exogenous Spd positively modulated the endogenous PAs level. Regulating the osmoprotectant molecule (proline), Spd improved plant water status under Al stress. Exogenous Spd was potent to prevent breakdown of Al-induced photosynthetic pigment and to improve growth performances under Al stress. The mechanism by which Spd enhances antioxidant and glyoxalase components might be studied extensively. Spermidine-induced protection of photosynthetic pigment from damages and growth enhancement were remarkable and recommended for further detailed study to understand the mechanism.

  4. Ultrasound assisted extraction of polyphenols and their distribution in whole mung bean, hull and cotyledon.

    PubMed

    Singh, Barinderjit; Singh, Narpinder; Thakur, Sheetal; Kaur, Amritpal

    2017-03-01

    In this study, extraction of polyphenols using different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and water) with ultrasound and conventional method from whole mung bean (WMB), hull and cotyledon was conducted. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), total antioxidant activities (TAA), ferric reducing power (FRP) and DPPH radical scavenging activity were determined. Ultrasound treated extracts exhibited higher TPC, TFC, TAA, FRP and DPPH in different mung bean fractions than CSE. Among the solvents, acetone showed better TPC, TFC, TAA, FRP and DPPH. Hull had significantly higher TPC, TFC, TAA, FRP and DPPH than WMB and cotyledon. Sinapic acid (SA) was the major polyphenol in different fractions. Acetone extract of hull showed high polyphenol content. SA, ferulic acid, catechin, p-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin and luteolin were the major contributors to antioxidant activity of acetone extract. Mung bean hull contained the maximum polyphenols and acetone was observed to be the best extraction medium for polyphenols in combination with ultrasound.

  5. Engineering analysis of the high-density heterotrophic cultivation of mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Tamate, Haruka; Nakai, Ran; Nakamori, Yasuyuki; Esashi, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Yasushi; Tsukada, Yoshihiro; Saito, Mika; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the heterotrophic growth behavior of mung beans cultivated in an individual bed under water supply. The fresh weight of mung beans in the bed was estimated, and changes in temperature, and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were recorded during the cultivation period. The specific growth rate, oxygen uptake rate, and carbon dioxide evolution rate, based on the fresh weight in the bed, were calculated. Growth under heterotrophic cultivation can be classified into the following three stages. Reductions in specific oxygen uptake rate, specific carbon dioxide evolution rate, and specific energy production rate corresponded to that of specific growth rate. Indicators of biological activity related to oxygen and carbon dioxide were evaluated quantitatively for beds under high-density heterotrophic cultivation. Moreover, the results obtained from this study successfully demonstrate that there is a relationship between the growth of mung beans and indicators of biological activity.

  6. Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components.

    PubMed

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Pereira, Jessica da Costa; Castanha, Nanci; Júnior, Manoel Divino da Matta; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-12-19

    The ultrasound technology was successfully used to improve the mass transfer processes on food. However, the study of this technology on the grain hydration and on its main components properties was still not appropriately described. This work studied the application of the ultrasound technology on the hydration process of mung beans (Vigna radiata). This grain showed sigmoidal hydration behavior with a specific water entrance pathway. The ultrasound reduced ~25% of the hydration process time. In addition, this technology caused acceleration of the seed germination - and some hypothesis for this enhancement were proposed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the ultrasound did not change both structure and pasting properties of the bean starch. Finally, the flour rheological properties proved that the ultrasound increased its apparent viscosity, and as the starch was not modified, this alteration was attributed to the proteins. All these results are very desirable for industry since the ultrasound technology improves the hydration process without altering the starch properties, accelerates the germination process (that is important for the malting and sprouting process) and increases the flour apparent viscosity, which is desirable to produce bean-based products that need higher consistency.

  7. Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components

    PubMed Central

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Pereira, Jessica da Costa; Castanha, Nanci; Júnior, Manoel Divino da Matta; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound technology was successfully used to improve the mass transfer processes on food. However, the study of this technology on the grain hydration and on its main components properties was still not appropriately described. This work studied the application of the ultrasound technology on the hydration process of mung beans (Vigna radiata). This grain showed sigmoidal hydration behavior with a specific water entrance pathway. The ultrasound reduced ~25% of the hydration process time. In addition, this technology caused acceleration of the seed germination – and some hypothesis for this enhancement were proposed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the ultrasound did not change both structure and pasting properties of the bean starch. Finally, the flour rheological properties proved that the ultrasound increased its apparent viscosity, and as the starch was not modified, this alteration was attributed to the proteins. All these results are very desirable for industry since the ultrasound technology improves the hydration process without altering the starch properties, accelerates the germination process (that is important for the malting and sprouting process) and increases the flour apparent viscosity, which is desirable to produce bean-based products that need higher consistency. PMID:27991545

  8. Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Pereira, Jessica Da Costa; Castanha, Nanci; Júnior, Manoel Divino Da Matta; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-12-01

    The ultrasound technology was successfully used to improve the mass transfer processes on food. However, the study of this technology on the grain hydration and on its main components properties was still not appropriately described. This work studied the application of the ultrasound technology on the hydration process of mung beans (Vigna radiata). This grain showed sigmoidal hydration behavior with a specific water entrance pathway. The ultrasound reduced ~25% of the hydration process time. In addition, this technology caused acceleration of the seed germination - and some hypothesis for this enhancement were proposed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the ultrasound did not change both structure and pasting properties of the bean starch. Finally, the flour rheological properties proved that the ultrasound increased its apparent viscosity, and as the starch was not modified, this alteration was attributed to the proteins. All these results are very desirable for industry since the ultrasound technology improves the hydration process without altering the starch properties, accelerates the germination process (that is important for the malting and sprouting process) and increases the flour apparent viscosity, which is desirable to produce bean-based products that need higher consistency.

  9. Datasets of mung bean proteins and metabolites from four different cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Akiko; Zhu, Wei; Tian, Jingkui; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-08-01

    Plants produce a wide array of nutrients that exert synergistic interaction among whole combinations of nutrients. Therefore comprehensive nutrient profiling is required to evaluate their nutritional/nutraceutical value and health promoting effect. In order to obtain such datasets for mung bean, which is known as a medicinal plant with heat alleviating effect, proteomic and metabolomic analyses were performed using four cultivars from China, Thailand, and Myanmar. In total, 449 proteins and 210 metabolic compounds were identified in seed coat; whereas 480 proteins and 217 metabolic compounds were detected in seed flesh, establishing the first comprehensive dataset of mung bean for nutraceutical evaluation.

  10. Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in elongating cortical cells of mung bean roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in primary roots of 2-day-old mung bean (Vigna mungo L. cv. black matpe) seedlings were investigated using glass microelectrodes held by 3-dimensional hydraulic micro-drives. The electrodes were inserted into outer cortical cells within the elongation zone. Intracellular potentials, angle of root orientation with respect to gravity, and position within the root of the impaled cortical cell were measured simultaneously. Gravistimulation caused intracellular potential changes in cortical cells of the elongation zone. When the roots were oriented vertically, the intracellular potentials of the outer cortical cells (2 mm behind the root apex) were approximately - 115 mV. When the roots were placed horizontally cortical cells on the upper side hyperpolarized to - 154 mV within 30 s while cortical cells on the lower side depolarized to about - 62 mV. This electrical asymmetry did not occur in cells of the maturation zone. Because attempts to insert the electrode into cells of the root cap were unsuccessful, these cells were not measured. The hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the upper side was greatly reduced upon application of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of respiratory energy coupling. When stimulated roots were returned to the vertical, the degree of hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the previous upper side decreased within 30 s and approached that of cortical cells in non-stimulated roots. This cycle of hyperpolarization/loss of hyperpolarization was repeatable at least ten times by alternately turning the root from the vertical to the horizontal and back again. The very short (<30 s) lag period of these electrical changes indicates that they may result from stimulus-perception and transduction within the elongation zone rather than from transmission of a signal from the root cap.

  11. Solubilization of an Arabinan Arabinosyltransferase Activity from Mung Bean Hypocotyls1

    PubMed Central

    Nunan, Kylie Joy; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2003-01-01

    The biosynthesis of polysaccharides destined for the plant cell wall and the subsequent assembly of the cell wall are poorly understood processes that are currently the focus of much research. Arabinan, a component of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I, is composed of arabinosyl residues connected via various glycosidic linkages, and therefore, the biosynthesis of arabinan is likely to involve more than one arabinosyltransferase. We have studied the transfer of [14C]arabinose (Ara) from UDP-l-arabinopyranose onto polysaccharides using microsomal membranes isolated from mung bean (Vigna radiata) hypocotyls. [14C]arabinosyl and [14C]xylosyl residues were incorporated into endogenous products due to the presence of UDP-Xyl-4-epimerase activity. Enzymatic digestion of endogenous products with endo-arabinanase released very little radiolabeled sugars, whereas digestion with arabinofuranosidase released some [14C]Ara. Microsomal membranes solubilized with the detergent octyl glucoside were able to add a single [14C]Ara residue onto (1→5)-linked α-l-arabino-oligosaccharide acceptors. The reaction had a pH optimum of 6.5 and a requirement for manganese ions. However, enzymatic digestion of the radiolabeled oligosaccharides with endo-arabinanase and arabinofuranosidases could not fully release the radiolabeled Ara residue, indicating that the [14C]Ara residue was not a (1→2)-, (1→3)-, or (1→5)-linked α-l-arabinofuranosyl residue. Rather, mild acid treatment of the product suggested that the radiolabeled Ara residue was in a pyranose conformation, and this result was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography of radiolabeled partially methylated sugars. Using microsomal membranes separated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient, the arabinosyltransferase activity appears to be mainly localized to Golgi membranes. PMID:12746538

  12. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of germinated and fermented mung bean on ethanol-mediated liver damage.

    PubMed

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Long, Kamariah; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Koh, Soo Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean.

  13. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Germinated and Fermented Mung Bean on Ethanol-Mediated Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Long, Kamariah; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Koh, Soo Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean. PMID:23484140

  14. Glutathione-induced drought stress tolerance in mung bean: coordinated roles of the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal detoxification systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Drought is considered one of the most acute environmental stresses presently affecting agriculture. We studied the role of exogenous glutathione (GSH) in conferring drought stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. Binamoog-1) seedlings by examining the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems and physiological features. Six-day-old seedlings were exposed to drought stress (-0.7 MPa), induced by polyethylene glycol alone and in combination with GSH (1 mM) for 24 and 48 h. Drought stress decreased seedling dry weight and leaf area; resulted in oxidative stress as evidenced by histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and [Formula: see text] in the leaves; increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), reactive oxygen species like H2O2 content and [Formula: see text] generation rate and lipoxygenase activity; and increased the MG level. Drought decreased leaf succulence, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC); increased proline (Pro); decreased ascorbate (AsA); increased endogenous GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content; decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio; increased ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities; and decreased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and catalase. The activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) increased due to drought stress. In contrast to drought stress alone, exogenous GSH enhanced most of the components of the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in drought-affected mung bean seedlings at 24 h, but GSH did not significantly affect AsA, Pro, RWC, leaf succulence and the activities of Gly I and DHAR after 48 h of stress. Thus, exogenous GSH supplementation with drought significantly enhanced the antioxidant components and successively reduced oxidative damage, and GSH up-regulated the glyoxalase system and reduced MG toxicity, which played a significant role in improving the physiological

  15. Glutathione-induced drought stress tolerance in mung bean: coordinated roles of the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal detoxification systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered one of the most acute environmental stresses presently affecting agriculture. We studied the role of exogenous glutathione (GSH) in conferring drought stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. Binamoog-1) seedlings by examining the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems and physiological features. Six-day-old seedlings were exposed to drought stress (−0.7 MPa), induced by polyethylene glycol alone and in combination with GSH (1 mM) for 24 and 48 h. Drought stress decreased seedling dry weight and leaf area; resulted in oxidative stress as evidenced by histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and O2⋅− in the leaves; increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), reactive oxygen species like H2O2 content and O2⋅− generation rate and lipoxygenase activity; and increased the MG level. Drought decreased leaf succulence, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC); increased proline (Pro); decreased ascorbate (AsA); increased endogenous GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content; decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio; increased ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities; and decreased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and catalase. The activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) increased due to drought stress. In contrast to drought stress alone, exogenous GSH enhanced most of the components of the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in drought-affected mung bean seedlings at 24 h, but GSH did not significantly affect AsA, Pro, RWC, leaf succulence and the activities of Gly I and DHAR after 48 h of stress. Thus, exogenous GSH supplementation with drought significantly enhanced the antioxidant components and successively reduced oxidative damage, and GSH up-regulated the glyoxalase system and reduced MG toxicity, which played a significant role in improving the physiological features and drought

  16. Proteomics and metabolomics-driven pathway reconstruction of mung bean for nutraceutical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Akiko; Zhu, Wei; Tian, Jingkui; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-08-01

    Mung bean is a legume crop which has a various health-promoting effects. Although rich flavonoids are reported to be responsible for its biological activities, little is known about other nutrients that may potentiate the activities. To obtain information on mung bean nutritional properties, gel-free/label-free proteomic analysis and metabolomic profiling were combined. Pathway reconstruction detected that amino acid metabolism is more active in flesh. Coat contained wider variety of lipids and phenolic acids/flavonoids than flesh. Among the compounds detected in coat, sphingolipids, arachidonic acid, and prostaglandin E2 are compounds which are related to immune response induction. Furthermore, identification of prostaglandin F2α added scientific support to empirical validity of mung bean usage. The abundance of bioactive compounds such as naringenin, which can be metabolized into vitexin, varied among cultivars. These results suggest that lipids together with flavonoids might be potential responsible compounds for biological activity of mung bean coat and flesh. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytotoxicity, Uptake, and Translocation of Fluorescent Carbon Dots in Mung Bean Plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zheng, Yinjian; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Zulang; Su, Wei; Chen, Shi; Liu, Yingliang; Zhuang, Jianle; Lei, Bingfu

    2016-08-10

    Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) have been widely studied in bioscience and bioimaging, but the effect of CDs on plants has been rarely studied. Herein, mung bean was adopted as a model plant to study the phytotoxicity, uptake, and translocation of red emissive CDs in plants. The incubation with CDs at a concentration range from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/mL induced physiological response of mung bean plant and imposed no phytotoxicity on mung bean growth. The lengths of the root and stem presented an increasing trend up to the treatment of 0.4 mg/mL. Confocal imaging showed that CDs were transferred from the roots to the stems and leaves by the vascular system through the apoplastic pathway. The uptake kinetics study was performed and demonstrated that the CDs were abundantly incubated by mung beans during both germination and growth periods. Furthermore, in vivo visualization of CDs provides potential for their successful application as delivery vehicles in plants based on the unique optical properties.

  18. Antioxidant activity in mung bean sprouts and safety of extracts for cosmetic use.

    PubMed

    Dongyan, Tang; Yinmao, Dong; Li, Li; Yueheng, Liu; Congfen, He; Jixiang, Lai

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts was studied in this research. Active ingredients in different lengths of mung bean sprouts were extracted with water. Concentrations of the main proteins and polyphenols were determined. Antioxidizing capacities of the extracts were measured in vitro using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test, ferric reducing antioxidant power method, and chelation abilities of ferrous ion. The safety of the extracts was determined using the red blood cell (RBC) test, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, and human skin patch test. Results show that DPPH radical scavenging rates at different shoot lengths were all greater than 85%, while the total antioxidant capacity of the extracts reached more than 4.0 and the chelation abilities of first-day sprout extract is nearly 80%, indicating that mung bean sprouts have excellent anti-oxygenic property. Results of RBC (hemolysis ratio), CAM (vascular morphological), and human skin patch tests (changed subjects) illustrated extracts of mung bean sprouts are safe and can be used as additives in antiaging cosmetic products.

  19. Characterization and structural analyses of nonspecific lipid transfer protein 1 from mung bean.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ku-Feng; Liu, Yu-Nan; Hsu, Shang-Te D; Samuel, Dharmaraj; Cheng, Chao-Sheng; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

    2005-04-19

    Plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are thermal stable proteins that are capable of transferring lipid molecules between bilayers in vitro. This family of proteins, abundant in plants, is proposed to be involved in defense, pollination, and germination; the in vivo biological function remains, however, elusive. Here we report the purification and sequencing of an nsLTP1 from mung bean sprouts. We have also determined the solution structure of this nsLTP1, which represents the first 3D structure of the dicotyledonous nsLTP1 family. The global fold of mung bean nsLTP1 is similar to those of the monocotyledonous nsLTP1 structures and consists of four alpha-helices stabilized by four disulfide bonds. There are, however, some notable differences in the C-terminal tails and internal hydrophobic cavities. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to compare the thermodynamics and lipid transfer properties of mung bean nsLTP1 with those of rice nsLTP1. Docking of a lipid molecule into the solution structure of mung bean nsLTP1 reveals similar binding cavities and hydrophobic interactions as in rice nsLTP1, consistent with their comparable lipid transfer properties measured experimentally.

  20. The effects of bathophenanthroline, bathophenanthrolinesulphonate and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone on mung-bean mitochondria and submitochondrial particles.

    PubMed

    Rich, P R; Moore, A L; Bonner, W D

    1977-01-15

    The effects of bathophenanthroline, bathophenanthrolinesulphonate and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone on mung-bean mitochondria and submitochondrial particles were investigated. A variety of inhibitory effects on the oxidations of NADH, succinate and malate were observed. The results are discussed in relation to sites of inhibition and their relation to the effects on mammalian mitochondria.

  1. iTRAQ analysis of low-phytate mung bean sprouts treated with sodium citrate, sodium acetate and sodium tartrate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaolin; Yang, Runqiang; Guo, Liping; Wang, Xinkun; Yan, Xiaokun; Gu, Zhenxin

    2017-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate (SC), sodium acetate (SA) and sodium tartrate (ST) spraying on mung bean germination were investigated. Exogenous SC, ST and SA treatments significantly reduced the phytic acid content and increased the antioxidant enzyme activities. In this study, an iTRAQ-based proteomic approach was employed to explore the proteomes of mung bean sprouts, and 81, 101 and 90 differentially expressed proteins were identified in 4-day-old SC-, SA- and ST-treated mung bean sprouts, with 38 proteins present in all samples. Functional classification analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed proteins in mung bean sprouts subjected to the three treatments were involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism. The inhibitory effect of the SA treatment was probably due to impairments in protein biosynthesis, whereas enhanced energy metabolism, accelerated reserve hydrolysis and protein processing were very important strategies for growth stimulation in response to ST and SC treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In Vivo Immunomodulation and Lipid Peroxidation Activities Contributed to Chemoprevention Effects of Fermented Mung Bean against Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory effects in vitro. Fermented products are reported to have enhanced immunomodulation and cancer chemopreventive effects. In this study, fermented mung bean treatments in vivo were studied by monitoring tumor development, spleen immunity, serum cytokine (interleukin 2 and interferon gamma) levels, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels after injection with low and high risk 4T1 breast cancer cells. Pretreatment with fermented mung bean was associated with delayed tumor formation in low risk mice. Furthermore, this treatment was connected with higher serum anticancer cytokine levels, spleen T cell populations, splenocyte cytotoxicity, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels. Histopathological evaluation of fermented mung bean treated tumor revealed lower event of mitotic division. On the other hand, antioxidant and nitric oxide levels that were significantly increased in the untreated mice were inhibited in the fermented mung bean treated groups. These results suggested that fermented mung bean has potential cancer chemoprevention effects through the stimulation of immunity, lipid peroxidation, and anti-inflammation.

  3. In Vivo Immunomodulation and Lipid Peroxidation Activities Contributed to Chemoprevention Effects of Fermented Mung Bean against Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory effects in vitro. Fermented products are reported to have enhanced immunomodulation and cancer chemopreventive effects. In this study, fermented mung bean treatments in vivo were studied by monitoring tumor development, spleen immunity, serum cytokine (interleukin 2 and interferon gamma) levels, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels after injection with low and high risk 4T1 breast cancer cells. Pretreatment with fermented mung bean was associated with delayed tumor formation in low risk mice. Furthermore, this treatment was connected with higher serum anticancer cytokine levels, spleen T cell populations, splenocyte cytotoxicity, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels. Histopathological evaluation of fermented mung bean treated tumor revealed lower event of mitotic division. On the other hand, antioxidant and nitric oxide levels that were significantly increased in the untreated mice were inhibited in the fermented mung bean treated groups. These results suggested that fermented mung bean has potential cancer chemoprevention effects through the stimulation of immunity, lipid peroxidation, and anti-inflammation. PMID:23710232

  4. Isolation of a cDNA Clone for alpha-Amylase in Mung Bean Cotyledons : Analysis of alpha-Amylase mRNA Levels in Cotyledons during and following Germination of Mung Bean Seeds.

    PubMed

    Koizuka, N; Tanaka, Y; Morohashi, Y

    1990-11-01

    A cDNA was isolated that codes for alpha-amylase in mung bean (Vigna radiata) cotyledons, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence (421 amino acid residues) is about 65% homologous with those of barley alpha-amylases. By comparing the deduced sequence with the sequence of the purified alpha-amylase, it was inferred that 23 N-terminal amino acids of a nascent polypeptide represent a signal peptide. Northern blot analysis showed that the levels of alpha-amylase mRNA are in parallel with the activities of alpha-amylase synthesis in cotyledons. Under the conditions where the solute leakage from cotyledons is accelerated during imbibition, a rapid increase in the amount of the alpha-amylase mRNA occurs. We postulate that a factor(s) which regulates in an inhibitory manner the alpha-amylase expression at the transcriptional level may be present in dry cotyledons and be removed by leakage.

  5. Storage globulins pass through the Golgi apparatus and multivesicular bodies in the absence of dense vesicle formation during early stages of cotyledon development in mung bean

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Yu Chung; Hinz, Giselbert; Robinson, David G.; Jiang, Liwen

    2012-01-01

    During seed development and maturation, large amounts of storage proteins are synthesized and deposited in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs). Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to be responsible for transporting storage proteins to PSVs in developing seeds. In this study, a specific antibody was raised against the mung bean (Vigna radiata) seed storage protein 8S globulin and its deposition was followed via immunogold electron microscopy in developing mung bean cotyledons. It is demonstrated that non-aggregated 8S globulins are present in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in early stages of cotyledon development where neither dense vesicles (DVs) nor a PSV were recognizable. However, at later stages of cotyledon development, condensed globulins were visible in both DVs and distinct MVBs with a novel form of partitioning, with the internal vesicles being pushed to one sector of this organelle. These distinct MVBs were no longer sensitive to wortmannin. This study thus indicates a possible role for MVBs in transporting storage proteins to PSVs during the early stage of seed development prior to the involvement of DVs. In addition, wortmannin treatment is shown to induce DVs to form aggregates and to fuse with the plasma membrane. PMID:22143915

  6. Organophosphorus acid anhydrolase in slime mold, duckweed and mung bean: a continuing search for a physiological role and a natural substrate.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, F C; Walker, J E; Mello, C M

    1999-05-14

    Recently, and for the first time, a diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP)-hydrolyzing enzyme, i.e. an organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA), has been reported in a plant-source. Based on this and other suggestive evidence, the ability of three plant sources and a protist to hydrolyze DFP and 1,2,2-trimethylpropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman) were tested, and the effects of Mn2+ and ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) on this activity. The plants are duckweed (Lemna minor), giant duckweed (Spirodela oligorhiza), and germinated mung bean (Vigna radiata); the protist is a slime mold (Dictyostelium discoidium). The tests are based on a crude classification of OPAAs as 'squid type' (DFP hydrolyzed more rapidly than Soman) and all of the others termed by us, with questionable justification, as 'Mazur type' (Soman hydrolyzed more rapidly than DFP). Of the two duckweeds, Spirodela oligorhiza hydrolyzes Soman but not DFP, and Lemna minor does not hydrolyze either substrate. In contrast to the report of Yu and Sakurai, mung bean does not hydrolyze DFP and hydrolyzes Soman with a 5-fold stimulation by Mn2+ and a marked inhibition by EDTA. The slime mold hydrolyzes Soman more rapidly than DFP (but does hydrolyze DFP) and the hydrolysis is Mn2+ stimulated. The failure of these plant sources to hydrolyze DFP is similar to the behavior of OPAA from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

  7. Effect of transgenic rhizobacteria overexpressing Citrobacter braakii appA on phytate-P availability to mung bean plants.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kuldeep J; Vig, Saurabh; Naresh Kumar, G; Archana, G

    2010-11-01

    Rhizosphere microorganisms possessing phytase activity are considered important for rendering phytate-P available to plants. In the present study, Citrobacter braakii phytase gene (appA) was over-expressed in rhizobacteria possessing plant growth promoting (PGP) traits for increasing their potential as bioinoculants. AppA was cloned under the lac promoter in the broad host-range expression vector pBBR1MCS2. Transformation of the recombinant construct pCBappA resulted in high constitutive phytase activity in all of the eight rhizobacterial strains belonging to genera Pantoea, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas (two strains), Rhizobium (two strains) and Ensifer that were studied. Transgenic rhizobacterial strains were found to display varying level of phytase activity, ranging from 10 folds to 538 folds higher than the corresponding control strains. Transgenic derivative of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, a well-characterized plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, showed highest expression of phytase (~8 U/ mg) activity in crude extracts. Although all transformants showed high phytase activity, rhizobacteria having ability to secrete organic acid, showed significantly higher release of P from Ca-phytate in buffered minimal media. AppA over-expressing rhizobacteria showed increased P content, dry weight (shoot) or shoot/ root ratio of mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants, to different extents, when grown in semi solid agar (SSA) medium containing Na-phytate or Ca-phytate as the P sources. This is the first report of over-expression of phytase in rhizobacterial strains and its exploitation for plant growth enhancement.

  8. Chilling-Induced Inactivation and Its Recovery of Tonoplast H+-ATPase in Mung Bean Cell Suspension Cultures 12

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Shizuo

    1991-01-01

    The processes involved in adaptation to cold temperature were examined by growing suspension cultured cells of mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek) at 2°C for various periods of time and assaying the activities of various membrane-bound enzymes in vitro. The tonoplast H+-ATPase activity and the ATP-proton transport extracted from cells incubated at 2°C declined rapidly and reached a minimum level after 10 hours. The inactivation was reversible within 24 hours of chilling. The recovery of the cold-inactivated H+-ATPase was found to proceed in two steps, a faster recovery of ATP hydrolysis activity and a slower recovery of the proton transport. The recovery was markedly inhibited by the presence of azide, but not affected by 0.578 millimolar cycloheximide. This suggested the involvement of an energy process that had no requirement for de novo synthesis of protein. The cold-induced inactivation of the H+-ATPase may be due to a structural alteration of the enzyme. The slower recovery of proton transport relative to ATP hydrolysis during warming suggests that the protogenic domains in the enzyme may be affected differently by chilling. PMID:16668005

  9. Protein Mobilization in Germinating Mung Bean Seeds Involves Vacuolar Sorting Receptors and Multivesicular Bodies1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junqi; Li, Yubing; Lo, Sze Wan; Hillmer, Stefan; Sun, Samuel S.M.; Robinson, David G.; Jiang, Liwen

    2007-01-01

    Plants accumulate and store proteins in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) during seed development and maturation. Upon seed germination, these storage proteins are mobilized to provide nutrients for seedling growth. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of protein degradation during seed germination. Here we test the hypothesis that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins play a role in mediating protein degradation in germinating seeds. We demonstrate that both VSR proteins and hydrolytic enzymes are synthesized de novo during mung bean (Vigna radiata) seed germination. Immunogold electron microscopy with VSR antibodies demonstrate that VSRs mainly locate to the peripheral membrane of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), presumably as recycling receptors in day 1 germinating seeds, but become internalized to the MVB lumen, presumably for degradation at day 3 germination. Chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation with VSR antibodies have identified the cysteine protease aleurain as a specific VSR-interacting protein in germinating seeds. Further confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy studies demonstrate that VSR and aleurain colocalize to MVBs as well as PSVs in germinating seeds. Thus, MVBs in germinating seeds exercise dual functions: as a storage compartment for proteases that are physically separated from PSVs in the mature seed and as an intermediate compartment for VSR-mediated delivery of proteases from the Golgi apparatus to the PSV for protein degradation during seed germination. PMID:17322331

  10. A novel protein from mung bean hypocotyl cell walls with acetyl esterase activity.

    PubMed

    Bordenave, M; Goldberg, R; Huet, J C; Pernollet, J C

    1995-01-01

    An acetyl esterase was purified from cell walls isolated from mung bean hypocotyls. The purified enzyme had an apparent Mr of 43,300 and an apparent pI > 9. It rapidly deesterified triacetin and p-nitrophenylacetate and slowly released acetate from beet and flax pectins, the deesterification rate being increased by previous demethylation of the pectins. No significant peptide sequence identity between the acetyl esterase and any known protein could be found in protein data bases.

  11. Application of electrolyzed water on reducing the microbial populations on commercial mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Yu, Zhang-Long

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) for reducing total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold counts on commercial mung bean sprouts was investigated. The impact of pH, available chlorine concentration (ACC) and the cleaning method on antimicrobial efficacy of AEW was studied. AEW with a pH of 4.47 reduced the total bacterial, coliform, and yeast and mold counts on mung bean sprouts by 1.23, 1.42 and 1.25 log CFU/g, respectively. The efficacy of AEW increased with increasing ACC, and further studies showed that its antimicrobial ability was based on a combination of pH and ACC values. Cleaning using ultrasonic waves enhanced the antimicrobial activity of electrolyzed water, achieving reduction of 2.46, 2.13 and 2.92 log CFU/g for total bacterial, yeast and mold, and coliform counts, respectively. These results have indicated that using ultrasonic waves as a cleaning method, combined with AEW, could be a promising way to reduce the microbial populations on mung bean sprouts.

  12. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha(-1)), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m(-1)). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha(-1) resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Yeap, Swee-Keong; Ho, Wan-Yong; Beh, Boon-Kee; Long, Kamariah; Koh, Soo-Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated mung bean (MB), germinated mung bean (GMB), and fermented mung bean (FMB) was performed on both in vitro (inhibition of inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide(NO)) and in vivo (inhibition of ear oedema and reduction of response to pain stimulus) studies. Results showed that both GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro results showed that GMB and FMB were potent inflammatory mediator (NO) inhibitors at both 2.5 and 5 mg/mL. Further in vivo studies showed that GMB and FMB aqueous extract at 1000 mg/kg can significantly reduce ear oedema in mice caused by arachidonic acid. Besides, both 200 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg concentrations of GMB and FMB were found to exhibit potent antinociceptive effects towards hotplate induced pain. With these, it can be concluded that GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.

  14. Removal of pesticides from wastewater at golf courses using plants (removal by mung beans; Phaseolus radiatus L).

    PubMed

    Azuma, T; Niiro, M; Motobu, H

    1994-01-01

    Many studies have been done on the removal of pollutants from wastewater using aquatic plants. Water hyacinth has been the most widely-used plant, and systems using water hyacinth are well-established. These systems, however, have a few problems in their practical use. In a previous paper, we proposed a new system that could be used as a substitute for a conventional system or, as a secondary system to assist the conventional one. Mung beans will be used to remove pollutants in this system. In the previous experiment, the removal characteristics of nutrient salts such as NO2-, NO3-, NH4+ and phosphorus salts from wastewater in residential areas were examined. Mung beans exhibited good characteristics for removing these nutrient salts. At present, pesticides used at golf courses have become a severe environmental problem polluting water supplies. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to verify whether our new system using mung beans was also effective in removing pesticides from wastewater at golf courses. An experiment was conducted on seven different pesticides. They were three insecticides; Diazinon, Fenitrothion and Chlorpyrifos, three fungicides; Captan, Isoprothiolane and Chlorothalonil, and a herbicide; Simazine. The experimental results showed that, under experimental conditions, the pesticides were rapidly removed and that they exhibited no harmful effects on the growth of the mung beans. Mung beans may be used, therefore, to remove pesticides from wastewater at golf courses although further research is needed.

  15. Interaction of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium and mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Chandra, Mudit; Agarwal, Ravikant

    2005-03-01

    The effect of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium, a zoonotic serovar, on mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) cultivar Pant Mung-3 plants was studied. Inoculation of mung bean seeds with Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2 x 10(5) CFU/ml) reduced sprouting rate (P < 0.07). This effect was more pronounced at higher levels of contamination. In the soil inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2 x 10(6) CFU/g), germination was retarded and the number of defective sprouts was also significantly higher (P < 0.002). Salmonella Typhimurium grew inside germinating seeds and plant tissues and persisted in seedlings, adult plants, and harvested seedlings dried and stored at room temperature (30 degrees C) up to 45 days. Phaseolus aureus plants grown in sterile soil was resistant to Salmonella Typhimurium infection at 15 days of age and cleared Salmonella from all the aerial parts within 3 h of infection. However, Salmonella Typhimurium could be reisolated from the basal area of the stem and from soil even after 45 days of exposure to the pathogen.

  16. Polyamine and nitric oxide crosstalk: Antagonistic effects on cadmium toxicity in mung bean plants through upregulating the metal detoxification, antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a serious agricultural and environmental hazard. The study investigates cross-protection roles of putrescine (Put, 0.2 mM) and nitric oxide (sodium nitroprusside; SNP, 1 mM) in conferring Cd (CdCl2, 1.5 mM) tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2) seedlings. Cadmium stress increased root and shoot Cd content, reduced growth, destroyed chlorophyll (chl), modulated proline (Pro) and reduced leaf relative water content (RWC), increased oxidative damage [lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2(∙-) generation rate, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity], methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity. Put and/or SNP reduced Cd uptake, increasd phytochelatin (PC) content, reduced oxidative damage enhancing non-enzymatic antioxidants (AsA and GSH) and activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)]. Exogenous Put and/or SNP modulated endogenous polyamines, PAs (putrescine, Put; spermidine, Spd; spermine, Spm), and NO; improved glyoxalase system in detoxifying MG and improved physiology and growth where combined application showed better effects which designates possible crosstalk between NO and PAs to confer Cd-toxicity tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of pinoresinol diglucoside, pinoresinol monoglucoside, and pinoresinol by Phomopsis sp. XP-8 using mung bean and its major components.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Shi, Junling; Gao, Zhenhong; Yangwu, Ruiming; Jiang, Huanshi; Che, Jinxin; Liu, Yanlin

    2015-06-01

    Phomopsis sp. XP-8 is an endophytic fungus that has the ability to produce pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) in vitro and thus has potential application for the biosynthesis of PDG independent of plants. When cultivated in mung bean medium, PDG production was significantly improved and pinoresinol monoglucoside (PMG) and pinoresinol (Pin) were also found in the culture medium. In this experiment, starch, protein, and polysaccharides were isolated from mung beans and separately used as the sole substrate in order to explore the mechanism of fermentation and identify the major substrates that attributed to the biotransformation of PDG, PMG, and Pin. The production of PDG, PMG, and Pin was monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and confirmed using HPLC-MS. Activities of related enzymes, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) were analyzed and tracked during the cultivation. The reaction system contained the compounds isolated from mung bean in the designed amount. Accumulation of phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, PDG, PMG, and Pin and the activities of PAL, C4H, and 4CL were measured during the bioconversion. PMG was found only when mung bean polysaccharide was analyzed, while production of PDG and Pin were found when both polysaccharide and starch were analyzed. After examining the monosaccharide composition of the mung bean polysaccharide and the effect of the different monosaccharides had on the production of PMG, PDG, and Pin, galactose in mung bean polysaccharide proved to be the major factor that stimulates the production of PMG.

  18. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H.; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry. PMID:27379151

  19. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P < 0.05). Preintervention methods lowered the level of internalized Salmonella by 1.84 log CFU/g (P < 0.05), whereas postintervention methods were ineffective in eliminating internalized pathogens. Preintervention did not completely inactivate bacteria in sprouts and demonstrated that the remaining Salmonella Typhimurium in water became more resistant to UV. Because postharvest intervention methods are ineffective, proper procedures for maintaining clean irrigation water must be followed

  20. Ames Research Center views of Oats, Slash-Pine and Mung bean seedlings STS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Young oat seedlings are shown in a ground laboratory after being flown into space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-3 in March of 1982. All plants were part of the experimental Plant Growth Unit. They appear to have grown to look similar to the control seedlings on earth. A few small roots can be seen growing upward from the soil (33915); Young slash-pine seedlings are shown upon returning from the STS-3 mission (33916); Mung bean seedlings are shown after their return from space aboard the STS-3 (37917).

  1. Ames Research Center views of Oats, Slash-Pine and Mung bean seedlings STS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Young oat seedlings are shown in a ground laboratory after being flown into space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-3 in March of 1982. All plants were part of the experimental Plant Growth Unit. They appear to have grown to look similar to the control seedlings on earth. A few small roots can be seen growing upward from the soil (33915); Young slash-pine seedlings are shown upon returning from the STS-3 mission (33916); Mung bean seedlings are shown after their return from space aboard the STS-3 (37917).

  2. Physiological investigation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards Chinese mung bean.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Xuan; Liu, Ling; Liu, Chong; He, Shi-Ying; Huang, Jin; Li, Jun-Li; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Xing-Jiu; Gu, Ning

    2011-10-01

    While few publications have documented systematic physiological effects of nanoparticles on plant cells and tissues, this is the first study describing a detailed evidence of impact of gamma-Fe2O3 magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) on Chinese mung bean plants by measuring the physiological parameters such as germination, root activity, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), content of chlorophyll, soluble protein, and content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Our results will help answer the question on how both positive and negative or inconsequential effects take place in plants after treatment by the nutrient solution containing nanoparticles.

  3. Physical mapping and molecular cloning of mung bean yellow mosaic virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, T; Ikegami, M; Miura, K

    1990-01-01

    Viral single-stranded DNA of mung bean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) was converted to the double-stranded state in vitro, and physical mapping was carried out. The genome of MYMV was found to consist of two major components (designated as DNA 1 and DNA 2). In addition, some minor components were detected. Molecular cloning of the major components was carried out, using in vitro double-stranded DNA and replicative intermediate DNAs. DNA 1 is about 2.72 and DNA 2 about 2.67 kilobase pairs. No similarities were observed when the two restriction maps of DNA 1 and 2 were compared.

