Science.gov

Sample records for municipal water reclamation

  1. Aspects of municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse for future water resource shortages in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiou, R J; Chang, T C; Ouyang, C F

    2007-01-01

    The Water Resources Agency (WRA), Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has predicted that the annual water demand in Taiwan will reach approximately 20 billion m3 by 2021. However, the present water supply is only 18 billion m3 per year. This means that an additional 2 billion m3 have to be developed in the next 17 years. The reuse of treated wastewater effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants could be one target for the development of new water resources. The responsible government departments already have plans to construct public sewerage systems in order to improve the quality of life of the populace and protect the environment. The treated wastewater effluent from such municipal wastewater treatment plants could be a very stable and readily available secondary type of water resource, different from the traditional types of water resources. The major areas where reclaimed municipal wastewater can be used to replace traditional fresh water resources include agricultural and landscape irrigation, street cleaning, toilet flushing, secondary industrial reuse and environmental uses. However, necessary wastewater reclamation and reuse systems have not yet been established. The requirements for their establishment include water reuse guidelines and criteria, the elimination of health risks ensuring safe use, the determination of the wastewater treatment level appropriate for the reuse category, as well as the development and application of management systems reuse. An integrated system for water reuse would be of great benefit to us all by providing more efficient ways to utilise the water resources.

  2. A review of membrane fouling in municipal secondary effluent reclamation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xu; Hongqiang, Ren; Lili, Ding; Jinju, Geng; Tingting, Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Reclamation of municipal secondary effluent for non-potable purposes is considered vital in alleviating the demand for existing limited water supplies while helping to protect remaining water sources from being polluted. In recent decades, reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane technologies have become increasingly attractive for reclamation of municipal secondary effluent because they are highly efficient, easy to operate, and economical. However, membrane fouling is a major obstacle in the development of membrane technology in municipal secondary effluent reclamation. This paper reviews three types of membrane fouling in municipal secondary effluent reclamation, namely, effluent organic matter (EfOM) membrane fouling, microbial membrane fouling, and inorganic membrane fouling, as well as their correlation. Membrane fouling by EfOM and microbes are found to be severe, and they are significantly correlated. Most previous studies conducted laboratory-scale experiments of membrane fouling with model organic matters and bacteria, but these model organic matters and bacteria might still be unrepresentative. More studies on membrane fouling in municipal secondary effluent reclamation with actual wastewater are essential.

  3. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Water reclamation and refuse

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.W.

    1980-06-01

    This article is a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. The various aspects of water resources planning, agriculture, irrigation and groundwater recharge are reviewed. One section of the review deals with the treatment of food processing wastes to produce methane, single cell protein and alcohol.

  5. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunkai; Zeng, Ping; Yang, Sen; Shao, Yanxi; Liu, Yang

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to water reclamation and reuse is presented. The review is divided into the following sections: (1) General: extent of reuse, research needs, guidelines and monitoring, health effects; (2) Treatment technologies: integrated process design, membrane treatment, membrane bioreactors, electrocoagulation, ion exchange and adsorption, disinfection, wetlands, managed aquifer recharge; (3) Planning and management: public acceptance and education, economics/pricing, water quality planning and management and project/case studies. Much of the water treatment research focuses on membrane treatment, integrated designs, and other innovative technologies. PMID:27620090

  6. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunkai; Zeng, Ping; Yang, Sen; Shao, Yanxi; Liu, Yang

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to water reclamation and reuse is presented. The review is divided into the following sections: (1) General: extent of reuse, research needs, guidelines and monitoring, health effects; (2) Treatment technologies: integrated process design, membrane treatment, membrane bioreactors, electrocoagulation, ion exchange and adsorption, disinfection, wetlands, managed aquifer recharge; (3) Planning and management: public acceptance and education, economics/pricing, water quality planning and management and project/case studies. Much of the water treatment research focuses on membrane treatment, integrated designs, and other innovative technologies.

  7. Domestic wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

  8. Fouling and cleaning of microfiltration membrane in municipal wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Xing, C H; Wen, X H; Qian, Y; Sun, D; Klose, P S; Zhang, X Q

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on fouling and cleaning of a tubular microfiltration membrane for municipal wastewater reclamation. A bi-level complex model, namely channel clogging and pore plugging, was introduced to elucidate the fouling mechanism. Based on 135 days of microfiltration of activated sludge, a preventive method for channel clogging was reasonably proposed and proven to be effective. Without channel clogging, the operation period was observed a five-fold increase on average, reaching 3-4 weeks. To remove pore plugging, a multi-step chemical cleaning was employed and further optimized in terms of temperature and alkaline concentration. Generally, the chemical cleaning could restore the membrane permeability to higher than 90%. PMID:12578204

  9. Development assessment of wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical study assessment of state-of-the-art wash water reclamation technology is presented. It covers all non-phase-change unit operations, unit processes and subsystems currently under development by NASA. Each approach to wash water reclamation is described in detail. Performance data are given together with the projected weights and sizes of key components and subsystems. It is concluded that a simple multifiltration subsystem composed of surface-type cartridge filters, carbon adsorption and ion exchange resins is the most attractive approach for spacecraft wash water reclamation in earth orbital missions of up to 10 years in duration.

  10. Sustainability of water reclamation: long-term recharge with reclaimed wastewater does not enhance antibiotic resistance in sediment bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation is an increasingly attractive option for extending water supplies. However, public health concerns include the potential for development of antibiotic resistance (AR) in soil bacteria after exposure to residual pharmaceuticals in reclaimed water. Thoug...

  11. 43 CFR 423.38 - Operating vessels on Reclamation waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating vessels on Reclamation waters... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PUBLIC CONDUCT ON BUREAU OF RECLAMATION FACILITIES, LANDS, AND WATERBODIES Rules of Conduct § 423.38 Operating vessels on Reclamation waters. (a) You must comply...

  12. Reclamation of acidic copper mine tailings using municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, M.T.; Thompson, T.L.; Bengson, S.A.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of copper mine tailings in a cost effective, successful, and sustainable manner is an ongoing area of evaluation in the arid southwest. A study was initiated in September, 1996 near Hayden, Arizona to evaluate the use of municipal biosolids for reclaiming acidic copper mine tailings (pH of 2.5 to 4.0). The main objectives of the study were to (1) define an appropriate level of biosolids application for optimum plant growth, and (2) evaluate the effects of green waste and lime amendments. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four biosolid rates of 20, 70, 100 and 135 dry tons/acre, three amendment treatments (none, green waste, and green waste plus lime); with three replications. Non-replicated controls (no treatment, green waste only and lime only) were included for comparison. Shortly after biosolids incorporation to a depth of 10--12 inches, composite soil samples (0--12 inches) of each plot were taken. Biosolids incorporation increased the pH of the tailings (>5.75) and additional increases in pH were noted with lime application. In January 1997, the plots were seeded and sprinkler irrigation was commenced. A total of 4.47 inches of rainfall and 3.8 inches of irrigation were applied until harvest in May 1997. Data from the first growing season indicates optimum growth (>66 lbs/acre) at biosolids rates of 70--100 dry tons/acre. There was a significant positive effect on growth of green waste and lime amendments. Surface NO{sub 3}-N concentrations in biosolids amended plots were greatly reduced (from 23 to 6 mg/kg) by addition of green waste. There was no evidence for NO{sub 3}N leaching below 12 inches.

  13. Water resources. Bureau of Reclamation's Bonneville Unit: future repayment arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    GAO is convinced that: the Bureau of Reclamation's use of the Water Supply Act of 1958 to defer a portion of municipal and industrial (M and I) costs of the Bonneville Unit was illegal, the Bureau's use of ad valorem (percentage of value) tax revenues from property owners to increase the Bonneville Unit's M and I customers repayment obligation under the 1965 contract was improper, and the Department of Energy Organization Act 1977 requires congressional approval of the modified cost allocation of the Bonneville Unit initiated by the Bureau in 1984.

  14. Computer simulation of water reclamation processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Hightower, T. M.; Flynn, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    The development of detailed simulation models of water reclamation processors based on the ASPEN PLUS simulation program is discussed. Individual models have been developed for vapor compression distillation, vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal, and supercritical water oxidation. These models are used for predicting the process behavior. Particular attention is given to methodology which is used to complete this work, and the insights which are gained by this type of model development.

  15. Biodeterioration of materials in water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Tim; Maki, James S.; Mitchell, Ralph

    1992-01-01

    The chemicals produced by the microbial processes involved in the 'biofilms' which form on the surfaces of manned spacecraft water reclamation systems encompass both metals and organic poisons; both are potential hazards to astronaut health and the growth of the plants envisioned for closed-cycle life support systems. Image analysis is here shown to be a very useful technique for the study of biofilm formation on candidate water-processor materials for Space Station Freedom. The biodeterioration of materials exposed to biofilms can be swiftly evaluated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  16. Enhanced Oxidation Catalysts for Water Reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1999-01-01

    This effort seeks to develop and test high-performance, long operating life, physically stable catalysts for use in spacecraft water reclamation systems. The primary goals are to a) reduce the quantity of expendable water filters used to purify water aboard spacecraft, b) to extend the life of the oxidation catalysts used for eliminating organic contaminants in the water reclamation systems, and c) reduce the weight/volume of the catalytic oxidation systems (e.g. VRA) used. This effort is targeted toward later space station utilization and will consist of developing flight-qualifiable catalysts and long-term ground tests of the catalyst prior to their utilization in flight. Fixed -bed catalytic reactors containing 5% platinum on granular activated carbon have been subjected to long-term dynamic column tests to measure catalyst stability vs throughput. The data generated so far indicate that an order of magnitude improvement can be obtained with the treated catalysts vs the control catalyst, at only a minor loss (approx 10%) in the initial catalytic activity.

  17. Selective removal of organics for water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Kaba, Lamine; Verostko, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrooxidation is a means of removing organic solutes directly from waste waters without the use of chemical expendables. The feasibility of the concept for oxidation of organic impurities common to urine, shower waters and space habitat humidity condensates was demonstrated. Electrooxidation of urine and waste water ersatz was experimentally demonstrated. The electrooxidation principle, reaction kinetics, efficiency, power, size, experimental test results and water reclamation applications are described. Process operating potentials and the use of anodic oxidation potentials that are sufficiently low to avoid oxygen formation and chloride oxidation are also described. The design of a novel electrochemical system that incorporates a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyte is presented based on parametric test data and current fuel cell technology.

  18. The utilisation of municipal waste compost for the reclamation of anthropogenic soils: implications on C dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said-Pullicino, D.; Bol, R.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    The application of municipal waste compost (MWC) and other organic materials may serve to enhance soil fertility and increase C stocks of earthen materials and mine spoils used in land reclamation activities, particularly in the recovery of degraded areas left by exhausted quarries, mines, abandoned industrial zones, degraded natural areas and exhausted landfill sites. Such land management options may serve as a precondition for landscaping and reclamation of degraded areas, reforestation or agriculture. In fact, previous results have shown that compost application to the capping layer of a landfill covering soil significantly enhanced the fertility, evidenced by an improvement in soil structure, porosity and water holding capacity, an increase in the relative proportion of recalcitrant C pools and an increase in soil nutrient content, microbial activity and soil microbial biomass. Proper management of MWC requires a capacity to understand and predict their impacts on C dynamics in the field subsequent to application. Although numerous works deal with the effects of compost application in agricultural systems, little is known on how land rehabilitation practices effect C dynamics in such relatively young soil systems. The estimation of SOC pools and their potential turnover rates in land reclamation activities is fundamental to our understanding of terrestrial C dynamics. In the framework of a long-term field experiment, the objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal and spatial dynamics of compost-derived organic matter with respect to the major processes involved in organic matter cycling in an anthropogenic landfill covering soil originally amended with a single dose of MWC. We investigated long-term organic C dynamics in such systems by collecting samples at different depths over a 10 year chronosequence subsequent to compost application to the top layer of the landfill covering soil. Variations in the stable isotope composition (delta 13C) of the soil

  19. Pilot study of a submerged membrane bioreactor for water reclamation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian-Jun; Oo, Maung Htun; Tao, Guihe; Kekre, Kiran A; Hashimoto, Tomotaka

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the operational conditions of newly developed MBR modules for water reclamation under tropical conditions. MUDC-620A MBR modules with hollow fibre PVDF membranes from Asahi-Kasei Chemicals were used in the study. The pilot plant with capacity of 50 m(3)/d was operated continuously (24-hour) over four months on site of Ulu Pandan Water Reclamation Plant (UPWRP) in Singapore. During the study, the MLSS in membrane tank was in the range of 6,840 approximately 9,540 mg/L. Filtration operation mode of the membrane unit was 9 minutes on production and 1 minute backwash. The air scouring for the membranes was 0.18-0.30 Nm(3)/h per m(2) membrane area all of the time. Trials on different membrane fluxes were conducted to obtain the sustainable flux. The analytical results showed that COD, TOC, T-N and NH4-N of the treated water were <30 mg/L, 5-7 mg/L, <13 mg/L and <0.1 mg/L, respectively, which met the requirement of Industrial Water for reuse. TMP was in the range of 12-40 kPa and could be recovered after cleaning with 2,000 mg/L sodium hypochlorite solution. Sludge clogging could be a challenge for long-term operation with the current module design. It was concluded that it was feasible for MUDC-620A MBR to operate at a net flux of 25-29 LMH (or 0.6-0.7 m/d) for treating the municipal wastewater at UPWRP.

  20. Reclamation of acid waters using sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Davison, W; Reynolds, C S; Tipping, E; Needham, R F

    1989-01-01

    An exhausted sand quarry which had filled with acid water (pH 3) from the oxidation of pyrite was treated with calcium hydroxide to neutralize the water (pH 8), and sewage sludge to prevent further ingress of acid. The water remained neutral for 2 years, an appreciable quantity of base being generated by the reduction of sulphate to sulphide in the anoxic sediment formed by the sewage sludge. After this time the water reverted to acid conditions, chiefly because the lake was too shallow to retain the sewage sludge over a sufficiently large area of its bed. Incubation experiments showed that the sewage sludge had a large capacity for sulphate reduction, which was equally efficient in acid or neutral waters and that the areal rate of consumption was sufficiently fast to neutralize all incoming acid, if at least 50% of the lake bed was covered with sludge. Throughout the course of the field investigations there was no foul smell and the lake was quickly colonized by phytoplankton, macrophytes and insects. Although nutrients associated with the sewage sludge stimulated photosynthesis and so caused the generation of additional organic matter, they were exhausted within two years. To ensure permanent reclamation, phosphate fertilizer could be added once the initial supply has been consumed. Neutralization removed trace metals from the system, presumably due to formation of insoluble oxyhydroxide and carbonates. The solubility of aluminium was apparently controlled by a basic aluminium sulphate (jurbanite).

  1. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  2. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? 404.3 Section 404.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply...

  3. Reclamation, managing water in the West: An exploration of Bureau of Reclamation approaches for managing conflict over diverging science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkardt, Nina; Ruell, Emily; Clark, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of (1) an electronic survey of Reclamation senior managers and (2) a panel discussion amongst Reclamation senior managers as to the current institutional capabilities for managing diverging scientific findings in water dispute resolution processes. We conclude with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the different tools and techniques managers reported in the survey and in the panel discussion.

  4. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... financial resources assist rural communities to identify their water supply problems and needs, and evaluate... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is...

  5. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... financial resources assist rural communities to identify their water supply problems and needs, and evaluate... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is...

  6. Fouling characteristics of reverse osmosis membranes at different positions of a full-scale plant for municipal wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang; Hu, Hong-Ying; Sun, Li-Juan; Sun, Ying-Xue; Shi, Na; Crittenden, John C

    2016-03-01

    Membrane fouling is an important shortcoming limiting the efficiency and wide application of reverse osmosis (RO) technology. In this paper, RO membranes in a full-scale municipal wastewater reclamation plant were autopsied. From the lead to tail position RO membranes in RO system, both of organic and inorganic matters on membranes reduced gradually. The higher ion products in RO concentrate didn't result in more serious inorganic scaling on the last position RO membranes, which was contrast with some other researches. Fe, Ca and Mg were major inorganic elements. Fe had a relatively low concentration in RO influent but the highest content on membranes. However, there was no specific pretreatment in terms of Fe removal. Ca and Mg scaling was controlled by the antiscalants injected. Organic fouling (75.0-84.5% of dry weights) was major problem on RO membranes due to the large amount of dissolved organic matters in secondary effluent as raw water. Hydrophilic acid (HIA, 48.0% of total DOC), hydrophobic acid (HOA, 23.6%) and hydrophobic neutral (HON, 19.0%) fraction was largest among the six fractions in RO influent, while HON (38.2-51.1%) and HOA (22.1-26.1%) tended to accumulate on membranes in higher quantities. Monitoring HON and HOA might help to forecast organic fouling.

  7. Treatment of RO brine-towards sustainable water reclamation practice.

    PubMed

    Ng, H Y; Lee, L Y; Ong, S L; Tao, G; Viawanath, B; Kekre, K; Lay, W; Seah, H

    2008-01-01

    Treatment and disposal of RO brine is an important part in sustaining the water reclamation practice. RO brine generated from water reclamation contains high concentration of organic and inorganic compounds. Cost-effective technologies for treatment of RO brine are still relatively unexplored. Thus, this study aim to determine a feasible treatment process for removal of both organic and inorganic compounds in RO brine generated from NEWater production. The proposed treatment consists of biological activated carbon (BAC) column followed by capacitive deionization (CDI) process for organic and inorganic removals, respectively. Preliminary bench-scale study demonstrated about 20% TOC removal efficiency was achieved using BAC at 40 mins empty bed contact time (EBCT) while the CDI process was able to remove more than 90% conductivity reducing it from 2.19 mS/cm to only about 164 microS/cm. More than 90% cations and anions in the BAC effluent were removed using CDI process. In addition, TOC and TN removals of 78% and 91%, respectively were also attained through this process. About 90% water recovery was achieved. This process shows the potential of increased water recovery in the reclamation process while volume for disposal can be further minimized. Further studies on the sustainable operation and process optimization are ongoing. PMID:18776632

  8. Wastewater reclamation and recharge: A water management strategy for Albuquerque

    SciTech Connect

    Gorder, P.J.; Brunswick, R.J.; Bockemeier, S.W.

    1995-12-31

    Approximately 61,000 acre-feet of the pumped water is annually discharged to the Rio Grande as treated wastewater. Albuquerque`s Southside Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) is the primary wastewater treatment facility for most of the Albuquerque area. Its current design capacity is 76 million gallons per day (mgd), which is expected to be adequate until about 2004. A master plan currently is being prepared (discussed here in Wastewater Master Planning and the Zero Discharge Concept section) to provide guidelines for future expansions of the plant and wastewater infrastructure. Construction documents presently are being prepared to add ammonia and nitrogen removal capability to the plant, as required by its new discharge permit. The paper discusses water management strategies, indirect potable reuse for Albuquerque, water quality considerations for indirect potable reuse, treatment for potable reuse, geohydrological aspects of a recharge program, layout and estimated costs for a conceptual reclamation and recharge system, and work to be accomplished under phase 2 of the reclamation and recharge program.

  9. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  10. Ames' mutagenic activity in recycled water from an Israeli water reclamation project

    SciTech Connect

    Neeman, I.; Kroll, R.; Mahler, A.; Rubin, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Effluent samples taken from a water reclamation project in Israel were analyzed for mutagenicity and toxicity using the Ames assay test. Test results indicate the presence of low levels of mutagens in recycled water taken from the reclamation plant; samples taken from different sites in the plant yielded different levels of mutagenicity. Improved wastewater treatment technology is needed to make water reuse safe. (2 graphs, 15 references, 1 table)

  11. Biogasification products of water hyacinth wastewater reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Biljetina, R.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the results of research in progress to evaluate the use of water hyacinth for wastewater treatment and subsequent conversion of hyacinth and sludge to methane by anaerobic digestion. Laboratory studies have been directed toward evaluating advanced biogasification concepts and establishing a data base for the design and operation of an experimental test unit (ETU) located at the water hyacinth wastewater treatment facility at Walt Disney World (WDW) located in Kissimmee, Florida. Laboratory-scale kinetic experiments have been conducted using continuously-stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and a novel non-mixed upflow solids reactor (USR) receiving a hyacinth/sludge blend at retention times of 15 down to 2.1 days. The data suggest that best performance is achieved in the USR which has longer solids and organism retention. A larger-scale ETU (160 cu ft) was designed and installed at WDW in 1983 and started up in 1984. The purpose of this unit is to validate laboratory experiments and to evaluate larger-scale equipment used for chopping, slurry preparation, mixing, and effluent dewatering. The ETU includes a front end designed for multiple feed processing and storage, a fully instrumented USR digester, and tanks for effluent and gas storage. The ETU is currently being operated on a 2:1 blend (dry wt basis) of water hyacinth and primary sludge. Performance is good without major operational problems. Results of laboratory studies and start-up and operation of the ETU will be presented. 7 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  12. Water reclamation technology development for future long range missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Amo, Karl; Hightower, T. M.; Fisher, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers the development of computer simulation models of the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) process, the Super Critical Water Oxidation (SCWO) process, and two versions of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) process. These process level models have combined into two Integrated Water Reclamation Systems (IWRS). Results from these integrated models, in conjunction with other data sources, have been used to develop a preliminary comparison of the two systems. Also discussed in this paper is the development of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction teststand and the development of a new urine analog for use with the teststand and computer models.

  13. Selective removal of organics for water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan

    1989-01-01

    Electrolysis has been investigated as a means of purifying waste water. The feasibility of the direct electrochemical oxidation of urea has been demonstrated. Urea levels were reduced from 1200 ppm to 1 ppm forming the basis for a new approach to urine purification where the only consumable is electrical energy. Preliminary estimates of the energy requirements are 270 W/hr per liter of urine. Urea oxidation rates of around 350 mg urea/hr/m2 were observed. It is anticipated that a 1 m2 geometric area of electrode could treat urine for a crew of several persons. The low levels of organic contaminants resulting from this treatment indicate that the approach may have an impact as a post treatment process. Experiments are planned to investigate this later possibility.

  14. Corrosion consequences of microfouling in water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Tim; Mitchell, Ralph

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the potential fouling and corrosion problems associated with microbial film formation throughout the water reclamation system (WRS) designed for the Space Station Freedom. It is shown that the use of advanced metal sputtering techiques combined with image analysis and FTIR spectroscopy will present realistic solutions for investigating the formation and function of biofilm on different alloys, the subsequent corrosion, and the efficiency of different treatments. These techniques, used in combination with electrochemical measurements of corrosion, will provide a powerful approach to examinations of materials considered for use in the WRS.

  15. Tertiary treatment using microfiltration and UV disinfection for water reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Jolis, D.; Hirano, R.; Pitt, P.

    1999-03-01

    Microfiltration and UV disinfection are two alternative technologies for water reclamation. The results of a pilot study combining these two processes are presented. In addition to producing filtrate turbidites averaging 0.06 nephelometric turbidity units, microfiltration was an effective barrier to pathogens, demonstrating average log reductions of 4.5 for total coliforms and 2.9 for MS2 bacteriophage. Ultraviolet disinfection following microfiltration reliably met the California Wastewater Reclamation Criteria (Title 22) total coliform standard of 2.2 colony-forming units/100 mL at a UV dose of 450 J/m{sup 2}. The MS2 bacteriophage standard, which requires a 5-log reduction, was achieved by microfiltration and a UV dose of 880 J/m{sup 2}. A model of the kinetics of inactivation of MS2 bacteriophage was used in further analysis of disinfection data. The model indicated that considerable backmixing occurred in the pilot UV disinfection unit, and observed UV doses could be reduced with improved hydraulics.

  16. Feasibility of the membrane bioreactor process for water reclamation.

    PubMed

    Adham, S; Gagliardo, P; Boulos, L; Oppenheimer, J; Trussell, R

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process for water reclamation was studied. Process evaluation was based on the following: literature review of MBRs, worldwide survey of MBRs, and preliminary costs estimates. The literature review and the survey have shown that the MBR process offers several benefits over the conventional activated sludge process, including: smaller space and reactor requirements, better effluent water quality, disinfection, increased volumetric loading, and less sludge production. The MBR process can exist in two different configurations, one with the low-pressure membrane modules replacing the clarifier downstream the bioreactor (in series), and the second with the membranes submerged within the bioreactor. Four major companies are currently marketing MBRs while many other companies are also in the process of developing new MBRs. The MBR process operates in a considerably different range of parameters than the conventional activated sludge process. The preliminary cost evaluation has shown that the MBR process is cost competitive with other conventional wastewater treatment processes.

  17. 43 CFR 404.12 - Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? 404.12 Section 404.12 Public... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.12 Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? Reclamation may provide assistance with...

  18. Economic feasibility analysis of water-harvesting techniques for mined-land reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Marti, M.H.

    1981-07-01

    A water harvesting, agricultural production system, field tested as a means of reclaiming strip-mined land is described. Though the technical feasibility of the system is becoming increasingly apparent, economic feasibility and legal issues may determine its potential application. The purpose of this study is to explore the economic feasibility of the system and to provide information for use in assessing whether further investigation of water harvesting reclamation techniques is warranted. The economic feasibility of the PNL reclamation system hinges on whether its net benefits exceed those of conventional reclamation. This preliminary feasibility study assesses the net private benefits of each system using data for the Peabody Coal Company's Kayenta mine on the Black Mesa in Arizona. To compare the alternative reclamation systems, the present value of direct net benefits (income minus production and reclamation costs) is calculated for grazing (conventional reclamation) or for cropping (PNL reclamation). Three of the PNL system slope treatments have lower estimated total costs than conventional reclamation. The difference is $3895/acre for compacted slope, $3025/acre for salt-compacted slope and $2310/acre for crop-on-slope. These differences constitute a substantial cost advantage for the system on the basis of the present value of land reclamation and maintenance costs. The system also has advantages based on the estimated value of agricultural production capacity. Even the lowest yield levels considered for alfalfa, corn, and pinto beans had higher net present values than grazing.

  19. Wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an analytical study and assessment of state-of-the-art wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft is presented. All non-phase-change unit operations, unit processes, and subsystems currently under development by NASA are considered. Included among these are: filtration, ultrafiltration, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, chemical pretreatment, reverse osmosis, hyperfiltration, and certain urea removal techniques. Performance data are given together with the projected weights and sizes of key components and subsystems. In the final assessment, a simple multifiltration approach consisting of surface-type cartridge filters, carbon adsorption and ion exchange resins receives the highest rating for six-man orbital missions of up to 10 years in duration.

  20. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... supply needs in rural areas of the Reclamation States. Reclamation's experience, technical expertise, and financial resources assist rural communities to identify their water supply problems and needs, and evaluate..., and industrial use in rural areas and small communities, including Indian tribes; (b) Plan the...

  1. DELUGE AND WATER RECLAMATION BASIN BELOW TEST STAND 1A. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DELUGE AND WATER RECLAMATION BASIN BELOW TEST STAND 1-A. Looking north northwest - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 43 CFR 404.12 - Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? 404.12 Section 404.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview...

  3. Development of an integrated membrane process for water reclamation.

    PubMed

    Lew, C H; Hu, J Y; Song, L F; Lee, L Y; Ong, S L; Ng, W J; Seah, H

    2005-01-01

    An integrated membrane process (IMP) comprising a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a reverse osmosis (RO) process was developed for water reclamation. Wastewater was treated by an MBR operated at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 20 days and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5.5 h. The IMP had an overall recovery efficiency of 80%. A unique feature of the IMP was the recycling of a fraction of RO concentrate back to the MBR. Experimental results revealed that a portion of the slow- and hard-to-degrade organic constituents in the recycle stream could be degraded by an acclimated biomass leading to an improved MBR treatment efficiency. Although recycling concentrated constituents could impose an inhibitory effect on the biomass and suppress their respiratory activities, results obtained suggested that operating MBR (in the novel IMP) at an F/M ratio below 0.03 g TOC/g VSS.day could yield an effluent quality comparable to that achievable without concentrate recycling. It is noted in this study that the novel IMP could achieve an average overall TOC removal efficiency of 88.940% and it consistently produced product water usable for high value reuse applications.

  4. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Municipal and private water...

  5. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Municipal and private water...

  6. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Municipal and private water...

  7. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Municipal and private water...

  8. Fate of antibiotics during municipal water recycling treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Le-Minh, N; Khan, S J; Drewes, J E; Stuetz, R M

    2010-08-01

    Municipal water recycling processes are potential human and environmental exposure routes for low concentrations of persistent antibiotics. While the implications of such exposure scenarios are unknown, concerns have been raised regarding the possibility that continuous discharge of antibiotics to the environment may facilitate the development or proliferation of resistant strains of bacteria. As potable and non-potable water recycling schemes are continuously developed, it is imperative to improve our understanding of the fate of antibiotics during conventional and advanced wastewater treatment processes leading to high-quality water reclamation. This review collates existing knowledge with the aim of providing new insight to the influence of a wide range of treatment processes to the ultimate fate of antibiotics during conventional and advanced wastewater treatment. Although conventional biological wastewater treatment processes are effective for the removal of some antibiotics, many have been reported to occur at 10-1000 ng L(-1) concentrations in secondary treated effluents. These include beta-lactams, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. Tertiary and advanced treatment processes may be required to fully manage environmental and human exposure to these contaminants in water recycling schemes. The effectiveness of a range of processes including tertiary media filtration, ozonation, chlorination, UV irradiation, activated carbon adsorption, and NF/RO filtration has been reviewed and, where possible, semi-quantitative estimations of antibiotics removals have been provided.

  9. Endemic giardiasis and municipal water supply.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, G G; Cooke, K R

    1991-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that endemic giardiasis may be transmitted by unfiltered municipal water supplies, the incidence of laboratory-confirmed giardiasis was studied in a natural experiment due to the arrangement of the public water supply of Dunedin, New Zealand. The incidence rate ratio was 3.3 (90% CI = 1.1, 10.1) for the population receiving unfiltered (microstrained) water relative to that using sand filtered water. In a parallel case-control study of incident cases, the odds ratio for giardiasis and unfiltered (microstrained) water supply was 1.8 (90% CI = 0.5, 6.9). PMID:2029049

  10. Water reclamation during drinking water treatments using polyamide nanofiltration membranes on a pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Kukučka, Miroslav; Kukučka, Nikoleta; Habuda-Stanić, Mirna

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performances of polyamide nanofiltration membranes during water reclamation. The study was conducted using nanofiltration concentrates obtained from two different nanofiltration drinking water treatment plants placed in the northern part of Serbia (Kikinda and Zrenjanin). Used nanofiltration concentrates contained high concentrations of arsenic (45 and 451 μg/L) and natural organic matter (43.1 and 224.40 mgKMnO4/L). Performances of polyamide nanofiltration membranes during water reclamation were investigated under various fluxes and transmembrane pressures in order to obtain drinking water from nanofiltration concentrates and, therefore, reduce the amount of produced concentrates and minimize the waste that has to be discharged in the environment. Applied polyamide nanofiltration membranes showed better removal efficiency during water reclamation when the concentrate with higher content of arsenic and natural organic matter was used while the obtained permeates were in accordance with European regulations. This study showed that total concentrate yield can be reduced to ~5 % of the optimum flux value, in both experiments. The obtained result for concentrate yield under the optimum flux presents considerable amount of reclaimed drinking water and valuable reduced quantity of produced wastewater.

  11. Municipal wastewater reclamation for non-potable reuse--environmental assessments based on pilot-plant studies and system modelling.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Dahlgren, Lena; Almemark, Mats; Lazic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation is an upcoming approach that will significantly affect wastewater treatment systems. Despite the fact that technology for treating wastewater to an effluent water quality that meets various quality standards for reuse is already available and applied, the reuse of water is not just a simple and straightforward road. Significant additional energy and civil infrastructure is required to treat the water to a standard that allows it to be safely reused. The total impact of treating and reusing water may be higher than the environmental benefits. Thus, it is crucial the life-cycle impacts from upstream and downstream processes of various reuse technologies, i.e. production of chemicals, energy use, eutrophication, sludge handling, etc. The present paper provides a comprehensive evaluation considering different reuse purposes, treatment technologies and plant size. The results of this study suggest that all these factors are highly significant for the environmental impact of wastewater treatment systems for non-potable applications.

  12. Municipal wastewater reclamation for non-potable reuse--environmental assessments based on pilot-plant studies and system modelling.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Dahlgren, Lena; Almemark, Mats; Lazic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation is an upcoming approach that will significantly affect wastewater treatment systems. Despite the fact that technology for treating wastewater to an effluent water quality that meets various quality standards for reuse is already available and applied, the reuse of water is not just a simple and straightforward road. Significant additional energy and civil infrastructure is required to treat the water to a standard that allows it to be safely reused. The total impact of treating and reusing water may be higher than the environmental benefits. Thus, it is crucial the life-cycle impacts from upstream and downstream processes of various reuse technologies, i.e. production of chemicals, energy use, eutrophication, sludge handling, etc. The present paper provides a comprehensive evaluation considering different reuse purposes, treatment technologies and plant size. The results of this study suggest that all these factors are highly significant for the environmental impact of wastewater treatment systems for non-potable applications. PMID:26524456

  13. Removal of N-nitrosamines in a membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration hybrid system for municipal wastewater reclamation: Process efficiency and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chon, Kangmin; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jaeweon

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the removal efficiency and mechanisms of water contaminants (mainly N-nitrosamines) during municipal wastewater reclamation by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system. The removal of bulk water contaminants was governed by the microbial activities in the MBR and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of the NF membranes. The removal of N-nitrosamines by the MBR was primarily attributed to biodegradation by aerobic bacteria, which can be determined by the reactivity of the amine functional groups with the catabolic enzymes (removal efficiency=45-84%). Adsorption and formation of membrane fouling can enhance the removal of N-nitrosamines by the NF membranes. However, size-exclusion is found to play a major role in the removal of N-nitrosamines by the NF membranes since the removal efficiencies of N-nitrosamines varied significantly depending on molecular weight of the N-nitrosamines and MWCO of the NF membranes (removal efficiency: NE90>NE70).

  14. Impact of salinity and pH on the UVC/H2O2 treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate produced from municipal wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2012-06-15

    While reverse osmosis (RO) technology is playing an increasingly important role in the reclamation of municipal wastewater, safe disposal of the resulting RO concentrate (ROC), which can have high levels of effluent organic pollutants, remains a challenge to the water industry. The potential of UVC/H(2)O(2) treatment for degrading the organic pollutants and increasing their biodegradability has been demonstrated in several studies, and in this work the impact of the water quality variables pH, salinity and initial organic concentration on the UVC/H(2)O(2) (3 mM) treatment of a municipal ROC was investigated. The reduction in chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon was markedly faster and greater under acidic conditions, and the treatment performance was apparently not affected by salinity as increasing the ROC salinity 4-fold had only minimal impact on organics reduction. The biodegradability of the ROC (as indicated by biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) level) was at least doubled after 2 h UVC/H(2)O(2) treatment under various reaction conditions. However, the production of biodegradable intermediates was limited after 30 min treatment, which was associated with the depletion of the conjugated compounds. Overall, more than 80% of the DOC was removed after 2 h UVC/3 mM H(2)O(2) treatment followed by biological treatment (BDOC test) for the ROC at pH 4-8.5 and electrical conductivity up to 11.16 mS/cm. However, shorter UV irradiation time gave markedly higher energy efficiency (e.g., EE/O 50 kWh/m(3) at 30 min (63% DOC removal) cf. 112 kWh/m(3) at 2 h). No toxicity was detected for the treated ROC using Microtox(®) tests. Although the trihalomethane formation potential increased after the UVC/H(2)O(2) treatment, it was reduced to below that of the raw ROC after the biological treatment.

  15. Study on the cumulative impact of reclamation activities on ecosystem health in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chengcheng; Shi, Honghua; Zheng, Wei; Li, Fen; Peng, Shitao; Ding, Dewen

    2016-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop feasible tools to investigate the cumulative impact of reclamations on coastal ecosystem health, so that the strategies of ecosystem-based management can be applied in the coastal zone. An indicator system and model were proposed to assess the cumulative impact synthetically. Two coastal water bodies, namely Laizhou Bay (LZB) and Tianjin coastal waters (TCW), in the Bohai Sea of China were studied and compared, each in a different phase of reclamations. Case studies showed that the indicator scores of coastal ecosystem health in LZB and TCW were 0.75 and 0.68 out of 1.0, respectively. It can be concluded that coastal reclamations have a historically cumulative effect on benthic environment, whose degree is larger than that on aquatic environment. The ecosystem-based management of coastal reclamations should emphasize the spatially and industrially intensive layout.

  16. Sensor placement for municipal water networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Jean-Paul; Berry, Jonathan W.; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Boman, Erik Gunnar; Hart, David Blaine; Carr, Robert D.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Hart, William Eugene; Murray, Regan Elizabeth; Riesen, Lee Ann

    2010-12-01

    We consider the problem of placing a limited number of sensors in a municipal water distribution network to minimize the impact over a given suite of contamination incidents. In its simplest form, the sensor placement problem is a p-median problem that has structure extremely amenable to exact and heuristic solution methods. We describe the solution of real-world instances using integer programming or local search or a Lagrangian method. The Lagrangian method is necessary for solution of large problems on small PCs. We summarize a number of other heuristic methods for effectively addressing issues such as sensor failures, tuning sensors based on local water quality variability, and problem size/approximation quality tradeoffs. These algorithms are incorporated into the TEVA-SPOT toolkit, a software suite that the US Environmental Protection Agency has used and is using to design contamination warning systems for US municipal water systems.

  17. Tapping Water from the Atmosphere: The Bureau of Reclamation's Project Skywater (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, K.

    2010-12-01

    Since President Theodore Roosevelt signed the Reclamation Act on 17 June 1902—creating the forerunner of today’s Bureau of Reclamation that was established under Interior in 1907—this agency has been tasked with developing water resources in the US West. These efforts focused on building dams, reservoirs, and irrigation systems. But by the early 1960s, the federal government’s increasing interest in weather control began to attract the attention of BuRec’s leaders. Deciding that it was time to track down solid information on rainmaking techniques, the bureau called upon weather control pioneer Vincent Schaefer for assistance with its plan use weather modification as an adjunct to its water resources development portfolio. In response, Schaefer—writing to the National Science Foundation’s Earl Droessler in late 1961—declared that the Bureau’s proposed project would bring a “responsible, capable, and enthusiastic” group to represent the government and take over the engineering parts of weather modification. Enthusiastic was a bit of an understatement. BuRec was eager to use the atmosphere as a water reservoir, which could dispense moisture to watersheds feeding their earth-bound reservoirs. Contracting with universities—and working to get ahead of its nemesis, the skeptical US Weather Bureau—BuRec announced the artificial precipitation successes of its “Laboratory in the Sky” in early 1963. Although this headquarters-announced “success” was disputed by BuRec’s Denver field office, BuRec’s colorful commissioner Floyd Dominy was determined to press forward. Within months, the bureau was publishing reports indicating that the US West was a “potential future food deficit area” due to an increasing population that was outstripping the availability of ground and surface waters for agriculture. New approaches would be necessary to bring water to BuRec reservoirs for further distribution to municipalities, irrigators, and industries

  18. Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

  19. Changes in the components and biotoxicity of dissolved organic matter in a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Hu, Hong-Ying; Shi, Chun-Zhen; Yang, Zhe; Tang, Fang

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the biotoxicity of these components were investigated in a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) system with a microfiltration (MF) pretreatment unit. The MF pretreatment step had little effect on the levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the secondary effluent, but the addition of chlorine before MF promoted the formation of organics with anti-estrogenic activity. The distribution of excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence constituents exhibited obvious discrepancies between the secondary effluent and the reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. Using size exclusion chromatography, DOM with low molecular weights of approximately 1.2 and 0.98 kDa was newly formed during the mWRRO. The normalized genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate were 32.1 ± 10.2 μg4-NQO/mgDOC and 0.36 ± 0.08 mgTAM/mgDOC, respectively, and these values were clearly higher than those of the secondary effluent and MF permeate. The florescence volume of Regions I and II in the EEM spectrum could be suggested as a surrogate for assessing the genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate. PMID:26803912

  20. Changes in the components and biotoxicity of dissolved organic matter in a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Hu, Hong-Ying; Shi, Chun-Zhen; Yang, Zhe; Tang, Fang

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the biotoxicity of these components were investigated in a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) system with a microfiltration (MF) pretreatment unit. The MF pretreatment step had little effect on the levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the secondary effluent, but the addition of chlorine before MF promoted the formation of organics with anti-estrogenic activity. The distribution of excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence constituents exhibited obvious discrepancies between the secondary effluent and the reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. Using size exclusion chromatography, DOM with low molecular weights of approximately 1.2 and 0.98 kDa was newly formed during the mWRRO. The normalized genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate were 32.1 ± 10.2 μg4-NQO/mgDOC and 0.36 ± 0.08 mgTAM/mgDOC, respectively, and these values were clearly higher than those of the secondary effluent and MF permeate. The florescence volume of Regions I and II in the EEM spectrum could be suggested as a surrogate for assessing the genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate.

  1. Conductive diamond sono-electrochemical disinfection (CDSED) for municipal wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Llanos, Javier; Cotillas, Salvador; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the disinfection of actual effluents from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by a conductive diamond sono-electrochemical process was assessed. First, efficiency of single electrodisinfection process with diamond anodes (without the contribution of ultrasounds) was studied, finding that the total disinfection can be attained at current charges applied below 0.02kAhm(-3). It was also found that the main disinfection mechanism is the attack of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by the disinfectants produced in the electrochemical cell and that the production of chlorates is avoided when working at current densities not higher than 1.27Am(-2). Next, a marked synergistic effect was found when coupling ultrasound (US) irradiation to the electrochemical system (sono-electrochemical disinfection). This increase in the disinfection rate was found to be related to the suppression of the agglomeration of E. coli cells and the enhancement in the production of disinfectant species.

  2. Evolving urban water and residuals management paradigms: water reclamation and reuse, decentralization, and resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T

    2009-08-01

    Population growth and improving standards of living, coupled with dramatically increased urbanization, are placing increased pressures on available water resources, necessitating new approaches to urban water management. The tradition linear "take, make, waste" approach to managing water increasingly is proving to be unsustainable, as it is leading to water stress (insufficient water supplies), unsustainable resource (energy and chemicals) consumption, the dispersion of nutrients into the aquatic environment (especially phosphorus), and financially unstable utilities. Different approaches are needed to achieve economic, environmental, and social sustainability. Fortunately, a toolkit consisting of stormwater management/rainwater harvesting, water conservation, water reclamation and reuse, energy management, nutrient recovery, and source separation is available to allow more closed-loop urban water and resource management systems to be developed and implemented. Water conservation and water reclamation and reuse (multiple uses) are becoming commonplace in numerous water-short locations. Decentralization, enabled by new, high-performance treatment technologies and distributed stormwater management/rainwater harvesting, is furthering this transition. Likewise, traditional approaches to residuals management are evolving, as higher levels of energy recovery are desired, and nutrient recovery and reuse is to be enhanced. A variety of factors affect selection of the optimum approach for a particular urban area, including local hydrology, available water supplies, water demands, local energy and nutrient-management situations, existing infrastructure, and utility governance structure. A proper approach to economic analysis is critical to determine the most sustainable solutions. Stove piping (i.e., separate management of drinking, storm, and waste water) within the urban water and resource management profession must be eliminated. Adoption of these new approaches to urban

  3. 43 CFR 404.49 - What criteria will Reclamation use to determine whether to recommend that a proposed rural water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., including the extent to which the alternative: (1) Addresses near and long-term water demand; (2) Advances... determine whether to recommend that a proposed rural water supply project be authorized for construction... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies §...

  4. 43 CFR 404.49 - What criteria will Reclamation use to determine whether to recommend that a proposed rural water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... opportunities for water conservation through structural or non-structural approaches and demonstration... determine whether to recommend that a proposed rural water supply project be authorized for construction... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies §...

  5. NASA Land Information System (LIS) Water Availability to Support Reclamation ET Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David; Arsenault, Kristi; Pinheiro, Ana; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Houser, Paul; Kumar, Sujay; Engman, Ted; Nigro, Joe; Triggs, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation identified the remote sensing of evapotranspiration (ET) as an important water flux for study and designated a test site in the Lower Colorado River basin. A consortium of groups will work together with the goal to develop more accurate and cost effective techniques using the enhanced spatial and temporal coverage afforded by remote sensing. ET is a critical water loss flux where improved estimation should lead to better management of Reclamation responsibilities. There are several areas where NASA satellite and modeling data may be useful to meet Reclamation's objectives for improved ET estimation. In this paper we outline one possible contribution to use NASA's data integration capability of the Land Information System (LIS) to provide a merger of observational (in situ and satellite) with physical process models to provide estimates of ET and other water availability outputs (e.g., runoff, soil moisture) retrospectively, in near real-time, and also providing short-term predictions.

  6. Characterization and biotoxicity assessment of dissolved organic matter in RO concentrate from a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Gao, Yue; Hu, Hong-Ying; Tang, Fang; Yang, Zhe

    2014-12-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) system containing organic compounds may associate with toxic risk, and its discharge might pose an environmental risk. To identify a basis for the selection of feasible technology in treating RO concentrates, the characteristics and biotoxicity of different fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in RO concentrates from an mWRRO system were investigated. The results indicated that the hydrophilic neutrals (HIN), hydrophobic acids (HOA) and hydrophobic bases (HOB) accounted for 96% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the total DOM in the RO concentrate. According to the SEC chromatograph detected at 254 nm wavelength of UV, the DOM with molecular weight (MW) 1-3 kDa accounted for the majority of the basic and neutral fractions. The fluorescence spectra of the excitation emission matrix (EEM) indicated that most aromatic proteins, humic/fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like substances existed in the fractions HOA and hydrophobic neutrals (HON). The genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate were 1795.6 ± 57.2 μg 4-NQOL(-1) and 2.19 ± 0.05 mg TAM L(-1), respectively. The HIN, HOA, and HOB contributed to the genotoxicity of the RO concentrate, and the HIN was with the highest genotoxic level of 1007.9 ± 94.8 μg 4-NQOL(-1). The HOA, HON, and HIN lead to the total anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate, and HOA occupied approximately 60% of the total, which was 1.3 ± 0.17 mg TAM L(-1).

  7. Evaluation of the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrates from municipal wastewater reclamation by coagulation and granular activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Tao; Shi, Na; Tian, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) contains elevated concentrations of contaminants which pose potential risks to aquatic environment. The treatment of ROC from an mWRRO using granular activated carbon (GAC) combined pretreatment of coagulation was optimized and evaluated. Among the three coagulants tested, ferric chloride (FeCl3) presented relatively higher DOC removal efficiency than polyaluminium chloride and lime at the same dosage and coagulation conditions. The removal efficiency of DOC, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity concentration of the ROC could achieve 16.9, 18.9, and 39.7 %, respectively, by FeCl3 coagulation (with FeCl3 dosage of 180.22 mg/L), which can hardly reduce UV254 and genotoxicity normalized by DOC of the DOM with MW <5 kDa. However, the post-GAC adsorption column (with filtration velocity of 5.7 m/h, breakthrough point adsorption capacity of 0.22 mg DOC/g GAC) exhibited excellent removal efficiency on the dominant DOM fraction of MW <5 kDa in the ROC. The removal efficiency of DOC, UV254, and TDS in the ROC was up to 91.8, 96, and 76.5 %, respectively, by the FeCl3 coagulation and post-GAC adsorption. Also, the DOM with both genotoxicity and antiestrogenic activity were completely eliminated by the GAC adsorption. The results suggest that GAC adsorption combined pretreatment of FeCl3 coagulation as an efficient method to control organics, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity in the ROC from mWRRO system. PMID:27032632

  8. Evaluation of the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrates from municipal wastewater reclamation by coagulation and granular activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Tao; Shi, Na; Tian, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) contains elevated concentrations of contaminants which pose potential risks to aquatic environment. The treatment of ROC from an mWRRO using granular activated carbon (GAC) combined pretreatment of coagulation was optimized and evaluated. Among the three coagulants tested, ferric chloride (FeCl3) presented relatively higher DOC removal efficiency than polyaluminium chloride and lime at the same dosage and coagulation conditions. The removal efficiency of DOC, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity concentration of the ROC could achieve 16.9, 18.9, and 39.7 %, respectively, by FeCl3 coagulation (with FeCl3 dosage of 180.22 mg/L), which can hardly reduce UV254 and genotoxicity normalized by DOC of the DOM with MW <5 kDa. However, the post-GAC adsorption column (with filtration velocity of 5.7 m/h, breakthrough point adsorption capacity of 0.22 mg DOC/g GAC) exhibited excellent removal efficiency on the dominant DOM fraction of MW <5 kDa in the ROC. The removal efficiency of DOC, UV254, and TDS in the ROC was up to 91.8, 96, and 76.5 %, respectively, by the FeCl3 coagulation and post-GAC adsorption. Also, the DOM with both genotoxicity and antiestrogenic activity were completely eliminated by the GAC adsorption. The results suggest that GAC adsorption combined pretreatment of FeCl3 coagulation as an efficient method to control organics, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity in the ROC from mWRRO system.

  9. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a)...

  10. Control and measurement of organic micropollutants in South African water reclamation plants

    SciTech Connect

    Van Rensburg, J.E.J.; Hassett, A.J.; Theron, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Control and measurement of organic micropollutants in South African water reclamation plants were studied with 4 l and 250 ml samples, which were adjusted to pH <2, extracted with dichloromethane/ether and with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide, and (after phenols removal with sodium hydroxide) analyzed for various pollutants (including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and various halohydrocarbons) by gas chromatography on wall-coated, open tubular columns with electron capture and flame ionization detection. The phenolics were derivatized and extracted with n-hexane before analysis. With the various configurations of the reclamation systems studied, there were insignificant variations in the over-all micropollutant concentrations. Sparingly soluble neutral compounds were removed by lime flocculation. GAC columns were an essential part of the reclamation process, especially for the removal of trihalomethanes and phenols. The purification of wastewater and sewage for human consumption is thus a viable proposition to supplement existing water sources.

  11. The Bureau of Reclamation's New Mandate for Irrigation Water Conservation: Purposes and Policy Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Michael R.

    1991-02-01

    Although the Bureau of Reclamation adopted a new mission as a water management agency, social purposes of the mission and methods of accomplishing the purposes remain undefined. A broad consensus agrees that a central feature of the agency's management program should be irrigation water conservation. This paper describes three purposes of irrigation water conservation: achieving economic efficiency of water allocation, improving environmental quality of western river systems, and satisfying outstanding Native American water claims. Five policy instruments are described as alternative methods of inducing conservation: quantity-based regulation, price-based regulation, transferable water use permits, conservation subsidies, and decentralization of ownership of Reclamation facilities. Two findings are: (1) price-based regulation may not produce water conservation and (2) conservation policy instruments should be chosen with reference to their ability to achieve the purposes of federal water conservation policy. An example illustrates quantitative effects on farm income of the alternative instruments.

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment and water reclamation plants in southern California.

    PubMed

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Pataki, Diane E; Tseng, Linda Y; Tsai, Cheng-Yao; Rosso, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N₂O) is a long-lived and potent greenhouse gas produced during microbial nitrification and denitrification. In developed countries, centralized water reclamation plants often use these processes for N removal before effluent is used for irrigation or discharged to surface water, thus making this treatment a potentially large source of N₂O in urban areas. In the arid but densely populated southwestern United States, water reclamation for irrigation is an important alternative to long-distance water importation. We measured N₂O concentrations and fluxes from several wastewater treatment processes in urban southern California. We found that N removal during water reclamation may lead to in situ N₂O emission rates that are three or more times greater than traditional treatment processes (C oxidation only). In the water reclamation plants tested, N₂O production was a greater percentage of total N removed (1.2%) than traditional treatment processes (C oxidation only) (0.4%). We also measured stable isotope ratios (δN and δO) of emitted N₂O and found distinct δN signatures of N₂O from denitrification (0.0 ± 4.0 ‰) and nitrification reactors (-24.5 ± 2.2 ‰), respectively. These isotope data confirm that both nitrification and denitrification contribute to N₂O emissions within the same treatment plant. Our estimates indicate that N₂O emissions from biological N removal for water reclamation may be several orders of magnitude greater than N₂O emissions from agricultural activities in highly urbanized southern California. Our results suggest that wastewater treatment that includes biological nitrogen removal can significantly increase urban N₂O emissions.

  13. Bacterial regrowth in water reclamation and distribution systems revealed by viable bacterial detection assays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-wen; Li, Dan; Gu, April Z; Zeng, Si-yu; He, Miao

    2016-02-01

    Microbial regrowth needs to be managed during water reclamation and distribution. The aim of present study was to investigate the removal and regrowth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella in water reclamation and distribution system by using membrane integrity assay (PMA-qPCR), reverse transcriptional activity assay (Q-RT-PCR) and culture-based assay, and also to evaluate the relationships among bacterial regrowth, and environmental factors in the distribution system. The results showed that most of the water reclamation processes potentially induced bacteria into VBNC state. The culturable E. coli and Salmonella regrew 1.8 and 0.7 log10 in distribution system, which included reactivation of bacteria in the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state and reproduction of culturable bacteria. The regrowth of culturable E. coli and Salmonella in the distribution system mainly depended on the residual chlorine levels, with correlations (R(2)) of -0.598 and -0.660. The abundances of membrane integrity and reverse transcriptional activity bacteria in reclamation effluents had significant correlations with the culturable bacteria at the end point of the distribution system, demonstrating that PMA-qPCR and Q-RT-PCR are sensitive and accurate tools to determine and predict bacterial regrowth in water distribution systems. This study has improved our understanding of microbial removal and regrowth in reclaimed water treatment and distribution systems. And the results also recommended that more processes should be equipped to remove viable bacteria in water reclamation plants for the sake of inhibition microbial regrowth during water distribution and usages.

  14. Altering textile manufacture to minimize treatment needed for waste-water reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Beja Neves, M.E.C.

    1989-01-01

    The research involved the uses of water and chemicals in the textile industry. A linear programming model was developed, capable of minimizing the cost of treatment needed for wastewater reclamation. This was accomplished through the selection of the optimum set of chemicals in respect to their removal from a wastewater by biodegradation, and by so doing, preventing the accumulation of inorganic dissolved solids in the reused wastewater, even with prolonged reuse. Different values were tested for the wastewater reclamation rate, and for the percentage of biodegradable materials used by the industry. The industrial processes themselves were considered as blocks, with different manufacturing objectives and using different kinds and quantities of chemicals. The cost of wastewater treatment was influenced by the nature of the chemicals and by the wastewater reclamation rate.

  15. Bacterial antibiotic resistance in soils irrigated with reclaimed municipal wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation and groundwater recharge is an increasingly attractive option for extending water supplies. However, public health concerns include the potential for development of antibiotic resistance (AR) in soil bacteria after exposure to residual chemicals in rec...

  16. Carbon footprint estimation of municipal water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhshi, Ali A.

    2009-11-01

    This research investigates the embodied energy associated with water use. A geographic information system (GIS) was tested using data from Loudoun County, Virginia. The objective of this study is to estimate the embodied energy and carbon emission levels associated with water service at a geographical location and to improve for sustainability planning. Factors that affect the carbon footprint were investigated and the use of a GIS based model as a sustainability planning framework was evaluated. The carbon footprint metric is a useful tool for prediction and measurement of a system's sustainable performance over its expected life cycle. Two metrics were calculated: tons of carbon dioxide per year to represent the contribution to global warming and watt-hrs per gallon to show the embodied energy associated with water consumption. The water delivery to the building, removal of wastewater from the building and associated treatment of water and wastewater create a sizable carbon footprint; often the energy attributed to this water service is the greatest end use of electrical energy. The embodied energy in water depends on topographical characteristics of the area's local water supply, the efficiency of the treatment systems, and the efficiency of the pumping stations. The questions answered by this research are: What is the impact of demand side sustainable water practices on the embodied energy as represented by a comprehensive carbon footprint? What are the major energy consuming elements attributed to the system? What is a viable and visually identifiable tool to estimate the carbon footprint attributed to those Greenhouse Gas (GHG) producing elements? What is the embodied energy and emission associated with water use delivered to a building? Benefits to be derived from a standardized GIS applied carbon footprint estimation approach include: (1) Improved environmental and economic information for the developers, water and wastewater processing and municipal

  17. 30 CFR 942.20 - Approval of Tennessee reclamation plan for lands and waters affected by past coal mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lands and waters affected by past coal mining. 942.20 Section 942.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING... affected by past coal mining. The Tennessee Reclamation Plan, as submitted on March 24, 1982, is...

  18. 30 CFR 942.20 - Approval of Tennessee reclamation plan for lands and waters affected by past coal mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lands and waters affected by past coal mining. 942.20 Section 942.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING... affected by past coal mining. The Tennessee Reclamation Plan, as submitted on March 24, 1982, is...

  19. 43 CFR 404.49 - What criteria will Reclamation use to determine whether to recommend that a proposed rural water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What criteria will Reclamation use to determine whether to recommend that a proposed rural water supply project be authorized for construction? 404.49 Section 404.49 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  20. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  1. Status of the Space Station water reclamation and management subsystem design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, R. M.; Mortazavi, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    A development status report is presented for the NASA Space Station's water reclamation and management (WRM) system, for which the candidate phase change-employing processing technologies are an air evaporation subsystem, a thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation subsystem, and the vapor compression distillation subsystem. These WRM candidates employ evaporation to effect water removal from contaminants, but differ in their control of the vapor/liquid interface in zero-gravity and in the recovery of the latent heat of vaporization.

  2. Molecular characterization of low molecular weight dissolved organic matter in water reclamation processes using Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Phungsai, Phanwatt; Kurisu, Futoshi; Kasuga, Ikuro; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    Reclaimed water has recently become an important water source for urban use, but the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in reclaimed water has rarely been characterized at the compound level because of its complexity. In this study, the transformation and changes in composition of low molecular weight DOM in water reclamation processes, where secondary effluent of the municipal wastewater treatment plant was further treated by biofiltration, ozonation and chlorination, were investigated by "unknown" screening analysis using Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap MS). The intense ions were detected over an m/z range from 100 to 450. In total, 2412 formulae with various heteroatoms were assigned, and formulae with carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) only and C, H, O and sulfur (S) were the most abundant species. During biofiltration, CHO-only compounds with relatively high hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio or with saturated structure were preferentially removed, while CHOS compounds were mostly removed. Ozonation induced the greatest changes in DOM composition. CHOS compounds were mostly decreased after ozonation while ozone selectively removed CHO compounds with relatively unsaturated structure and produced compounds that were more saturated and with a higher degree of oxidation. After chlorination, 168 chlorine-containing formulae, chlorinated disinfection by-products (DBPs), were additionally detected. Candidate DBP precursors were determined by tracking chlorinated DBPs formed via electrophilic substitution, half of which were generated during the ozonation. PMID:27235773

  3. Molecular characterization of low molecular weight dissolved organic matter in water reclamation processes using Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Phungsai, Phanwatt; Kurisu, Futoshi; Kasuga, Ikuro; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    Reclaimed water has recently become an important water source for urban use, but the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in reclaimed water has rarely been characterized at the compound level because of its complexity. In this study, the transformation and changes in composition of low molecular weight DOM in water reclamation processes, where secondary effluent of the municipal wastewater treatment plant was further treated by biofiltration, ozonation and chlorination, were investigated by "unknown" screening analysis using Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap MS). The intense ions were detected over an m/z range from 100 to 450. In total, 2412 formulae with various heteroatoms were assigned, and formulae with carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) only and C, H, O and sulfur (S) were the most abundant species. During biofiltration, CHO-only compounds with relatively high hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio or with saturated structure were preferentially removed, while CHOS compounds were mostly removed. Ozonation induced the greatest changes in DOM composition. CHOS compounds were mostly decreased after ozonation while ozone selectively removed CHO compounds with relatively unsaturated structure and produced compounds that were more saturated and with a higher degree of oxidation. After chlorination, 168 chlorine-containing formulae, chlorinated disinfection by-products (DBPs), were additionally detected. Candidate DBP precursors were determined by tracking chlorinated DBPs formed via electrophilic substitution, half of which were generated during the ozonation.

  4. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Kendrick Reclamation Project Area, Wyoming, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Jones, W.E.; Morton, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of the Kendrick Reclamation Project in central Wyoming was conducted during 1986-87 to determine if irrigation drainage has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife, or other water uses. The investigation of the Kendrick Reclamation Project is one of nine similar investigations being conducted in the western conterminous United States as part of the Department of the Interior 's Irrigation Drainage Program. Samples of surface water were collected at 10 sites and ground water at 5 sites. Surface-water analyses included trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides. Concentrations in the water generally were less than national standards for public water supplies, with the exception of selenium. The median concentration of dissolved selenium was 7.5 microgm/L in 24 samples of surface and groundwater. Of the 11 samples that contained dissolved- selenium concentrations greater than the national standard for public water supplies of 10 microgm/L, 10 of the samples were collected at sites on streams that are not used for public water supplies; the eleventh sample was collected from a shallow well. Dissolved-selenium concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 300 microgm/L. Concentrations of dissolved selenium in the North Platte River, which supplies drinking water for several municipalities, ranged from less than 1 to 4 microgm/L. The dissolved-selenium concentration and selenium discharge in the North Platte River increased in the downstream direction. The four principal tributaries that receive drainage from the Kendrick Reclamation Project contributed substantially to the increase in selenium concentration and discharge in the North Platte River. Bottom-sediment samples from the North Platte River contained selenium contents of 1.2 microgm/g or less. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Municipal, industrial, and irrigation water use in Washington, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dion, N.P.; Lum, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of water use in 1975 in the 39 counties and 62 Water Resources Inventory Areas of Washington, indicated that 2.49 trillion gallons of water was used for municipal, industrial, and irrigation purposes. That amount represents a 10-percent increase over a similar water-use assessment in 1965, but a slight decrease from that of 1970. Total municipal water use, which includes municipally supplied industrial water, was 283 billion gallons. Industry used 442 billion gallons, of which 121 billion gallons was from municipal systems and 321 billion gallons was for self-suppled systems. Of the 604 billion gallons of water used for municipal and industrial supplies 145 billion gallons was ground water, 444 billion gallons was fresh surface water, and 14.8 billion gallons was saline surface water. A compilation of statewide industrial use as categorized by SIC (Lumber and Wood Products), SIC 28 (Chemicals and Allied Products), and SIC 20 (Food and Kindred Products)--accounted for about 65 percent of the total water used in industrial processes , In 1975, 5.79 million acre-feet of irrigation water (1,890 billion gallons) as applied to 1.52 million acres. This water was 95 percent surface water and 5 percent ground water. About 97 percent of the irrigation water was supplied in eastern Washington, to about 94 percent of the irrigated acreage in the State. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  7. Effects of nitrate input from a water reclamation facility on the Occoquan Reservoir water quality.

    PubMed

    Cubas, Francisco J; Novak, John T; Godrej, Adil N; Grizzard, Thomas J

    2014-02-01

    To manage water quality in the Occoquan Reservoir, Virginia, a water reclamation facility discharges nitrified product water that reduces the release of undesirable substances (e.g., phosphorus, iron, and ammonia) from sediments during periods of hypolimnetic anoxia. Results showed that when the oxidized nitrogen (OxN) concentration input to the reservoir was lower than 5 mg N/L during periods of anoxia following thermal stratification, nitrate was depleted in the upper reaches of the reservoir resulting in the release of ammonia and orthophosphate from the sediments downstream. When the OxN input to the reservoir was operationally increased to a concentration greater than 10 mg-N/L, orthophosphate release was suppressed. Introducing OxN to the system decreased sediment ammonia release but did not eliminate it. By discharging reclaimed water that contained nitrate levels greater than 10 mg N/L, reservoir water quality was protected and the discharged nitrate was converted to nitrogen gas as it moved downstream. PMID:24645542

  8. Application of biocatalysts to Space Station ECLSS and PMMS water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.; Bagdigian, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Immobilized enzyme reactors have been developed and tested for potential water reclamation applications in the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Process Materials Management System (PMMS). The reactors convert low molecular weight organic contaminants found in ECLSS and PMMS wastewaters to compounds that are more efficiently removed by existing technologies. Demonstration of the technology was successfully achieved with two model reactors. A packed bed reactor containing immobilized urease was found to catalyze the complete decomposition of urea to by-products that were subsequently removed using conventional ion exchange results. A second reactor containing immobilized alcohol oxidase showed promising results relative to its ability to convert methanol and ethanol to the corresponding aldehydes for subsequent removal. Preliminary assessments of the application of biocatalysts to ECLSS and PMMS water reclamation sytems are presented.

  9. The ISS Water Processor Catalytic Reactor as a Post Processor for Advanced Water Reclamation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalette, Tim; Snowdon, Doug; Pickering, Karen D.; Callahan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Advanced water processors being developed for NASA s Exploration Initiative rely on phase change technologies and/or biological processes as the primary means of water reclamation. As a result of the phase change, volatile compounds will also be transported into the distillate product stream. The catalytic reactor assembly used in the International Space Station (ISS) water processor assembly, referred to as Volatile Removal Assembly (VRA), has demonstrated high efficiency oxidation of many of these volatile contaminants, such as low molecular weight alcohols and acetic acid, and is considered a viable post treatment system for all advanced water processors. To support this investigation, two ersatz solutions were defined to be used for further evaluation of the VRA. The first solution was developed as part of an internal research and development project at Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and is based primarily on ISS experience related to the development of the VRA. The second ersatz solution was defined by NASA in support of a study contract to Hamilton Sundstrand to evaluate the VRA as a potential post processor for the Cascade Distillation system being developed by Honeywell. This second ersatz solution contains several low molecular weight alcohols, organic acids, and several inorganic species. A range of residence times, oxygen concentrations and operating temperatures have been studied with both ersatz solutions to provide addition performance capability of the VRA catalyst.

  10. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume I. Mine water and mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  11. Assessment of landfill reclamation and the effects of age on the combustion of recovered municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, G A

    1995-01-01

    This report summarized the Lancaster county Solid Waste Management Authorities`s (LCSWMA)landfill reclamation activities, ongoing since 1991. All aspects have been analyzed from the manpower and equipment requirements at the landfill to the operational impacts felt at the LCSWMA Resource Recovery Facility (RRF) where the material is delivered for processing. Characteristics of the reclaimed refuse and soil recovered from trommeling operations are discussed as are results of air monitoring performed at the landfill excavation site and the RRF. The report also discusses the energy value of the reclaimed material and compares this value with those obtained for significantly older reclaimed waste streams. The effects of waste age on the air emissions and ash residue quality at the RRF are also provided. The report concludes by summarizing the project benefits and provides recommendations for other landfill reclamation operations and areas requiring further research.

  12. Public water supplies of selected municipalities in Florida, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    Water use by 169 municipalities and 5 county water systems in Florida as of December 1975 is summarized. Included in the listing, by city or system, are water use data, sewage data, and chemical analyses of raw and treated water. In addition, miscellaneous public supply data for three small communities and municipalities (population generally less than 5,000) and historical public supply pumpage for selected municipalities for 1945, 1947, 1956, 1965 and 1970-74 are tabulated. Also included is a list of reports published in 1970-75 relating to hydrology, geology, and water resources of the areas where the cities are located. The demand for freshwater for municipal use in Florida increased sharply during 1970-75. Statewide ground-water use for municipal supply increased from 759 mgd in 1970 to 976 mgd in 1975 and surface-water use has increased from 125 mgd in 1970 to 166 mgd in 1975. The 28 percent increase in ground-water use and the 33 percent increase in surface-water use reflects the continuing rapid population growth and the accompanying expanding economic activity in the State. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Potential of BAC combined with UVC/H2O2 for reducing organic matter from highly saline reverse osmosis concentrate produced from municipal wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity A

    2013-10-01

    The organic matter present in the concentrate streams generated from reverse osmosis (RO) based municipal wastewater reclamation processes poses environmental and health risks on its disposal to the receiving environment (e.g., estuaries, bays). The potential of a biological activated carbon (BAC) process combined with pre-oxidation using a UVC/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for treating a high salinity (TDS~10000 mg L(-1)) municipal wastewater RO concentrate (ROC) was evaluated at lab scale during 90 d of operation. The combined treatment reduced the UVA254 and colour of the ROC to below those for the influent of the RO process (i.e., biologically treated secondary effluent), and the reductions in DOC and COD were approximately 60% and 50%, respectively. UVC/H2O2 was demonstrated to be an effective means of converting the recalcitrant organic compounds in the ROC into biodegradable substances which were readily removed by the BAC process, leading to a synergistic effect of the combined treatment in degrading the organic matter. The tests using various BAC feed concentrations suggested that the biological treatment was robust and consistent for treating the high salinity ROC. Using Microtox analysis no toxicity was detected for the ROC after the combined treatment, and the trihalomethane formation potential was reduced from 3.5 to 2.8 mg L(-1). PMID:23820538

  14. Potential of BAC combined with UVC/H2O2 for reducing organic matter from highly saline reverse osmosis concentrate produced from municipal wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity A

    2013-10-01

    The organic matter present in the concentrate streams generated from reverse osmosis (RO) based municipal wastewater reclamation processes poses environmental and health risks on its disposal to the receiving environment (e.g., estuaries, bays). The potential of a biological activated carbon (BAC) process combined with pre-oxidation using a UVC/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for treating a high salinity (TDS~10000 mg L(-1)) municipal wastewater RO concentrate (ROC) was evaluated at lab scale during 90 d of operation. The combined treatment reduced the UVA254 and colour of the ROC to below those for the influent of the RO process (i.e., biologically treated secondary effluent), and the reductions in DOC and COD were approximately 60% and 50%, respectively. UVC/H2O2 was demonstrated to be an effective means of converting the recalcitrant organic compounds in the ROC into biodegradable substances which were readily removed by the BAC process, leading to a synergistic effect of the combined treatment in degrading the organic matter. The tests using various BAC feed concentrations suggested that the biological treatment was robust and consistent for treating the high salinity ROC. Using Microtox analysis no toxicity was detected for the ROC after the combined treatment, and the trihalomethane formation potential was reduced from 3.5 to 2.8 mg L(-1).

  15. Nanofiltration based water reclamation from tannery effluent following coagulation pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, J; Mondal, D; Chakraborty, S; Sikder, J; Curcio, S; Arafat, H A

    2015-11-01

    Coagulation-nanofiltration based integrated treatment scheme was employed in the present study to maximize the removal of toxic Cr(VI) species from tannery effluents. The coagulation pretreatment step using aluminium sulphate hexadecahydrate (alum) was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). A nanofiltration unit was integrated with this coagulation pre-treatment unit and the resulting flux decline and permeate quality were investigated. Herein, the coagulation was conducted under response surface-optimized operating conditions. The hybrid process demonstrated high chromium(VI) removal efficiency over 98%. Besides, fouling of two of the tested nanofiltration membranes (NF1 and NF3) was relatively mitigated after feed pretreatment. Nanofiltration permeation fluxes as high as 80-100L/m(2)h were thereby obtained. The resulting permeate stream quality post nanofiltration (NF3) was found to be suitable for effective reuse in tanneries, keeping the Cr(VI) concentration (0.13mg/L), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) (65mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) (142mg/L), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (108mg/L), Total Solids (TS) (86mg/L) and conductivity levels (14mho/cm) in perspective. The process water reclaiming ability of nanofiltration was thereby substantiated and the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid system was thus affirmed.

  16. Development and Application of Climate Services for Water Resources Planning and Management within the Department of Interior Bureau of Reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raff, D. A.; Morgan, A.; Brekke, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is the nation's largest wholesale water supplier and the second largest producer of hydropower. Reclamation operates 337 reservoirs with a total storage capacity of 245 million acre-feet and operates 53 hydroelectric powerplants that annually produce, on average for the past 10 years, 40 billion kilowatt-hours. Reclamation is adapting to the impacts and future challenges posed by the changing climate through the development of new climate services as well as through cooperation with Federal, state, local, tribal, academic, and non-governmental partners in the use of climate and water resource information that may be available. Reclamation is utilizing this information within a strategy that has four goals: 1) Increase Water Management Flexibility, 2) Enhance Climate Adaptation Planning, 3) Improve Infrastructure Resiliency, and 4) Expand Information Sharing. Within this presentation we will focus on the utilization of climate services within each of these key goals of Reclamation's strategy. This includes the utilization of climate information to track and potentially improve reservoir management to increase water management flexibility, the development of climate informed hydrology that supports climate adaptation planning, use of climate information to inform decisions of infrastructure resilience, and climate services use for jointly informed water management decisions through education and web based services.

  17. State of the art of osmotic membrane bioreactors for water reclamation.

    PubMed

    Yap, Wei Jie; Zhang, Jinsong; Lay, Winson C L; Cao, Bin; Fane, Anthony G; Liu, Yu

    2012-10-01

    In the last few years, extensive research has been dedicated to development of a novel osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR), which combines high-retention osmotic separation and biological reactions in a single vessel. Although promising results have been reported in the literature, some challenges associated with applications of OMBR remain unresolved at the present stage of development, including lack of a high performance forward osmosis (FO) membrane, identification of an ideal draw solute and effect of salt accumulation on biological activity. Therefore, this paper attempts to provide a comprehensive review of state of the art of OMBR for water and wastewater reclamation.

  18. [Effectiveness of urine-preserving agents used in water reclamation systems].

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, T E; Nazarov, N M; Chizhov, S V

    1989-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 11 chemicals of different classes was investigated having in view their potential use as urine conserving agents onboard space flying vehicles. The investigations were performed on 8 bacterial cultures, including spore-forming, urease-active bacteria and microorganisms that typically occur in the spacecraft environment. Out of the chemical tested, five haloid-containing agents, primarily oxidative agents, showed the largest spectrum of antimicrobial action and highest bactericidal effect. These agents are recommended to be used as urine conserving agents in water reclamation systems during space flights.

  19. Impact of direct greenhouse gas emissions on the carbon footprint of water reclamation processes employing nitrification-denitrification.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Andrew G; Townsend-Small, Amy; Rosso, Diego

    2015-02-01

    Water reclamation has the potential to reduce water supply demands from aquifers and more energy-intensive water production methods (e.g., seawater desalination). However, water reclamation via biological nitrification-denitrification is also associated with the direct emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO₂, N₂O, and CH₄. We quantified these direct emissions from the nitrification-denitrification reactors of a water reclamation plant in Southern California, and measured the (14)C content of the CO₂ to distinguish between short- and long-lived carbon. The total emissions were 1.5 (±0.2) g-fossil CO₂ m(-3) of wastewater treated, 0.5 (±0.1) g-CO₂-eq of CH₄ m(-3), and 1.8 (±0.5) g-CO₂-eq of N₂O m(-3), for a total of 3.9 (±0.5) g-CO₂-eqm(-3). This demonstrated that water reclamation can be a source of GHGs from long lived carbon, and thus a candidate for GHG reduction credit. From the (14)C measurements, we found that between 11.4% and 15.1% of the CO₂ directly emitted was derived from fossil sources, which challenges past assumptions that the direct CO₂ emissions from water reclamation contain only modern carbon. A comparison of our direct emission measurements with estimates of indirect emissions from several water production methods, however, showed that the direct emissions from water reclamation constitute only a small fraction of the plant's total GHG footprint.

  20. Impact of direct greenhouse gas emissions on the carbon footprint of water reclamation processes employing nitrification-denitrification.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Andrew G; Townsend-Small, Amy; Rosso, Diego

    2015-02-01

    Water reclamation has the potential to reduce water supply demands from aquifers and more energy-intensive water production methods (e.g., seawater desalination). However, water reclamation via biological nitrification-denitrification is also associated with the direct emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO₂, N₂O, and CH₄. We quantified these direct emissions from the nitrification-denitrification reactors of a water reclamation plant in Southern California, and measured the (14)C content of the CO₂ to distinguish between short- and long-lived carbon. The total emissions were 1.5 (±0.2) g-fossil CO₂ m(-3) of wastewater treated, 0.5 (±0.1) g-CO₂-eq of CH₄ m(-3), and 1.8 (±0.5) g-CO₂-eq of N₂O m(-3), for a total of 3.9 (±0.5) g-CO₂-eqm(-3). This demonstrated that water reclamation can be a source of GHGs from long lived carbon, and thus a candidate for GHG reduction credit. From the (14)C measurements, we found that between 11.4% and 15.1% of the CO₂ directly emitted was derived from fossil sources, which challenges past assumptions that the direct CO₂ emissions from water reclamation contain only modern carbon. A comparison of our direct emission measurements with estimates of indirect emissions from several water production methods, however, showed that the direct emissions from water reclamation constitute only a small fraction of the plant's total GHG footprint. PMID:25461114

  1. Non-composted municipal solid waste byproduct influences soil and plant nutrients five years after soil reclamation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns for the mounting supply of municipal solid waste being generated combined with decreasing landfill space have compelled military installations to evaluate alternative methods for disposal. One approach to reduce landfilling is the use of a new garbage-processing technology that sterilizes a...

  2. Post-reclamation water quality trend in a Mid-Appalachian watershed of abandoned mine lands.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinchao; Wei, Honghong; Viadero, Roger C

    2011-02-01

    Abandoned mine land (AML) is one of the legacies of historic mining activities, causing a wide range of environmental problems worldwide. A stream monitoring study was conducted for a period of 7 years to evaluate the water quality trend in a Mid-Appalachian watershed, which was heavily impacted by past coal mining and subsequently reclaimed by reforestation and revegetation. GIS tools and multivariate statistical analyses were applied to characterize land cover, to assess temporal trends of the stream conditions, and to examine the linkages between water quality and land cover. In the entire watershed, 15.8% of the land was designated as AML reclaimed by reforestation (4.9%) and revegetation (10.8%). Statistic analysis revealed sub-watersheds with similar land cover (i.e. percentage of reclaimed AML) had similar water quality and all tested water quality variables were significantly related to land cover. Based on the assessment of water quality, acid mine drainage was still the dominant factor leading to the overall poor water quality (low pH, high sulfate and metals) in the watershed after reclamation was completed more than 20 years ago. Nevertheless, statistically significant improvement trends were observed for the mine drainage-related water quality variables (except pH) in the reclaimed AML watershed. The lack of pH improvement in the watershed might be related to metal precipitation and poor buffering capacity of the impacted streams. Furthermore, water quality improvement was more evident in the sub-watersheds which were heavily impacted by past mining activities and reclaimed by reforestation, indicating good reclamation practice had positive impact on water quality over time.

  3. A pilot-scale hybrid municipal wastewater reclamation system using combined coagulation and disk filtration, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis: removal of nutrients and micropollutants, and characterization of membrane foulants.

    PubMed

    Chon, Kangmin; Cho, Jaeweon; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2013-08-01

    A pilot-scale municipal wastewater reclamation system using combined coagulation and disk filtration (CC-DF), ultrafiltration (UF), and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane has been built to investigate removal of water contaminants and fouling mitigation. The reclaimed water using the pilot system could meet draft regulations on wastewater reuse of the California Department of Public Health (DOC: 0.5 mgC/L; TN: 5 mgN/L). The removal of micropolluants by the CC-DF process and UF could not be evaluated by their MW, Log D, and charge characteristics. However, they were identified as governing factors affecting the removal of micropollutants by the RO. The CC-DF process might effectively remove particulate materials capable of contributing to cake layer formation on the UF membrane surfaces but the residual coagulants provided a strong effect on fouling formation of the UF membrane. Thus, hydrophobic fractions of the desorbed UF membrane foulants were higher than those of the desorbed RO membrane foulants. PMID:23611699

  4. A pilot-scale hybrid municipal wastewater reclamation system using combined coagulation and disk filtration, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis: removal of nutrients and micropollutants, and characterization of membrane foulants.

    PubMed

    Chon, Kangmin; Cho, Jaeweon; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2013-08-01

    A pilot-scale municipal wastewater reclamation system using combined coagulation and disk filtration (CC-DF), ultrafiltration (UF), and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane has been built to investigate removal of water contaminants and fouling mitigation. The reclaimed water using the pilot system could meet draft regulations on wastewater reuse of the California Department of Public Health (DOC: 0.5 mgC/L; TN: 5 mgN/L). The removal of micropolluants by the CC-DF process and UF could not be evaluated by their MW, Log D, and charge characteristics. However, they were identified as governing factors affecting the removal of micropollutants by the RO. The CC-DF process might effectively remove particulate materials capable of contributing to cake layer formation on the UF membrane surfaces but the residual coagulants provided a strong effect on fouling formation of the UF membrane. Thus, hydrophobic fractions of the desorbed UF membrane foulants were higher than those of the desorbed RO membrane foulants.

  5. Biological support media influence the bacterial biofouling community in reverse osmosis water reclamation demonstration plants.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Taberna, Elisenda; Sanz, Joan; Sánchez, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of the bacterial community developed in different stages of two reverse osmosis (RO) water reclamation demonstration plants designed in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tarragona (Spain) was characterized by applying 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The plants were fed by secondary treated effluent to a conventional pretreatment train prior to the two-pass RO system. Plants differed in the material used in the filtration process, which was sand in one demonstration plant and Scandinavian schists in the second plant. The results showed the presence of a highly diverse and complex community in the biofilms, mainly composed of members of the Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in all stages, with the presence of some typical wastewater bacteria, suggesting a feed water origin. Community similarities analyses revealed that samples clustered according to filter type, highlighting the critical influence of the biological supporting medium in biofilm community structure. PMID:25706000

  6. Biological support media influence the bacterial biofouling community in reverse osmosis water reclamation demonstration plants.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Taberna, Elisenda; Sanz, Joan; Sánchez, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of the bacterial community developed in different stages of two reverse osmosis (RO) water reclamation demonstration plants designed in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tarragona (Spain) was characterized by applying 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The plants were fed by secondary treated effluent to a conventional pretreatment train prior to the two-pass RO system. Plants differed in the material used in the filtration process, which was sand in one demonstration plant and Scandinavian schists in the second plant. The results showed the presence of a highly diverse and complex community in the biofilms, mainly composed of members of the Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in all stages, with the presence of some typical wastewater bacteria, suggesting a feed water origin. Community similarities analyses revealed that samples clustered according to filter type, highlighting the critical influence of the biological supporting medium in biofilm community structure.

  7. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's use of Climate Information Products to support Reservoir Operations and Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, L. D.

    2007-12-01

    Climate forecast information plays an integral role in Reclamation's operation of surface water systems located throughout the western United States. These systems include over 300 reservoirs, 16000 miles of canals, and 245 million acre-feet of storage capacity. Combined, their operation leads to approximately $9 billion in annual agricultural benefits, enough energy to supply 6 million homes, 308 public recreation areas, and billions of dollars in avoided flood damages. Reclamation's use of climate information varies with decision application, which might be characterized by lead- time, application horizon, and reversibility. This presentation will provide an overview of Reclamation's short- to long-term climate-affected decisions, where and why climate information products are currently used, where products are desired but are absent, and where products are available but are not used for various reasons. The presentation will also highlight lessons learned from recent efforts to introduce new uses of climate forecast information in Reclamation decision processes (e.g., use of short-lead teleconnections to potentially support Spring season flood control management in the Pacific Northwest, use of CPC local 3-month temperature outlooks to support Summer-Autumn stream temperature management in California, and development of downscaled WCRP CMIP3 climate projections to support long-term system evaluations throughout Reclamation's service regions).

  8. Membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration hybrid system for reclamation of municipal wastewater: removal of nutrients, organic matter and micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Chon, Kangmin; KyongShon, Ho; Cho, Jaeweon

    2012-10-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system was investigated to demonstrate the performance of treating nitrogen, phosphorus and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in municipal wastewater. With the MBR and NF (molecular weight cut off (MWCO): 210 Da), the concentration of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) was effectively reduced by nitrification by MBR and negatively charged surface of NF (TN: 8.67 mgN/L and TP: 0.46 mgP/L). Biosorption and microbial decomposition in MBR seem to be major removal mechanisms for the removal of PPCPs. Among various parameters affecting the removal of PPCPs by NF, namely, physicochemical properties of the PPCPs (charge characteristics, hydrophobicity and M(W)) and membranes (MWCO and surface charge), the MWCO effect was found to be the most critical aspect. PMID:22608290

  9. Short-term municipal water demand forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougadis, John; Adamowski, Kaz; Diduch, Roman

    2005-01-01

    Water demand forecasts are needed for the design, operation and management of urban water supply systems. In this study, the relative performance of regression, time series analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) models are investigated for short-term peak water demand forecasting. The significance of climatic variables (rainfall and maximum air temperature, in addition to past water demand) on water demand management is also investigated.Numerical analysis was performed on data from the city of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The existing water supply infrastructure will not be able to meet the demand for projected population growth; thus, a study is needed to determine the effect of peak water demand management on the sizing and staging of facilities for developing an expansion strategy. Three different ANNs and regression models and seven time-series models have been developed and compared. The ANN models consistently outperformed the regression and time-series models developed in this study. It has been found that water demand on a weekly basis is more significantly correlated with the rainfall amount than the occurrence of rainfall. Copyright

  10. 76 FR 53678 - Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit) Pursuant to section 4.95(a) of the Commission's regulations,\\1\\ Calleguas Municipal Water... exemption for Project No. 11651 on June 7, 1999. Calleguas Municipal Water District, 87 FERC ] 62,256...

  11. Enhanced cover methods for surface coal refuse reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, L.F.; Cargill, K.W.; McGarvie, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    Controlling acid rock drainage (ARD) can be a major component of surface mining reclamation. An enhanced reclamation cover system is being constructed to control infiltration of rain water and generation of ARD from coal-refuse disposal areas at a closed mine in southern Illinois. Development of the mine reclamation plan required consideration of ARD generation in coal refuse disposal areas located adjacent to an alluvial aquifer used for public water supply. An integrated site characterization was performed at the mine to provide information to develop and support the enhanced reclamation plan. The enhanced cover system is similar to covers required for municipal solid waste landfills by the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Subtitle D regulations. The system comprises a graded and compacted gob layer, overlain by a compacted clay liner, and a protective soil cover. The results of infiltration modeling and analyses showed that the standard reclamation cover is effective in reducing infiltration by about 18 percent compared to an unreclaimed coal-refuse surface. The modeling results showed that the inhanced cover system should reduce infiltration by about 84 percent. The geochemical modeling results showed that the reduction in infiltration would help minimize ARD generation and contribute to an earlier reclamation of the mine site.

  12. Applications of Ferrate(VI) to Wastewater Reclamation and Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Choi, H.; Lee, K.; Nam, J.; Kim, I.

    2010-12-01

    The estimated amount of water resources is about 63 billion cubic meters in Korea. However, due to the lack of precipitation during the dry season, natural flows are not enough for the water supply. In addition, since the lack of water affects water quality, environmental problems are occurred in natural and social systems. In this study, we investigated the application feasibility of ferrate(VI) systems to water and wastewater treatment. And we'd like to suggest an alternative solution for conservation and efficient reuse of the limited water resources. In the research area of environmental applications, a primary interest has been focused to the power of ferrate(VI) systems in the decomposition of pollutants in wastewater and industrial effluents due to its potential use as a strong, relatively non-toxic, and oxidizing agent for diverse environmental contaminants. Also ferrate(VI) has additional advantages as a very efficient coagulant and a sorbent of pollutants. We have analysed and compared several ferrate(VI) manufacturing processes, especially focused on the electro chemical methods(Fig. 1). And we have investigated the applications of the manufactured ferrate(VI) in our own laboratory and the commercial ferrate(VI) to decomposition of persistent organic pollutants in water. Under optimal conditions, the removal efficiencies of 2-chlorophenol and benzothiophene were above 90%(Fig. 2). The ferrate system(VI) is promising and can be one of the most efficient alternatives among the advanced oxidation processes(AOPs) for degradation of persistent organic pollutants, and is an innovative technology for the wastewater reclamation, water reusing systems, and water treatment systems. Fig 1. Comparison of Electro-Chemical Ferrate(VI) manufacturing Processes Fig 2. Degradation of 2-Chlorophenol and Bezothiophene by Ferrate. (Experimental Conditions : 2-CP = 3ppm, BT = 5ppm, NaClO4 = 0.05M)

  13. Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics Model to Disinfection Reactors in Water Reclamation Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmns, Andrea; Texeira, Pablo; Issakhanian, Emin; Saez, Jose

    2014-11-01

    California's current drought has renewed public interest in recycled water from Water Reclamation Plants (WRPs). It is critical that the recycled water meets public health standards. This project consists of simulating the transport of an instantaneous conservative tracer through the chlorine contact tanks at two WRPs in California, where recycled water regulations stipulate a minimum 90-minute modal contact time during disinfection at peak dry weather design flow. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to model the turbulent flow, transport, and contact time of a conservative solute for several real operating scenarios. Given as-built drawings and operation parameters, the chlorine contact tanks are modeled to match actual geometries and flow conditions. The turbulent flow solutions are used as the basis to model the transport of a turbulently diffusing conservative tracer added instantaneously to the inlet of the reactors. This tracer simulates the transport through advection and dispersion of chlorine in the WRPs. Breakthrough curves of the tracer at the outlet are used to determine the modal contact times.

  14. Technology assessment of aquaculture systems for municipal waste water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, H.C.; Ross, R.S.; Sturmer, L.

    1984-08-01

    The innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (PL 95-217) provide financial incentives to communities that use wastewater treatment alternatives to reduce costs or energy consumption over conventional systems. Some of these technologies have been only recently developed and are not in widespread use in the United States. This document discusses the applicability and technical and economic feasibility of using aquaculture systems for municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

  15. Vacuum distillation: vapor filtered-catalytic oxidation water reclamation system utilizing radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Kurg, E. K.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a functional model water reclamation system is discussed. The system produces potable water by distillation from the urine and respiration-perspiration condensate at the normal rate generated by four men. Basic processes employed are vacuum distillation, vapor filtration, vapor phase catalytic oxidation, and condensation. The system is designed to use four 75-watt isotope heaters for distillation thermal input, and one 45-watt isotope for the catalytic oxidation unit. The system is capable of collecting and storing urine, and provides for stabilizing the urine by chemical pretreatment. The functional model system is designed for operation in a weightless condition with liquid-vapor phase separators for the evaporator still, and centrifugal separators for urine collection and vapor condensation. The system provides for storing and dispensing reclaimed potable water. The system operates in a batch mode for 40 days, with urine residues accumulating in the evaporator. The evaporator still and residue are removed to storage and replaced with a fresh still for the next 40-day period.

  16. [Study of the toxic properties of preservatives used in water reclamation systems].

    PubMed

    Lobacheva, G V; Pak, Z P; Nazarov, N M; Iakimova, I V

    1985-01-01

    The comparative toxicity of halogen-containing oxidizing agents was investigated with the purpose of their utilization as urine preservatives in water reclamation systems. It was found that the high toxicity of the agents (LD50 of agent 1 was 15.7 +/- 1.1 mg/kg and LD50 of agent 2 was 23.0 +/- 1.2 mg/kg when injected i.p. to white mice) was distinctly related to their low pH in water solutions (pH 3-4). In neutral solutions the toxicity of agent 1 decreased 35 times and that of agent 2-12 times so that they can be classified as moderately toxic substances. Using an isolated frog heart according to Straub, it was shown that solution neutralization with 20% NaHCO3 also decreased the toxic effect of the above agents, making them similar to chloramine B, a well-known disinfectant. The above agents were found to be rapidly inactivated when stored in low concentrations and to remain highly stable when stored in concentrated solutions. PMID:3974187

  17. Composting of municipal waste-water sludges. Seminar pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal waste-water sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. Chapter 1 presents general principles of the composting process and system design. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss in depth the experiences at the Dickerson, Western Branch, and Site II static-pile-composting operations in Maryland and at the windrow operation in Los Angeles County. In-vessel composting is reviewed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses current and proposed regulations and guidelines that pertain to sludge composting. The publication is not a design manual nor does it include all the latest knowledge about composting.

  18. Health among municipal sewage and water treatment workers.

    PubMed

    Scarlett-Kranz, J M; Babish, J G; Strickland, D; Lisk, D J

    1987-09-01

    Municipal sewage treatment plant workers are potentially exposed to a multitude of industrial chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms. A questionnaire survey of working habits, lifestyle and symptoms of illness was conducted among 189 municipal sewage treatment plant workers processing between three and ten million gallons of wastewater daily in 16 plants in New York State between March and July of 1984. Water treatment plant workers in the same cities comprised the comparison group. Sewage workers reported a significantly higher frequency of headache, dizziness, sore throat, skin irritation and diarrhea within the month immediately preceding receipt of the questionnaire, after controlling for various possible confounders. Eye and skin irritation were significantly associated with exposure to mutagens. The health significance of these findings and possible sources of error in assessing risk are discussed.

  19. Perceptions of bottled water consumers in three Brazilian municipalities.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Josiane T Matos; Doria, Miguel de França; Rosenberg, Mark W; Heller, Léo; Zhouri, Andréa

    2013-09-01

    This study presents perceptions of consumers of bottled water in their households in three Brazilian municipalities. Data from interviews were analyzed using the Discourse Collective Subject method. Interviewees spent, on average, the equivalent of 40% of their water bill for the public water supply on the purchase of bottled water. The decision about water consumption in the household was predominantly made by women. Interviewees were particularly concerned with health risks and expressed a strong preference for the safety and organoleptic qualities of bottled water, particularly in cases where the tap water supply did not fully meet the regulated water quality standards. Interviewees were largely unaware of the origin, type, storage, and social and environmental impacts of bottled water. Results highlight the importance of water education efforts among the general population and the key role of women in the processes related to drinking water. The need for gender-specific interventions and the empowerment of women on water issues is noted. Results also strongly support the relevance of ensuring the provision of safe drinking water, from the source to the consumption point, with the trust of consumers.

  20. Studies on the integration of nanofiltration and soil treatment for municipal effluent reclamation as a groundwater supplement.

    PubMed

    Linlin, Wu; Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Water shortage leads to increasing attention to artificial groundwater recharge by reclaimed water. An injection well is the most common recharge approach. In this paper, a new kind of integrated technology-short-term vadose soil treatment followed by nanofiltration-is recommended as pretreatment for artificial groundwater recharge by an injection well. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrate that the short-term vadose soil can remove approximately 30% of the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and 40% of dissolved organic matter with a molecular weight less than 1 kDa. As a compensatory process of soil treatment, nanofiltration offers a favorable desalination and additional organics removal. The removal efficiencies for total dissolved solids and conductivity amount to 45 and 48%, respectively. The residual DOC in the final effluent is below 1.0 mg/L. In addition, short-term vadose soil offers effective elimination of aromatic protein-like and polysaccharide-like substances, which are detected as components of the membrane foulant.