  4. Metabolism of Inositol Phosphates: I. Phytase Synthesis during Germination in Cotyledons of Mung Beans, Phaseolus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mandal, N C; Biswas, B B

    1970-01-01

    The degradation of phytin in germinating mung bean seeds has been found to be associated with the increased activity of phytase in the cotyledon. In the differentiated embryo the increase of this activity is very low all throughout the growth periods studied. Phytase appears in the cotyledon during germination. No activity has been detected in the cotyledons of unsoaked seeds. Cycloheximide (10(-6) M) inhibits the appearance of phytase by 61% during 24 and 48 hours after the start of germination. This phytase increase is dependent on the synthesis of new RNA in the cotyledon. Synthesis of DNA is not detected in the cotyledon during germination.

  5. Consumption habits and innovation potential of mung bean foods in Hisar District of Haryana State, India.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Pradeep K; Linnemann, Anita R; Nout, Martinus J R; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Khetarpaul, Neelam K; Grewal, Raj B

    2014-01-01

    Consumption habits for mung bean foods were assessed by the free word association method and interview techniques. Four groups of closely related products and perceived quality were revealed. The largest group comprised sweets and snacks, which were associated with unhealthiness, expensiveness and sensory liking. Another group consisted of split dhals associated with convenience and healthiness. It appeared that under different circumstances food choices vary and are influenced more by socioeconomic restrictions then by consumer perception and preferences. Scenario analysis based on consumer perception, preferences, practices and nutritional value of products revealed dhals as the most promising food for innovation.

  6. The endoplasmic reticulum of mung-bean cotyledons: Quantitative morphology of cisternal and tubular ER during seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Harris, N; Chrispeels, M J

    1980-04-01

    The ultrastructure of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in storage parenchyma cells in the cotyledons of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) was examined during germination and seedling growth. Two different methods were used to visualize the ER: thin (0.08 μm) sections of tissue fixed in formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde and post-fixed with osmium tetroxide, and thick (1 μm) sections of tissue fixed in buffered aldehyde and post-fixed with zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide (ZIO). Changes in relative amounts of ER were quantified by morphometry (stereology).The ER occurs in two forms: a cisternal form with associated ribosomes which can be seen at all stages from imbibition to cotyledon senescence, and a tubular form which initially has associated ribosomes. Stereoscopic images of thick sections of cotyledons of 2-day-old seedlings show that the tubular ER consists of a three-dimensional array of interconnecting tubules which have numerous connections with the cisternal ER. The network of tubules and cisternae extends throughout the cytoplasm enveloping the protein bodies. Germination and seedling growth are accompanied by a reduction in the total volume occupied by the ER. This reduction is the result of a preferential loss of tubular ER and occurs largely before protein mobilization. Cisternal ER decreases during the first 48 h of imbibition and seedling growth, but storage cells subsequently show an increase in cisternal ER just prior to and during the period of protein mobilization. Cisternal ER remains conspicuous during the last phase of reserve mobilization when starch is broken down and the cells are starting autophagy.

  7. Possible Role of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) Deaminase Activity of Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 on Symbiosis with Mung Bean and Determinate Nodule Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Tittabutr, Panlada; Sripakdi, Sudarat; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Teaumroong, Neung

    2015-01-01

    Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 forms symbiotic interactions with mung bean (Vigna radiata) and contains lrpL-acdS genes, which encode the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase enzyme that cleaves ACC, a precursor of plant ethylene synthesis. Since ethylene interferes with nodule formation in some legumes and plays a role in senescence in plant cells, BL3-enhancing ACC deaminase activity (BL3+) and defective mutant (BL3−) strains were constructed in order to investigate the effects of this enzyme on symbiosis and nodule senescence. Nodulation competitiveness was weaker in BL3− than in the wild-type, but was stronger in BL3+. The inoculation of BL3− into mung bean resulted in less plant growth, a lower nodule dry weight, and smaller nodule number than those in the wild-type, whereas the inoculation of BL3+ had no marked effects. However, similar nitrogenase activity was observed with all treatments; it was strongly detected 3 weeks after the inoculation and gradually declined with time, indicating senescence. The rate of plant nodulation by BL3+ increased in a time-dependent manner. Nodules occupied by BL3− formed smaller symbiosomes, and bacteroid degradation was more prominent than that in the wild-type 7 weeks after the inoculation. Changes in biochemical molecules during nodulation were tracked by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy, and the results obtained confirmed that aging processes differed in nodules occupied by BL3 and BL3−. This is the first study to show the possible role of ACC deaminase activity in senescence in determinate nodules. Our results suggest that an increase in ACC deaminase activity in this strain does not extend the lifespan of nodules, whereas the lack of this activity may accelerate nodule senescence. PMID:26657304

  8. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide induces a rapid production of nitric oxide in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).

    PubMed

    Lum, H K; Butt, Y K C; Lo, S C L

    2002-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has recently been identified as an important signaling molecule in plant immune response. The present study aims to investigate the signaling pathway that leads to NO production. Using the NO specific fluorescent dye DAF-2DA, we observed rapid production of NO in mung bean leaves after the addition of 10 mM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). NO was probably produced by a NOS-like enzyme in plants, as the NO production was inhibited by l-NAME, a NOS inhibitor. The NOS-like activity in the total leaf protein preparation of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) was elevated 8.3-fold after 10 mM H(2)O(2) treatment, as demonstrated using the chemiluminescence NOS assay. The NOS-like activity was BH(4) dependent: omitting BH(4) in the reaction mixture of NOS assay reduced the NOS activity by 76%. We also found that the H(2)O(2) induced NO production was mediated via calcium ion flux, as it was blocked in the presence of a calcium ion channel blocker, verapamil. Results from the present study identified H(2)O(2) as an upstream signal that leads to NO production in plants. H(2)O(2) and NO, besides acting as two independent signaling molecules in plant immune response, may interrelate to form an oxidative cell death (OCD) cycle.

  10. Ca(2+) influxes and transmembrane transport are essential for phytic acid degradation in mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Wang, Xinyue; Gu, Zhenxin

    2017-09-19

    Phytic acid is considered as an antinutrient. Ca(2+) addition during germination has been proved to be an effective method for reducing phytic acid content in seeds. In this study, mung bean sprouts were treated with LaCl3 (La), verapamil (VP), ruthenium red (RR) and CaCl2 to explore the effect of Ca(2+) influxes on phytic acid degradation. 6 mM CaCl2 significantly improved extracellular and intracellular calcium precipitates and calcium content, elevated phytase and acid phosphatase activity and further enhanced phytic acid degradation. Conversely, La, VP or RR induced the opposite results. Among them, RR exhibited the most significant inhibitory effect. Decreased PA, PAP, MIPP and ALP gene expression after VP or RR treatment was also observed. Enhanced or weakened extracellular Ca(2+) influx or intracellular Ca(2+) efflux was detected with increased or decreased calcium precipitates distributed in different compartments. However, CaCl2 addition differentially reversed the inhibitory effects of all channel blockers. CaCl2 enhanced Ca(2+) influxes and accumulation in cells, which contributed to the regulation of phytic acid degradation. This study demonstrated that calcium channels played an essential role in mediating phytic acid degradation in mung bean sprouts and both extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) -regulation were involved in phytic acid degradation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of inverter magnetic fields on early seed germination of mung beans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; Wang, Show-Ran

    2008-12-01

    The biological effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MFs) on living organisms have been explored in many studies. Most of them demonstrate the biological effects caused by 50/60 Hz magnetic fields or pulsed magnetic fields. However, as the development of power electronics flourishes, the magnetic fields induced are usually in other different waveforms. This study aims to assess the effects of magnetic fields generated by inverter systems on the early growth of plants using mung beans as an example. In the experiment, an inverter which can produce sinusoidal pulsed width modulation (SPWM) voltages was used to drive 3 specially made circular coils and an AC motor. Six SPWM voltages with different fundamental frequencies (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 Hz) set on the inverter drive the circuit to produce the specific kinds of MFs. The results indicate that the magnetic field induced by a 20 or 60 Hz SPWM voltage has an enhancing effect on the early growth of mung beans, but the magnetic fields induced by SPWM voltages of other frequencies (30, 40, and 50 Hz) have an inhibitory effect, especially at 50 Hz.

  12. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on mung bean leaf photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters].

    PubMed

    Hao, Xing-yu; Han, Xue; Li, Ping; Yang, Hong-bin; Lin, Er-da

    2011-10-01

    By using free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) system, a pot experiment under field condition was conducted to study the effects of elevated CO2 concentration (550 +/- 60 micromol mol(-1)) on the leaf photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of mung bean. Comparing with the control (CO2 concentration averagely 389 +/- 40 micromol mol(-1)), elevated CO2 concentration increased the leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and net photosynthesis rate (P(n)) at flowering and pod growth stage by 9.8% and 11.7%, decreased the stomatic conductance (G(s)) and transpiration rate (T(r)) by 32.0% and 24.6%, respectively, and increased the water use efficiency (WUE) by 83.5%. Elevated CO2 concentration had lesser effects on the minimal fluorescence (F0), maximal fluorescence (F(m)), variable fluorescence (F(v)), ratio of variable fluorescence to minimal fluorescence (F(v)/F0), and ratio of variable fluorescence to maximal fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)) at bud stage, but increased the F0 at pod filling stage by 19.1% and decreased the Fm, F(v), F(v)/F0, and F(v)/F(m) by 9.0%, 14.3%, 25.8% , and 6.2%, respectively. These results suggested that elevated CO2 concentration could damage the structure of leaf photosystem II and consequently decrease the leaf photosynthetic capacity in the late growth phase of mung bean.

  13. Antidiabetic activity of Mung bean extracts in diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu; Wang, Jiashi; Ren, Guixing

    2008-10-08

    The antidiabetic effects of Mung bean sprout (MBS) extracts and Mung bean seed coat (MBSC) extracts were investigated in type 2 diabetic mice. Male KK-A (y) mice and C57BL/6 mice were used in this study. In KK-A (y) mice, the blood glucose, plasma C-peptide, glucagon, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were significantly higher than those in the C57BL/6 mice ( P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01). In addition, KK-A (y) mice showed an obvious decrease in insulin immunoreactivity in pancreas as well. MBS and MBSC were orally administrated to KK-A (y) mice for 5 weeks. It was found that MBS (2 g/kg) and MBSC (3 g/kg) lowered blood glucose, plasma C-peptide, glucagon, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and BUN levels and at the same time markedly improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin immunoreactive levels. These results suggest that MBS and MBSC exert an antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic mice.

  14. Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability

    PubMed Central

    Illakkiam, Devaraj; Shankar, Manoharan; Ponraj, Paramasivan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases) achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified. PMID:25184130

  15. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  16. Purification and characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase from etiolated mung bean hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Tsai, D S; Arteca, R N; Bachman, J M; Phillips, A T

    1988-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase, EC 4.4.1.14, was purified to homogeneity from etiolated mung bean hypocotyl segments. This was made possible by the ability to elevate the enzyme level markedly through hormone treatments and by stabilization of the enzyme with high phosphate concentrations. The four-step procedure resulted in 1050-fold purification with 25% yield, and consisted of stepwise elution from hydroxylapatite, chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, gradient elution from hydroxylapatite, and fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on a MonoQ anion-exchange column. FPLC-purified ACC synthase migrated as a single band of Mr 65,000 on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of native enzyme by Bio-Gel A-0.5 M chromatography was 125,000, indicating that the enzyme probably exists as a dimer of identical 65,000 Mr subunits. The mung bean ACC synthase exhibited a pH optimum of 8.0 for activity and a Km for S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) of 55 microM at 30 degrees C. It exhibited an Arrhenius activation energy of 12 kcal mol-1 degree-1 and was inactivated at temperatures in excess of 40 degrees C. The specific activity for pure ACC synthase was 21 mumol of ACC formed/mg protein/h when determined under optimal conditions with 400 microM AdoMet.

  17. Control of Storage Protein Metabolism in the Cotyledons of Germinating Mung Beans: Role of Endopeptidase 12

    PubMed Central

    Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Boulter, D.

    1975-01-01

    The autodigestive proteolytic activity of extracts of cotyledons of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) increased 4- to 5-fold during germination. A similar increase was found in the ability of these extracts to digest added casein or mung bean globulins. The increase occurred after a 2-day lag during the next 2 to 3 days of germination and coincided with the period of rapid storage protein breakdown. To understand which enzyme(s) may be responsible for this increase in proteolytic activity, the hydrolytic activity of cotyledon extracts toward a number of synthetic substrates and proteins was measured. Germination was accompanied by a marked decline in leucine aminopeptidase, while carboxypeptidase increased about 50%. There were no dramatic changes in either α-mannosidase or N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, enzymes which may be involved in the metabolism of the carbohydrate moieties of the reserve glycoproteins. The increase in general proteolytic activity was closely paralleled by a 10-fold increase in endopeptidase activity. This activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide. Studies with inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes showed that reagents which blocked sulfhydryl groups also inhibited the rise in general proteolytic activity. Our results suggest that the appearance of a sulfhydryl-type endopeptidase activity is a necessary prerequisite for the rapid metabolism of the reserve proteins which accompanies germination. PMID:16659204

  18. Physicochemical characteristics of high pressure gelatinized mung bean starch during recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhao; Guo, Hongmei; Wang, Peng; Tian, Xiaoling; Zhang, Wei; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Luo, Qingui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2015-10-20

    The changes in physicochemical and structural properties of Ultra high pressure (UHP) gelatinized mung bean starch were investigated during 0 to 196h retrogradation process by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). XRD analysis showed that the UHP-gelatinizated granules regenerated its original C-type crystallinity structures after retrogradation. The swelling power and solubility of native starch were increased with the increase in the assay temperatures from 50 to 90°C, while the changing trend of the retrogradated granules was more gradual over entire assay temperatures. In addition, retrogradated granules showed a progressive decrease in the light transmittance and an increase in the amount of resistant starch as the ageing time increased from 0 to 192h. DSC analysis suggested a slight increase in the transition temperatures (To, Tp and Tc) and the retrogradation enthalpy as the storage time increased. In contrast no endothermic transition peak could be observed using DSC after storage of heat-gelatinized mung bean starch gel.

  19. Effects of pig manure and wheat straw on growth of mung bean seedlings grown in aluminium toxicity soil.

    PubMed

    Shen, Q R; Shen, Z G

    2001-02-01

    Crop production in red soil areas may be limited by Al toxicity. A possible alternative to ameliorate Al toxicity is the application of such organic manure as crop straw and animal manure. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of organic materials on the alleviation of Al toxicity in acid red soil. Ground wheat straw, pig manure or CaCO3 were mixed with the soil and incubated, at 85% of water holding capacity and 25 degrees C, for 8 weeks. After the incubation, 14 seedlings of mung bean (Phaseolus aures Roxb) were allowed to grow for 12 days. Results showed that application of organic material or CaCO3 increased soil pH and decreased soil monomeric inorganic Al concentrations. Growth of mung bean seedling was improved sustantially by the application of organic material or CaCO3. Pig manure or wheat straw was more effective in ameliorating Al toxicity than was CaCO3. Mung bean plants receiving pig manure or wheat straw contained relatively high concentrations of P, Ca and K in their leaves. It is suggested that the beneficial effect of organic manure on mung bean is likely due to decreasing concentrations of monomeric inorganic Al concentrations in soil solution and improvement of mineral nutrition.

  20. The disappearance of an hsc70 species in mung bean seed during germination: purification and characterization of the protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Lin, B L

    1993-01-01

    We have purified a 73 kDa protein from the cytosolic fraction of mung bean seeds. It comprises 0.5-1% of the total protein in seeds. This purified protein is a bona fide hsc70 on the basis of several lines of evidence. First, antibodies against bovine brain hsc70 cross-react with the purified 73 kDa protein. Second, the purified protein comigrates on two-dimensional gels with one of the heat-inducible hsc70s in mung bean seedlings. Third, similar to other hsc70 species, the purified 73 kDa protein has a high affinity for ATP. Finally, the hydrolysis of ATP by the purified protein can be stimulated by peptides; ATPase activity increases from 40 nmol/h to 165 nmol/h per mg of protein. The purified mung bean hsc70 autophosphorylates at a substoichiometric level. Moreover, the amount of this hsc70 species diminishes while new species of hsc70s appear after germination, suggesting that the expression of hsc70 in mung bean is subject to developmental regulation.

  1. Chemical and irradiation treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nazuka, E; Sabina, Y; Todoriki, S; Isshiki, K

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of dry-heat treatment in combination with chemical treatments (electrolyzed oxidizing [EO] water, califresh-S, 200 ppm of active chlorinated water) with and without sonication in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. The treatment of mung bean seeds with EO water in combination with sonication followed by a rinse with sterile distilled water resulted in reductions of approximately 4.0 log10 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per g. whereas reductions of ca. 1.52 and 2.64 log10 CFU/g were obtained for radish and alfalfa seeds. The maximum reduction (3.70 log10 CFU/g) for mung bean seeds was achieved by treatment with califresh-S and chlorinated water (200 ppm) in combination with sonication and a rinse. The combination of dry heat, hot EO water treatment, and sonication was able to eliminate pathogen populations on mung bean seeds but was unable to eliminate the pathogen on radish and alfalfa seeds. Other chemical treatments used were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish and alfalfa seeds without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not result in the elimination of pathogens from radish and alfalfa seeds. Moreover, a combination of dry-heat and irradiation treatments was effective in eliminating E. coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy in combination with dry heat eliminated E. coli O157:H7 completely from alfalfa and mung bean seeds, whereas a 2.5-kGy dose of irradiation was required to eliminate the pathogen completely from radish seeds. Dry heat in combination with irradiation doses of up to 2.0 kGy did not unacceptably decrease the germination percentage for alfalfa seeds or the length of alfalfa sprouts but did decrease the lengths of radish and mung bean sprouts.

  2. Comparison of pinoresinol diglucoside production by Phomopsis sp. XP-8 in different media and the characterisation and product profiles of the cultivation in mung bean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Shi, Junling; Gao, Zhenhong; Che, Jinxin; Shao, Dongyan; Liu, Yanlin

    2016-09-01

    Phomopsis sp. XP-8 is an endophytic fungus with the ability to produce pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) in vitro and thus has potential application in biosynthesis of PDG independent of plants. In order to enhance the production of PDG, 18 different natural materials were tested in solid-state cultivation of Phomopsis sp. XP-8. Most of the tested natural materials promoted the production of PDG. A supplement derived from mung beans produced the highest PDG yield and better fungal growth than the other materials. Also, pinoresinol monoglucoside, pinoresinol and other substrates (phenylalanine, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid) were obtained after fermentation on mung beans. Furthermore, PDG production was much higher when mung beans were incorporated into solid state agar versus a liquid medium. The highest pinoresinol diglucoside production (72.1 mg kg(-1) in fresh culture) was obtained in 9 days using a solid state culture of Phomopsis sp. XP-8 on a mung bean grain medium containing 100 g kg(-1) glucose. Mung bean water-soluble polysaccharide was identified as a major promoter of PDG production by Phomopsis sp. XP-8. Mung bean, especially its water-soluble polysaccharide fraction, was an efficient natural material to promote PDG production by Phomopsis sp. XP-8. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ken Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma.

  4. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma. PMID:27584560

  5. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma.

  6. Rapid Degradation and Limited Synthesis of Phospholipids in the Cotyledons of Mung Bean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Gilkes, Neil R.; Herman, Eliot M.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1979-01-01

    Seedling growth of mung bean is accompanied by the rapid catabolism of the three major phospholipids in the cotyledons (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol). The decline starts 24 hours after the beginning of imbibition and by the 4th day of growth more than 50% of the phospholipids have been catabolized. Extracts of cotyledons of 24-hour-imbibed beans contain enzymes capable of degrading membrane-associated phospholipids in vitro. This degradation involves phospholipase D and phosphatase activity. Studies with radioactive acetate, glycerol, and orthophosphate indicate that the three major phospholipids are also synthesized in the cotyledons. Incorporation of glycerol and acetate into phospholipids of cotyledons is relatively constant throughout seedling growth, while the incorporation of [32P]orthophosphate steadily declines from a high value 24 hours after the start of imbibition. The newly synthesized phospholipids become associated with membranous organelles, especially the endoplasmic reticulum, and have an in situ half-life of 2 to 2.5 days. Determination of the activities of two enzymes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis (phosphorylcholine-glyceride transferase and CDP-diglyceride-inositol transferase) shows that the enzymes have their highest activities 12 hours after the start of imbibition. High activities for both enzymes were found in cotyledons of beans incubated at 1 C, indicating that the enzymes may preexist in the dry seeds. The experiments demonstrate that cotyledons start synthesizing new phospholipids immediately after imbibition, but that the rate of phospholipid catabolism far exceeds the rate of synthesis long before the cotyledons start to senesce. PMID:16660911

  7. Effect of the defoliant thidiazuron on ethylene evolution from mung bean hypocotyl segments.

    PubMed

    Suttle, J C

    1984-08-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea) on ethylene evolution from etiolated mung bean hypocotyl segments was examined. Treatment of hypocotyl segments with concentrations of thidiazuron equal to or greater than 30 nanomolar stimulated ethylene evolution. Increased rates of ethylene evolution from thidiazuron-treated tissues could be detected within 90 minutes of treatment and persisted up to 30 hours after treatment. Radioactive methionine was readily taken up by thidiazuron-treated tissues and was converted to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and an acidic conjugate of ACC. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine, aminooxyacetic acid, cobalt chloride, and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid reduced ethylene evolution from treated tissues. An increase in the endogenous content of free ACC coincided with the increase in ethylene evolution following thidiazuron treatment. Uptake and conversion of exogenous ACC to ethylene were not affected by thidiazuron treatment. No increases in the extractable activities of ACC synthase were detected following thidiazuron treatment.

  8. Insights into spermine-induced combined high temperature and drought tolerance in mung bean: osmoregulation and roles of antioxidant and glyoxalase system.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    High temperature and drought stress often occur simultaneously, and due to global climate change, this kind of phenomenon occurs more frequently and severely, which exerts devastating effects on plants. Polyamines (PAs) play crucial roles in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Present study investigated how exogenous pretreatment of spermine (Spm, 0.2 mM) enhances mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2) seedlings tolerance to high temperature (HT, 40 °C) and drought [induced by 5 % polyethyleneglycol (PEG)] stress individually and in combination. Spm pretreatment reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production including H2O2 and O2(•-), lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, and membrane lipid peroxidation (indicated by malondialdehyde, MDA) under HT and/or drought stress. Histochemical staining of leaves with diaminobenzidine and nitro blue tetrazolium chloride also confirmed that Spm-pretreated seedlings accumulated less H2O2 and O2(•-) under HT and/or drought stress. Spermine pretreatment maintained the ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) levels high, and upregulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) which were vital for imparting ROS-induced oxidative stress tolerance under HT and/or drought stress. The cytotoxic compound methylglyoxal (MG) was overproduced due to HT and/or drought, but exogenous Spm pretreatment reduced MG toxicity enhancing the glyoxalase system. Spermine pretreatment modulated endogenous PA levels. Osmoregulation and restoration of plant water status were other major contributions of Spm under HT and/or drought stress. Preventing photosynthetic pigments and improving seedling growth parameters, Spm further confirmed its influential roles in HT and/or drought tolerance.

  9. Effect of guar gum and xanthan gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Singh, Narpinder; Sharma, Parul; Kaur, Seeratpreet

    2015-12-01

    The effect of xanthan and guar-gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches was studied. Mung bean starch showed the highest amylose content (43.4 %) followed by potato (23.2 %) and corn starch (15.5 %). Potato starch showed the highest swelling power (19.0 g/g) and solubility index (17.5 %) and exhibited the highest paste viscosities. Addition of both gums improved peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and final viscosity for mung and corn starches; while for potato starch, guar gum increased peak and final viscosities and decreased hot paste viscosity while xanthan gum increased hot paste and final viscosities and decreased peak viscosity. The noodles made from mung bean starch showed the most desirable characteristics in terms of the lowest-cooking loss and adhesiveness. The gums increased noodle cooking time and decreased cooking loss, firmness and cohesiveness.

  10. A study on the phytotoxicity of nano mullite and metal-amended nano mullite on mung bean plants.

    PubMed

    Dey, Anindita; Bagchi, Biswajoy; Das, Sukhen; Basu, Ruma; Nandy, Papiya

    2011-06-01

    The presence of engineered nanoparticles is continuously increasing in our environment and causing potential risks to the ecosystem. Researchers from various fields report many articles on the effects of different nanoparticles on plants, animals and microorganisms. Here we have studied for the first time the effect of nano mullite (NMu) and their metal- amended derivatives on the growth of mung bean plants. Results shows that the metal- amended NMu exerts adverse effects on the growth and biomass production of plants compared to NMu. For toxicity studies, we measured the germination index and relative root elongation, while leakage of electrolytes and root oxidizability were measured to study the effect of NMu on mung bean seeds and seedling tissues. Translocation and accumulation of NMu within different parts of the plant body were proved by elemental analysis of dried plant samples.

  11. Correlation between mtDNA complexity and mtDNA replication mode in developing cotyledon mitochondria during mung bean seed germination.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ning; Lo, Yih-Shan; Ansari, Mohammad Israil; Ho, Kuo-Chieh; Jeng, Shih-Tong; Lin, Na-Sheng; Dai, Hwa

    2017-01-01

    The currently accepted model of recombination-dependent replication (RDR) in plant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) does not clearly explain how RDR progresses and how highly complex mtDNA develops. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between RDR and mtDNA complexity during mitochondrial development in mung bean (Vigna radiata) seed, and the initiation and processing of RDR in plant mitochondria. Flow cytometry, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, real-time PCR and biochemical studies were used in this study. The highly dynamic changes in mtDNA complexity correspond to mtDNA RDR activity throughout mitochondrial development. With in vitro freeze-thaw treatment or prolonged in vivo cold incubation, the mtDNA rosette core disappeared and the rosette structure converted to a much longer linear DNA structure. D-loops, Holliday junctions and putative RDR forks often appeared near the rosette cores. We hypothesize that the rosette core may consist of condensed mtDNA and a replication starting sequence, and play an initial and central role in RDR. The satellite cores in the rosette structure may represent the re-initiation sites of mtDNA RDR in the same parental molecule, thereby forming highly complex and giant mitochondrial molecules, representing the RDR intermediates, in vivo. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Expression of mung bean pectin acetyl esterase in potato tubers: effect on acetylation of cell wall polymers and tuber mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Orfila, Caroline; Dal Degan, Florence; Jørgensen, Bodil; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Ray, Peter M; Ulvskov, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A mung bean (Vigna radiata) pectin acetyl esterase (CAA67728) was heterologously expressed in tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum) under the control of the granule-bound starch synthase promoter or the patatin promoter in order to probe the significance of O-acetylation on cell wall and tissue properties. The recombinant tubers showed no apparent macroscopic phenotype. The enzyme was recovered from transgenic tubers using a high ionic strength buffer and the extract was active against a range of pectic substrates. Partial in vivo de-acetylation of cell wall polysaccharides occurred in the transformants, as shown by a 39% decrease in the degree of acetylation (DA) of tuber cell wall material (CWM). Treatment of CWM using a combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin methyl esterase extracted more pectin polymers from the transformed tissue compared to wild type. The largest effect of the pectin acetyl esterase (68% decrease in DA) was seen in the residue from this extraction, suggesting that the enzyme is preferentially active on acetylated pectin that is tightly bound to the cell wall. The effects of acetylation on tuber mechanical properties were investigated by tests of failure under compression and by determination of viscoelastic relaxation spectra. These tests suggested that de-acetylation resulted in a stiffer tuber tissue and a stronger cell wall matrix, as a result of changes to a rapidly relaxing viscoelastic component. These results are discussed in relation to the role of pectin acetylation in primary cell walls and its implications for industrial uses of potato fibres.

  13. Wide-angle x-ray scattering and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance data combined to test models for cellulose microfibrils in mung bean cell walls.

    PubMed

    Newman, Roger H; Hill, Stefan J; Harris, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    A synchrotron wide-angle x-ray scattering study of mung bean (Vigna radiata) primary cell walls was combined with published solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance data to test models for packing of (1→4)-β-glucan chains in cellulose microfibrils. Computer-simulated peak shapes, calculated for 36-chain microfibrils with perfect order or uncorrelated disorder, were sharper than those in the experimental diffractogram. Introducing correlated disorder into the models broaden the simulated peaks but only when the disorder was increased to unrealistic magnitudes. Computer-simulated diffractograms, calculated for 24- and 18-chain models, showed good fits to experimental data. Particularly good fits to both x-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance data were obtained for collections of 18-chain models with mixed cross-sectional shapes and occasional twinning. Synthesis of 18-chain microfibrils is consistent with a model for cellulose-synthesizing complexes in which three cellulose synthase polypeptides form a particle and six particles form a rosette.

  14. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-01-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

  15. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide is a second messenger in the salicylic acid-triggered adventitious rooting process in mung bean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In plants, salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypertensive response (HR). SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L) hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent. Explants treated with SA displayed a 130% increase in adventitious root number compared with control seedlings. The role of SA in mung bean hypocotyl ARF as well as its interaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also elucidated. Pretreatment of mung bean explants with N, N'-dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger for H2O2, resulted in a significant reduction of SA-induced ARF. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of membrane-linked NADPH oxidase, also inhibited the effect of adventitious rooting triggered by SA treatment. The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings.

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide Is a Second Messenger in the Salicylic Acid-Triggered Adventitious Rooting Process in Mung Bean Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In plants, salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypertensive response (HR). SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L) hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent. Explants treated with SA displayed a 130% increase in adventitious root number compared with control seedlings. The role of SA in mung bean hypocotyl ARF as well as its interaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also elucidated. Pretreatment of mung bean explants with N, N’-dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger for H2O2, resulted in a significant reduction of SA-induced ARF. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of membrane-linked NADPH oxidase, also inhibited the effect of adventitious rooting triggered by SA treatment. The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings. PMID:24386397

  18. Efficacy of mung bean (lentil) and pop rice based rehydration solutions in comparison with the standard glucose electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Bhan, M K; Ghai, O P; Khoshoo, V; Vasudev, A S; Bhatnagar, S; Arora, N K; Rashmi; Stintzing, G

    1987-01-01

    Children with acute diarrhea and moderate dehydration between 3 months and 5 years of age were randomly assigned to receive treatment with standard WHO oral rehydration solution (ORS) (n = 33) and two other solutions in which the 20 g/L glucose was substituted by 50 g/L of pop rice (n = 31) and 60 g/L of mung bean (lentil) powder (n = 29). Satisfactory oral rehydration, as assessed clinically and by changes in PCV and total serum solids (TSS), was achieved in 90.9% with WHO ORS, 96.8% with pop rice, and 96.6% in the mung bean ORS treated group (p greater than 0.05). The purging rates (ml/kg/h) until recovery were 2.49 +/- 1.5 (pop rice); 2.91 +/- 2.0 (WHO), and 3.41 +/- 1.7 in the mung bean group (p greater than 0.05). The percentage of patients recovering from diarrhea within the 72 h study period was 58.0 (pop rice), 48.4 (WHO), and 44.8 for mung bean group (p greater than 0.05). Though differences in stool volumes and duration in the three groups were not statistically different, there was a trend toward improvement in efficacy with the pop rice ORS in several parameters: greater weight gain, higher percentage decline in TSS, higher urine output despite lower ORS intake, and lower purging rates. The intake of semisolids in the 24-72 h study period was also higher in the pop rice group as compared to the other two groups (p less than 0.05). The number of breast feeds and intake of artificial milk was however similar in all groups (p greater than 0.05).

  19. Combination treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nei, D; Enomoto, K; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of prolonged dry-heat treatment (50 degrees C) alone or in combination with chemical treatments (1% oxalic acid, 0.03% phytic acid, 50% ethanol, electrolyzed acidic water, and electrolyzed alkaline water) in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. Dry-heat treatment for 17 or 24 h alone could reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below detectable levels in radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, but was unable to reduce the pathogen numbers to below the detectable level in mung bean seeds. In addition, dry-heat treatment for 17 h plus sanitizer treatments were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not eliminate the pathogen from radish and alfalfa seeds. Seventeen hours of dry heat followed by a 1.0-kGy dose of irradiation completely eliminated E. coli O157:H7 from radish and mung bean seeds, whereas only a minimum radiation dose of 0.25 kGy was required to completely eliminate the pathogen from broccoli and alfalfa seeds. Dry heat in combination with radiation doses of up to 1.0 kGy did not negatively impact the seed germination rate or length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish seeds or the length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish sprouts, but did decrease the length of mung bean sprouts.

  20. 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and changes in some antioxidant enzyme activities in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).

    PubMed

    Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Setia, N; Kaur, S; Kohli, R K

    2006-01-01

    2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA), a well-known allelochemical with strong phytotoxicity, is a potential herbicidal candidate. The aim of the present study was to determine whether phytotoxicity of BOA is due to induction of oxidative stress caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes induced in response to BOA. Effect of BOA was studied on electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation (LP), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation, proline (PRO) accumulation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, 1.11.1.7), catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2) in Phaseolus aureus (mung bean). BOA significantly enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) content, a product of LP, in both leaves and roots of mung bean. The amount of H(2)O(2), a product of oxidative stress, and endogenous PRO increased many-fold in response to BOA. Accumulation of PRO, MDA and H(2)O(2) indicates the cellular damage in the target tissue caused by ROS generated by BOA. In response to BOA, there was a significant increase in the activities of scavenging enzymes SOD, APX, GPX, CAT, and GR in root and leaf tissue of mung bean. At 5 mM BOA, GR activity in roots showed a nearly 22-fold increase over that in control. The present study concludes that BOA induces oxidative stress in mung bean through generation of ROS and upregulation of activities of various scavenging enzymes.

  1. Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suli; Xia, Changjian; Zhang, Jiqing; Duan, Canxing; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Lee, Suk-Ha; Zhu, Zhendong

    2015-03-01

    During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean.

  2. Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Suli; Xia, Changjian; Zhang, Jiqing; Duan, Canxing; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Lee, Suk-Ha; Zhu, Zhendong

    2015-01-01

    During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean. PMID:25774112

  3. An outbreak of Salmonella Newport associated with mung bean sprouts in Germany and the Netherlands, October to November 2011.

    PubMed

    Bayer, C; Bernard, H; Prager, R; Rabsch, W; Hiller, P; Malorny, B; Pfefferkorn, B; Frank, C; de Jong, A; Friesema, I; Stark, K; Rosner, Bm

    2014-01-09

    The largest Salmonella enterica serovar Newport outbreak (n=106) ever reported in Germany occurred in October and November 2011. Twenty associated cases were reported in the Netherlands. The outbreak investigation included an analytical epidemiological study, molecular typing of human and food isolates and food traceback investigations. Unspecified Salmonella had been detected in samples of mung bean sprouts at a sprout producer (producer A) in the Netherlands and mung bean sprouts contaminated with S. Newport had been found during routine sampling at a sprout distributor in Germany. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis of sprouts being the infection vehicle. In a case-control study, we compared 50 notified adult S. Newport cases with 45 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis cases regarding their food consumption in the three days before illness. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, only sprout consumption was significantly associated with S. Newport infection (odds ratio: 18.4; 95% confidence interval: 2.2-150.2). Molecular typing patterns of human isolates were indistinguishable from a mung bean sprouts isolate. Traceback of sprouts led to distributors and producer A in the Netherlands. Since sprouts are frequently contaminated with microorganisms, consumers need to be aware that consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked sprouts may pose a health risk.

  4. Antioxidant Properties of the Mung Bean Flavonoids on Alleviating Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Che, Huilian; Cao, Jiankang; Yang, Liu; Zhu, Chunqiu; Jiang, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    Background It is a widespread belief in Asian countries that mung bean soup (MBS) may afford a protective effect against heat stress. Lack of evidence supports MBS conferring a benefit in addition to water. Results Here we show that vitexin and isovitexin are the major antioxidant components in mungbean (more than 96% of them existing in the bean seed coat), and both of them could be absorbed via gavage into rat plasma. In the plasma of rats fed with mungbean coat extract before or after exposure to heat stress, the levels of malonaldehyde and activities of lactate dehydrogenase and nitric oxide synthase were remarkably reduced; the levels of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione (a quantitative assessment of oxidative stress) were significantly enhanced. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that MBS can play additional roles to prevent heat stress injury. Characterization of the mechanisms underlying mungbean beneficial effects should help in the design of diet therapy strategies to alleviate heat stress, as well as provide reference for searching natural medicines against oxidative stress induced diseases. PMID:21695166

  5. The nucleotide sequence and genome structure of mung bean yellow mosaic geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, T; Ikegami, M; Miura, K

    1993-01-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of the infectious cloned DNA components (DNA 1 and DNA 2) of mung bean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) were determined. MYMV DNA 1 and DNA 2 consists of 2,723 and 2,675 nucleotides respectively. DNA 1 and DNA 2 have little sequence similarity except for a region of approximately 200 bases which is almost identical in the two molecules. Analysis of open reading frames revealed nine potential coding regions for proteins of mol. wt. > 10,000, six in DNA 1 and three in DNA 2. The nucleotide sequence of MYMV DNA was compared with that of bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) and African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV). The 200-base region common to the two DNAs of each virus had little sequence similarity, except for a highly conserved 33-36 base sequence potentially capable of forming a stable hairpin structure. The potential coding regions in the MYMV DNAs had counterparts in the BGMV, TGMV and ACMV, suggesting an overall similarity in genome organization, except for absence of 1L3 in MYMV DNA 1. The most highly conserved ORFs, MYMV 1R1, BGMV 1R1, TGMV 1R1 and ACMV 1R1, are the putative genes for the coat proteins of MYMV, BGMV, TGMV and ACMV, respectively. MYMV 1L1 has also a high degree of sequence similarity with BGMV 1L1, TGMV 1L1 and ACMV 1L1.

  6. [Numerical taxonomy and 16S rDNA PCR-rFLP analysis of rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of cowpea and mung bean grown in different regions of China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-fa; Wang, Feng-qin; Chen, Wen-xin

    2006-12-01

    Seventy-nine rhizobial strains, isolated from root nodules of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) and mung bean (Vigna radiata ) grown in different regions of China, were studied by a fuzzy cluster analysis of 128 phenotypic characteristics. The phenotypic characterization of these strains showed that most of these strains had high stress resistance. For instance, most of them could grow from pH 5.0 to pH 11.0. Over 85% of these strains could grow well on YMA plate at 37 degrees C and several of them even could grow after a 45 minutes hot shock at 60 degrees C. Some strains had a tolerance to high concentration of Bacitracin (400 microg/mL) . The result of the fuzzy cluster analysis showed that all the strains were clustered into 2 groups, slow growers and fast growers, at the similarity level of 63.5% . At the similarity level of 79 %, there were 7 subgroups further separated. Based upon the result of the numerical taxonomy, these strains together with 22 reference stains were analyzed by the 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP. Thirty-four genotype profiles were obtained from the fingerprinting of the 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP. These strains were analyzed by GelCompare II software and clustered into 7 groups at the similarity level of 91% , which were consonant with the 7 subgroups clustered at the similarity level of 79% in numerical taxonomy. The results of numerical taxonomy and 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP analysis showed that all of the seventy-nine rhizobial Bradyrhizobium, strains isolated from root nodules of cowpea and mung bean were clustered into four genera: Agrobacterium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium, respectively. An individual clade without any reference stains, which was composed of CCBAU 45071, CCBAU 45111-1 and CCBAU 45248, might be a new species of Rhizobium. Overall, the study results demonstrated a high phenotypic and phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial strains nodulating cowpea and mung bean grown in different geographic regions of China.

  7. Comparisons of the effects of a foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag on postural stability disturbance in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat; Boonyong, Sujitra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unstable support surfaces, i.e. foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag, on postural stability disturbance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy young adults (11 male and 11 female; aged 21.09 ± 1.44 years; BMI 20.40 ± 1.40 kg/m2) participated in the study. The Balance Master™ was used to evaluate the limit of stability and the unilateral stance performance. Each participant was assessed while standing on the following surfaces: 1) a firm surface, 2) a foam pad, 3) a mung bean bag, and 4) a plastic bead bag. The order of surfaces was randomly assigned. [Results] The mung bean bag and plastic bead bag showed greater disturbances in limit of stability and unilateral stance than the foam pad. There was no significant difference in postural stability disturbance between the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag. [Conclusion] These results suggested that both the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag could be used as a low-cost tool for balance assessment instead of a foam pad in healthy young adults. PMID:27065085

  8. Comparisons of the effects of a foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag on postural stability disturbance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat; Boonyong, Sujitra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unstable support surfaces, i.e. foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag, on postural stability disturbance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy young adults (11 male and 11 female; aged 21.09 ± 1.44 years; BMI 20.40 ± 1.40 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. The Balance Master™ was used to evaluate the limit of stability and the unilateral stance performance. Each participant was assessed while standing on the following surfaces: 1) a firm surface, 2) a foam pad, 3) a mung bean bag, and 4) a plastic bead bag. The order of surfaces was randomly assigned. [Results] The mung bean bag and plastic bead bag showed greater disturbances in limit of stability and unilateral stance than the foam pad. There was no significant difference in postural stability disturbance between the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag. [Conclusion] These results suggested that both the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag could be used as a low-cost tool for balance assessment instead of a foam pad in healthy young adults.

  9. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8. PMID:27239343

  10. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activity of alkali-extractable polysaccharides from mung bean.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-01

    Alkali-extractable polysaccharides from the seeds of mung beans and two polysaccharide sub-fractions (MAP-1 and MAP-2) were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The average molecular weights (Mws) of MAP-1 and MAP-2 were 94.2 kDa and 60.4 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide component analysis indicated that MAP-1 was composed of Rha, Ara, Glu, Gal, and GalA in a molar ratio of 1.1:0.4:0.7:0.5:0.3. MAP-2 consisted of Xyl, Rha, Gal, Glu and GalA with a relative molar ratio of 0.4:1.4:1.6:0.5:0.2. Antioxidant assays indicated that both MAP-1 and MAP-2 exhibit significant antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. An in vitro study further showed that MAP-1 and MAP-2 were both able to stimulate the production of secretory molecules (NO, TNF-α and IL-6) by RAW 264.7 murine macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides isolated in our study have immunoregulatory effects on macrophages and can be used as a beneficial health food.

  11. Exercise using mung bean bag improves balance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Siriphorn, A; Chamonchant, D; Boonyong, S

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise using a mung bean bag (MB) for balance ability. Thirty-nine healthy female young adults (aged 18-25 years with normal body mass index) were randomly assigned into three groups (n for each group = 13): control group, firm surface (FS) exercise group, and MB exercise group. The FS and MB groups were trained with static and dynamic balance exercises (20 minutes × 3 times/week × 6 weeks). Participants' balance abilities were measured using a Balance Master 4 times: at pre-training (baseline) and at the second, fourth, and sixth weeks post-training. Three tests were assessed: unilateral stance test, modified clinical test for sensory integrations on balance (mCTSIB), and limits of stability (LOS) test. The MB group significantly improved unilateral stance balance in both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions, whereas the FS group improved only in the eyes-closed condition. No significant difference was found across groups in the mCTSIB parameters. Only the FS group significantly improved LOS parameters. These results suggest the MB exercise could be used to improve unilateral stance balance, but not the LOS or mCTSIB, in healthy young adults.

  12. Characterization of the Structure and DNA Complexity of Mung Bean Mitochondrial Nucleoids

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yih-Shan; Hsiao, Lin-June; Cheng, Ning; Litvinchuk, Alexandra; Dai, Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Electron microscopic images of mitochondrial nucleoids isolated from mung bean seedlings revealed a relatively homogeneous population of particles, each consisting of a chromatin-like structure associated with a membrane com-ponent. Association of F-actin with mitochondrial nucleoids was also observed. The mitochondrial nucleoid structure identified in situ showed heterogeneous genomic organization. After pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a large proportion of the mitochondrial nucleoid DNA remained in the well, whereas the rest migrated as a 50-200 kb smear zone. This PFGE migration pattern was not af-fected by high salt, topoisomerase I or latrunculin B treatments; however, the mobility of a fraction of the fast-moving DNA decreased conspicuously following an in-gel ethidium-enhanced UV-irradiation treatment, suggesting that molecules with intricately compact structures were present in the 50-200 kb region. Approximately 70% of the mitochondrial nucleoid DNA molecules examined via electron microscopy were open circles, supercoils, complex forms, and linear molecules with interspersed sigma-shaped structures and/or loops. Increased sensitivity of mtDNA to DNase I was found after mitochondrial nucleoids were pretreated with high salt. This result indicates that some loosely bound or peripheral DNA binding proteins protected the mtDNA from DNase I degradation. PMID:21347700

  13. Characterization of microsomal and cytosolic alpha-1,2-mannosidases from mung bean hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Forsee, W T

    1985-10-01

    Microsomal and cytosolic alpha-mannosidase activities, which hydrolyze alpha-1,2-mannosyl-mannose linkages in the Man5GlcNAc2 oligosaccharide, have been isolated from homogenates of mung bean hypocotyls. The alpha-1,2-mannosidase activities were readily distinguished from previously described aryl alpha-mannosidases by several criteria. They were optimally active in the presence of Ca2+ between pH 5.5 and 6, they were inhibited by Zn2+, and they had essentially no activity with p-nitrophenyl-alpha-mannoside. The microsomal and cytosolic alpha-1,2-mannosidases demonstrated specificity for oligosaccharides with terminal nonreducing alpha-1,2-mannosyl linkages, and they were inhibited by mannosyl-mannose disaccharides, with the inhibition decreasing in the order of alpha-1,2-greater than alpha-1,3-greater than alpha-1,6-mannosyl-mannose. The cytosolic alpha-1,2-mannosidase activity, which was present in the 100,000 g supernatant, was separated from the aryl alpha-mannosidase by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The microsomal alpha-1,2-mannosidase, which was tightly associated with the particulate fraction, was solubilized with Triton X-100 and 0.2 M KCl. The two alpha-1,2-mannosidase activities were readily differentiated by gel-filtration chromatography. The solubilized microsomal enzyme chromatographed in approximately the same position as a Mr 460,000 globular protein whereas the cytosolic enzyme was eluted in a retarded position, indicating a much smaller protein.

  14. Purification and properties of myo-inositol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase from germinating mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, B; De, B P; Biswas, B B

    1984-01-01

    A novel enzyme, myo-inositol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol 1-phosphate to ribulose 5-phosphate has been purified 84-fold from mung bean seedling employing several common techniques. The molecular weight of this purified enzyme has been recorded as 88,500 by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography, and in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis one protein band containing three subunits of Mr 32,000 each was discernible. Km values for NAD+ and myo-inositol 1-phosphate have been recorded as 2.8 X 10(-4) and 5.0 X 10(-4) M, respectively. Production of NADH in myo-inositol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction has also been evidenced by measurement of NADH fluorescence. Dehydrogenation and decarboxylation of myo-inositol 1-phosphate are mediated by the same enzyme. In fact, the rate of dehydrogenation corroborates with that of decarboxylation. Stoichiometry of this reaction suggests that for the production of 1 mol of ribulose 5-phosphate 2 mol of NAD+ are reduced.

  15. PCNA Interacts with Indian Mung Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus Rep and Downregulates Rep Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Chen, Shoajiang; Lal, Sunil K.; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Mukherjee, Sunil K.

    2004-01-01

    Proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a conserved plant protein as well as an important replication factor, is induced in response to geminivirus infection in the resting cells of the phloem tissues. The biochemical role of PCNA in rolling circle replication (RCR) of geminivirus DNA has not been explored in detail. The initiation of RCR of the bipartite genome of a geminivirus, Indian mung bean yellow mosaic virus (IMYMV), is mainly controlled by viral protein Rep (or AL1 or AC1). The role of host PCNA in RCR of IMYMV was revealed by studying the physical and functional interactions between recombinant PCNA and recombinant IMYMV Rep. Pea nuclear PCNA as well as recombinant pea PCNA showed binding to recombinant Rep in experiments involving both affinity chromatography and yeast two-hybrid approaches. The contacting amino acid residues of PCNA seemed to be present throughout a wide region of the trimeric protein, while those of Rep appeared to be localized only in the middle part of the protein. The site-specific nicking-closing activity and the ATPase function of IMYMV Rep were impaired by PCNA. These observations lead to interesting speculations about the control of viral RCR and dynamic profiles of protein-protein interactions at the RCR origin of the geminiviruses. PMID:15479830

  16. Endoplasmic Reticulum of Mung Bean Cotyledons: ACCUMULATION DURING SEED MATURATION AND CATABOLISM DURING SEEDLING GROWTH.

    PubMed

    Gilkes, N R; Chrispeels, M J

    1980-04-01

    Homogenates of mung bean cotyledons were subjected to equilibrium density centrifugation on linear sucrose gradients and the positions of the various organelles determined by assay of marker enzymes. Measurement of phospholipid distribution on such gradients showed that the major peak of phospholipid at a density of 1.11 to 1.13 grams per cubic centimeter coincided with the position of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), confirming ultrastructural evidence that storage parenchyma cells are rich in ER. Germination and seedling growth were accompanied by a rapid decline in ER-associated phospholipid but a marked increase in the ER marker enzyme NADH cytochrome c reductase. Similar experiments with developing seeds indicated that the amount of ER-associated phospholipid increases during cotyledon expansion reaching a maximum during seed maturation. There was no subsequent decline during seed desiccation, instead ER-associated phospholipid levels were maintained in the dry seed until germination when catabolism was initiated 12 to 24 hours after the start of imbibition. This timing indicates that the observed ER breakdown is not an expression of the overall senescence of the cotyledons, but may represent the dismantling of the extensive rough ER used for reserve protein synthesis during cotyledon development.

  17. Growth of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella cells on mung bean sprouts in different commercial enrichment broths.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qianwang; Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; D'Souza, Craig; Yang, Yishan; Heo, Da-Jeong; Kim, Si-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2015-12-01

    The ability of nine commercial broths to enrich healthy and 90% sanitizer-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella cocktail on mung bean sprouts was evaluated to select an optimum broth for detection. Results showed that S. Typhimurium multiplied faster and reached a higher population in buffered peptone water (BPW), Salmonella AD media (AD) and ONE broth-Salmonella (OB), compared with other broths. Healthy and 90% sanitizer-injured Salmonella at low concentrations increased by 4.0 log CFU/ml in these three broths. However, no Salmonella growth was observed in lactose broth (LB). Further investigation showed that during incubation, pH of LB dropped from 6.7 to 4.2, due to production of lactic (66 mM) and acetic acids (62 mM) by lactic acid bacteria that were identified as dominant microbiota in bean sprouts. Though no cell membrane damage was detected by propidium monoazide combined with real-time PCR, it was found that LB inhibited Salmonella growth, especially from low inoculum levels. This study suggests that in consideration of effectiveness and cost, BPW would be a suitable enrichment broth to use for isolating and detecting Salmonella on mung bean sprouts, while using LB might cause false negative results in Salmonella detection by either PCR or standard cultural method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulsed light decontamination of endive salad and mung bean sprouts and impact on color and respiration activity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, B; Wunderlich, J; Muranyi, P

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was the determination of the efficiency of pulsed light (PL) treatments for the decontamination of endive salad and mung bean sprouts, as well as the assessment of quality changes in relation to discoloration and alteration of respiration activity. Produce samples were artificially inoculated with two bacterial test strains Escherichia coli (DSM 498) and Listeria innocua (DSM 20649) and exposed to PL at different energy doses. The inactivation efficiency with regard to the naturally occurring microbiota was also investigated. Besides microbiological investigations, color changes were determined as well as the produce respiration during chilled storage. The results indicated that inactivation of more than 2 log was possible with one flash in the case of fresh-cut salad, while the reduction on mung bean sprouts was limited to approximately 1.6 log with one flash, irrespective if the natural flora or inoculated E. coli or L. innocua were considered. The UV part of the PL proved to be exclusively responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. Significant lower levels of microbial counts of treated compared with untreated samples were maintained for up to 6 days. In the case of endive salad, a dose-dependent progressive discoloration and increase in respiration was diminished by applying optical bandpass filters, which only slightly affected the inactivation efficiency. In contrast, PL treatments showed a positive effect on color and general appearance of mung bean sprouts, while the respiration was almost unaffected. However, care must be taken with regard to efficiency-limiting matrix effects and impact on food quality. These aspects have to be assessed for each treated product. The integration of PL in industrial food processing plants could be an alternative way to improve the microbial quality of fresh produce, and therefore have a positive impact on public health by reducing the risk of contaminations with pathogenic bacteria.

  19. Hot water treatments to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Isobe, S; Kawamoto, S

    2008-04-01

    The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Therefore, an effective method is needed to inactivate these organisms on the seeds before they are sprouted. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of various hot water treatments to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on mung beans seeds intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination after the seeds were dipped in chilled water for 30 s. Mung bean seed inoculated with four-strain cocktails of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were soaked into hot water at 80 and 90 degrees C with shaking for various periods and then dipped in chilled water for 30 s. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of the treatment for reducing populations of the pathogens and the effects of the treatment on germination. After inoculation and air drying, 6.08 +/- 0.34 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and 5.34 +/- 0.29 log CFU/g Salmonella were detected on the seeds. After hot water treatment at 90 degrees C for 90 s followed by dipping in chilled water for 30 s, no viable pathogens were found and no survivors were found in the enrichment medium and during the sprouting process. The germination yield of the seed was not affected significantly. Therefore, hot water treatment followed by dipping in chilled water for 30 s could be an effective seed decontamination method for mung bean seeds intended for sprout production.

  20. Biocontrol of the internalization of Salmonella enterica and Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts with an endophytic Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenyu; Mustapha, Azlin; Lin, Mengshi; Zheng, Guolu

    2017-06-05

    Internalization of Salmonella enterica and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in seed sprouts poses a health risk to consumers, and the conventional sanitization methods are not always effective to reduce this risk. This study initiated a biocontrol approach to limit the internalization using endophytic Bacillus subtilis strains, which were isolated from the inner tissue of mung bean seeds or lettuce stems. By using the deferred agar method, 12 strains of B. subtilis out of 94 putative Bacillus isolates displayed inhibitory activity against at least one of the pathogenic indicators, S. enterica Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and E. coli O157:H7 505B. Two B. subtilis isolates (LCA1 and M24) showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against multiple strains of S. enterica and EHEC, Staphylococcus aureus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, while the laboratory B. subtilis strain 168 was only moderately inhibitory against L. monocytogenes. To facilitate the tracking of the three B. subtilis strains (LCA1, M24, and 168) in the mung bean sprouts, the three strains were genetically engineered to carry the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat), generating the strains LCA1-cat, M24-cat, and 168-cat, respectively. Data of the study using the cat-tagged strains demonstrated that both the two vegetable-associated and the laboratory B. subtilis strains could internalize in mung bean sprouts during the sprouting, but the latter displayed about 1.2 lg CFU/g of seeds lower in internalization. Overall, the presence of the three B. subtilis strains could significantly reduce the internalization of S. enterica or EHEC cocktail in mung bean sprouts during the sprouting. Among them, LCA1 showed the greatest inhibition against the EHEC cocktails with a reduction of about 2.0lg CFU/g of seeds by the end of sprouting (day 5), while 168 had the smallest reduction at about 0.6lg CFU/g of seeds. In addition, the three strains demonstrated a similar

  1. Quantification of the In Vitro Radiosensitivity of Mung Bean Sprout Elongation to 6MV X-Ray: A Revised Target Model Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu Hwei; Kittipayak, Samrit; Lin, Yu Ting; Lin, Cheng Hsun; Pan, Lung Kwang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a revised target model for quantifying the in vitro radiosensitivity of mung bean sprout elongation to 6-MV X-rays was developed. The revised target model, which incorporated the Poisson prediction for a low probability of success, provided theoretical estimates that were highly consistent with the actual data measured in this study. The revised target model correlated different in vitro radiosensitivities to various effective target volumes and was successfully confirmed by exposing mung beans in various elongation states to various doses of 6-MV X-rays. For the experiment, 5,000 fresh mung beans were randomly distributed into 100 petri dishes, which were randomly divided into ten groups. Each group received an initial watering at a different time point prior to X-ray exposure, resulting in different effective target volumes. The bean sprouts were measured 70 hr after X-ray exposure, and the average length of the bean sprouts in each group was recorded as an index of the mung bean in vitro radiosensitivity. Mung beans that received an initial watering either six or sixteen hours before X-ray exposure had the shortest sprout length, indicating that the maximum effective target volume was formed within that specific time period. The revised target model could be also expanded to interpret the "two-hit" model of target theory, although the experimental data supported the "one-hit" model. If the "two-hit" model was sustained, theoretically, the target size would be 2.14 times larger than its original size to produce the same results.

  2. Quantification of the In Vitro Radiosensitivity of Mung Bean Sprout Elongation to 6MV X-Ray: A Revised Target Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tzu Hwei; Kittipayak, Samrit; Lin, Yu Ting; Lin, Cheng Hsun; Pan, Lung Kwang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a revised target model for quantifying the in vitro radiosensitivity of mung bean sprout elongation to 6-MV X-rays was developed. The revised target model, which incorporated the Poisson prediction for a low probability of success, provided theoretical estimates that were highly consistent with the actual data measured in this study. The revised target model correlated different in vitro radiosensitivities to various effective target volumes and was successfully confirmed by exposing mung beans in various elongation states to various doses of 6-MV X-rays. For the experiment, 5,000 fresh mung beans were randomly distributed into 100 petri dishes, which were randomly divided into ten groups. Each group received an initial watering at a different time point prior to X-ray exposure, resulting in different effective target volumes. The bean sprouts were measured 70 hr after X-ray exposure, and the average length of the bean sprouts in each group was recorded as an index of the mung bean in vitro radiosensitivity. Mung beans that received an initial watering either six or sixteen hours before X-ray exposure had the shortest sprout length, indicating that the maximum effective target volume was formed within that specific time period. The revised target model could be also expanded to interpret the “two-hit” model of target theory, although the experimental data supported the “one-hit” model. If the “two-hit” model was sustained, theoretically, the target size would be 2.14 times larger than its original size to produce the same results. PMID:26053016

  3. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  4. Overexpression of VrUBC1, a Mung Bean E2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme, Enhances Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    So, Hyun-Ah; Kang, Jee-Sook; Chung, Young Soo; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC E2) mediates selective ubiquitination, acting with E1 and E3 enzymes to designate specific proteins for subsequent degradation. In the present study, we characterized the function of the mung bean VrUBC1 gene (Vigna radiata UBC 1). RNA gel-blot analysis showed that VrUBC1 mRNA expression was induced by either dehydration, high salinity or by the exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), but not by low temperature or wounding. Biochemical studies of VrUBC1 recombinant protein and complementation of yeast ubc4/5 by VrUBC1 revealed that VrUBC1 encodes a functional UBC E2. To understand the function of this gene in development and plant responses to osmotic stresses, we overexpressed VrUBC1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The VrUBC1-overexpressing plants displayed highly sensitive responses to ABA and osmotic stress during germination, enhanced ABA- or salt-induced stomatal closing, and increased drought stress tolerance. The expression levels of a number of key ABA signaling genes were increased in VrUBC1-overexpressing plants compared to the wild-type plants. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation demonstrated that VrUBC1 interacts with AtVBP1 (A. thaliana VrUBC1 Binding Partner 1), a C3HC4-type RING E3 ligase. Overall, these results demonstrate that VrUBC1 plays a positive role in osmotic stress tolerance through transcriptional regulation of ABA-related genes and possibly through interaction with a novel RING E3 ligase. PMID:23824688

  5. Overexpression of VrUBC1, a Mung Bean E2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme, Enhances Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eunsook; Cho, Chang-Woo; So, Hyun-Ah; Kang, Jee-Sook; Chung, Young Soo; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC E2) mediates selective ubiquitination, acting with E1 and E3 enzymes to designate specific proteins for subsequent degradation. In the present study, we characterized the function of the mung bean VrUBC1 gene (Vigna radiata UBC 1). RNA gel-blot analysis showed that VrUBC1 mRNA expression was induced by either dehydration, high salinity or by the exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), but not by low temperature or wounding. Biochemical studies of VrUBC1 recombinant protein and complementation of yeast ubc4/5 by VrUBC1 revealed that VrUBC1 encodes a functional UBC E2. To understand the function of this gene in development and plant responses to osmotic stresses, we overexpressed VrUBC1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The VrUBC1-overexpressing plants displayed highly sensitive responses to ABA and osmotic stress during germination, enhanced ABA- or salt-induced stomatal closing, and increased drought stress tolerance. The expression levels of a number of key ABA signaling genes were increased in VrUBC1-overexpressing plants compared to the wild-type plants. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation demonstrated that VrUBC1 interacts with AtVBP1 (A. thalianaVrUBC1 Binding Partner 1), a C3HC4-type RING E3 ligase. Overall, these results demonstrate that VrUBC1 plays a positive role in osmotic stress tolerance through transcriptional regulation of ABA-related genes and possibly through interaction with a novel RING E3 ligase.

  6. Title A de novo synthesis citrate transporter VuMATE confers aluminum resistance in rice bean (vigna umbellata)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Al-activated organic acid anion efflux from roots is an important Al resistance mechanism in plants. We have conducted the homologous cloning and isolation of VuMATE (Vigna umbellata multidrug and toxic compound extrusion), a gene encoding a de novo citrate transporter from rice bean. Al treatment u...

  7. Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

  8. Mung bean sprout (Phaseolus aureus) nuclease and its biological and antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Soucek, J; Skvor, J; Poucková, P; Matousek, J; Slavík, T; Matousek, J

    2006-01-01

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS RNase), a dimeric homolog of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A), is known to display special biological activities namely cytotoxicity for human tumor cells. Because some plant ribonucleases have a similar mass weight and structure as the animal ribonuclease, effects of a commercial product of Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) nuclease (PhA) were studied on proliferation of ML-2 human tumor cells, as well as it's aspermatogenic, embryotoxic, immunogenic, and immunosuppressive activity, and therapeutic efficiency in athymic mice bearing human melanoma tumor. Concerning the antiproliferative activity, PhA nuclease was almost non-effective in vitro on ML-2 cells and also immunosuppressive activity on human lymphocyte in mixed culture was very low compared to that of BS RNase. However, significant antitumor activity was detected on human melanoma tumor after intratumoral or intraperitoneal administration into the mice. Furthermore conjugate of PhA nuclease with polyethylene glycol (PEG) injected seven times at the dose of 10 microg intraperitoneally showed identical antitumor activity as that of bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS RNase) injected by the same way at ten times higher dose. Both PhA and BS RNases exerted strong aspermatogenic effect on the width of spermatogenic layers while RNase A administration at ten times higher concentration was ineffective. PhA nuclease when compared by means of antibody cross reaction with RNase A, BS RNase and wheat leaf neutral RNase (WLN-RNase) was found to be immunologically similar to RNase A and WLN-RNase, meanwhile BS RNase showed much higher antigenicity in comparison with them.

  9. Purification to homogeneity and properties of mannosidase II from mung bean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, G P; Szumilo, T; Pastuszak, I; Elbein, A D

    1990-02-27

    Mannosidase II was purified from mung bean seedlings to apparent homogeneity by using a combination of techniques including DEAE-cellulose and hydroxyapatite chromatography, gel filtration, lectin affinity chromatography, and preparative gel electrophoresis. The release of radioactive mannose from GlcNAc[3H]Man5GlcNAc was linear with time and protein concentration with the purified protein, did not show any metal ion requirement, and had a pH optimum of 6.0. The purified enzyme showed a single band on SDS gels that migrated with the Mr 125K standard. The enzyme was very active on GlcNAcMan5GlcNAc but had no activity toward Man5GlcNAc, Man9GlcNAc, Glc3Man9GlcNAc, or other high-mannose oligosaccharides. It did show slight activity toward Man3GlcNAc. The first product of the reaction of enzyme with GlcNAcMan5GlcNAc, i.e., GlcNAcMan4GlcNAc, was isolated by gel filtration and subjected to digestion with endoglucosaminidase H to determine which mannose residue had been removed. This GlcNAcMan4GlcNAc was about 60% susceptible to Endo H indicating that the mannosidase II preferred to remove the alpha 1,6-linked mannose first, but 40% of the time removed the alpha 1,3-linked mannose first. The final product of the reaction, GlcNAcMan3GlcNAc, was characterized by gel filtration and various enzymatic digestions. Mannosidase II was very strongly inhibited by swainsonine and less strongly by 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-mannitol. It was not inhibited by deoxymannojirimycin.

  10. The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis

    PubMed Central

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna. Methods Two linkage maps were developed from BC1F1 and F2 populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf. Key Results Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions. Conclusions This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna. PMID:22419763

  11. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  12. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water and ethanol vapours treatment on functional properties of mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem; Upadhyay, Neelam; Soni, Jyoti

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was conducted with the objective to study the effects of various treatments and storage conditions on ascorbic acid, total phenols, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase activity of mung bean sprouts. The sprouts subjected to various treatments viz., pulsed electric field (PEF) (10,000 V for 10 s), hot water dip (HWD) (50 °C for 2 min), ethanol vapours (1 h) and UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h); and then stored at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval till end of shelf life. Different treatments given to sprouts resulted in differential effect on various parameters. The ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity were highest in ethanol vapours treated sprouts. There was a general decrease in polyphenol oxidase activity by various treatments. During storage ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of sprouts first increased and then decreased significantly, however, for polyphenol oxidase activity a progressive increase with increase in storage period was observed. The trends were similar at room and low temperature storage conditions. Thus, it can be concluded that the ethanol vapours significantly improved the ascorbic acid content, total phenols and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts, both at room as well as low temperature conditions of storage.

  13. Enhancing the Mobilization of Native Phosphorus in the Mung Bean Rhizosphere Using ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized by Soil Fungi.

    PubMed

    Raliya, Ramesh; Tarafdar, Jagadish Chandra; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-04-27

    Phosphorus (P) is a limiting factor to plant growth and productivity in almost half of the world's arable soil, and its uptake in plants is often constrained because of its low solubility in the soil. To avoid repeated and large quantity application of rock phosphate as a P fertilizer and enhance the availability of native P acquisition by the plant root surface, in this study a biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticle was used. Zn acts as a cofactor for P-solubilizing enzymes such as phosphatase and phytase, and nano ZnO increased their activity between 84 and 108%. The level of resultant P uptake in mung bean increased by 10.8%. In addition, biosynthesized ZnO also improves plant phenology such as stem height, root volume, and biochemical indicators such as leaf protein and chlorophyll contents. In the rhizosphere, increased chlorophyll content and root volume attract microbial populations that maintain soil biological health. ICP-MS results showed ZnO nanoparticles were distributed in all plant parts, including seeds. However, the concentration of Zn was within the limit of the dietary recommendation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first holistic study focusing on native P mobilization using ZnO nanoparticles in the life cycle of mung bean plants.

  14. The role of elevated ozone on growth, yield and seed quality amongst six cultivars of mung bean.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nivedita; Agrawal, S B

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) can be deleterious to plants by decreasing crop yield and quality. Present study was conducted on six cultivars of mung bean (HUM-1, HUM-2, HUM-6, HUM-23, HUM-24 and HUM-26) grown under ambient O3 (NFC) and elevated O3 levels (ambient+10 ppb; NFC+) in open top chambers (OTCs) for two consecutive years. Ozone monitoring data showed high mean ambient concentration of O3 at the experimental site, which was above the threshold value of 40 ppb. Ozone exposure induced symptoms of foliar injury and also depicted accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which led to increased membrane damage vis-a-vis solute leakage. Root/shoot allometric coefficient (k), yield and seed quality showed negative response to O3. Differential response of mung bean cultivars against elevated O3 was assessed by comparing the levels of antioxidants, metabolites, growth, total biomass and yield. Cultivar HUM-1 showed maximum sensitivity towards O3 as compared to other cultivars. Findings of present study emphasized the possibility of selection of suitable O3 resistant cultivars for the areas experiencing high concentrations of O3.

  15. Microbial Diversity Analysis of Fermented Mung Beans (Lu-Doh-Huang) by Using Pyrosequencing and Culture Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shiou-Huei; Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Yang, Chih-Hsien; Cheng, Wei-Shen; Kang, Ya-Huei; Watanabe, Koichi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    In Taiwanese alternative medicine Lu-doh-huang (also called Pracparatum mungo), mung beans are mixed with various herbal medicines and undergo a 4-stage process of anaerobic fermentation. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to profile the bacterial community structure of Lu-doh-huang samples. Pyrosequencing of samples obtained at 7 points during fermentation revealed 9 phyla, 264 genera, and 586 species of bacteria. While mung beans were inside bamboo sections (stages 1 and 2 of the fermentation process), family Lactobacillaceae and genus Lactobacillus emerged in highest abundance; Lactobacillus plantarum was broadly distributed among these samples. During stage 3, the bacterial distribution shifted to family Porphyromonadaceae, and Butyricimonas virosa became the predominant microbial component. Thereafter, bacterial counts decreased dramatically, and organisms were too few to be detected during stage 4. In addition, the microbial compositions of the liquids used for soaking bamboo sections were dramatically different: Exiguobacterium mexicanum predominated in the fermented soybean solution whereas B. virosa was predominant in running spring water. Furthermore, our results from pyrosequencing paralleled those we obtained by using the traditional culture method, which targets lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, the microbial communities during Lu-doh-huang fermentation were markedly diverse, and pyrosequencing revealed a complete picture of the microbial consortium. PMID:23700436

  16. Detection and differentiation of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in mung bean sprouts using field deployable label-free SERS devices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Xu, Chao; Tripp, Ralph A; Huang, Yao-wen; Zhao, Yiping

    2013-05-21

    Vancomycin functionalized silver nanorod arrays substrates were used to obtain the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals of six foodborne pathogenic bacteria in mung bean sprouts samples using both a portable and a handheld Raman system. The silver nanorod arrays substrates were optimized to facilitate quantitative, rapid, and sensitive detection of Salmonella enterica serotype Anatum, Salmonella enterica serotype Cubana, Salmonella enterica serotype Stanley, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Substrate optimization was achieved by varying the nanorod length and vancomycin incubation concentration. By combining these substrates with a two-step filtration process we found that the foodborne pathogenic bacteria used in this study can be identified in mung bean sprouts with a limit of detection as low as 100 CFU ml(-1) in less than 4 h using both portable and handheld Raman systems. The results show that SERS spectra can be used to differentiate between bacterial species and serotypes when chemometric methods are employed. The low detection limit and rapid detection time of this biosensing platform for foodborne pathogenic bacteria could be a valuable field detection method for the fresh produce and food processing industries.

  17. Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Extruded Instant Functional Rice Porridge Powder as Affected by the Addition of Soybean or Mung Bean.

    PubMed

    Mayachiew, Pornpimon; Charunuch, Chulaluck; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-12-01

    Legumes contain protein, micronutrients, and bioactive compounds, which provide various health benefits. In this study, soybean or mung bean was mixed in rice flour to produce by extrusion instant functional legume-rice porridge powder. The effects of the type and percentage (10%, 20%, or 30%, w/w) of legumes on the expansion ratio of the extrudates were first evaluated. Amino acid composition, color, and selected physicochemical (bulk density, water absorption index, and water solubility index), thermal (onset temperature, peak temperature, and transition enthalpy), and pasting (peak viscosity, trough viscosity, and final viscosity) properties of the powder were determined. The crystalline structure and formation of amylose-lipid complexes and the total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of the powder were also measured. Soybean-blended porridge powder exhibited higher TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, amino acid, and fat contents than the mung bean-blended porridge powder. Incorporating either legume affected the product properties by decreasing the lightness and bulk density, while increasing the greenness and yellowness and the peak temperature and transition enthalpy. Expansion capacity of the extrudates increased with percentage of mung bean in the mixture but decreased as the percentage of soybean increased. Amylose-lipid complexes formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis results. Addition of soybean or mung bean resulted in significant pasting property changes of the porridge powder.

  18. Dielectric properties of cowpea weevil, black eyed peas and mung beans with respect to the development of radio frequency heat treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In developing radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) disinfestation treatments for chickpeas and lentils, large amounts of product infested with cowpea weevil must be treated to validate treatment efficacy. To accomplish this, black-eyed peas and mung beans are being considered for use as surrogate...

  19. Irradiation to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Kawasaki, T; Nakauma, M; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S; Isshikii, K

    2004-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of ionizing radiation in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on commercial ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts and to assess the chemical and physical quality of these sprouts. The use of ionizing radiation was investigated as a means of reducing or totally inactivating these pathogens, if present, on the sprouts. Treatment of mung bean and radish sprouts with a dose of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, respectively, significantly reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to nondetectable limits. The total vitamin C content was gradually reduced with the increase in irradiation dose (P < 0.0001). However, the effect of storage interval on the loss of vitamin C was nonsignificant for radish sprouts and significant for mung bean sprouts (P < 0.04). The color, firmness, and overall visual quality of the tested sprouts were acceptable when effective doses were applied to both radish and mung bean sprouts. Therefore, ionizing radiation could be useful in reducing the population of pathogens on sprouts and yet retain acceptable quality parameters.

  20. [Response of photosynthesis and growth to weak light regime in different Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) varieties].

    PubMed

    Zou, Chang-ming; Wang, Yun-qing; Cao, Wei-dong; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Tang, Shan

    2015-12-01

    In order to determine the adaptability of Adzuki beans as the interplanting crops in fruit yards, field and pot experimental treatments with full natural light and weak light (48% of full natural light) regimes were conducted to test the shade tolerance and physiological responses of three Adzuki bean varieties including Funan green Vigna angularis (FGVA), early-mature black V. angularis (EBVA) and late-mature black V. angularis (LBVA). The leaf photosynthetic characteristic parameters, photosynthetic pigment contents and the activity of RuBPCase were measured during the first bloom stage. The response of growth to weak light was likewise studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic characteristic parameters, i.e., the maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point and light compensation point of the three Adzuki bean varieties under the weak light stress changed differently. The weak light stress induced the reduction of net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and RuBPCase activity of the three Adzuki bean varieties significantly. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in leaves of FGVA increased significantly, while Chl a/b and carotenoid content in the leaves decreased significantly after shading. But the other two varieties did not change obviously in photosynthetic pigments content after shading. The weak light changed the growth of the three Adzuki bean varieties, such as decreasing dry matter yield and dry matter accumulation efficiency, reducing root nodule and root-shoot ratio, debasing leaves quantity and leaf area index. The first bloom stage and maturing stage of FGVA advanced, while that of EBVA delayed under weak light. However, flowers were not strong enough to seed for LBVA under the weak light. In conclusion, according to the photosynthetic characteristics changes after shading, as well as the growth status, we concluded that the shade tolerance of the three Adzuki beans was ranked as FGVA>EBVA>LBVA.

  1. Efficacy of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains to improve physiology, ionic balance and quality of mung bean under salt-affected conditions on farmer's fields.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir A; Khalid, Muhammad; Nazli, Farheen; Arshad, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    High ethylene concentration under different environmental stresses such as salinity is one of the contributing factors for premature senescence of different plant parts. Plants under salinity stress produce increased levels of ethylene which inhibit the plant growth and physiology thus deteriorating the quality of the produce. Some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the ability to improve quality of crops through reduction in detrimental effects of salinity on plant growth and physiology by lowering endogenous level of ethylene along with other mechanisms. Two field trials were conducted to evaluate the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase for their efficacy to reduce the effect of salinity on physiology, ionic and nutrient balance of mung bean. Results showed that salinity stress adversely affected the physiological parameters of mung bean. It decreased the CO(2) assimilation, stomatal conductance of water, relative water content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and chlorophyll contents in mung bean but inoculation of either Rhizobium or Pseudomonas alone reduced adverse effect of salinity significantly. However, co-inoculation with Rhizobium and Pseudomonas was the most effective treatment and it diluted the adverse effects of salinity on relative water contents and CO(2) assimilation rate thus improving the photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and chlorophyll content over the un-inoculated control. Co-inoculation improved the ionic balance and also increased the phosphorus and protein concentration in grain of mung bean. The results suggested that these strains could be effectively used to improve the growth, physiology and quality of mung bean under salt-affected conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. An SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) and QTL analysis of pod length.