  1. Studies on the integration of nanofiltration and soil treatment for municipal effluent reclamation as a groundwater supplement.

    PubMed

    Linlin, Wu; Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Water shortage leads to increasing attention to artificial groundwater recharge by reclaimed water. An injection well is the most common recharge approach. In this paper, a new kind of integrated technology-short-term vadose soil treatment followed by nanofiltration-is recommended as pretreatment for artificial groundwater recharge by an injection well. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrate that the short-term vadose soil can remove approximately 30% of the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and 40% of dissolved organic matter with a molecular weight less than 1 kDa. As a compensatory process of soil treatment, nanofiltration offers a favorable desalination and additional organics removal. The removal efficiencies for total dissolved solids and conductivity amount to 45 and 48%, respectively. The residual DOC in the final effluent is below 1.0 mg/L. In addition, short-term vadose soil offers effective elimination of aromatic protein-like and polysaccharide-like substances, which are detected as components of the membrane foulant. PMID:20112534

  2. Water, Energy and Carbon Balance Research: Recovery Trajectories For Oil Sands Reclamation and Disturbed Watersheds in the Western Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, R. M.; Carey, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Oil Sand Region (OSR) of North-Central Alberta exists within the sub-humid Boreal Plains (BP) ecozone, with a slight long-term moisture deficit regime. Despite this deficit, the BP is comprised of productive wetland and mixed wood (aspen and conifer dominated) forests. Reclamation activities are now underway at a large number of surface mining operations in the OSR, where target ecosystems are identified, soil prescriptions placed and commercial forest species planted. Some watersheds have been created that now contain wetlands. However, recent work in the BP suggests that over time wetlands supply moisture for the productivity of upland forests. Thus, water use of reclaimed forests is going to be critical in determining the sustainability of these systems and adjacent wetlands, and whether in time, either will achieve some form of equivalent capability that will allow for certification by regulators. A critical component in the success of any reclamation is that sufficient water is available to support target ecosystems through the course of natural climate cycles in the region. Water Use Efficiency (WUE), which links photosynthesis (GEP) with water use (Evapotranspiration (ET)), provides a useful metric to compare ecosystems and evaluate their utilization of resources. In this study, 41 site years of total growing season water and carbon flux data over 8 sites (4 reclamation, 4 regeneration) were evaluated using eddy covariance micrometeorological towers. WUE shows clear discrimination among ecosystem types as aspen stands assimilate more carbon per unit weight of water than conifers. WUEs also change with time as ecosystems become more effective at transpiring water through plant pathways compared with bare-soil evaporation, which allows an assessment of ability to limit water loss without carbon uptake. In addition, clonal rooting systems allow aspen forests to recover quicker after disturbance than reclamation sites in terms of their WUE. For reclamation

  3. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  4. Diarrheal diseases in children from a water reclamation site in Mexico city.

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Suárez, Leticia; Solano, Maritsa; Santos, René

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the risk of enteric diseases among children living in a water reclamation area in Mexico City. A geographic information system was used to define eligible wells and surrounding homesteads. Sixty-five water samples from five wells were tested for fecal coliform bacteria per 100 mL (FC/100 mL) during visits to 750 eligible households; caretakers only in those dwellings with children under 5 years old were interviewed throughout repeated cross-sectional surveys, conducted during 1999-2000. Data on diarrheal diseases were obtained from 761 children during the rainy season and 732 children during the dry season; their guardians also provided information on drinking water supply, sanitation, and socioeconomic variables. The presence of indicator organisms in groundwater samples pointed to fecal pollution; bacterial indicators, however, did not predict the health risk. The rates of diarrhea were 10.7% in the dry season and 11.8% in the rainy season. Children 1 year old showed the highest rate of diarrhea during the dry season [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 with 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-4.71], particularly those from households perceiving unpleasant taste of tap water (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.97-2.92) and consuming vegetables washed only with water (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.39). Lower risk was observed in individuals enjoying full-day water supply (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.27-0.86) and a flushing toilet (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.16-0.67), as well as those storing water in covered receptacles (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.15-0.80). Rainy season data suggested that children from households perceiving a color to their water had a higher rate of diarrhea than did those without such complaint (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.93-3.67); recent consumption of food sold by street vendors was also a significant risk factor (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.98-2.87). Groundwater is at risk of contamination, as indicated by the presence of FC/100 mL. The endemic pattern of diarrhea, however, reflects

  5. Diarrheal diseases in children from a water reclamation site in Mexico city.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Suárez, Leticia; Solano, Maritsa; Santos, René

    2002-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess the risk of enteric diseases among children living in a water reclamation area in Mexico City. A geographic information system was used to define eligible wells and surrounding homesteads. Sixty-five water samples from five wells were tested for fecal coliform bacteria per 100 mL (FC/100 mL) during visits to 750 eligible households; caretakers only in those dwellings with children under 5 years old were interviewed throughout repeated cross-sectional surveys, conducted during 1999-2000. Data on diarrheal diseases were obtained from 761 children during the rainy season and 732 children during the dry season; their guardians also provided information on drinking water supply, sanitation, and socioeconomic variables. The presence of indicator organisms in groundwater samples pointed to fecal pollution; bacterial indicators, however, did not predict the health risk. The rates of diarrhea were 10.7% in the dry season and 11.8% in the rainy season. Children 1 year old showed the highest rate of diarrhea during the dry season [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 with 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-4.71], particularly those from households perceiving unpleasant taste of tap water (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.97-2.92) and consuming vegetables washed only with water (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.39). Lower risk was observed in individuals enjoying full-day water supply (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.27-0.86) and a flushing toilet (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.16-0.67), as well as those storing water in covered receptacles (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.15-0.80). Rainy season data suggested that children from households perceiving a color to their water had a higher rate of diarrhea than did those without such complaint (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.93-3.67); recent consumption of food sold by street vendors was also a significant risk factor (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.98-2.87). Groundwater is at risk of contamination, as indicated by the presence of FC/100 mL. The endemic pattern of diarrhea, however, reflects

  6. Biofiltration pretreatment for reverse osmosis (RO) membrane in a water reclamation system.

    PubMed

    Hu, J Y; Song, L F; Ong, S L; Phua, E T; Ng, W J

    2005-03-01

    Biofouling control is considered as a major challenge in operating membrane systems. A lab-scale RO system was setup at a local water reclamation plant to study the feasibility of using biofiltration as a pretreatment process to control the biofouling. The biological activity in the RO system (feed, product, reject streams) was tested using the standard serial dilution plating technique. Operational parameters such as differential pressure (DP) and permeate flowrate of the system were also monitored. Effects of biofilter on AOC and DOC removals were investigated. Biofiltration was found to be a viable way of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removals, with removal efficiencies of 40-49% and 35-45% at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 30 min. It was also found that using the biofiltration as a pretreatment reduced the rate of biofouling. It took only about 72 h for biofouling to have a significant impact on the performance of the RO membrane, when the system was operated without using biofiltration as pretreatment. There was, however, a five times increase in operational length to more than 300 h when biofiltration was used. This study presented the suitability of the biofilter as an economical and simple way of biofouling control for RO membrane.

  7. Biofiltration pretreatment for reverse osmosis (RO) membrane in a water reclamation system.

    PubMed

    Hu, J Y; Song, L F; Ong, S L; Phua, E T; Ng, W J

    2005-03-01

    Biofouling control is considered as a major challenge in operating membrane systems. A lab-scale RO system was setup at a local water reclamation plant to study the feasibility of using biofiltration as a pretreatment process to control the biofouling. The biological activity in the RO system (feed, product, reject streams) was tested using the standard serial dilution plating technique. Operational parameters such as differential pressure (DP) and permeate flowrate of the system were also monitored. Effects of biofilter on AOC and DOC removals were investigated. Biofiltration was found to be a viable way of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removals, with removal efficiencies of 40-49% and 35-45% at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 30 min. It was also found that using the biofiltration as a pretreatment reduced the rate of biofouling. It took only about 72 h for biofouling to have a significant impact on the performance of the RO membrane, when the system was operated without using biofiltration as pretreatment. There was, however, a five times increase in operational length to more than 300 h when biofiltration was used. This study presented the suitability of the biofilter as an economical and simple way of biofouling control for RO membrane. PMID:15698653

  8. Water and waste water reclamation in a 21st century space colony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jebens, H. J.; Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on closed-life support systems initiated during a system design study on space colonization and concentrates on the water and waste water components. Metabolic requirements for the 10,000 inhabitants were supplied by an assumed earth-like diet from an intensive agriculture system. Condensed atmospheric moisture provided a source of potable water and a portion of the irrigation water. Waste water was reclaimed by wet oxidation. The dual-water supply required the condensation of 175 kg/person-day of atmospheric water and the processing of 250 kg/person-day of waste water.

  9. Comparing effects of land reclamation techniques on water pollution and fishery loss for a large-scale offshore airport island in Jinzhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Yu, Tiao-Lan; Fu, Qiang; Liang, Chen

    2013-06-15

    Plans are being made to construct Dalian Offshore Airport in Jinzhou Bay with a reclamation area of 21 km(2). The large-scale reclamation can be expected to have negative effects on the marine environment, and these effects vary depending on the reclamation techniques used. Water quality mathematical models were developed and biology resource investigations were conducted to compare effects of an underwater explosion sediment removal and rock dumping technique and a silt dredging and rock dumping technique on water pollution and fishery loss. The findings show that creation of the artificial island with the underwater explosion sediment removal technique would greatly impact the marine environment. However, the impact for the silt dredging technique would be less. The conclusions from this study provide an important foundation for the planning of Dalian Offshore Airport and can be used as a reference for similar coastal reclamation and marine environment protection.

  10. Effects of surface coal mining and reclamation on ground water in small watersheds in the Allegheny Plateau, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberle, Michael; Razem, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrologic effects of surface coal mining in unlimited areas is difficult to predict, partly because of a lack of adequate data collected before and after mining and reclamation. In order to help provide data to assess the effects of surface mining on the hydrology of small basins in the coal fields of the eastern United States, the U.S. Bureau of Mines sponsored a comprehensive hydrologic study at three sites in the Ohio part of the Eastern Coal Province. These sites are within the unqlaciated part of the Allegheny Plateau, and are representative of similar coal-producing areas in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. The U.S. Geological Survey was responsible for the ground-water phase of the study. The aquifer system at each watershed consisted of two localized perched aquifers (top and middle) above a deeper, more regional aquifer. The premining top aquifer was destroyed by mining in each case, and was replaced by spoils during reclamation. The spoils formed new top aquifers that were slowly becoming resaturated at the end of the study period. Water levels in the aquifers were about the same after reclamation as before mining, although levels rose in a few places. It appears that the underclay at the base of the new top aquifers at all three sites prevents significant downward leakage from the top aquifers to lower except in places where the layer may have been damaged during mining. Water in the top aquifers is a calcium sulfate type, whereas calcium bicarbonate type water predominated before mining. The median specific conductance of water in the new top aquifers was about 5 times greater than that of the original top aquifers in two of the watersheds, and 1 1/2 times the level of the original top aquifers in the third. Concentrations of dissolved sulfate, iron, and manganese in the top aquifers before mining generally did not exceed U.S. and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water limits, but generally exceeded these limits after

  11. 78 FR 35618 - Three Valleys Municipal Water District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Station Project would be located within the Miramar Water Treatment Plant in City of Claremont, Los... Energy Regulatory Commission Three Valleys Municipal Water District; Notice of Application Accepted for.... Date filed: March 20, 2013. d. Applicant: Three Valleys Municipal Water District. e. Name of...

  12. The Systems Analysis of Problems of An Evaluation,prognosis and Optimization of Graund Water Management In Reclamated Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakhonin, N.

    The problems connected to ground water dynamics take place in various areas of the people economic activity. For want of it in some branches the greatest interest rep- resents creation of quantitative parameters of a water mode, in one cases - of a level mode H(t) (land reclamation, agricultural and forest economy, ecology), in other - cre- ation of water discharge Q (t) (water-intakes for a water-supply or on the contrary - protective system from mines and quarry submerge). In a number of branches the ex- treme interest is represented by ground water quality dynamics (potable water-supply, inflow to rivers and lakes used for fish-breeding etc.). Each from these cases requires the account of features for want of creation of ground water dynamics models, re- alization of monitoring for their identification. With allowance for aid above in the report, the problems connected to ground water dynamics are bro-ken on three types: 1) evaluations of the system state and matching with normative parameters or match- ing of various objects among themselves; 2) prognosises of dynamics of ground water amount and quality; 3) problems of decision making support (optimization of ground water management), formalized as: The analysis is conducted for each of them and the conditions of choice of a generality level of a variable state describing ground stream dynamics (soil humidity, ground wa- ter level, water volume in the camera) and alternate variants, appropriate to them, of models describing water dynamics are shown: physical with the distributed parameters (equation of joint filtering of the bicomponent environment water-air, water-transfer equation, Boussinesk equation; with lumped parameters (chamber model with cam- eras of a various degree aggregating down to "a black box"), and also non-physical (statistical, regressive and neural networks) model. The possibility of using by each from these models for three selected types of problems is shown. On an example of reclamated

  13. Simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR) in a full-scale water reclamation plant located in warm climate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Shen, Nan; Lee, Zarraz M-P; Xu, Guangjing; Cao, Yeshi; Kwok, Beehong; Lay, Winson; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The combination of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) provides a more efficient and economically viable option for nutrient removal from municipal wastewater compared to conventional two-step nitrification-denitrification. This study analyzed the nutrients (N and P) profiles in a full-scale municipal wastewater reclamation plant (WRP) located in the tropical region, in which more than 90% of nitrogen was removed. Interestingly, average SND efficiency in aerobic zones was found to be up to 50%, whereas phosphorus profile displayed a clear cyclic release and uptake pattern with a phosphorus removal efficiency of up to 76%. The capability of sludge to perform SND and EBPR was further confirmed through a series of batch experiments. Microbial analysis revealed the presence of Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera phosphate accumulating organisms in the plant, while few glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) was observed. This study showed the significant occurrence of combined SND and EBPR, known as simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR), in the studied WRP under warm climate. The possible causes behind the observed SNDPR were also discussed. PMID:27438250

  14. Simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR) in a full-scale water reclamation plant located in warm climate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Shen, Nan; Lee, Zarraz M-P; Xu, Guangjing; Cao, Yeshi; Kwok, Beehong; Lay, Winson; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The combination of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) provides a more efficient and economically viable option for nutrient removal from municipal wastewater compared to conventional two-step nitrification-denitrification. This study analyzed the nutrients (N and P) profiles in a full-scale municipal wastewater reclamation plant (WRP) located in the tropical region, in which more than 90% of nitrogen was removed. Interestingly, average SND efficiency in aerobic zones was found to be up to 50%, whereas phosphorus profile displayed a clear cyclic release and uptake pattern with a phosphorus removal efficiency of up to 76%. The capability of sludge to perform SND and EBPR was further confirmed through a series of batch experiments. Microbial analysis revealed the presence of Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera phosphate accumulating organisms in the plant, while few glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) was observed. This study showed the significant occurrence of combined SND and EBPR, known as simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR), in the studied WRP under warm climate. The possible causes behind the observed SNDPR were also discussed.

  15. Domestic wash-water reclamation using an aerospace-developed water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A prototype aerospace distillation water recovery subsystem was tested to determine its capability to recover potable water from domestic wash water. A total of 0.0994 cu m (26.25 gallons) of domestic wash water was processed over a 7-day period at an average process rate of 0.0146 cu m per day (3.85 gallons per day). The subsystem produced water that met all United States Public Health Standards for drinking water with the exception of two standards which could not be analyzed at the required sensitivity levels. Average energy consumption for this evaluation to maintain both the recovery process and microbial control in the recovered water was approximately 3366 kilowatt-hours per cubic meter (12.74 kilowatt-hours per gallon) of water recovered. This condition represents a worst case energy consumption since no attempt was made to recover heat energy in the subsystem. An ultraviolet radiation cell installed in the effluent line of the subsystem was effective in controlling coliform micro-organisms within acceptable levels for drinking water. The subsystem recovered virtually 100 percent of the available water in the waste-water process. In addition, the subsystem removed 99.6 percent and 98.3 percent of the surfactants and phosphate, respectively, from the wash water.

  16. Process for gas cleaning with reclaimed water and apparatus for water reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Estabrook, L.E.; Marion, C.P.; Richter, G.N.

    1980-06-03

    Dispersions comprising of water and particulate solids i.e. carbon and ash are produced in at least one gas cooling or scrubbing zone by quench cooling or scrubbing the raw gas stream from a partial oxidation gas generator with water. The dispersions are resolved by liquid extraction in a decanting zone to produce a water layer containing carbon, dissolved gas, and ash, and also a separate dispersion comprising carbon, extractant, and water. Solids-free water, liquid extractant and uncondensed gases are then separated from each other in a distillation and separation operation. Water is removed from a separation vessel in said operation and introduced on to a stripping plate of a flash column containing at least one stripping plate. The solids containing water from the decanting zone is flashed below said stripping plate and a portion is converted into steam. The steam passes up through holes or bubble caps in the stripping plate and is dispersed through the water contained on said plate. If desired, a portion of the water obtained from blowing-down a gas cooler may be flashed to steam below the stripping plate. Unvaporized water falls to the bottom of the column where a vertical weir separates the flash column into two chambers. Solids settle out of the water in the first chamber and clarified water flows over the weir into the second chamber. Overflow water from the bottom stripping plate is discharged below the waterlevel in the second chamber by way of a downcomer. Reclaimed water is pumped to said gas cooling and scrubbing zones from the second chamber, and waste water containing solids in the first chamber is discharged from the system. The overhead from the flash column is cooled below the dew point and introduced into said separation vessel.

  17. Water Reuse Highlights: A Summary Volume of Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association, Denver, CO. Research Foundation.

    This document reports the efforts of the AWWA Research Foundation to gather, prepare, and distribute current technical information in the wastewater reclamation and reuse field. The information reported has been abstracted from other Foundation publications and only attempts here to highlight the field. Categories discussed include research,…

  18. Calibration of a one-dimensional water flow model for the evaluation of the reclamation success of saline soil substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaygan, Mandana; Baumgartl, Thomas; Arnold, Sven; Reading, Lucy; Fletcher, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Highly saline-sodic soils restrict plant establishment. Salt affected soils may be reclaimed by leaching salts from a potential root zone. Soil amendments can be used as a reclamation technique to improve the soil pore system and hydraulic functions, which allows the downward transport of water under certain precipitation conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate salt movement within saline-sodic soil at a small scale in soil columns and assess the success of amendment strategies for reclamation of the soil. For the purpose of predicting the effect of typical rainfall scenarios on the reclamation of saline-sodic soils, a one-dimensional numerical water flow model (HYDRUS-1D) was tested and calibrated. The model was calibrated using data from laboratory column experiments. A saline-sodic soil was packed into 30 cm long columns (diameter 7cm) from a depth of 10 to 30 cm and then covered with the same soil, however amended with 40% (wt/wt) fine sand and 20% (wt/wt) wood chips, respectively. A column filled with the saline-sodic soil only to a depth of 30 cm was used as a control. The experiments were carried out by establishing an initial pressure head of -60 cm at the soil surface. Based on climate data from a location in south-west Queensland, rainfall scenarios with 50% and 1% probability of annual exceedance for this location were calculated and applied to the soil columns. The hydrological response in the columns was monitored by measuring the water potential using tensiometers installed in three depths (3, 11 and 25 cm) and knowledge of inflow and outflow of the columns. The simulation captured the observed trends in the results for the investigated columns and measured depths under heavy rainfall events as well as surface substrates exposed to small rainfall events, where the simulated and measured results were in very good agreement, with R2 values generally ranging between 0.92 and 0.98. The simulated results also provided a good description

  19. Evaluation of the seasonal performance of a water reclamation pond-constructed wetland system for removing emerging contaminants.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Salvadó, Victòria

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of a full-scale reclamation pond-constructed wetland (CW) system to eliminate 27 emerging contaminants (i.e. pharmaceuticals, sunscreen compounds, fragrances, antiseptics, fire retardants, pesticides, and plasticizers) and the seasonal occurrence of these contaminants is studied. The compounds with the highest concentrations in the secondary effluent are diclofenac, caffeine, ketoprofen, and carbamazepine. The results show that the constructed wetland (61%) removes emerging contaminants significantly more efficiently than the pond (51%), presumably due to the presence of plants (Phragmites and Thypa) as well as the higher hydraulic residence time (HRT) in the CW. A greater seasonal trend to the efficient removal of these compounds is observed in the pond than in the CW. The overall mass removal efficiency of each individual compound ranged from 27% to 93% (71% on average), which is comparable to reported data in advanced treatments (photo-fenton and membrane filtration). The seasonal average content of emerging contaminants in the river water (2488 ng L(-1)) next to the water reclamation plant is found to be higher than the content in the final reclaimed water (1490 ng L(-1)), suggesting that the chemical quality of the reclaimed water is better than available surface waters. PMID:22051341

  20. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  1. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. PMID:25893132

  2. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. PMID:25893132

  3. Cyber-physical system for a water reclamation plant: Balancing aeration, energy, and water quality to maintain process resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Junjie

    Aeration accounts for a large fraction of energy consumption in conventional water reclamation plants (WRPs). Although process operations at older WRPs can satisfy effluent permit requirements, they typically operate with excess aeration. More effective process controls at older WRPs can be challenging as operators work to balance higher energy costs and more stringent effluent limitations while managing fluctuating loads. Therefore, understandings of process resilience or ability to quickly return to original operation conditions at a WRP are important. A state-of-art WRP should maintain process resilience to deal with different kinds of perturbations even after optimization of energy demands. This work was to evaluate the applicability and feasibility of cyber-physical system (CPS) for improving operation at Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) Calumet WRP. In this work, a process model was developed and used to better understand the conditions of current Calumet WRP, with additional valuable information from two dissolved oxygen field measurements. Meanwhile, a classification system was developed to reveal the pattern of historical influent scenario based on cluster analysis and cross-tabulation analysis. Based on the results from the classification, typical process control options were investigated. To ensure the feasibility of information acquisition, the reliability and flexibility of soft sensors were assessed to typical influent conditions. Finally, the process resilience was investigated to better balance influent perturbations, energy demands, and effluent quality for long-term operations. These investigations and evaluations show that although the energy demands change as the influent conditions and process controls. In general, aeration savings could be up to 50% from the level of current consumption; with a more complex process controls, the saving could be up to 70% in relatively steady-state conditions and at least 40

  4. Governance and sustainability at a municipal scale: the challenge of water conservation.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Kathryn; Bakker, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Municipal water conservation is increasingly promoted as a key dimension of environmental sustainability at the municipal scale. Progress toward municipal water conservation in Canada has, however, been poor. This paper examines the governance dimension of water conservation, and presents evidence in support of the argument that conservation efforts on the part of water utilities (and sometimes municipalities) are often constrained by factors external to their jurisdiction. To explore these issues, this paper presents a case study of municipal water conservation in Canada. The analysis identifies governance-related barriers to water conservation and explores the relationship between these barriers and broader issues stemming from the multi-scalar, fragmented nature of environmental governance in Canada.

  5. Comparison of nitrate levels in raw water and finished water from historical monitoring data on Iowa municipal drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Peter J; Smith, Brian J; Feng, Zhen-Fang; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Riley, David G

    2006-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of water sources is a concern where large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers are regularly applied to soils. Ingested nitrate from dietary sources and drinking water can be converted to nitrite and ultimately to N-nitroso compounds, many of which are known carcinogens. Epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate and cancer report mixed findings; a criticism is the use of nitrate concentrations from retrospective drinking water data to assign exposure levels. Residential point-of-use nitrate data are scarce; gaps in historical data for municipal supply finished water hamper exposure classification efforts. We used generalized linear regression models to estimate and compare historical raw water and finished water nitrate levels (1960s-1990s) in single source Iowa municipal supplies to determine whether raw water monitoring data could supplement finished water data to improve exposure assessment. Comparison of raw water and finished water samples (same sampling date) showed a significant difference in nitrate levels in municipalities using rivers; municipalities using other surface water or alluvial groundwater had no difference in nitrate levels. A regional aggregation of alluvial groundwater municipalities was constructed based on results from a previous study showing regional differences in nitrate contamination of private wells; results from this analysis were mixed, dependent upon region and decade. These analyses demonstrate using historical raw water nitrate monitoring data to supplement finished water data for exposure assessment is appropriate for individual Iowa municipal supplies using alluvial groundwater, lakes or reservoirs. Using alluvial raw water data on a regional basis is dependent on region and decade.

  6. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances in limed biosolids from a large municipal water resource recovery facility.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Dana L; Lozano, Nuria; Rice, Clifford P; Ramirez, Mark; Torrents, Alba

    2016-01-01

    While the recycling of wastewater biosolids via land-application is a sustainable practice for nutrient recovery and soil reclamation that has become increasingly common worldwide, concerns remain that this practice may become a source of toxic, persistent organic pollutants to the environment. This study concentrates on assessing the presence and the temporal trends of 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), pollutants of global consequence, in limed Class B biosolids from a municipal water resource recovery facility (WRRF), also know as a wastewater treatment plant. PFASs are of significant concern due to their extensive presence and persistence in environmental and biotic samples worldwide, most notably human blood samples. Class B biosolids were collected from the WRRF, prior to land-application, approximately every two to three months, from 2005 to 2013. Overall, this study found that concentrations of the 7 detectable PFAS compounds remained unchanged over the 8-year period, a result that is consistent with other temporal studies of these compounds in sewage sludges. From these analyzed compounds, the highest mean concentrations observed over the study period were 25.1 ng/g dw, 23.5 ng/g dw, and 22.5 ng/g dw for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), respectively, and these compounds were detected at concentrations 2.5-5 times higher than the remaining, detectable PFASs. Furthermore, it was observed that PFOS, while demonstrating no overall change during the study, exhibited a visible spike in concentration from late 2006 to early 2007. This study indicates that concentrations of PFASs in WRRFs have been stagnant over time, despite regulation. This study also demonstrates that the use of glass jars with polytetrafluoroethylene-lined lids, a common storage method for environmental samples, will not influence PFOA and PFNA concentrations in archived biosolids samples. PMID:26413802

  7. 43 CFR 3931.20 - Reclamation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Measures to control erosion, landslides, and water runoff; (2) Measures to isolate, remove, or control.... During reclamation, but before abandonment of operations, all openings, including water discharge...

  8. Reclamation of abandoned mines in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dove, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Reclamation of abandoned mine lands in West Virginia involves disturbed areas from both surface and deep mining activities. Reclamation of deep mine lands deal with mine waste piles and mine openings. Reclamation of surface mine lands involves shaping and grading material to obtain a stable slope and installing water management practices.

  9. Evaluation of municipal water supply operating rules using stochastic dominance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming-Daw; Narayanan, Rangesan; Hughes, Trevor C.; Bishop, A. Bruce

    1991-07-01

    A procedure for evaluating and selecting among alternative rules for operating a municipal water supply system is outlined in this study. It is assumed that monthly water demands and supplies are random. The total cost, however, is affected by both current month and future water allocation decisions with respect to the operation of facilities. A perfect foresight model using mixed integer programming is developed and applied to 36 years of historical demand and supply data. Using the solutions to this model, several simple operating rules are derived. These rules are applied to the historical data to simulate system operation, and cumulative distribution of net revenue for each rule is derived. Based on first- and second-degree stochastic dominance criteria, the performance of alternative rules are evaluated. The procedure is also repeated with a set of generated data sequences to check the consistency of the solutions. Average reductions of up to 11% in annual net revenues from those of a perfect foresight model are observed, for various operating rules. Using stochastically dominant rules, annual revenues can be increased by 5% on the average from a commonly used rule based on unit cost.

  10. Increasing Crop Yields in Water Stressed Countries by Combining Operations of Freshwater Reservoir and Wastewater Reclamation Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater resources around the world are increasing in scarcity due to population growth, industrialization and climate change. This is a serious concern for water stressed countries, including those in Asia and North Africa where future food production is expected to be negatively affected by this. To address this problem, we investigate the potential of combining freshwater reservoir and wastewater reclamation operations. Reservoir water is the cheaper source of irrigation, but is often limited and climate sensitive. Treated wastewater is a more reliable alternative for irrigation, but often requires extensive further treatment which can be expensive. We propose combining the operations of a reservoir and a wastewater reclamation plant (WWRP) to augment the supply from the reservoir with reclaimed water for increasing crop yields in water stressed regions. The joint system of reservoir and WWRP is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem with the double objective of maximizing the crop yield and minimizing total cost, subject to constraints on reservoir storage, spill and release, and capacity of the WWRP. We use the crop growth model Aquacrop, supported by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), to model crop growth in response to water use. Aquacrop considers the effects of water deficit on crop growth stages, and from there estimates crop yield. We generate results comparing total crop yield under irrigation with water from just the reservoir (which is limited and often interrupted), and yield with water from the joint system (which has the potential of higher supply and greater reliability). We will present results for locations in India and Africa to evaluate the potential of the joint operations for improving food security in those areas for different budgets.

  11. Tidal characteristics in the Wenzhou offshore waters and changes resulting from the Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Min; Bao, Xianwen; Yu, Huaming; Ding, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project is the core part of Wenzhou Peninsula Engineering which is a big comprehensive development project to expand the city space. The dynamics of the surrounding area was proved to suffer little effect in response to the Lingni north dyke since it was built approximately along the current direction. Therefore, this paper focuses firstly on the tidal characteristics in the Wenzhou and Yueqing bays with the Lingni north dyke being built and then on the changes resulting from the implementation of the on-going Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project (WSRP) which will reclaim land from the whole Wenzhou Shoal. To simulate the tidal dynamics, a high-resolution coastal ocean model with unstructured triangular grids was set up for the Wenzhou and Yueqing Bays. The model resolved the complicated tidal dynamics with the simulated tidal elevation and current in good agreement with observations. In the study area, M2 is the predominant tidal component, which means the tide is semidiurnal. The new reclamation project hardly affects the Yueqing Bay and the open ocean, but there are concentrated effects on the mouth of the southern branch of the Oujiang River and the southwest of Wenzhou Shoal. This study provides an indicative reference to the local government and helps to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the project.

  12. The Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Cost Implications of Municipal Water Supply & Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Winter, Thelma

    All man-made structures and materials have a design life. Across the United States there is a common theme for our water and wastewater treatment facilities and infrastructure. The design life of many of our mid 20 th century water and wastewater infrastructures in the United States have reached or are reaching life expectancy limits (ASCE, 2010). To compound the financial crisis of keeping up with the degradation, meeting and exceeding quality standards has never been more important in order to protect local fresh water supplies. This thesis analyzes the energy consumption of a municipal water and wastewater treatment system from a Lake Erie intake through potable treatment and back through wastewater treatment then discharge. The system boundary for this thesis includes onsite energy consumed by the treatment system and distribution/reclamation system as well as the energy consumed by the manufacturing of treatment chemicals applied during the study periods. By analyzing energy consumption, subsequent implications from greenhouse gas emissions and financial expenditures were quantified. Through the segregation of treatment and distribution processes from non-process energy consumption, such as heating, lighting, and air handling, this study identified that the potable water treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.42E+08 kBtu, spent 5,812,144 for treatment and distribution, and emitted 28,793 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. Likewise, the wastewater treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.45E+08 kBtu, spent 3,331,961 for reclamation and treatment, and emitted 43,780 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. The area with the highest energy usage, financial expenditure, and greenhouse gas emissions for the potable treatment facility and distribution system was from the manufacturing of the treatment chemicals, 1.10E+08 kBtu, 3.7 million, and 17,844 metric tons of CO2 equivalent, respectively. Of the onsite energy (1.4E-03 kWh per gallon

  13. Groundwater microbiological quality in Canadian drinking water municipal wells.

    PubMed

    Locas, Annie; Barthe, Christine; Margolin, Aaron B; Payment, Pierre

    2008-06-01

    To verify previous conclusions on the use of bacterial indicators suggested in regulations and to investigate virological quality of groundwater, a 1-year study was undertaken on groundwater used as a source of drinking water in 3 provinces in Canada. Raw water from 25 municipal wells was sampled during a 1-year period for a total of 167 samples. Twenty-three sites were selected on the basis of their excellent historical bacteriological water quality data, and 2 sites with known bacteriological contamination were selected as positive controls. Water samples were analyzed for general water quality indicators (aerobic endospores, total coliforms), fecal indicators (Escherichia coli, enterococci, somatic and male-specific coliphages), total culturable human enteric viruses (determined by cell culture and immunoperoxidase), noroviruses (analyzed by reverse-transcriptase -- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)), adenovirus types 40 and 41 (analyzed by integrated cell culture (ICC) - PCR), and enteroviruses and reoviruses types 1, 2, and 3 (analyzed by ICC-RT-PCR). General water quality indicators were found very occasionally at the clean sites but were frequently present at the 2 contaminated sites. Only one of 129 samples from the 23 clean sites was positive for enterococci. These results confirm the value of raw water quality historical data to detect source water contamination affecting wells that are vulnerable. Samples from the 2 contaminated sites confirmed the frequent presence of fecal indicators: E. coli was found in 20/38 samples and enterococci in 12/38 samples. Human enteric viruses were not detected by cell culture on MA-104 cells nor by immunoperoxidase detection in any sample from the clean sites but were found at one contaminated site. By ICC-RT-PCR and ICC-PCR, viruses were found by cytopathic effect in one sample from a clean site and they were found in 3 samples from contaminated sites. The viruses were not detected by the molecular methods but were

  14. The Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Cost Implications of Municipal Water Supply & Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Winter, Thelma

    All man-made structures and materials have a design life. Across the United States there is a common theme for our water and wastewater treatment facilities and infrastructure. The design life of many of our mid 20 th century water and wastewater infrastructures in the United States have reached or are reaching life expectancy limits (ASCE, 2010). To compound the financial crisis of keeping up with the degradation, meeting and exceeding quality standards has never been more important in order to protect local fresh water supplies. This thesis analyzes the energy consumption of a municipal water and wastewater treatment system from a Lake Erie intake through potable treatment and back through wastewater treatment then discharge. The system boundary for this thesis includes onsite energy consumed by the treatment system and distribution/reclamation system as well as the energy consumed by the manufacturing of treatment chemicals applied during the study periods. By analyzing energy consumption, subsequent implications from greenhouse gas emissions and financial expenditures were quantified. Through the segregation of treatment and distribution processes from non-process energy consumption, such as heating, lighting, and air handling, this study identified that the potable water treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.42E+08 kBtu, spent 5,812,144 for treatment and distribution, and emitted 28,793 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. Likewise, the wastewater treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.45E+08 kBtu, spent 3,331,961 for reclamation and treatment, and emitted 43,780 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. The area with the highest energy usage, financial expenditure, and greenhouse gas emissions for the potable treatment facility and distribution system was from the manufacturing of the treatment chemicals, 1.10E+08 kBtu, 3.7 million, and 17,844 metric tons of CO2 equivalent, respectively. Of the onsite energy (1.4E-03 kWh per gallon

  15. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  16. Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

    2013-03-06

    This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

  17. Water reclamation from emulsified oily wastewater via effective forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes under the PRO mode.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; de Wit, Jos S; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-09-15

    By using a novel hydrophilic cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) as the membrane material for the hollow fiber substrate and modifying its outer surface by polydopamine (PDA) coating and inner surface by interfacial polymerization, we have demonstrated that the thin-film composite (TFC) membranes can be effectively used for sustainable water reclamation from emulsified oil/water streams via forward osmosis (FO) under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode. The newly developed TFC-FO hollow fiber membrane shows characteristics of high water flux, outstanding salt and oil rejection, and low fouling propensity. Under the PRO mode, the newly developed TFC-FO membrane exhibits a water flux of 37.1 L m(-2) h(-1) with an oil rejection of 99.9% using a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion as the feed and 1 M NaCl as the draw solution. Remarkable anti-fouling behaviors have also been observed. Under the PRO mode, the water flux decline is only 10% of the initial value even after a 12 h test for oil/water separation. The water flux of the fouled membrane can be effectively restored to 97% of the original value by water rinses on the fiber outer surface without using any chemicals. Furthermore, the flux declines are only 25% and 52% when the water recovery of a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion and a 2000 ppm petroleum oil/water emulsion containing 0.04 M NaCl reaches 82%, respectively. This study may not only provide insightful guidelines for the fabrication of effective TFC-FO membranes with high performance and low fouling behaviors for oily wastewater under the PRO mode but also add an alternative perspective to the design of new materials for water purification purposes.

  18. Phosphorus removal mechanisms at the Yellow River Sweetwater Creek Water Reclamation Facility, Gwinnett County, Georgia. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Borowy, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    This research investigated the capabilities of the Yellow River Sweetwater Creek Water Reclamation Facility in Gwinnett County, GA. to remove phosphorus biologically. Phosphorus levels and removal locations were analyzed in plant operational units (sampling events), while in reactor experiments (pilot studies), waste was subjected to various conditions to promote-biological phosphorus release and uptake. Analysis of plant conditions at the time of experimentation indicates that one-half of the plant phosphorus removal is accomplished biologically through incorporation of phosphorus in microbial cells during growth. It does not appear, however, that enhanced biological phosphorus removal (BPR) is possible due to wastestream characteristics and/or microbial population. It was noted that the basic anaerobic-aerobic sequence associated with enhanced BPR appears to be occurring with the secondary clarifier sludge blanket and return to compartment A of the nitrification basin.

  19. Effect of reclamation on the structure of silty-clay soils irrigated with saline-sodic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, Giovanna; Lacolla, Giovanni; Pagliai, Marcello; Vignozzi, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate, by using the micromorphometric method, the effects of reclamation on porosity of two different clay loam soils irrigated with saline-sodic waters. Soil samples of the Ap horizon were put in cylindrical containers and irrigated with 9 types of saline-sodic waters (3 levels of salinity combined with 3 levels of sodicity). After a 4-year period, correction treatments were initiated by addition of calcium sulphate and leaching until electrical conductivity and sodium absorption ratio values of the drainage water matched 3 dS m-1 and 9, respectively. After 2 years of correction treatments, undisturbed soil samples were taken from the surface layer and soil thin sections for porosity measurements. Both soils did not show critical macroporosity values (> 10%, below this threshold a soil is classified as compact). Nevertheless, the soils exhibited a different behaviour: total porosity of the Pachic Haploxeroll soil was not affected by difference in water salinity and alkalinity; on the contrary, the Udertic Ustochrept soil showed a lower porosity associated with higher salt concentration in the irrigation waters. This may be due to the different iron and aluminium sesquioxides content and, as a consequence, a different effect on soil aggregate stability.

  20. Withdrawal and delivery of water by municipal supplies in Minnesota, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trotta, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Total withdrawal Statewide by municipal suppliers serving over 1,000 people was 108 billion gallons in 1993. Most of Minnesota's municipal deliveries were for residential purposes. About 87 percent of suppliers withdraw from ground-water and 13 percent withdraw from surface-water sources. Water withdrawn for public supply has steadily risen since 1955 and the increase has mainly come from ground water. Declines in per capita use since 1990 may be related to heavy rainfall, conservation measures, and the installation of more efficient water-using machines.

  1. Municipal ground-water development and withdrawals in the central Lower Peninsula of Michigan, 1870-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baltusis, M.A.; Quigley, M.F.; Mandle, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Municipal water-supply systems in the central Lower Peninsula of Michigan were categorized into four regions on the basis of source of water for 1987. These categories included water systems that obtained water from aquifers in glacial drift, bedrock, or both, as well as those that obtained water from surface-water sources. Data on ground-water development were collected for 182 municipal water-supply systems for the period 1870-1987. Of the 182 systems, 135 used ground water for supply. Wells in glacial-drift aquifers supplied water for 60 municipalities; wells in bedrock aquifers supplied 58 municipalities. Combinations of wells in bedrock and glacial-drift aquifers supplied 17 municipalities. Surface-water sources supplied 45 municipalities; two municipalities used surface water and ground water. Of the 182 municipal systems, withdrawal data were available for only 145. Withdrawal data were collected for the period 1903-1985. Analysis of annual ground-water withdrawal data for the 145 municipal water-supply systems indicates that average annual per capita municipal ground-water withdrawal ranged from 60 gallons per day per person in 1915 to 166 gallons per day per person in 1973. The maximum reported groundwater withdrawal for the area was 103 million gallons per day in 1979. Records from most municipalities include long periods for which no ground-water withdrawal data are available. The average annual per capita data among the municipalities varies over the period of record because of incomplete reporting of pumping rates, unusually high pumping rates, short-term economic changes, and other changes not associated with local population changes.

  2. Impact of using paper mill sludge for surface-mine reclamation on runoff water quality and plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Shipitalo, M.J.; Bonta, J.V.

    2008-11-15

    Paper mills generate large amounts of solid waste consisting of fibrous cellulose, clay, and lime. Paper mill Sludge (PMS) can improve reclamation of surface-coal mines where low pH and organic-carbon levels in the spoil cover material can inhibit revegetation. When applied at high rates, however, PMS may adversely impact the quality of surface runoff. Therefore, we applied PMS at 0, 224, and 672 dry Mg ha{sup -1} to 22.1 x 4.6-m plots at a recently mined site and monitored runoff for a total of 13 mo. The zero-rate plots served as controls and received standard reclamation consisting of mulching with hay and fertilization at planting. Compared to the control plots, PMS reduced runoff fourfold to sixfold and decreased erosion from 47 Mg ha{sup -1} to < 1 Mg ha{sup -1}. Most of the reduction occurred in the 2.5 mo before the plots were planted. Flow-weighted average dissolved oxygen concentrations in runoff from plots at the 224 and 672 Mg ha{sup -1} rates, however, were much lower ({<=} 0.4 vs. 8.2 mg L{sup -1}) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was much higher for the 672 Mg ha{sup -1} rate plots than the control plots during the pre-plant period (7229 vs. 880 mg L{sup -1}). There were few noteworthy differences in water quality among treatments post-planting, but plant dry-matter yields were greater for the PMS plots than for the controls. The 672 Mg ha{sup -1} rate did not increase COD or nutrient loads compared to the 224 Mg ha{sup -1} rate and may have more persistent beneficial effects by increasing soil organic carbon levels and pH to a greater extent.

  3. 43 CFR 404.21 - What is Reclamation's role in preparing the full proposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What is Reclamation's role in preparing the... OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.21 What is Reclamation's role in preparing the full proposal? (a) If you are requesting Reclamation...

  4. 77 FR 1687 - EPA Workshops on Achieving Water Quality Through Integrated Municipal Stormwater and Wastewater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... AGENCY EPA Workshops on Achieving Water Quality Through Integrated Municipal Stormwater and Wastewater Plans Under the Clean Water Act (CWA) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... water quality objectives of the CWA. The workshops are intended to assist EPA in developing...

  5. Municipal Water in Drought-Stricken California: Thinking Outside the Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiciga, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Our work reviews the key climatic and cultural factors behind water scarcity in drought-stricken regions of the world, in general, and California in particular. Long-term climatic data, instrumental and tree ring-based, are analyzed to ascertain patterns of drought recurrence, length, and severity in California. Municipal water delivery is examined to identify essential and unessential water uses, showing how water use is governed by unsustainable cultural practices, and how it responds to conservation initiatives and pricing. Lastly, unconventional means to increase municipal are investigated, mainly the recycling of municipal sewage. The supply-side and economic implications of using recycled sewage as a potable water source are compared with those pertinent to seawater desalination.

  6. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Durability of changes in phosphorus compounds in water of an urban lake after application of two reclamation methods.

    PubMed

    Grochowska, Jolanta; Brzozowska, Renata; Lopata, Michał

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted on Długie Lake (area 26.8 ha, maximum depth 17.3 m), located in the town of Olsztyn, in north-eastern Poland (the Masurian Lake District). For 20 years starting in the 1950s, Długie Lake was used as a receiver of raw domestic and storm sewage in quantities oscillating between 350 and 400 m(3) day(-1). This led to complete degradation of the lake, known as saprotrophy. After some preliminary protective treatments in the catchment, the lake has been renewed by artificial aeration with thermal destratification and the phosphorus inactivation methods. Long-term reclamation of the reservoir has resulted in distinct and durable improvement of water quality. Before the restoration, the average phosphorus concentration in the surface water layer was 0.079 mg P L(-1) and in the over-bottom water it reached 2.277 mg P L(-1). The total phosphorus (TP) level also was very high, i.e. up to 3.5 mg P L(-1). After the restoration, these values have declined to 0.001-0.017 mg P L(-1) in the case of mineral P, and the current TP concentrations do not exceed 0.350 mg P L(-1).

  9. Surface coal mine land reclamation using a dry flue gas desulfurization product: Short-term and long-term water responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liming; Stehouwer, Richard; Tong, Xiaogang; Kost, Dave; Bigham, Jerry M; Dick, Warren A

    2015-09-01

    Abandoned coal-mined lands are a worldwide concern due to their potential negative environmental impacts, including erosion and development of acid mine drainage. A field study investigated the use of a dry flue gas desulfurization product for reclamation of abandoned coal mined land in USA. Treatments included flue gas desulfurization product at a rate of 280 Mg ha(-1) (FGD), FGD at the same rate plus 112 Mg ha(-1) yard waste compost (FGD/C), and conventional reclamation that included 20 cm of re-soil material plus 157 Mg ha(-1) of agricultural limestone (SOIL). A grass-legume sward was planted after treatment applications. Chemical properties of surface runoff and tile water (collected from a depth of 1.2m below the ground surface) were measured over both short-term (1-4 yr) and long-term (14-20 yr) periods following reclamation. The pH of surface runoff water was increased from approximately 3, and then sustained at 7 or higher by all treatments for up to 20 yr, and the pH of tile flow water was also increased and sustained above 5 for 20 yr. Compared with SOIL, concentrations of Ca, S and B in surface runoff and tile flow water were generally increased by the treatments with FGD product in both short- and long-term measurements and concentrations of the trace elements were generally not statistically increased in surface runoff and tile flow water over the 20-yr period. However, concentrations of As, Ba, Cr and Hg were occasionally elevated. These results suggest the use of FGD product for remediating acidic surface coal mined sites can provide effective, long-term reclamation.