    PubMed

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Shimizu, Takehiko; Shu, Yujian; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-02-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) (2n = 2x = 22) is one of the most important vegetable legumes of Asia. The objectives of this study were to develop a genetic linkage map of yardlong bean using SSR makers from related Vigna species and to identify QTLs for pod length. The map was constructed from 226 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Unguiculata Group), azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi), and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in a BC(1)F(1) ((JP81610 × TVnu457) × JP81610) population derived from the cross between yardlong bean accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 852.4 cM in total length with a mean distance between adjacent markers of 3.96 cM. All markers on LG11 showed segregation distortion towards the homozygous yardlong bean JP81610 genotype. The markers on LG11 were also distorted in the rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) map, suggesting the presence of common segregation distortion factors in Vigna species on this LG. One major and six minor QTLs were identified for pod length variation between yardlong bean and wild cowpea. Using flanking markers, six of the seven QTLs were confirmed in an F(2) population of JP81610 × TVnu457. The molecular linkage map developed and markers linked to pod length QTLs would be potentially useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding.

  3. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-06

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  4. Characterization of resistance to three bruchid species (Callosobruchus spp., Coleoptera, Bruchidae) in cultivated rice bean (Vigna umbellata).

    PubMed

    Kashiwaba, K; Tomooka, N; Kaga, A; Han, O K; Vaughan, D A

    2003-02-01

    Resistance of wild and cultivated rice bean (Vigna umbellata [Thunberg] Ohwi and Ohashi) to three bruchid species, Callosobruchus chinensis L., Callosobruchus maculatus F., and Callosobruchus analis F., was evaluated. All but three accessions of cultivated, and all wild rice bean accessions tested, exhibited complete resistance to all three bruchid species. Rice bean seeds with seed coat removed also showed complete resistance to the three bruchid species. Results indicate that physical attributes and/or chemical(s) present in the seed coat of rice bean are not the main factors responsible for resistance. Feeding tests were performed by using artificial beans prepared with varying proportions of rice bean (resistant) and azuki bean (susceptible) flour. Number of bruchid adults that emerged decreased, and larval developmental period (days) was extended, when artificial beans with an increasing proportion of rice bean flour were used. These tests revealed that a chemical compound(s) contained in the cotyledon of rice bean has an inhibitory effect on the growth of these bruchid species. The results also indicate that the chemical(s) in rice bean cotyledon is most effective against C. maculatus.

  5. Development of a black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] linkage map and its comparison with an azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] linkage map.

    PubMed

    Chaitieng, B; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Isemura, T; Kuroda, Y; Vaughan, D A

    2006-11-01

    The Asian Vigna group of grain legumes consists of six domesticated species, among them black gram is widely grown in South Asia and to a lesser extent in Southeast Asia. We report the first genetic linkage map of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper], constructed using a BC(1)F(1) population consisting of 180 individuals. The BC(1)F(1) population was analyzed in 61 SSR primer pairs, 56 RFLP probes, 27 AFLP loci and 1 morphological marker. About 148 marker loci could be assigned to the 11 linkage groups, which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of black gram. The linkage groups cover a total of 783 cM of the black gram genome. The number of markers per linkage group ranges from 6 to 23. The average distance between adjacent markers varied from 3.5 to 9.3 cM. The results of comparative genome mapping between black gram and azuki bean show that the linkage order of markers is highly conserved. However, inversions, insertions, deletions/duplications and a translocation were detected between the black gram and azuki bean linkage maps. The marker order on parts of linkage groups 1, 2 and 5 is reversed between the two species. One region on black gram linkage group 10 appears to correspond to part of azuki bean linkage group 1. The present study suggests that the azuki bean SSR markers can be widely used for Asian Vigna species and the black gram genetic linkage map will assist in improvement of this crop.

  6. Spatial distribution of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and other bacterial populations in commercial and laboratory-scale sprouting mung bean beds.

    PubMed

    Hora, R; Kumar, M; Garcia, L; Schumacher, B; Odumeru, J; Warriner, K

    2005-12-01

    The reliability of testing spent irrigation water to assess the microbiological status of sprouting mung bean beds has been investigated. In commercial trials, the distribution of opportunistic contaminants within 32 bean sprout beds (25 kg of mung beans per bin) was assessed 48 h after germination. The prevalence of generic Escherichia coli, thermotolerant coliforms, and Aeromonas in sprouts (n = 288) was 5, 11, and 39%, respectively, and 57, 70, and 79% in the corresponding spent irrigation water samples (n = 96). Contamination was heterogeneously distributed within the seedbed. In laboratory trials, beans inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of either Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 (10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g) were introduced (1 g/500 g of noninoculated seeds) at defined locations (top, middle, or base), and the beans were then sprouted for 48 h. When seeds inoculated with pathogens were introduced at the base or top of the seedbed, the pathogens were typically restricted to these sites and resulted in 44% of the spent irrigation water samples returning false-negative results. Introducing inoculated beans into the middle or at the presoak stage enhanced the distribution of both pathogens within the subsequent sprout bed and resulted in comparable levels recovered in spent irrigation water. The study demonstrated that even though screening a single sample of spent irrigation water is more reliable than testing sprouts directly, it does not provide an accurate assessment of the microbiological status of sprouting mung bean beds. Such limitations may be addressed by ensuring that bean batches are mixed prior to use and by taking spent irrigation water samples from multiple sites at the latter stages of the sprouting process.

  7. Characterization and Rooting Ability of Indole-3-Butyric Acid Conjugates Formed during Rooting of Mung Bean Cuttings 1

    PubMed Central

    Wiesman, Zeev; Riov, Joseph; Epstein, Ephraim

    1989-01-01

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is rapidly metabolized by mung bean cuttings during rooting. Twenty-four hours after application, less than 20% of the applied IBA remained in the free form and its level decreased continuously in the later stages of rooting. Indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid (IBAsp) and at least two high molecular weight conjugates were the major metabolites in IBA-treated cuttings. In the latter conjugates, at least part of the IBA moiety is attached to a high molecular weight constituent in an amide linkage. IBAsp level peaked 24 hours after application of IBA to the cuttings and then declined. The level of the high molecular weight conjugates increased continuously throughout the rooting process. The conjugates were active in inducing rooting of cuttings, with IBAsp being superior to free IBA. It is suggested that IBA conjugates, and particularly IBAsp, serve as the source of auxin during the later stages of rooting. PMID:16667115

  8. A basic study on removal of nutrient salts in wastewater using plants (removal by mung beans; Phaseolus radiatus L).

    PubMed

    Azuma, T; Niiro, M; Motobu, H

    1992-01-01

    Many studies have reported on the removal of pollutants from wastewater using aquatic plants. The water hyacinth has been the most widely used and its system is the most well established. This system however, has a few problems in practical use. The purpose of this study is to obtain basic information on a new system that can substitute for a conventional system or be used as a secondary system to assist the conventional one. We first envisioned a model of this new system and then conducted a preliminary experiment using a small experimental unit to simulate the new system. The experiment showed that mung beans were a suitable plant for our study. Their removal rate of pollutants was the highest before they developed leaves and started photosynthesis. We found that nutrients were expelled outside the plant root when nutrient concentration inside the plant tissue became too high.

  9. Partial characterization of a protease inhibitor which inhibits the major endopeptidase present in the cotyledons of mung beans.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, B; Chrispeels, M J

    1976-07-01

    Germination of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus, Roxb.) is accompanied by an increase in the activity of the endopeptidase involved in storage protein metabolism. Enzyme activity in the cotyledons increases 25-fold during the first 5 days of germination. The cotyledons also contain inhibitory activity against the endopeptidase, and this inhibitory activity declines during germination, suggesting that inhibitors may play a role in regulating the activity of the endopeptidase.The inhibitory activity against the mung bean endopeptidase is due to the presence of two inhibitors which can be separated by chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The two inhibitors have approximate molecular weights of 12,000 and smaller than 2,000 daltons. The large inhibitor coelutes with trypsin inhibitor on Sephadex G-100, but these two inhibitory activities can be separated by means of a trypsin affinity column.The inhibitory activity disappears slowly from crude extracts incubated at 6 C and more rapidly when the extracts are incubated at 25 C or 37 C. The disappearance of inhibitory activity is accompanied by a rise of the endopeptidase activity, but an examination of the kinetics of these two phenomena suggests that they are not causally related. Fractionation of the cellular organelles on sucrose gradients shows that the inhibitory activity is not associated with the protein bodies, but rather with the cytosol. Our results suggest that the endopeptidase inhibitor(s) does not regulate the increase in endopeptidase activity which accompanies germination or the metabolism of storage protein. We, therefore, postulate that the inhibitor(s) may function in protecting the cytoplasm from accidental rupturing of the protease-containing protein bodies.

  10. A SNP and SSR Based Genetic Map of Asparagus Bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and Comparison with the Broader Species

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D.; Close, Timothy J.; Roberts, Philip A.; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as ‘long beans’ or ‘asparagus beans’. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level. PMID:21253606

  11. Novel molecular, cytotoxical, and immunological study on promising and selective anticancer activity of Mung bean sprouts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of mung bean sprouts (MBS) and the underlying mechanisms against human cervical and hepatocarcinoma cancer cells were explored. Methods MBS cytotoxicity and MBS-induced anticancer cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-β from cancer cells, and immunological cytokines, IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-10 from peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) were assessed by MTS and ELISA assays. Apoptotic cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The expression level of apoptotic genes (Bax, BCL-2, Capsases 7–9) and cell cycle regulatory genes (cyclin D, E, and A) and tumor suppressor proteins (p27, p21, and p53) was assessed by real-time qPCR in the cancer cells treated with extract IC50. Results The cytotoxicity on normal human cells was significantly different from HeLa and HepG2 cells, 163.97 ± 5.73, 13.3 ± 0.89, and 14.04 ± 1.5 mg/ml, respectively. The selectivity index (SI) was 12.44 ± 0.83 for HeLa and 11.94 ± 1.2 for HepG2 cells. Increased levels of TNF-α and IFN-β were observed in the treated HeLa and HepG2 culture supernatants when compared with untreated cells. MBS extract was shown to be an immunopolarizing agent by inducing IFNγ and inhibiting IL-4 production by PBMC; this leads to triggering of CMI and cellular cytotoxicity. The extract induced apoptosis, in a dose and time dependent manner, in treated HeLa and HepG2, but not in untreated, cells (P < 0.05). The treatment significantly induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 in HeLa cells. The percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase of the treated HeLa cells increased from 62.87 ± 2.1%, in untreated cells, to 80.48 ± 2.97%. Interestingly, MBS IC50 induced the expression of apoptosis and tumor suppressor related genes in both HeLa and HepG2 cells. MBS extract succeeded in inducing cdk-inhibitors, p21, p53, and p27 in HeLa cells while it induced only p53 in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05). This is a clue for the cell type- specific interaction of the studied extract. These proteins inhibit

  12. Phenolic antioxidants in some Vigna species of legumes and their distinct inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities.

    PubMed

    Sreerama, Yadahally N; Takahashi, Yoko; Yamaki, Kohji

    2012-09-01

    Phenolic extracts of 4 Vigna species of legumes (mung bean, moth bean, and black and red varieties of adzuki beans) were evaluated for phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory properties against α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. Results showed that adzuki bean varieties contain higher phenolic indexes than mung bean and moth beans. Adzuki bean (black) variety was found to be the most active 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion scavenger. However, the hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating abilities were significantly higher in adzuki bean (red) variety. Mung bean exhibited least antioxidant activities in all the methods tested. Phenolic extracts from these legumes also showed distinct variations in the inhibition of enzymes associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Inhibitory activities of all the extracts against lipase were found to be more potent than α-glucosidase. Although, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was superior in the black variety of adzuki bean (IC(50,) 26.28 mg/mL), both adzuki bean varieties (black and red) along with moth bean showed strong inhibitory activities on lipase with no significant difference in their IC(50) values (7.32 to 9.85 mg/mL). These results suggest that Vigna species of legumes are potential source of antioxidant phenolics and also great sources of strong natural inhibitors for α-glucosidase and lipase activities. This information may help for effective utilization of these legumes as functional food ingredients for promoting health. Practical Application:  Vigna species of legumes are good sources of phenolic antioxidants and strong natural inhibitors of enzymes associated with diabetes and obesity. Therefore, utilization of these legumes in the development of functional foods with increased therapeutic value would be a significant step toward health promotion and wellness.

  13. Detection of genome donor species of neglected tetraploid crop Vigna reflexo-pilosa (créole bean), and genetic structure of diploid species based on newly developed EST-SSR markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    PubMed

    Chankaew, Sompong; Isemura, Takehisa; Isobe, Sachiko; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2014-01-01

    Vigna reflexo-pilosa, which includes a neglected crop, is the only one tetraploid species in genus Vigna. The ancestral species that make up this allotetraploid species have not conclusively been identified, although previous studies suggested that a donor genome of V. reflexo-pilosa is V. trinervia. In this study, 1,429 azuki bean EST-SSR markers were developed of which 38 EST-SSR primer pairs that amplified one product in diploid species and two discrete products in tetraploid species were selected to analyze 268 accessions from eight taxa of seven Asian Vigna species including V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra, V. reflexo-pilosa var. reflexo-pilosa, V. exilis, V. hirtella, V. minima, V. radiata var. sublobata, V. tenuicaulis and V. trinervia to identify genome donor of V. reflexo-pilosa. Since both diploid and tetraploid species were analyzed and each SSR primer pair detected two loci in the tetraploid species, we separated genomes of the tetraploid species into two different diploid types, viz. A and B. In total, 445 alleles were detected by 38 EST-SSR markers. The highest gene diversity was observed in V. hirtella. By assigning the discrete PCR products of V. reflexo-pilosa into two distinguished genomes, we were able to identify the two genome donor parents of créole bean. Phylogenetic and principal coordinate analyses suggested that V. hirtella is a species complex and may be composed of at least three distinct taxa. Both analyses also clearly demonstrated that V. trinervia and one taxon of V. hirtella are the genome donors of V. reflexo-pilosa. Gene diversity indicates that the evolution rate of EST-SSRs on genome B of créole bean might be faster than that on genome A. Species relationship among the Vigna species in relation to genetic data, morphology and geographical distribution are presented.

  14. Effects of biochar on enhanced nutrient use efficiency of green bean, Vigna radiata L.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Songkrit; Tawinteung, Nukoon

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is the carbonized material produced from biomass and is used in several environmental applications. The biochar characteristics depend on the carbonization conditions and feedstock. The suitability of a given biochar for soil improvement depends on the biochar characteristics, soil properties, and target plants. Biochar has been applied at 1-20% (w/w) in the soil, but currently there is a lack of information on what type and concentration of biochar are most suitable for a specific plant and soil quality. Too much biochar will reduce plant growth because of the high alkalinity of biochar, which will cause long-term soil alkalinity. In contrast, too little biochar might be insufficient to enhance plant productivity. In this study, a suitable concentration of cassava stem (an abundant agricultural waste in Thailand) biochar produced at 350 °C was evaluated for green bean (Vigna radiata L.) growth from germination to seed production in pots over 8 weeks. The soil fertility was increased with increasing biochar concentration. At 5% (w/w) biochar, the soil fertility and plant growth were significantly enhanced, while 10% (w/w) biochar significantly enhanced bean growth and bean pod production. The increased biochar concentration in the soil significantly increased the soil total nitrogen and extractable potassium (K) levels but did not affect the amount of available phosphorous. Biochar at 10% (w/w) significantly induced the accumulation of K in the stems, leaves, nut shells, and roots but not in nut seeds. Moreover, biochar not only increased the K concentration in soil but also increased the plant nutrient use efficiency of K, which is important for plant growth. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  15. Control of Salmonella on sprouting mung bean and alfalfa seeds by using a biocontrol preparation based on antagonistic bacteria and lytic bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianxiong; Kostrzynska, Magdalaena; Dunfield, Kari; Warriner, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the application of a combination of antagonistic bacteria and lytic bacteriophages to control the growth of Salmonella on sprouting mung beans and alfalfa seeds. Antagonistic bacteria were isolated from mung bean sprouts and tomatoes by using the deferred plate assay to assess anti-Salmonella activity. From the isolates screened, an Enterobacter asburiae strain (labeled "JX1") exhibited stable antagonistic activity against a broad range of Salmonella serovars (Agona, Berta, Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, Javiana, Montevideo, Muenchen, Newport, Saint Paul, and Typhimurium). Lytic bacteriophages against Salmonella were isolated from pig or cattle manure effluent. A bacteriophage cocktail prepared from six isolates was coinoculated with E. asburiae JX1 along with Salmonella in broth culture. The combination of E. asburiae JX1 and bacteriophage cocktail reduced the levels of Salmonella by 5.7 to 6.4 log CFU/ml. Mung beans inoculated with Salmonella and sprouted over a 4-day period attained levels of 6.72 + or - 0.78 log CFU/g. In contrast, levels of Salmonella were reduced to 3.31 + or - 2.48 or 1.16 + or - 2.14 log CFU/g when the pathogen was coinoculated with bacteriophages or E. asburiae JX1, respectively. However, by using a combination of E. asburiae JX1 and bacteriophages, the levels of Salmonella associated with mung bean sprouts were only detected by enrichment. The biocontrol preparation was effective at controlling the growth of Salmonella under a range of sprouting temperatures (20 to 30 degrees Celsius) and was equally effective at suppressing the growth of Salmonella on sprouting alfalfa seeds. The combination of E. asburiae JX1 and bacteriophages represents a promising, chemical-free approach for controlling the growth of Salmonella on sprouting seeds.

  16. Digestibility of proteins and starch (in vitro) of amphidiploids (black gram x mung bean) as affected by domestic processing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Kataria, A; Chauhan, B M; Punia, D

    1992-04-01

    The effects of different domestic processing and cooking methods on starch digestibility (in vitro) and protein digestibility (in vitro) of four strains of amphidiploids (black gram x mung bean) were investigated. An increase of 35 to 48% and 22 to 25% was observed in starch digestibility and protein digestibility, respectively, when the seed of amphidiploids were soaked for 18 h. Cooking (both of unsoaked and soaked seeds) and germination improved significantly the starch digestibility and protein digestibility of all the varieties.

  17. Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and UV-B Absorbing Compounds in Mung Bean Using UV-B and Red LED Radiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-Min; Lu, Zhi-Guo; Yue, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. Various factors have important effects on the types and contents of plant chemical components. In order to study quality of mung bean from different light sources, mung bean seedlings were exposed to red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B). Changes in the growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and the content of UV-B absorbing compounds were measured. The results showed that photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b concentrations were enhanced by red LEDs. The concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced by UV-B on the 20th day, while photosynthetic characteristics, plant length, and the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were reduced by UV-B on the 40th day; at the same time the values of the stem diameter, plant fresh weight, dry weight, and the concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced. It is suggested that red LEDs promote the elongation of plant root growth and photosynthetic characteristics, while UV-B promotes horizontal growth of stems and the synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds.

  18. Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and UV-B Absorbing Compounds in Mung Bean Using UV-B and Red LED Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang-Min; Lu, Zhi-Guo; Yue, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. Various factors have important effects on the types and contents of plant chemical components. In order to study quality of mung bean from different light sources, mung bean seedlings were exposed to red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B). Changes in the growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and the content of UV-B absorbing compounds were measured. The results showed that photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b concentrations were enhanced by red LEDs. The concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced by UV-B on the 20th day, while photosynthetic characteristics, plant length, and the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were reduced by UV-B on the 40th day; at the same time the values of the stem diameter, plant fresh weight, dry weight, and the concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced. It is suggested that red LEDs promote the elongation of plant root growth and photosynthetic characteristics, while UV-B promotes horizontal growth of stems and the synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds. PMID:24678424

  19. Repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments for the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mung bean and radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Latiful; Sugiyama, Jun; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on the seeds prior to sprouting. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments with various chemicals to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 populations inoculated onto mung bean and radish seeds intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination. The treatment time was 20 sec for quick hot and 20 sec for quick chilling in one repeat. Likewise up to five repeats were done throughout the experiments. The chemicals used for this study were electrolyzed acidic (EO) water, phytic acid (0.05%), oxalic acid (3%), surfcera(R), and alpha-torino water(R), and distilled water was used as control. The quick hot treatment was done with 75 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 60 degrees C, and the chilling temperature was 0 degrees C. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of this treatment in reducing populations of the pathogens and the effects of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments on germination yield. It was found that repeating treatment at 75 degrees C for two or three repeats with phytic acid and oxalic acid could reduce 4.38-log colony-forming unit (CFU)/g of E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. EO water and distilled water were found equally effective at 75 degrees C for four or five repeats to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. However, alpha-torino water(R) and surfcera(R) were not found effective in comparison to other sanitizers used in this experiment. Irrespective of sanitizer used, the germination yield of the mung bean seed was not affected significantly. On the other hand, distilled water, EO water, and alpha-torino water(R) at 75 degrees C for five repeats were found effective in reducing 5.80-log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 in radish seeds; however, the

  20. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    PubMed Central

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26726262

  1. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  3. Histochemical and biochemical observations on storage protein metabolism and protein body autolysis in cotyledons of germinating mung beans.

    PubMed

    Harris, N; Chrispeels, M J

    1975-08-01

    Storage protein hydrolysis in the cotyledons of germinating mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) was examined by histochemical techniques, and the autolytic capacity of isolated protein bodies was studied with biochemical methods. The localization of endopeptidase activity within the cotyledons was studied using an India ink-gelatin film technique. After 24 hours of imbibition, a low level of endopeptidase activity was found throughout the storage tissues of the cotyledons. A marked increase in activity was noted in cells farthest from the vascular bundles 48 to 60 hours after the start of imbibition. The decrease in storage protein followed the same spatial distribution starting in the cells farthest from the bundles. The cotyledons contain a population of cells in various stages of endopeptidase activity enhancement and storage protein degradation. A wave of endopeptidase activity moves progressively through the cotyledons towards the vascular bundles leaving behind areas devoid of stored reserves and low in endopeptidase activity. Observations on the morphology of protein bodies during germination indicate that the membrane surrounding them remains intact, while the reserves disappear. This result suggests that the protein bodies may be undergoing autolysis. To determine whether this may indeed be the case, protein bodies were isolated from the meal of mung bean seeds using an aqueous medium containing 80% glycerol. The protein body preparations and the cytoplasm were assayed for the presence of a number of enzymes which may be involved in the breakdown of the storage proteins. The protein bodies contained all, or nearly all, of the carboxypeptidase, alpha-mannosidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, and caseolytic activity. The cytoplasm contained all, or most, of the leucine aminopeptidase and the trypsin-like activity (benzoyl arginine-p-nitroanalide as substrate). Incubation of the isolated protein bodies resulted in the release of amino acids. An analysis of

  4. N-3-Oxo-Decanoyl-l-Homoserine-Lactone Activates Auxin-Induced Adventitious Root Formation via Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-Dependent Cyclic GMP Signaling in Mung Bean1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xuegui; Todd, Christopher D.; Desikan, Radhika; Yang, Yongping; Hu, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    N-Acyl-homoserine-lactones (AHLs) are bacterial quorum-sensing signaling molecules that regulate population density. Recent evidence demonstrates their roles in plant defense responses and root development. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), and cyclic GMP (cGMP) are essential messengers that participate in various plant physiological processes, but how these messengers modulate the plant response to N-acyl-homoserine-lactone signals remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the N-3-oxo-decanoyl-homoserine-lactone (3-O-C10-HL), in contrast to its analog with an unsubstituted branch chain at the C3 position, efficiently stimulated the formation of adventitious roots and the expression of auxin-response genes in explants of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. This response was mimicked by the exogenous application of auxin, H2O2, NO, or cGMP homologs but suppressed by treatment with scavengers or inhibitors of H2O2, NO, or cGMP metabolism. The 3-O-C10-HL treatment enhanced auxin basipetal transport; this effect could be reversed by treatment with H2O2 or NO scavengers but not by inhibitors of cGMP synthesis. Inhibiting 3-O-C10-HL-induced H2O2 or NO accumulation impaired auxin- or 3-O-C10-HL-induced cGMP synthesis; however, blocking cGMP synthesis did not affect auxin- or 3-O-C10-HL-induced H2O2 or NO generation. Additionally, cGMP partially rescued the inhibitory effect of H2O2 or NO scavengers on 3-O-C10-HL-induced adventitious root development and auxin-response gene expression. These results suggest that 3-O-C10-HL, unlike its analog with an unmodified branch chain at the C3 position, can accelerate auxin-dependent adventitious root formation, possibly via H2O2- and NO-dependent cGMP signaling in mung bean seedlings. PMID:22138973

  5. Genome sequencing of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) provides insight into high starch and low fat accumulation and domestication

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Tian, Zhixi; Chen, Chunhai; Luo, Longhai; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Lili; Li, Yisong; Sun, Yudong; Li, Weiyu; Chen, Yan; Li, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yueyang; Ai, Danjiao; Zhao, Jinyang; Shang, Cheng; Ma, Yong; Wu, Bin; Wang, Mingli; Gao, Li; Sun, Dongjing; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Wang, Jinlong; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Wang, Jun; Ling, Hong-Qing; Wan, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), an important legume crop, is grown in more than 30 countries of the world. The seed of adzuki bean, as an important source of starch, digestible protein, mineral elements, and vitamins, is widely used foods for at least a billion people. Here, we generated a high-quality draft genome sequence of adzuki bean by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The assembled contig sequences reached to 450 Mb (83% of the genome) with an N50 of 38 kb, and the total scaffold sequences were 466.7 Mb with an N50 of 1.29 Mb. Of them, 372.9 Mb of scaffold sequences were assigned to the 11 chromosomes of adzuki bean by using a single nucleotide polymorphism genetic map. A total of 34,183 protein-coding genes were predicted. Functional analysis revealed that significant differences in starch and fat content between adzuki bean and soybean were likely due to transcriptional abundance, rather than copy number variations, of the genes related to starch and oil synthesis. We detected strong selection signals in domestication by the population analysis of 50 accessions including 11 wild, 11 semiwild, 17 landraces, and 11 improved varieties. In addition, the semiwild accessions were illuminated to have a closer relationship to the cultigen accessions than the wild type, suggesting that the semiwild adzuki bean might be a preliminary landrace and play some roles in the adzuki bean domestication. The genome sequence of adzuki bean will facilitate the identification of agronomically important genes and accelerate the improvement of adzuki bean. PMID:26460024

  6. Development of non-water soluble, ductile mung bean starch based edible film with oxygen barrier and heat sealability.

    PubMed

    Rompothi, Onjira; Pradipasena, Pasawadee; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat; Janjarasskul, Theeranun

    2017-02-10

    This research determined the effects of starch concentration (3.5-5.0%w/w), and plasticizer [glycerol (0-30%w/w) or sorbitol (0-60%w/w)] on properties of mung bean starch (MBS) films. The result showed that increasing plasticizer concentration tended to decrease tensile strength (TS), elastic modulus (EM) and oxygen permeability (OP); but increase elongation (%E), solubility, water vapor permeability (WVP) and seal strength. The extent of those changes also depended on starch concentration. Glycerol provided better plasticizer efficiency than sorbitol. A bimodal melting endotherm of retrograded structure was evident in non-plasticized film. However, only a low temperature endotherm was observed in polyol-plasticized films, indicating a plasticizer-induced structural modification. The developed ductile MBS films, (TS of 7.14±0.95 to 46.30±3.09MPa, %E of 2.46±0.21 to 56.95±4.34% and EM of 16.29±3.40 to 1428.45±148.72MPa) with an OP of 0.2397±0.0365 to 1.1520±0.1782 ccmm/m(2)daykPa and seal strength up to 422.36±7.93N/m, demonstrated in this study indicate the potential for food packaging applications.

  7. Effect of ascorbic acid postharvest treatment on enzymatic browning, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of stored mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Małgorzata; Świeca, Michał

    2018-01-15

    Enzymatic browning limits the postharvest life of minimally processed foods, thus the study selected the optimal inhibitors of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and evaluated their effect on enzymatic browning, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of stored mung bean sprouts. The sprouts treated with 2mM and 20mM ascorbic acid had a lowered PPO activity; compared to the control by 51% and 60%, respectively. The inhibition was reflected in a significant decrease in enzymatic browning. The sprouts treated with 20mM ascorbic acid had 22% and 23% higher phenolic content after 3 and 7days of storage, respectively. Both storage and ascorbic acid treatment increased potential bioaccessibility of phenolics. Generally, there was no effect of the treatments on the antioxidant capacity; however, a significant increase in the reducing potential was determined for the sprouts washed with 20mM ascorbic acid. In conclusion, ascorbic acid treatments may improve consumer quality of stored sprouts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) on seedling growth and associated biochemical changes in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).

    PubMed

    Batish, Daizy R; Singh, Harminder P; Setia, Nidhi; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder K

    2006-01-01

    BOA (2-benzoxazolinone) is a potent phytotoxin present in several graminaceous crops such as rye, maize and wheat. Due to its wide range of phytotoxicity, it is considered as a potential pesticide. A study was conducted to explore the impact of BOA on the radicle and plumule elongation of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) and associated changes in the macromolecular content - proteins and carbohydrates - and activities of enzymes like amylases, proteases, polyphenol oxidases and peroxidases. BOA significantly reduced the radicle and plumule length of P. aureus, and the contents of proteins and carbohydrates in both root and leaf tissue. On the other hand, activities of hydrolytic enzymes - proteases, amylases, polyphenol oxidases and peroxidases - increased substantially in both root and leaf tissue of P. aureus upon BOA exposure. This indicated that BOA treatment induced stress in P. aureus and enhanced enzyme activities to counter the induced stress and continue the growth. In other words, BOA-induced stress altered the plant biochemical status and related enzyme activities resulting in increased metabolism that serves to provide protection against cellular injury. Such studies providing information about the biomolecular content and enzymatic activities in response to natural products serve as clues for furtherance of knowledge about the modes of action of natural compounds of commercial interest.

  9. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua; Luo, Fengxia

    2012-10-01

    Two assays were conducted to investigate the changes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) phosphatases (phytase [Phy] and acid phosphatase [AcPh]) and the degradation of its substrates (inositol phosphate esters) during seed germination. The 1st assay was to establish the optimal germination conditions of faba bean and azuki bean to improve the endogenous phosphatases and increase the hydrolysis of phytate and, in the second assay, to determine the different lower phosphate esters of myo-inositol produced during the germination process. In the 1st assay, seeds were soaked for 12 and 24 h and germinated for 3 and 5 d with and without the addition of gibberellic acid (GA(3) ). In the second assay, seeds were soaked for 12 h and germinated for 1, 3, and 5 d with GA(3) . Phy (up to 3625 and 1340 U/kg) and AcPh (up to 9456 and 2740 U/g) activities, and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) (8.23 and 7.46 mg/g), inositol pentaphosphate (IP5) (0.55 and 0.82 mg/g), and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4) (0.26 and 0.01 mg/g) were detected in ungerminated faba bean and azuki bean, respectively. The germination process caused a significant increase of Phy and AcPh activities in faba bean (up to 147% and 210%) and azuki bean (up to 211% and 596%) and a reduction in the phytate phosphorus content (up to 81% and 63%, respectively). Phytate phosphorus content was affected only by soaking time in the case of faba bean. Finally, during the course of germination, IP6 and IP5 were rapidly degraded in faba bean (88% and 39%) and azuki bean (55% and 56%), and IP4 was only a short-living intermediate, which was increased during hydrolysis and degraded to inositol triphosphate. In this manner we could obtain a low-phytate, endogenous phosphatase-rich ingredient for enhancing human nutrition.

  10. Evaluation of sample preparation methods for the isolation of Salmonella from alfalfa and mung bean seeds with the Bacteriological Analytical Manual's Salmonella culture method.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Andrew P; Hammack, Thomas S; Andrews, Wallace H

    2008-01-01

    Five pre-enrichment methods were evaluated for effectiveness with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method in recovering S. Stanley, S. Poona, and S. Muenchen from artificially contaminated alfalfa seeds, and S. Saintpaul, S. Anatum, and S. Infantis from artificially contaminated mung bean seeds. The methods included: (1) Soak.--Test portions were inoculated into pre-enrichment media; (2) Rinse.--Test portions were rinsed with pre-enrichment media, and the media was decanted from the test portions; (3) Rinsed seed.--Pre-enrichment media was added to the test portions that were rinsed in the rinse method; (4) Wet blend.--Test portions were blended with the pre-enrichment media; and (5) Dry blend.--Test portions were blended prior to pre-enrichment. The methods of pre-enrichment were also evaluated for effectiveness in recovering Pantoea agglomerans from alfalfa and mung bean seeds with a modified culture method for the recovery of Enterobacteriaceae from foods. The purpose of these studies was to provide a model for the recovery of Salmonella that may occur in seeds as a natural contaminant. The relative effectiveness of the soak method was consistently superior to the rinse method in isolating the selected Salmonella serovars from both seed types. Statistically, the rinsed seed method was as effective as the soak method in all trials, except 1 of 3, with S. Muenchen and alfalfa seeds (P > 0.05). The relative effectiveness of the methods in isolating P. agglomerans from alfalfa and mung bean seeds was similar to that observed with the artificially contaminated test portions. The soak method was consistently the most effective method and the rinse method was consistently the most ineffective method. The rinsed seed, wet blend, and dry blend methods were also as effective as the soak method in all 3 trials with each seed type (P > 0.05).

  11. Evaluation of real-time PCR coupled with immunomagnetic separation or centrifugation for the detection of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella spp. on mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qianwang; Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yang, Yishan; Lee, Sang-Myun; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-04-02

    Fresh mung bean sprouts have been identified as a source of many Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and accurate detection methodology for low levels of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella on mung bean sprouts using real-time PCR coupled with either immunomagnetic separation (PCR-IMS) or centrifugation (PCR-cen). Initially, three parameters of IMS; specificity/sensitivity, bacterial concentration and bead incubation time were optimized. Secondly, limit of detection (LOD) was determined for the optimized PCR-IMS and PCR-cen. These two methods were compared against PCR alone (PCR) and the standard culture method (ISO) for their ability to detect Salmonella using inoculated and uninoculated sprouts. Under optimum IMS conditions (10(5)CFU/ml for 30 min), capture efficiency of Salmonella in sprout suspensions was lower than 40%, most probably due to the non-specific binding of the background microbiota. PCR-IMS and PCR-cen had a similar LOD at 10(3)CFU/ml, which was one log unit lower than PCR. Enrichment of 10h was sufficient to detect 100% of the inoculated sprouts with both PCR-IMS and PCR-cen, which was significantly faster compared to PCR and the ISO method. Moreover, the validation study using uninoculated sprouts revealed that PCR-IMS and PCR-cen were equally effective on Salmonella detection, showing 98.3% accuracy. These results suggest that PCR-cen would be the effective and less costly method for the detection of both healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella on mung bean sprouts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on laboratory-inoculated mung bean seed by chlorine treatmentt.

    PubMed

    Fett, William F

    2002-05-01

    Three U.S. outbreaks of foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated raw mung bean sprouts occurred in the past 2 years and were caused by Salmonella Enteritidis. The original source of the pathogens is thought to have been the seed. The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with aqueous chlorine would eliminate the pathogens from mung bean seed inoculated in the laboratory with four-strain cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Treatments (for 5, 10, or 15 min) with buffered (500 mM potassium phosphate, pH 6.8) or unbuffered solutions containing 0.3 or 3.0% (wt/vol) Ca(OCl)2 were tested. In order to mimic common commercial practice, seed was rinsed before and after treatment with sterile tap water. Treatment for 15 min with buffer (500 mM potassium phosphate, pH 6.8) or sterile water in combination with the seed rinses resulted in maximum reductions of approximately 3 log10 CFU/g. The largest reductions (4 to 5 log10 CFU/g) for the chlorine treatments in combination with the rinses were obtained after treatment with buffered 3.0% (wt/vol) Ca(OCl)2 for 15 min. Treatment of mung bean seed for 15 min with unbuffered or buffered 3.0% (wt/vol) Ca(OCl)2 did not adversely affect germination. Even though treatments with 3% (wt/vol) Ca(OCl)2 in combination with the water rinses were effective in greatly reducing the populations of both bacterial pathogens, these treatments did not result in the elimination of the pathogens from laboratory-inoculated seed.

  13. Combined effect of low-dose irradiation and acidified sodium chlorite washing on Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Nei, Daisuke; Bari, Md Latiful; Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Susumu; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2010-10-01

    The effect of low-dose irradiation (0.75 and 1.5 kGy) in combination with acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on the reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on mung bean seeds was examined. Washing with ASC (0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.2 g/L sodium chlorite and 1.0 g/L citric acid) for 2 h reduced the E. coli O157:H7 population from 5.2 to 2.3-3.3 log CFU/g, depending on the concentrations of sodium chlorite. Gamma ray irradiation at 0.75 and 1.5 kGy resulted in reductions of about 1.8 and 2.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Therefore, a single treatment with ASC washing or gamma ray irradiation at 0.75 or 1.5 kGy could not achieve the complete elimination of E. coli O157:H7 on mung bean seeds. Conversely, low-dose irradiation (0.75 and 1.5 kGy) followed by washing with ASC (0.5-1.2 g/L) reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 to below the detection limit (<1 log CFU/g). However, E. coli O157:H7 was detected in most samples in the enrichment and germination studies. When the treatment order was reversed (ASC washing followed by low-dose irradiation), the E. coli O157:H7 population was also observed to be below the detection limit. Under this treatment, fewer samples (16.7%) were shown to be positive in the enrichment and germination studies, and complete elimination was not achieved. The germination rates of mung bean seeds were not affected by ASC washing and gamma irradiation; however, the yield and length of sprouts were decreased by gamma irradiation.

  14. Inducing salt tolerance in mung bean through coinoculation with rhizobia and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir A; Asghar, H Naeem; Asghar, M

    2011-07-01

    Twenty-five strains of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and 10 strains of rhizobia were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples and nodules of mung bean. They were screened in separate trials under salt-stressed axenic conditions. The three most effective strains of PGPR (Mk1, Pseudomonas syringae ; Mk20, Pseudomonas fluorescens ; and Mk25, Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G) and Rhizobium phaseoli strains M1, M6, and M9 were evaluated in coinoculation for their growth-promoting activity at three salinity levels (original, 4 dS·m(-1), and 6 dS·m(-1)) under axenic conditions. The results showed that salinity stress significantly reduced plant growth but inoculation with PGPR containing ACC deaminase and rhizobia enhanced plant growth, thus reducing the inhibitory effect of salinity. However, their combined application was more effective under saline conditions, and the combination Mk20 × M6 was the most efficient for improving seedling growth and nodulation. The effect of high ethylene concentrations on plant growth and the performance of these strains for reducing the negative impact of saline stress was also evaluated by conducting a classical triple-response bioassay. The intensity of the classical triple response decreased owing to inoculation with these strains, with the root and shoot lengths of inoculated mung bean seedlings increasing and stem diameter decreasing, which is a typical response to the dilution in a classical triple response bioassay. Thus, coinoculation with PGPR containing ACC deaminase and Rhizobium spp. could be a useful approach for inducing salt tolerance and thus improving growth and nodulation in mung bean under salt-affected conditions.

  15. Plant flavokinase. Affinity-chromatographic procedure for the purification of the enzyme from mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus) seeds and conformational changes on its interaction with orthophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Sobhanaditya, J; Rao, N A

    1981-01-01

    Flavokinase was purified, for the first time from a plant source [mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)] by affinity chromatography in the presence of orthophosphate and by using C-8 ATP-agarose (ATP linked through the C-8 position to beaded agarose), Cibacron Blue and riboflavin--Sepharoses. An altered substrates-saturation pattern was observed in the presence of K2HPO4. The conformational changes of the enzyme in the presence of K2HPO4 were monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. These results highlight the regulatory nature of this enzyme. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6274324

  16. Comparison of Listeria monocytogenes recoveries from spiked mung bean sprouts by the enrichment methods of three regulatory agencies.

    PubMed

    Cauchon, Kaitlin E; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2017-09-01

    Three selective enrichment methods, the United States Food and Drug Administration's (FDA method), the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service's (USDA method), and the EN ISO 11290-1 standard method, were assessed for their suitability for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from spiked mung bean sprouts. Three parameters were evaluated; the enrichment L. monocytogenes population from singly-spiked sprouts, the enrichment L. monocytogenes population from doubly-spiked (L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua) sprouts, and the population differential resulting from the enrichment of doubly-spiked sprouts. Considerable L. monocytogenes inter-strain variation was observed. The mean enrichment L. monocytogenes populations for singly-spiked sprouts were 6.1 ± 1.2, 4.9 ± 1.2, and 6.9 ± 2.3 log CFU/mL for the FDA, USDA, and EN ISO 11290-1 methods, respectively. The mean L. monocytogenes populations for doubly-spiked sprouts were 4.7 ± 1.1, 5.5 ± 1.3, and 4.6 ± 1.4 log CFU/mL for the FDA, USDA, and ISO 11290-1 enrichment methods, respectively. The corresponding mean population differentials were 2.8 ± 1.1, 3.3 ± 1.3, and 3.6 ± 1.4 Δlog CFU/mL for the same three enrichment methods, respectively. The presence of L. innocua and resident microorganisms on the sprouts negatively impacted final levels of L. monocytogenes with all three enrichment methods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Biosorptive uptake of arsenic(V) by steam activated carbon from mung bean husk: equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Sandip; Aikat, Kaustav; Halder, Gopinath

    2017-07-01

    The present investigation emphasizes on the biosorptive removal of toxic pentavalent arsenic from water using steam activated carbon prepared from mung bean husk (SAC-MBH). Characterization of the synthesized sorbent was done using different instrumental techniques, i.e., SEM, BET and point of zero charge. Sorptive uptake of As(V) over steam activated MBH as a function of pH (3-9), agitation speed (40-200 rpm), dosage (50-1000 mg) and temperature (298-313 K) was studied by batch process at arsenic concentration of 2 mg L-1. Lower pH increases the arsenic removal over the pH range of 3-9. Among three adsorption isotherm models examined, Langmuir model was observed to show superior results over Freundlich model. The mean sorption energy (E) estimated by Dubinin-Radushkevich model suggested that the process of adsorption was chemisorption. Thermodynamic parameters confer that the sorption process was spontaneous, exothermic and feasible in nature. The pseudo-second-order rate kinetics of arsenic gave better correlation coefficients as compared to pseudo-first-order kinetics equation. Three process parameters, viz. adsorbent dosage, agitation speed and pH were opted for optimizing As(V) elimination using central composite design matrix of response surface methodology (RSM). The identical design setup was used for artificial neural network (ANN) for comparing its prediction capability with RSM towards As(V) removal. Maximum arsenic removal was observed to be 98.75% at sorbent dosage 0.75 gm L-1, pH 3.0, agitation speed 160 rpm and temperature 308 K. The study concluded that SAC-MBH could be a competent adsorbent for As(V) removal and ANN model was better in arsenic removal predictability results than RSM model.

  18. The endoplasmic reticulum of mung-bean cotyledons : Biosynthesis during seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Gilkes, N R; Chrispeels, M J

    1980-01-01

    Germination and seedling growth of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) are accompanied by the incorporation of radioactive amino acids, glycerol, galactose, and glucosamine in an organelle fraction of the cotyledons which co-equilibrates with NADH-cytochrome-c-reductase activity at 1.13 g·cm(-3) on isopycnic gradients containing 1 mM EDTA. Up to 20% of the newly synthesized proteins accumulate in this organelle fraction. The organelle fraction has been identified as rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) on the basis of its increased density (1.16 g·cm(-3)) when 3 mM MgCl2 is included in all media. Seedling growth is also accompanied by a marked rise (more than 5-fold) in ER-associated NADH- and NADPH-cytochrome-c-reductase activity, and by the incorporation of(59)Fe into ER-associated heme. Other manifestations of the reorganization of the ER in the cotyledons include a relative increase in membrane-associated RNA (from 12% of total RNA after 12 h of imbibition to 23% after 6 d of growth), and a change in the pattern of polypeptides associated with the ER. These results provide further evidence for the extensive reorganization of the ER of the cotyledons which accompanies seedling growth. The reorganization includes the simultaneous breakdown of the pre-existing tubular ER and the biosynthesis of new ER components.

  19. Control of alpha-Amylase Development in Cotyledons during and following Germination of Mung Bean Seeds.

    PubMed

    Morohashi, Y; Katoh, H; Kaneko, Y; Matsushima, H

    1989-09-01

    Developmental patterns of alpha-amylase in Vigna radiata cotyledons during and following germination were quite different depending on the differences in the treatments of cotyledons during the imbibitional stage. When axis-detached cotyledons were imbibed in water with seed-coats attached, alpha-amylase activity did not increase and remained low. On the other hand, when the cotyledons were imbibed in water after seed-coat removal, the enzyme activity increased markedly. If the axis was attached to the cotyledons, alpha-amylase showed a marked development even under the former imbibition conditions. These changes in the enzyme activity were in parallel with those in the enzyme content, and the content, in turn, was dependent upon the availability of mRNA for alpha-amylase. We propose that the regulation of the development of alpha-amylase in cotyledons may involve some factor(s) inhibitory to accumulation of alpha-amylase mRNA, which is present in dry cotyledons and can be removed from cotyledons by leakage or by the presence of the axis.

  20. Aspergillus awamori-fermented mung bean seed coats enhance the antioxidant and immune responses of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, D N; Hung, Y S; Yang, T S; Lin, J H; Weng, C F

    2017-10-01

    The potential benefits of Aspergillus-fermented mung bean seed coats (FMSC) for weaned pigs remain unexplored. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were employed to evaluate the potential of FMSC supplement on the growth, antioxidant and immune responses of weaned pigs. The total polyphenols and DPPH scavenging capability of ethanol extract of FMSC exhibited a greater (p < 0.01) increase than those of pre-fermentation. With the addition of the polyphenol of FMSC extract, an increase in phagocytosis by neutrophils and proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were found. However, these observations were significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) in those activated cells. Next, 96 weaned pigs were allotted with a randomized complete block design into four dietary treatments, including 0 (control), 600, 1200 or 1800 mg/kg FMSC in a corn-soya bean meal basal diet for a 35-day trial. The pigs were injected with swine enzootic pneumonia (SEP) vaccines at day 3 and day 21 respectively. The results showed that dietary treatment failed to affect growth performance or serum SEP titre. The diet supplemented with 600-1800 mg/kg FMSC decreased faecal lactoferrin on day 21 and increased plasma trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and erythrocytes catalase activity, as well as decreased (p < 0.01) plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration on day 35. Diet supplementation of 1800 mg/kg FMSC increased phagocytosis by neutrophils and PBMC proliferation induced by pokeweed mitogen (PWM). However, the polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN)-positive respiratory burst cells were decreased in the supplementation of 1200 or 1800 mg/kg FMSC respectively. In addition, the serum haptoglobin concentration was decreased in the supplementation with 1200 mg/kg FMSC. Taken together, FMSC enriches polyphenols with antioxidative and immune modulated properties. After feeding FMSC, an improvement in antioxidative capability and immunocompetence was found, implying that

  1. Development of a method for the analysis of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengzu; Zhao, Pengyue; Shan, Weili; Gong, Yong; Jian, Qiu; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts. The sample preparation procedure was based on a QuEChERS method. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9985) and precision (RSDs ≤ 13.0%). Average recoveries of four PGRs ranged between 74.9% and 106.3% at spiking levels 0.05, 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1). The LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.27-9.3 μg kg(-1) and 0.90-31 μg kg(-1), respectively. The procedure was applied to 18 bean sprout samples, and benzyladenine was found in some of the analyzed samples.

  2. Inactivation of escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella on mung beans, alfalfa, and other seed types destined for sprout production by using an oxychloro-based sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Hora, R; Kostrzynska, M; Waites, W M; Warriner, K

    2006-07-01

    The efficacy of a stabilized oxychloro-based food grade sanitizer to decontaminate seeds destined for sprout production has been evaluated. By using mung bean seeds as a model system, it was demonstrated that the sanitizer could be used to inactivate a five-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella introduced onto beans at 10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g. Salmonella was more tolerant to stabilized oxychloro than was E. coli O157:H7, with sanitizer levels of >150 and >50 ppm, respectively, being required to ensure pathogen-free sprouts. The decontamination efficacy was also found to be dependent on treatment time (>8 h optimal) and the seed-to-sanitizer ratio (>1:4 optimal). Stabilized oxychloro treatment did not exhibit phytotoxic effects, as germination and sprout yields were not significantly (P > 0.05) different as compared with untreated controls. Although human pathogens could be effectively eliminated from mung beans, the aerobic plate count of native microflora on sprouts grown from treated seed was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the controls. The diversity of microbial populations (determined through 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis) associated with bean sprouts was not significantly affected by the sanitizer treatment. However, it was noted that Klebsiella and Herbasprillum (both common plant endophytes) were absent in sprouts derived from decontaminated seed but were present in control sprouts. When a further range of seed types was evaluated, it was found that alfalfa, cress, flax, and soybean could be decontaminated with the stabilized oxychloro sanitizer. However, the decontamination efficacy with other seed types was less consistent. It appears that the rate of seed germination and putative activity of sanitizer sequestering system(s), in addition to other factors, may limit the efficacy of the decontamination method.

  3. Mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) polyphenol extract attenuates aluminum-induced cardiotoxicity through an ROS-triggered Ca(2+)/JNK/NF-κB signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dai; Wang, Ruhua; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua

    2017-02-22

    Aluminum (Al) has been linked to the development of some cardiovascular diseases and mung bean is a functional food with the ability to detoxify. We aimed to evaluate the preventive effect and possible underlying mechanisms of the mung bean polyphenol extract (MPE) on Al-induced cardiotoxicity. Control, AlCl3 (171.8 mg Al per kg body weight), MPE + AlCl3 (Al-treatment plus 200 mg MPE per kg body weight), and a group of MPE per se were used. Al intake induced a significant increase of serum CK and LDH activity and the level of Na(+), Ca(2+), malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products in the AlCl3-treated rats' heart tissue. Administration of MPE significantly improved the integrity and normal ion levels of heart tissue, and attenuated oxidative damage and the accumulation of Al in Al-treated rats. MPE significantly inhibited Al-induced increase of myocardial p-JNK, cytoplasmic NF-κB, cytochrome C, and caspase-9 protein expressions. Therefore, these results showed that MPE has a cardiac protective effect against Al-induced biotoxicity through ROS-JNK and NF-κB-mediated caspase pathways. Furthermore, the stability constant for the vitexin-Al complex was analyzed (log K = log K1 + log K2 = 4.91 + 4.85 = 9.76). We found that MPE-mediated protection against Al-cardiotoxicity is connected both with MPE antioxidant and chelation properties.

  4. Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in alfalfa, mung bean, cilantro, and mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) food matrices using DNA microarray chip hybridization.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Nusrat; Sharma, Devang; Al-Khaldi, Sufian F

    2009-09-01

    Four different food matrices (alfalfa, cilantro, mamey sapote, and mung bean) were contaminated with three different dilutions 10(6), 10(4), and 10(3) cfu/g of Yersinia enterocolitica. DNA was isolated from each food mix and used in chromosomal amplifications. The amplified DNA was used as templates in single PCR reactions of the four genes (virF, ail, yst, and blaA) followed by mixing the four reactions for one PCR primer extension reaction. The presence and the limit of detection of four genes in four food matrices were established by microarray hybridization. Data revealed the diversity of signal intensities. Neither the microarray chip hybridization nor the single PCR amplification could detect virF's presence located on a plasmid. Ail was detected in 10(3) cfu/g, whereas blaA and yst were detected from 10(5) to 10(6) cfu/g in all food matrices. Therefore, the ail gene could be the gene of choice in identifying Y. enterocolitica in alfalfa, cilantro, mamey, and mung bean. Other genes--blaA, yst, virF--exhibited wide variability in hybridization signals, highlighting the need of a better DNA purification step prior to DNA microarray hybridization.

  5. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of aerated steam treatment of alfalfa and mung bean seeds to eliminate high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O178:H12, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Studer, Patrick; Heller, Werner E; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Drissner, David

    2013-08-01

    Sprouts contaminated with human pathogens are able to cause food-borne diseases due to the favorable growth conditions for bacteria during germination and because of minimal processing steps prior to consumption. We have investigated the potential of hot humid air, i.e., aerated steam, to treat alfalfa and mung bean seeds which have been artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. In addition, a recently collected E. coli O178:H12 isolate, characterized by a reduced heat sensitivity, was exposed to the treatment described. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica on alfalfa and mung bean seeds could be completely eliminated by a 300-s treatment with steam at 70 ± 1°C as revealed by enrichment studies. L. monocytogenes and E. coli O178:H12 could not be completely eliminated from artificially inoculated seeds. However, bacterial populations were reduced by more than 5 log CFU/g on alfalfa and by more than 4 log CFU/g on mung bean seeds. The germination rate of mung beans was not affected by the 300-s treatment compared to the germination rate of untreated seeds whereas that of alfalfa seeds was significantly lower by 11.9%. This chemical-free method is an effective alternative to the 20,000-ppm hypochlorite treatment presently recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  7. Evaluation of Aerated Steam Treatment of Alfalfa and Mung Bean Seeds To Eliminate High Levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O178:H12, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Patrick; Heller, Werner E.; Hummerjohann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Sprouts contaminated with human pathogens are able to cause food-borne diseases due to the favorable growth conditions for bacteria during germination and because of minimal processing steps prior to consumption. We have investigated the potential of hot humid air, i.e., aerated steam, to treat alfalfa and mung bean seeds which have been artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. In addition, a recently collected E. coli O178:H12 isolate, characterized by a reduced heat sensitivity, was exposed to the treatment described. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica on alfalfa and mung bean seeds could be completely eliminated by a 300-s treatment with steam at 70 ± 1°C as revealed by enrichment studies. L. monocytogenes and E. coli O178:H12 could not be completely eliminated from artificially inoculated seeds. However, bacterial populations were reduced by more than 5 log CFU/g on alfalfa and by more than 4 log CFU/g on mung bean seeds. The germination rate of mung beans was not affected by the 300-s treatment compared to the germination rate of untreated seeds whereas that of alfalfa seeds was significantly lower by 11.9%. This chemical-free method is an effective alternative to the 20,000-ppm hypochlorite treatment presently recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). PMID:23709507

  8. Effects of different media on the enrichment of low numbers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts and on the development of the sprout microbiome.

    PubMed

    Margot, H; Tasara, T; Zwietering, M H; Joosten, H; Stephan, R

    2016-09-02

    Sprouted seeds have been implicated in a number of serious outbreaks caused by Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Sprouts pose a very complex challenge to bacterial pathogen enrichment and detection since they naturally contain high levels of background microflora including members of the Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the currently used method cannot ensure reliable detection of STEC in sprouts. In this study, we compared different media for the enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae in their ability to promote the growth of stressed STEC at 37°C and 42°C. Mung bean sprouts were spiked with low levels of STEC and their growth was recorded over time. In addition, the microbiome of mung bean sprouts was analysed before and after enrichment. Our results indicate that the growth of dry-stressed STEC is comparable in all of the tested enrichment media except for mTSB+Novobiocin and not influenced by the incubation temperature. Low levels of STEC spiked into the sprouts resuspended in media only grew to levels of around 4logcfu/ml during enrichment, which could reduce the probability of detection. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected within the microbiome of non-enriched mung bean sprouts. During enrichment in EE-broth, Proteobacteria remained the most abundant phylum. In contrast, during enrichment in BPW the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased whereas Firmicutes increased when compared to the non-enriched mung bean sprout microbiome. The microbiome composition was not significantly influenced by the incubation temperature during enrichment in both BPW and EE-broth. This is the first study to examine the microbiome on sprouted mung bean seeds during BPW and EE enrichment and relates the bacterial community composition changes to the enrichment of pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, non-O157-shiga toxin-producing E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on mung bean seeds and sprout.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Bautista-De León, Haydee; Vázquez-Barrios, Ma Estela; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2013-09-16

    The behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C and during germination and sprouting of mung bean seeds at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C and on mung bean sprouts at 3±2 °C was determined. When mung bean seeds were inoculated with EAEC, non-O157 STEC, EIEC, EPEC or ETEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) survived at least 90 days on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C. All DEPs grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 Log and 7 Log CFU/g after 2 days at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seeds germination and stored at 20±2 ° or 30±2 °C, no growth was observed for any DEPs during sprouting at 20±2 °C per 9 d; however, a significant increase in the concentration of DEPs of approximately 0.7 log CFU/g was observed during sprouting at 30±2 °C after 1 day of sprout contamination. Refrigeration reduced the number of viable DEPs strains on sprouts after 10 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance in the safety of the sprouts. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. De Novo Characterization of the Mung Bean Transcriptome and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adventitious Rooting in Seedlings Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Weng; Shi, Rui-Fang; Leng, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious rooting is the most important mechanism underlying vegetative propagation and an important strategy for plant propagation under environmental stress. The present study was conducted to obtain transcriptomic data and examine gene expression using RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analysis, thereby providing a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Three cDNA libraries constructed from mRNA samples from mung bean hypocotyls during adventitious rooting were sequenced. These three samples generated a total of 73 million, 60 million, and 59 million 100-bp reads, respectively. These reads were assembled into 78,697 unigenes with an average length of 832 bp, totaling 65 Mb. The unigenes were aligned against six public protein databases, and 29,029 unigenes (36.77%) were annotated using BLASTx. Among them, 28,225 (35.75%) and 28,119 (35.62%) unigenes had homologs in the TrEMBL and NCBI non-redundant (Nr) databases, respectively. Of these unigenes, 21,140 were assigned to gene ontology classes, and a total of 11,990 unigenes were classified into 25 KOG functional categories. A total of 7,357 unigenes were annotated to 4,524 KOs, and 4,651 unigenes were mapped onto 342 KEGG pathways using BLAST comparison against the KEGG database. A total of 11,717 unigenes were differentially expressed (fold change>2) during the root induction stage, with 8,772 unigenes down-regulated and 2,945 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 12,737 unigenes were differentially expressed during the root initiation stage, with 9,303 unigenes down-regulated and 3,434 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 5,334 unigenes were differentially expressed between the root induction and initiation stage, with 2,167 unigenes down-regulated and 3,167 unigenes up-regulated. qRT-PCR validation of the 39 genes with known functions indicated a strong correlation (92.3%) with the RNA-Seq data. The GO enrichment, pathway mapping, and gene expression profiles reveal

  11. Development of Combined Dry Heat and Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment with Mechanical Mixing for Inactivation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo on Mung Bean Seeds.

    PubMed

    Annous, Bassam A; Burke, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh sprouted beans. The sprouting conditions of mung bean seeds provide optimal conditions of temperature and relative humidity for any potential pathogenic contaminant on the seeds to grow. The lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. Thus, the use of a kill step on the seeds prior to a sprouting step would enhance the safety of fresh sprouts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined thermal and chlorine dioxide gas (3.5 mg/liter of air) treatment with mechanical mixing (tumbling) to eliminate Salmonella on artificially inoculated mung bean seeds. Although no viable Salmonella was recovered from seeds treated in hot water at 60°C for 2 h, these treated seeds failed to germinate. Dry heat treatments (55, 60, or 70°C) for up to 8 h reduced Salmonella populations in excess of 3 log CFU/g. The use of tumbling, while treating the seeds, resulted in up to 1.6 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella populations compared with no tumbling. Dry heat treatment at 65°C for 18 h with tumbling resulted in a complete inactivation of Salmonella populations on inoculated seeds with low inoculum levels (2.83 log CFU/g) as compared with high inoculum levels (4.75 log CFU/g). The increased reductions in pathogenic populations on the seeds with the use of tumbling could be attributed to increased uniformity of heat transfer and exposure to chlorine dioxide gas. All treated seeds were capable of germinating, as well as the nontreated controls. These results suggest that this combined treatment would be a viable process for enhancing the safety of fresh sprouts.

  12. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance.

  13. Scale-up seed decontamination process to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis on mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, Latiful; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Nei, Daisuke; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2010-01-01

    A majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these microorganisms on the seeds before sprouting. When treatment with hot water at 85 degrees C for 40 sec followed by dipping in cold water for 30 sec and soaking into chlorine water (2000 ppm) for 2 h was performed, no viable pathogens were found in the enrichment medium and during the sprouting process. The germination yield of the seed was not affected significantly (p > 0.05). Therefore, these treatments could be useful for the decontamination method of mung bean seeds intended for sprout production.

  14. Genotypic difference in (137)Cs accumulation and transfer from the contaminated field in Fukushima to azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Salem, Djedidi; Yamaya, Hiroko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Tomooka, Norihiko; Kaga, Akito; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    The screening of mini-core collection of azuki bean accessions (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) for comparative uptake of (137)Cs in their edible portions was done in field trials on land contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Ninety seven azuki bean accessions including their wild relatives from a Japanese gene bank, were grown in a field in the Fukushima prefecture, which is located approximately 51 km north of FDNPP. The contamination level of the soil was 3665 ± 480 Bq kg(-1) dry weight ((137)Cs, average ± SD). The soil type comprised clay loam, where the sand: silt: clay proportion was 42:21:37. There was a significant varietal difference in the biomass production, radiocaesium accumulation and transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium from the soil to edible portion. Under identical agricultural practice, the extent of (137)Cs accumulation by seeds differed between the accessions by as much as 10-fold. Inter-varietal variation was expressed at the ratio of the maximum to minimum observed (137)Cs transfer factor for seeds ranged from 0.092 to 0.009. The total biomass, time to flowering and maturity, and seed yield had negative relationship to (137)Cs activity concentration in seeds. The results suggest that certain variety/varieties of azuki bean which accumulated less (137)Cs in edible portion with preferable agronomic traits are suitable to reduce the (137)Cs accumulation in food chain on contaminated land.

  15. Compositional studies and biological activities of some mash bean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shakeel; Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Ercisli, Sezai; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2014-05-30

    In recent years, the desire to adopt a healthy diet has drawn attention to legume seeds and food products derived from them. Mash bean is an important legume crop used in Pakistan however a systematic mapping of the chemical composition of mash bean seeds is lacking. Therefore seeds of four mash bean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, family Leguminoseae) cultivars (NARC-Mash-1, NARC-Mash-2, NARC-Mash-3, NARC-Mash-97) commonly consumed in Pakistan have been analyzed for their chemical composition, antioxidant potential and biological activities like inhibition of formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) activity and tyrosinase inhibition activity. The investigated cultivars varied in terms of biochemical composition to various extents. Mineral composition indicated potassium and zinc in highest and lowest amounts respectively, in all cultivars. The amino acid profile in protein of these cultivars suggested cysteine is present in lowest quantity in all cultivars while fatty acid distribution pattern indicated unsaturated fatty acids as major fatty acids in all cultivars. All cultivars were found to be rich source of tocopherols and sterols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) fingerprints of seed flour and extracts indicated major functional groups such as polysaccharides, lipids, amides, amines and amino acids. Results indicated that all investigated cultivars possessed appreciable antioxidant potential. All cultivars are rich source of protein and possess sufficient content of dietary fiber, a balanced amino acid profile, low saturated fatty acids and antioxidant capacity that rationalizes many traditional uses of seeds of this crop besides its nutritional importance. The collected data will be useful for academic and corporate researchers, nutritionists and clinical dieticians as well as consumers. If proper attention is paid, it may become an important export commodity and may fetch considerable foreign exchange for Pakistan.

  16. Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).

    PubMed

    Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

    1999-01-01

    Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used.

  17. Concentration and detection of Salmonella in mung bean sprout spent irrigation water by use of tangential flow filtration coupled with an amperometric flowthrough enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    McEgan, R; Fu, T J; Warriner, K

    2009-03-01

    The development of a culture-free method for Salmonella screening of spent irrigation water derived from sprouting mung bean beds is described. The system used tangential flow filtration (TFF) to nonspecifically concentrate cells from large (2- to 10-liter) sample volumes. The retentate (100 ml) from the TFF was then flowed over an anti-Salmonella antibody-modified cellulose acetate membrane. The captured Salmonella was detected by reacting with a secondary anti-Salmonella and goat anti-rabbit biotin labeled antibody, followed by avidin-tagged glucose oxidase. The hydrogen peroxide generated from the enzymic oxidation of glucose was amperometrically detected at an underlying platinum electrode. It was found that 10 liters of Salmonella suspensions of 2 log CFU/ml could be concentrated to 4 log CFU/ml with 60% recovery regardless of the flow rate (112 to 511 ml/min) or transmembrane pressure (0 to 20 lb/in2) applied. The solids content of spent irrigation water negatively affected the filtration rate of TFE. This was most evident in spent irrigation water collected in the initial 24 h of the sprouting period, where the solids content was high (4,170 mg/liter) compared with samples collected at 96 h (560 mg/ liter). Trials were performed using mung bean beds inoculated with different Salmonella levels (1.3 to 3.3 log CFU/g). By using the optimized TFF and flowthrough immunoassay it was possible to detect Salmonella in spent irrigation water at levels of 2.43 log CFU/ml within 4 h. The integrated concentration and detection system will provide a useful tool for sprout producers to perform in-house pathogen screening of spent irrigation water.

  18. Efficacy of chlorine and peroxyacetic acid on reduction of natural microflora, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocyotgenes and Salmonella spp. on mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Neo, Shan Yu; Lim, Pei Yan; Phua, Li Kai; Khoo, Gek Hoon; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2013-12-01

    Sprouts-related outbreaks have risen due to increased raw sprouts consumption. To minimize such cases, chemical sanitations are applied. While chlorine is commonly used, concerns with its effectiveness and health implication have prompted researchers to seek alternatives. Peroxyacetic acid (PAA) has shown efficacy in inactivating foodborne pathogens on fresh vegetables, and hence could be considered as an alternative. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of chlorine and PAA in inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and natural microflora on mung bean sprouts. Resistance of non- and acid-adapted pathogens to these sanitizer treatments was also evaluated. Un-inoculated and inoculated sprouts were treated with chlorine at 106, 130 and 170 ppm and PAA at 25, 51 and 70 ppm for 90 and 180 s at room temperature. Overall, the greater log reductions were obtained with the increase in the sanitizer concentration. For 180 s, chlorine treatment at 170 ppm reduced 2.0, 1.3, 1.5, 0.9-logs and PAA treatment at 70 ppm resulted in 2.3, 1.8, 2.1, 1.1-log reductions for non-adapted E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and natural microflora, respectively. These results revealed that the efficacy of PAA was significantly better than or similar to that of chlorine. For acid-adapted cells, these sanitizer treatments were less effective with the ranges of 1.0-1.2-log reductions for chlorine and 1.1-1.6-log reductions for PAA compared to non-adapted cells, indicating that acid-adapted cells were more resistant to the sanitizing treatment. These data suggest that PAA may replace chlorine in the disinfection of mung bean sprouts and that acid-adapted pathogens should be used to design an effective sanitizing strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of a novel spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Chang, Yuhua; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2014-09-18

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness from consumption of sprouts have been linked to contaminated seeds prior to germination. Due to the long sprouting period at ambient temperatures and high humidity, germinating seeds contaminated with low pathogen levels (0.1logCFU/g) can result in sprouts with high numbers (≥10(8)CFU/g) of pathogens. Currently, the recommended treatment method involves soaking seeds in 20,000ppm (2%) calcium hypochlorite prior to germination. In this study, an alternative treatment involving soaking seeds in a carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested for its efficacy against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds. The antimicrobial treatment was performed by soaking inoculated seed batches in the spontaneous nanoemulsion (4000 or 8000ppm) for 30 or 60min. The spontaneous nanoemulsion was formed by titrating the oil phase (carvacrol and medium chain triglycerides) and water-soluble surfactant (Tween 80®) into sodium citrate buffer. Following treatment, the numbers of surviving cells were determined by suspending the seeds in TSB and performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of the appropriate pathogen. This treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3logCFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on either seed types when soaked for either 30 or 60min at nanoemulsion concentrations corresponding to 4000 (0.4%) or 8000 (0.8%) ppm carvacrol. Inoculated alfalfa seeds treated with 4000ppm nanoemulsion, required a 60min treatment time to show a similar 2-3 log reduction. Complete inactivation was confirmed by germinating treated seeds and performing microbiological testing. Total sprout yield was not compromised by any of the tested treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative antimicrobial treatment method for

  20. Mung bean trypsin inhibitor is effective in suppressing the degradation of myofibrillar proteins in the skeletal muscle of blue scad (Decapterus maruadsi).

    PubMed

    Sun, Le-Chang; Yoshida, Asami; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Liu, Guang-Ming; Weng, Ling; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2010-12-22

    Mung bean trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) of the Bowman-Birk family was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of approximately 9 kDa on tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 8887.25 Da as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-quadrupole ion trap-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS). Using blue scad myofibrillar proteins as targets, it was found that, in the absence of MBTI, proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins, especially myosin heavy chain (MHC), could be identified after incubation at 55 °C for 2 h, while in the presence of MBTI, with a final concentration of 25 ng/mL, proteolysis of these proteins was greatly suppressed even after incubation for 3 h. Although cysteine proteinase inhibitor E-64 was also effective in preventing protein degradation, inhibitors for metallo- and asparatic proteinases did not reveal obvious inhibitory effects. Our present results strongly suggested that the naturally occurring legume bean seed protein MBTI can be used as an effective additive in preventing marine fish blue scad surimi gel softening, which is quite possibly caused by myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP).

  1. VrDREB2A, a DREB-binding transcription factor from Vigna radiata, increased drought and high-salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Liu, Liping; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2016-03-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is commonly grown in Asia as an important nutritional dry grain legume, as it can survive better in arid conditions than other crops. Abiotic stresses, such as drought and high-salt contents, negatively impact its growth and production. The dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 2 (DREB2) transcription factors play a significant role in the response to these stress stimuli via transcriptional regulation of downstream genes containing the cis-element dehydration-responsive element (DRE). However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the drought tolerance of this species remain elusive, with very few reported candidate genes. No DREB2 ortholog has been reported for mung bean, and the function of mung bean DREB2 is not clear. In this study, a novel VrDREB2A gene with conserved AP2 domains and transactivation ability was isolated from mung bean. A modified VrDREB2A protein lacking the putative negative regulatory domain encoded by nucleotides 394-543 was shown to be localized in the nucleus. Expression of the VrDREB2A gene was induced by drought, high salt concentrations and abscisic acid treatment. Furthermore, comparing with the wild type Arabidopsis, the overexpression of VrDREB2A activated the expression of downstream genes in transgenic Arabidopsis, resulting in enhanced tolerance to drought and high-salt stresses and no growth retardation. The results from this study indicate that VrDREB2A functions as an important transcriptional activator and may help increase the abiotic stress tolerance of the mung bean plant.

  2. Major Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity and Antidiabetic Potential of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata L.) in China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xu-Zhen; Wang, Li-Xia; Wang, Su-Hua; Ren, Guixing

    2012-01-01

    Interest in edible beans as nutraceuticals is increasing. In the present study, the individual phenolic acids, the total phenolic content (TPC), the total flavonoid content (TFC), and the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of 13 varieties of rice beans from China were investigated. Eight phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vitexin, isovitexin, sinapic acid, quercetin) were analyzed on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) mass spectrometry (MS) system. The rice bean varieties had significant differences in total phenolic compounds (ranging from 123.09 ± 10.35 to 843.75 ± 30.15 μg/g), in TPC (ranging from 3.27 ± 0.04 to 6.43 ± 0.25 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g), in TFC (ranging from 55.95 ± 11.16 to 320.39 ± 31.77 mg catechin (CE)/g), in antioxidant activity (ranging from 39.87 ± 1.37 to 46.40 ± 2.18 μM·TE/g), in α-glucosidase inhibition activity (ranging from 44.32 ± 2.12 to 68.71 ± 2.19) and in advanced glycation end products formation inhibition activity (ranging from 34.11 ± 0.59 to 75.75 ± 0.33). This study is the first report on phytochemistry and biological activities in rice beans. PMID:22489119

  3. Polyphenol-containing azuki bean (Vigna angularis) seed coats attenuate vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Yuuka; Sato, Shin

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) seed coats (ABSC), which contain polyphenols, on the vascular oxidative stress and inflammation associated with hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and control normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were divided into 2 groups each. One group was fed 0% ABSC; the other, a 1.0% ABSC-containing diet. Tail systolic blood pressure (SBP) was examined throughout ABSC treatment. At 8 weeks, vascular superoxide (O(2)(-)) production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) in the aorta were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by western blotting. Polyphenol-containing ABSC suppressed the elevation of SBP throughout the treatment period. The NADPH-stimulated O(2)(-) level decreased significantly in the aorta of ABSC-treated SHR compared with the level of untreated SHR. The p47phox and Nox4 mRNA expression increased significantly in untreated SHR compared with that in WKY rats. Conversely, the level of p47phox mRNA was significantly lower in ABSC-treated SHR than in untreated SHR. The protein abundance of both iNOS and COX-2 was significantly decreased in the aorta of the ABSC-treated SHR compared with this abundance in untreated SHR. The MCP-1 and CCR2 mRNA expressions increased in untreated SHR, and these levels were significantly lower in ABSC-treated SHR. In conclusion, our results suggested that polyphenol-containing ABSC could attenuate vascular oxidative stress and inflammation during the progression of hypertension, and this may lead to an improvement in hypertension.

  4. Mung bean nuclease cleavage of a dA + dT-rich sequence or an inverted repeat sequence in supercoiled PM2 DNA depends on ionic environment.

    PubMed Central

    Sheflin, L G; Kowalski, D

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequences around two alternative sites cleaved in supercoiled PM2 DNA by single-strand-specific mung bean nuclease in different ionic environments. In 10 mM Tris-HC1 (pH 7.0, 37 degrees C), the major site is a dA+dT-rich sequence which maps with a known early denaturation region at 0.75 map units. About 30 cleavages occurred in a 135 bp region. Cleavages were largely excluded at (dA)n . (dT)n (n = 3-7) sequences. Cleavage patterns of this type have not been previously observed in dA+dT-rich sequences. With the addition of 0.1 M NaC1 the major alternative site occurred in a hyphenated inverted repeat sequence 500 bp away (0.70 map units) and did not map to an early denaturation region. One major and 4 minor cleavages occurred in the region between the repeats, suggesting that a hairpin containing at most a 12 bp stem and 10 base loop is recognized. The basis for nuclease recognition of the dA+dT-rich sequence is not clear. The differences in the sequences and cleavage patterns at the alternative sites indicate that their secondary structures differ. Images PMID:6091054

  5. Mapping of Complete Set of Ribose and Base Modifications of Yeast rRNA by RP-HPLC and Mung Bean Nuclease Assay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sharma, Sunny; Watzinger, Peter; Hartmann, Johannes David; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomes are large ribonucleoprotein complexes that are fundamental for protein synthesis. Ribosomes are ribozymes because their catalytic functions such as peptidyl transferase and peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis depend on the rRNA. rRNA is a heterogeneous biopolymer comprising of at least 112 chemically modified residues that are believed to expand its topological potential. In the present study, we established a comprehensive modification profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae's 18S and 25S rRNA using a high resolution Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). A combination of mung bean nuclease assay, rDNA point mutants and snoRNA deletions allowed us to systematically map all ribose and base modifications on both rRNAs to a single nucleotide resolution. We also calculated approximate molar levels for each modification using their UV (254nm) molar response factors, showing sub-stoichiometric amount of modifications at certain residues. The chemical nature, their precise location and identification of partial modification will facilitate understanding the precise role of these chemical modifications, and provide further evidence for ribosome heterogeneity in eukaryotes.

  6. A Simple and Selective Fluorescent Sensor Chip for Indole-3-Butyric Acid in Mung Bean Sprouts Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Coatings.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jiahua; Bahethan, Bota; Muhammad, Turghun; Yakup, Burabiye; Abbas, Mamatimin

    2017-08-24

    In this paper, we report the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer coatings on quartz chips for selective solid-phase microextraction and fluorescence sensing of the auxin, indole-3-butyric acid. The multiple copolymerization method was used to prepare polymer coatings on silylated quartz chips. The polymer preparation conditions (e.g., the solvent, monomer, and cross-linker) were investigated systemically to enhance the binding performance of the imprinted coatings. Direct solid-phase fluorescence measurements on the chips facilitated monitoring changes in coating performance. The average binding capacity of an imprinted polymer coated chip was approximately 152.9 µg, which was higher than that of a non-imprinted polymer coated chip (60.8 µg); the imprinted coatings showed the highest binding to IBA among the structural analogues, indicating that the coatings possess high selectivity toward the template molecule. The developed method was used for the determination of the auxin in mung bean extraction, and the recovery was found to be in the range of 91.5% to 97.5%, with an RSD (n = 3) of less than 7.4%. Thus, the present study provides a simple method for fabricating a fluorescent sensor chip for selective analysis.