  10. Surface coal mine land reclamation using a dry flue gas desulfurization product: Short-term and long-term water responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liming; Stehouwer, Richard; Tong, Xiaogang; Kost, Dave; Bigham, Jerry M; Dick, Warren A

    2015-09-01

    Abandoned coal-mined lands are a worldwide concern due to their potential negative environmental impacts, including erosion and development of acid mine drainage. A field study investigated the use of a dry flue gas desulfurization product for reclamation of abandoned coal mined land in USA. Treatments included flue gas desulfurization product at a rate of 280 Mg ha(-1) (FGD), FGD at the same rate plus 112 Mg ha(-1) yard waste compost (FGD/C), and conventional reclamation that included 20 cm of re-soil material plus 157 Mg ha(-1) of agricultural limestone (SOIL). A grass-legume sward was planted after treatment applications. Chemical properties of surface runoff and tile water (collected from a depth of 1.2m below the ground surface) were measured over both short-term (1-4 yr) and long-term (14-20 yr) periods following reclamation. The pH of surface runoff water was increased from approximately 3, and then sustained at 7 or higher by all treatments for up to 20 yr, and the pH of tile flow water was also increased and sustained above 5 for 20 yr. Compared with SOIL, concentrations of Ca, S and B in surface runoff and tile flow water were generally increased by the treatments with FGD product in both short- and long-term measurements and concentrations of the trace elements were generally not statistically increased in surface runoff and tile flow water over the 20-yr period. However, concentrations of As, Ba, Cr and Hg were occasionally elevated. These results suggest the use of FGD product for remediating acidic surface coal mined sites can provide effective, long-term reclamation. PMID:26001939

  11. Arsenic occurrence in drinking water supply systems in ten municipalities in Vojvodina Region, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Dragana; Jakovljević, Branko; Rašić-Milutinović, Zorica; Paunović, Katarina; Peković, Gordana; Knezević, Tanja

    2011-02-01

    Vojvodina, a northern region of Serbia, belongs to the Pannonian Basin, whose aquifers contain high concentrations of arsenic. This study represents arsenic levels in drinking water in ten municipalities in Serbia. Around 63% of all water samples exceeded Serbian and European standards for arsenic in drinking water. Large variations in arsenic were observed among supply systems. Arsenic concentrations in public water supply systems in Vojvodina were much higher than in other countries in the Pannonian Basin.

  12. PCR-based quantitation of Cryptosporidium parvum in municipal water samples.

    PubMed

    Chung, E; Aldom, J E; Carreno, R A; Chagla, A H; Kostrzynska, M; Lee, H; Palmateer, G; Trevors, J T; Unger, S; Xu, R; De Grandis, S A

    1999-10-01

    A PCR method for the quantitation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in municipal drinking water samples was investigated. Quantitative PCR uses an internal standard (IS) template with unknown target numbers to compare to standards of known concentrations in a standard curve. The IS template was amplified using the same primers used to amplify a portion of a 358 bp gene fragment that encodes a repetitive oocyst wall protein in C. parvum. Municipal water samples spiked with known numbers of C. parvum oocysts were tested by quantitative PCR using the IS and the Digene SHARP Signal System Assay for PCR product detection. The absorbance readings for target DNA and IS templates versus the number of molecules of the target DNA were plotted to generate standard curves for estimating oocyst numbers. The method allowed the quantitation of oocysts from log 3 to log 5 spiked into municipal water samples.

  13. Nuclear decontamination technology evaluation to address contamination of a municipal water system

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.; Langsted, J.; Young, M.; Porcon, J.; Day, E.

    2007-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are considering the impact and recovery from contamination of municipal water systems, including intentional contamination of those systems. Industrial chemicals, biological agents, drugs, pesticides, chemical warfare agents, and radionuclides all could be introduced into a municipal water system to create detrimental health effects and disrupt a community. Although unintentional, the 1993 cryptosporidium contamination of the Milwaukee WS water system resulted in 100 fatalities and disrupted the city for weeks. Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Inc, (Shaw), as a subcontractor on a DHS contract with Michael Baker Jr., Inc., was responsible for evaluation of the impact and recovery from radionuclide contamination in a municipal water system distribution system. Shaw was tasked to develop a matrix of nuclear industry decontamination technologies and evaluate applicability to municipal water systems. Shaw expanded the evaluation to include decontamination methods commonly used in the drinking water supply. The matrix compared all technologies for implementability, effectiveness, and cost. To address the very broad range of contaminants and contamination scenarios, Shaw bounded the problem by identification of specific contaminant release scenario(s) for specific water system architecture(s). A decontamination technology matrix was developed containing fifty-nine decontamination technologies potentially applicable to the water distribution system piping, pumps, tanks, associated equipment, and/or contaminated water. Qualitatively, the majority of the nuclear industry decontamination technologies were eliminated from consideration due to implementability concerns. However, inclusion of the municipal water system technologies supported recommendations that combined the most effective approaches in both industries. (authors)

  14. Modeling indoor odor-odorant concentrations and the relative humidity effect on odor perception at a water reclamation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingting; Sattayatewa, Chakkrid; Venkatesan, Dhesikan; Noll, Kenneth E.; Pagilla, Krishna R.; Moschandreas, Demetrios J.

    2011-12-01

    Models formulated to associate odors and odorants in many industrial and agricultural fields ignore the potential effect of relative humidity on odor perception, and are not validated. This study addresses literature limitations by formulating a model that includes relative humidity and by validating the model. The model employs measured paired values, n = 102, of indoor odors and odorants from freshly dewatered biosolids in a post-digestion dewatering building of a Water Reclamation Plant (WRP). A random sub-sample of n = 32 is used to validate the model by associating predicted vs. measured values ( R2 = 0.90). The model is validated again with a smaller independent database from a second WRP ( R2 = 0.85). Moreover this study asserts that reduction of hydrogen sulfide concentrations, conventionally used as a surrogate of sewage odors, to acceptable levels does not assure acceptable odor levels. It is concluded that: (1) The addition of relative humidity results in a stronger association between odors and odorants than the use of H 2S alone; (2) the two step model validation indicates that the model is not simply site-specific but can be applied to similar facilities; and (3) the model is a promising tool for designing odor and odorant control strategies, the ultimate goal of engineering studies.

  15. Bacterial profiling in brine samples of the Emalahleni Water Reclamation Plant, South Africa, using 454-pyrosequencing method.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Sudharshan; Zintchem, Armand A E A; Keshri, Jitendra; Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, Maggy N B

    2014-10-01

    A metagenomic approach was applied using 454-pyrosequencing data analysis for the profiling of bacterial communities in the brine samples of the water reclamation plant. Some physicochemical characteristics of brine samples were also determined using standard methods. Samples ranged from being lightly alkaline to highly alkaline (pH 7.40-10.91) throughout the various treatment stages, with the salinity ranging from 1.62 to 4.53 g L(-1) and dissolved oxygen concentrations ranging from 7.47 to 9.12 mg L(-1). Phenotypic switching was found to occur due to these physicochemical parameters. Microbial diversities increased from those present in Stage I reactor (six taxonomic groups) to those in Reverse Osmosis (RO) stage I (17 taxonomic groups), whereas in the second phase of the treatment, it increased in Stage II clarifier (14 taxonomic groups) followed by a decrease in RO stage II (seven taxonomic groups). Overall, seven phyla were detected, apart from many bacterial sequences that were unclassified at the phylum level. The most dominant phylum found was Proteobacteria accounting for 59% of the total sequences. A blastn sequence similarity search showed that the majority of the sequences (56%) were homologous to the uncultured bacterial species, underlining the vast untapped bacterial diversity.

  16. Bacterial profiling in brine samples of the Emalahleni Water Reclamation Plant, South Africa, using 454-pyrosequencing method.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Sudharshan; Zintchem, Armand A E A; Keshri, Jitendra; Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, Maggy N B

    2014-10-01

    A metagenomic approach was applied using 454-pyrosequencing data analysis for the profiling of bacterial communities in the brine samples of the water reclamation plant. Some physicochemical characteristics of brine samples were also determined using standard methods. Samples ranged from being lightly alkaline to highly alkaline (pH 7.40-10.91) throughout the various treatment stages, with the salinity ranging from 1.62 to 4.53 g L(-1) and dissolved oxygen concentrations ranging from 7.47 to 9.12 mg L(-1). Phenotypic switching was found to occur due to these physicochemical parameters. Microbial diversities increased from those present in Stage I reactor (six taxonomic groups) to those in Reverse Osmosis (RO) stage I (17 taxonomic groups), whereas in the second phase of the treatment, it increased in Stage II clarifier (14 taxonomic groups) followed by a decrease in RO stage II (seven taxonomic groups). Overall, seven phyla were detected, apart from many bacterial sequences that were unclassified at the phylum level. The most dominant phylum found was Proteobacteria accounting for 59% of the total sequences. A blastn sequence similarity search showed that the majority of the sequences (56%) were homologous to the uncultured bacterial species, underlining the vast untapped bacterial diversity. PMID:25168269

  17. Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    Landfill reclamation is the process of excavating a solid waste landfill to recover materials, reduce environmental impacts, restore the land resource, and, in some cases, extend landfill life. Using conventional surface mining techniques and specialized separation equipment, a landfill may be separated into recyclable material, combustible material, a soil/compost fraction and residual waste. A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified. The results indicate that, although dependent on site-specific conditions and economic factors, landfill reclamation can be a technically and economically feasible alternative or companion to conventional landfill closure under a range of favorable conditions. Feasibility can be determined only after an investigation of the variety of landfill conditions and reclamation options.

  18. A rill erosion-vegetation modeling approach for the evaluation of slope reclamation success in water-limited environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Diaz Sierra, Ruben; Nicolau, Jose M.; Zavala, Miguel A.

    2013-04-01

    Slope reclamation from surface mining and road construction usually shows important constraints in water-limited environments. Soil erosion is perceived as a critical process, especially when rill formation occurs, as rills can condition the spatial distribution and availability of soil moisture for plant growth, hence affecting vegetation development. On the other hand, encouraging early vegetation establishment is essential to reduce the risk of degradation in these man-made systems. This work describes a modeling approach focused on stability analysis of water-limited reclaimed slopes, where interactive relationships between rill erosion and vegetation regulate ecosystem stability. Our framework reproduces two main groups of trends along the temporal evolution of reclaimed slopes: successful trends, characterized by widespread vegetation development and the effective control of rill erosion processes; and gullying trends, characterized by the progressive loss of vegetation and a sharp logistic increase in erosion rates. Furthermore, this analytical approach allows the determination of threshold values for both vegetation cover and rill erosion that drive the system's stability, facilitating the identification of critical situations that require specific human intervention (e.g. revegetation or, in very problematic cases, revegetation combined with rill network destruction) to ensure the long-term sustainability of the restored ecosystem. We apply our threshold analysis framework in Mediterranean-dry reclaimed slopes derived form surface coal mining (the Teruel coalfield in central-east Spain), obtaining a good field-based performance. Therefore, we believe that this model is a valuable contribution for the management of water-limited reclaimed systems, as it can play an important role in decision-making during ecosystem restoration and provides a tool for the assessment of restoration success in severely disturbed landscapes.

  19. Tree-Substrate Water Relations and Root Development in Tree Plantations Used for Mine Tailings Reclamation.

    PubMed

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, Marie; Bussière, Bruno; Pednault, Carl

    2016-05-01

    Tree water uptake relies on well-developed root systems. However, mine wastes can restrict root growth, in particular metalliferous mill tailings, which consist of the finely crushed ore that remains after valuable metals are removed. Thus, water stress could limit plantation success in reclaimed mine lands. This study evaluates the effect of substrates varying in quality (topsoil, overburden, compost and tailings mixture, and tailings alone) and quantity (50- or 20-cm-thick topsoil layer vs. 1-m plantation holes) on root development and water stress exposure of trees planted in low-sulfide mine tailings under boreal conditions. A field experiment was conducted over 2 yr with two tree species: basket willow ( L.) and hybrid poplar ( Moench × A. Henry). Trees developed roots in the tailings underlying the soil treatments despite tailings' low macroporosity. However, almost no root development occurred in tailings underlying a compost and tailings mixture. Because root development and associated water uptake was not limited to the soil, soil volume influenced neither short-term (water potential and instantaneous transpiration) nor long-term (δC) water stress exposure in trees. However, trees were larger and had greater total leaf area when grown in thicker topsoil. Despite a volumetric water content that always remained above permanent wilting point in the tailings colonized by tree roots, measured foliar water potentials at midday were lower than drought thresholds reported for both tested tree species.

  20. Tree-Substrate Water Relations and Root Development in Tree Plantations Used for Mine Tailings Reclamation.

    PubMed

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, Marie; Bussière, Bruno; Pednault, Carl

    2016-05-01

    Tree water uptake relies on well-developed root systems. However, mine wastes can restrict root growth, in particular metalliferous mill tailings, which consist of the finely crushed ore that remains after valuable metals are removed. Thus, water stress could limit plantation success in reclaimed mine lands. This study evaluates the effect of substrates varying in quality (topsoil, overburden, compost and tailings mixture, and tailings alone) and quantity (50- or 20-cm-thick topsoil layer vs. 1-m plantation holes) on root development and water stress exposure of trees planted in low-sulfide mine tailings under boreal conditions. A field experiment was conducted over 2 yr with two tree species: basket willow ( L.) and hybrid poplar ( Moench × A. Henry). Trees developed roots in the tailings underlying the soil treatments despite tailings' low macroporosity. However, almost no root development occurred in tailings underlying a compost and tailings mixture. Because root development and associated water uptake was not limited to the soil, soil volume influenced neither short-term (water potential and instantaneous transpiration) nor long-term (δC) water stress exposure in trees. However, trees were larger and had greater total leaf area when grown in thicker topsoil. Despite a volumetric water content that always remained above permanent wilting point in the tailings colonized by tree roots, measured foliar water potentials at midday were lower than drought thresholds reported for both tested tree species. PMID:27136172

  1. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality at a land reclamation site, Neshaminy State Park, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blickwedel, Ray S.; Linn, Jeff H.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of ground-water samples collected after the first two sludge applications (120 tons per acre and 450 tons per acre), indicate that no significant change occurred in the chemistry of the samples from the Trenton gravel, whereas organic nitrogen increased temporarily in ground water from the dredge spoil 6 months after the larger of the two sludge applications, but quickly returned to background levels. The lack of chemical change with time in the ground water implies either that little of the more than 100 inches of precipitation that fell from April 1983 through March 1985 reached the water table or, more likely, that a mechanism exists beneath the soil- factory site that retards or prevents the downard migration of contaminants.

  2. Development of a two-stage membrane-based wash-water reclamation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, S. B.

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage membrane-based subsystem was designed and constructed to enable the recycle of wash waters generated in space. The first stage is a fouling-resistant tube-side-feed hollow-fiber ultrafiltration module, and the second stage is a spiral-wound reverse-osmosis module. Throughout long-term tests, the subsystem consistently produced high-quality permeate, processing actual wash water to 95 percent recovery.

  3. Analysis of alternative modifications for reducing backwater flooding at the Honey Creek coal strip-mine reclamation site in Henry County, Missouri. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Studies to determine the hydrologic conditions in mined and reclaimed mine areas, as well as areas of proposed mining, have become necessary with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Honey Creek in Henry County, Missouri, has been re-routed to flow through a series of former strip mining pits which lie within the Honey Creek coal strip mine reclamation site. During intense or long duration rainfalls within the Honey Creek basin, surface runoff has caused flooding on agricultural land near the upstream boundary of the reclamation site. The calculated existing design discharge (3,050 cubic feet per second) water-surface profile is compared to the expected water-surface profiles from three assumed alternative channel modifcations within the Honey Creek study area. The alternative channel modifications used in these analyses include (1) improvement of channel bottom slope, (2) relocation of spoil material, and (3) improved by-pass channel flow conditions. The alternative 1, 2, and 3 design discharge increase will reduce the agricultural field current (1990) frequency of backwater flooding from a 3-year to a 6.5-year event.

  4. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants. PMID:24269825

  5. Combination of an electrolytic pretreatment unit with secondary water reclamation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, G. W.; Bonura, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a flight concept prototype electrolytic pretreatment unit (EPU) and of a contractor-furnished air evaporation unit (AEU) are described. The integrated EPU and AEU potable water recovery system is referred to as the Electrovap and is capable of processing the urine and flush water of a six-man crew. Results of a five-day performance verification test of the Electrovap system are presented and plans are included for the extended testing of the Electrovap to produce data applicable to the combination of electrolytic pretreatment with most final potable water recovery systems. Plans are also presented for a program to define the design requirements for combining the electrolytic pretreatment unit with a reverse osmosis final processing unit.

  6. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants.

  7. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  8. Effect of Municipal Wastewater as a Wetland Water Source on Soil Microbial Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial activity, as determined by CO2 evolution, was compared between two soils irrigated with either municipal wastewater effluent or Missouri River water. Irrigation of soils was conducted in greenhouse microcosms with irrigation timing and quantity designed to simulate wetland moist-soil mana...

  9. Pharmaceutical occurrence in groundwater and surface waters in forests land-applied with municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    McEachran, Andrew D; Shea, Damian; Bodnar, Wanda; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment are of increasing public importance because of their ubiquitous nature and documented effects on wildlife, ecosystems, and potentially humans. One potential, yet undefined, source of entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment is via the land application of municipal wastewater onto permitted lands. The objective of the present study is to determine the extent to which pharmaceuticals are mitigated by or exported from managed tree plantations irrigated with municipal wastewater. A specific focus of the present study is the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater and surface water discharge. The study site is a municipality that land-applies secondary treated wastewater onto 930 hectares of a 2000-hectare managed hardwood and pine plantation. A suite of 33 pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones was targeted in the analysis, which consisted of monthly grab sampling of groundwater, surface water, and wastewater, followed by concentration and cleanup via solid phase extraction and separation, detection, and quantification via liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. More than one-half of all compounds detected in irrigated wastewater were not present in groundwater and subsequent surface water. However, antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, caffeine, and other prescription and over-the-counter drugs remained in groundwater and were transported into surface water at concentrations up to 10 ng/L. These results provide important documentation for pharmaceutical fate and transport in forest systems irrigated with municipal wastewater, a previously undocumented source of environmental entry. PMID:26297815

  10. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSKS COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR ESTIMATING BIOTA EXPOSURE IN RECEIVING WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials and consumed in very large quantities worldwide. Due to their high use and release, they have become ubiquitous in the environment. We analyzed water samples from the confluence of three municipal...

  11. Reclamation of highly calcareous saline-sodic soil using low quality water and phosphogypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaibeh, M. A.; Rusan, M. J.; Eltaif, N. I.; Shunnar, O. F.

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of two amendments in reclaiming saline sodic soil using moderately saline (EC) and moderate sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) canal water was investigated. Phosphogypsum (PG) and reagent grade calcium chloride were applied to packed sandy loam soil columns and leached with canal water (SAR = 4, and EC = 2.16 dS m-1). Phosphogypsum was mixed with top soil prior to leaching at application rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 40 Mg ha-1, whereas calcium chloride was dissolved directly in water at equivalent rates of 4.25, 8.5, 12.75, 17.0, 21.25, 29.75, and 34 Mg ha-1, respectively. Both amendments efficiently reduced soil salinity and sodicity. Calcium chloride removed 90 % of the total Na and soluble salts whereas PG removed 79 and 60 %, respectively. Exchangeable sodium percentage was reduced by 90 % in both amendments. Results indicated that during cation exchange reactions most of the sodium was removed when effluent SAR was at maximum. Phosphogypsum has lower total costs than calcium chloride and as an efficient amendment an application of 30 Mg ha-1 and leaching with 4 pore volume (PV) of canal water could be recommended to reclaim the studied soil.

  12. Reclamation of Water Polluted with Flubendiamide Residues by Photocatalytic Treatment with Semiconductor Oxides.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, José; Vela, Nuria; Garrido, Isabel; Navarro, Ginés; Pérez-Lucas, Gabriel; Navarro, Simón

    2015-01-01

    The photodegradation of flubendiamide (benzenedicarboxamide insecticide), a relatively new insecticide was investigated in aqueous suspensions binary (ZnO of and TiO2 ) and ternary (Zn2 TiO4 and ZnTiO3 ) oxides under artificial light (300-460 nm) irradiation. Photocatalytic experiments showed that the addition of semiconductors, especially ZnO and TiO2 , in tandem with an electron acceptor (Na2 S2 O8 ) enhances the degradation rate of this compound in comparison with those carried out with catalyst alone and photolytic tests. The photocatalytical degradation of flubendiamide using ZnO/Na2 S2 O8 and TiO2 /Na2 S2 O8 followed first-order kinetics. In addition, desiodo-flubendiamide was identified during the degradation of flubendiamide. Finally, application of these reaction systems in different waters (tap, leaching and watercourse) showed the validity of the treatments, which allowed the removal of flubendiamide residues in these drinking and environmental water samples.

  13. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  14. Alternatives for reducing nitrate in municipal water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Guter, G.A.; Kartinen, E.O. )

    1989-01-01

    A project to reduce nitrate levels in drinking water supplied to the community of McFarland, California is described. Intense irrigation of the surrounding area subjects the community to ground water pollution from agricultural chemicals and by products. Nitrates ranged from 40 to 100mg/L (as NO3) in water supplied from wells. Costs and operational data of a 1 mgd ion exchange plant are presented. Costs and data for a recently constructed 1 mgd plant are also reviewed. Data from other nitrate plants now under construction are presented. Future research involving the use of nitrate selective resins and waste brine recovery and recycling is reviewed.

  15. Impact of using paper mill sludge for surface-mine reclamation on runoff water quality and plant growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paper mills generate large amounts of solid waste consisting of a mixture of fibrous cellulose, clay, and lime. Paper mill sludge (PMS) can be used to improve reclamation of surface coal mines where low pH and organic matter levels in the soil material used to cover the spoil can inhibit reestablish...

  16. Application of a fully-integrated groundwater-surface water flow model in municipal asset management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. K.; Unger, A.; Jones, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Access to affordable potable water is critical in the development and maintenance of urban centres. Given that water is a public good in Canada, all funds related to operation and maintenance of the drinking water and wastewater networks must come from consumers. An asset management system can be put in place by municipalities to more efficiently manage their water and wastewater distribution system to ensure proper use of these funds. The system works at the operational, tactical, and strategic levels, thus ensuring optimal scheduling of operation and maintenance activities, as well as prediction of future water demand scenarios. At the operational level, a fully integrated model is used to simulate the groundwater-surface water interaction of the Laurel Creek Watershed, of which 80% is urbanized by the City of Waterloo. Canadian municipalities typically lose 13% of their potable water through leaks in watermains and sanitary sewers, and sanitary sewers often generate substantial inflows from fractures in pipe walls. The City of Waterloo sanitary sewers carry an additional 10,000 cubic meters of water to wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, watermain and sanitary sewers present a significant impact on the groundwater-surface water interaction, as well as the affordability of the drinking water and wastewater networks as a whole. To determine areas of concern within the network, the integrated groundwater-surface water model also simulates flow through the City of Waterloo's watermain and sanitary sewer networks. The final model will be used to assess the interaction between measured losses of water from the City of Waterloo's watermain system, infiltration into the sanitary sewer system adjacent to the watermains, and the response of the groundwater system to deteriorated sanitary sewers or to pipes that have been recently renovated. This will ultimately contribute to the City of Waterloo's municipal asset management plan.

  17. System dynamics modeling for municipal water demand estimation in an urban region under uncertain economic impacts.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cheng; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2011-06-01

    Accurate prediction of municipal water demand is critically important to water utilities in fast-growing urban regions for drinking water system planning, design, and water utility asset management. Achieving the desired prediction accuracy is challenging, however, because the forecasting model must simultaneously consider a variety of factors associated with climate changes, economic development, population growth and migration, and even consumer behavioral patterns. Traditional forecasting models such as multivariate regression and time series analysis, as well as advanced modeling techniques (e.g., expert systems and artificial neural networks), are often applied for either short- or long-term water demand projections, yet few can adequately manage the dynamics of a water supply system because of the limitations in modeling structures. Potential challenges also arise from a lack of long and continuous historical records of water demand and its dependent variables. The objectives of this study were to (1) thoroughly review water demand forecasting models over the past five decades, and (2) propose a new system dynamics model to reflect the intrinsic relationship between water demand and macroeconomic environment using out-of-sample estimation for long-term municipal water demand forecasts in a fast-growing urban region. This system dynamics model is based on a coupled modeling structure that takes into account the interactions among economic and social dimensions, offering a realistic platform for practical use. Practical implementation of this water demand forecasting tool was assessed by using a case study under the most recent alternate fluctuations of economic boom and downturn environments.

  18. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Belle Fourche Reclamation Project, western South Dakota, 1988-89. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Roddy, W.R.; Greene, E.A.; Sowards, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior initiated nine reconnaissance investigations during 1986-87 in response to nationwide concern about harmful effects of irrigation drainage on human health, fish, and wildlife. The investigation of the Belle Fourche Reclamation Project in western South Dakota is one of ten additional reconnaissance investigations conducted during 1988-89. The U.S. Geological Survey collected a total of thirty surface-water-quality samples during April, June, August, and October 1988. Six to ten sites were sampled during each sampling period. An additional 40 surface-water-quality samples were collected at three of the sites during October 1987 through April 1989, and these results are included in the discussion. Bottom sediment was collected at eight of the ten water-sampling sites. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected fish samples at three sites during the spring and fall; samples of bird livers and bird eggs were collected at five sites during the summer; and samples of benthic invertebrates and aquatic plants were collected at six sites during the summer.

  19. Effects of municipal ground-water withdrawals on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, M.E.; Bergman, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma consists of a thick sequence of folded and faulted carbonate and clastic rocks of Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age. Fractures and karst features locally increase the aquifer's capacity to transmit and store ground water. The aquifer is a principal source of water for municipal and rural users. A hydrologic study was conducted to evaluate the effects of municipal ground-water withdrawal from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer on local ground-water levels and discharge from nearby springs and streams in south-central Pontotoc County. A municipal well was pumped for 63 hours at an average rate of 1,170 gallons per minute. A maximum observed drawdown of 0.3 feet was recorded half a mile from the pumping well. Drawdown was observed as far as 1.2 miles from the pumping well. No measurable response was observed at any of the surface-water-discharge measurement sites; however, recharge from precipitation may have masked any decreases in discharge caused by the pumping. Simultaneous pumping of two municipal wells for 241 hours at average rates of 1,170 and 2,730 gallons per minute resulted in a maximum observed drawdown of 1.3 feet recorded at an average distance of 0.80 miles from the pumping wells. The most distant drawdown observed was at an average distance 1.1 miles from the pumped wells. Less that 2 days after pumping stopped, increases in springflow were recorded at two springs; it is unknown whether these discharge responses reflect the effects of recharge from precipitation, or the combined effects of precipitation and the cessation of ground-water withdrawal. The effects of the stress tests on the hydrologic system were offset by recharge from concurrent precipitation. The maximum observed drawdown represents about 6 percent of the median natural water-level fluctuation during the study period. The effect of drawdown could become critical during extended periods of low precipitation, if water levels are

  20. 43 CFR 404.21 - What is Reclamation's role in preparing the full proposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is Reclamation's role in preparing... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.21 What is Reclamation's role in preparing the full proposal? (a) If you are requesting...

  1. 43 CFR 404.21 - What is Reclamation's role in preparing the full proposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is Reclamation's role in preparing... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.21 What is Reclamation's role in preparing the full proposal? (a) If you are requesting...

  2. 43 CFR 404.21 - What is Reclamation's role in preparing the full proposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is Reclamation's role in preparing... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.21 What is Reclamation's role in preparing the full proposal? (a) If you are requesting...

  3. 43 CFR 404.21 - What is Reclamation's role in preparing the full proposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is Reclamation's role in preparing... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.21 What is Reclamation's role in preparing the full proposal? (a) If you are requesting...

  4. Municipal Wastewater: A Rediscovered Resource for Sustainable Water Reuse

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both population growth and movement puts forth the need for increased regional water supplies across the globe. While significant progress has been made in the area of building new infrastructure to capture freshwater and divert it to urban and rural areas, there exists a consid...

  5. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  6. A communitywide outbreak of giardiasis with evidence of transmission by a municipal water supply.

    PubMed

    Shaw, P K; Brodsky, R E; Lyman, D O; Wood, B T; Hibler, C P; Healy, G R; Macleod, K I; Stahl, W; Schultz, M G

    1977-10-01

    Three hundred fifty residents of Rome, New York, had laboratory-confirmed cases of giardiasis between 1 November 1974 and 7 June 1975. A random household survey showed an overall attack rate for giardiasis (defined as a diarrheal illness of 5 days or more) of 10.6%. A significant association was discovered between having giardiasis and using city water and between having illness and drinking 1 or more glasses of water a day. The presence of human settlements in the Rome watershed area suggested that the water supply could have been contaminated by untreated human waste. The infectivity of municipal water was confirmed by producing giardiasis in specific pathogen-free dogs fed sediment samples of raw water obtained from an inlet of a city reservoir. A microscopic examination of the water sediments uncovered a Giardia lamblia cyst in one sample. This was the first time that a G. lamblia cyst has been found in municipal water in an epidemic and the first time that such water has been shown to infect laboratory animals.

  7. Kinetic analysis for destruction of municipal sewage sludge and alcohol distillery wastewater by supercritical water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Motonobu; Nada, Takatsugu; Kodama, Akio; Hirose, Tsutomu

    1999-05-01

    Supercritical water oxidation was applied to the destruction of municipal excess sewage sludge and alcohol distillery wastewater of molasses. The reaction was carried out in a batch reactor with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant in the temperature range 673--773 K. Total organic carbon was measured as a function of reaction time. The dynamic data were analyzed by a first-order reaction model. The reaction rate constant coincides with those reported in the literature.

  8. [Screening of water retention agent for moisture content regulation in the biocover of municipal landfill].

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen-jing; Mou, Zi-shen; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Hong-tao; Zhao, Chen-xi

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic materials of polyacrylamide (PAM) are known as the flocculating agent as well as water retention agents. In this study, ten types of water-soluble PAM as well as four types of water-insoluble ones were selected and the influences of relative molecular weight, ion types, charge density and particle size on water retention and service life were determined. Based on the results, evaluation method for performance of water retention agent was established and two optimal PAM (water-insoluble JB and water-soluble WSN20) were screened for further study. It showed that JB increased the degree of hydration of testing soil for 32% compared with that of control. Moreover, multiple-step-outflow test using municipal waste showed that addition of JB (0.1%) had significantly effect on its moisture characteristic curve as evidenced by increasing of equilibrium moisture content over 12% under high matrix potential.

  9. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  10. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former. PMID:21214028

  11. 31 CFR 240.9 - Reclamation procedures; reclamation protests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation procedures; reclamation... OF CHECKS DRAWN ON THE UNITED STATES TREASURY General Provisions § 240.9 Reclamation procedures; reclamation protests. (a) Reclamation procedures. (1) Treasury will send a “REQUEST FOR REFUND...

  12. Evaluation of the effects of coal-mine reclamation on water quality in Big Four Hollow near Lake Hope, southeastern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    A subsurface clay dike and mine-entrance hydraulic seals were constructed from July 1979 through May 1980 by the Ohio Department if Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation to reduce acidic mine drainage from abandoned drift-mine complex 88 into Big Four Hollow Creek. Big Four Hollow Creek flows into Sandy Run--the major tributary to Lake Hope. A data-collection program was established in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate effects of drift-mine sealing on surface-water systems of the Big Four Hollow Creek and Sandy Run area just below the mine. Data collected by private consultants from 1970 through 1971 near the mouth of Big Four Hollow Creek (U.S. Geological Survey station 03201700) show that pH ranged from 2.7 to 4.8, with a median of 3.1. The calculated iron load was 50 pounds per day. Data collecetd near the mouth of Big Four Hollow Creek (station 03201700) from 1971 through 1979 (before dike construction) show the daily pH ranged from 2.1 to 6.7; the median was 3.6. The daily specific conduction ranged from 72 to 3,500 microsiements per centimeter at 25? Celsius and averaged 770. The estimated loads of chemical constituents were: Sulfate, 1,100 pounds per day: iron, 54 pounds per day: and manganese, 12 pounds per day. All postconstruction data collected at station 03201700 through the end of the project, May 1980 through June 30, 1983, show that the daily pH ranged from 2.4 to 7.7, with a median of 3.7. Daily specific conductance ranged from 87 to 3,200 microsiemens per centimeter and averaged 1,200. The estimated loads of chemical constituents for this period were: Sulfate, 1,000 pounds per day: iron, 44 pounds per day: and manganese, 16 pounds per day. Standard nonparametric statistical tests were performed on the data collected before and after reclamation. Differences at the 95-percent confidence level were found in the before- and after-reclamation data sets for specific conductance, aluminum, and manganese at station 03201700. Data

  13. Quality and stability analysis for the rainfall water and surface runoff water in southeast region of Beijing Municipality.

    PubMed

    Hao, Rui-Xia; Zhou, Yu-Wen; Liang, Peng; Wang, Ming-Ming; Zhao, Su-Qi; Ding, Yao-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    In this study, water sampling was carried out extensively through collection of natural rainfall and municipal surface runoff water samples in the southeast region of Beijing Municipality during the period of June 2002 to July 2004. Chemical tests and measurements of collected water samples were conducted in the laboratory in order to evaluate rainwater quality and to analyze chemical stability of rainwater. The test results show that the collected rainfall water and surface runoff water were soft water and belonged to bicarbonate-calcium Type-I water category. The results also show that their pH levels were closely related to the strength of alkaline constituents in the rainwater. Water quality analysis indicated that the rainwater collected from the study region had been contaminated to a certain degree by nitrogen and organic compounds from intensive human activities. Water stability analysis focuses mainly on the potential of precipitation-dissolution of carbonate calcium (CaCO3). The results show that only the rainwater samples collected from traffic roads were oversaturated with respect to CaCO3 and had a tendency to precipitate, while other rainwater samples were unsaturated with respect to CaCO3 and had the potential to keep dissolving CaCO3 into rainwater. The results obtained in this study may help to develop better rainwater utilization strategies for alleviating the growing water shortage pressure faced by the City of Beijing.

  14. Rubber Reclamation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2007-01-01

    The safety and health hazards related to recycling of used rubber, due to the scarcity and high price of virgin rubber are reported. Various threats like stagnant water pools trapped in tires leading to diseases and ignited tires, which become very difficult to extinguish and generating smoke that is extremely detrimental to the environment, have…

  15. Description of concept and first feasibility test results of a life support subsystem of the Botany Facility based on water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeser, H. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Botany Facility allows the growth of higher plants and fungi over a period of 6 months maximum. It is a payload planned for the second flight of the Eureca platform around 1990. Major tasks of the Life Support Subsystem (LSS) of the Botany Facility include the control of the pressure and composition of the atmosphere within the plant/fungi growth chambers, control of the temperature and humidity of the air and the regulation of the soil water content within specified limits. Previous studies have shown that various LSS concepts are feasible ranging from heavy, simple and cheap to light, complex and expensive solutions. A summary of those concepts is given. A new approach to accomplish control of the temperature and humidity of the air within the growth chambers based on water reclamation is discussed. This reclamation is achieved by condensation with a heat pump and capillary transport of the condensate back into the soil of the individual growth chamber. Some analytical estimates are given in order to obtain guidelines for circulation flow rates and to determine the specific power consumption.

  16. [Prevention of cholera transmission: rapid evaluation of the quality of municipal water in Trujillo, Peru].

    PubMed

    Besser, R E; Moscoso Rojas, B; Cabanillas Angulo, O; González Venero, L; Minaya León, P; Rodríguez Pajares, M; Saldaña Sevilla, W; Seminario Carrasco, J L; Highsmith, A K; Tauxe, R V

    1995-09-01

    Unboiled, unchlorinated drinking water is known to have been associated with epidemic transmission of cholera in Trujillo, Peru, in February 1991. In September of that same year, chlorination of the main water supply system was begun. Water quality in Trujillo at the central level is monitored at dams and principal distribution points, but the effects of this surveillance on the quality of the water distributed are not known. In order to evaluate water quality in the residential areas of Trujillo, water samples were collected in February 1993 from 30 systematically selected houses. The chlorine levels in the samples were measured, and cultures for coliform bacteria were done. The free chlorine concentration varied from 0 to 1.5 mg/L (median = 0.4 mg/L). No free chlorine was detected in 5 samples (17%), and in 14 (47%) the concentrations were less than 0.4 mg/L. Coliforms were found in 16 samples (53%), but none were fecal coliforms. These results demonstrate the wide variability in chlorine concentrations in the municipal water that is distributed to dwellings. This variability, together with the need to store drinking water in the house because of shortages, supports the recommendation of the Ministry of Health that residents should treat drinking water in their homes. The simple sampling framework employed in this study provided a rapid evaluation of the quality of municipal water supplied to consumers. Similar studies could be carried out easily in other metropolitan areas where water quality is suspect, in order to rapidly obtain essential information on water quality at the level of the consumer.

  17. 43 CFR 404.17 - How will Reclamation evaluate my statement of interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.17... proposed rural water supply project is eligible for further consideration through a full proposal; (b)...

  18. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications, Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use on conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  19. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use and conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  20. Assessment of ground-water withdrawals at municipal industrial parks in Puerto Rico, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2004-01-01

    An assessment of ground-water withdrawals at municipal industrial parks throughout Puerto Rico was conducted to investigate the effect of ground-water usage on nearby surface- and ground-water resources. Water-bearing strata were divided into four generalized hydrogeologic units: (1) fissured aquifers (including karst and non-karst limestone); (2) intergranular aquifers; (3) intergranular aquifers overlying fissured rock units; and (4) strata with local or limited ground-water resources. Approximately 49 percent of the municipal industrial parks are located in areas with local or limited ground-water resources, 29 percent overlie intergranular aquifers, 13 percent overlie fissured aquifers, and 9 percent overlie intergranular units that overlie fissured rock units. Hydrogeologic data for the generalized hydrogeologic units were compiled from published U.S. Geological Survey reports. Depths to ground water near industrial parks range from approximately 20 to 400 feet in the fissured aquifers, 6 to 65 feet in coastal intergranular aquifers, 3 to 30 feet in intergranular aquifers overlying fissured rock units, and 1 to 100 feet in strata with local or limited ground-water resources. Aquifer transmissivities near industrial parks range from approximately 100,000 feet squared per day in the fissured aquifers to less than 100 feet squared per day in the strata with local or limited ground-water resources. Well construction data were compiled from published U.S. Geological Survey reports, drillers? logs, and unpublished reports. Specific capacity for wells near industrial parks ranges from approximately 100 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown in the fissured aquifer at Manati to approximately 0.1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown in strata with local and limited ground-water resources at Bayamon. Reported well yields near industrial parks ranges from 2,800 gallons per minute in the intergranular aquifer at Santa Isabel to approximately 3 gallons per minute in

  1. Wind Energy Applications for Municipal Water Services: Opportunities, Situation Analyses, and Case Studies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.; Miner-Nordstrom, L.

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The research presented in this report describes a systematic assessment of the potential for wind power to support water utility operation, with the objective to identify promising technical applications and water utility case study opportunities. The first section describes the current situation that municipal providers face with respect to energy and water. The second section describes the progress that wind technologies have made in recent years to become a cost-effective electricity source. The third section describes the analysis employed to assess potential for wind power in support of water service providers, as well as two case studies. The report concludes with results and recommendations.

  2. The Role of Municipal Water Ortho-Phosphate on Eutrophication at Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Jordan, J.; Doan, A.

    2008-05-01

    Ortho-phosphate has been added to municipal supply as one of the measures for drinking water lead control since 1990's. In New York City, P concentration of tap water has been maintained at about 2 ppm for the past decade. As a result, on average 4 metric tons of P enter the drinking water supply and eventually it is deposited, accumulated and recycled in urban water systems. The impact of this excessive nutrient on urban environment and ecosystems, especially over the long term, has not been adequately addressed. Prospect Lake in Brooklyn is composed of a series of ponds whose water are fed mainly by municipal water supply. More and more severe eutrophication symptoms have become apparent in the past decade. Prospect Park is one of the largest parks in New York City that is visited by millions of people each year. Eutrophication prevailing almost all year in its water system poses management challenges. Finding ways to cure this "chronic disease" requires pinpointing the main source of the nutrients for algal boom. There is an ongoing controversy as to the importance of orthophosphate from the municipal water supply. Preliminary measurements indicate that most P gradually deposit into the series of ponds as it runs through the water system. Although fertilizer has rarely been used at Prospect Park, runoff from nearby lands could have also brought in nutrients that need to be quantified. The contributions from groundwater and animals also remain poorly understood. In addition, there is lack of fundamental understanding of the effects of hydrodynamics and recycling of P among the sediment-water-ecological systems. A phosphorus budget model is being established to study the distribution, recycling, and transport of inorganic and organic P. Ongoing experiments isolate the contributions from dissolved P and sediment P for algal growth. Sediment and water samples are taken from the lake, and then placed in a microcosm system to study the effect of aqueous and sediment

  3. Trace element uptake by Eleocharis equisetina (spike rush) in an abandoned acid mine tailings pond, northeastern Australia: implications for land and water reclamation in tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Lottermoser, Bernd G; Ashley, Paul M

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the uptake of trace elements by the emergent wetland plant species Eleocharis equisetina at the historic Jumna tin processing plant, tropical Australia. The perennial emergent sedge was found growing in acid waters (pH 2.45) and metal-rich tailings (SnAsCuPbZn). E. equisetina displayed a pronounced acid tolerance and tendency to exclude environmentally significant elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, La, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, Y, Zn) from its above-substrate biomass. This study demonstrates that geobotanical and biogeochemical examinations of wetland plants at abandoned mined lands of tropical areas can reveal pioneering, metal-excluding macrophytes. Such aquatic macrophytes are of potential use in the remediation of acid mine waters and sulfidic tailings and the reclamation of disturbed acid sulfate soils in subtropical and tropical regions.

  4. Trace element uptake by Eleocharis equisetina (spike rush) in an abandoned acid mine tailings pond, northeastern Australia: implications for land and water reclamation in tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Lottermoser, Bernd G; Ashley, Paul M

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the uptake of trace elements by the emergent wetland plant species Eleocharis equisetina at the historic Jumna tin processing plant, tropical Australia. The perennial emergent sedge was found growing in acid waters (pH 2.45) and metal-rich tailings (SnAsCuPbZn). E. equisetina displayed a pronounced acid tolerance and tendency to exclude environmentally significant elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, La, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, Y, Zn) from its above-substrate biomass. This study demonstrates that geobotanical and biogeochemical examinations of wetland plants at abandoned mined lands of tropical areas can reveal pioneering, metal-excluding macrophytes. Such aquatic macrophytes are of potential use in the remediation of acid mine waters and sulfidic tailings and the reclamation of disturbed acid sulfate soils in subtropical and tropical regions. PMID:21550704

  5. Exposure assessment for trihalomethanes in municipal drinking water and risk reduction strategy.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2013-10-01

    Lifetime exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in municipal water may pose risks to human health. Current approaches of exposure assessments use DBPs in cold water during showering, while warming of chlorinated water during showering may increase trihalomethane (THM) formation in the presence of free residual chlorine. Further, DBP exposure through dermal contact during showering is estimated using steady-state condition between the DBPs in shower water impacting on human skin and skin exposed to shower water. The lag times to achieve steady-state condition between DBPs in shower water and human skin can vary in the range of 9.8-391.2 min, while shower duration is often less than the lag times. Assessment of exposure without incorporating these factors might have misinterpreted DBP exposure in some previous studies. In this study, exposure to THMs through ingestion was estimated using cold water THMs, while THM exposure through inhalation and dermal contact during showering was estimated using THMs in warm water. Inhalation of THMs was estimated using THM partition into the shower air, while dermal uptake was estimated by incorporating lag times (e.g., unsteady and steady-state phases of exposure) during showering. Probabilistic approach was followed to incorporate uncertainty in the assessment. Inhalation and dermal contact during showering contributed 25-60% of total exposure. Exposure to THMs during showering can be controlled by varying shower stall volume, shower duration and air exchange rate following power law equations. The findings might be useful in understanding exposure to THMs, which can be extended to other volatile compounds in municipal water.

  6. BENEFICIAL USE OF INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER RUNOFF: NONPOTABLE WATER SUPPLY PURPOSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As population and industry grow, water demand increases, and water supply becomes more of a problem. While reclamation of municipal wastewater for industry, subpotable domestic usage, and groundwater recharge has been practiced in the United States over the past several decades ...

  7. Conservation Using a Rate of Return Decision Rule: Some Examples from California Municipal Water Departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, Lloyd J.; Morgan, W. Douglas

    1985-07-01

    A significant alternative to physical rationing of water to achieve conservation is provided by the price system. To act like profit maximizing firms, municipal water utilities (MWD's) should price their water so as to earn the opportunity cost of capital (the market rate of return) on the assets. The actual internal rate of return is calculated for a sample of 30 California MWD's for a 12-year period. For the 26 MWD's with a rate of return less than 10%, iterative simulations are run with increases in the MWD's average price to achieve the target rate of return. The magnitude of water conservation using the rate of return rule is reported for three alternative price elasticities of demand. The new implicit prices necessary to achieve the target rate of return are shown to be less than the cost of the cheapest new surface supply.

  8. Waterborne norovirus outbreak in a municipal drinking-water supply in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Riera-Montes, M; Brus Sjölander, K; Allestam, G; Hallin, E; Hedlund, K-O; Löfdahl, M

    2011-12-01

    During Easter 2009, almost 200 people resident in a small Swedish village fell ill with gastrointestinal symptoms. We conducted a retrospective cohort study and a molecular investigation in order to identify the source of the outbreak. Residents living in households connected to the public water network were at an increased risk of developing disease (relative risk 4·80, 95% confidence interval 1·68-13·73) compared to those with no connection to the public network. Norovirus genotype GI.3 was identified in stool samples from six patients and in a sample from the public water network. Contamination of one of the wells supplying the public water network was thought to be the source of the outbreak. This is a description of a norovirus outbreak linked to a municipal drinking-water supply in Sweden. Information from epidemiological and molecular investigations is of utmost importance to guide outbreak control measures and to prevent future outbreaks.

  9. Water-soluble characteristics of chlorine in char derived from municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, I H; Matsuto, T; Tanaka, N

    2006-01-01

    Chlorine in char derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) was characterized and quantified based on its water solubility: easily water-soluble, hardly water-soluble, and non-water-soluble chlorine. For that, a four-cycle process of water-washing, heating or carbonation were carried out. In order to confirm the characteristics of non-water-soluble chlorine, additional thermal treatment and an alkali-acid washing process were applied to washed char. It was found that a large particle size of char (0.5-1.0 mm) significantly contributed to the amount of non-water-soluble chlorine. Pulverization and HNO3-HF digestion were performed to identify a factor to interfere chlorine release from char with a large particle size. Pulverization was proven ineffective for release of non-water-soluble chlorine, whereas approximately 32% of non-water-soluble chlorine was extracted by HNO3-HF digestion. Therefore, the presence of non-water-soluble chlorine is likely to originate from its chemical property rather than simply from its physical one.

  10. An analysis of the market potential of water hyacinth-based systems for municipal wastewater treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, A. C.; Gorman, H. J.; Hillman, M.; Lawhon, W. T.; Maase, D. L.; Mcclure, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    The potential U.S. market for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment facilities which make use of water hyacinths was investigated. A baseline design was developed which approximates the "typical" or "average" situation under which hyacinth-based systems can be used. The total market size for tertiary treatment was then estimated for those geographical regions in which hyacinths appear to be applicable. Market penetration of the baseline hyacinth system when competing with conventional chemical and physical processing systems was approximated, based primarily on cost differences. A limited analysis was made of the sensitivity of market penetration to individual changes in these assumptions.