  7. Mapping of Complete Set of Ribose and Base Modifications of Yeast rRNA by RP-HPLC and Mung Bean Nuclease Assay

    PubMed Central

    Watzinger, Peter; Hartmann, Johannes David; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomes are large ribonucleoprotein complexes that are fundamental for protein synthesis. Ribosomes are ribozymes because their catalytic functions such as peptidyl transferase and peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis depend on the rRNA. rRNA is a heterogeneous biopolymer comprising of at least 112 chemically modified residues that are believed to expand its topological potential. In the present study, we established a comprehensive modification profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae’s 18S and 25S rRNA using a high resolution Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). A combination of mung bean nuclease assay, rDNA point mutants and snoRNA deletions allowed us to systematically map all ribose and base modifications on both rRNAs to a single nucleotide resolution. We also calculated approximate molar levels for each modification using their UV (254nm) molar response factors, showing sub-stoichiometric amount of modifications at certain residues. The chemical nature, their precise location and identification of partial modification will facilitate understanding the precise role of these chemical modifications, and provide further evidence for ribosome heterogeneity in eukaryotes. PMID:28033325

  8. A Simple and Selective Fluorescent Sensor Chip for Indole-3-Butyric Acid in Mung Bean Sprouts Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jiahua; Bahethan, Bota; Muhammad, Turghun; Yakup, Burabiye; Abbas, Mamatimin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer coatings on quartz chips for selective solid-phase microextraction and fluorescence sensing of the auxin, indole-3-butyric acid. The multiple copolymerization method was used to prepare polymer coatings on silylated quartz chips. The polymer preparation conditions (e.g., the solvent, monomer, and cross-linker) were investigated systemically to enhance the binding performance of the imprinted coatings. Direct solid-phase fluorescence measurements on the chips facilitated monitoring changes in coating performance. The average binding capacity of an imprinted polymer coated chip was approximately 152.9 µg, which was higher than that of a non-imprinted polymer coated chip (60.8 µg); the imprinted coatings showed the highest binding to IBA among the structural analogues, indicating that the coatings possess high selectivity toward the template molecule. The developed method was used for the determination of the auxin in mung bean extraction, and the recovery was found to be in the range of 91.5% to 97.5%, with an RSD (n = 3) of less than 7.4%. Thus, the present study provides a simple method for fabricating a fluorescent sensor chip for selective analysis. PMID:28837081

  9. Effects of NaCl stress on changes in the ultraviolet-B radiation-induced cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer and ultraviolet absorbing compound contents in mung bean.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Min; Hu, Jie; Shi, Xiao-Ping

    2007-10-01

    In two mung bean cultivars (Phaseolus raditus L. cv. 'Qindou-20' and 'Zhonglv-1') with different sensitivities to UV-B grown in growth chamber under supplemental or no supplemental UV-B radiation (0.4 W/m(2)) with or without 0.4% NaCl, the effects of NaCl stress on UV-B-induced DNA damage and repair were studied. The results showed that, under NaCl stress, (i) CPD accumulation was lower in the tolerant cultivar 'Zhonglv-1' but was the same in the sensitive cultivar 'Qindou-20', (ii) CPD formation in both cultivars was weakened, (iii) the photorepair and dark repair capacity were higher in the tolerant cultivar and (iv) the photorepair was weakened and dark repair capacity did not change in the sensitive cultivar. There was a negative correlation between susceptibility of CPD formation and levels of UV-absorbing compounds. These results demonstrate that NaCl stress can affect not only the susceptibility to CPD formation, but also the capacities for photorepair and dark repair of DNA, which together result in the change in UV-B-induced CPD accumulation and thereby that in sensitivity of plant to UV-B. The results also suggest that the differences in susceptibilities to CPD formation are due to the differences in levels of UV-absorbing compounds.

  10. Induction of double-strand breaks by S1 nuclease, mung bean nuclease and nuclease P1 in DNA containing abasic sites and nicks.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, M A; Weinfeld, M

    1995-01-01

    Defined DNA substrates containing discrete abasic sites or paired abasic sites set 1, 3, 5 and 7 bases apart on opposite strands were constructed to examine the reactivity of S1, mung bean and P1 nucleases towards abasic sites. None of the enzymes acted on the substrate containing discrete abasic sites. Under conditions where little or no non-specific DNA degradation was observed, all three nucleases were able to generate double-strand breaks when the bistranded abasic sites were 1 and 3 base pairs apart. However, when the abasic sites were further apart, the enzymes again failed to cleave the DNA. These results indicate that single abasic sites do not cause sufficient denaturation of the DNA to allow incision by these single-strand specific endonucleases. The reactivity of these enzymes was also investigated on DNA substrates that were nicked by DNasel or more site-specifically by endonuclease III incision at the discrete abasic sites. The three nucleases readily induced a strand break opposite such nicks. Images PMID:7479020

  11. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes.

  12. Comparison of gamma and electron beam irradiation in reducing populations of E. coli artificially inoculated on mung bean, clover and fenugreek seeds, and affecting germination and growth of seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly; Weidauer, André; Gotzmann, Gaby; Rögner, Frank-Holm; Koch, Eckhard

    2017-01-01

    Sprouts have frequently been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne illnesses, mostly due to contaminated seeds. Intervention technologies to decontaminate seeds without affecting sprout yield are needed. In the present study, we compared gamma rays with electron beam in inactivating E. coli artificially inoculated on three seeds (fenugreek, clover and mung bean) that differed in size and surface morphology. Furthermore, the germination and growth of irradiated seeds were evaluated. Results showed that the D10 values (dose required to achieve 1 log reduction) for E. coli K12 on mung bean, clover, and fenugreek were 1.11, 1.21 and 1.40 kGy, respectively. To achieve a minimum 5-log reduction of E. coli, higher doses were needed on fenugreek than on mung bean or clover. Electron beam treatment at doses up to 12 kGy could not completely inactivate E. coli inoculated on all seeds even though most of the seeds were E. coli-free after 4-12 kGy irradiation. Gamma irradiation at doses up to 6 kGy did not significantly affect the germination rate of clover and fenugreek seeds but reduced the germination rate of mung bean seeds. Doses of 2 kGy gamma irradiation did not influence the growth of seeds while higher doses of gamma irradiation reduced the growth rate. Electron beam treatment at doses up to 12 kGy did not have any significant effect on germination or growth of the seeds. SEM imaging indicated there were differences in surface morphology among the three seeds, and E. coli resided in cracks and openings of seeds, making surface decontamination of seeds with low energy electron beam a challenge due to the low penetration ability. Overall, our results suggested that gamma rays and electron beam had different effects on E. coli inactivation and germination or growth of seeds. Future efforts should focus on optimization of electron bean parameters to increase penetration to inactivate E. coli without causing damage to the seeds.

  13. Chilling induces a decrease in pyrophosphate-dependent H+-accumulation associated with a DeltapH(vac)-stat in mung bean, a chill-sensitive plant.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yukio

    2008-03-01

    Chilling leads to cytoplasmic acidification in chill-sensitive plants. A possible explanation for this observation is that a DeltapH-stat between the cytosol and vacuole (DeltapH(vac)-stat) is perturbed by chilling. To understand the nature of this DeltapH(vac)-stat, the effect of temperature, between 20 and 0 degrees C, on pyrophosphate (PPi)- or ATP-dependent acidification of vacuolar vesicles, isolated from mung bean hypocotyls, was determined. Over the temperature range investigated, the H+-influx mediated by PPase was balanced with the H+-efflux, which was PPi-dependently suppressed, and consequently a constant pH in vesicles (pH(in)) of ca. 5 was maintained against temperature changes. However, the DeltapH(in) driven by ATP decreased as the temperature dropped. Thus, the PPi-dependent H+-accumulation may function as an essential factor to form a DeltapH(vac)-stat against temperature changes. Next, to study the chilling sensitivity of PPi-dependent H+-accumulation, vacuolar vesicles were isolated from control seedlings or from seedlings chilled at 0 degrees C for 1 d. Chilling treatment resulted in a decrease in the H+-accumulation rate and in the steady-state DeltapH(in) formed by PPi, the causes of which were enhanced by PPi-dependent H+-efflux and reduced by H+-influx driven by PPase. Together, the results suggest that the decrease of PPi-dependent H+-accumulation associated with the DeltapH(vac)-stat could result in cytoplasmic acidification.

  14. Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy of Mung Beanleaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Liu, Dongwu

    Recently, confocal microscope has become a routine technique and indispensable tool for cell biological studies and molecular investigations. The light emitted from the point out-of-focus is blocked by the pinhole and can not reach the detector, which is one of the critical features of the confocal microscope. In present studies, the probes acridine orange (AO) and rhodamine-123 were used to research stoma and mitochondria of mung bean leaves, respectively. The results indicated that the stomatal guard cells and mitochondria were clearly seen in epidermic tissue of mung bean leaves. Taken together, it is a good method to research plant cells with confocal microscope and fluorescence probes.

  15. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-01-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the ‘standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the ‘non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r2) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0–2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform. PMID:22378357

  16. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-07-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  17. Dietary Mung Bean Protein Reduces Hepatic Steatosis, Fibrosis, and Inflammation in Male Mice with Diet-Induced, Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Inaba, Yuka; Kimura, Kumi; Asahara, Shun-Ichiro; Kido, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Motoyama, Takayasu; Tachibana, Nobuhiko; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kohno, Mitsutaka; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    As the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is increasing, novel dietary approaches are required for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. We evaluated the potential of mung bean protein isolate (MuPI) to prevent NAFLD progression. In Expts. 1 and 2, the hepatic triglyceride (TG) concentration was compared between 8-wk-old male mice fed a high-fat diet (61% of energy from fat) containing casein, MuPI, and soy protein isolate and an MuPI-constituent amino acid mixture as a source of amino acids (18% of energy) for 4 wk. In Expt. 3, hepatic fatty acid synthase (Fasn) expression was evaluated in 8-wk-old male Fasn-promoter-reporter mice fed a casein- or MuPI-containing high-fat diet for 20 wk. In Expt. 4, hepatic fibrosis was examined in 8-wk-old male mice fed an atherogenic diet (61% of energy from fat, containing 1.3 g cholesterol/100 g diet) containing casein or MuPI (18% of energy) as a protein source for 20 wk. In the high fat-diet mice, the hepatic TG concentration in the MuPI group decreased by 66% and 47% in Expt. 1 compared with the casein group (P < 0.001) and the soy protein isolate group (P = 0.001), respectively, and decreased by 56% in Expt. 2 compared with the casein group (P = 0.011). However, there was no difference between the MuPI-constituent amino acid mixture and casein groups in Expt. 2. In Expt. 3, Fasn-promoter-reporter activity and hepatic TG concentration were lower in the MuPI group than in those fed casein (P < 0.05). In Expt. 4, in mice fed an atherogenic diet, hepatic fibrosis was not induced in the MuPI group, whereas it developed overtly in the casein group. MuPI potently reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice and may be a potential foodstuff to prevent NAFLD onset and progression. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Biosorptive uptake of ibuprofen by steam activated biochar derived from mung bean husk: Equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics, modeling and eco-toxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sandip; Bobde, Kiran; Aikat, Kaustav; Halder, Gopinath

    2016-11-01

    The present study explores the use of steam activated mung bean husk biochar (SA-MBHB) as a potential sorbent for the removal of non-steroidal and anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen from aqueous solution. SA-MBHB was characterized by SEM, FTIR, BET, TGA, point of zero charge (pHPZC) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The relation between removal percentages of ibuprofen and parameters such as adsorbent dose (0.05 g-250 g), contact time (5 min-210 min), pH (2-10), speed of agitation (40-280 rpm), temperature (293-308 K) and initial ibuprofen concentration (5-100 ppm) was investigated and optimized by a series of batch sorption experiments. The optimized conditions achieved were: adsorbent dose 0.1 g/L, agitation speed 200 rpm, pH 2, initial ibuprofen concentration 20 mg L(-1), equilibrium time 120 min and temperature 20 °C for more than 99% adsorptive removal of ibuprofen. The equilibrium adsorption data were well fitted into the Langmuir isotherm model while kinetic data suggested the removal process to follow pseudo second order reaction. The adsorption phenomena were optimized and simulated by using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). Effect of process variables viz. dose, agitation speed and pH on the sorbed amount of IBP was studied through a 2(3) full factorial central composite design (CCD). The comparative analysis was done for ibuprofen removal by constructing ANN model training using same experimental matrix of CCD. The growth of Scenedesmus abundans was also observed to be affected by the IBP solution whereas the biochar treated with IBP solution did not significantly affect the growth of the Scenedesmus abundans. The results revealed that SA-MBHB could be a cost-effective, efficient and non-hazardous adsorbent for the removal of ibuprofen from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of VuMATE1 Expression in Response to Iron Nutrition and Aluminum Stress Reveals Adaptation of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata) to Acid Soils through Cis Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meiya; Xu, Jiameng; Lou, Heqiang; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jianli; Zheng, Shaojian

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acid soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released. PMID:27148333

  20. Characterization of VuMATE1 Expression in Response to Iron Nutrition and Aluminum Stress Reveals Adaptation of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata) to Acid Soils through Cis Regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiya; Xu, Jiameng; Lou, Heqiang; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jianli; Zheng, Shaojian

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acid soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released.

  1. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars—“Dubai bean” and “Ningjiang-3”, which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively—were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  3. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds expressing a bean alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 confer resistance to storage pests, bruchid beetles.

    PubMed

    Solleti, Siva Kumar; Bakshi, Souvika; Purkayastha, Jubilee; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2008-12-01

    Cowpea is one of the important grain legumes. Storage pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis cause severe damage to the cowpea seeds during storage. We employ a highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated cowpea transformation method for introduction of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alphaAI-1) gene into a commercially important Indian cowpea cultivar, Pusa Komal and generated fertile transgenic plants. The use of constitutive expression of additional vir genes in resident pSB1 vector in Agrobacterium strain LBA4404, thiol compounds during cocultivation and a geneticin based selection system resulted in twofold increase in stable transformation frequency. Expression of alphaAI-1 gene under bean phytohemagglutinin promoter results in accumulation of alphaAI-1 in transgenic seeds. The transgenic protein was active as an inhibitor of porcine alpha-amylase in vitro. Transgenic cowpeas expressing alphaAI-1 strongly inhibited the development of C. maculatus and C. chinensis in insect bioassays.

  5. Development of a high-density genetic linkage map and identification of flowering time QTLs in adzuki bean (Vigna angularis)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changyou; Fan, Baojie; Cao, Zhimin; Su, Qiuzhu; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhixiao; Tian, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A high-density linkage map is crucial for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), positional cloning, and physical map assembly. Here, we report the development of a high-density linkage map based on specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) for adzuki bean and the identification of flowering time-related QTLs. Through SLAF library construction and Illumina sequencing of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, a total of 4425 SLAF markers were developed and assigned to 11 linkage groups (LGs). After binning the SLAF markers that represented the same genotype, the final linkage map of 1628.15 cM contained 2032 markers, with an average marker density of 0.80 cM. Comparative analysis showed high collinearity with two adzuki bean physical maps and a high degree of synteny with the reference genome of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Using this map, one major QTL on LG03 and two minor QTLs on LG05 associated with first flowering time (FLD) were consistently identified in tests over a two-year period. These results provide a foundation that will be useful for future genomic research, such as identifying QTLs for other important traits, positional cloning, and comparative mapping in legumes. PMID:28008173

  6. The 32 kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA) participates in the DNA replication of Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) by interacting with the viral Rep protein

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Karjee, Sumona; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a member of genus begomoviridae and its genome comprises of bipartite (two components, namely DNA-A and DNA-B), single-stranded, circular DNA of about 2.7 kb. During rolling circle replication (RCR) of the DNA, the stability of the genome and maintenance of the stem–loop structure of the replication origin is crucial. Hence the role of host single-stranded DNA-binding protein, Replication protein A (RPA), in the RCR of MYMIV was examined. Two RPA subunits, namely the RPA70 kDa and RPA32 kDa, were isolated from pea and their roles were validated in a yeast system in which MYMIV DNA replication has been modelled. Here, we present evidences that only the RPA32 kDa subunit directly interacted with the carboxy terminus of MYMIV-Rep both in vitro as well as in yeast two-hybrid system. RPA32 modulated the functions of Rep by enhancing its ATPase and down regulating its nicking and closing activities. The possible role of these modulations in the context of viral DNA replication has been discussed. Finally, we showed the positive involvement of RPA32 in transient replication of the plasmid DNA bearing MYMIV replication origin using an in planta based assay. PMID:17182628

  7. The 32 kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA) participates in the DNA replication of Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) by interacting with the viral Rep protein.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Karjee, Sumona; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a member of genus begomoviridae and its genome comprises of bipartite (two components, namely DNA-A and DNA-B), single-stranded, circular DNA of about 2.7 kb. During rolling circle replication (RCR) of the DNA, the stability of the genome and maintenance of the stem-loop structure of the replication origin is crucial. Hence the role of host single-stranded DNA-binding protein, Replication protein A (RPA), in the RCR of MYMIV was examined. Two RPA subunits, namely the RPA70 kDa and RPA32 kDa, were isolated from pea and their roles were validated in a yeast system in which MYMIV DNA replication has been modelled. Here, we present evidences that only the RPA32 kDa subunit directly interacted with the carboxy terminus of MYMIV-Rep both in vitro as well as in yeast two-hybrid system. RPA32 modulated the functions of Rep by enhancing its ATPase and down regulating its nicking and closing activities. The possible role of these modulations in the context of viral DNA replication has been discussed. Finally, we showed the positive involvement of RPA32 in transient replication of the plasmid DNA bearing MYMIV replication origin using an in planta based assay.

  8. Role of ethylene diurea (EDU) in assessing impact of ozone on Vigna radiata L. plants in a suburban area of Allahabad (India).

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S B; Singh, Anoop; Rathore, Dheeraj

    2005-10-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of ethylene diurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea; EDU) in assessing the impact of O3 on mung bean plants (Vigna radiata L. var. Malviya Jyoti) grown in suburban area of Allahabad city situated in a dry tropical region of India. EDU is a synthetic chemical having anti-ozonant property. Mean monthly O3 concentration varied between 64 and 69 microg m(-3) during the experimental period. In comparison to EDU-treated plants, non-EDU-treated plants showed significant reductions in plant growth and yield under ambient conditions. Significant favourable effects of EDU-application were observed with respect to photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, ascorbic acid and phenol contents. EDU-treated plants maintained higher levels of pigments, protein and ascorbic acid in foliage as compared to non-EDU-treated ones. The study clearly demonstrated that EDU alleviates the unfavourable effects of O3 on mung bean plants, and therefore can be used as a tool to assess the growth and yield losses in areas having higher O3 concentrations.

  9. Rhizobacteria-mediated resistance against the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of bean common mosaic virus in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Udaya Shankar, Arakere Chunchegowda; Chandra Nayaka, Siddaiah; Niranjan-Raj, Sathyanarayana; Bhuvanendra Kumar, Hanumanthaiah; Reddy, Munagala S; Niranjana, Siddapura Ramachandrappa; Prakash, Harishchandra Sripathy

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of seven Bacillus-species plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) seed treatments on the induction of disease resistance in cowpea against mosaic disease caused by the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). Initially, although all PGPR strains recorded significant enhancement of seed germination and seedling vigour, GBO3 and T4 strains were very promising. In general, all strains gave reduced BCMV incidence compared with the non-bacterised control, both under screen-house and under field conditions. Cowpea seeds treated with Bacillus pumilus (T4) and Bacillus subtilis (GBO3) strains offered protection of 42 and 41% against BCMV under screen-house conditions. Under field conditions, strain GBO3 offered 34% protection against BCMV. The protection offered by PGPR strains against BCMV was evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with lowest immunoreactive values recorded in cowpea seeds treated with strains GBO3 and T4 in comparison with the non-bacterised control. In addition, it was observed that strain combination worked better in inducing resistance than individual strains. Cowpea seeds treated with a combination of strains GBO3 + T4 registered the highest protection against BCMV. PGPR strains were effective in protecting cowpea plants against BCMV under both screen-house and field conditions by inducing resistance against the virus. Thus, it is proposed that PGPR strains, particularly GBO3, could be potential inducers against BCMV and growth enhancers in cowpea. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Assessment of six Indian cultivars of mung bean against ozone by using foliar injury index and changes in carbon assimilation, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nivedita; Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, S B; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2013-09-01

    Six Indian cultivars of Vigna radiata L. (HUM-1, HUM-2, HUM-6, HUM-23, HUM-24 and HUM-26) were exposed with ambient and elevated (ambient + 10 ppb ozone (O3) for 6 h day(-1)) level of O3 in open top chambers. Ozone sensitivity was assessed by recording the magnitude of foliar visible injury and changes in various physiological parameters. All the six cultivars showed visible foliar symptoms due to O3, ranging 7.4 to 55.7 % injured leaf area. O3 significantly depressed total chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate (Ps), quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) and total biomass although the extent of variation was cultivar specific. Cultivar HUM-1 showed maximum reduction in Ps and stomatal conductance. The fluorescence parameters also indicated maximum damage to PSII reaction centres of HUM-1. Injury percentage, chlorophyll loss, Ps, F(v)/F(m) and total biomass reduced least in HUM-23 depicting highest O3 resistance (R%).

  11. Development and characterization of a new set of genomic microsatellite markers in rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi and Ohashi) and their utilization in genetic diversity analysis of collections from North East India.

    PubMed

    Iangrai, Banshanlang; Pattanayak, Arunava; Khongwir, D Evanoreen Ann; Pale, Gratify; Gatphoh, Emica Mary; Das, Alpana; Chrungoo, Nikhil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Rice bean [Vigna umbellate (Thumb.) Ohwi and Ohashi] is an underutilized crop believed to be domesticated in the Myanmar-Thailand region of Asia. In India, rice bean is mainly cultivated in the North-Eastern Hills, which is a hotspot for biological diversity. A 5' anchored PCR was used to develop microsatellite markers in rice bean. Twenty-eight specific primer pairs were designed and employed to characterize sixty five ricebean accessions collected from North East India. A total of 179 alleles were amplified with an average of 6.393 alleles per locus. The gene diversity was high (mean 0.534) in the accessions collected from Darjeeling, Nagaland and Manipur, which are bordering areas with East Nepal and Myanmar, respectively. Exceptionally high outcrossing rate was observed in the entire population. Population structure analysis identified three distinct clusters in which accessions collected from areas bordering Myanmar and East Nepal grouped separately. Using a combination of STRUCTURE and Principal Coordinate Analysis, relative affinity of the intermediate accessions could be established. However, differences in allelic counts among populations were non-significant. The results showed that there is a high level of genetic diversity within the accessions, with high outcrossing rate.

  12. Characterization of an inducible C2 H2 -type zinc finger transcription factor VuSTOP1 in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) reveals differential regulation between low pH and aluminum tolerance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Lou, He Qiang; Gong, Yu Long; Liu, Mei Ya; Cao, Meng Jie; Liu, Yu; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2015-10-01

    The rice bean (Vigna umbellata) root apex specifically secretes citrate through expression activation of Vigna umbellata Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion 1 (VuMATE1) under aluminum (Al(3+) ) stress. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating VuMATE1 expression remain unknown. We isolated and characterized a gene encoding Sensitive to Proton Rhizotoxicity1 (STOP1)-like protein, VuSTOP1, from rice bean. The role of VuSTOP1 in regulating VuMATE1 expression was investigated using the yeast one-hybrid assay. We characterized the function of VuSTOP1 in Al(3)  (+)  - and H(+) -tolerance using in planta complementation assays. We demonstrated that VuSTOP1 has transactivation potential. We found that VuSTOP1 expression is inducible by Al(3+) and H(+) stress. However, although VuSTOP1 binds to the promoter of VuMATE1, the inconsistent tissue localization patterns of VuSTOP1 and VuMATE1 preclude VuSTOP1 as the major factor regulating VuMATE1 expression. In addition, when a protein translation inhibitor increased expression of VuSTOP1, VuMATE1 expression was inhibited. In planta complementation assay demonstrated that VuSTOP1 could fully restore expression of genes involved in H(+) tolerance, but could only partially restore expression of AtMATE. We conclude that VuSTOP1 plays a major role in H(+) tolerance, but only a minor role in Al(3+) tolerance. The differential transcriptional regulation of VuSTOP1 and VuMATE1 reveals a complex regulatory system controlling VuMATE1 expression. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Biochemical characterization, stability studies and N-terminal sequence of a bi-functional inhibitor from Phaseolus aureus Roxb. (Mung bean).

    PubMed

    Haq, Soghra Khatun; Atif, Shaikh Muhammad; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2005-12-01

    Herein, we report the purification and biochemical characterization of a novel bi-functional protein proteinase/amylase inhibitor from the dietary leguminous pulse Phaseolus aureus Roxb. (Vigna radiata L.) by means of acetic acid precipitation, salt fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose) and affinity chromatography on trypsin-sepharose column. P. aureus inhibitor is a bi-functional inhibitor since it exhibits inhibitory activity towards trypsin-like and alpha-chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases as well as against alpha-amylases. It is a helix-rich protein (Mr 13,600) containing approximately eight tyrosines, one tryptophan and two cystines. N-terminal sequence alignment reveals no homology to other proteinase inhibitors reported from Phaseolus sp. thereby confirming that it is a novel inhibitor. Inhibitory activity measurements show that the inhibitor is quite stable even at extremely high temperatures and is only slightly affected by pH changes. Circular dichroism (CD) conformational studies revealed some changes in its near- as well as far-ultraviolet spectrum at extremes of pH and temperature. Treatments with trypsin for varying time periods did not alter its proteolytic inhibitory activity but caused some reduction in its amylase inhibitory activity.

  14. Combined efficacy of Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek and Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson on serum lipids in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Benil, P B; Lekshmi, R; Viswanathan, N; Jollykutty, E; Rajakrishnan, R; Thomas, J; Alfarhan, A H

    2017-09-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a major killer disease throughout the world. Dyslipidemia is a major contributor to the risk of CAD. Several dietary articles traditionally used in India and other South Asian countries reduced dyslipidemia. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the combined effect of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) and Elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) on serum lipids and atherogenic indices in albino rats and to compare it with a standard drug Cholestyramine. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (150-200 g) were randomized to 5 groups of 6 animals each. The grouping were done based on the following criteria: Group I: Normal Control Group, Group II: (Standard Group): Cholestyramine resin 5 mg/kg bw, Group III: (Half Dose Group): Drug powder at 540 mg/kg bw, Group IV: (Effective Dose Group): Drug powder at 1080 mg/kg bw, and Group V: (Double Dose Group): Drug powder at 2160 mg/kg bw. Lipid profile was estimated at the beginning and after 30 days of treatment. The Effective and Double doses of the drug reduced Total cholesterol along with levels of Triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein and Very low density lipoprotein levels significantly (p < 0.01) along with a significant (p < 0.01) increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL) in rats. There was also significant (p < 0.01) improvement in atherogenic indices like Castelli Risk Index I, Non HDL C/HDL, Castelli risk Index II, TG/HDL, Atherogenic coefficient and Atherogenic Index of Plasma. The combination of powdered sprouted mung bean and yam powder have excellent lipid lowering potential.

  15. Novel antiviral activity of mung bean sprouts against respiratory syncytial virus and herpes simplex virus -1: an in vitro study on virally infected Vero and MRC-5 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hafidh, Rand R; Abdulamir, Ahmed S; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Sekawi, Zamberi; Jahansheri, Fatemeh; Jalilian, Farid Azizi

    2015-06-11

    New sources for discovering novel antiviral agents are desperately needed. The current antiviral products are both expensive and not very effective. The antiviral activity of methanol extract of mung bean sprouts (MBS), compared to Ribavarin and Acyclovir, on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Herpes Simplex virus -1 (HSV-1) was investigated using cytotoxicity, virus yield reduction, virucidal activity, and prophylactic activity assays on Vero and MRC-5 cell lines. Moreover, the level of antiviral cytokines, IFNβ, TNFα, IL-1, and IL-6 was assessed in MBS-treated, virally infected, virally infected MBS-treated, and control groups of MRC-5 cells using ELISA. MBS extract showed reduction factors (RF) 2.2 × 10 and 0.5 × 10(2) for RSV and HSV-1, respectively. The 2 h incubation virucidal and prophylactic selectivity indices (SI) of MBS on RSV were 14.18 and 12.82 versus Ribavarin SI of 23.39 and 21.95, respectively, and on HSV-1, SI were 18.23 and 10.9 versus Acyclovir, 22.56 and 15.04, respectively. All SI values were >10 indicating that MBS has a good direct antiviral and prophylactic activities on both RSV and HSV-1. Moreover, interestingly, MBS extract induced vigorously IFNβ, TNFα, IL-1, and IL-6 cytokines in MRC-5 infected-treated group far more than other groups (P < 0.05) and induced TNFα and IL-6 in treated group more than infected group (P < 0.05). MBS extract has potent antiviral and to a lesser extent, prophylactic activities against both RSV and HSV-1, and in case of HSV-1, these activities were comparable to Acyclovir. Part of the underlying mechanism(s) of these activities is attributed to MBS potential to remarkably induce antiviral cytokines in human cells. Hence, we infer that MBS methanol extract could be used as such or as purified active component in protecting and treating RSV and HSV-1 infections. More studies are needed to pinpoint the exact active components responsible for the MBS antiviral activities.

  16. Photochemical modulation of biosafe manganese nanoparticles on Vigna radiata: a detailed molecular, biochemical, and biophysical study.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Das, Sumistha; Chandra, Sourov; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Akbar, Shirin; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

    2013-11-19

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for plants which intervenes mainly in photosynthesis. In this study we establish that manganese nanoparticles (MnNP) work as a better micronutrient than commercially available manganese salt, MnSO4 (MS) at recommended doses on leguminous plant mung bean (Vigna radiata) under laboratory condition. At higher doses it does not impart toxicity to the plant unlike MS. MnNP-treated chloroplasts show greater photophosphorylation, oxygen evolution with respect to control and MS-treated chloroplasts as determined by biophysical and biochemical techniques. Water splitting by an oxygen evolving complex is enhanced by MnNP in isolated chloroplast as confirmed by polarographic and spectroscopic techniques. Enhanced activity of the CP43 protein of a photosystem II (PS II) Mn4Ca complex influenced better phosphorylation in the electron transport chain in the case of MnNP-treated chloroplast, which is evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and corresponding Western blot analysis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report to augment photosynthesis using MnNP and its detailed correlation with different molecular, biochemical and biophysical parameters of photosynthetic pathways. At effective dosage, MnNP is found to be biosafe both in plant and animal model systems. Therefore MnNP would be a novel potential nanomodulator of photochemistry in the agricultural sector.

  17. Effects of Nano Silver Oxide and Silver Ions on Growth of Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Kumar, Arun

    2015-09-01

    Transformation of silver oxide nanoparticles (nano-Ag2O) to silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) and silver ions in environment is possible which might pose toxicity to plants and other species. The objective of this study was to study effects of nano-Ag2O and silver ions on growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. V. radiata seeds were exposed to nano-Ag2O and silver ions (concentration range: 4.3 × 10(-7), 4.3 × 10(-6), 4.3 × 10(-5), 4.3 × 10(-4), and 4.3 × 10(-3) mol/L) for 6 days. Root length, shoot length and dry weight of seedlings were found to decrease due to exposure of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. These findings indicate silver ions to be more toxic to V. radiata seeds than nano-Ag2O. Silver content in seedlings was found to increase with increasing concentrations of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. Overall, findings of the present study add to the existing knowledge of phytotoxicity of silver-based nanoparticles of different chemical compositions to V. radiata seeds and need to be considered during use of nanoparticles-contaminated water for irrigation purposes.

  18. Partial alleviation of oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in Vigna radiata by polyamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mandar; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2017-08-01

    Environmental changes generate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in abiotic stress in plants. This causes alterations in germination, morphology, growth and development ultimately leading to yield loss. Gamma irradiation was used to experimentally induce oxidative damage in an important pulse crop Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek or mung bean. Our research was aimed towards augmentation of oxidative stress tolerance through treatment with a group of aliphatic amines known as polyamines. We used sub-lethal doses of gamma irradiation to generate oxidative damage which was evaluated using Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining, total antioxidant activity, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, proline content and lipid peroxidation. Changes in internal free polyamines and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of key rate-limiting S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) enzyme in polyamine biosynthetic pathway was studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed increased oxidative damage with higher irradiation dose which was partially alleviated by putrescine treatment. Internal levels of putrescine and spermidine increased with 1 mM (50 and 100 Gy) and 2 mM putrescine treatment. Expression of SAMDC also increased with putrescine treatment. This study shows that treatment with putrescine can partially alleviate oxidative damage caused by gamma rays.

  19. Hot-water extracts from adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) stimulate not only melanogenesis in cultured mouse B16 melanoma cells but also pigmentation of hair color in C3H mice.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Furuichi, Yukio

    2005-05-01

    A hot-water extract of adzuki was obtained by boiling beans of adzuki (Vigna angularis). This hot-water extract was fractionated using HP-20 column chromatography. Its distilled water fraction (WEx) was found to stimulate tyrosinase activity in cultured mouse B16 melanoma cells and hair color pigmentation in C3H mice. At concentrations of 1-3 mg/ml, WEx stimulated melanogenesis without inhibiting cell growth. During this effect, WEx activated tyrosinase-inducing activity in the cells, but did not activate tyrosinase, which exists at an intracellular level. In this study, WEx increased cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophospate (cAMP) content in the cells and protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and stimulated translocation of cytosolic protein kinase C (PKC) to the membrane-bound PKC. These results suggest that the addition of WEx activates the adenylcyclase and protein kinase pathways and, as a result, stimulates melanogenesis. WEx was found to have pigmentation activity on hair color in C3H mice. It might be useful in anti-graying, protecting human skin from irradiation.

  20. Effects of Black Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Extract on Proliferation and Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytesinto Mature Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mina; Park, Jeong-Eun; Song, Seok-Bo; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of black adzuki bean (BAB) extract on adipocytes, and to elucidate the cellular mechanisms. In order to examine the proliferation of preadipocytes and differentiating adipocytes, cell viability and DNA content were measured over a period of time. Lipid accumulation during cell differentiation and the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of BAB on the transcriptional factors involved, with their anti-adipogenic effects, were also identified. We observed that BAB exhibits anti-adipogenic effects through the inhibition of proliferation, thereby lowering mRNA expression of C/EBPβ and suppressing adipogenesis during the early stage of differentiation. This, in turn, resulted in a reduction of TG accumulation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treating the cells with BAB not only suppressed the adipogenesis-associated key transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα but also significantly decreased the mRNA expression of GLUT4, FABP4, LPL and adiponectin. The expression of lipolytic genes like ATGL and HSL were higher in the treatment group than in the control. Overall, the black adzuki bean extract demonstrated an anti-adipogenic property, which makes it a potential dietary supplement for attenuation of obesity. PMID:25569623

  1. Effects of black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis, Geomguseul) extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mina; Song, Seok-Bo; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is often considered to result from either excessive food intake or insufficient physical activity. Adzuki beans have been evaluated as potential remedies for various health conditions, and recent studies have reported their effects on the regulation of lipid metabolism, but it remains to be determined whether they may be effective in overcoming obesity by regulating appetite and satiety. Objective This study investigated the effect of black adzuki bean (BAB) extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed a high-fat diet. Design The rats were fed for 8 weeks with a control diet containing 10 kcal% from fat (CD), a high-fat diet containing 60 kcal% from fat (HD), or a high-fat diet with 1% or 2% freeze-dried ethanolic extract powder of BAB (BAB-1 and BAB-2). Results The body weights and epididymal fat weights were significantly reduced and the serum lipid profiles were improved in the group fed the diet containing BAB compared to the HD group. The expression of AGRP mRNA significantly decreased in the BAB groups, and treatment with BAB-2 resulted in a marked induction of the mRNA expression of POMC and CART, which are anorexigenic neuropeptides that suppress food intake. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of ObRb, a gene related to leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus, were significantly higher in the BAB groups than in the HD group. Conclusions These results suggest that supplementation with BAB has a significant effect on body weight via regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides. PMID:26493717

  2. Image based remote sensing method for modeling black-eyed beans (Vigna unguiculata) Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) over Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Giorgos; Fasoula, Dionysia; Hadjimitsis, Michael; Skevi Perdikou, P.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) are modeled to the most known spectral vegetation index — NDVI — using remotely sensed data. This approach has advantages compared to the classic approaches based on a theoretical background. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data for estimating a spectral vegetation index (NDVI), for establishing a semiempirical relationship between black-eyed beans' canopy factors and remotely sensed data. Such semi-empirical models can be used then for agricultural and environmental studies. A field campaign was undertaken with measurements of LAI and CH using the Sun-Scan canopy analyzer, acquired simultaneously with the spectroradiometric (GER1500) measurements between May and June of 2010. Field spectroscopy and remotely sensed imagery have been combined and used in order to retrieve and validate the results of this study. The results showed that there are strong statistical relationships between LAI or CH and NDVI which can be used for modeling crop canopy factors (LAI, CH) to remotely sensed data. The model for each case was verified by the factor of determination. Specifically, these models assist to avoid direct measurements of the LAI and CH for all the dates for which satellite images are available and support future users or future studies regarding crop canopy parameters.