  11. Introduction of monochloramine into a municipal water system: impact on colonization of buildings by Legionella spp.

    PubMed

    Moore, Matthew R; Pryor, Marsha; Fields, Barry; Lucas, Claressa; Phelan, Maureen; Besser, Richard E

    2006-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreaks are often traced to colonized potable water systems. We collected water samples from potable water systems of 96 buildings in Pinellas County, Florida, between January and April 2002, during a time when chlorine was the primary residual disinfectant, and from the same buildings between June and September 2002, immediately after monochloramine was introduced into the municipal water system. Samples were cultured for legionellae and amoebae using standard methods. We determined predictors of Legionella colonization of individual buildings and of individual sampling sites. During the chlorine phase, 19 (19.8%) buildings were colonized with legionellae in at least one sampling site. During the monochloramine phase, six (6.2%) buildings were colonized. In the chlorine phase, predictors of Legionella colonization included water source (source B compared to all others, adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 23) and the presence of a system with continuously circulating hot water (aOR, 9.8; 95% CI, 1.9 to 51). In the monochloramine phase, there were no predictors of individual building colonization, although we observed a trend toward greater effectiveness of monochloramine in hotels and single-family homes than in county government buildings. The presence of amoebae predicted Legionella colonization at individual sampling sites in both phases (OR ranged from 15 to 46, depending on the phase and sampling site). The routine introduction of monochloramine into a municipal drinking water system appears to have reduced colonization by Legionella spp. in buildings served by the system. Monochloramine may hold promise as community-wide intervention for the prevention of LD. PMID:16391067

  12. Gravimetric water distribution assessment from geoelectrical methods (ERT and EMI) in municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Dzaomuho-Lenieregue, Phidias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The gravimetric water content of the waste material is a key parameter in waste biodegradation. Previous studies suggest a correlation between changes in water content and modification of electrical resistivity. This study, based on field work in Mont-Saint-Guibert landfill (Belgium), aimed, on one hand, at characterizing the relationship between gravimetric water content and electrical resistivity and on the other hand, at assessing geoelectrical methods as tools to characterize the gravimetric water distribution in a landfill. Using excavated waste samples obtained after drilling, we investigated the influences of the temperature, the liquid phase conductivity, the compaction and the water content on the electrical resistivity. Our results demonstrate that Archie's law and Campbell's law accurately describe these relationships in municipal solid waste (MSW). Next, we conducted a geophysical survey in situ using two techniques: borehole electromagnetics (EM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). First, in order to validate the use of EM, EM values obtained in situ were compared to electrical resistivity of excavated waste samples from corresponding depths. The petrophysical laws were used to account for the change of environmental parameters (temperature and compaction). A rather good correlation was obtained between direct measurement on waste samples and borehole electromagnetic data. Second, ERT and EM were used to acquire a spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity. Then, using the petrophysical laws, this information was used to estimate the water content distribution. In summary, our results demonstrate that geoelectrical methods represent a pertinent approach to characterize spatial distribution of water content in municipal landfills when properly interpreted using ground truth data. These methods might therefore prove to be valuable tools in waste biodegradation optimization projects. PMID:26926783

  13. Gravimetric water distribution assessment from geoelectrical methods (ERT and EMI) in municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Dzaomuho-Lenieregue, Phidias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The gravimetric water content of the waste material is a key parameter in waste biodegradation. Previous studies suggest a correlation between changes in water content and modification of electrical resistivity. This study, based on field work in Mont-Saint-Guibert landfill (Belgium), aimed, on one hand, at characterizing the relationship between gravimetric water content and electrical resistivity and on the other hand, at assessing geoelectrical methods as tools to characterize the gravimetric water distribution in a landfill. Using excavated waste samples obtained after drilling, we investigated the influences of the temperature, the liquid phase conductivity, the compaction and the water content on the electrical resistivity. Our results demonstrate that Archie's law and Campbell's law accurately describe these relationships in municipal solid waste (MSW). Next, we conducted a geophysical survey in situ using two techniques: borehole electromagnetics (EM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). First, in order to validate the use of EM, EM values obtained in situ were compared to electrical resistivity of excavated waste samples from corresponding depths. The petrophysical laws were used to account for the change of environmental parameters (temperature and compaction). A rather good correlation was obtained between direct measurement on waste samples and borehole electromagnetic data. Second, ERT and EM were used to acquire a spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity. Then, using the petrophysical laws, this information was used to estimate the water content distribution. In summary, our results demonstrate that geoelectrical methods represent a pertinent approach to characterize spatial distribution of water content in municipal landfills when properly interpreted using ground truth data. These methods might therefore prove to be valuable tools in waste biodegradation optimization projects.

  14. Microorganism levels in air near spray irrigation of municipal waste water: The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study

    SciTech Connect

    Camann, D.E.; Moore, B.E.; Harding, H.J.; Sorber, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study (LISS) investigated possible adverse effects on human health from slow-rate land application of municipal wastewater. Extensive air sampling was conducted to characterize the irrigation site as a source of infectious microbial aerosols. Spray irrigation of poor-quality waste water received directly from the treatment plant significantly elevated air densities of fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, mycobacteria, and coliphage above ambient background levels for at least 200 m downwind. Enteroviruses were repeatedly recovered at 44 to 60 m downwind at a higher level (geometric mean = 0.05 pfu/m3) than observed at other waste water aerosol sites in the U.S. and in Israel. Waste water storage in reservoirs reduced downwind air densities of indicator organisms by two orders of magnitude.

  15. [Fluoride concentration in bottled water on the market in the municipality of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa; de Moura, Patrícia Garcia; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Ramires, Irene; Costa, Beatriz; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the fluoride concentration in bottled water available on the market, in comparison with the values printed on the bottle label. Two hundred and twenty-nine water samples were collected from 35 brands available in several supermarkets, grocery stores and snack bars with high turnover in different regions of the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. Fluoride concentrations were determined by duplicate analysis using an ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 2.04 mg/l, with significant differences between the values stipulated on labels and those found in the analyses. These results emphasize the importance of controls over fluoride levels in bottled water enforced by the sanitary surveillance agency. PMID:18200355

  16. Measuring transient water flow in unsaturated municipal solid waste - A new experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Capelo, J. Castro, M.A.H. de

    2007-07-01

    This research investigated transient water flow in unsaturated municipal solid waste (MSW) packed in columns using neutron scattering. The method developed was able to measure absolute moisture content and moisture variation in a sample of MSW produced in the city of Fortaleza (Brazil) during a simulated tropical rain event. The technique was proven to be efficient, showing that channeling flow accounts for most of the unsaturated flow conditions. The most important effect of micro-porous flow was on water accumulation and small long-term outflow. Furthermore, the definition of field capacity used in soil sciences does not seem to apply to flow in unsaturated MSW; the MSW layers kept increasing in moisture content long after water was allowed through. Finally, the long-term draining experiment demonstrated that the macro-porous matrix may not be a continuous medium, which makes experimental procedures that rely on matrix potential in specific points of the solid waste mass inaccurate.

  17. Evaluating the impact of municipal water fluoridation on the aquatic environment.

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, J W

    1990-01-01

    Although highly beneficial for dental health, low concentrations of fluoride in environmental waters may be toxic to several organisms. In an era of heightened public awareness about the environment, this may lead city officials to withhold implementing water fluoridation for environmental reasons. This paper presents a mass balance approach to evaluate this perceived risk. Generally speaking, fluoridated water loss during use, dilution of sewage by rain and ground water infiltrate, fluoride removal during secondary sewage treatment, and diffusion dynamics at effluent outfall combine to eliminate fluoridation-related environmental effects. In Montreal, water fluoridation would raise average aquatic fluoride levels in the waste water plume immediately below effluent outfall by only 0.05-0.09 mg/l. Downstream, these changes would be only 0.02-0.05 mg/l at 1 km, and 0.01-0.03 mg/l at 2 km below outfall. Overall river fluoride concentrations theoretically would be raised by 0.001-0.002 mg/l, a value not measurable by current analytical techniques. All resulting concentrations would be well below those recommended for environmental safety and would not exceed natural levels found elsewhere in Quebec. A literature review did not reveal any examples of municipal water fluoridation causing recommended environmental concentrations to be exceeded, although excesses occurred in several cases of severe industrial water pollution. PMID:2400035

  18. An Analysis of Total Phosphorus Dispersion in Lake Used As a Municipal Water Supply.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rômulo C; Mesquita, André L A; Blanco, Claudio J C; Santos, Maria de Lourdes S; Secretan, Yves

    2015-09-01

    In Belém city is located the potable water supply system of its metropolitan area, which includes, in addition to this city, four more municipalities. In this water supply complex is the Água Preta lake, which serves as a reservoir for the water pumped from the Guamá river. Due to the great importance of this lake for this system, several works have been devoted to its study, from the monitoring of the quality of its waters to its hydrodynamic modeling. This paper presents the results obtained by computer simulation of the phosphorus dispersion within this reservoir by the numerical solution of two-dimensional equation of advection-diffusion-reaction by the method θ/SUPG. Comparing these results with data concentration of total phosphorus collected from November 2008 to October 2009 and from satellite photos show that the biggest polluters of the water of this lake are the domestic sewage dumps from the population living in its vicinity. The results obtained indicate the need for more information for more precise quantitative analysis. However, they show that the phosphorus brought by the Guamá river water is consumed in an area adjacent to the canal that carries this water into the lake. Phosphorus deposits in the lake bottom should be monitored to verify their behavior, thus preventing the quality of water maintained therein. PMID:26421456

  19. An Analysis of Total Phosphorus Dispersion in Lake Used As a Municipal Water Supply.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rômulo C; Mesquita, André L A; Blanco, Claudio J C; Santos, Maria de Lourdes S; Secretan, Yves

    2015-09-01

    In Belém city is located the potable water supply system of its metropolitan area, which includes, in addition to this city, four more municipalities. In this water supply complex is the Água Preta lake, which serves as a reservoir for the water pumped from the Guamá river. Due to the great importance of this lake for this system, several works have been devoted to its study, from the monitoring of the quality of its waters to its hydrodynamic modeling. This paper presents the results obtained by computer simulation of the phosphorus dispersion within this reservoir by the numerical solution of two-dimensional equation of advection-diffusion-reaction by the method θ/SUPG. Comparing these results with data concentration of total phosphorus collected from November 2008 to October 2009 and from satellite photos show that the biggest polluters of the water of this lake are the domestic sewage dumps from the population living in its vicinity. The results obtained indicate the need for more information for more precise quantitative analysis. However, they show that the phosphorus brought by the Guamá river water is consumed in an area adjacent to the canal that carries this water into the lake. Phosphorus deposits in the lake bottom should be monitored to verify their behavior, thus preventing the quality of water maintained therein.

  20. Viruses in non-disinfected groundwater used for municipal drinking water and the incidence of acute gastrointestinal illness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human viruses from fecal wastes have been known to contaminate the groundwater supplies of municipal drinking water systems. The relationship of these sporadic virus detections in groundwater to human health risk is unknown. We quantified virus concentrations by real-time qPCR in the tap water of ...

  1. Communitywide cryptosporidiosis outbreak associated with a surface water-supplied municipal water system--Baker City, Oregon, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSilva, M B; Schafer, S; Kendall Scott, M; Robinson, B; Hills, A; Buser, G L; Salis, K; Gargano, J; Yoder, J; Hill, V; Xiao, L; Roellig, D; Hedberg, K

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a parasite known to cause large drinking and recreational water outbreaks, is tolerant of chlorine concentrations used for drinking water treatment. Human laboratory-based surveillance for enteric pathogens detected a cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Baker City, Oregon during July 2013 associated with municipal drinking water. Objectives of the investigation were to confirm the outbreak source and assess outbreak extent. The watershed was inspected and city water was tested for contamination. To determine the community attack rate, a standardized questionnaire was administered to randomly sampled households. Weighted attack rates and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Water samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium species; a Cryptosporidium parvum subtype common in cattle was detected in human stool specimens. Cattle were observed grazing along watershed borders; cattle faeces were observed within watershed barriers. The city water treatment facility chlorinated, but did not filter, water. The community attack rate was 28·3% (95% CI 22·1-33·6), sickening an estimated 2780 persons. Watershed contamination by cattle probably caused this outbreak; water treatments effective against Cryptosporidium were not in place. This outbreak highlights vulnerability of drinking water systems to pathogen contamination and underscores the need for communities to invest in system improvements to maintain multiple barriers to drinking water contamination.

  2. Communitywide cryptosporidiosis outbreak associated with a surface water-supplied municipal water system--Baker City, Oregon, 2013.

    PubMed

    DeSilva, M B; Schafer, S; Kendall Scott, M; Robinson, B; Hills, A; Buser, G L; Salis, K; Gargano, J; Yoder, J; Hill, V; Xiao, L; Roellig, D; Hedberg, K

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a parasite known to cause large drinking and recreational water outbreaks, is tolerant of chlorine concentrations used for drinking water treatment. Human laboratory-based surveillance for enteric pathogens detected a cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Baker City, Oregon during July 2013 associated with municipal drinking water. Objectives of the investigation were to confirm the outbreak source and assess outbreak extent. The watershed was inspected and city water was tested for contamination. To determine the community attack rate, a standardized questionnaire was administered to randomly sampled households. Weighted attack rates and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Water samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium species; a Cryptosporidium parvum subtype common in cattle was detected in human stool specimens. Cattle were observed grazing along watershed borders; cattle faeces were observed within watershed barriers. The city water treatment facility chlorinated, but did not filter, water. The community attack rate was 28·3% (95% CI 22·1-33·6), sickening an estimated 2780 persons. Watershed contamination by cattle probably caused this outbreak; water treatments effective against Cryptosporidium were not in place. This outbreak highlights vulnerability of drinking water systems to pathogen contamination and underscores the need for communities to invest in system improvements to maintain multiple barriers to drinking water contamination. PMID:26264893

  3. Desalting and water treatment membrane manual: A guide to membranes for municipal water treatment. Water treatment technology program report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman-Wilbert, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation prepared this manual to provide an overview of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis processes as they are used for water treatment. Membrane composition, the chemical processes, and the physical processes involved with each membrane type are described and compared. Because care and maintenance of water treatment membranes are vital to their performance and life expectancy, pretreatment, cleaning, and storage requirements are discussed in some detail. Options for concentrate disposal, also a problematic feature of membrane processes, are discussed. The culmination of this wealth of knowledge is an extensive comparison of water treatment membranes commercially available at this time. The tables cover physical characteristics, performance data, and operational tolerances.

  4. Geotechnical considerations in surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.

    1999-07-01

    Most attention in surface mine reclamation is given to agronomic soils and revegetation, but reclamation success depends on the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying earth. If the soil and rock that underline the surface are not stable, surface treatments lack the dependable foundation needed for them to succeed. Reclamation practioners need to understand those geotechnical considerations--material properties, structure, and processes--that affect stability. properties of rock and soil are altered by mining, and those altered materials together with water and processing waste form often-complex mixtures of materials that must be stabilized in reclamation. Surface mining alters existing landforms and creates new ones such as pit walls, spoil and waste rock piles, tailings impoundments, and earthfills. those structures need to be constructed or stabilized so that they can endure and support successful reclamation. processes that affect material properties and landforms include mechanical breakage, accelerated weathering, erosion, and mass movements. Mechanical breakage and the resulting accelerated weathering combine to change material properties, usually expressed as degraded strength, that can lead to instability of landforms. Erosion, especially that related to extreme storm events, and mass movements in the form of slop failures are the most problematic processes that must be taken into account in reclaiming mined lands. These geotechnical considerations are essential in successful reclamation, and practioners who overlook them may find their work literally sliding down a slippery slope.

  5. Effects of water washing on removing organic residues in bottom ashes of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Due to their potential toxicity and odourous nature, the residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerators are recently gaining attention as an important issue of resources recovery apart from their complex mixture of organic counterpart. Studies of the organic fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator residues have been limited. In this study, extended solid-phase extraction of the water-washed bottom ash and liquid-phase extraction of the washing water were carried out with regard to bottom ash samples from three mass-burning incinerators in Taipei County (Taiwan) during four consecutive seasons of year 2008-2009. Supercritical fluid extraction and Soxtec extraction techniques along with GC-MS were successfully used to characterize the residual organics in weathered and washed bottom ashes. Supercritical fluid extraction provided the quantification of aliphatics and aromatic compounds such as hexanoic acid and benzaldehyde, respectively. Soxtec extraction was useful for qualitative analysis of aromatic and aliphatic groups in the ashes and many of which were odourous and toxic compounds. By mixing one unit weight (g) bottom ash with two unit volume (mL) water for 15 min, total organic carbon in the bottom ash was greatly reduced (e.g., from 4.1 to 1.8 wt.%). Among the removed were foul odour-causing compounds such as pyridine and quinoline derivatives, while some aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and low-molecular-weight aliphatics such as hexanoic acid remained. The results here suggest that washing with water can be an effective pre-treatment step for removing odour-causing and environmental concerned organics. PMID:21112610

  6. Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    Landfill reclamation is the process of excavating a solid waste landfill to recover materials, reduce environmental impacts, restore the land resource, and, in some cases, extend landfill life. Using conventional surface mining techniques and specialized separation equipment, a landfill may be separated into recyclable material, combustible material, a soil/compost fraction and residual waste. A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified. The results indicate that, although dependent on site-specific conditions and economic factors, landfill reclamation can be a technically and economically feasible alternative or companion to conventional landfill closure under a range of favorable conditions. Feasibility can be determined only after an investigation of the variety of landfill conditions and reclamation options.

  7. Integrating surveillance data on water-related diseases and drinking-water quality; action-research in a Brazilian municipality.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Ana Carolina Lanza; Cardoso, Laís Santos de Magalhães; Heller, Léo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health proposed a research study involving municipal professional staff conducting both epidemiological and water quality surveillance to facilitate the integration of the data which they collected. It aimed to improve the intersectoral collaboration and health promotion activities in the municipalities, especially regarding drinking-water quality. We then conducted a study using the action-research approach. At its evaluation phase, a technique which we called 'the tree analogy' was applied in order to identify both possibilities and challenges related to the proposed interlinkage. Results showed that integrating the two data collection systems cannot be attained without prior institutional adjustments. It suggests therefore the necessity to unravel issues that go beyond the selection and the interrelation of indicators and compatibility of software, to include political, administrative and personal matters. The evaluation process led those involved to re-think their practice by sharing experiences encountered in everyday practice, and formulating constructive criticisms. All this inevitably unleashes a process of empowerment. From this perspective, we have certainly gathered some fruit from the Tree, but not necessarily the most visible.

  8. Suppression of formation of dioxins in combustion gas of municipal waste incinerators by spray water injection.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Eiji; Shigechi, Toru; Takemasa, Takehiro; Momoki, Satoru; Arizono, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Dioxins in the combustion gas of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are resynthesized when the combustion gas passes from the outlet exaust gas boiler to the outlet gas duct. The objective of the study was to estimate if the suppression of the formation of dioxins depends on the inlet gas temperature and diameter and/or temperature of droplet spray water using an actual incinerator operation data. The dioxin formation and/or the quenching temperature is revealed using the Altwicker theory equation with the information of inlet gas temperature and droplet spray water. The evaporation rate of a spray water droplet also can be estimated using the Mizutani theory. The highest dioxin formation was found at 350 degrees C; thereafter, it decreased quickly. When an area of 500 microm for droplet-formed dioxins is defined as 100%, the values of formed dioxins for 400, 300, 200 and 100 microm droplet areas are estimated as 71, 41, 25 and 18%, respectively. It is revealed that the smaller size of droplet spray water and lower inlet gas temperature enable the decrease in dioxin formation. The decreased dioxin formation and/or the lower quenching temperature is revealed using the Altwicker theory equation with the information of inlet gas temperature and droplet spray water size.

  9. Source and transport of human enteric viruses in deep municipal water supply wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Gotkowitz, Madeline; Spencer, Susan K.; Zhu, Jun; Hunt, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, few water utilities or researchers were aware of possible virus presence in deep aquifers and wells. During 2008 and 2009 we collected a time series of virus samples from six deep municipal water-supply wells. The wells range in depth from approximately 220 to 300 m and draw water from a sandstone aquifer. Three of these wells draw water from beneath a regional aquitard, and three draw water from both above and below the aquitard. We also sampled a local lake and untreated sewage as potential virus sources. Viruses were detected up to 61% of the time in each well sampled, and many groundwater samples were positive for virus infectivity. Lake samples contained viruses over 75% of the time. Virus concentrations and serotypes observed varied markedly with time in all samples. Sewage samples were all extremely high in virus concentration. Virus serotypes detected in sewage and groundwater were temporally correlated, suggesting very rapid virus transport, on the order of weeks, from the source(s) to wells. Adenovirus and enterovirus levels in the wells were associated with precipitation events. The most likely source of the viruses in the wells was leakage of untreated sewage from sanitary sewer pipes.

  10. Presence of potential bacterial pathogens in a municipal drinking water supply system.

    PubMed

    Felföldi, T; Tarnóczai, Tímea; Homonnay, Z G

    2010-09-01

    The quality of drinking water is a major public concern, but the detection of most potential pathogens is not always included in drinking water hygienic monitoring or is only assessed with highly biased cultivation-based methods. In this study, the occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella spp. was examined with taxon-specific PCRs in samples taken at ten points of a municipal drinking water supply system in three months. Sequence analysis confirmed the positivity of samples and revealed a diverse community of legionellae. The results showed that chlorination was an important and effective disinfection method against pathogenic bacteria in drinking water, but pathogenic bacteria could reoccur in the system farther away from the chlorination point. No strong correlation was found between the presence of the investigated potentially pathogenic bacteria and the measured abiotic and biotic parameters within the investigated range. It is hypothesized that instead of physicochemical parameters, the main factors influencing the presence of pathogens in the drinking water were rather the composition of the microbial community, the biotic interactions between individual non-pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms (competition or promotion of growth) and the structure of biofilm grown on the inner surface of the supply system.

  11. Effects of treated municipal effluent irrigation on ground water beneath sprayfields, Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pruitt, J.B.; Elder, J.F.; Johnson, I.K.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater quality data collection began in November 1979 at a spray-irrigation site near Tallahassee, Florida, before the initial application of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in November 1980. Effects of effluent irrigation on groundwater quality were evident about 1 year after spraying began and have continued to increase during the study period of 1983-85. Chloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater have continued to increase since about 1 year after spraying began. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations have increased from 0.03 mg/L to as much as 11 mg/L in water from one well in the surficial aquifer and from 0.07 to 15 mg/L in one well in the Floridan aquifer system. The greatest increases in concentrations have occurred in water from wells that top the surficial and Floridan aquifers. Increase in concentration occurred in water from some wells in the Floridan outside and downgradient of pivots, indicating lateral movement within the Floridan. The increase in sodium concentrations has been similar to the in chloride concentrations. Increases increases in the concentrations of other inorganic constituents have been minor compared to increases in chloride, sodium and nitrate concentrations. Nine volatile organic halocarbon compounds were detected in 18 effluent samples. Low concentrations of two of these halocarbons--chloroform and trichloroethene (TCE)--were detected intermittently in water sampled from six wells. None of the organic compounds detected in effluent or groundwater exceeded Florida drinking water standards. (USGS)

  12. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Wegman, S.

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  13. Master Plan Jakarta, Indonesia: The Giant Seawall and the need for structural treatment of municipal waste water.

    PubMed

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Hesse, Karl Jürgen; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2016-09-30

    In order to take actions against the annual flooding in Jakarta, the construction of a Giant Seawall has been proposed in the Master Plan for National Capital Integrated Coastal Development. The seawall provides a combination of technical solutions against flooding, but these will heavily modify the mass transports in the near-coastal area of Jakarta Bay. This study presents numerical simulations of river flux of total nitrogen and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, a molecular tracer for municipal waste water for similar scenarios as described in the Master Plan. Model results demonstrate a strong accumulation of municipal wastes and nutrients in the planned reservoirs to extremely high levels which will result in drastic adverse eutrophication effects if the treatment of municipal waste water is not dealt with in the same priority as the construction of the Giant Seawall. PMID:27236232

  14. Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David R.; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

    2010-01-01

    About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction

  15. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Objectives Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Methods Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants) and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Results Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more) with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. Conclusions The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in overcrowded households

  16. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2014-09-01

    This work describes the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) at different operation conditions. Therefore various tests were conducted regarding a high PHA production and stable PHA composition. Influence of substrate concentration, temperature, pH and cycle time of an installed feast/famine-regime were investigated. The results demonstrated a strong influence of the operating conditions on the PHA production. Lower substrate concentration, 20°C, neutral pH-value and a 24h cycle time are preferable for high PHA production up to 28.4% of cell dry weight (CDW). PHA composition was influenced by cycle time only and a stable PHA composition was reached.

  17. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2014-09-01

    This work describes the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) at different operation conditions. Therefore various tests were conducted regarding a high PHA production and stable PHA composition. Influence of substrate concentration, temperature, pH and cycle time of an installed feast/famine-regime were investigated. The results demonstrated a strong influence of the operating conditions on the PHA production. Lower substrate concentration, 20°C, neutral pH-value and a 24h cycle time are preferable for high PHA production up to 28.4% of cell dry weight (CDW). PHA composition was influenced by cycle time only and a stable PHA composition was reached. PMID:24995880

  18. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Municipal Building complex, Abbeville, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information on the solar energy system installed at the new municipal building for the City of Abbeville, SC is presented, including a description of solar energy system and buildings, lessons learned, and recommendations. The solar space heating system is a direct air heating system. The flat roof collector panel was sized to provide 75% of the heating requirement based on an average day in January. The collectors used are job-built with two layers of filon corrugated fiberglass FRP panels cross lapped make up the cover. The storage consists of a pit filled with washed 3/4 in - 1 1/2 in diameter crushed granite stone. The air handler includes the air handling mechanism, motorized dampers, air circulating blower, sensors, control relays and mode control unit. Solar heating of water is provided only those times when the hot air in the collector is exhausted to the outside.

  19. Proposed water balance equation for municipal solid waste landfills in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a water balance equation for predicting leachate generation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills located in semi-arid areas, using the Akaider landfill in Jordan as an example. HYDRUS-2D/3D software was used to model the effect of co-disposal of wastewater into the landfill on the leachate production rates and for comparison with the results of the simulation of the proposed water balance equation parameters. A series of simulations was carried out for a 30-year period. The suggested water balance equation predicted that leachate will percolate to a depth of 50 m in the simulated period. The result indicates that the co-disposed wastewater plays a major role in controlling the rate and magnitude of the contaminants that percolate from the MSW leachate. As the initial water content of the waste increases, there is greater mobilisation of salts. The concentration of chloride at a given location increased and the time required for the chloride to reach this location decreased as a consequence. However, eliminating the co-disposed wastewater will significantly minimise leachate generation and decrease possible groundwater contamination. This equation is applicable to areas that have geological and hydrological properties similar to Jordan. PMID:23797298

  20. Proposed water balance equation for municipal solid waste landfills in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a water balance equation for predicting leachate generation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills located in semi-arid areas, using the Akaider landfill in Jordan as an example. HYDRUS-2D/3D software was used to model the effect of co-disposal of wastewater into the landfill on the leachate production rates and for comparison with the results of the simulation of the proposed water balance equation parameters. A series of simulations was carried out for a 30-year period. The suggested water balance equation predicted that leachate will percolate to a depth of 50 m in the simulated period. The result indicates that the co-disposed wastewater plays a major role in controlling the rate and magnitude of the contaminants that percolate from the MSW leachate. As the initial water content of the waste increases, there is greater mobilisation of salts. The concentration of chloride at a given location increased and the time required for the chloride to reach this location decreased as a consequence. However, eliminating the co-disposed wastewater will significantly minimise leachate generation and decrease possible groundwater contamination. This equation is applicable to areas that have geological and hydrological properties similar to Jordan.

  1. Ground and surface water developmental toxicity at a municipal landfill: description and weather-related variation.

    PubMed

    Bruner, M A; Rao, M; Dumont, J N; Hull, M; Jones, T; Bantle, J A

    1998-03-01

    Contaminated groundwater poses a significant health hazard and may also impact wildlife such as amphibians when it surfaces. Using FETAX (Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus), the developmental toxicity of ground and surface water samples near a closed municipal landfill at Norman, OK, were evaluated. The groundwater samples were taken from a network of wells in a shallow, unconfined aquifer downgradient from the landfill. Surface water samples were obtained from a pond and small stream adjacent to the landfill. Surface water samples from a reference site in similar habitat were also analyzed. Groundwater samples were highly toxic in the area near the landfill, indicating a plume of toxicants. Surface water samples from the landfill site demonstrated elevated developmental toxicity. This toxicity was temporally variable and was significantly correlated with weather conditions during the 3 days prior to sampling. Mortality was negatively correlated with cumulative rain and relative humidity. Mortality was positively correlated with solar radiation and net radiation. No significant correlations were observed between mortality and weather parameters for days 4-7 preceding sampling.

  2. Assessing the flow regime in a contaminated fractured and karstic dolostone aquifer supplying municipal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Jérôme; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

    2011-04-01

    SummaryThe Silurian dolostone bedrock in Ontario, Canada, is a broad 400 km long swath northward from Niagara Falls through the Bruce Peninsula that represents an important water source for municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses. Where the Quaternary overburden is thin or absent, karst is common. This study concerns an urban area where the dolostone aquifer is 100 m thick beneath up to 50 m thick Quaternary deposits and where karst features identified by borehole information are common. Hydraulic tests show moderate to large bulk rock hydraulic conductivity and rock core tests indicate much smaller matrix hydraulic conductivity than the bulk rock values. Therefore, the aquifer is essentially a dual permeability, fully saturated system in which conduits occur within a network of ubiquitous extensive, horizontally- and vertically-interconnected fractures. Karst features are concentrated in a thin zone at the top-of-rock, likely representing former epikarst, and also in a thicker zone in the middle of the aquifer. Some pumping test results and large yields of some municipal wells are consistent with conduit occurrences. However, atmospheric tritium, distributed-source contamination (Cl -, NO3-), and a point-source pesticide plume (metolachlor) show detailed concentration distributions lacking influence of flow in conduits. Detailed hydraulic head profiles also show no influence of conduit flow. This study shows that when designing monitoring networks for groundwater quality and source water protection in similar contexts, locating conduits is not necessary because contaminant distributions are governed by the combined influences of the rock matrix, fractures and conduits, the hydraulic boundary conditions, and the interconnected fracture network with only minimal conduit effects. Prior to glaciations, an integrated karstic aquifer could develop with flow controlled by conduits; however, this original, converging flow system became non-functional when the

  3. 43 CFR 404.22 - How will Reclamation evaluate my full proposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will Reclamation evaluate my full proposal? 404.22 Section 404.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.22 How...

  4. Ten Years of Growing Season Water, Energy and Carbon Exchange From an Oil sands Reclamation Site, Fort McMurray, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S. K.; Drewitt, G. B.

    2013-12-01

    The oil sands mining industry in Canada has made a commitment to restore disturbed areas to an equivalent capability to that which existed prior to mining. Certification requires successful reclamation, which can in part be evaluated through long-term ecosystem studies. A reclamation site, informally named South Bison Hill (SBH) has had growing season water, energy and carbon fluxes measured via the eddy covariance method for 10 years since establishment. SBH was capped with a 0.2 m peat-glacial till mixture overlying 0.8 m of reworked glacial till soil. The site was seeded to barley cultivar (Hordeum spp.) in the summer of 2002 and later planted to white spruce (Picea glauca) and aspen (Populus spp.) in the summer/fall of 2004. Since 2007, the major species atop SBH has been aspen, and by 2012 was on average ~ 4 m in height. Climatically, mean growing temperature did not vary greatly, yet there was considerable difference in rainfall among years, with 2012 having the greatest rainfall at 321 mm, whereas 2011 and 2007 were notably dry at 180 and 178 mm, respectively. The partitioning of energy varied among years, but the fraction of latent heat as a portion of net radiation increased with the establishment of aspen, along with concomitant increases in LAI and growing season net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Peat growing season ET was smallest in 2004 at 2.3 mm/d and greatest in 2010 at ~3.9 mm/d. ET rates showed a marked increase in 2008 corresponding with the increase in LAI attributed to the aspen cover. Since the establishment of a surface cover and vegetation in 2003, SBH has been a growing season sink for carbon dioxide. Values of NEE follow similar patterns to those of ET, with values gradually becoming more negative (greater carbon uptake) as the aspen forest established. Comparison with other disturbed and undisturbed boreal aspen stands show that SBH exhibits similar water, energy and carbon flux patterns during the growing season.

  5. Quality of ground water for selected municipal water supplies in Iowa, 1997-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littin, Gregory R.

    2004-01-01

    The compact disc included with this report has information about water-quality properties and concentrations of dissolved solids, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, total organic carbon, pesticides, and synthetic organic compounds for water years 1997 through 2002.

  6. Screening of the municipal water system of La Plata, Argentina, for human intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, J; Pezzani, B; De Luca, M; Córdoba, A; Apezteguía, M

    2000-10-01

    The La Plata River, though severely contaminated by intestinal parasites through the discharge of tons of crude fecal material from a main sewage channel, nevertheless provides drinking water to two-thirds of La Plata, Argentina, after conventional purification at a processing plant. With intestinal parasitosis being endemic here, we investigated the importance of this water in transmitting such pathogens to the city's populace by means of standard methodology for sample acquisition and processing involving filter-concentration of waterborne particulates. Of 14 tap-water samples collected from the distribution network, 12 pertained to four zones (A-D) within the city center; while the remaining 2 were obtained near the processing plant, 15 kilometers outside the city. Although parasites were found within the samples derived from the four urban zones, none were detected in the specimens obtained near the plant. The four downtown areas differed from each other as to the quantity and nature of the parasites present in their water: whereas zones A and B registered similar lower levels of contaminants, C and D exhibited higher values significantly different from the former two and from each other. Given an average parasite count/l citywide of 0.38 and a probability of encountering a parasite within 11 of water of 0.32, the municipal network is seen to contribute to the transmission of intestinal parasites. A routine system of water-quality control is therefore needed throughout the city along with the establishment of infrastructures for locating and eliminating peripheral sources of contamination.

  7. Effect of liquid municipal biosolid application method on tile and ground water quality.

    PubMed

    Lapen, D R; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Sabourin, L; Curnoe, W; Gottschall, N; Bolton, P; Rahman, S; Ball-Coelho, B; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; McLaughlin, N

    2008-01-01

    This study examined bacteria and nutrient quality in tile drainage and shallow ground water resulting from a fall land application of liquid municipal biosolids (LMB), at field application rates of 93,500 L ha(-1), to silt-clay loam agricultural field plots using two different land application approaches. The land application methods were a one-pass AerWay SSD approach (A), and surface spreading plus subsequent incorporation (SS). For both treatments, it took between 3 and 39 min for LMB to reach tile drains after land application. The A treatment significantly (p < 0.1) reduced application-induced LMB contamination of tile drains relative to the SS treatment, as shown by mass loads of total Kjeldahl N (TKN), NH(4)-N, Total P (TP), PO(4)-P, E. coli., and Clostridium perfringens. E. coli contamination resulting from application occurred to at least 2.0-m depth in ground water, but was more notable in ground water immediately beneath tile depth (1.2 m). Treatment ground water concentrations of selected nutrients and bacteria for the study period ( approximately 46 d) at 1.2-m depth were significantly higher in the treatment plots, relative to control plots. The TKN and TP ground water concentrations at 1.2-m depth were significantly (p < 0.1) higher for the SS treatment, relative to the A treatment, but there were no significant (p > 0.1) treatment differences for the bacteria. For the macroporous field conditions observed, pre-tillage by equipment such as the AerWay SSD, will reduce LMB-induced tile and shallow ground water contamination compared to surface spreading over non-tilled soil, followed by incorporation.

  8. In situ accumulation of copper, chromium, nickel, and zinc in soils used for long-term waste water reclamation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunye; Negev, Ido; Eshel, Gil; Banin, Amos

    2008-01-01

    We studied the long-term in situ accumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn in the soil profile of a large-scale effluent recharge basin after 24 yr of operation in a wastewater reclamation plant using the Soil Aquifer System approach in the Coastal Plain of Israel. The objective was to quantify metals accumulation in the basin's soil profile, clarify retention mechanisms, and calculate material balances and metal removal efficiency as the metal loads increase. Effluent recharge led to measurable accumulation, relative to the pristine soil, of Ni and Zn in the 0- to 4-m soil profile, with concentration increases of 0.3 to 1.3 mg kg(-1) and 2.9 to 6.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. Copper accumulated only in the 0- to 1-m top soil layer, with concentration increase of 0.28 to 0.76 mg kg(-1). Chromium concentration increased by 3.1 to 7.3 mg kg(-1) in the 0- to 1-m horizon and 0.9 to 2.3 mg kg(-1) at deeper horizons. Sequential selective extraction showed Cu tended to be preferentially retained by Fe oxides and organic matter (OM), Cr by OM, Ni by OM, and carbonate and Zn by carbonate. The average total retained amounts of Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn were 0.7 +/- 1.0, 13.6 +/- 4.8, 4.3 +/- 3.6, and 28.7 +/- 5.4 g per a representative unit soil slab (1 m(2) x 4 m) of the basin, respectively. This amounts to 3.6 +/- 4.9%, 79.5 +/- 28.0%, 8.0 +/- 6.9%, and 9.3 +/- 1.8% of the Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn loads, respectively, applied during 24 yr of effluent recharge (total of approximately 1880 m effluent load). The low long-term overall removal efficiency of the metals from the recharged effluent in the top horizon may be due to the metals' low concentrations in the recharged effluent and the low adsorption affinity and retention capacity of the sandy soil toward them. This leads to attainment of a quasi-equilibrium and a steady state in element distribution between the recharged effluent solution and the soil after few years of recharge and relatively small cumulative effluent loadings.

  9. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances in limed biosolids from a large municipal water resource recovery facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the recycling of wastewater biosolids via land-application is a commonly used practice for nutrient recovery and soil reclamation, concerns remain that they may become sources of toxic, persistent organic pollutants to the environment. This study concentrates on assessing the presence and the...

  10. Numerical Simulations of Road Salt Impact at a Municipal Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bester, M. L.; Frind, E. O.; Molson, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    Chloride concentrations at major water supply wells within the Regional Municipality of Waterloo in Ontario have been increasingly rapidly over the past 20 years. If present trends continue, drinking water limits may be reached within the next decade. Road salt has been identified as the prime source of the contamination, and various remediation strategies are being investigated. As part of a overall comprehensive chloride reduction study, advanced numerical simulation tools are used to investigate the mechanisms of chloride transport from ground surface to water supply wells, and to assess the effectiveness of various remediation scenarios. Several options were simulated such as reducing chloride application by 25% over the entire study area, eliminating applications on secondary roads, and eliminating applications within the 5 and 10-year capture zones. The numerical simulations include a 2D variably-saturated model and a fully 3D model of chloride transport from a growing road network. The results from the variably-saturated model show that chloride application to the water table can be assumed to be a steady state process where seasonal transients can be neglected. This assumption was used in the 3D model, which showed that the option of reducing salt application by 25% was sufficient to protect the water supply. Eliminating application on some secondary roads could further decrease concentrations at the wells with very little effort. Eliminating application from within the capture zones results in a dramatic decrease in chloride at the wells, however the chloride trends in the wells continue upward after time as chloride arrives from outside the capture zone.

  11. Selenium source identification and biogeochemical processes controlling selenium in surface water and biota, Kendrick Reclamation Project, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; See, R.B.; Ramirez, P.

    1993-01-01

    The major tributaries draining the Kendrick Reclamation Project (KRP) account for an average of 52% of the total Se load measured in the North Platte River downstream from Casper, Wyoming. The Casper Creek drainage basin contributed the largest Se load of the five tributary sites to the North Platte River. The 4-d average Se concentration in water samples from one site in the part of the North Platte River that receives irrigation return flows exceeded the 5 ??g/l U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's aquatic life criterion five time during a 50-d monitoring period in 1989. In agreement with the water-quality data, muscle and liver tissue rom rainbow trout collected from the same part of the North Platte River had Se concentrations exceeding levels known to cause reproductive failure and chronic Se poisoning. On the basis of Se: Cl, 18O/16O and D/H ratios in water from Goose and Rasmus Lee Lakes (closed-basin systems), the large Se concentrations in those lakes were derived by natural evaporation of irrigation water without leaching of soluble forms of Se from soil or rocks. Water samples from Thirtythree Mile Reservoir and Illco Pond (flow-through systems) showed considerable enrichment in Se over evaporative concentration, presumably due to leaching and desorption of Se from soil and rock. The Se: Cl ratios of irrigation drain water collected from the KRP indicate that leaching and desorption of soluble forms of Se from soils and rocks are the dominant processes in drain water. Results of a Wilcoxon matched-pairs test for 43 paired drain-water samples collected during June and August 1988, indicated there is a statistically larger concentration of Se (0.01 significance level) during the June sampling period. The larger concentrations of Se and other chemical constitutents during the early part of the irrigation season probably were due to dissolution of seleniferous salts that have accumulated in soils within the KRP since the last irrigation season. The large

  12. Comparison of the microbiological quality of water coolers and that of municipal water systems.

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, B; Simard, P; Gauvin, D; Gingras, S; Dewailly, E; Letarte, R

    1994-01-01

    The microbiological quality of tap water and that of water from 50 water coolers located in residences and workplaces were comparatively studied. In addition, difference factors that might influence the bacteriological contamination of water dispensers were examined. Aeorbic and facultative anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, and two indicators for fecal contamination (fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci) as well as three types of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Aeromonas spp.) were enumerated. It was found that 36 and 28% of the water dispenser samples from the residences and the workplaces, respectively, were contaminated by a least one coliform or indicator bacterium and/or at least one pathogenic bacterium. The respective proportions of tap water samples contaminated in a similar fashion were 18 and 22%, much less than those observed for water coolers (Chi2(1) = 3.71, P = 0.05). We were unable to discern the dominant factors responsible for the contamination of water coolers, but cleaning the water dispenser every 2 months seemed to limit the extent of contamination. PMID:8017912

  13. 43 CFR 404.49 - What criteria will Reclamation use to determine whether to recommend that a proposed rural water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the environmental analysis; (c) Whether there is a Federal interest in the project, including; (1) A... public health and safety and consideration of other benefits of the proposed rural water supply project; (3) Addresses environmental quality and source water protection issues; (4) Addresses...

  14. 43 CFR 404.49 - What criteria will Reclamation use to determine whether to recommend that a proposed rural water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the environmental analysis; (c) Whether there is a Federal interest in the project, including; (1) A... public health and safety and consideration of other benefits of the proposed rural water supply project; (3) Addresses environmental quality and source water protection issues; (4) Addresses...

  15. Rent-extracting behavior by multiple agents in the provision of municipal water supply: A study of Jakarta, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovei, Laszlo; Whittington, Dale

    1993-07-01

    A framework is presented for the analysis of rent-extracting behavior by multiple agents involved in the provision of municipal water supplies in Jakarta, Indonesia. It is shown that such behavior can dramatically affect the terms and conditions under which water service is offered to the public. A water supply system based on limited numbers of public taps, relatively few house connections, and water vendors can generate substantial monopoly rents that can be appropriated by both public and private agents. Most professionals involved with water supply projects in developing countries typically assume that the objective of municipal water authorities is to serve the public interest. In fact, agents involved in the water delivery system may pursue strategies designed for private gain, which can have important and pervasive implications for how a water system is actually designed and operated. Proposals to change the technical, engineering aspects of a water distribution system can thus threaten the interests of powerful groups. Effective public policy and donor involvement in the water sector must be based on an understanding of the structure of water markets and the political power supporting existing institutional arrangements.

  16. Efficient management of municipal water: water scarcity in Taiz City, Yemen - issues and options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noaman, A.; Al-Sharjabe, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    The city of Taiz is the third largest city in Yemen, located about 250 km south of Sana'a and about 90 km inland from the Red Sea. Taiz is situated on the foothills and slopes of the Jabal Saber Mountain at elevations between 1100 and 1600 m a.s.l. Its population is rapidly increasing and is expected to grow from about 580 000 in 2012 to over 1 000 000 in 2020. Water supply is the most pressing problem in the city of Taiz today due to the significant shortages of supply (the average consumption is 23 L/d) caused by the depletion of existing water resources and the lack of a clear direction in dealing with the problem. This forces frequent service interruptions (30-40 days) and the service is rarely extended to new users (only 57% of the population are covered). Sanitation is another daunting problem. The (poorly maintained) sewerage network covers only 44% of the population. In several unsewered areas to the north, east and west of the city, raw sewage is disposed of directly into wadis, which causes a health hazard and threatens to contaminate groundwater resources. The proper computation of demand and supply is based on the various fields. It was performed under this study with a particular model: the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). WEAP is supported by a geographical information system (GIS). The available and relevant data on poverty and social indicators, water use and sources, surface runoff, surface and groundwater availability, groundwater depletion and management, crop production areas, soil cover, maps, and meteorological information were gathered from a number of sources. There are only two ways to decrease the water deficit: by increasing water supply or decreasing the water demand. Any adaptation project aims at one of the two. Six projects are proposed, with three in each category (1, 2 and 3 to decrease demand, and 4, 5 and 6 to increase supply): - Project 1: Improvement of

  17. [Estimation of the usage of psychoactive substances in academic campus based on analysis of municipal waste water].

    PubMed

    Wiergowski, Marek; Sołtyszewski, Ireneusz; Szymańska, Urszula; Zebek, Elzbieta; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Important source of objective information about the nature and the scale of the usage of psychoactive substances becomes test of municipal waste water or surface water. From the analytical chemistry point of view municipal waste water are a complex mixture of substances therefore the authoritative analysis requires careful planning of both the place of sampling and the use of effective methods of research. The aim of this work was the attempt to estimate the scale of the usage of narcotic drugs in the academic campus Kortowo in Olsztyn during the students May holidays "Kortowiady". The positive results of the concentration of 11 -nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and amphetamines in the samples of effluent shall indicate the need to continue research in this field and improvement methods for the determination of narcotic drugs. PMID:23243903

  18. Willingness to pay and willingness to work for improvements of municipal and community-managed water services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vásquez, William F.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates household preferences, in labor time and monetary terms, for improved water services in Guatemala using sequential contingent valuation questions. The household survey was implemented in areas served by municipal and community-managed systems, which allows for comparing household preferences under those governance approaches. Results show that respondents with municipal services are willing to pay a substantial increase (more than 200%) in their water bills for reliable supplies of safe drinking water. They are also willing to work approximately 19 h per month for such improved services when labor hours are proposed as the payment vehicle. In contrast, households with community-managed services are not willing to pay or work for service improvements, even though they report to be quite dissatisfied with current services. Policy implications are discussed.

  19. What level of estrogenic activity determined by in vitro assays in municipal waste waters can be considered as safe?

    PubMed

    Jarošová, Barbora; Bláha, Luděk; Giesy, John P; Hilscherová, Klára

    2014-03-01

    In vitro assays are broadly used tools to evaluate the estrogenic activity in Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluents and their receiving rivers. Since potencies of individual estrogens to induce in vitro and in vivo responses can differ it is not possible to directly evaluate risks based on in vitro measures of estrogenic activity. Estrone, 17beta-estradiol, 17alfa-ethinylestradiol and to some extent, estriol have been shown to be responsible for the majority of in vitro estrogenic activity of municipal WWTP effluents. Therefore, in the present study safe concentrations of Estrogenic Equivalents (EEQs-SSE) in municipal WWTP effluents were derived based on simplified assumption that the steroid estrogens are responsible for all estrogenicity determined with particular in vitro assays. EEQs-SSEs were derived using the bioassay and testing protocol-specific in vitro potencies of steroid estrogens, in vivo predicted no effect concentration (PNECs) of these compounds, and their relative contributions to the overall estrogenicity detected in municipal WWTP effluents. EEQs-SSEs for 15 individual bioassays varied from 0.1 to 0.4ng EEQ/L. The EEQs-SSEs are supposed to be increased by use of location-specific dilution factors of WWTP effluents entering receiving rivers. They are applicable to municipal wastewater and rivers close to their discharges, but not to industrial waste waters.