  3. Image based remote sensing method for modeling black-eyed beans ( Vigna unguiculata) Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) over Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Giorgos; Fasoula, Dionysia; Hadjimitsis, Michael; Skevi Perdikou, P.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) are modeled to the most known spectral vegetation index — NDVI — using remotely sensed data. This approach has advantages compared to the classic approaches based on a theoretical background. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data for estimating a spectral vegetation index (NDVI), for establishing a semiempirical relationship between black-eyed beans' canopy factors and remotely sensed data. Such semi-empirical models can be used then for agricultural and environmental studies. A field campaign was undertaken with measurements of LAI and CH using the Sun-Scan canopy analyzer, acquired simultaneously with the spectroradiometric (GER1500) measurements between May and June of 2010. Field spectroscopy and remotely sensed imagery have been combined and used in order to retrieve and validate the results of this study. The results showed that there are strong statistical relationships between LAI or CH and NDVI which can be used for modeling crop canopy factors (LAI, CH) to remotely sensed data. The model for each case was verified by the factor of determination. Specifically, these models assist to avoid direct measurements of the LAI and CH for all the dates for which satellite images are available and support future users or future studies regarding crop canopy parameters.

  4. Effects of Red Bean (Vigna angularis) Protein Isolates on Rheological Properties of Microbial Transglutaminase Mediated Pork Myofibrillar Protein Gels as Affected by Fractioning and Preheat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Chul

    2016-01-01

    Fractioning and/or preheating treatment on the rheological properties of myofibrillar protein (MP) gels induced by microbial transglutaminase (MTG) has been reported that they may improve the functional properties. However, the optimum condition was varied depending on the experimental factors. This study was to evaluate the effect of red bean protein isolate (RBPI) on the rheological properties of MP gels mediated by MTG as affected by modifications (fractioning: 7S-globulin of RBPI and/or preheat treatment (pre-heating; 95℃/30 min): pre-heating RBPI or pre-heating/7S-globulin). Cooking yields (CY, %) of MP gels was increased with RBPI (p<0.05), while 7S-globulin decreased the effect of RBPI (p<0.05); however, preheating treatments did not affect the CY (p>0.05). Gel strength of MP was decreased when RBPI or 7S-globulin added, while preheat treatments compensated for the negative effects of those in MP. This effect was entirely reversed by MTG treatment. Although the major band of RBPI disappeared, the preheated 7S globulin band was remained. In scanning electron microscopic (SEM) technique, the appearance of more cross-linked structures were observed when RBPI was prepared with preheating at 95℃ to improve the protein-protein interaction during gel setting of MP mixtures. Thus, the effects of RBPI and 7S-globulin as a substrate, and water and meat binder for MTG-mediated MP gels were confirmed to improve the rheological properties. However, preheat treatment of RBPI should be optimized. PMID:27857544

  5. Microbial hazards associated with bean sprouting.

    PubMed

    Andrews, W H; Mislivec, P B; Wilson, C R; Bruce, V R; Poelma, P L; Gibson, R; Trucksess, M W; Young, K

    1982-03-01

    The behaviour of microorganisms was studied in mung beans and alfalfa seeds before and after germination in modified, commercially available bean-sprouting kits. The microorganism were enumerated by the aerobic plate count (APC) and by total yeast and mold count procedures. Salmonella species were artificially inoculated into selected samples and were enumerated by the most probable number (MPN) method. After germination of the beans or seeds into mature sprouts, significant increases were noted in APCs and in MPN values of Salmonella species. Although counts of yeasts and molds did not increase significantly after germination, these samples show an increase in toxic Aspergillus flavus and potentially toxic Alternaria species. The presence of toxic Penicillium cyclopium molds also increase substantially in 5 samples of a single brand of mung beans. Analysis of selected sprout samples, however, showed no presence of aflatoxin.

  6. A facile biomimetic preparation of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles derived from seed extract of Vigna radiata and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Singh, Jagdish

    2016-01-01

    The significant antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles draws the major attention toward the present nanobiotechnology. Also, the use of plant material for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is considered as a green technology. In this context, a non-toxic, eco-friendly, and cost-effective method has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of mung beans ( Vigna radiata). The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The UV-visible spectrum showed an absorption peak at around 440 nm. The different types of phytochemicals present in the seed extract synergistically reduce the Ag metal ions, as each phytochemical is unique in terms of its structure and antioxidant function. The colloidal silver nanoparticles were observed to be highly stable, even after 5 months. XRD analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry and the TEM micrographs showed spherical particles with an average size of 18 nm. Further, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by well-diffusion method and it was observed that the biogenic silver nanoparticles have an effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The outcome of this study could be useful for nanotechnology-based biomedical applications.

  7. AROMATIC METABOLISM IN PLANTS. I. A STUDY OF THE PREPHENATE DEHYDROGENASE FROM BEAN PLANTS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Prephenate dehydrogenase (prephenate: NADP(+) oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)) was isolated from cotyledons of wax bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var...mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.). A study was made of the variation in the amount of prephenate dehydrogenase and aromatic amino acid transaminase in

  8. Alternative respiratory path capacity in plant mitochondria: effect of growth temperature, the electrochemical gradient, and assay pH. [Zea mays L. , Vigna radiata L. , Symplocarpus foetidus L. , Sauromatum guttatum Schott

    SciTech Connect

    Elthon, T.E.; Stewart, C.R.; McCoy, C.A.; Bonner, W.D. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    Influence of growth temperature on the capacity of the mitochondrial alternative pathway of electron transport was investigated using etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. These seedlings were grown to comparable size in either a warm (30/sup 0/C) or a cold (13/sup 0/C) temperature regime, and then their respiration rates were measured as O/sub 2/ uptake at 25/sup 0/C. The capacity of the alternative pathway (KCN-insensitive O/sub 2/ uptake) was found essentially to double in shoots of cold-grown seedlings. When mitochondria were isolated from the shoots a greater potential for flow through the alternative path was observed in mitochondria from the cold-grown seedlings with all substrates used (an average increase of 84%). Using exogenous NADH as the substrate, the effect of the electrochemical gradient on measurable capacities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways was investigated in mitochondria from both etiolated seedlings and thermogenic spadices. In corn shoot and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl mitochondria increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the electrochemical gradient was found not to influence the potential for flow through the alternative path. However, in mitochondria from skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus L.) and voodoo lily (Sauromatum gutatum Schott) spadices increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the gradient occurred at the expense of flow through the alternative pathway. This experiment also revealed that the potential for respiratory control is largely dependent upon the assay pH.

  9. The Combined Intervention with Germinated Vigna radiata and Aerobic Interval Training Protocol Is an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Other Alterations Related to the Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Cantarero, Samuel; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesus M.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean (Vigna radiata), a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65–85% VO2 max) has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles) factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical analysis. Germination of V. radiata over a period of four days originated a significant protein hydrolysis leading to the appearance of low molecular weight peptides. The combination of 4 day-germinated V. radiata and aerobic interval training was more efficient compared to raw V. radiata at improving the aerobic capacity and physical performance, hepatic histology and functionality, and plasma lipid parameters as well as reverting the insulin resistance characteristic of the obese Zucker rat model. In conclusion, the joint intervention with legume sprouts and aerobic interval training protocol is an efficient treatment to improve the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic histology and functionality related to the development of NAFLD and the MetS. PMID:28753963

  10. The Combined Intervention with Germinated Vigna radiata and Aerobic Interval Training Protocol Is an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Other Alterations Related to the Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Rats.

    PubMed

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Nebot, Elena; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Cantarero, Samuel; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesus M

    2017-07-19

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean (Vigna radiata), a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65-85% VO₂ max) has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles) factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical analysis. Germination of V. radiata over a period of four days originated a significant protein hydrolysis leading to the appearance of low molecular weight peptides. The combination of 4 day-germinated V. radiata and aerobic interval training was more efficient compared to raw V. radiata at improving the aerobic capacity and physical performance, hepatic histology and functionality, and plasma lipid parameters as well as reverting the insulin resistance characteristic of the obese Zucker rat model. In conclusion, the joint intervention with legume sprouts and aerobic interval training protocol is an efficient treatment to improve the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic histology and functionality related to the development of NAFLD and the MetS.

  11. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  12. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  13. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  14. Preparation of bean curds from protein fractions of six legumes.

    PubMed

    Cai, R; Klamczynska, B; Baik, B K

    2001-06-01

    Chickpeas, lentils, smooth peas, mung beans, and faba beans were milled into flours and fractionated to protein and starch fractions. Compositions of the seeds, cotyledons, and flours were compared for each legume and the weight and protein recovery of each fraction analyzed. Bean curds were prepared from the protein fractions through heat denaturation of protein milk, followed by coagulation with calcium sulfate or magnesium sulfate. The effect of chickpea protein concentration and coagulant dosage on the texture of bean curds was evaluated using a texture analyzer. Textural analysis indicated that curd prepared at 2.3-3.0% protein concentration and 1.5% CaSO(4) dosage had better yield and better texture than curds prepared under other conditions. Bean curds prepared from chickpeas and faba beans exhibited the second highest springiness and cohesiveness after those from soybeans. Curds of mung beans and smooth peas, on the other hand, had the highest yields and the highest moisture contents. The protein yield of the first and second soluble extracts used for curd preparation accounted for approximately 90% of the total protein of the seeds.

  15. Determining radio frequency heating uniformity of mixed beans during disinfestation treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since chickpeas and lentils are difficulty to artificially infest with live insects for radio frequency (RF) treatment validation, black-eyed peas and mung beans were selected to infest with insects before mixing with chickpeas and lentils. Temperature difference between black-eyed pea and chickpea ...

  16. Internalization of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo in growing bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Warriner, K; Spaniolas, S; Dickinson, M; Wright, C; Waites, W M

    2003-01-01

    Investigate the interaction of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo with germinating mung bean sprouts. E. coli or Salm. Montevideo introduced on mung beans became established both internally and externally on sprouts after the initial 24 h germinating period. In both cases the inoculated bacterium formed the predominant microflora on the sprouted beans throughout. From the bioluminescent profile of inoculated sprouting beans, bacterial growth was found to be in close proximity to the roots but not on the hypocotyls. Clumps (biofilms) of cells with low viability were observed within the grooves between epidermal cells on hypocotyls. Treatment with 20,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite removed the majority of bacteria from the surface of hypocotyls although nonviable single cells were occasionally observed. However, viable bacteria were recovered from the apoplastic fluid, and extracts of surface-sterilized sprouts indicating that the internal bacterial populations had been protected. This was confirmed using in situ beta-glucuronidase staining of surface-sterilized sprouts where cleaved enzyme substrate (by the action of internalized E. coli) was visualized within the plant vascular system. E. coli or Salmonella present on seeds become internalized within the subsequent sprouts and cannot be removed by postharvest biocidal washing. Mung bean production should be carefully controlled to prevent contamination occurring in order to minimize the health risk associated with raw bean sprouts.

  17. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans

    SciTech Connect

    Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloid-storage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

  18. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans.

    PubMed

    Alpi, A; Beevers, H

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, a tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloidstorage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

  19. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for a new source of resistance to bruchids in the wild species Vigna nepalensis Tateishi & Maxted (Vigna subgenus Ceratotropis).

    PubMed

    Somta, Prakit; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2008-08-01

    Azuki bean breeders have long been interested in producing azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi] varieties with bruchid resistance. A new bruchid (Callosobruchus spp.) resistance source was found in V. nepalensis Tateishi & Maxted, a species that is cross compatible with azuki bean. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis for resistance to C. chinensis (L.) and C. maculatus (F.) was conducted using F2 (V. nepalensisxV. angularis) and BC1F1 [(V. nepalensisxV. angularis)xV. angularis] populations derived from crosses between the bruchid resistant species V. nepalensis and bruchid susceptible species V. angularis. Resistance was measured using two traits, percentage of seeds damaged by bruchids and the time taken for adult bruchids to emerge from seeds. Based on the results from both populations seven QTLs were detected for bruchid resistance; five QTLs for resistance to C. chinensis and two QTLs for resistance to C. maculatus. The different locations found for some resistance QTL to the two bruchid species suggests different resistance mechanisms. QTLs on linkage group (LG) 1 and LG2 for bruchid resistance to C. chinensis co-localized with seed size QTLs suggesting that incremental increase in seed size accompanied susceptibility to C. chinensis. Based on linked markers the QTL on these two linkage groups appear to be the same as previously reported in other Asian Vigna. However, several other QTLs were newly detected including one on LG4 that appears unrelated to seed size. Transfer of these new sources of bruchid resistance from V. nepalensis to azuki bean will be aided by the progress being made in azuki genome mapping.

  20. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean. PMID:26069442

  1. Mineral composition of some varieties of beans from Mediterranean and Tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Naccari, Clara; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Rastrelli, Luca; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this study has been evaluated the mineral composition (Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ba, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Sb, V, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo, Na, K, Ca, Mg) of some varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata and V. angularis) from Mediterranean and Tropical areas of the world (Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast); the correlation between beans mineral composition in micro and macroelements and botanical and/or geographical origin; trace elements dietary intake by beans consumption. The results showed a correlation between beans mineral composition and their geographical origin, with higher values in Ivory Coast samples. Moreover, minerals content found confirmed the importance of these legumes in the diet for the significant content of essential micro and macroelements and a safe consumption of beans for the low residual levels of toxic metals.

  2. Copper nanoparticle (CuNP) nanochain arrays with a reduced toxicity response: a biophysical and biochemical outlook on Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Basu, Satakshi; Chandra, Sourov; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

    2015-03-18

    Copper deficiency or toxicity in agricultural soil circumscribes a plant's growth and physiology, hampering photochemical and biochemical networks within the system. So far, copper sulfate (CS) has been used widely despite its toxic effect. To get around this long-standing problem, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have been synthesized, characterized, and tested on mung bean plants along with commercially available salt CS, to observe morphological abnormalities enforced if any. CuNPs enhanced photosynthetic activity by modulating fluorescence emission, photophosphorylation, electron transport chain (ETC), and carbon assimilatory pathway under controlled laboratory conditions, as revealed from biochemical and biophysical studies on treated isolated mung bean chloroplast. CuNPs at the recommended dose worked better than CS in plants in terms of basic morphology, pigment contents, and antioxidative activities. CuNPs showed elevated nitrogen assimilation compared to CS. At higher doses CS was found to be toxic to the plant system, whereas CuNP did not impart any toxicity to the system including morphological and/or physiological alterations. This newly synthesized polymer-encapsulated CuNPs can be utilized as nutritional amendment to balance the nutritional disparity enforced by copper imbalance.

  3. Cloning, characterization, expression analysis and inhibition studies of a novel gene encoding Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor from rice bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper presents the first study describing the isolation, cloning and characterization of a full length gene encoding Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (RbTI) from rice bean (Vigna umbellata). A full-length protease inhibitor gene with complete open reading frame of 327bp encoding 109 amino acids w...

  4. Metal accumulation and growth response in Vigna radiata L. inoculated with chromate tolerant rhizobacteria and grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Rai, U N; Tewari, A; Singh, M

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inoculation of four chromate tolerant rhizobacterial strains previously isolated from rhizosphere of plants from chromium contaminated area in mung plant Vigna radiata grown on tannery sludge amended soil were evaluated. An increase of 138%, 88%, 256% and 54.14% in root length, shoot length, biomass and total chlorophyll, respectively was observed after 60 days of treatments by consortium. Similarly, a significant enhancement in Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd accumulation was observed in consortium inoculated plants as compared to non-inoculated plants. Results showed that rhizobacterial strain helps in ameliorating metal induced phytotoxicity, acquiring higher biomass and metal uptake in the plant may be useful in decontamination of metal from polluted soil.

  5. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ashfaq A.; Khan, Hasan M.; Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2V/cm for 2-2.5min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans.

  6. Analysis and enhancement of nutritional and antioxidant properties of Vigna aconitifolia sprouts.

    PubMed

    Kestwal, Rakesh M; Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2012-06-01

    Vigna aconitifolia sprouts (Moth bean sprouts, MBS) were analyzed for their nutritional and antioxidant properties during sprouting. Sprouting for six days led to a 7.0 fold increase in fresh weight, 2.4 fold increase in soluble proteins, 3.0 fold increase in carbohydrates, and a 5.5 fold increase in mineral content. Phenolic content also increased by 28% during germination. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and kaempferol were the predominant phenolic compounds detected in the ethanolic extracts of MBS by HPLC. Following supplementation with metal ions (200 μg ml⁻¹), the sprouts demonstrated a considerable increase in metal ion uptake, with improved phenolic content. MBS ethanolic extracts also reduced intracellular oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.

  7. [Chemical constituents from seeds of Vigna umbellata].

    PubMed

    Ning, Ying; Sun, Jian; Lv, Hai-Ning; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation was carried out on the seeds of Vigna umbellata. The 70% ethanol extract of the seeds of V. umbellata was subjected to silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatographies and preparative HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic data Eight compounds were obtained and identified as carboxyatractyligenin (1), 2beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-15alpha-hydroxy-kaur-16-ene-18,19-dicarboxylic acid (2), 2beta-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl) atractyligenin (3), 3R-O-[beta-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl] oct-1-ene-3-ol (4), (6S, 7E, 9R) -roseoside (5), liriodendrin (6), resveratrol (7) and maltol (8). Compounds 1-7 were isolated from Vigna genus for the first time, and compound 8 was isolated from V. umbellata for the first time.

  8. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    PubMed

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  10. Screening of bioagents against root rot of mung bean caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Chand, H

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory and green house experiment was carried out on the comparative antagonistic performance of four different bioagents (Aspergillus sp., Gliocladium virens, Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride) isolated from soil against Rhizoctonia solani. Under laboratory conditions, T. harzianum exhibited maximum (75.55%) mycelial growth inhibition of R. solani This was followed by T. viride, which showed 65.93 per cent mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogen. Gliocladium virens was also found to be effective antagonists, which exhibited 57.77 per cent mycelial growth inhibition. While Aspergillus sp exhibited minimum growth inhibition (45.74%) in comparison to other bioagents. Under green house conditions, T. harzianum gave maximum protection of the disease (72.72%) followed by T. viride, which exhibited 54.54 per cent disease control. However, G. virens and Aspergillus sp were found least effective in controlling root rot of mungbean.

  11. Screening of bioagents against root rot of mung bean caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surender; Chand, Hari

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory and green house experiment was carried out on the comparative antagonistic performance of four different bioagents (Aspergillus sp. Gliocladium virens, Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride) isolated from soil against Rhizoctonia solani. Under laboratory conditions, T. harzianum exhibited maximum (75.55%) mycelial growth inhibition of R. solani. This was followed by T. viride, which showed 65.93% mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogen. Gliocladium virens was also found to be effective antagonists, which exhibited 57.77% mycelial growth inhibition. While Aspergillus sp exhibited minimum growth inhibition (45.74%) in comparison to other bioagents. Under green house conditions, T. harzianum gave maximum protection of the disease (72.72%) followed by T. viride, which exhibited 54.54% disease control. However, G. virens and Aspergillus sp were found least effective in controlling root rot of mungbean.

  12. Starch grain breakdown in cotyledon cells of germinating mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Harris, N

    1976-01-01

    Ultrastructural aspects of the breakdown of starch grains during the mobilisation of reserves in Phaseolus aureus Roxb. seed germination are described. The starch grains show erosion from within leading to the formation of a hollow shell. The erosion is accompanied by intrusion of cytoplasm into the shell. No evidence of a vesicular transport system to or from the eroding face was found.

  13. Homo-Phytochelatins Are Synthesized in Response to Cadmium in Azuki Beans1

    PubMed Central

    Oven, Matjaž; Raith, Klaus; Neubert, Reinhard H.H.; Kutchan, Toni M.; Zenk, Meinhart H.

    2001-01-01

    In a recent report, it was claimed that azuki beans (Vigna angularis) do not synthesize phytochelatins (PCs) upon exposure to cadmium, although glutathione (GSH), the substrate for PC synthesis, is present in this plant. This legume species thus would be the first exception in the plant kingdom that would fail to complex heavy metals by PCs. Here, we report that not GSH, but only homoglutathione can be detected in this plant and that homo-phytochelatins are formed when azuki beans are challenged with heavy metals such as cadmium. We also show that the 5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-oxidized GSH reductase recycling assay, used for GSH quantification in the recent study of heavy metal tolerance in azuki beans, reacts both with GSH and homoglutathione and therefore cannot be used when biological samples should be analyzed exclusively for GSH. PMID:11457978

  14. Kinetic Stability of Proteins in Beans and Peas: Implications for Protein Digestibility, Seed Germination, and Plant Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ke; Pittelli, Sandy; Church, Jennifer; Colón, Wilfredo

    2016-10-12

    Kinetically stable proteins (KSPs) are resistant to the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Such resilience makes KSPs resistant to proteolytic degradation and may have arisen in nature as a mechanism for organismal adaptation and survival against harsh conditions. Legumes are well-known for possessing degradation-resistant proteins that often diminish their nutritional value. Here we applied diagonal two-dimensional (D2D) SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), a method that allows for the proteomics-level identification of KSPs, to a group of 12 legumes (mostly beans and peas) of agricultural and nutritional importance. Our proteomics results show beans that are more difficult to digest, such as soybean, lima beans, and various common beans, have high contents of KSPs. In contrast, mung bean, red lentil, and various peas that are highly digestible contain low amounts of KSPs. Identified proteins with high kinetic stability are associated with warm-season beans, which germinate at higher temperatures. In contrast, peas and red lentil, which are cool-season legumes, contain low levels of KSPs. Thus, our results show protein kinetic stability is an important factor in the digestibility of legume proteins and may relate to nutrition efficiency, timing of seed germination, and legume resistance to biotic stressors. Furthermore, we show D2D SDS-PAGE is a powerful method that could be applied for determining the abundance and identity of KSPs in engineered and wild legumes and for advancing basic research and associated applications.

  15. Application of different techniques to identify the effects of irradiation on Brazilian beans after six months storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.

    1998-06-01

    Four different techniques to detect the effect of irradiation in beans were investigated. Two types of Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar, were irradiated using a 60Co source with doses ranging from 10.0 kGy. After 6 months storage at ambient temperature the detection tests were carried out. Firstly, germination tests showed markedly reduced root growth and almost totally retarded shoot elongation of irradiated beans as compared to non-irradiated beans. Secondly, DNA fragmentation was studied using a microgel electrophoresis. Irradiated cells produced typical comets with DNA fragments migrating towards the anode. DNA of non-irradiated cells exhibited a limited migration. Thirdly, electron spin resonance for detection of cellulose radicals was tested, since it was expected that these free radicals are quite stable in solid and dry foods. However, only in beans irradiated with 10 kGy a small signal could be detected. Fourtly, thermoluminescence, a method to analyze mineral debris adhering to food, turned out to be a good choice to detect irradiation effects in beans, even after 6 months of storage. The results indicate that three of these four techniques proposed, can be used to detect the effect of irradiation in these two varieties of Brazilian beans at a dose level useful for insect disinfestation (1 kGy).

  16. Functional properties and fatty acids profile of different beans varieties.

    PubMed

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Rando, Rossana; Ravenda, Pietro; Dugo, Giacomo; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    Dried seeds of four varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris, three of Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and two of Vigna angularis grown and marketed in Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast were analysed for fatty acids content. In oils from seeds of P. vulgaris, the main fatty acids were linolenic (34.7-41.5%) and linoleic (30.7-40.3%), followed by palmitic (10.7-16.8%). The first three aforementioned fatty acids in the lipid fraction of V. unguiculata varieties were 28.4, 28.7 and 26.2%, respectively; while in V. angularis varieties, main fatty acids were linoleic (36.4-39.1%) and palmitic (26.9-33.3%), followed by linolenic (17.9-22.2%). Statistical analyses indicate that botanical species play a rule in bean fatty acids distribution, while the same was not verified for geographical origin. Furthermore, the atherogenic index (AI) and the thrombogenic index (TI) were investigated for health and nutritional information. The results showed that these wide spread legumes have functional features to human health.

  17. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean gives remarks at the opening of the exhibit "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Guest view works of art by NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean during the opening of the show "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Azuki Bean Cells Are Hypersensitive to Cadmium and Do Not Synthesize Phytochelatins1

    PubMed Central

    Inouhe, Masahiro; Ito, Rika; Ito, Shoko; Sasada, Naoki; Tohoyama, Hiroshi; Joho, Masanori

    2000-01-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) as well as the original root tissues were hypersensitive to Cd (<10 μm). Repeated subculturings with a sublethal level of Cd (1–10 μm) did not affect the subsequent response of cells to inhibitory levels of Cd (10–100 μm). The azuki bean cells challenged to Cd did not contain phytochelatin (PC) peptides, unlike tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells that have a substantial tolerance to Cd (>100 μm). Both of the cell suspensions contained a similar level of reduced glutathione (GSH) when grown in the absence of Cd. Externally applied GSH to azuki bean cells recovered neither Cd tolerance nor PC synthesis of the cells. Furthermore, enzyme assays in vitro revealed that the protein extracts of azuki bean cells had no activity converting GSH to PCs, unlike tomato. These results suggest that azuki bean cells are lacking in the PC synthase activity per se, hence being Cd hypersensitive. We concluded that the PC synthase has an important role in Cd tolerance of suspension-cultured cells. PMID:10889252

  20. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Vigna angularis Using Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lihua; Ke, Xiwang; Han, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) is one of the most important legume crops in Asian countries like China, Japan and Korea due to its nutritious protein and starch contents. In spite of its economic importance, gene expression analysis system for gene function verification of adzuki bean is still absent. Therefore, reference genes for gene expression analysis based on the quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) were screened in current study. A total of nine general housekeeping genes, including ACT, Fbox, ZMPP, GAPDH, EF, PP2A, UBC, UBN and PTB were evaluated for their expression stability by qRT-PCR in four adzuki bean cultivars, three different tissues, four abiotic stress and one biotic stress. The best group of candidates as reference genes were as follows: PTB and ACT for different cultivars; EF and UBN for different tissues; ACT and ZMPP for biotic stress and waterlogging stress; Fbox and UBC for salinity-alkalinity stress; Fbox and PTB for drought stress. Our results will provide a more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in adzuki bean. PMID:27992593

  1. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Vigna angularis Using Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chao; Shen, Yongqiang; Yin, Lihua; Ke, Xiwang; Han, Dong; Zuo, Yuhu

    2016-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) is one of the most important legume crops in Asian countries like China, Japan and Korea due to its nutritious protein and starch contents. In spite of its economic importance, gene expression analysis system for gene function verification of adzuki bean is still absent. Therefore, reference genes for gene expression analysis based on the quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) were screened in current study. A total of nine general housekeeping genes, including ACT, Fbox, ZMPP, GAPDH, EF, PP2A, UBC, UBN and PTB were evaluated for their expression stability by qRT-PCR in four adzuki bean cultivars, three different tissues, four abiotic stress and one biotic stress. The best group of candidates as reference genes were as follows: PTB and ACT for different cultivars; EF and UBN for different tissues; ACT and ZMPP for biotic stress and waterlogging stress; Fbox and UBC for salinity-alkalinity stress; Fbox and PTB for drought stress. Our results will provide a more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in adzuki bean.

  2. Biophoton Emission Due to Drought Injury in Red Beans: Possibility of Early Detection of Drought Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohya, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kawabata, Ryuzou; Okabe, Hirotaka; Kai, Shoichi

    2002-07-01

    We study biophoton emission from red beans (Vigna angularis) during germination and seedling stages under drought stress. Strong photon emission is observed at the root apex when the beans are subjected to the dry condition. The spatial distribution of the emission is broader than that of emission due to the application of strong salt stress reported previously [T. Ohya et al.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 (2000) 3696]. When they are rewatered, strong photon emission from them is again observed. As their drought damage is weaker, the intensity of the photon emission is weaker. Photon emission from damaged roots indicates their physiological response to external stress, that is, photon emission intensity measurement is useful for detecting physiological changes and evaluating the degrees of such changes before serious damage takes place without any invasion and destruction.

  3. Characterization of seed storage proteins in high protein genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prachi; Singh, Rohtas; Malhotra, S; Boora, K S; Singal, H R

    2010-01-01

    Twenty one genotypes and two check varieties viz. CS-88 and V-240 of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ] were screened for total proteins. The total protein content ranged from 22.4 (HC-3) to 27.9 % (HC-98-64) in 21 genotypes whereas in check varieties it was 25.6 (V-240) and 26.0 % (CS-88). Seven genotypes viz. HC-6, HC-5, CP-21, LST-II-C-12, CP-16, COVU-702 and HC-98-64 having high protein content (26.7 to 27.9 %) were selected for further characterization of their seed storage proteins. Globulins were the major protein fraction ranging from 55.6 (LST-II-C-12) to 58.8 % (CP-16 and HC-6) of total protein. Glutelins was the second major fraction ranging from 14.4 to 15.6 % followed by albumins (8.2 to 11.9 %) and prolamins (2.3 to 5.0 %). Content of free amino acids also showed variations amongst genotypes with COVU-702 having maximum and LST-II-C-12 having minimum content. Essential amino acid analysis revealed that S-amino acids (cysteine and methionine) were the first limiting amino acids followed by tryptophan. From the results presented here it could be suggested that two genotypes viz. LST-II-C-12 and HC-5 be used in breeding programmes aimed at developing high protein moth bean varieties with good quality.

  4. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies.

  5. Protecting beans from ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    1983-03-01

    A chemical treatment to protect navy beans from ozone damage increased yields by an average of more than 20% in 3 years of tests. An experimental antioxidant chemical, EDU, made by the DuPont company was tested as soil applications and sprays on several varieties and under a variety of soil and planting conditions. The average yield increases were between 16 and 24%. Chemical treatment also increased snap bean pod production by 12%.

  6. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Apollo 7 Astronaut Walt Cunningham, left, and NASA STS-125 Mission Specialist Michael Massimino talk with another guest during the opening of "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" by NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Phytotoxicity attenuation in Vigna radiata under heavy metal stress at the presence of biochar and N fixing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Mihiri; Weerasundara, Lakshika; Ok, Yong Sik; Rinklebe, Jörg; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-01-15

    This study assesses the effect of N-fixing bacteria and biochar synergism on plant growth and development of Vigna mungo under heavy metal stress (HM). Heavy metal stress is a worldwide problem, which causes critical effects on plant life due to oxidative stress. Application of biochar is a recent biological remediation technique, which often leads to an immobilization of heavy metals in soil. . Synergism of bacteria and biochar is a novel aspect to enhance plant growth under heavy metal stress. Woody biochar a byproduct of a dendro power industry was added as 1, 2.5 and 5% amounts combination with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, where mung seedlings were planted in serpentine soil rich in Ni, Mn, Cr and Co. Pot experiments were conducted for 12 weeks. The plant height, heavy metal uptake by plants, soil bioavailable heavy metal contents, soil N and P and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were measured. The plant growth was enhanced with biochar amendment but a retardation was observed with high biochar application (5%). The soil N and P increased with the increase of biochar addition percentage while soil MBC showed reductions at 5% biochar amendment. Both soil bioavailable fractions of HM and up take of HMs by plants were gradually reduced with increase in biochar content. Based on the results, 2.5% biochar synergism with bacteria was the best for plant growth and soil nutrition status. Despite the synergism, available N was negatively correlated with the decrease of bioavailable metal percentage in soil whereas it was conversely for P. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. QTL mapping and epistatic interaction analysis in asparagus bean for several characterized and novel horticulturally important traits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata. ssp sesquipedalis) is a subspecies and special vegetable type of cowpea (Vigna. unguiculata L. Walp.) important in Asia. Genetic basis of horticulturally important traits of asparagus bean is still poorly understood, hindering the utilization of targeted, DNA marker-assisted breeding in this crop. Here we report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and epistatic interactions for four horticultural traits, namely, days to first flowering (FLD), nodes to first flower (NFF), leaf senescence (LS) and pod number per plant (PN) using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of asparagus bean. Results A similar genetic mode of one major QTL plus a few minor QTLs was found to dominate each of the four traits, with the number of QTLs for individual traits ranging from three to four. These QTLs were distributed on 7 of the 11 chromosomes. Major QTLs for FLD, NFF and LS were co-localized on LG 11, indicative of tight linkage. Genome wide epistasis analysis detected two and one interactive locus pairs that significantly affect FLD and LS, respectively, and the epistatic QTLs for FLD appeared to work in different ways. Synteny based comparison of QTL locations revealed conservation of chromosome regions controlling these traits in related legume crops. Conclusion Major, minor, and epistatic QTLs were found to contribute to the inheritance of the FLD, NFF, LS, and PN. Positions of many of these QTLs are conserved among closely related legume species, indicating common mechanisms they share. To our best knowledge, this is the first QTL mapping report using an asparagus bean × asparagus bean intervarietal population and provides marker-trait associations for marker-assisted approaches to selection. PMID:23375055

  9. Novel Genetic Resources in the Genus Vigna Unveiled from Gene Bank Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Somta, Prakit; Muto, Chiaki; Iseki, Kohtaro; Naito, Ken; Pandiyan, Muthaiyan; Natesan, Senthil; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna (Fabaceae) consists of five subgenera, and includes more than 100 wild species. In Vigna, 10 crops have been domesticated from three subgenera, Vigna, Plectrotropis, and Ceratotropis. The habitats of wild Vigna species are so diverse that their genomes could harbor various genes responsible for environmental stress adaptation, which could lead to innovations in agriculture. Since some of the gene bank Vigna accessions were unidentified and they seemed to be novel genetic resources, these accessions were identified based on morphological traits. The phylogenetic positions were estimated based on the DNA sequences of nuclear rDNA-ITS and chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer regions. Based on the results, the potential usefulness of the recently described species V. indica and V. sahyadriana, and some wild Vigna species, i.e., V. aconitifolia, V. dalzelliana, V. khandalensis, V. marina var. oblonga, and V. vexillata, was discussed. PMID:26800459

  10. Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a new species from Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao P.; Randive, Sonali D.; Garad, Krushnadeoray U.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat. PMID:25589877

  11. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  12. Construction and analysis of an SSH cDNA library of early heat-induced genes of Vigna aconitifolia variety RMO-40.

    PubMed

    Rampuria, Sakshi; Joshi, Uma; Palit, Paramita; Deokar, Amit A; Meghwal, Raju R; Mohapatra, T; Srinivasan, R; Bhatt, K V; Sharma, Ramavtar

    2012-11-01

    Moth bean ( Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal) is an important grain legume crop grown in rain fed areas of hot desert regions of Thar, India, under scorching sun rays with very little supplementation of water. An SSH cDNA library was generated from leaf tissues of V. aconitifolia var. RMO-40 exposed to an elevated temperature of 42 °C for 5 min to identify early-induced genes. A total of 488 unigenes (114 contigs and 374 singletons) were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 738 ESTs; out of 206 ESTs (28%) of unknown proteins, 160 ESTs (14%) were found to be novel to moth bean. Only 578 ESTs (78%) showed significant BLASTX similarity (<1 × 10(-6)) in the NCBI non-redundant database. Gene ontology functional classification terms were retrieved for 479 (65%) sequences, and 339 sequences were annotated with 165 EC codes and mapped to 68 different KEGG pathways. Four hundred and fifty-two ESTs were further annotated with InterProScan (IPS), and no IPS was assigned to 153 ESTs. In addition, the expression level of 27 ESTs in response to heat stress was evaluated through semiquantitative RT-PCR assay. Approximately 20 different signaling genes and 16 different transcription factors have been shown to be associated with heat stress in moth bean for the first time.

  13. Sharing Beans with Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  14. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this…

  15. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this…

  16. Sharing Beans with Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  17. Full of Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a genetics activity illustrating genetic variation, mutation, and influence of environmental factors on genotypic expression. Irridiated bean seeds are planted and observed (x-rayed by dentist's x-ray machine at different exposures and for different times). Questions to extend the activity are discussed. (Author/JN)

  18. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Former NASA Astronaut and U.S. Senator John Glenn is seen at the opening of the exhibit "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  2. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    PubMed

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits.

  3. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich

    PubMed Central

    Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  4. Potential of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) milk as a probiotic beverage-a review.

    PubMed

    Murevanhema, Yvonne Y; Jideani, Victoria A

    2013-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterraenea (L.) verdc) (BGN) is a legume; its origin have been traced back to Africa, and it is the third important legume; however, it is one of the neglected crops. It is highly nutritious, and has been termed a complete food. Its seed consist of 49%-63.5% carbohydrate, 15%-25% protein, 4.5%-7.4% fat, 5.2%-6.4% fiber, 3.2%-4.4% ash and 2% mineral compared to whole fresh cow milk 88% moisture, 4.8% carbohydrate, 3.2% proteins, 3.4% fat, 0.7% ash, and 0.01% cholesterol. Its chemical composition is comparable to that of soy bean. Furthermore, BGN has been reported to be a potential crop, owing to its nutritional composition, functional properties, antioxidant potential, and a drought resistant crop. Bambara groundnut milk (BGNM) had been rated higher in acceptability than milk from other legumes like soybean and cowpea. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host. These benefits have been reported to be therapeutic, suppressing the growth and activity in conditions like infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The nutritional profile of BGNM is high enough to sustain the growth of probiotics. BGNs are normally boiled and salted, eaten as a relish or roasted, and eaten as a snack. Hence, BGNM can also be fermented with lactic acid bacteria to make a probiotic beverage that not only increase the economic value of the nutritious legume but also help in addressing malnutrition.

  5. Effect of mercury on seedling growth, nodulation and ultrastructural deformation of Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Naba Kumar; Das, Chittaranjan; Datta, Jayanta Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metals are major environmental pollutant when they present in high concentration in soil and have toxic effects on growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of legumes and development of plants. Mercury stress triggers disturbances in cellular structure, and metabolismn is poorly understood. The response of seedling growth and nodulation of Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek to different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ppm) of mercury (Hg) salt solutions were studied. Morphological parameters like root and shoot length, dry weight, nodule number, total leaf area and biochemical constituents (chlorophyll, malondialdehyde and leghaemoglobin) of bean plants were recorded at an interval of 30 days. The successive growth deformaties in seedlings and nodules were recorded at lower concentration (0.1 ppm), but marginal (0.5 ppm) and higher (1.0 ppm) level of Hg salt solution showed significant suppression. The maximum level of Hg concentration (1.5 ppm) shows high level of tolerance index without any nodule. The control treatment shows maximum level of leghaemoglobin (0.219 mM) and all other morpho-physiological and bio-chemical properties of roots and shoots excepting tolerance index (0.00) and chlorophyll 'a' (7.52 mg g(-1) FW). Mercury accumulation pattern follows the sequences: leaf > nodule > root ≈ shoot at lower level of Hg (0.1 and 0.5 ppm). However, higher level of Hg (1.0 and 1.5 ppm) showed shoot > root > leaf > nodule. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of root also highlights the deleterious effect of Hg salt at higher concentration.