  20. Factors Influencing Bacterial Diversity and Community Composition in Municipal Drinking Waters in the Ohio River Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Lee F; Hull, Natalie M; Robertson, Charles E; Harris, J Kirk; Stevens, Mark J; Spear, John R; Pace, Norman R

    2016-01-01

    The composition and metabolic activities of microbes in drinking water distribution systems can affect water quality and distribution system integrity. In order to understand regional variations in drinking water microbiology in the upper Ohio River watershed, the chemical and microbiological constituents of 17 municipal distribution systems were assessed. While sporadic variations were observed, the microbial diversity was generally dominated by fewer than 10 taxa, and was driven by the amount of disinfectant residual in the water. Overall, Mycobacterium spp. (Actinobacteria), MLE1-12 (phylum Cyanobacteria), Methylobacterium spp., and sphingomonads were the dominant taxa. Shifts in community composition from Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria to Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria were associated with higher residual chlorine. Alpha- and beta-diversity were higher in systems with higher chlorine loads, which may reflect changes in the ecological processes structuring the communities under different levels of oxidative stress. These results expand the assessment of microbial diversity in municipal distribution systems and demonstrate the value of considering ecological theory to understand the processes controlling microbial makeup. Such understanding may inform the management of municipal drinking water resources. PMID:27362708

  1. Factors Influencing Bacterial Diversity and Community Composition in Municipal Drinking Waters in the Ohio River Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Lee F; Hull, Natalie M; Robertson, Charles E; Harris, J Kirk; Stevens, Mark J; Spear, John R; Pace, Norman R

    2016-01-01

    The composition and metabolic activities of microbes in drinking water distribution systems can affect water quality and distribution system integrity. In order to understand regional variations in drinking water microbiology in the upper Ohio River watershed, the chemical and microbiological constituents of 17 municipal distribution systems were assessed. While sporadic variations were observed, the microbial diversity was generally dominated by fewer than 10 taxa, and was driven by the amount of disinfectant residual in the water. Overall, Mycobacterium spp. (Actinobacteria), MLE1-12 (phylum Cyanobacteria), Methylobacterium spp., and sphingomonads were the dominant taxa. Shifts in community composition from Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria to Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria were associated with higher residual chlorine. Alpha- and beta-diversity were higher in systems with higher chlorine loads, which may reflect changes in the ecological processes structuring the communities under different levels of oxidative stress. These results expand the assessment of microbial diversity in municipal distribution systems and demonstrate the value of considering ecological theory to understand the processes controlling microbial makeup. Such understanding may inform the management of municipal drinking water resources.

  2. Factors Influencing Bacterial Diversity and Community Composition in Municipal Drinking Waters in the Ohio River Basin, USA

    PubMed Central

    Stanish, Lee F.; Hull, Natalie M.; Robertson, Charles E.; Harris, J. Kirk; Stevens, Mark J.; Spear, John R.; Pace, Norman R.

    2016-01-01

    The composition and metabolic activities of microbes in drinking water distribution systems can affect water quality and distribution system integrity. In order to understand regional variations in drinking water microbiology in the upper Ohio River watershed, the chemical and microbiological constituents of 17 municipal distribution systems were assessed. While sporadic variations were observed, the microbial diversity was generally dominated by fewer than 10 taxa, and was driven by the amount of disinfectant residual in the water. Overall, Mycobacterium spp. (Actinobacteria), MLE1-12 (phylum Cyanobacteria), Methylobacterium spp., and sphingomonads were the dominant taxa. Shifts in community composition from Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria to Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria were associated with higher residual chlorine. Alpha- and beta-diversity were higher in systems with higher chlorine loads, which may reflect changes in the ecological processes structuring the communities under different levels of oxidative stress. These results expand the assessment of microbial diversity in municipal distribution systems and demonstrate the value of considering ecological theory to understand the processes controlling microbial makeup. Such understanding may inform the management of municipal drinking water resources. PMID:27362708

  3. Determining the Spatial Influence of Imported and Local Water Sources to Municipal Tap Water Systems in the Southwestern United States Using Stable Isotopes of Oxygen and Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalker, J. C.; Kennedy, C. D.; Bowen, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid parts of the southwestern USA, imported waters derived from large canal systems like the Colorado River Aqueduct, Los Angeles Aqueduct, and the California Aqueduct service a significant component of the regional water needs. These waters are sourced primarily from high altitude snowmelt runoff and have relatively low annually averaged stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen (δD, δ18O) (-99 to -127‰, -10 to -13‰,) when compared to water derived from local rainfall and surface river sources (-35 to -42 ‰, -5 to -7‰) in southern California, western Arizona, and southern Nevada. The distinct isotope signatures of these two waters can be used to differentiate the two sources in tap water from municipal systems. In this study, samples of tap water, aqueduct water, and surface water were collected throughout the Southwest to produce a series of maps of the spatial influence of imported water in municipal tap water. This data was then be used to develop mixing models to determine the relative importance of imported water regionally, and track the prominence of the movement of these imported waters after initial use and addition to a system. The use of isotopes to trace this anthropogenically introduced water is of interest to water management, resolving water rights issues and disputes, as well as environmental applications in ecological studies. Additionally these tracing methods may be applied worldwide in areas where the movement and dynamics of hydrologic systems are either unclear or unknown.

  4. Surface water-ground water interaction: Herbicide transport into municipal collector wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Carr, J.D.; Steele, G.V.; Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.; Dormedy, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    During spring runoff events, herbicides in the Platte River are transported through an alluvial aquifer into collector wells located on an island in the river in 6 to 7 d. During two spring runoff events in 1995 and 1996, atrazine [2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine] concentrations in water from these wells reached approximately 7 ??g/L, 70 times more than the background concentration in ground water. Concentrations of herbicides and metabolites in the collector wells generally were one-half to one-fifth the concentrations of herbicides in the river for atrazine, alachlor [2-chloro-2'-6'-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide], alachlor ethane-sulfonic acid (ESA) [2-((2,6-diethylphenyl) (methoxymethyl)amino)-2- oxoethane-sulfonic acid], metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N- (2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide], cyanazine [2-((4-chloro-6-(ethyl-amino)- 1,3,5 triazin-2-yl)-amino)-2-methylpropionitrile], and acetochlor [2-chloro- N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-ethyl-6methyl-phenyl) acetamide], suggesting that 20 to 50% river water could be present in the water from the collector wells, assuming no degradation. The effect of the river on the quality of water from the collector wells can be reduced through selective management of horizontal laterals of the collector wells. The quality of the water from the collector wells is dependent on the (i) selection of the collector well used, (ii) number and selection of laterals used, (iii) chemical characteristics of the contaminant, and (iv) relative mixing of the Platte River and a major upstream tributary.

  5. Review of municipal sludge use as a soil amendment on disturbed lands

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1990-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is examining options of improving soil conditions at Hanford reclamation sites. One promising technology is the incorporation of municipal sewage sludge into the soil profile. This report reviews the potential benefits and adverse consequences of sludge use in land reclamation. Land reclamation comprises those activities instigated to return a mechanically disturbed site to some later successional state. Besides the introduction of suitable plant species to disturbed lands, reclamation generally requires measures to enhance long-term soil nutrient content, moisture retention or drainage, and mitigation of toxic effects from metals and pH. One of the more effective means of remediating adverse soil characteristics is the application of complex organic manures such as municipal sewage sludge. Sewage sludges contain complete macro- and micronutrients necessary to sustain plant growth. The application of sewage sludge may reestablish microbial activity in sterile soils. Physical properties, such as water-holding capacity and percentage water-stable aggregates, also improve with the addition of sewage sludge. Sludge applications may also increase the rate of degradation of some hydrocarbon pollutants in soils. Potential adverse impacts associated with the application of sewage sludge to land include negative public perception of human waste products; concerns regarding pathogen buildup and spread in the soils, plants, and water; entrance and accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain; salt accumulation in the soil and ground water; leaching of nitrates into ground water; and accumulation of other potentially toxic substances, such as boron and synthetic hydrocarbons, in the soil, plants, and food chain. 56 refs., 10 tabs.

  6. Water resources in the vicinity of municipalities on the east-central Mesabi Iron Range, northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotter, R.D.; Young, H.L.; Petri, L.R.; Prior, C.H.

    1965-01-01

    Additional supplies of water are available near the municipalities on the east-central Mesabi Iron Range. Both ground water and surface water offer good potential supplies. For the ground-water supplies, the most productive aquifers are the Biwabik Iron Formation and the stratified glacial drift. Surface-water supplies are variable. Streams in the western part of the report area are too small to yield supplies of importance, but lakes are a good potential supply. Eveleth and Gilbert are the only towns presently utilizing this source. In the eastern part of the area of this report, the Pike and Embarrass Rivers offer good potential supplies. Flow records from two gaging stations are presented as are data from many wells and test holes. Surface water generally has a high concentration of iron and is colored. Most ground water has a high concentration of iron and manganese and is hard. Analyses of water from many sources are presented.

  7. Energy-nutrients-water nexus: integrated resource recovery in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-09-30

    Wastewater treatment consumes large amounts of energy and materials to comply with discharge standards. At the same time, wastewater contains resources, which can be recovered for secondary uses if treated properly. Hence, the goal of this paper is to review the available resource recovery methods onsite or offsite of municipal wastewater treatment plants. These methods are categorized into three major resource recovery approaches: onsite energy generation, nutrient recycling and water reuse. Under each approach, the review provides the advantages and disadvantages, recovery potentials and current application status of each method, as well as the synthesized results of the life cycle studies for each approach. From a comprehensive literature review, it was found that, in addition to technology improvements, there is also a need to evaluate the applications of the resource recovery methods in wastewater treatment plants from a life cycle perspective. Future research should investigate the integration of the resource recovery methods to explore the combined benefits and potential tradeoffs of these methods under different scales.

  8. Matorral and reclamation. The contribution of scrubs and dwarf shrubs to soil and water conservation in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; González Hidalgo, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    The Mediterranean Matorral (scrubs and dwarf shrubs) was seen by John Thornes as a protective vegetative cover of semiarid lands. His studies on matorral triggered the research, vocations and scientific work of researchers and contributed with a relevant knowledge to the environmental studies in Spain. This research reviews the changes in land use and the use of matorral in Spain. A review of the research done on the effect of matorral on soil and water losses is presented. Books, scientific papers, book chapters and research reports are being reviewed to report how matorral control the soil and water losses under different climatic conditions in Spain. The main conclusion is that scrubs and dwarf shrubs are very efficient in controlling the soil and water losses under semiarid climatic conditions were trees are rare. Nevertheless, scrub has been neglected by the Spanish forestry policy-makers and sometimes the shrubs cover is removed to develop afforestations, mainly with Aleppo pine. Palabras clave: Matorral, Soil, Water, Losses, Spain, Land use, Land management.

  9. Proceedings, 1982 symposium on surface mining hydrology, sedimentology and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Papers are presented on aspects of hydrology and land reclamation after surface mining. The chemical characteristics and bacterial treatment of acid mine drainage are discussed, along with the subjects of water quality, water movement and hydraulic conductivity in soils and mine spoil heaps. Geochemistry of groundwater near surface mining activities is considered. The effects of revegetation and reforestation, and the significance of fertilizers in land reclamation are discussed.

  10. Impact of biocrust succession on water retention and repellency on open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation in Lower Lusatia, NE-Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gypser, Stella; Fischer, Thomas; Lange, Philipp; Veste, Maik

    2016-04-01

    caused by bryophytes. The determination of the water retention curves showed an increase of the water holding capacity, especially in conjunction with the growth of green algae layer. The absorption capacity of soil crust biota as well as a decreased pore diameter in the green algae layers positively affected the water retention of crusted soil compared to pure substrate. The occurrence of bryophytes with later succession weakened the repellent behavior of the biocrusts, increased infiltration, and might have affected the run-off at small-scale on biocrusts. Certainly, the biological soil crusts showed water repellent properties but no distinctive hydrophobic characteristics. On both locations, similar trends of water repellency and retention related to crustal formation were observed, in spite of different relief, reclamation time and inhomogeneous distribution of crustal organisms. References Gypser, S., Veste, M., Fischer, T., Lange, P. (2016): Infiltration and water retention of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils of former open-cast lignite mining sites in Brandenburg, north-east Germany, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, accepted 12. November 2015. Gypser, S., Veste, M., Fischer, T., Lange, P. (2015): Formation of soil lichen crusts at reclaimed post-mining sites, Lower Lusatia, North-east Germany. Graphis Scripta 27: 3-14.

  11. Modeling subsurface transport in extensive glaciofluvial and littoral sediments to remediate a municipal drinking water aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergvall, M.; Grip, H.; Sjöström, J.; Laudon, H.

    2011-07-01

    Few studies have been carried out that cover the entire transport process of pesticides, from application at the soil surface, through subsurface transport, to contamination of drinking water in esker aquifers. In formerly glaciated regions, such as Scandinavia, many of the most important groundwater resources are situated in glaciofluvial eskers. The purpose of the present study was to model and identify significant processes that govern subsurface transport of pesticides in extensive glaciofluvial and littoral sediments. To simulate the transport processes, we coupled a vadose zone model at soil profile scale to a regional groundwater flow model. The model was applied to a municipal drinking-water aquifer, contaminated with the pesticide-metabolite BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzoamide). At regional scale, with the combination of a ten-meter-deep vadose zone and coarse texture, the observed concentrations could be described by the model without assuming preferential flow. A sensitivity analysis revealed that hydraulic conductivity in the aquifer and infiltration rate accounted for almost half of the model uncertainty. The calibrated model was applied to optimize the location of extraction wells for remediation, which were used to validate the predictive modeling. Running a worst-case scenario, the model showed that the establishment of two remediation wells would clean the aquifer in four years, compared to nine years without them. Further development of the model would require additional field measurements in order to improve the description of macrodispersion in deep, sandy vadose zones. We also suggest that future research should focus on characterization of the variability of hydraulic conductivity and its effect on contaminant transport in eskers.

  12. Stimulating in situ denitrification in an aerobic, highly permeable municipal drinking water aquifer.

    PubMed

    Critchley, K; Rudolph, D L; Devlin, J F; Schillig, P C

    2014-12-15

    A preliminary trial of a cross-injection system (CIS) was designed to stimulate in situ denitrification in an aquifer servicing an urban community in southern Ontario. It was hypothesized that this remedial strategy could be used to reduce groundwater nitrate in the aquifer such that it could remain in use as a municipal supply until the beneficial effects of local reduced nutrient loadings lead to long-term water quality improvement at the wellfield. The CIS application involved injecting a carbon source (acetate) into the subsurface using an injection-extraction well pair positioned perpendicular to the regional flow direction, up-gradient of the water supply wells, with the objective of stimulating native denitrifying bacteria. The pilot remedial strategy was targeted in a high nitrate flux zone within an aerobic and heterogeneous section of the glacial sand and gravel aquifer. Acetate injections were performed at intervals ranging from daily to bi-daily. The carbon additions led to general declines in dissolved oxygen concentrations; decreases in nitrate concentration were localized in aquifer layers where velocities were estimated to be less than 0.5m/day. NO3-(15)N and NO3-(18)O isotope data indicated the nitrate losses were due to denitrification. Relatively little nitrate was removed from groundwater in the more permeable strata, where velocities were estimated to be on the order of 18 m/day or greater. Overall, about 11 percent of the nitrate mass passing through the treatment zone was removed. This work demonstrates that stimulating in situ denitrification in an aerobic, highly conductive aquifer is challenging but achievable. Further work is needed to increase rates of denitrification in the most permeable units of the aquifer.

  13. Stimulating in situ denitrification in an aerobic, highly permeable municipal drinking water aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchley, K.; Rudolph, D. L.; Devlin, J. F.; Schillig, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    A preliminary trial of a cross-injection system (CIS) was designed to stimulate in situ denitrification in an aquifer servicing an urban community in southern Ontario. It was hypothesized that this remedial strategy could be used to reduce groundwater nitrate in the aquifer such that it could remain in use as a municipal supply until the beneficial effects of local reduced nutrient loadings lead to long-term water quality improvement at the wellfield. The CIS application involved injecting a carbon source (acetate) into the subsurface using an injection-extraction well pair positioned perpendicular to the regional flow direction, up-gradient of the water supply wells, with the objective of stimulating native denitrifying bacteria. The pilot remedial strategy was targeted in a high nitrate flux zone within an aerobic and heterogeneous section of the glacial sand and gravel aquifer. Acetate injections were performed at intervals ranging from daily to bi-daily. The carbon additions led to general declines in dissolved oxygen concentrations; decreases in nitrate concentration were localized in aquifer layers where velocities were estimated to be less than 0.5 m/day. NO3-15N and NO3-18O isotope data indicated the nitrate losses were due to denitrification. Relatively little nitrate was removed from groundwater in the more permeable strata, where velocities were estimated to be on the order of 18 m/day or greater. Overall, about 11 percent of the nitrate mass passing through the treatment zone was removed. This work demonstrates that stimulating in situ denitrification in an aerobic, highly conductive aquifer is challenging but achievable. Further work is needed to increase rates of denitrification in the most permeable units of the aquifer.

  14. Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects.

    PubMed

    Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Graf, Martha D

    2012-08-01

    Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments.

  15. A statistical approach to evaluate the relation of coal mining, land reclamation, and surface-water quality in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hren, Janet; Wilson, K.S.; Helsel, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Base-flow data from 779 sites in Ohio 's coal region were analyzed statistically to relate land use to selected water-quality characteristics. Sites were classified into five categories: unmined (100 percent unmined land), abandoned (50 percent or more abandoned surface mines), reclaimed (50 percent or more reclaimed surface mines), deep-mined (50 percent or more underground mines), and mixed (all others). Specific conductance , pH, alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, dissolved iron, total iron, and total manganese in streams draining basins in the coal region were the eight characteristics selected for analysis. (USGS)

  16. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry;...

  17. Process-based modelling of regional water demand for electricity, industry and municipal sectors in Integrated Assessment Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, David L.; Bogaart, Patrick W.; Kram, Tom; De Vries, Bert J. M.; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2014-05-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are a prime tool for studying global scale interactions between the human and natural earth systems. Our research contributes to this field by modelling water, food and energy demand as outcomes of more physical processes and by adding links between them. As part of this ambition, we here describe a model for water demand in the electricity generation, industrial and municipal sectors, going beyond previous modelling efforts. For instance, by coupling water demand to energy inputs, the model directly couples water efficiency to fuel efficiency of power plants. We present electricity, industry and municipal water demand models and develop water demand projections for the new Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for climate research. Our regional-level demand models contribute to understanding the extent of crossing planetary boundaries and the scope for solutions such as virtual water trade or efficiency improvements. We also discuss how we plan to link demand and supply models, and how the usefulness for policy makers can be increased.

  18. Forward osmosis for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate from water reclamation: process performance and fouling control.

    PubMed

    Kazner, C; Jamil, S; Phuntsho, S; Shon, H K; Wintgens, T; Vigneswaran, S

    2014-01-01

    While high quality water reuse based on dual membrane filtration (membrane filtration or ultrafiltration, followed by reverse osmosis) is expected to be progressively applied, treatment and sustainable management of the produced reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) are still important issues. Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising technology for maximising water recovery and further dewatering ROC so that zero liquid discharge is produced. Elevated concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds may act as potential foulants of the concentrate desalting system, in that they consist of, for example, FO and a subsequent crystallizer. The present study investigated conditions under which the FO system can serve as concentration phase with the focus on its fouling propensity using model foulants and real ROC. Bulk organics from ROC consisted mainly of humic acids (HA) and building blocks since wastewater-derived biopolymers were retained by membrane filtration or ultrafiltration. Organic fouling of the FO system by ROC-derived bulk organics was low. HA was only adsorbed moderately at about 7% of the initial concentration, causing a minor flux decline of about 2-4%. However, scaling was a major impediment to this process if not properly controlled, for instance by pH adjustment or softening. PMID:24960004

  19. Forward osmosis for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate from water reclamation: process performance and fouling control.

    PubMed

    Kazner, C; Jamil, S; Phuntsho, S; Shon, H K; Wintgens, T; Vigneswaran, S

    2014-01-01

    While high quality water reuse based on dual membrane filtration (membrane filtration or ultrafiltration, followed by reverse osmosis) is expected to be progressively applied, treatment and sustainable management of the produced reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) are still important issues. Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising technology for maximising water recovery and further dewatering ROC so that zero liquid discharge is produced. Elevated concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds may act as potential foulants of the concentrate desalting system, in that they consist of, for example, FO and a subsequent crystallizer. The present study investigated conditions under which the FO system can serve as concentration phase with the focus on its fouling propensity using model foulants and real ROC. Bulk organics from ROC consisted mainly of humic acids (HA) and building blocks since wastewater-derived biopolymers were retained by membrane filtration or ultrafiltration. Organic fouling of the FO system by ROC-derived bulk organics was low. HA was only adsorbed moderately at about 7% of the initial concentration, causing a minor flux decline of about 2-4%. However, scaling was a major impediment to this process if not properly controlled, for instance by pH adjustment or softening.

  20. Assessment of potential for natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes and ethanes in ground water at a petrochemical reclamation site, Harris County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Glenn F.; Braun, Christopher L.; Lee, Roger W.

    2000-01-01

    Redox conditions in the Numerous Sand Channels Zone beneath a petrochemical reclamation site in Harris County, Texas, range from sulfate reducing to methanogenic as indicated by the presence of methane in ground water and the range of molecular hydrogen concentrations. Assessment of the potential for reductive dechlorination using BIOCHLOR as a screening tool indicated conditions favoring anaerobic degradation of chlorinated organic compounds in the Numerous Sand Channels Zone. Evidence supporting reductive dechlorination includes apparently biogenic cis-1,2-dichloroethene; an increased ratio of 1,2-dichloroethane to 1,1,2-trichloroethane downgradient from the assumed contaminant source area; ethene and methane concentrations greater than background concentrations within the area of the contaminant plume; and a positive correlation of the ratio of ethene to vinyl chloride as a function of methane concentrations. The body of evidence presented in this report argues for hydrogenolysis of trichloroethene to cis-1,2-dichloroethene; of 1,1,2-trichloroethane to 1,2-dichloroethane; and of vinyl chloride to ethene within the Numerous Sand Channels Zone. Simulations using BIOCHLOR yielded apparent first-order decay constants for reductive dechlorination in the sequence Tetrachloroethene --> trichloroethene --> cis-1,2-dichloroethene --> vinyl chloride --> ethene within the range of literature values reported for each compound and apparent first-order decay constants for reductive dechlorination in the sequence 1,1,2-trichloroethane --> 1,2-dichloroethane slightly greater than literature values reported for each compound along the upgradient segment of a simulated ground-water flowpath. Except for vinyl chloride, apparent rates of reductive dechlorination for all simulated species show a marked decrease along the downgradient segment of the simulated ground-water flowpath. Evidence for reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes within the Numerous Sand Channels Zone

  1. Addressing reverse osmosis fouling within water reclamation--a side-by-side comparison of low-pressure membrane pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Kent, Fraser C; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2011-06-01

    A tertiary membrane filtration (TMF) pilot operating on secondary effluent and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) were setup in a side-by-side study as pretreatments for two identical reverse osmosis pilot systems. The water quality of the permeate from both low-pressure membrane pretreatment systems and the fouling rate of the reverse osmosis systems were compared to assess the capabilities of the two low-pressure membrane pretreatments to prevent organic fouling of the reverse osmosis systems. Both pretreatment pilots were setup using typical operating conditions (i.e., solids retention time and mixed-liquor suspended solids). A consistent difference in water quality and reverse osmosis performance was demonstrated during the 12-month study. The MBR permeate consistently had significantly lower total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand concentrations, but higher color and specific UV absorbance compared with the permeate from the TMF pretreatment. The pretreatment with the MBR gave an average reverse osmosis fouling rate over the entire study (0.27 Lmh/bar.month) that was less than half of the value found for the reverse osmosis with TMF pretreatment (0.60 Lmh/bar.month). A correlation of reverse osmosis feed TOC concentration with average reverse osmosis fouling rate also was established, independent of the pretreatment method used. Results from a cleaning analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transformed infrared reflectometry confirmed that the foulants were primarily organic in nature. It is concluded that, for this type of application and setup, MBR systems present an advantage over tertiary membrane polishing of secondary effluent for reverse osmosis pretreatment.

  2. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2012-03-01

    Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234°C and 3MPa (LT condition) and 295°C and 8MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  3. Characterization of nutrient transport below the root zone of a willow plantation irrigated with municipal waste water in the Boreal-Parkland transition zone, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainer, A. E.; Dyck, M. F.; Kachanoski, G.

    2010-12-01

    Irrigation of willow and poplar species with municipal waste water offers municipalities a variety of opportunities including reduced energy and waste management costs and preservation of surface water quality. Municipal waste water contains various nutrients that are beneficial to plants such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The woody species reduce treatment costs by further removing many of these nutrients and potentially using the resulting biomass to fuel the facilities. Diversion of municipal waste water from rivers and water bodies improves water quality by reducing the amount of nutrients entering water bodies, decreasing pollution such as eutrophication. As found by many European countries, the bioenergy combined with waste water treatment approach is promising but there are environmental drawbacks including nutrient leaching to groundwater and degradation to soil hydraulic properties. Various nitrogen forms like nitrate are of concern due to impacts on human and environmental health, most notably methemoglobinemia in infants. The overall objective of this research is to assess ecosystem resilience and sustainability with repeated applications of municipal wastewater over the life cycle of a willow plantation. The specific objective of this presentation is to quantify nutrient transport below the root zone of a poplar plantation previously irrigated with municipal waste water under natural climatic conditions using soil solution samplers at 4 depths (50 cm, 90 cm, 120 cm and 150 cm). Meteorological data (precipitation, temperature, evaporimeter) was collected as well. Transport of conservative tracers, bromide and chloride, are compared to the transport of nutrients (nitrogen forms and DOC,). Parameterization of the measured breakthrough curves may be used to predict future nutrient fluxes. The goal of this research is to improve the design of municipal waste water subsurface irrigation systems by minimizing leaching and water losses.

  4. Land reclamation: Advances in research technology

    SciTech Connect

    Younos, T.; Diplas, P.; Mostaghimi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Land reclamation encompasses remediation of industrial wasteland, improvement of infertile land for agricultural production, preservation of wetlands, and restoration of disturbed areas. Land reclamation is an integral part of sustainable development which aims to reconcile economic productivity with environmental preservation. During the 1980s, significant progress was achieved in the application of advanced technologies to sustainable development projects. The goal of this international symposium was to serve as a forum to review current research and state-of-the-art technology dealing with various aspects of land reclamation, and provide an opportunity for professional interaction and exchange of information in a multi-disciplinary setting. The scope of the symposium was as broad as the topic itself. The keynote address by Professor John Cairns focused on a systems approach in land restoration projects and challenges facing scientists in global biotic impoverishment. Other topics discussed in ten mechanical sessions included development and applications of computer models, geographic information systems, remote sensing technology, salinity problems, surface and ground water monitoring, reclamation of mine areas, soil amendment methods and impacts, wetland restoration techniques, and land use planning for resource protection.

  5. Basalt Waste Isolation Project Reclamation Support Project:

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1992-06-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Reclamation Support Project began in the spring of 1988 by categorizing sites distributed during operations of the BWIP into those requiring revegetation and those to be abandoned or transferred to other programs. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory's role in this project was to develop plans for reestablishing native vegetation on the first category of sites, to monitor the implementation of these plans, to evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts, and to identify remediation methods where necessary. The Reclamation Support Project focused on three major areas: geologic hydrologic boreholes, the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF). A number of BWIP reclamation sites seeded between 1989 and 1990 were found to be far below reclamation objectives. These sites were remediated in 1991 using various seedbed treatments designed to rectify problems with water-holding capacity, herbicide activity, surficial crust formation, and nutrient imbalances. Remediation was conducted during November and early December 1991. Sites were examined on a monthly basis thereafter to evaluate plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites early plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites, early plant growth far exceeded any previously obtained using other methods and seedbed treatments. Seeded plants did best where amendments consisted of soil-plus-compost or fertilizer-only. Vegetation growth on Gable Mountain was less than that found on other areas nearby, but this difference is attributed primarily to the site's altitude and north-facing orientation.

  6. Investigating the Energy-Water Usage Efficiency of the Reuse of Treated Municipal Wastewater for Artificial Groundwater Recharge.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Eric D; Keller, Arturo A; Geyer, Roland; Frew, James

    2016-02-16

    This project investigates the energy-water usage efficiency of large scale civil infrastructure projects involving the artificial recharge of subsurface groundwater aquifers via the reuse of treated municipal wastewater. A modeling framework is introduced which explores the various ways in which spatially heterogeneous variables such as topography, landuse, and subsurface infiltration capacity combine to determine the physical layout of proposed reuse system components and their associated process energy-water demands. This framework is applied to the planning and evaluation of the energy-water usage efficiency of hypothetical reuse systems in five case study regions within the State of California. Findings from these case study analyses suggest that, in certain geographic contexts, the water requirements attributable to the process energy consumption of a reuse system can exceed the volume of water that it is able to recover by as much as an order of magnitude.

  7. Investigating the Energy-Water Usage Efficiency of the Reuse of Treated Municipal Wastewater for Artificial Groundwater Recharge.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Eric D; Keller, Arturo A; Geyer, Roland; Frew, James

    2016-02-16

    This project investigates the energy-water usage efficiency of large scale civil infrastructure projects involving the artificial recharge of subsurface groundwater aquifers via the reuse of treated municipal wastewater. A modeling framework is introduced which explores the various ways in which spatially heterogeneous variables such as topography, landuse, and subsurface infiltration capacity combine to determine the physical layout of proposed reuse system components and their associated process energy-water demands. This framework is applied to the planning and evaluation of the energy-water usage efficiency of hypothetical reuse systems in five case study regions within the State of California. Findings from these case study analyses suggest that, in certain geographic contexts, the water requirements attributable to the process energy consumption of a reuse system can exceed the volume of water that it is able to recover by as much as an order of magnitude. PMID:26760055

  8. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  9. 43 CFR 404.14 - How will Reclamation provide notice of opportunities for assistance under the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will Reclamation provide notice of opportunities for assistance under the program? 404.14 Section 404.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER...

  10. 43 CFR 404.30 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provide for the completion of an appraisal investigation? 404.30 Section 404.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... of an appraisal investigation? In general, Reclamation will be responsible for 100 percent of...

  11. 43 CFR 404.30 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provide for the completion of an appraisal investigation? 404.30 Section 404.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... of an appraisal investigation? In general, Reclamation will be responsible for 100 percent of...

  12. 43 CFR 404.30 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provide for the completion of an appraisal investigation? 404.30 Section 404.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... of an appraisal investigation? In general, Reclamation will be responsible for 100 percent of...

  13. 43 CFR 404.32 - Can Reclamation reduce the non-Federal cost-share required for an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... appraisal investigation? Yes. Reclamation may reduce the non-Federal cost-share for appraisal investigations... overwhelming Federal interest in conducting the appraisal investigation, and you demonstrate financial...

  14. 43 CFR 404.32 - Can Reclamation reduce the non-Federal cost-share required for an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY... investigation? Yes. Reclamation may reduce the non-Federal cost-share for appraisal investigations below 50... Federal interest in conducting the appraisal investigation, and you demonstrate financial...

  15. 43 CFR 404.32 - Can Reclamation reduce the non-Federal cost-share required for an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... appraisal investigation? Yes. Reclamation may reduce the non-Federal cost-share for appraisal investigations... overwhelming Federal interest in conducting the appraisal investigation, and you demonstrate financial...

  16. 43 CFR 404.32 - Can Reclamation reduce the non-Federal cost-share required for an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... appraisal investigation? Yes. Reclamation may reduce the non-Federal cost-share for appraisal investigations... overwhelming Federal interest in conducting the appraisal investigation, and you demonstrate financial...

  17. 43 CFR 404.30 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of an appraisal investigation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provide for the completion of an appraisal investigation? 404.30 Section 404.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... of an appraisal investigation? In general, Reclamation will be responsible for 100 percent of...

  18. Will the Family Farm Survive in America? Part 1: Federal Reclamation Policy (Westlands Water District). Joint Hearings Before the Select Committee on Small Business and the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, U.S. Senate, 94th Congress, 1st Session (July 17 and 22, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    The national reclamation program was to encourage people to settle on the land, to enable them to own the land they farmed, and to spread the benefit of subsidized irrigation water to as many independent farm families as possible. The San Luis Unit of the Central Valley Project, the largest pumped water diversion and water storage project, was…

  19. The role of municipal committees in the development of an integrated urban water policy in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, G M; Costa, H S M; Dias, J B; Welter, M G

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges involved in adopting an integrated approach to urban water policies and management, a particularly problematic issue in Brazil due to the incomplete nature of urbanization, defined as the lack of adequate and/or universalized access to infrastructure and services, informal housing and conflicts between environmental protection and social housing needs. In the last two decades strong social movements have influenced urban environmental policies from national to local levels. In Belo Horizonte since 1993, decision-making processes have involved important mechanisms of democratic inclusion, which have contributed to fairer urban policies. A brief discussion of the concept of governance follows, introducing the municipal urban policy within which drainage and sanitation policies have been implemented. This paper presents the constitutional and institutional role of the five municipal committees dealing with water governance issues, as they are important arenas for civil society participation. The main constraints to achieving integrated urban water governance at the local level and the extent to which such policies are able to reduce social inequalities and promote social environmental justice in the use and appropriation of urban water, are discussed. This paper is part of the SWITCH-Sustainable Water Management Improves Tomorrow's Cities' Health-research network. PMID:19955636

  20. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment.

  1. Spatial analysis of water infiltration in urban soils. Case study of Iasi municipality (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristian Vasilica, Secu; Ionut, Minea

    2013-04-01

    The post-communist period (after 1989) caused important changes in the functional structure of Iasi municipality. The partly dismantling of the industrial area, the urban sprawl against the periurban and agricultural space, the new infrastructure works, all these determined important changes of soils' physical and morphological properties (e.g. porosity, density, compaction, infiltration rate etc., in the first case, and changes in soil horizons, in the second case etc.). This study aims to prove the variability of physical properties through the combination of statistical and geostatistical methods intended for a correct spatial representation. Water infiltration in urban soils was analyzed in relation to land use and the age of parental materials. Field investigations consisted in measurements of the water infiltration (by the means of Turf Tech infiltrometer), resistance to penetration (penetrologger), moisture deficit (Theta Probe) and resistivity (EC) for 70 equally distanced points (750 m x 750 m) placed in a grid covering more than 33 km2. In the laboratory, there were determined several parameters as density, porosity (air pycnometer), gravimetric moisture and other hydrophysical indicators. Filed investigations results are very heterogeneous, because of the human intervention on soils. The curves of variation for the rate water infiltration in soils indicate a downward trend, from high values in first time interval (one minute), between 5000 and 60 mm/h-1, gradually decreasing to the interval of 5-10 minutes (between 30 and 1000 mm/ h-1 to a general trend of flattening after a large time interval (in the timeframe of 50-60 minutes, the infiltration rate ranges between 4 and 142 mm•h-1). The highest frequency (≥65%) caracterizes the infiltration rates between 20 and 65 mm•h-1. For each analyzed sector (residential areas, industrial areas, degraded lands, recreational areas - parks and botanical gardens, forests heterogeneous agricultural lands), the

  2. Municipal Wastewater Processes. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltzfus, Lorna

    Described is a one-hour overview of the unit processes which comprise a municipal wastewater treatment system. Topics covered in this instructor's guide include types of pollutants encountered, treatment methods, and procedures by which wastewater treatment processes are selected. A slide-tape program is available to supplement this component of…

  3. Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2013-06-01

    Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange.

  4. Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2013-06-01

    Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange. PMID:23557723

  5. Field test of a cross-injection scheme for stimulating in situ denitrification near a municipal water supply well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierczak, R.; Devlin, J. F.; Rudolph, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    A pilot-scale test of an in situ denitrification scheme was undertaken to assess an adaptation of the nutrient injection wall (NIW) technology for treating a deep (30-40 m) nitrate contamination problem (N-NO 3- ˜ 10-12 mg/L). The adaptation is called the Cross-Injection Scheme (CIS). It duplicates the NIW method without a wall; wells are installed and operated directly in the aquifer and high-flux zones of the aquifer are preferentially targeted for treatment. The test was conducted on the site of a municipal water supply well field, with the supply well pumping between 15-80 m 3/h. Acetate was periodically injected into the aquifer between an injection-extraction well pair positioned across the normal direction of flow. The injected pulses were then permitted to move with the water toward the municipal wells, providing a carbon supply to drive the desired denitrification. The fate of nitrate, nitrite, acetate and sulphate were monitored at multilevel wells located between the injection location and the municipal wells. The acetate pulsing interval was approximately weekly (9 h injections), so that the system was operating passively 95% of the time. Previous work on the site has established that the highest solute fluxes were associated with a 1-3 m thick zone about 35 m below surface. This zone was found to respond to the acetate additions as a function of the municipal pumping rate and the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (i.e., determined by the injected acetate concentration). Initially, acetate was injected just below the theoretical stoichiometric requirement for complete denitrification and nitrate disappearance was accompanied by nitrite production. Increasing the C:N ratio (doubling the acetate injection concentration) increased the removal of nitrate and diminished the occurrence of nitrite. Slowing the municipal pumping rate, with a C:N ratio of 1.2-1.6, resulted in complete nitrate attenuation with no nitrite production and no sulfate reduction. The

  6. Billings land reclamation symposium 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhisel, R.I.

    2003-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'Working together for innovative reclamation'. Papers are presented under the following topics: hydrology; Rocky Mountain Hazardous Substance Research Center special session; soils and overburden; acid mine drainage; case studies; coal bed methane; reforestation; wildlife; evaluation tools and statistics; industrial innovative reclamation practices special session; revegetation; tailings; wetlands; geochemistry; success standards and bond release; and poster session.

  7. Recent developments in the reclamation of surface mined lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, K.D.; Gough, L.P.; Kumar, S.; Sharma, B.K.; Saxena, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A broad review of mine land reclamation problems and challenges in arid lands is presented with special emphasis on work recently completed in India. The economics of mining in the Indian Desert is second only to agriculture in importance. Lands disturbed by mining, however, have only recently been the focus of reclamation attempts. Studies were made and results compiled of problems associated with germplasm selection, soil, plant and overburden characterization and manipulation, plant establishment methods utilized, soil amendment needs, use and conservation of available water and the evaluation of ecosystem sustainability. Emphasis is made of the need for multi-disciplinary approaches to mine land reclamation research and for the long-term monitoring of reclamation success.

  8. Urban water recycling.

    PubMed

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once.

  9. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  10. Delineation of ground-water basins and recharge areas for municipal water-supply springs in a karst aquifer system in the Elizabethtown area, northern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water basins and recharge areas for municipal water-supply springs for the Elizabethtown area, northern Kentucky, were delineated using a hydrogeologic-mapping approach, potentiometric map interpretation, anddye-tracing tests. Five distinct ground-water basins drained by major karst springs are present in the Elizabethtown area. These basins are composed of networks of hydraulically interconnected solution conduits and fractures. The boundaries of the basins for Elizabethtown and Dyers Springs-the primary sources of water for the city of Elizabethtown-weredelineated by the positions of inferred ground-water divides on an existing potentiometric contour map. The results of dye-tracing tests, plotted as straight- line flowpaths, were used to confirm the presence and location of inferred ground-water divides and to adjust the position of the basin boundaries. Recharge areas of 4.8 and 2.7 square miles weredelineated for Elizabethtown and Dyers Springs, respectively. Swallets that drain concentrated stormwater runoff from major highways are presentin the recharge areas for both municipal-supply springs. Each spring is therefore potentially vulnerable to stormwater-runoff contaminants oraccidental spills and releases of toxic or hazardous materials into certain highway drainage culverts.

  11. Quality of ground water used for selected municipal water supplies in Iowa, 1982-96 water years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, B.D.; Linhart, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Maps show the general location of wells that have been sampled in the various aquifers. Other maps show the location of wells where sulfate and nitrite plus nitrate concentrations exceed the respective Maximum Contaminant Levels and wells where concentrations of the pesticides alachlor, atrazine, or cyanazine exceeded the respective minimum reporting levels. The compact disc included with this report has information about water-quality properties and concentrations of dissolved solids, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, total organic carbon, pesticides, and synthetic organic compounds for water years 1982 through 1996.

  12. Water-Rights Settlements and Reclamation in Central Arizona as a Cross-Cultural Experience: A Reexamination of Native Water Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsui, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    As of December 2010, the US Congress had enacted more than twenty major community-specific Native water-rights settlements, and the state of Arizona had more of these settlements (eight) than any other US state. This unique situation has invited voluminous studies on Arizona's Native water-rights settlements. Although these studies have clarified…

  13. Strategic planning for and implementation of reclaimed municipal waste water as make-up to a refinery cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, W.R.; Mazur, J.J.; Rao, N.M.

    1996-08-01

    This paper discusses the successful use of treated municipal plant waste water effluent (Title 22) in a refinery cooling water system. Conversion from well water to this make-up water source was preceded by developing a carefully crafted transition plan. Steps were taken to identify key system performance indicators, establish desired performance goals, and implement stringent monitoring and control protocols. In addition, all possible contingencies were considered and solutions developed. Treating Title 22 waters is very challenging and entails risks not associated with normal makeup waters. Several novel on-line monitoring and control tools are available which help minimize these risks while enhancing tower operation. Performance monitoring of critical system parameters is essential in order to provide early warning of problems so that corrective measures can be implemented. In addition, a high level of system automation enhances reliable operation. Corrosion, scaling and microbiological performance of the system with Title 22 water is discussed in comparison to previous well water make-up.

  14. 30 CFR 817.100 - Contemporaneous reclamation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contemporaneous reclamation. 817.100 Section 817.100 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... ACTIVITIES § 817.100 Contemporaneous reclamation. Reclamation efforts, including but not limited...

  15. 43 CFR 426.25 - Reclamation audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation audits. 426.25 Section 426.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.25 Reclamation audits. Reclamation will...

  16. 30 CFR 816.100 - Contemporaneous reclamation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contemporaneous reclamation. 816.100 Section 816.100 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... ACTIVITIES § 816.100 Contemporaneous reclamation. Reclamation efforts, including but not limited...

  17. 30 CFR 870.12 - Reclamation fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation fee. 870.12 Section 870.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING §...

  18. 30 CFR 870.12 - Reclamation fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reclamation fee. 870.12 Section 870.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING §...

  19. 30 CFR 870.12 - Reclamation fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reclamation fee. 870.12 Section 870.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING §...

  20. 30 CFR 870.12 - Reclamation fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reclamation fee. 870.12 Section 870.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING §...

  1. 30 CFR 870.12 - Reclamation fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reclamation fee. 870.12 Section 870.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING §...

  2. Chemical pollution and toxicity of water samples from stream receiving leachate from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, A; Kuklińska, K; Wolska, L; Namieśnik, J

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the impact of municipal waste landfill on the pollution level of surface waters, and to investigate whether the choice and number of physical and chemical parameters monitored are sufficient for determining the actual risk related to bioavailability and mobility of contaminants. In 2007-2012, water samples were collected from the stream flowing through the site at two sampling locations, i.e. before the stream׳s entry to the landfill, and at the stream outlet from the landfill. The impact of leachate on the quality of stream water was observed in all samples. In 2007-2010, high values of TOC and conductivity in samples collected down the stream from the landfill were observed; the toxicity of these samples was much greater than that of samples collected up the stream from the landfill. In 2010-2012, a significant decrease of conductivity and TOC was observed, which may be related to the modernization of the landfill. Three tests were used to evaluate the toxicity of sampled water. As a novelty the application of Phytotoxkit F™ for determining water toxicity should be considered. Microtox(®) showed the lowest sensitivity of evaluating the toxicity of water samples, while Phytotoxkit F™ showed the highest. High mortality rates of Thamnocephalus platyurus in Thamnotoxkit F™ test can be caused by high conductivity, high concentration of TOC or the presence of compounds which are not accounted for in the water quality monitoring program.

  3. Assessment of heavy metals in the industrial effluents, tube-wells and municipal supplied water of Dehradun, India.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Shail; Awasthi, Alok; Dabral, S K

    2013-07-01

    The bio-geochemical cycles of metals involve the lands, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. Although a large number of metals are introduced to the water bodies during their mining and extraction processes and geochemical weathering of rocks, but the role of domestic and industrial wastes is predominant and of much concern. Increased industrial activities has increased the incidence of percolation of toxic metal ions to the soil and water bodies and presently their presence in ecosystem, have reached to an alarming level that environmentalists are finding it difficult to enforce control measures. Human activities and large number of small and big industrial units are increasingly discharging deleterious metals present in the effluents and wastes, to the environment and aquatic systems and have contaminated heavily even the ground water. The toxic metals have a great tendency of bioaccumulation through which they enter the food chain system and ultimately affect adversely the life on this planet Earth in various ways. Further, due to contamination of irrigation system by the harmful Chemicals and toxic metals, the farm products, vegetables, fruits, potable water and even milk is not spared. This paper describes the assessment of the heavy metal concentration in various industrial effluents of the surrounding area. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents collected from various sites are also reported. To assess the status of ground water quality, water samples from four tube wells of different localities of the area and four drinking water samples supplied by Municipal Distribution System were also analyzed.

  4. Nitrogen removal by recycle water nitritation as an attractive alternative for retrofit technologies in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gil, K I; Choi, E

    2004-01-01

    The recycle water from sludge processing in municipal wastewater treatment plants causes many serious problems in the efficiency and stability of the mainstream process. Thus, the design approach for recycle water is an important part of any biological nutrient removal system design when a retrofit technology is required for upgrading an existing plant. Moreover, the application of nitrogen removal from recycle water using the nitritation process has recently increased due to economic reasons associated with an effective carbon allocation as well as the minimization of aeration costs. However, for the actual application of recycle water nitritation, it has not been fully examined whether or not additional volume would be required in an existing plant. In this paper, the addition of recycle water nitritation to an existing plant was evaluated based on a volume analysis and estimation of final effluent quality. It was expected that using the reserve volume of the aeration tank in existing plants, recycle water nitritation could be applied to a plant without any enlargement. With the addition of recycle water nitritation, it was estimated that the final effluent quality would be improved and stabilized, especially in the winter season.

  5. Assessment of heavy metals in the industrial effluents, tube-wells and municipal supplied water of Dehradun, India.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Shail; Awasthi, Alok; Dabral, S K

    2013-07-01

    The bio-geochemical cycles of metals involve the lands, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. Although a large number of metals are introduced to the water bodies during their mining and extraction processes and geochemical weathering of rocks, but the role of domestic and industrial wastes is predominant and of much concern. Increased industrial activities has increased the incidence of percolation of toxic metal ions to the soil and water bodies and presently their presence in ecosystem, have reached to an alarming level that environmentalists are finding it difficult to enforce control measures. Human activities and large number of small and big industrial units are increasingly discharging deleterious metals present in the effluents and wastes, to the environment and aquatic systems and have contaminated heavily even the ground water. The toxic metals have a great tendency of bioaccumulation through which they enter the food chain system and ultimately affect adversely the life on this planet Earth in various ways. Further, due to contamination of irrigation system by the harmful Chemicals and toxic metals, the farm products, vegetables, fruits, potable water and even milk is not spared. This paper describes the assessment of the heavy metal concentration in various industrial effluents of the surrounding area. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents collected from various sites are also reported. To assess the status of ground water quality, water samples from four tube wells of different localities of the area and four drinking water samples supplied by Municipal Distribution System were also analyzed. PMID:25509947

  6. Solid waste reclamation and recycling: Papers. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the reclamation and recycling of waste papers from municipal, domestic, and industrial solid wastes. References cover recycling techniques and equipment, economic analyses, biofuel production, environmental issues, and feasibility studies. The use of recycled papers in construction materials and papermaking is also covered. (Contains a minimum of 111 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  8. Prediction of micropollutant elimination during ozonation of municipal wastewater effluents: use of kinetic and water specific information.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunho; Gerrity, Daniel; Lee, Minju; Bogeat, Angel Encinas; Salhi, Elisabeth; Gamage, Sujanie; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Wert, Eric C; Snyder, Shane A; von Gunten, Urs

    2013-06-01

    Ozonation is effective in improving the quality of municipal wastewater effluents by eliminating organic micropollutants. Nevertheless, ozone process design is still limited by (i) the large number of structurally diverse micropollutants and (ii) the varying quality of wastewater matrices (especially dissolved organic matter). These issues were addressed by grouping 16 micropollutants according to their ozone and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) rate constants and normalizing the applied ozone dose to the dissolved organic carbon concentration (i.e., g O3/g DOC). Consistent elimination of micropollutants was observed in 10 secondary municipal wastewater effluents spiked with 16 micropollutants (∼2 μg/L) in the absence of ozone demand exerted by nitrite. The elimination of ozone-refractory micropollutants was well predicted by measuring the (•)OH exposure by the decrease of the probe compound p-chlorobenzoic acid. The average molar (•)OH yields (moles of (•)OH produced per mole of ozone consumed) were 21 ± 3% for g O3/g DOC = 1.0, and the average rate constant for the reaction of (•)OH with effluent organic matter was (2.1 ± 0.6) × 10(4) (mg C/L)(-1) s(-1). On the basis of these results, a DOC-normalized ozone dose, together with the rate constants for the reaction of the selected micropollutants with ozone and (•)OH, and the measurement of the (•)OH exposure are proposed as key parameters for the prediction of the elimination efficiency of micropollutants during ozonation of municipal wastewater effluents with varying water quality. PMID:23638968

  9. Effect of lake water on algal biomass and microbial community structure in municipal wastewater-based lab-scale photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Krustok, I; Truu, J; Odlare, M; Truu, M; Ligi, T; Tiirik, K; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-08-01

    Photobioreactors are a novel environmental technology that can produce biofuels with the simultaneous removal of nutrients and pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lake water inoculation on the production of algal biomass and phylogenetic and functional structure of the algal and bacterial communities in municipal wastewater-treating lab-scale photobioreactors. Inoculating the reactors with lake water had a significant benefit to the overall algal biomass growth and nutrient reduction in the reactors with wastewater and lake water (ratio 70/30 v/v). The metagenome-based survey showed that the most abundant algal phylum in these reactors was Chlorophyta with Scenedesmus being the most prominent genus. The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes with most dominant families being Sphingobacteriaceae, Cytophagaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Nocardiaceae and Nostocaceae. These photobioreactors were also effective in reducing the overall amount of pathogens in wastewater compared to reactors with wastewater/tap water mixture. Functional analysis of the photobioreactor metagenomes revealed an increase in relative abundance genes related to photosynthesis, synthesis of vitamins important for auxotrophic algae and decrease in virulence and nitrogen metabolism subsystems in lake water reactors. The results of the study indicate that adding lake water to the wastewater-based photobioreactor leads to an altered bacterial community phylogenetic and functional structure that could be linked to higher algal biomass production, as well as to enhanced nutrient and pathogen reduction in these reactors.

  10. Megaproject reclamation and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Rebecca C.; Robinson, Derek T.; Petrone, Rich

    2015-11-01

    Megaprojects such as oil sands mining require large-scale and long-term closure and reclamation plans. Yet these plans are created and approved without considering future climate and hydrological conditions, jeopardizing the sustainability of reclaimed landscapes.

  11. Addressing the municipal market

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, R.

    1993-05-12

    Most municipalities employ simple, fairly inexpensive water treatment regimes, which is why some large industrial treatment firms stay away from the municipal market, despite rapid growth in the sector. Of the $625 million/year spent for US wastewater treatment, 46% is for municipalities, up 14.5% from 1987. Waste treatment in general grew by 12% in that period, according to Kline Co. (Fairfield, NJ). Some of the challenges facing municipalities in the Clean Water Act reauthorization bills are metals-contaminated sediments and storm water containment and treatment. Bill Tullos, business manager for chlor-alkali at Elf Atochem North America, does not foresee a phaseout of chlorine-based products used as disinfectant in drinking water treatment by municipalities, or as a wastewater treatment in municipal and industrial use. [open quotes]Alternatives are not as effective and are more expensive,[close quotes] says Tullos. [open quotes]There was some promise with ozone, but unfortunately it tends to tear apart your corrosion and scale inhibitors. Chlorine also provides residual protection from contamination all along the water line system.[close quotes] Tullos adds that the formation of tetrahydromethane-one of the problems of using chlorine-based products-can be avoided by screening out the hydrocarbons first and then adding chlorine.

  12. Endocrine disrupting compounds reduction and water quality improvement in reclaimed municipal wastewater: A field-scale study along Jialu River in North China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Ji, Xiaowen; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Yu; Liang, Ying; Du, Jinhui; Xie, Xianchuan; Li, Aimin

    2016-08-01

    Several ecological restoration projects have been constructed along urban rivers in North China to purify reclaimed municipal wastewater and improve the water quality of urban rivers. These projects attempt to address several environmental issues, including treating water contamination that is not fully remediated through standard wastewater treatment. This study investigated the efficiency of reducing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and estrogenic activity in reclaimed municipal wastewater along an 18.5 km field-scale ecological restoration project in Jialu River. The river only receives reclaimed municipal wastewater without natural effluent in North China. Data show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) of reclaimed municipal effluent improved when compared to the Chinese surface water standard, and natural estrogens, such as estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2), were effectively removed during ecological restoration purification processes. The estradiol activity based on measured EDCs concentrations (ΣEEQEDC) was less than 0.01 ng/L after the ecological purification of restoration river; however, synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds in reclaimed municipal wastewater, such as octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), were difficult to eliminate. The bioassays of MDA-kb2 cells and recombinant yeast in vitro showed no direct androgen response and estrogen effect in reclaimed municipal effluent after the purification processes. However, a chorionic long-term (21d) exposure in vivo test showed that exposure to the reclaimed municipal effluents, even after river purification, still significantly induced yolk protein vitellogenin (Vtg) in male zebrafish, leading to abnormal expression of testosterone (T) and E2. This indicates continued potent estrogenic activity to aquatic organisms, even after treatment and purification. PMID:27231882

  13. Reclaiming water with wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Crother, C.M. )

    1994-07-01

    This article describes how officials in Riverside County, Calif. are using constructed wetlands as part of their water-resources-management program, while creating a wildlife-habitat and public-recreation area in the process. As part of its strategy, Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD), along with the US Bureau of Reclamation (BuRec), is investigating the use of multipurpose constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment, reclaimed-water reuse, environmental enhancement, wildlife-habitat creation, and public education and recreation. EMWD is evaluating the use of wetlands to treat nitrate-contaminated ground water, recharge ground-water basins, concentrate desalination unit brines and treat storm-water runoff. By incorporating reclaimed water into its water-resources-management program, EMWD will have the flexibility to provide water of different qualities throughout the district and save potable water for potable uses.

  14. [Protozoans in superficial waters and faecal samples of individuals of rural populations of the Montes municipality, Sucre state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mora, Leonor; Martínez, Indira; Figuera, Lourdes; Segura, Merlyn; Del Valle, Guilarte

    2010-12-01

    In Sucre state, the Manzanares river is threatened by domestic, agricultural and industrial activities, becoming an environmental risk factor for its inhabitants. In this sense, the presence of protozoans in superficial waters of tributaries of the Manzanares river (Orinoco river, Quebrada Seca, San Juan river), Montes municipality, Sucre state, as well as the analysis of faecal samples from inhabitants of towns bordering these tributaries were evaluated. We collected faecal and water samples from may 2006 through april 2007. The superficial water samples were processed after centrifugation by the direct examination and floculation, using lugol, modified Kinyoun and trichromic colorations. Fecal samples where analyzed by direct examination with physiological saline solution and the modified Ritchie concentration method and using the other colorations techniques above mentioned. The most frequently observed protozoans in superficial waters in the three tributaries were: Amoebas, Blastocystis sp, Endolimax sp., Chilomastix sp. and Giardia sp. Whereas in faecal samples, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Entaomeba coli had the greatest frequencies in the three communities. The inhabitants of Orinoco La Peña turned out to be most susceptible to these parasitic infections (77.60%), followed by San Juan River (46.63%) and Quebrada Seca (39.49%). The presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic protozoans in superficial waters demonstrates the faecal contamination of the tributaries, representing a constant focus of infection for their inhabitants, inferred by the observation of the same species in both types of samples. PMID:21365874

  15. [Protozoans in superficial waters and faecal samples of individuals of rural populations of the Montes municipality, Sucre state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mora, Leonor; Martínez, Indira; Figuera, Lourdes; Segura, Merlyn; Del Valle, Guilarte

    2010-12-01

    In Sucre state, the Manzanares river is threatened by domestic, agricultural and industrial activities, becoming an environmental risk factor for its inhabitants. In this sense, the presence of protozoans in superficial waters of tributaries of the Manzanares river (Orinoco river, Quebrada Seca, San Juan river), Montes municipality, Sucre state, as well as the analysis of faecal samples from inhabitants of towns bordering these tributaries were evaluated. We collected faecal and water samples from may 2006 through april 2007. The superficial water samples were processed after centrifugation by the direct examination and floculation, using lugol, modified Kinyoun and trichromic colorations. Fecal samples where analyzed by direct examination with physiological saline solution and the modified Ritchie concentration method and using the other colorations techniques above mentioned. The most frequently observed protozoans in superficial waters in the three tributaries were: Amoebas, Blastocystis sp, Endolimax sp., Chilomastix sp. and Giardia sp. Whereas in faecal samples, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Entaomeba coli had the greatest frequencies in the three communities. The inhabitants of Orinoco La Peña turned out to be most susceptible to these parasitic infections (77.60%), followed by San Juan River (46.63%) and Quebrada Seca (39.49%). The presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic protozoans in superficial waters demonstrates the faecal contamination of the tributaries, representing a constant focus of infection for their inhabitants, inferred by the observation of the same species in both types of samples.

  16. The Ecological Dynamics of Fecal Contamination and Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A in Municipal Kathmandu Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Karkey, Abhilasha; Jombart, Thibaut; Walker, Alan W; Thompson, Corinne N; Torres, Andres; Dongol, Sabina; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Pham Thanh, Duy; Tran Thi Ngoc, Dung; Voong Vinh, Phat; Singer, Andrew C; Parkhill, Julian; Thwaites, Guy; Basnyat, Buddha; Ferguson, Neil; Baker, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One of the UN sustainable development goals is to achieve universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030. It is locations like Kathmandu, Nepal, a densely populated city in South Asia with endemic typhoid fever, where this goal is most pertinent. Aiming to understand the public health implications of water quality in Kathmandu we subjected weekly water samples from 10 sources for one year to a range of chemical and bacteriological analyses. We additionally aimed to detect the etiological agents of typhoid fever and longitudinally assess microbial diversity by 16S rRNA gene surveying. We found that the majority of water sources exhibited chemical and bacterial contamination exceeding WHO guidelines. Further analysis of the chemical and bacterial data indicated site-specific pollution, symptomatic of highly localized fecal contamination. Rainfall was found to be a key driver of this fecal contamination, correlating with nitrates and evidence of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, for which DNA was detectable in 333 (77%) and 303 (70%) of 432 water samples, respectively. 16S rRNA gene surveying outlined a spectrum of fecal bacteria in the contaminated water, forming complex communities again displaying location-specific temporal signatures. Our data signify that the municipal water in Kathmandu is a predominant vehicle for the transmission of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. This study represents the first extensive spatiotemporal investigation of water pollution in an endemic typhoid fever setting and implicates highly localized human waste as the major contributor to poor water quality in the Kathmandu Valley. PMID:26735696

  17. The Ecological Dynamics of Fecal Contamination and Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A in Municipal Kathmandu Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Karkey, Abhilasha; Jombart, Thibaut; Walker, Alan W; Thompson, Corinne N; Torres, Andres; Dongol, Sabina; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Pham Thanh, Duy; Tran Thi Ngoc, Dung; Voong Vinh, Phat; Singer, Andrew C; Parkhill, Julian; Thwaites, Guy; Basnyat, Buddha; Ferguson, Neil; Baker, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One of the UN sustainable development goals is to achieve universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030. It is locations like Kathmandu, Nepal, a densely populated city in South Asia with endemic typhoid fever, where this goal is most pertinent. Aiming to understand the public health implications of water quality in Kathmandu we subjected weekly water samples from 10 sources for one year to a range of chemical and bacteriological analyses. We additionally aimed to detect the etiological agents of typhoid fever and longitudinally assess microbial diversity by 16S rRNA gene surveying. We found that the majority of water sources exhibited chemical and bacterial contamination exceeding WHO guidelines. Further analysis of the chemical and bacterial data indicated site-specific pollution, symptomatic of highly localized fecal contamination. Rainfall was found to be a key driver of this fecal contamination, correlating with nitrates and evidence of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, for which DNA was detectable in 333 (77%) and 303 (70%) of 432 water samples, respectively. 16S rRNA gene surveying outlined a spectrum of fecal bacteria in the contaminated water, forming complex communities again displaying location-specific temporal signatures. Our data signify that the municipal water in Kathmandu is a predominant vehicle for the transmission of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. This study represents the first extensive spatiotemporal investigation of water pollution in an endemic typhoid fever setting and implicates highly localized human waste as the major contributor to poor water quality in the Kathmandu Valley.

  18. The Ecological Dynamics of Fecal Contamination and Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A in Municipal Kathmandu Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Alan W.; Thompson, Corinne N.; Torres, Andres; Dongol, Sabina; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Pham Thanh, Duy; Tran Thi Ngoc, Dung; Voong Vinh, Phat; Singer, Andrew C.; Parkhill, Julian; Thwaites, Guy; Basnyat, Buddha; Ferguson, Neil; Baker, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One of the UN sustainable development goals is to achieve universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030. It is locations like Kathmandu, Nepal, a densely populated city in South Asia with endemic typhoid fever, where this goal is most pertinent. Aiming to understand the public health implications of water quality in Kathmandu we subjected weekly water samples from 10 sources for one year to a range of chemical and bacteriological analyses. We additionally aimed to detect the etiological agents of typhoid fever and longitudinally assess microbial diversity by 16S rRNA gene surveying. We found that the majority of water sources exhibited chemical and bacterial contamination exceeding WHO guidelines. Further analysis of the chemical and bacterial data indicated site-specific pollution, symptomatic of highly localized fecal contamination. Rainfall was found to be a key driver of this fecal contamination, correlating with nitrates and evidence of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, for which DNA was detectable in 333 (77%) and 303 (70%) of 432 water samples, respectively. 16S rRNA gene surveying outlined a spectrum of fecal bacteria in the contaminated water, forming complex communities again displaying location-specific temporal signatures. Our data signify that the municipal water in Kathmandu is a predominant vehicle for the transmission of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. This study represents the first extensive spatiotemporal investigation of water pollution in an endemic typhoid fever setting and implicates highly localized human waste as the major contributor to poor water quality in the Kathmandu Valley. PMID:26735696

  19. Community Needs Assessment After Microcystin Toxin Contamination of a Municipal Water Supply - Lucas County, Ohio, September 2014.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Carolyn L; Nelson, Leigh; Eitniear, Samantha; Zgodzinski, Eric; Zabala, Amanda; Billing, Laurie; DiOrio, Mary

    2016-01-01

    On August 1, 2014, routine testing at the Collins Park Water Treatment Plant in Lucas County, Ohio, revealed microcystin toxin levels in drinking water had reached 3.19 μg/L, surpassing the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water advisory threshold of 1.0 μg/L. Microcystin is a hepatoxin released by cyanobacteria in certain harmful algal blooms. Exposure to microcystin has been associated with gastrointestinal and hepatic illness in both humans and animals (1-3). On August 2, a do-not-drink advisory was issued, warning community members not to drink, boil, or use the water for cooking or brushing teeth. Public health officials used traditional and social media outlets to disseminate public health messages to affected communities. On August 4, 2014, the advisory was lifted after multiple water samples confirmed microcystin toxin levels had dropped below the advisory threshold. To assess communication strategies, water exposure, and household needs, the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) and Toledo-Lucas County Health Department (TLCHD) conducted a Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) in Lucas County. Most households (88.1%) reported hearing about the advisory the morning it was issued, but 11% reported drinking and 21% reported brushing teeth with municipal water during the advisory. Household members reported physical (16%) and mental (10%) health concerns that they believed were related to the advisory and activity disruptions including temporarily staying outside of the home (6%) during the advisory and continued use of alternative water sources after the advisory was lifted (82%). During a do-not-drink advisory, governmental agencies and community partners need to engage in joint prevention and response efforts to decrease water exposure and prevent activity disruptions. PMID:27607896

  20. 30 CFR 902.20 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... available at: (a) Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management, 3601 C Street... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 902.20 Section 902.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  1. Miscellaneous reclamation legislation. Part 4. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Water and Power of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on S. 1884, S. 1981, and S. 2643, September 20, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Part 4 of the hearing record covers the first session of hearings on S. 1884, S. 1981, and S. 2643, which affect reclamation projects at Elephant Butte Irrigation District, projects covered by the Small Reclamation Projects Act of 1956, the San Luis Unit of the Central Valley Project in California, and other purposes. The text of each bill is inserted in the record along with the testimony of 13 witnesses representing water agencies, environmental groups, and the Department of Interior's Bureau of Reclamation. Senators from several affected states also made statements. At issue was the need to authorize additional funds for the projects because repayment funds are not credited to the program, making it necessary to raise the authorization ceiling. Witnesses noted the merits of the small projects program in promoting conservation by securing funding on the open market and encouraging local initiative. Critics objected to the piecemeal effect of this approach.

  2. Land reclamation research

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy has assigned its Office of Environment the task of developing methods that will prevent or reduce damages caused by surface mining. Before that task can be accomplished, more must be learned about the functioning of organisms and their surroundings-the ecosystems threatened by disruptions from surface mining. While new federal and state laws require the full reclamation of mine sites, there is no assurance now that reclaimed areas can be self-sustaining, especially in the arid and semiarid West. To these ends, the Ecological Research Division within the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department's Office of Environment has begun a number of related programs aimed at understanding more clearly soils, plants, animals, and other components of the ecosystem so that ways may be found to improve environmental quality or to prevent damage from mining. Another aim is to produce efficient and cost-effective techniques for returning to productive use land that has been scarred by mining. Two national laboratories and six universities carry out these research programs. The work extends from broadly based studies, such as the effects of mining on the hydrologic balance, to very specific studies, such as evaluation of the reproductive cycle of a native grass.

  3. Three potential sources of microfungi in a treated municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Sammon, Noel B; Harrower, Keith M; Fabbro, Larelle D; Reed, Rob H

    2011-03-01

    Some microfungi are known to be opportunistic human pathogens, and there is a body of scientific opinion that one of their routes of infection may be water aerosols. Others have been implicated as causative agents of odours and off-tastes in drinking water. This study was undertaken to investigate three potential sources of microfungi in a treated, oligotrophic municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia. Formation of the microfungal component of developing biofilm on hard surfaces in water storage reservoirs was also assessed. Inside and outside air samples were collected from two reservoirs using two types of Burkard air samplers. Biofilm and soft sediment samples were collected from the inner surfaces of asbestos cement water pipes and from pipe dead ends respectively. These were analysed for microfungal growth and sporulation using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy. Artificial coupons of glass, PVC and concrete were immersed in two reservoirs to assess microfungal biofilm formation. This was analysed periodically using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy, cultures of coupon swabs and scanning electron microscopy. Fungal spores were recovered from all air samples. The number of colonies and the genera were similar for both inside and outside air. Microfungal filaments and sporulating structures were recovered from most of the pipe inner surface biofilm and dead end sediment samples, but were sparser in the biofilm than in the sediment samples. No recognisable, vegetative filamentous fungi were found in the slowly developing biofilm on coupons. This study indicates that airborne spores are an important potential source of microfungi found in water storage reservoirs. It has also demonstrated conclusively that filamentous microfungi grow and sporulate on water pipe inner surfaces and in soft sediments within the water distribution system.

  4. Three Potential Sources of Microfungi in a Treated Municipal Water Supply System in Sub-Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sammon, Noel B.; Harrower, Keith M.; Fabbro, Larelle D.; Reed, Rob H.

    2011-01-01

    Some microfungi are known to be opportunistic human pathogens, and there is a body of scientific opinion that one of their routes of infection may be water aerosols. Others have been implicated as causative agents of odours and off-tastes in drinking water. This study was undertaken to investigate three potential sources of microfungi in a treated, oligotrophic municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia. Formation of the microfungal component of developing biofilm on hard surfaces in water storage reservoirs was also assessed. Inside and outside air samples were collected from two reservoirs using two types of Burkard air samplers. Biofilm and soft sediment samples were collected from the inner surfaces of asbestos cement water pipes and from pipe dead ends respectively. These were analysed for microfungal growth and sporulation using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy. Artificial coupons of glass, PVC and concrete were immersed in two reservoirs to assess microfungal biofilm formation. This was analysed periodically using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy, cultures of coupon swabs and scanning electron microscopy. Fungal spores were recovered from all air samples. The number of colonies and the genera were similar for both inside and outside air. Microfungal filaments and sporulating structures were recovered from most of the pipe inner surface biofilm and dead end sediment samples, but were sparser in the biofilm than in the sediment samples. No recognisable, vegetative filamentous fungi were found in the slowly developing biofilm on coupons. This study indicates that airborne spores are an important potential source of microfungi found in water storage reservoirs. It has also demonstrated conclusively that filamentous microfungi grow and sporulate on water pipe inner surfaces and in soft sediments within the water distribution system. PMID:21556175

  5. Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas: a case study in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kouping; Jiao, Jiu J

    2008-02-01

    The concentrations of metals in the buried marine sediment and groundwater were differently affected by land reclamation. Nine metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in sediment and coastal groundwater from reclamation areas in Shenzhen were examined. The gradually decreased concentrations (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) in sediment and relatively higher concentrations (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Cd) in groundwater within reclamation areas were observed. The increase of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Cd concentrations in groundwater within reclamation areas subsequently after land reclamation should be resulted from the mobilization of these metals accumulated in the sediment. These metals appear to be easily mobilized from solid phase to solution phase after reclamation. The physico-chemical changes such as reduction in pH and salinity in water environment induced by land reclamation appear to be responsible for metal mobility in the sediment-groundwater system.

  6. Quality of water recovered from a municipal effluent injection well in the Floridan aquifer system, Pompano Beach, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 69 million gallons of backflow from an injection well used for the disposal of secondary treated municipal effluent in the Floridan aquifer system near Pompano Beach, Florida, was periodically sampled for inorganic quality from March 1975 through March 1977. Analyses of the backflow effluent showed a concomitant increase in dissolved solids and a change in ionic composition as a function of cumulative volume of backflow. Both the increase in dissolved solids and the change in major ionic composition were directly related to an estimated 6 to 7 percent mixing of the moderately saline water in the Florida aquifer system with the injected system with the injected effluent. Although an estimated 3.5 billion gallons of effluent was injected into the aquifer system during the 16-year operation of the Collier Manor treatment plant, only 65 to 70 million gallons was backflowed before the chloride concentration approached 250 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  7. 43 CFR 404.13 - What criteria will Reclamation use to prioritize requests for assistance under the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... effectively addresses water supply problems and needs, either by applying new technology or by employing a... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... urgent and compelling need for a rural water supply project that would: (1) Address present or...

  8. 43 CFR 404.13 - What criteria will Reclamation use to prioritize requests for assistance under the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Whether a rural water supply project helps meet applicable requirements established by law; (f) The extent... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... urgent and compelling need for a rural water supply project that would: (1) Address present or...

  9. 43 CFR 404.13 - What criteria will Reclamation use to prioritize requests for assistance under the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Whether a rural water supply project helps meet applicable requirements established by law; (f) The extent... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... urgent and compelling need for a rural water supply project that would: (1) Address present or...

  10. 43 CFR 404.13 - What criteria will Reclamation use to prioritize requests for assistance under the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Whether a rural water supply project helps meet applicable requirements established by law; (f) The extent... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... urgent and compelling need for a rural water supply project that would: (1) Address present or...

  11. Association of blood pressure and metabolic syndrome components with magnesium levels in drinking water in some Serbian municipalities.

    PubMed

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Dragana; Gluvic, Zoran; Cankovic-Kadijevic, Milce

    2012-03-01

    Chronic exposure to insufficient levels of magnesium (Mg) in drinking water increases the risk of magnesium deficiency and its association with hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to assess the potential association of mineral contents in drinking water with blood pressure and other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (BMI as measure of obesity, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin resistance, index-HOMA IR), in a healthy population. This study was conducted in three randomly selected municipalities (Pozarevac, Grocka and Banovci), and recruited 90 healthy blood donors, aged 20-50 years. The Pozarevac area had a four times higher mean Mg level in drinking water (42 mg L(-1)) than Grocka (11 mg L(-1)). Diastolic blood pressure was lowest in subjects from Pozarevac. Serum Mg (sMg) was highest, and serum Ca(2+)/Mg (sCa/Mg) lowest in subjects from Pozarevac, and after adjustment for confounders (age, gender, BMI), only total cholesterol and sMg levels were independent predictors of diastolic blood pressure, sMg levels were independent predictors of triglycerides, and sCa/Mg predicted glucose levels. These results suggest that Mg supplementation in areas of lower magnesium levels in drinking water may be an important measure in the prevention of hypertension and MetS in general.

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): South Municipal Water Supply Well, BH. (First remedial action), September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-27

    The 250-acre South Municipal Water Supply Well site is near the Town of Peterborough, in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire. Also on the site are the New Hampshire Ball Bearings Incorporated (NHBB) manufacturing facility, several commercial establishments, and several apartments. The town of Peterborough discontinued use of the South Well in May 1983 after the State discovered VOC contamination in water samples taken from the well. Subsequent investigations revealed that a plume of contaminated ground water extended from under the NHBB property to the vicinity of the South Well. VOC contamination was also detected in soil on the NHBB property, and wetlands sediment was found to be contaminated with PCBs, metals, and PAHs. Investigations attributed the contamination to in-house chemical releases that were subsequently washed out through floor drains or slop sinks to outfalls, or washed out through facility doors. Exterior releases contributed to contamination at the site through the draining of a truck-mounted waste solvent tank. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including PCE, TCE, and toluene; the primary contaminants of concern affecting the sediment are organics including PCBs and PAHs, and metals.

  13. Estimating exposure to volatile organic compounds from municipal water-supply systems: use of a better computational model.

    PubMed

    Aral, M M; Maslia, M L; Ulirsch, G V; Reyes, J J

    1996-01-01

    The Southington, Connecticut, water-supply system is characterized by a distribution network that contains more than 1 700 pipeline segments of varying diameters and construction materials, more than 186 mi (299 km) of pipe, 9 groundwater extraction wells capable of pumping more than 4 700 gal/min (0.2965 m3/s), and 3 municipal reservoirs. Volatile organic compounds, which contaminated the underlying groundwater reservoir during the 1970s, contaminated the water-supply system and exposed the town's residents to volatile organic chemicals. We applied a computational model to the water-supply system to characterize and quantify the distribution of volatile organic compounds in the pipelines, from which we estimated the demographic distribution of potential exposure to the town's residents. Based on results from modeling analyses, we concluded the following: (a) exposure to volatile organic compound contamination may vary significantly from one census block to another, even when these census blocks are adjacent to each other within a specified radius; (b) maximum spatial spread of contamination in a water-distribution system may not occur under peak demand conditions, and, therefore, maximum spatial distribution of the exposed population also may not correspond to peak demand conditions, and (c) use of the proposed computational model allows for a more refined and rigorous methodology with which to estimate census-block-level contamination for exposure assessment and epidemiologic investigations.

  14. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on fate of nitrates in soil, streambed sediment, and water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindall, James A.; Lull, Kenneth J.; Gaggiani, Neville G.

    1994-12-01

    at the research site, it has been determined that a potentially large source of contamination exists in the soils of the study area owing to increased concentrations of nitrogen, sodium, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, bicarbonate, and chloride because of sewage disposal. Continued monitoring of surface and ground water for nitrogen and the other ions previously mentioned is required to assess long-term effects of municipal sludge disposal on water quality.

  15. H. R. 2095: Abandoned Mine Reclamation Act of 1989. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, October 25, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bill would amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to reauthorize the collection of reclamation fees. This bill explains the additions to the Act relating to collection of interest on that portion of the fund not currently needed; the allocation of funds; the fund objectives; eligible lands and waters; state reclamation programs; voids and tunnels; emergency program; certification; and abandoned minerals and mineral materials mine reclamation fund.

  16. Drought and Water Supply. Implications of the Massachusetts Experience for Municipal Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Clifford S.; And Others

    This book uses the 1962-66 Massachusetts drought data as a base of information to build a planning model of water resources that is of interest to students and professionals involved with water management. Using a demand-supply ratio to measure the relative inadequacy of a given water system, the authors then project demand into the drought period…

  17. Wind energy applications for municipal water services: Opportunities, situational analyses, and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.; Miner-Nordstrom, L.

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Especially in arid U.S. regions, communities may soon face hard choices with respect to water and electric power. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can potentially offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Technologies Program has been exploring the potential for wind power to meet growing challenges for water supply and treatment. The DOE is currently characterizing the U.S. regions that are most likely to benefit from wind-water applications and is also exploring the associated technical and policy issues associated with bringing wind energy to bear on water resource challenges.

  18. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  19. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume II. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  20. Seasonal and spatial variations of source and drinking water quality in small municipal systems of two Canadian regions.

    PubMed

    Scheili, A; Rodriguez, M J; Sadiq, R

    2015-03-01

    A one-year sampling program covering twenty-five small municipal systems was carried out in two Canadian regions to improve our understanding of the variability of water quality in small systems from water source to the end of the distribution system (DS). The database obtained was used to develop a global portrait of physical, chemical and microbiological water quality parameters. More precisely, the temporal and the spatial variability of these parameters were investigated. We observed that the levels of natural organic matter (NOM) were variable during different seasons, with maxima in the fall for both provinces. In the regions under study, the highest trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) levels were achieved in warmer seasons (summer, fall), as observed in previous studies involving large systems. Observed THM and HAA levels were three times higher in systems in the province of Newfoundland & Labrador than in the province of Quebec. Taste and odor indicators were detected during the summer and fall, and higher heterotrophic plate count (HPC) levels were associated with lower free chlorine levels. To determine spatial variations, stepwise statistical analysis was used to identify parameters and locations in the DS that act as indicators of drinking water quality. As observed for medium and large systems, free chlorine consumption, THM and HAA levels were dependent on their location in the DS. We also observed that the degradation of HAAs is more important in small systems than in medium or large DS reported in the literature, and this degradation can occur from the beginning of the DS. The results of this research may contribute to providing precious information on drinking water quality to small system operators and pave the way for several opportunities to improve water quality management.

  1. Effect of municipal waste water effluent upon the expression of Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes of brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Grammou, Athina; Papadimitriou, Chrisa; Samaras, Peter; Vasara, Eleni; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I

    2011-06-01

    Multiple isoenzymes of the detoxification enzyme family Glutathione S-transferase are expressed in the brine shrimp Artemia. The number of the major ones detected in crude extract by means of chromatofocusing varied between three and four, depending on the age. Two isoenzymes, one alkaline and one neutral (with corresponding isoelectric points of 8.5 and 7.2) appear to be dominant in all three developmental stages studied, (24, 48, and 72 h after hatching). Culturing Artemia for 48 h after hatching, in artificial sea water prepared by municipal wastewater effluent resulted to significant alterations of the isoenzyme profile. In comparison to organisms cultured for the same period of time in artificial sea water prepared by filtered tap water, the expression of the alkaline isoenzyme decreased by 62% while that of the neutral isoenzyme increased by 58%. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of the major isoenzyme of the acidic area increased by more than two folds. It is worth mentioning that although the specific activity of the total enzyme in the whole body homogenate was elevated, no statistically significant alteration of the Km value was observed. These findings suggest that study of the isoenzyme profile of Glutathione S-transferase may offer high sensitivity in detecting environmental pollution and needs to be further investigated. PMID:21429555

  2. Changes in chloride concentration in water from municipal wells that tap aquifers in rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age in northeastern Illinois, 1915-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balding, G.O.

    1991-01-01

    During the past few decades, several municipalities in northeastern Illinois have noted increases in the salinity of water from wells that tap aquifers in rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age. The municipalities have discontinued the use of, or sealed-off sections of, those wells. The aquifers involved include the Ancell, the Ironton-Galesville, and the Elmhurst-Mt. Simon. To define the location, magnitude, and possible causes for the salinity increases in the six northeastern counties of Illinois, 17 municipal wells and 1 deep test well were selected on the basis of their proximity to major pumping centers, the availability of water-quality data, and their documented maintenance history. Well depths ranged from about 960 to 3,475 feet. One well was finished in the middle confining unit, 2 wells were finished in the Ironton-Galesville aquifer, 4 wells were finished in the Eau Claire confining unit, and 10 wells were finished in the Elmhurst-Mt. Simon aquifer. The deep test well was finished below the Elmhurst-Mt. Simon aquifer in Precambrian-age rock. Chloride concentrations in the municipal wells ranged from less than 5 to greater than 600 milligrams per liter; in the deep test well, they ranged from 13 t o 37,000 milligrams per liter. Some changes in the chloride concentration in water from the studied municipal wells can be related to physical changes to the wells, including the partial filling in of a well, bridging within a well, the cleaning out of a well, or the deepening of a well. Some changes in chloride concentration are not related to physical changes but may be caused by increased pumpage; changes in pumping rate, frequency, or duration; cessation of pumping; improper abandonment of wells; and the upconing of highly mineralized water. The data base was inadequate for a quantitative study of the changes in chloride concentration in water from individual aquifers in rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age.

  3. Optimal control solutions to sodic soil reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare

    2016-05-01

    We study the reclamation process of a sodic soil by irrigation with water amended with calcium cations. In order to explore the entire range of time-dependent strategies, this task is framed as an optimal control problem, where the amendment rate is the control and the total rehabilitation time is the quantity to be minimized. We use a minimalist model of vertically averaged soil salinity and sodicity, in which the main feedback controlling the dynamics is the nonlinear coupling of soil water and exchange complex, given by the Gapon equation. We show that the optimal solution is a bang-bang control strategy, where the amendment rate is discontinuously switched along the process from a maximum value to zero. The solution enables a reduction in remediation time of about 50%, compared with the continuous use of good-quality irrigation water. Because of its general structure, the bang-bang solution is also shown to work for the reclamation of other soil conditions, such as saline-sodic soils. The novelty in our modeling approach is the capability of searching the entire "strategy space" for optimal time-dependent protocols. The optimal solutions found for the minimalist model can be then fine-tuned by experiments and numerical simulations, applicable to realistic conditions that include spatial variability and heterogeneities.

  4. Municipal landfill leachate treatment for metal removal using water hyacinth in a floating aquatic system.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, A S; Biswas, N; Bewtra, J K

    2006-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to remove five heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and lead) commonly found in leachate. All experiments were conducted in batch reactors in a greenhouse. It was found that living biomass of water hyacinth was a good accumulator for copper, chromium, and cadmium. The plants accumulated copper, chromium, and cadmium up to 0.96, 0.83, and 0.50%, respectively, of their dry root mass. However, lead and nickel were poorly accumulated in water hyacinth. Also, nonliving biomass of water hyacinth dry roots showed ability to accumulate all metals, except Cr(VI), which was added in anionic form. The highest total metal sorption by nonliving dry water hyacinth roots was found to take place at pH 6.4. The current research demonstrates the potential of using water hyacinth for the treatment of landfill leachate containing heavy metals. PMID:17120455

  5. Application of municipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effects of saline water in Hordeum maritimum L.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Hafsi, Chokri; Rabhi, Mokded; Debez, Ahmed; Montemurro, Francesco; Abdelly, Chedly; Jedidi, Naceur; Ouerghi, Zeineb

    2008-10-01

    The efficiency of composted municipal solid wastes (MSW) to reduce the adverse effects of salinity was investigated in Hordeum maritimum under greenhouse conditions. Plants were cultivated in pots filled with soil added with 0 and 40tha(-1) of MSW compost, and irrigated twice a week with tap water at two salinities (0 and 4gl(-1) NaCl). Harvests were achieved at 70 (shoots) and 130 (shoots and roots) days after sowing. At each cutting, dry weight (DW), NPK nutrition, chlorophyll, leaf protein content, Rubisco (ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) capacity, and contents of potential toxic elements were determined. Results showed that compost supply increased significantly the biomass production of non salt-treated plants (+80%). This was associated with higher N and P uptake in both shoots (+61% and +80%, respectively) and roots (+48% and +25%, respectively), while lesser impact was observed for K+. In addition, chlorophyll and protein contents as well as Rubisco capacity were significantly improved by the organic amendment. MSW compost mitigated the deleterious effect of salt stress on the plant growth, partly due to improved chlorophyll and protein contents and Rubisco capacity (-15%, -27% and -14%, respectively, in combined treatment, against -45%, -84% and -25%, respectively, in salt-stressed plants without compost addition), which presumably favoured photosynthesis and alleviated salt affect on biomass production by 21%. In addition, plants grown on amended soil showed a general improvement in their heavy metals contents Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ (in combined treatment: 190%, 53%, 168% and 174% in shoots and 183%, 42%, 42% and 114% in roots, respectively) but remained lower than phytotoxic values. Taken together, these findings suggest that municipal waste compost may be safely applied to salt-affected soils without adverse effects on plant physiology. PMID:18308562

  6. Municipal and industrial waste product utilization for bauxite mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted on acidic bauxite mine soil to compare the effectiveness of fly ash and brown lime to ag-lime for pH and soluble salt control. After 3 additions (109 mt/ha) of liming materials, ag-lime and fly ash were superior to brown lime for controlling mine soil acidity over the three year period. All liming materials were equally effective in controlling soil salinity. Rye, wheat, and bermudagrass were grown sequentially from 1982 to 1984. Nitrogen treatments in the field consisted of the addition of anaerobically digested sewage sludge (50 mt/ha) and (424 kg/ha) commercial inorganic nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen mineralization characteristics of sewage sludge were compared to inorganic N fertilizer by measuring decomposition in the laboratory and ground cover establishment and dry matter production in the field. Field results indicated that inorganic N and sludge were equally effective in ground cover establishment and the production of dry matter for rye, wheat and bermudagrass in 1983. Forage tissues were analyzed for 16 trace elements (As, B, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Se, and Zn). Results were compared between lime and nitrogen treatments for each grass crop and harvest time. Fly ash generally increased B content in forage tissue compared to the other lime materials. Wheat accumulated the highest amount. Tissue concentrations of (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) were sufficiently low enough to not be detrimental to grazing animals or the human food chain. Overall, levels of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were sufficient to satisfy nutrient requirements for grazing animals.

  7. Soil reclamation by municipal sewage compost: Heavy metals migration study.

    PubMed

    Kowalkowski, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes sorption and transport phenomena of selected heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu) in the superficial layer of soil and sewage sludge compost. The main aim of the study was the investigation of possibility of heavy metals contamination in soil profile reclaimed by sewage sludge compost. The column leaching test as well as the sequential Tessier extraction procedure were applied to investigate the mitigation of heavy metals. The results revealed that distribution of metals in specific Tessier fractions was the major factor influencing their transport in the investigated soils profiles. Moreover, sorption capacity of the soil sample studied was substantially greater to prevent transportation of metals into the lower horizons and groundwater.

  8. Biodegradable dissolved organic carbon for indicating wastewater reclamation plant performance and treated wastewater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, E.; Babcock, R.W. Jr.; Viriyavejakul, S.; Suffet, I.H.; Stenstrom, M.K.

    1998-07-01

    Various methods for measuring biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) in water have been introduced in the last decade. Applications of the methods have been limited to drinking water. The measure of BDOC has been used mainly to indicate the quality of raw and finished waters and evaluate the performance of biological activated carbon (ozone/granular activated carbon) systems in water treatment plants. Recently, a modified BDOC protocol was developed for examining reclaimed and secondary-treated wastewaters. Use of the new BDOC method can be extended to the wastewater treatment and reclamation fields. Samples collected from a wastewater reuse pilot facility were tested for BDOC. The modified BDOC method was able to detect the increase in biodegradability of ozonated tertiary-treated wastewater. Good relationships among BDOC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soluble biochemical oxygen demand were obtained. The modified protocol was later used to measure BDOC in secondary-effluent samples from 13 municipal wastewater treatment plants. The results show that BDOC can also be used as an indicator of secondary-effluent quality. Likewise, strong and significant correlations were found among BDOC, DOC, and soluble chemical oxygen demand in secondary effluents.

  9. Occurrence, Species, and Organ Differences in Bioaccumulation Patterns of Phthalate Esters in Municipal Domestic Water Supply Lakes in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Omiwole, Roseline A; Hassan, Titilayo; Adegbola, Rachel A; Adewuyi, Gregory O; Arukwe, Augustine

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of phthalate esters (PE) was examined in biota, ambient water, and sediments of two man-made lakes (Asejire and Eleyele) in southwestern Nigeria. Five fish species (Tilapia zillii, Hepsetus odoe, Parachanna obscura, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, and Mormyrus rume) were analyzed for PE levels and used for calculating bioconcentration factors (BCF) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF). In addition, measured PE levels were thereafter used to calculate the phthalate pollution index (PPI) in biota and the environment. At both lakes, all sampled species had k-factor > 1, showing apparently normal growth and health condition. Higher PE levels were found in sediments compared with water at both lakes, with a pattern showing that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was predominant PE. While there were no unique patterns of PE concentrations in both lakes, differences were observed in organ concentration patterns that were evident at both lakes. For T. zillii, the BSAF was higher for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) compared to diethyl phthalate (DEP) and lowest for DEHP. The concentration pattern demonstrated that DBP concentrated more in gills (BCF: 6.7), while DEHP concentrated more in liver (BCF: 15.2) of T. zillii at Asejire. At Eleyele, T. zillii liver and gills concentrated less DEP and DEHP. The PPI value was significantly higher in sediment with respective values of 0.27 and 0.44 at Asejire and Eleyele lakes compared with water with respective values of 0.1 and 0.18 at Asejire and Eleyele lakes. Overall, our findings suggest a broader environmental and human health implication of high PE levels in these lakes, since they provide vast water volumes that are used for municipal domestic water supply. Further, these lakes support intense artisanal fisheries, representing significant sources of aquatic food resources for neighboring communities. PMID:26090560

  10. Land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site: A field tour

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.

    1993-12-31

    An all-day tour to observe and land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site was conducted in conjunction with the 8th Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium. Tour participants were introduced to the US Department of Energy reclamation programs for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and Treatability Studies for Soil Media (TSSM) Project. The tour consisted of several stops that covered a variety of topics and studies including revegetation by seeding, topsoil stockpile stabilization, erosion control, shrub transplanting, shrub herbivory, irrigation, mulching, water harvesting, and weather monitoring.

  11. The Mineral Content of U.S. Drinking and Municipal Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The mineral composition of tap water may contribute significant amounts of some minerals to dietary intake. The USDA’s Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) conducted a study of the mineral content of residential tap water, to generate new current data for the USDA National Nutrient Database. ...

  12. Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    1999-06-24

    The Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium was commissioned by the Mountaintop Removal Mining/Valley Fill Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Interagency Steering Committee as an educational forum for the members of the regulatory community who will participate in the development of the EIS. The Steering Committee sought a balanced audience to ensure the input to the regulatory community reflected the range of perspectives on this complicated and emotional issue. The focus of this symposium is on mining and reclamation technology alternatives, which is one of eleven topics scheduled for review to support development of the EIS. Others include hydrologic, environmental, ecological, and socio-economic issues.

  13. Use of four short-term tests to evaluate the mutagenicity of municipal water

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Plewa, M.J.; Brockman, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Some ways in which four short-term tests may be used to evaluate the mutagenicity of drinking water were explored by testing raw and treated water from Lake Bloomington, which serves the town of Bloomington, Illinois (population, 44,000). The water was collected from February 1976 to October 1977 and was concentrated by evaporation or by use of XAD-2 resin. The water was tested for the ability to induce reverse mutation in a prokaryote, Salmonella typhimurium; forward mutation in a mold, Neurospora crassa; mitotic gene conversion in a yeast, Sccharomyces cerevisiae; and reverse mutation in maize, Zea mays. Because of the large number of water samples (54) and the limited amounts of the samples, it was not possible to test all samples in all four tests by all the protocols. Thus, the sensitivities of the four tests to potential mutagens in the water samples could not be rigorously compared. However, the results do show that lake and tap water samples collected during 1976 were toxic but not mutagenic in N. crassa and neither toxic nor genotoxic in S. cerevisiae; lake water collected during 1977 was mutagenic in one line of Z. mays and slightly mutagenic in S. typhimurium strain TA1536 in the presence of rat liver S9. The results suggest that tests that detect a variety of genetic end points should be used when testing complex mixtures such as drinking water. The advantages and disadvantages of the tests and protocols are discussed in terms of their applicability to the study of the mutagenicity of drinking water.

  14. Use of four short-term tests to evaluate the mutagenicity of municipal water.

    PubMed

    DeMarini, D M; Plewa, M J; Brockman, H E

    1982-01-01

    Some ways in which four short-term tests may be used to evaluate the mutagenicity of drinking water were explored by testing raw and treated water from Lake Bloomington, which serves the town of Bloomington, Illinois (population, 44,000). The water was collected from February 1976 to October 1977 and was concentrated by evaporation or by use of XAD-2 resin. The water was tested for the ability to induce reverse mutation in a prokaryote, Salmonella typhimurium; forward mutation in a mold, Neurospora crassa; mitotic gene conversion in a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae; and reverse mutation in maize, Zea mays. Because of the large number of water samples (54) and the limited amounts of the samples, it was not possible to test all samples in all four tests by all the protocols. Thus, the sensitivities of the four tests to potential mutagens in the water samples could not be rigorously compared. However, the results do show that lake and tap water samples collected during 1976 were toxic but not mutagenic in N. crassa and neither toxic nor genotoxic in S. cerevisiae; lake water collected during 1977 was mutagenic in one line of Z. mays and slightly mutagenic in S. typhimurium strain TA1536 in the presence of rat liver S9. The results suggest that tests that detect a variety of genetic end points should be used when testing complex mixtures such as drinking water. The advantages and disadvantages of the tests and protocols are discussed in terms of their applicability to the study of the mutagenicity of drinking water. PMID:6460874

  15. Considering the risk of infection by cryptosporidium via consumption of municipally treated drinking water from a surface water source in a Southwestern Ontario community.