  6. Transport and partitioning of CO/sub 2/ fixed by root nodules of ureide and amide producing legumes. [Vigna angularis; Glycine max; Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, C.P.; Boylan, K.L.M.; Maxwell, C.A.; Heichel, G.H.; Hardman, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nodulated and denodulated roots of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), soybean (Glycine max), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were exposed to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to investigate the contribution of nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. The distribution of radioactivity in xylem sap and partitioning of carbon fixed by nodules to the whole plant were measured. Radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated soybean and adzuki bean was located primarily (70 to 87%) in the acid fraction while the basic (amino acid) fraction contained 10 to 22%. In contrast radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated alfalfa was primarily in amino acids with about 20% in organic acids. Total ureide concentration was 8.1, 4.7, and 0.0 micromoles per milliliter xylem sap for soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa, respectively. While the major nitrogen transport products in soybeans and adzuki beans are ureides, this class of metabolites contained less than 20% of the the total radioactivity. When nodules of plants were removed, radioactivity in xylem sap decreased by 90% or more. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that CO/sub 2/ fixed by nodules was rapidly transported to shoots and incorporated into acid stable constituents. The data are consistent with a role for nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation providing carbon for the assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen in amide-based legumes. In contrast, CO/sub 2/ fixation by nodules of ureide transporting legumes appears to contribute little to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pei; Moshelion, Menachem; Wu, XiaoHua; Halperin, Ofer; Wang, BaoGen; Luo, Jie; Wallach, Rony; Wu, Xinyi; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2015-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis) is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between different genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:26579145

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B 6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H. H.; Bognár, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of 60Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1, B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology.

  9. Vigna angularis water extracts protect against ultraviolet b-exposed skin aging in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Park, Sang-Yong; Lee, Hyun Ji; Sun, Zheng-wang; Lee, Tae Youp; Song, Hyun Geun; Shin, Heon-Sub; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces various pathological changes, such as thickened skin and wrinkle formation. In particular, UVB irradiation increases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 production and collagen degradation, leading to premature aging, termed photoaging. The azuki bean (Vigna angularis; VA) has been widely used as a food product as well as a traditional medicine. However, its activity needs additional study to confirm its functional application in foods and cosmetics for protecting skin. In this study, hot-water extract from VA (VAE) and its active component, rutin, were investigated to determine their antiphotoaging effects. VAE was found to have antioxidant activity. In UVB-exposed normal human dermal fibroblasts cells with VAE and rutin treatments, MMP-1 production was significantly suppressed (90% and 47%, respectively). The effects of both topical and oral administration of VAE were tested in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. VAE suppressed wrinkle formation and skin thickness by promoting elastin, procollagen type I, and TGF-β1 expression (118%, 156%, and 136%, respectively) and by diminishing MMP-1 production. These results suggest that VAE may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UVB radiation.

  10. 40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Crowder pea, moth bean, mung bean, rice bean, southern pea, urd bean, yardlong bean) 6A, 6B, 6C Broad bean..., blackeyed pea, catjang, cowpea, Crowder pea, moth bean, mung bean, rice bean, southern pea, urd bean); broad... true cantaloupe, cantaloupe, casaba, crenshaw melon, golden pershaw melon, honeydew melon, honey balls...

  11. 40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Crowder pea, moth bean, mung bean, rice bean, southern pea, urd bean, yardlong bean) 6A, 6B, 6C Broad bean..., blackeyed pea, catjang, cowpea, Crowder pea, moth bean, mung bean, rice bean, southern pea, urd bean); broad... melon, golden pershaw melon, honeydew melon, honey balls, mango melon, Persian melon, pineapple melon...

  12. 40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Crowder pea, moth bean, mung bean, rice bean, southern pea, urd bean, yardlong bean) 6A, 6B, 6C Broad bean..., blackeyed pea, catjang, cowpea, Crowder pea, moth bean, mung bean, rice bean, southern pea, urd bean); broad... true cantaloupe, cantaloupe, casaba, crenshaw melon, golden pershaw melon, honeydew melon, honey balls...

  13. 40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Crowder pea, moth bean, mung bean, rice bean, southern pea, urd bean, yardlong bean) 6A, 6B, 6C Broad bean..., blackeyed pea, catjang, cowpea, Crowder pea, moth bean, mung bean, rice bean, southern pea, urd bean); broad... true cantaloupe, cantaloupe, casaba, crenshaw melon, golden pershaw melon, honeydew melon, honey balls...

  14. 40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Crowder pea, moth bean, mung bean, rice bean, southern pea, urd bean, yardlong bean) 6A, 6B, 6C Broad bean..., blackeyed pea, catjang, cowpea, Crowder pea, moth bean, mung bean, rice bean, southern pea, urd bean); broad... true cantaloupe, cantaloupe, casaba, crenshaw melon, golden pershaw melon, honeydew melon, honey balls...

  15. Registration of 'Croissant' pinto bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Croissant’ (Reg. No. CV-299, PI 656597), a new medium-maturity (94–98 d) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar was released by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station to provide dry bean producers in the USA with a high-yielding cultivar that combines resistance to rust [caused by Uromyc...

  16. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  17. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elenilda J; Carvalho, Lucia M J; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M; Cardoso, Flávio S N; Carvalho, José L V

    2016-01-01

    The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  18. The study of equivalent dose of uranium in long bean (V. U. Sesquipedalis) and the effect on human

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Yoshandi, Tengku Mohammad; Majid, Sukiman Sarmania Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2016-01-22

    In the case of accidental release of Uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination by either acute or chronic exposure has the potential to induce both radiological and chemical toxic effects. A study was conducted to estimate the {sup 238}U radionuclide concentration in the long beans using Induced Coupled Mass Plasma-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). {sup 238}U radionuclide is a naturally occurring radioactive material that can be found in soil and can be transferred to the long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquapedalis) directly or indirectly via water or air. Kidney and liver are the major sites of deposition of {sup 238}U radionuclide. The obtained dose exposed in the liver and kidney is used to assess the safety level for public intake of {sup 238}U radionuclide from the consumption of long beans. The concentration of {sup 238}U radionuclide measured in long bean samples was 0.0226 ± 0.0009 mg/kg. Total activity of {sup 238}U radionuclide was 0.0044 ± 0.0002 Bq/day with the daily intake of 0.3545 ± 0.0143 µg/day and the annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of {sup 238}U radionuclide in long beans was 0.2230 ± 0.0087 µSv/year. The committed equivalent dose of {sup 238}U radionuclide from the assessment in the liver and kidney are 0.4198 ± 0.0165 nSv and 10.9335 ± 0.4288 nSv. The risk of cancer of {sup 238}U radionuclide was determined to be (86.0466 ± 3.3748) × 10-9. Thus, the results concluded that {sup 238}U radionuclide in local long beans was in the permitted level and safe to consume without posing any significant radiological threat to population.

  19. The study of equivalent dose of uranium in long bean (V. U. Sesquipedalis) and the effect on human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Yoshandi, Tengku Mohammad; Majid, Sukiman Sarmania Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2016-01-01

    In the case of accidental release of Uranium-238 (238U) radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination by either acute or chronic exposure has the potential to induce both radiological and chemical toxic effects. A study was conducted to estimate the 238U radionuclide concentration in the long beans using Induced Coupled Mass Plasma-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). 238U radionuclide is a naturally occurring radioactive material that can be found in soil and can be transferred to the long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquapedalis) directly or indirectly via water or air. Kidney and liver are the major sites of deposition of 238U radionuclide. The obtained dose exposed in the liver and kidney is used to assess the safety level for public intake of 238U radionuclide from the consumption of long beans. The concentration of 238U radionuclide measured in long bean samples was 0.0226 ± 0.0009 mg/kg. Total activity of 238U radionuclide was 0.0044 ± 0.0002 Bq/day with the daily intake of 0.3545 ± 0.0143 µg/day and the annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of 238U radionuclide in long beans was 0.2230 ± 0.0087 µSv/year. The committed equivalent dose of 238U radionuclide from the assessment in the liver and kidney are 0.4198 ± 0.0165 nSv and 10.9335 ± 0.4288 nSv. The risk of cancer of 238U radionuclide was determined to be (86.0466 ± 3.3748) × 10-9. Thus, the results concluded that 238U radionuclide in local long beans was in the permitted level and safe to consume without posing any significant radiological threat to population.

  20. Galactosylononitol and Stachyose Synthesis in Seeds of Adzuki Bean1

    PubMed Central

    Peterbauer, Thomas; Richter, Andreas

    1998-01-01

    Stachyose synthase (STS) (EC 2.4.1.67) was purified to homogeneity from mature seeds of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis). Electrophoresis under denaturing conditions revealed a single polypeptide of 90 kD. Size-exclusion chromatography of the purified enzyme yielded two activity peaks with apparent molecular masses of 110 and 283 kD. By isoelectric focusing and chromatofocusing the protein was separated into several active forms with isoelectric point values between pH 4.7 and 5.0. Purified STS catalyzed the transfer of the galactosyl group from galactinol to raffinose and myo-inositol. Additionally, the enzyme catalyzed the galactinol-dependent synthesis of galactosylononitol from d-ononitol. The synthesis of a galactosylcyclitol by STS is a new oberservation. Mutual competitive inhibition was observed when the enzyme was incubated with both substrates (raffinose and ononitol) simultaneously. Galactosylononitol could also substitute for galactinol in the synthesis of stachyose from raffinose. Although galactosylononitol was the less-efficient donor, the Michaelis constant value for raffinose was lower in the presence of galactosylononitol (13.2 mm) compared with that obtained in the presence of galactinol (38.6 mm). Our results indicate that STS catalyzes the biosynthesis of galactosylononitol, but may also mediate a redistribution of galactosyl residues from galactosylononitol to stachyose. PMID:9576785

  1. Induction of digestive alpha-amylases in larvae of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in response to ingestion of common bean alpha-amylase inhibitor 1.

    PubMed

    Silva, C P.; Terra, W R.; de Sá, M F.G.; Samuels, R I.; Isejima, E M.; Bifano, T D.; Almeida, J S.

    2001-11-01

    Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae possess three alpha-amylase isoforms determined by in gel assays following SDS-PAGE. Two minor isoforms present lower electrophoretic mobility than the major form. When developed inside Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) seeds, fourth instar larvae have minor quantities of the slow-migrating isoforms, but when reared on seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), the two slow-migrating forms are expressed in higher amounts, whilst the quantity of the major constitutive form is independent of the host bean. Larvae at the beginning of the fourth instar were fed on flour or cotyledons of cowpea and common bean and it was observed that the larvae fed on the common bean expressed the two slow-migrating forms in higher amounts when compared to the control larvae fed on cowpea. In order to investigate the possible correlation between the induction of alpha-amylases and the ingestion of the common bean alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 (alphaAI-1), this inhibitor was incorporated into artificial diet. It was observed that larvae fed on diet containing chronic doses of alphaAI-1 during their development, produced the two slow-migrating forms in higher amounts than control larvae, however, fourth-instar larvae fed on the same diet presented less amylase activity than control larvae. The data suggested that alphaAI-1 is involved in amylase induction and that it has inhibitory activity against the constitutive amylase, when starch granules are used as substrate.

  2. Development of unigene-derived SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and their transferability to other Vigna species.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2010-07-01

    Unigene sequences available in public databases provide a cost-effective and valuable source for the development of molecular markers. In this study, the identification and development of unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is presented. A total of 1071 SSRs were identified in 15 740 cowpea unigene sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The most frequent SSR motifs present in the unigenes were trinucleotides (59.7%), followed by dinucleotides (34.8%), pentanucleotides (4%), and tetranucleotides (1.5%). The copy number varied from 6 to 33 for dinucleotide, 5 to 29 for trinucleotide, 5 to 7 for tetranucleotide, and 4 to 6 for pentanucleotide repeats. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 803 SSR motifs and 102 SSR markers were finally characterized and validated. Putative function was assigned to 64.7% of the unigene SSR markers based on significant homology to reported proteins. About 31.7% of the SSRs were present in coding sequences and 68.3% in untranslated regions of the genes. About 87% of the SSRs located in the coding sequences were trinucleotide repeats. Allelic variation at 32 SSR loci produced 98 alleles in 20 cowpea genotypes. The polymorphic information content for the SSR markers varied from 0.10 to 0.83 with an average of 0.53. These unigene SSR markers showed a high rate of transferability (88%) across other Vigna species, thereby expanding their utility. Alignment of unigene sequences with soybean genomic sequences revealed the presence of introns in amplified products of some of the SSR markers. This study presents the distribution of SSRs in the expressed portion of the cowpea genome and is the first report of the development of functional unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea. These SSR markers would play an important role in molecular mapping, comparative genomics, and marker-assisted selection strategies in cowpea and other Vigna species.

  3. Infectivity analysis of two variable DNA B components of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna in Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Vanitharani, R; Karthikeyan, A S; Anbalagan, S; Veluthambi, K

    2004-09-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV-Vig), a Begomovirus that causes yellow mosaic disease, was cloned from field-infected blackgram (Vigna mungo). One DNA A clone (KA30) and five different DNA B clones (KA21, KA22, KA27, KA28 and KA34) were obtained. The sequence identity in the 150-nt common region (CR) between DNA A and DNA B was highest (95%) for KA22 DNA B and lowest (85.6%) for KA27 DNA B. The Rep-binding domain had three complete 11-nt (5'-TGTATCGGTGT-3') iterons in KA22 DNA B (and KA21, KA28 and KA34), while the first iteron in KA27 DNA B (5'-ATCGGTGT-3') had a 3-nt deletion. KA27 DNA B, which exhibited 93.9% CR sequence identity to the mungbean-infecting MYMV, also shared the 3-nt deletion in the first iteron besides having an 18-nt insertion between the third iteron and the conserved nonanucleotide. MYMV was found to be closely related to KA27 DNA B in amino acid sequence identity of BV1 (94.1%) and BC1 (97.6%) proteins and in the organization of nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and phosphorylation sites. Agroinoculation of blackgram (V. mungo) and mungbean (V. radiata) with partial dimers of KA27 and KA22 DNA Bs along with DNA A caused distinctly different symptoms. KA22 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in blackgram. In contrast, KA27 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in mungbean. Thus, DNA B of MYMVVig is an important determinant of host-range between V. mungo and V. radiata.

  4. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  5. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  6. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  7. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  8. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  9. Diversity and Evolution of Salt Tolerance in the Genus Vigna

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Kohtaro; Takahashi, Yu; Muto, Chiaki; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Breeding salt tolerant plants is difficult without utilizing a diversity of wild crop relatives. Since the genus Vigna (family Fabaceae) is comprised of many wild relatives adapted to various environmental conditions, we evaluated the salt tolerance of 69 accessions of this genus, including that of wild and domesticated accessions originating from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and South America. We grew plants under 50 mM and 200 mM NaCl for two weeks and then measured the biomass, relative quantum yield of photosystem II, leaf Na+ concentrations, and leaf K+ concentrations. The accessions were clustered into four groups: the most tolerant, tolerant, moderately susceptible, and susceptible. From the most tolerant group, we selected six accessions, all of which were wild accessions adapted to coastal environments, as promising sources of salt tolerance because of their consistently high relative shoot biomass and relative quantum yield. Interestingly, variations in leaf Na+ concentration were observed between the accessions in the most tolerant group, suggesting different mechanisms were responsible for their salt tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis with nuclear DNA sequences revealed that salt tolerance had evolved independently at least four times in the genus Vigna, within a relatively short period. The findings suggested that simple genetic changes in a few genes might have greatly affected salt tolerances. The elucidation of genetic mechanisms of salt tolerances in the selected accessions may contribute to improving the poor salt tolerance in legume crops. PMID:27736995

  10. Vigna pandeyana (Fabaceae), a new species from northern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao; Randive, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Vigna subg. Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc. represents a homogenous and distinct group of species with highly specialized complex floral characters. It is most diverse in Asia. India, with 24 species, represents a secondary center of species diversity of the subgenus. New information A new species, Vigna pandeyana RD Gore, SP Gaikwad & SD Randive, is described from hill slopes of the northern Western Ghats of India. It resembles Vigna yadavii Gaikwad et al. and Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs from the latter in its dimorphic shoots (some subterranean, with cleistogamous flowers) and densely hairy pods, from the former by its curved style, flattened style beak, foveolate seed coat and absence of standard protuberance and horn-like keel pocket in cleistogamous flowers. PMID:25829861

  11. Evaluation of rotational effect of bean in large-scale rice-bean rotation using satellite remote sensing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-06-01

    A large-scale rice-bean rotation experiment was examined to analyze the rotational effect of bean by using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of bean on satellite remote sensing image. The experiment was undertaken at Rudong County of China from 2009 to 2010. The difference between the bean NDVIs of bean-bean monoculture and rice-bean rotation was used to evaluate the rotational effect of bean. The results show that the NDVI of rice-bean rotation is obviously larger than one of bean-bean monoculture in such large-scale experiment. Thus, we have also found the compelling evidence that the bean yield of rice-bean rotation is greater than the bean yield of bean-bean monoculture.

  12. Cloning, characterization, expression analysis and inhibition studies of a novel gene encoding Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor from rice bean.

    PubMed

    Katoch, Rajan; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Thakur, Neelam; Dutt, Som; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Shukle, Rich

    2014-08-10

    This paper presents the first study describing the isolation, cloning and characterization of a full length gene encoding Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (RbTI) from rice bean (Vigna umbellata). A full-length protease inhibitor gene with complete open reading frame of 327 bp encoding 109 amino acids was cloned from rice bean seeds using degenerate primer set. BlastP search revealed that the RbTI encoded amino acid of approx 13.0 kDa and shared 99% homology each with BBI from Phaseolus parvulus, Vigna trilobata and Vigna vexilata. Phylogenetic tree also showed close relationship of RbTI with BBI from other members of Leguminaceae family. RbTI gene was further confirmed as intronless (GenBank accession no. KJ159908). The secondary and 3D-structural models for the RbTI were predicted with homology modeling. qRT-PCR studies revealed the highest RbTI expression in the seeds nearing maturity, whereas the low expression of the gene was noticed in young leaves. The isolated RbTI was successfully expressed in Escherichiacoli and the highest expression was recorded after 5.5h of induction. Study on the inhibitory activity of expressed protein against the gut proteases of Hessian fly larvae revealed 87% inhibition. The novel RbTI gene will further broaden the pool of plant defense genes and could be an ideal choice for developing transgenic crops resistant to insect pests with high economic value. In addition, it has the potential to be used as a probe for selection of insect- and pathogen-resistant genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  14. Constituents from Vigna vexillata and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Liou, Kun-Pei; Huang, Bow-Shin; Chen, Guo-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Vigna genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of V. vexillata demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of V. vexillata. One new sterol (1) and two new isoflavones (2,3) were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23), abscisic acid (25), and quercetin (40) displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release. PMID:22949828

  15. Use of commercial freezers to control cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in organic garbanzo beans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Valero, K A

    2003-12-01

    One California processor of organic garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.), unable to use chemical fumigants, relies on 30-d storage at -18 degrees C to disinfest product of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). To determine whether the storage period may be shortened, the most cold-tolerant life stage of the cowpea weevil was identified. Laboratory studies showed that the egg stage was most tolerant to -18 degrees C and that adults were most susceptible. To examine the efficacy of cold storage disinfestation, bags of black-eyed peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., infested with cowpea weevil eggs were buried within garbanzo bean bins placed in a commercial cold storage facility kept at approximately -18 degrees C and removed after 7, 14, and 21 d. Survival was highest in eggs located at the center of the bins and coincided with the slowest cooling rate. Although temperatures within the bins did not reach -18 degrees C until after 14-19 d, egg mortality was estimated to be >98% after just 7 d of exposure. Complete mortality of eggs occurred after 14 d of cold storage. A 2-wk treatment regimen may be sufficient for control of cowpea weevil in organic legumes.

  16. Analysis of variation for white mold resistance in the BeanCAP snap bean panel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White mold disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary, is one of the most devastated diseases that infect snap and dry beans (Miklas et al. 2013). The USDA-NIFA supported Bean Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) has assembled and genotyped dry and a snap bean panels. The snap bean pa...

  17. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    MedlinePlus

    ... large, fleshy, colorful plant seeds. Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as ... in healthy diets and have many benefits. Beans, lentils, and peas come in many options, cost little ...

  18. [Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in coffee beans].

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Jolanta; Czyrska, Regina; Wieczorek, Zbigniew; Smoczyńska, Krystyna

    2002-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (gamma-HCH, DDT and their analogous metabolites) were determined in coffee beans. Four sorts of green coffee beans and 18 sorts of burnt coffee beans were used in the research. The method was based on extraction of fat and its destruction with concentrated sulphuric acid. Chlorinated hydrocarbons were extracted with n-hexane, separated and quantitatively determined by gas chromatography. The presence of chlorinated hydrocarbons was detected in green coffee beans and, in smaller quantities, in burnt coffee beans. The concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbons was lower in medium and darkly burnt coffee beans than lightly burnt coffee. The level of DDT and its metabolites in final product decreased after coffee burning at higher temperatures. After brewing the grind coffee beans the remains of chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected in coffee-grounds at concentration to those found in coffee beans. Drinking of natural coffee does not influence an increase of intake the chlorinated hydrocarbons by human beings.

  19. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  20. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  1. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  2. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  3. Registration of ‘Krimson’ cranberry bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cranberry is an important dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) market class grown in the United States and Canada. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) plagues cranberry bean production in the western U.S. (CA, ID, OR, WA). ‘Krimson’ (Reg. No. CV PI 663911 ) cranberry bean released by the USDA-ARS in 2009, ...

  4. Phytohemagglutination Activity in Extruded Dry Bean Powder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry beans are a highly nutritious food. Besides making beans palatable, cooking is required to denature lectin, a protein found in beans. If consumed raw or undercooked, lectin poisoning can occur. Symptoms of lectin poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, and occur within hours of...

  5. Cacao bean shell poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Drolet, R; Arendt, T D; Stowe, C M

    1984-10-15

    Cacao bean shells contain potentially toxic quantities of theobromine, a xanthine compound similar in effects to caffeine and theophylline. A dog, which ingested a lethal quantity of garden mulch made from cacao bean shells, developed severe convulsions and died 17 hours later. Analysis of the stomach contents and the ingested cacao bean shells revealed the presence of lethal amounts of theobromine.

  6. Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    War, Abdul R; Murugesan, Surya; Boddepalli, Venkata N; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Nair, Ramakrishnan M

    2017-01-01

    Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these constraints be

  7. Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul R.; Murugesan, Surya; Boddepalli, Venkata N.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.

    2017-01-01

    Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these constraints be

  8. The transcriptome of common bean: nodules to beans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We performed next generation sequencing (RNAseq) on five...

  9. Hydrodynamik; Eindimensionale stationäre inkompressible Strömung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surek, Dominik

    Strömungsvorgänge in Maschinen, Apparaten, Anlagen und in der Natur verlaufen in der Regel dreidimensional und viele davon auch instationär, d. h. zeitabhängig wie z. B. An- und Abfahrvorgänge von Maschinen. Es gibt genügend Strömungsvorgänge, bei denen zwei Geschwindigkeitskomponenten gegenüber der Hauptströmungsrichtung c x in erster Näherung vernachlässigt werden können, ohne nennenswerte Fehler zu begehen wie z. B. in Trinkwasserversorgungsrohrleitungen, in Pipelines oder in anderen Rohrleitungen für Fluide mit konstanter Dichte (ρ= konst.). Diese Strömungen nennt man stationär, eindimensional und inkompressibel. Ist die stationäre, eindimensionale Strömung kompressibel, wie z. B. in Gasrohrleitungen, Gasturbinen oder in Kompressoren, dann wird sie durch die Gesetze der Gasdynamik beschrieben.

  10. A Homoploid Hybrid Between Wild Vigna Species Found in a Limestone Karst

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Iseki, Kohtaro; Kitazawa, Kumiko; Muto, Chiaki; Somta, Prakit; Irie, Kenji; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Genus Vigna comprise several domesticated species including cowpea and mungbean, and diverse wild species. We found an introgressive hybrid population derived from two wild species, Vigna umbellata and Vigna exilis, in Ratchaburi district, Thailand. The hybrid was morphologically similar to V. umbellata but habituated in a limestone rock mountain, which is usually dominated by V. exilis. Analyzing simple sequence repeat loci indicated the hybrid has undergone at least one round of backcross by V. umbellata. We found the hybrid acquired vigorous growth from V. umbellata and drought tolerance plus early flowering from V. exilis, and thus has taken over some habitats of V. exilis in limestone karsts. Given the wide crossability of V. umbellata, the hybrid can be a valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species. PMID:26648953

  11. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Flávio S. N.; Carvalho, José L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients. PMID:26945231

  12. Starch characteristics of bean extrudates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are one of the significant sources of food in the world. They are a rich source of carbohydrates (28-35%), even though they are better known for proteins (23-27%), fiber (2-5%), and minerals (4.21-5.17%). United States is the sixth-leading producer of dry edible...

  13. Vigna (Leguminosae) sensu lato: the names and identities of the American segregate genera.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Thulin, Mats; Pasquet, Rémy; Weeden, Norm; Lavin, Matt

    2011-10-01

    The legume genus Vigna and close relatives have highly elaborated floral morphologies that involve the coiling, bending, and intricate connection of flower parts. Banners, levers, platforms, and pumps have evolved that attract pollinators and then manipulate their movement. Given this three-dimensional floral complexity, the taxonomy of Vigna and relatives has been confounded by the study of mostly two-dimensional museum specimens. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was undertaken in the effort to resolve long-standing taxonomic questions centered on floral morphology. The phylogenetic analysis included cpDNA trnK and nuclear ribosomal ITS/5.8S (ITS) sequence variation. The American species were comprehensively sampled and outgroups included Old World relatives. The trnK and ITS data analyses concurred in resolving six well-supported clades of American Vigna that are most closely related to other American genera: Dolichopsis, Macroptilium, Mysanthus, Oryxis, Oxyrhynchus, Phaseolus, Ramirezella, and Strophostyles. These 14 American clades ranked here as genera are resolved as sister to a clade comprising the mainly Old World species of Vigna. American Vigna clades were reassigned to the genera Ancistrotropis, Cochliasanthus, Condylostylis, Leptospron, Sigmoidotropis, and the newly described Helicotropis. Vigna sensu stricto in the Americas now includes relatively few and mostly pantropical species. Elaborate floral asymmetries are readily used to apomorphically diagnose nearly all of the American genera. The age estimates of the extant diversification of the American and its Old World sister clade are approximately coeval at ca. 6-7 million yr, which belies much greater floral variation in the Americas.

  14. Bioactive Properties of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima Bean) and Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) Hydrolyzates Incorporated into Pasta. Residual Activity after Pasta Cooking.

    PubMed

    Drago, Silvina R; Franco-Miranda, Hanai; Cian, Raúl E; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta. Control pasta had the lowest ACEI activity or TEAC (22.01 ± 0.76 % or 14.14 ± 1.28 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). Higher activity remained in pasta with PLH than VUH after extrusion, and higher the level of addition, higher the ACEI was. Pasta had practically the same ACEI activity after cooking, thus active compounds were not lost by temperature or lixiviation. Regarding TEAC, higher activity remained in pasta with 10 % VUH (31.84 ± 0.17 μmol Trolox/g). Other samples with hydrolyzates had the same activity. After cooking, pasta with hydrolyzates had higher TEAC values than control, but these were not modified by the level of incorporation. Moreover, the profile changed because pasta with PLH had the highest TEAC values (21.39 ± 0.01 and 20.34 ± 0.15 for 5 or 10 % hydrolyzates, respectively). Cooking decreased this activity (~ 20 %), for all samples. Although a certain loss of antioxidant activity was observed, pasta could be a good vehicle for bioactive compounds becoming a functional food.

  15. Genistein from Vigna angularis Extends Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Ahn, Dalrae; Kim, Ban Ji; Lee, So Yeon; Seo, Hyun Won; Cha, Youn-Soo; Jeon, Hoon; Eun, Jae Soon; Cha, Dong Seok; Kim, Dae Keun

    2015-01-01

    The seed of Vigna angularis has long been cultivated as a food or a folk medicine in East Asia. Genistein (4′,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), a dietary phytoestrogen present in this plant, has been known to possess various biological properties. In this study, we investigated the possible lifespan-extending effects of genistein using Caenorhabditis elegans model system. We found that the lifespan of nematode was significantly prolonged in the presence of genistein under normal culture condition. In addition, genistein elevated the survival rate of nematode against stressful environment including heat and oxidative conditions. Further studies demonstrated that genistein-mediated increased stress tolerance of nematode could be attributed to enhanced expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). Moreover, we failed to find genistein-induced significant change in aging-related factors including reproduction, food intake, and growth, indicating genistein exerts longevity activity independent of affecting these factors. Genistein treatment also led to an up-regulation of locomotory ability of aged nematode, suggesting genistein affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. Our results represent that genistein has beneficial effects on the lifespan of C. elegans under both of normal and stress condition via elevating expressions of stress resistance proteins. PMID:25593647

  16. Intercropping Corn with Lablab bean, Velvet Bean, and Scarlet Runner Bean for Forage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low crude protein (CP) concentration in corn (Zea mays L.) forage is its major limitation in dairy rations. This experiment was designed to determine if intercropping corn with climbing beans is a viable option to increase CP concentration in forage rather than purchasing costly CP supplements for ...

  17. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and... regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the... action would allow for the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya...

  18. The proteolysis of trypsin inhibitors in legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K A

    1988-01-01

    The seeds of plants often contain large amounts of proteins, which are subjected to extensive proteolytic processing during seed development and subsequent germination. One class of legume seed proteins, the Bowman-Birk-type trypsin inhibitors, has proved especially useful as a subject in studying these events. Sequence studies of the trypsin inhibitors from a number of legume species suggest that many of the inhibitors undergo a limited shortening at the amino terminus during seed development. However, during germination, the inhibitors appear to function as storage proteins. As such, they are subjected to extensive proteolysis, ultimately leading to their destruction. This degradative process has been studied extensively in the mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek). Proteolysis of the mung bean trypsin inhibitor involves, at least initially, an ordered sequence of limited proteolytic cleavages. The two proteases involved in the initial phases of this degradation have been identified and partially characterized.

  19. Successful introgression of abiotic stress tolerance from wild tepary bean to common bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production is severely limited due to abiotic stresses, including drought and sub-zero temperatures. Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray), a relative of common bean, has demonstrated tolerance to these stresses. Preliminary studies screening tepary accessions ...

  20. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  1. FOLATE CONTENT IN SELECT DRY BEAN GENOTYPES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry edible beans are a good natural source of folate (½-cup serving of cooked beans provide 35% daily value of folate). Recognized healthful benefits of folate in the human diet include reduced birth defects, decreased plasma homocysteine level which is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease, reduc...

  2. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    PubMed

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Astronaut Alan Bean shaves while aboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, uses battery powered shaver while in the crew quarters of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  4. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  5. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  6. Astronaut Bean - Acrobatics - Orbital Workshop (OWS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-20

    S73-32632 (19 Aug. 1973) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, performs acrobatics and simulated gymnastics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Bean appears to be floating in a diving position. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Bean Samples The Ocean of Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the Lunar Module pilot.

  8. Extraction and analysis of coffee bean allergens.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Salvaggio, J E

    1978-05-01

    Workers in the coffee industry can develop occupational allergic disease upon exposure to dust associated with coffee manufacturing. Since controversy exists as to the source or chemical nature of these allergens, the mouse model of reaginic antibody production was used to assess the potential sources of allergens in samples obtained from a local coffee manufacturing plant. Mice were immunized with extracts of coffee dust and beans and the resulting reaginic antibody response determined by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Cross-reacting allergens were detected in samples of coffee dust, cleaner can debris and green coffee beans, but not in chaff or roasted coffee beans. None of the allergens detected in coffee samples cross-reacted with extract of castor beans, although these extracts contained the potent castor bean allergen. Green coffee bean allergens partially purified by gel filtration were heterogeneous with respect to molecular size, although quite similar in their reactivity with reaginic antiserum. These results suggest that the green coffee bean is the major source of allergen in coffee manufacturing plants. This allergen is heterogeneous with respect to size and heat lability, and is immunochemically different from the castor bean allergen.

  9. Proteome Characterization of Leaves in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Faith M.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Brick, Mark A.; Prenni, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a globally relevant food crop. The bean genome was recently sequenced and annotated allowing for proteomics investigations aimed at characterization of leaf phenotypes important to agriculture. The objective of this study was to utilize a shotgun proteomics approach to characterize the leaf proteome and to identify protein abundance differences between two bean lines with known variation in their physiological resistance to biotic stresses. Overall, 640 proteins were confidently identified. Among these are proteins known to be involved in a variety of molecular functions including oxidoreductase activity, binding peroxidase activity, and hydrolase activity. Twenty nine proteins were found to significantly vary in abundance (p-value < 0.05) between the two bean lines, including proteins associated with biotic stress. To our knowledge, this work represents the first large scale shotgun proteomic analysis of beans and our results lay the groundwork for future studies designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen resistance. PMID:28248269

  10. In vitro biosynthesis of homogalacturonan by a membrane-bound galacturonosyltransferase from epicotyls of azuki bean.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Y; Tsumuraya, Y

    2001-07-01

    A membrane preparation of 7-d-old seedlings from azuki bean (Vigna angularis) contained galacturonosyltransferase (GalAT) capable of transferring galacturonic acid (GalA) from UDP-GalA into polygalacturonic acid (PGA) as an exogenous acceptor. The enzyme was maximally active at pH 6.8-7.8 and 25-35 degrees C in the presence of 5 mM Mn2+ and 0.5% (w/v) Triton X-100. Acid-soluble low-Mr (average Mr 10,000) PGA was a more efficient acceptor substrate than acid-insoluble polymer (Mr 70,000). The apparent Michaelis constants for UDP-GalA and low-Mr PGA were 0.14 mM and 0.02 mg/ml, respectively. Various pectins with different degrees of methyl-esterification (DE) were poor acceptors, and the enzyme activity tended to decrease with decreasing DE of the pectins. The transfer products from incubation of the enzyme with UDP-14C-GalA and the low-Mr PGA yielded 14C-GalA2 as the major product upon digestion with an endopolygalacturonase (EPGase), confirming the incorporation of GalA into PGA through contiguous alpha-1,4-linkages.

  11. Studies on physico-chemical and cooking characteristics of rice bean varieties grown in NE region of India.

    PubMed

    Bepary, Rejaul Hoque; Wadikar, D D; Neog, Seuji Borah; Patki, P E

    2017-03-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) is grown in South and Southeast Asia, and the bean has gained importance due to its nutritional strength in terms of dietary fiber, quality protein and minerals. In current study, the nutritional and functional components, cooking and thermo-gravimetric properties of eleven rice bean varieties from NE India were investigated. Results revealed that the major nutrients among the varieties ranged as follows: 54.21-60.49% carbohydrates, 15.64-21.60% protein, 1.22-2.3% fat, 5.53-6.56% crude fibre, 3.34-3.8% ash; while the functional, anti-nutritional factors and mineral were present as 1189.32-1645.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g polyphenols, 205.38-432.14 mg/100 g phytic acid, 23.14-34.12 mg/100 g oxalate, 690.7-1589.5 mg/100 g saponins, 49.90-158.17 μg/100 g hydrocyanide, 111.51-168 calcium, 5.50-10.44 zinc, 3.72-8.37 iron. Principal component analysis revealed that varieties with higher calcium, iron and ash content had lower cooking time, swelling ratio, and cooked grain hardness. It is also revealed that varieties with higher weight loss at sixth stage in thermogravimetric graph had lower carbohydrate and higher protein content. Nagadal variety had higher fat, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper and chromium content and better cooking quality as compared to the other varieties. The study revealed that Nagadal variety was superior to other varieties with respect to mineral content, cooking and thermal properties and hence have better potential in the development of value added products.

  12. Breeding black beans for Haiti with multiple virus resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Black bean production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop, test and release tropically-adapted black bean lines with resis...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous evergreen...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  18. Development, release and dissemination of "Sankara" black bean in Haiti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in the Caribbean is threatened by Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV), Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV). The University of Puerto Rico, the University of Nebraska, the USDA-ARS, Zamorano and the National ...

  19. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  20. Computational Identification of Novel MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongzhong; Yang, Xiaoyun

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, noncoding, short RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. High conservation of miRNAs in plant provides the foundation for identification of new miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment. Here, previous known plant miRNAs were BLASTed against the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) and Genomic Survey Sequence (GSS) databases of Vigna unguiculata, and according to a series of filtering criteria, a total of 47 miRNAs belonging to 13 miRNA families were identified, and 30 potential target genes of them were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode transcription factors or enzymes participating in regulation of development, growth, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Overall, our findings lay the foundation for further researches of miRNAs function in Vigna unguiculata.

  1. A new monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponin from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Noorwala, M; Mohammad, F V; Ahmad, V U

    1995-07-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D- galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-soyaspogeno l B [1] was isolated along with cycloartenol, stigmasterol, 3-O-acetyloleanolic acid, and sitosterol 3-beta-D-glucoside from a methanolic extract of the seeds of Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical means.

  2. Inheritance of resistance to yellow mosaic virus in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).

    PubMed

    Singh, D P

    1980-09-01

    The inheritance of resistance to mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) was studied in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper). The highly resistant donors Pant U-84 and UPU-2 and a highly susceptible line, UL-2, their F1's, F2's and backcrosses were grown with spreader located every 5 to 6 rows. The resistance was found to be digenic and recessive in all the crosses and free from cytoplasmic effect.

  3. Immunological detection of bean common mosaic virus in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Gupta, U P

    2010-09-01

    Bean common mosaic potyvirus (BCMV) is an important seed borne pathogen of French bean. Differential inoculation with bean common mosaic virus at cotylodonary trifoliate leaf stage and pre-flowering stage of crop growth revealed that cotyledonary leaf infection favored maximum disease expression. Under immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) the virus particles of filamentous structure having a diameter of 750 nm (l) and 15 nm (w) w