    PubMed

    Pintar, K D M; Fazil, A; Pollari, F; Waltner-Toews, D; Charron, D F; McEwen, S A; Walton, T

    2012-07-01

    Through the use of case-control analyses and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), relative risks of transmission of cryptosporidiosis have been evaluated (recreational water exposure vs. drinking water consumption) for a Canadian community with higher than national rates of cryptosporidiosis. A QMRA was developed to assess the risk of Cryptosporidium infection through the consumption of municipally treated drinking water. Simulations were based on site-specific surface water contamination levels and drinking water treatment log₁₀ reduction capacity for Cryptosporidium. Results suggested that the risk of Cryptosporidium infection via drinking water in the study community, assuming routine operation of the water treatment plant, was negligible (6 infections per 10¹³ persons per day--5th percentile: 2 infections per 10¹⁵ persons per day; 95th percentile: 3 infections per 10¹² persons per day). The risk is essentially nonexistent during optimized, routine treatment operations. The study community achieves between 7 and 9 log₁₀ Cryptosporidium oocyst reduction through routine water treatment processes. Although these results do not preclude the need for constant vigilance by both water treatment and public health professionals in this community, they suggest that the cause of higher rates of cryptosporidiosis are more likely due to recreational water contact, or perhaps direct animal contact. QMRA can be successfully applied at the community level to identify data gaps, rank relative public health risks, and forecast future risk scenarios. It is most useful when performed in a collaborative way with local stakeholders, from beginning to end of the risk analysis paradigm.

  16. 7 CFR 632.21 - Reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reclamation plan. 632.21 Section 632.21 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM Participation § 632.21 Reclamation plan. (a) Responsibility. Land users are responsible for developing a reclamation plan that will serve as a basis for...

  17. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands in India

    SciTech Connect

    Aufmuth, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    An international approach to developing a conceptual environmental management plan for the reclamation of abandoned coal mined lands in India will be discussed. This plan will be aimed at reclamation of a coal field which has been mined for almost 100 years with no reclamation of any kind.

  18. 7 CFR 632.21 - Reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reclamation plan. 632.21 Section 632.21 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM Participation § 632.21 Reclamation plan. (a) Responsibility. Land users are responsible for developing a reclamation plan that will serve as a basis for...

  19. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation...

  20. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation...

  1. Partitioning gas tracer tests for measurement of water in municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Paul T; Jakubowitch, Andrew; Briening, Michele L; Chiu, Pei C

    2003-11-01

    A key component in the operation of almost all bioreactor landfills is the addition of water to maintain optimal moisture conditions. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, in situ methods are required to measure water within solid waste. Existing technologies often result in measurements of unknown accuracy, because of the variability of solid waste materials and time-dependent changes in packing density, both of which influence most measurement methods. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone--the partitioning gas tracer test--was tested. In this technology, the transport behavior of two gas tracers within solid waste is used to measure the fraction of the void space filled with water. One tracer is conservative and does not react with solids or liquids, while a second tracer partitions into the water and is separated from the conservative tracer during transport. This technology was tested in four different solid waste packings and was capable of determining the volumetric water content to within 48% of actual values, with most measurement errors less than 15%. This technology and the factors that affect its applicability to landfills are discussed in this paper. PMID:14649759

  2. Removal of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole from synthetic municipal waste water in microcosm downflow constructed wetlands: Start-up results.

    PubMed

    Nowrotek, Monika; Sochacki, Adam; Felis, Ewa; Miksch, Korneliusz

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the start-up removal of pharmaceutical compounds diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole in microcosm downflow constructed wetlands and their effect on the performance of the studied constructed wetlands, and also to assess the effect of plants on the removal of these compounds. The experimental system that was used in this 86-day experiment consisted of 24 columns filled up to 70 cm with predominantly sandy material. Four types of columns were used (six replicates) depending on the presence of plants (Phalaris arundinacea L. var. picta L.) and the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in the influent. The influent was synthetic municipal waste water to which a mixture of 5 mg/L of diclofenac and 5 mg/L of sulfamethoxazole was added. The observed removal of diclofenac was moderate (approx. 50%) and the removal of sulfamethoxazole was relatively low (24-30%). It was found that the removal of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole was not affected by the vegetation. The presence of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole in the influent had significant effect on the effluent concentration of N-NO3 and the water loss in the columns, which in both cases were lower than in the control columns. The scope for further research was discussed. PMID:26247111

  3. Removal of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole from synthetic municipal waste water in microcosm downflow constructed wetlands: Start-up results.

    PubMed

    Nowrotek, Monika; Sochacki, Adam; Felis, Ewa; Miksch, Korneliusz

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the start-up removal of pharmaceutical compounds diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole in microcosm downflow constructed wetlands and their effect on the performance of the studied constructed wetlands, and also to assess the effect of plants on the removal of these compounds. The experimental system that was used in this 86-day experiment consisted of 24 columns filled up to 70 cm with predominantly sandy material. Four types of columns were used (six replicates) depending on the presence of plants (Phalaris arundinacea L. var. picta L.) and the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in the influent. The influent was synthetic municipal waste water to which a mixture of 5 mg/L of diclofenac and 5 mg/L of sulfamethoxazole was added. The observed removal of diclofenac was moderate (approx. 50%) and the removal of sulfamethoxazole was relatively low (24-30%). It was found that the removal of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole was not affected by the vegetation. The presence of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole in the influent had significant effect on the effluent concentration of N-NO3 and the water loss in the columns, which in both cases were lower than in the control columns. The scope for further research was discussed.

  4. Contaminant transport in a municipal drinking water supply: a steady-state approach to estimate rate and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Bergvall, Martin; Grip, Harald; Sjöström, Jan; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2007-09-01

    Contaminant transport is generally considered to be a key factor when assessing and classifying the environmental risk of polluted areas. In the study presented here, a steady-state approach was applied to obtain estimates of the transit time and concentration of the pesticide metabolite BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzoamide) at a site where it is contaminating a municipal drinking water supply. A Monte Carlo simulation technique was used to quantify the uncertainty of the results and to evaluate the sensitivity of the used parameters. The adopted approach yielded an estimated median transit time of 10 y for the BAM transport from the polluted site to the water supply. Soil organic carbon content in the unsaturated zone and the hydraulic conductivity in the saturated zone explained 44% and 23% of the uncertainty in the transit time estimate, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the dilution factor due to regional groundwater flow and the soil organic carbon content at the polluted site explained 53% and 31% of the uncertainty of concentration estimates, respectively. In conclusion, the adopted steady-state approach can be used to obtain reliable first estimates of transit time and concentration, but to improve concentration predictions of degrading contaminants, a dynamic model is probably required.

  5. Municipal solid-waste disposal and ground-water quality in a coastal environment, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario

    1983-01-01

    Solid waste is defined along with various methods of disposal and the hydrogeologic factors to be considered when locating land-fills is presented. Types of solid waste, composition, and sources are identified. Generation of municipal solid waste in Florida has been estimated at 4.5 pounds per day per person or about 7.8 million tons per year. Leachate is generated when precipitation and ground water percolate through the waste. Gases, mainly carbon dioxide and methane, are also produced. Leachate generally contains high concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic matter. The two typical hydrogeologic conditions in west-central Florida are (1) permeable sand overlying clay and limestone and (2) permeable sand overlying limestone. These conditions are discussed in relation to leachate migration. Factors in landfill site selection are presented and discussed, followed by a discussion on monitoring landfills. Monitoring of landfills includes the drilling of test holes, measuring physical properties of the corings, installation of monitoring wells, and water-quality monitoring. (USGS)

  6. A mini-review on the impacts of climate change on wastewater reclamation and reuse.

    PubMed

    Tram Vo, Phuong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhou, John L; Nguyen, Phuoc Dan; Listowski, Andrzej; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2014-10-01

    To tackle current water insecurity concerns, wastewater reclamation and reuse have appeared as a promising candidate to conserve the valuable fresh water sources while increasing the efficiency of material utilization. Climate change, nevertheless, poses both opportunities and threats to the wastewater reclamation industry. Whereas it elevates the social perception on water-related issues and fosters an emerging water-reuse market, climate change simultaneously presents adverse impacts on the water reclamation scheme, either directly or indirectly. These effects were studied fragmentally in separate realms. Hence, this paper aims to link these studies for providing a thorough understanding about the consequences of the climate change on the wastewater reclamation and reuse. It initially summarizes contemporary treatment processes and their reuse purposes before carrying out a systematic analysis of available findings.

  7. Heavy metals in vegetables and respective soils irrigated by canal, municipal waste and tube well waters.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amir; Riaz, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Tariq; Amir, Mamoona; Zafar-ul-Hye, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination in the food chain is of serious concern due to the potential risks involved. The results of this study revealed the presence of maximum concentration of heavy metals in the canal followed by sewerage and tube well water. Similarly, the vegetables and respective soils irrigated with canal water were found to have higher heavy metal contamination followed by sewerage- and tube-well-watered samples. However, the heavy metal content of vegetables under study was below the limits as set by FAO/WHO, except for lead in canal-water-irrigated spinach (0.59 mg kg(-1)), radish pods (0.44 mg kg(-1)) and bitter gourd (0.33 mg kg(-1)). Estimated daily intakes of heavy metals by the consumption of selected vegetables were found to be well below the maximum limits. However, a complete estimation of daily intake requires the inclusion of other dietary and non-dietary exposure sources of heavy metals.

  8. Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Biosludge Applications and Perfluoroalkyl Acid Surface Water Contamination in North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Implications and Questions- Perfluorinated compounds at high concentrations in sludges, on fields, in surface water in areas receiving sludge applications-Urban and suburban sludges typically disposed of in rural locations, usually marketed as “free fertilizer” becaus...

  9. Molecular analysis of point-of-use municipal drinking water microbiology.

    PubMed

    Holinger, Eric P; Ross, Kimberly A; Robertson, Charles E; Stevens, Mark J; Harris, J Kirk; Pace, Norman R

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the nature of the microbiology in tap waters delivered to consumers via public drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). In order to establish a broader understanding of the microbial complexity of public drinking waters we sampled tap water from seventeen different cities between the headwaters of the Arkansas River and the mouth of the Mississippi River and determined the bacterial compositions by pyrosequencing small subunit rRNA genes. Nearly 98% of sequences observed among all systems fell into only 5 phyla: Proteobacteria (35%), Cyanobacteria (29%, including chloroplasts), Actinobacteria (24%, of which 85% were Mycobacterium spp.), Firmicutes (6%), and Bacteroidetes (3.4%). The genus Mycobacterium was the most abundant taxon in the dataset, detected in 56 of 63 samples (16 of 17 cities). Among the more rare phylotypes, considerable variation was observed between systems, and was sometimes associated with the type of source water, the type of disinfectant, or the concentration of the environmental pollutant nitrate. Abundant taxa (excepting Cyanobacteria and chloroplasts) were generally similar from system to system, however, regardless of source water type or local land use. The observed similarity among the abundant taxa between systems may be a consequence of the selective influence of chlorine-based disinfection and the common local environments of DWDS and premise plumbing pipes.

  10. Viruses in Nondisinfected Drinking Water from Municipal Wells and Community Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Susan K.; Kieke, Burney A.; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Loge, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with low levels of human enteric virus genomes, yet evidence for waterborne disease transmission is lacking. Objectives: We related quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)–measured enteric viruses in the tap water of 14 Wisconsin communities supplied by nondisinfected groundwater to acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) incidence. Methods: AGI incidence was estimated from health diaries completed weekly by households within each study community during four 12-week periods. Water samples were collected monthly from five to eight households per community. Viruses were measured by qPCR, and infectivity assessed by cell culture. AGI incidence was related to virus measures using Poisson regression with random effects. Results: Communities and time periods with the highest virus measures had correspondingly high AGI incidence. This association was particularly strong for norovirus genogroup I (NoV-GI) and between adult AGI and enteroviruses when echovirus serotypes predominated. At mean concentrations of 1 and 0.8 genomic copies/L of NoV-GI and enteroviruses, respectively, the AGI incidence rate ratios (i.e., relative risk) increased by 30%. Adenoviruses were common, but tap-water concentrations were low and not positively associated with AGI. The estimated fraction of AGI attributable to tap-water–borne viruses was between 6% and 22%, depending on the virus exposure–AGI incidence model selected, and could have been as high as 63% among children < 5 years of age during the period when NoV-GI was abundant in drinking water. Conclusions: The majority of groundwater-source public water systems in the United States produce water without disinfection, and our findings suggest that populations served by such systems may be exposed to waterborne viruses and consequent health risks. PMID:22659405

  11. Potential for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on German or European municipal waste water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2016-08-01

    Biopolymers, which are made of renewable raw materials and/or biodegradable residual materials present a possible alternative to common plastic. A potential analysis, based on experimental results in laboratory scale and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 20% of the 2015 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition a profound estimation regarding all European Union member states showed that theoretically about 115% of the actual worldwide biopolymer production could be produced on European waste water treatment plants. With an upgraded biopolymer production and a theoretically reachable biopolymer proportion of around 60% of the cell dry weight a total of 1,794,656tPHAa or approximately 236% of today's biopolymer production could be produced on waste water treatment plants in the European Union, using primary sludge as raw material only.

  12. Potential for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on German or European municipal waste water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2016-08-01

    Biopolymers, which are made of renewable raw materials and/or biodegradable residual materials present a possible alternative to common plastic. A potential analysis, based on experimental results in laboratory scale and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 20% of the 2015 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition a profound estimation regarding all European Union member states showed that theoretically about 115% of the actual worldwide biopolymer production could be produced on European waste water treatment plants. With an upgraded biopolymer production and a theoretically reachable biopolymer proportion of around 60% of the cell dry weight a total of 1,794,656tPHAa or approximately 236% of today's biopolymer production could be produced on waste water treatment plants in the European Union, using primary sludge as raw material only. PMID:27128189

  13. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China --- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhenqi Hu; Hehe Gu

    1995-09-01

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. Since the Chinese government enacted a reclamation stipulation in 1989, many abandoned mining subsidence lands were produced before 1989. Therefore, reclamation of abandoned subsidence lands has become the focus of research activities in our country. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands --- some parts of the abandoned lands were wetland or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation.

  14. Water withdrawals for irrigation, municipal, mining, thermoelectric-power, and drainage uses in Arizona outside of active management areas, 1991-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tadayon, Saeid

    2005-01-01

    Economic development in Arizona is largely influenced by access to adequate water supplies owing to the State's predominantly semiarid to arid climate. Water demand is met by pumping ground water from aquifers or by con-veying surface water through a system of reservoirs and canals. Water-withdrawal data provide important information on how water demand affects the State's water resources. Information on water withdrawals also can help planners and managers assess the effectiveness of water-management policies, regulations, and conservation activities. This report includes water-withdrawal data for irrigation, municipal, mining, thermoelectric-power, and drainage uses for 1991-2000, and describes the methods used to collect, compile, and estimate the data. Data are reported for the Arizona Department of Water Resources ground-water basins outside of Active Management Areas. Because of the climate, ground water and surface water are used to irrigate nearly all agricultural fields in Arizona. Irrigation accounted for the largest use of water in the study area during 1991-2000. The amount of water withdrawn for irrigation varies greatly from year to year for some of the basins, primarily because of differences in the consumptive water requirement for different crops and because of changes in irrigated acreage. The population of Arizona increased about 35 percent from 1991 to 2000-from about 3.79 million in 1991 to about 5.13 million in 2000. Correspondingly, water withdrawal for municipal use increased steadily in most of the basins during 1991-2000. Ground-water withdrawals for mining did not show any consistent trends during 1991-2000. Increases and decreases in withdrawals for mining were most likely due to variations in mineral production. Mineral prices and competition from mining in other States and foreign countries probably result in annual increases or decreases in mineral production in Arizona. Between 1991 and 2000, ground-water withdrawals for

  15. Heavy metals in vegetables and respective soils irrigated by canal, municipal waste and tube well waters.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amir; Riaz, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Tariq; Amir, Mamoona; Zafar-ul-Hye, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination in the food chain is of serious concern due to the potential risks involved. The results of this study revealed the presence of maximum concentration of heavy metals in the canal followed by sewerage and tube well water. Similarly, the vegetables and respective soils irrigated with canal water were found to have higher heavy metal contamination followed by sewerage- and tube-well-watered samples. However, the heavy metal content of vegetables under study was below the limits as set by FAO/WHO, except for lead in canal-water-irrigated spinach (0.59 mg kg(-1)), radish pods (0.44 mg kg(-1)) and bitter gourd (0.33 mg kg(-1)). Estimated daily intakes of heavy metals by the consumption of selected vegetables were found to be well below the maximum limits. However, a complete estimation of daily intake requires the inclusion of other dietary and non-dietary exposure sources of heavy metals. PMID:25029405

  16. Storm water management: Potential for lower cost & more benefits if farmers & municipalities cooperate on tile drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common approach to protect communities from the ravages of stream flooding is to construct storm water retention basins upstream from the property to be protected. Retention basins are an expensive solution and often take valuable agricultural land out of production. Improved drainage of agricultu...

  17. 21st Century Water Municipal Issues and Concerns (WERF Report INFR5SG09a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Communities are increasingly looking to green infrastructure as a means of meeting not only stormwater management objectives, but multiple environmental, social, and economic goals. Rather than viewing water infrastructure in isolation or as an after-the-fact means of responding ...

  18. GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR IMPLEMENTING MUNICIPAL STORM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS; PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization and industrial activities around the country have significantly altered the natural landscape of our Nation's watersheds. This, in turn, has adversely affected both the quantity and the quality of storm water runoff and has contributed to the chemical, physical, and...

  19. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR ESTIMATING BIOTA EXPOSURE IN RECEIVING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    To test the ruggedness of a newly developed analytical method for synthetic musks, a 1-year monthly monitoring of synthetic musks in water and biota was conducted for Lake

    Mead (near Las Vegas, Nevada) as well as for combined sewage-dedicated effluent streams feeding Lake ...

  20. DETERMINATION OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND ESTIMATING BIOTA EXPOSURE IN THE RECEIVING WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials and consumed in very large quantities worldwide. Due to their high usage and release, they have become ubiquitous in the environment. The U.S. EPA (Las Vegas) developed surface water monitoring me...

  1. Water quality in a surface-flow constructed treatment wetland polishing tertiary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Marc W

    2012-01-01

    Constructed treatment wetlands (CTWs) are unique ecotechnologies that can sustainably treat a range of wastewaters. This study focused on a 0.23 ha vegetated surface-flow CTW polishing nitrate-rich (3-6 mg-N/L) tertiary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Water quality was monitored longitudinally in the fall of 2009 and 2010. The CTW cooled water by from around 20 °C to <15 °C in both years. Longitudinal temperature profiles were successfully modeled using an energy balance approach (2009 R(2) = 0.69; 2010 R(2) = 0.92). The magnitude of key model fitting parameters, including albedo (0.1-0.2) and convective transfer coefficient (0.1-0.9 MJ/m(2) d °C), were within ranges reported in the literature. In both years, dissolved oxygen decreased through the wetland from 6-7 mg/L to 3-4 mg/L, yielding an oxygen mass consumption rate of 0.08-0.09 g/m(2) d. Longitudinal nitrate profiles were well represented by the P-k-C* model (2009 R(2) = 0.88; 2010 R(2) = 0.92). First order removal rates were 20.2 m/yr in 2009 and 29.0 m/yr in 2010 at a P value of 6.0. Levels of ammonia and total phosphorus increased negligibly through the wetland, remaining below 0.25 mg/L. This study shows that vegetated surface-flow CTWs are well suited to cool and polish low-BOD nitrate-dominated tertiary effluents with little degradation of other water quality parameters of concern, including phosphorus and ammonia. PMID:22925872

  2. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry; Public participation; Organizational structure; Personnel and staffing policies; Purchasing and procurement systems; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  3. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry; Public participation; Organizational structure; Personnel and staffing policies; Purchasing and procurement systems; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  4. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry; Public participation; Organizational structure; Personnel and staffing policies; Purchasing and procurement systems; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  5. Methane emission estimates using chamber and tracer release experiments for a municipal waste water treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yver Kwok, C. E.; Müller, D.; Caldow, C.; Lebègue, B.; Mønster, J. G.; Rella, C. W.; Scheutz, C.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.; Warneke, T.; Broquet, G.; Ciais, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study presents two methods for estimating methane emissions from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) along with results from a measurement campaign at a WWTP in Valence, France. These methods, chamber measurements and tracer release, rely on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy instruments. We show that the tracer release method is suitable for quantifying facility- and some process-scale emissions, while the chamber measurements provide insight into individual process emissions. Uncertainties for the two methods are described and discussed. Applying the methods to CH4 emissions of the WWTP, we confirm that the open basins are not a major source of CH4 on the WWTP (about 10 % of the total emissions), but that the pretreatment and sludge treatment are the main emitters. Overall, the waste water treatment plant is representative of an average French WWTP.

  6. Relationships between stability, maturity, water-extractable organic matter of municipal sewage sludge composts and soil functionality.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Luigi; Cavani, Luciano; Grigatti, Marco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Marzadori, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Compost capability of restoring or enhancing soil quality depends on several parameters, such as soil characteristics, compost carbon, nitrogen and other nutrient content, heavy metal occurrence, stability and maturity. This study investigated the possibility of relating compost stability and maturity to water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) properties and amendment effect on soil quality. Three composts from municipal sewage sludge and rice husk (AN, from anaerobic wastewater treatment plants; AE, from aerobic ones; MIX, from both anaerobic and aerobic ones) have been analysed and compared to a traditional green waste compost (GM, from green manure, solid waste and urban sewage sludge). To this aim, WEOMs were characterized through chemical analysis; furthermore, compost stability was evaluated through oxygen uptake rate calculation and maturity was estimated through germination index determination, whereas compost impact on soil fertility was studied, in a lab-scale experiment, through indicators as inorganic nitrogen release, soil microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis. The obtained results indicated that WEOM characterization could be useful to investigate compost stability (which is related to protein and phenol concentrations) and maturity (related to nitrate/ammonium ratio and degree of aromaticity) and then compost impact on soil functionality. Indeed, compost stability resulted inversely related to soil microbial biomass, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis when the products were applied to the soil. PMID:25940492

  7. Detection of a wide variety of human and veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water.

    PubMed

    He, Ke; Soares, Ana Dulce; Adejumo, Hollie; McDiarmid, Melissa; Squibb, Katherine; Blaney, Lee

    2015-03-15

    As annual sales of antibiotics continue to rise, the mass of these specially-designed compounds entering municipal wastewater treatment systems has also increased. Of primary concern here is that antibiotics can inhibit growth of specific microorganisms in biological processes of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or in downstream ecosystems. Growth inhibition studies with Escherichia coli demonstrated that solutions containing 1-10 μg/L of fluoroquinolones can inhibit microbial growth. Wastewater samples were collected on a monthly basis from various treatment stages of a 30 million gallon per day WWTP in Maryland, USA. Samples were analyzed for the presence of 11 fluoroquinolone antibiotics. At least one fluoroquinolone was detected in every sample. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin exhibited detection frequencies of 100% and 98%, respectively, across all sampling sites. Concentrations of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater were as high as 1900 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and 600 ng/L for ofloxacin. Difloxacin, enrofloxacin, fleroxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, and orbifloxacin were also detected at appreciable concentrations of 9-170 ng/L. The total mass concentration of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater was in the range that inhibited E. coli growth, suggesting that concerns over antibiotic presence in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water are valid. The average removal efficiency of fluoroquinolones during wastewater treatment was approximately 65%; furthermore, the removal efficiency for fluoroquinolones was found to be negatively correlated to biochemical oxygen demand removal and positively correlated to phosphorus removal.

  8. Reconnaissance of selected organic contaminants in effluent and ground water at fifteen municipal wastewater treatment plants in Florida, 1983- 84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pruitt, J.B.; Troutman, D.E.; Irwin, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a 1983-84 reconnaissance of 15 municipal wastewater treatment plants in Florida indicated that effluent from most of the plants contains trace concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Chloroform was detected in the effluent at 11 of the 15 plants and its common occurrence was likely the result of chlorination. The maximum concentration of chloroform detected in the effluent sampled was 120 micrograms/L. Detectable concentrations of selected organophosphorus insecticides were also common. For example, diazinon was detected in the effluent at 12 of the 15 plants with a maximum concentration of 1.5 micrograms/L. Organochlorine insecticides, primarily lindane, were detected in the effluent at 8 of the 15 plants with a maximum concentration of 1.0 micrograms/L. Volatile compounds, primarily chloroform, were detected in water from monitor wells at four plants and organophosphorus insecticides, primarily diazinon, were present in the groundwater at three treatment plants. Organochlorine insecticides were not detected in any samples from monitor wells. Based on the limited data available, this cursory reconaissance suggests that the organic contaminants commonly occurring in the effluent of many of the treatment plants are not transported into the local groundwater. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Relationships between stability, maturity, water-extractable organic matter of municipal sewage sludge composts and soil functionality.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Luigi; Cavani, Luciano; Grigatti, Marco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Marzadori, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Compost capability of restoring or enhancing soil quality depends on several parameters, such as soil characteristics, compost carbon, nitrogen and other nutrient content, heavy metal occurrence, stability and maturity. This study investigated the possibility of relating compost stability and maturity to water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) properties and amendment effect on soil quality. Three composts from municipal sewage sludge and rice husk (AN, from anaerobic wastewater treatment plants; AE, from aerobic ones; MIX, from both anaerobic and aerobic ones) have been analysed and compared to a traditional green waste compost (GM, from green manure, solid waste and urban sewage sludge). To this aim, WEOMs were characterized through chemical analysis; furthermore, compost stability was evaluated through oxygen uptake rate calculation and maturity was estimated through germination index determination, whereas compost impact on soil fertility was studied, in a lab-scale experiment, through indicators as inorganic nitrogen release, soil microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis. The obtained results indicated that WEOM characterization could be useful to investigate compost stability (which is related to protein and phenol concentrations) and maturity (related to nitrate/ammonium ratio and degree of aromaticity) and then compost impact on soil functionality. Indeed, compost stability resulted inversely related to soil microbial biomass, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis when the products were applied to the soil.

  10. Bioaccumulation of selected metals in bivalves (Unionidae) and Phragmites australis inhabiting a municipal water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Rzymski, Piotr; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Klimaszyk, Piotr; Poniedziałek, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Urbanization can considerably affect water reservoirs by, inter alia, input, and accumulation of contaminants including metals. Located in the course of River Cybina, Maltański Reservoir (Western Poland) is an artificial shallow water body built for recreation and sport purposes which undergoes restoration treatment (drainage) every 4 years. In the present study, we demonstrate an accumulation of nine metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in water, sediment, three bivalve species (Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Unio tumidus), and macrophyte Phragmites australis collected before complete drainage in November 2012. The mean concentrations of metals in the sediment, bivalves, and P. australis (roots and leaves) decreased in the following order: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Co > Cd. A considerably higher bioconcentration of metals was observed in samples collected from the western and southern sites which undergo a higher degree of human impact. Sediments were found to be a better indicator of metal contamination than water samples. Interspecific differences in levels of metal accumulation were found between investigated unionids. U. tumidus accumulated higher levels of Cr, positively correlated with ambient concentrations, predisposing this species as a potential bioindicator of this metal in aquatic environments. On the other hand, species of Anodonta genus demonstrated higher accumulation of Cu and Cd. Positive correlations were found between Pb content in the sediments and tissues of all three bivalve species. In P. australis, metals were largely retained in roots except for Cd and Pb for which higher concentrations were found in leaves suggesting additional absorption of these metals from aerial sources. P. australis and bivalve from the Maltański Reservoir may be a potential source of toxic metals for animals feeding upon them and contribute to further contamination in the food chain.

  11. Sorption of cadmium and lead by clays from municipal incinerator ash- water suspensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.; Steele, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Cl complexation in extracts of a flue gas-scrubber incinerator fly ash sample on the sorption of Cd and Pb by kaolinite and illite was investigated using batch-sorption methods. In the pH range of 5 to 9, Cl complexation may reduce sorption and thus increase the mobility of these metals. When an ash-water suspension was acidified to pH 6.85, the dissolution of Cl and Ca essentially eliminated Cd sorption because of complexation and cationic competition. Cadmium would be considered as either mobile or very mobile under these conditions. Lead was not soluble in the pH- 6.85 suspension. At pH 12, the approximate pH of water in contact with flue gas-scrubber fly ash, Cd was essentially insoluble and Pb occurred as anionic Pb hydroxide. Anionic Pb was sorbed by the two clays, and the extent of sorption was not influenced by Cl or carbonate complexation. Sorption constants, derived from isotherms, suggested that Pb would be relatively immobile in saturated soil-water systems. The recent concern that highly alkaline, flue gas-scrubber fly ash may release environmentally significant concentrations of mobile Pb when placed in an ash-disposal site with a soil liner should be reevaluated in light of this study.

  12. Modelling the regional variability of the probability of high trihalomethane occurrence in municipal drinking water.

    PubMed

    Cool, Geneviève; Lebel, Alexandre; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-12-01

    The regional variability of the probability of occurrence of high total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels was assessed using multilevel logistic regression models that incorporate environmental and infrastructure characteristics. The models were structured in a three-level hierarchical configuration: samples (first level), drinking water utilities (DWUs, second level) and natural regions, an ecological hierarchical division from the Quebec ecological framework of reference (third level). They considered six independent variables: precipitation, temperature, source type, seasons, treatment type and pH. The average probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the targeted threshold was 18.1%. The probability was influenced by seasons, treatment type, precipitations and temperature. The variance at all levels was significant, showing that the probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the threshold is most likely to be similar if located within the same DWU and within the same natural region. However, most of the variance initially attributed to natural regions was explained by treatment types and clarified by spatial aggregation on treatment types. Nevertheless, even after controlling for treatment type, there was still significant regional variability of the probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the threshold. Regional variability was particularly important for DWUs using chlorination alone since they lack the appropriate treatment required to reduce the amount of natural organic matter (NOM) in source water prior to disinfection. Results presented herein could be of interest to authorities in identifying regions with specific needs regarding drinking water quality and for epidemiological studies identifying geographical variations in population exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs).

  13. Odorous compounds in municipal wastewater effluent and potable water reuse systems.

    PubMed

    Agus, Eva; Lim, Mong Hoo; Zhang, Lifeng; Sedlak, David L

    2011-11-01

    The presence of effluent-derived compounds with low odor thresholds can compromise the aesthetics of drinking water. The potent odorants 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and geosmin dominated the profile of odorous compounds in wastewater effluent with concentrations up to 2 orders of magnitude above their threshold values. Additional odorous compounds (e.g., vanillin, methylnaphthalenes, 2-pyrrolidone) also were identified in wastewater effluent by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry and olfactometry detection. Full-scale advanced treatment plants equipped with reverse osmosis membranes decreased odorant concentrations considerably, but several compounds were still present at concentrations above their odor thresholds after treatment. Other advanced treatment processes, including ozonation followed by biological activated carbon and UV/H(2)O(2) also removed effluent-derived odorants. However, no single treatment technology alone was able to reduce all odorant concentrations below their odor threshold values. To avoid the presence of odorous compounds in drinking water derived from wastewater effluent, it is necessary to apply multiple barriers during advanced treatment or to dilute wastewater effluent with water from other sources.

  14. Modelling the regional variability of the probability of high trihalomethane occurrence in municipal drinking water.

    PubMed

    Cool, Geneviève; Lebel, Alexandre; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-12-01

    The regional variability of the probability of occurrence of high total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels was assessed using multilevel logistic regression models that incorporate environmental and infrastructure characteristics. The models were structured in a three-level hierarchical configuration: samples (first level), drinking water utilities (DWUs, second level) and natural regions, an ecological hierarchical division from the Quebec ecological framework of reference (third level). They considered six independent variables: precipitation, temperature, source type, seasons, treatment type and pH. The average probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the targeted threshold was 18.1%. The probability was influenced by seasons, treatment type, precipitations and temperature. The variance at all levels was significant, showing that the probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the threshold is most likely to be similar if located within the same DWU and within the same natural region. However, most of the variance initially attributed to natural regions was explained by treatment types and clarified by spatial aggregation on treatment types. Nevertheless, even after controlling for treatment type, there was still significant regional variability of the probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the threshold. Regional variability was particularly important for DWUs using chlorination alone since they lack the appropriate treatment required to reduce the amount of natural organic matter (NOM) in source water prior to disinfection. Results presented herein could be of interest to authorities in identifying regions with specific needs regarding drinking water quality and for epidemiological studies identifying geographical variations in population exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs). PMID:26563233

  15. Short-term influence of coal mine reclamation using coal combustion residues on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Min; Amaya, Maria; Butalia, Tarunjit; Baker, Robert; Walker, Harold W; Massey-Norton, John; Wolfe, William

    2016-11-15

    Two full-scale coal mine reclamation projects using coal combustion residues (CCRs) were recently carried out at highwall pit complexes near the Conesville and Cardinal coal-fired power plants owned by American Electric Power. The environment impacts of the reclamation projects were examined by regularly monitoring the leaching characteristics of the backfilling CCRs and the water quality of the uppermost aquifers underlying the sites. With over five years of field monitoring, it shows that the water quality at both demonstration sites had changed since the reclamation began. By analyzing the change of the hydrogeochemical properties, it was concluded that the water quality impact observed at the Conesville Five Points site was unlikely due to the seepage of FGD material leachates. Reclamation activities, such as logging, grading, and dewatering changed the hydrogeological conditions and resulted in the observed water quality changes. The same hydrogeological effect on water quality was also found at the Cardinal Star Ridge site during the early stage of the reclamation (approximately the first 22months). Subsequent measurements showed the water quality to be strongly influenced by the water in the reclaimed highwall pit. Despite the changes to the water quality, the impacts are insignificant and temporary. None of the constitutes showed concentration levels higher than the regulatory leaching limits set by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources' Division of Mineral Resources Management for utilizing CCRs in mined land reclamation. Compared to the local aquifers, the concentrations of eleven selected constituents remained at comparable levels throughout the study period. There are four constituents (i.e., As, Be, Sb, and Tl) that exceeded their respective MCLs after the reclamation began. These detections were found shortly (i.e., within 2years) after the reclamation began and decreased to the levels either lower than the respective detection limits or similar to

  16. Short-term influence of coal mine reclamation using coal combustion residues on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Min; Amaya, Maria; Butalia, Tarunjit; Baker, Robert; Walker, Harold W; Massey-Norton, John; Wolfe, William

    2016-11-15

    Two full-scale coal mine reclamation projects using coal combustion residues (CCRs) were recently carried out at highwall pit complexes near the Conesville and Cardinal coal-fired power plants owned by American Electric Power. The environment impacts of the reclamation projects were examined by regularly monitoring the leaching characteristics of the backfilling CCRs and the water quality of the uppermost aquifers underlying the sites. With over five years of field monitoring, it shows that the water quality at both demonstration sites had changed since the reclamation began. By analyzing the change of the hydrogeochemical properties, it was concluded that the water quality impact observed at the Conesville Five Points site was unlikely due to the seepage of FGD material leachates. Reclamation activities, such as logging, grading, and dewatering changed the hydrogeological conditions and resulted in the observed water quality changes. The same hydrogeological effect on water quality was also found at the Cardinal Star Ridge site during the early stage of the reclamation (approximately the first 22months). Subsequent measurements showed the water quality to be strongly influenced by the water in the reclaimed highwall pit. Despite the changes to the water quality, the impacts are insignificant and temporary. None of the constitutes showed concentration levels higher than the regulatory leaching limits set by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources' Division of Mineral Resources Management for utilizing CCRs in mined land reclamation. Compared to the local aquifers, the concentrations of eleven selected constituents remained at comparable levels throughout the study period. There are four constituents (i.e., As, Be, Sb, and Tl) that exceeded their respective MCLs after the reclamation began. These detections were found shortly (i.e., within 2years) after the reclamation began and decreased to the levels either lower than the respective detection limits or similar to

  17. The evolution of water extractable organic matter and its association with microbial community dynamics during municipal solid waste composting.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The humification of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) by microorganisms is widely used for assessing compost maturity and quality. However, the effect of bacterial and fungal community dynamics on humification of WEOM was not yet explored fully. Here, we used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) to investigate the link between bacterial and fungal community dynamics and humification process of WEOM, respectively. Results showed that water-soluble carbon (WSC), humification degree, molecule weight and abundance of aromatic carbon were significantly related to bacterial community (p<0.05), while the protein-like materials were statistically influenced by fungal community (p<0.05). Both bacterial and fungal communities significantly affected the abundance of oxygen-containing functional groups and humic-like materials (p<0.05). These humification parameters were most likely to be influenced by some of bacterial and fungal species at different composting stages. Lactobacillus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Galactomyces geotrichum can enhance the degradation of WSC and protein-like materials at the early composting. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes could promote the increase of aromatic carbon, oxygen-containing functional groups, humification degree and molecular weight of WEOM during the initial fermentation stage. Cladosporium herbarum and Chaetomium globosum could be the dominant controllers at the second fermentation for acceleratingthe formation of oxygen-containing functional groups and humic-like materials of WEOM, respectively. Our results suggested that regulation for the dynamics of these special bacterial and fungal species at different composting stages might be a potential way to accelerate humification of municipal solid waste composting.

  18. The evolution of water extractable organic matter and its association with microbial community dynamics during municipal solid waste composting.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The humification of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) by microorganisms is widely used for assessing compost maturity and quality. However, the effect of bacterial and fungal community dynamics on humification of WEOM was not yet explored fully. Here, we used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) to investigate the link between bacterial and fungal community dynamics and humification process of WEOM, respectively. Results showed that water-soluble carbon (WSC), humification degree, molecule weight and abundance of aromatic carbon were significantly related to bacterial community (p<0.05), while the protein-like materials were statistically influenced by fungal community (p<0.05). Both bacterial and fungal communities significantly affected the abundance of oxygen-containing functional groups and humic-like materials (p<0.05). These humification parameters were most likely to be influenced by some of bacterial and fungal species at different composting stages. Lactobacillus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Galactomyces geotrichum can enhance the degradation of WSC and protein-like materials at the early composting. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes could promote the increase of aromatic carbon, oxygen-containing functional groups, humification degree and molecular weight of WEOM during the initial fermentation stage. Cladosporium herbarum and Chaetomium globosum could be the dominant controllers at the second fermentation for acceleratingthe formation of oxygen-containing functional groups and humic-like materials of WEOM, respectively. Our results suggested that regulation for the dynamics of these special bacterial and fungal species at different composting stages might be a potential way to accelerate humification of municipal solid waste composting. PMID:27425858

  19. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria.

    PubMed

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João C M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2011-01-01

    Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of "building material not allowed". The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required.

  20. Methane emission estimates using chamber and tracer release experiments for a municipal waste water treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yver-Kwok, C. E.; Müller, D.; Caldow, C.; Lebègue, B.; Mønster, J. G.; Rella, C. W.; Scheutz, C.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.; Warneke, T.; Broquet, G.; Ciais, P.

    2015-03-01

    This study presents two methods for estimating methane emissions from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) along with results from a measurement campaign at a WWTP in Valence, France. These methods, chamber measurements and tracer release, rely on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) instruments. We show that the tracer release method is suitable to quantify facility- and some process-scale emissions, while the chamber measurements, provide insight into individual process emissions. Uncertainties for the two methods are described and discussed. Applying the methods to CH4 emissions of the WWTP, we confirm that the open basins are not a major source of CH4 on the WWTP (about 10% of the total emissions), but that the pretreatment and sludge treatment are the main emitters. Overall, the waste water treatment plant represents a small part (about 1.5%) of the methane emissions of the city of Valence and its surroundings, which is lower than the national inventories.

  1. Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions. PMID:24622553

  2. Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions.

  3. Occurrence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Tehran source water, municipal and hospital wastewaters, and their ecotoxicological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Akbar; Amini, Mostafa M; Yazdanbakhsh, Ahmad Reza; Rastkari, Noushin; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Nasseri, Simin; Piroti, Ehsan; Asadi, Anvar

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals are becoming widely distributed in waters and wastewaters and pose a serious threat to public health. The present study aimed to analyze non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in surface waters, drinking water, and wastewater in Tehran, Iran. Thirty-six samples were collected from surface waters, tap water, and influent and effluent of municipal and hospital wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). A solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used for the determination of pharmaceuticals, namely ibuprofen (IBP), naproxen (NPX), diclofenac (DIC), and indomethacin (IDM). IBP was found in most of the samples and had the highest concentration. The highest concentrations of NSAIDs were found in the municipal WWTP influents and hospital WWTP effluents. In the municipal WWTP influent samples, the concentrations of IBP, NPX, DIC, and IDM were 1.05, 0.43, 0.23, and 0.11 μg/L, respectively. DIC was found only in one river sample. All NSAIDs were detected in tap water samples. However, their concentration was very low and the maximum values for IBP, NPX, DIC, and IDM were 47, 39, 24, and 37 ng/L, respectively, in tap water samples. Results showed that the measured pharmaceuticals were detected in all rivers with low concentrations in nanograms per liter range, except DIC which was found only in one river. Furthermore, this study showed that the aforementioned pharmaceuticals are not completely removed during their passage through WWTPs. A potential environmental risk of selected NSAIDs for the urban wastewater has been discussed. However, given their low measured concentrations, no ecotoxicological effect is suspected to occur. PMID:26553436

  4. Ground-water levels, water quality, and potential effects of toxic-substance spills or cessation of quarry dewatering near a municipal ground-water supply, southeastern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedam, A.C.; Eberts, S.M.; Bair, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    A newly completed municipal ground-water supply that produces from a sand and gravel aquifer in southern Franklin County, Ohio, may be susceptible to potential sources of pollution. Among these are spills of toxic substances that could enter recharge areas of the aquifer or be carried by surface drainage and subsequently enter the aquifer by induced infiltration. Ground water of degraded quality also is present in the vicinity of several landfills located upstream from the municipal supply. Local dewatering by quarrying operations has created a ground-water divide which, at present, prevents direct movement of the degraded ground water to the municipal supply. In addition, the dewatering has held water levels at the largest landfills below the base of the landfill. Should the dewatering cease, concern would be raised regarding the rise of water levels at this landfills and transport of contaminants through the aquifer to the Scioto River and subsequently by the river to the well field. From June 1984 through July 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbus, Ohio, investigated the relations among the ground-water supply and potential sources of contamination by means of an observation-well network and a program of measuring water levels and sampling for water quality. Sample collections included those made to determine the baseline levels of organic chemicals and metals, as well as periodic sampling and analysis for common constituents to evaluate any changes taking place in the system. Finally, a steady-state, three-dimensional numerical model was used to determine ground-water flow directions and average ground-water velocities to asses potential effects of toxic-substance spills. The model also was used to simulate changes in the ground-water flow system that could result if part or all of the quarry dewatering ceased. Few of the organic-chemical and metal constituents analyzed for were present at detectable levels. With respect to

  5. Green production of hydrogen from excess biosolids originating from municipal waste water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, B.; Rawlston, J.; Counce, R.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Bienkowski, P.R.

    2006-07-01

    Technical and economic aspects of equivalent hydrogen (moles of H{sub 2} + moles of CO potentially converted to H{sub 2}) production from biosolids produced in wastewater treatment are evaluated in this paper. ASPEN+ simulation of the gasification of biosolids and coal provides the basis for the analysis of the technical performance of a gasification process. The General Electric (GE, formerly Texaco) Gasifier was chosen for the study. The solids are assumed to be slurried as 50 wt% or 70 wt% solids (typical and maximum attainable) as feed streams for the gasifier with water. In this study, the incremental raw material costs (feed+oxygen) for gasification plants producing the same annual quantity of H{sub 2} from coal and/or biosolids are compared. It may be seen that under the conditions of this study, the estimated cost of H{sub 2} production may be significantly reduced when biosolids are included in the feed materials to gasification, but only when the avoided disposal costs of the biosolids are considered.

  6. The effectiveness of coagulation for water reclamation from a wastewater treatment plant that has a long hydraulic and sludge retention times: A case study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaochun; Zhou, Dandan; Fan, Wei; Huo, Mingxin; Crittenden, John C; Yu, Zhisen; Ju, Pengfei; Wang, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Coagulation is a feasible process to reclaim municipal wastewater, however, the role of coagulation in removing effluent organic matter (EfOM) from underutilized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has not been fully explored. We identified the characteristics of the EfOM from a typical underutilized WWTP (i.e., the ratio of actual capacity to design capacity is 50%-70%), and investigated the performance of coagulation on suspended solids (SS) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal. The effluent could even satisfy the highest national standard of China (Class 1 A) for WWTP effluent, as evaluated by the traditional parameters such as SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD). However, the DOM in the EfOM we studied contained considerable biomass-associated products (BAPs), which were dominated by proteins with a molecular weight of approximately 150 kDa. In addition, protein also dominated the DOM after coagulation. Fulvic acid and humic-like acid organics were poorly removed by either AlCl3 or polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulation, even with a dosage as high as 24 mg Al L(-1). Biodegradability was very poor, as the ratio of biological oxygen demand (BOD5) to COD was less than 0.17. After coagulation the typical BAPs, protein and polysaccharide, remained as high as 1.6 mg L(-1) and 1.2 mg L(-1) respectively. In this study we found coagulation was ineffective for removal of recalcitrant BAPs.

  7. 30 CFR 884.14 - State reclamation plan approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State reclamation plan approval. 884.14 Section 884.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION STATE RECLAMATION PLANS § 884.14 State reclamation plan...

  8. 30 CFR 884.15 - State reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State reclamation plan amendments. 884.15 Section 884.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION STATE RECLAMATION PLANS § 884.15 State reclamation plan...

  9. Reclamation of coking wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mraovich, G.

    1981-04-28

    Waste products derived from coking coal, such as coal tar decanter wastes and wash oil muck, are processed to recover an oil fraction and a granular coke breeze residue. The wastes are mixed with a diluent oil, preferably having a saponification number of about 100 or more, are subjected to agitation and mixing and are thereafter filtered to produce a granular, coke breeze cake and a filtrate comprising water and oil which separate easily by decantation.

  10. Alum application to improve water quality in a municipal wastewater treatment wetland.

    PubMed

    Malecki-Brown, Lynette M; White, John R; Sees, M

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient removal in treatment wetlands declines during winter months due to temperature. A 3-mo (wintertime) mesocosm study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of alum in immobilizing P as well as other nutrients during this period of reduced treatment efficiency. Eighteen mesocosms, triplicate alum, and three controls or no alum were established with either Typha spp., Schoenoplectus californicus, or SAV (Najas guadalupensis-dominated). Alum was delivered by timer at a rate of 0.81 g Al m(-2) d(-1) and parameters measured included: pH, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and soluble aluminum (Al). Alum-treated mesocosms had significantly lower pH values (8.1) than controls (8.8), but well within the elevated pH range for aluminum toxicity. Alum significantly reduced all measured water column nutrients with the exception of ammonium N, which remained unaffected, and particulate P, which increased. This study demonstrated that seasonal low-dosage alum application to different vegetation communities in a treatment wetland can significantly improve treatment efficiencies for SRP (87 vs. 58%) and TP (62 vs. 44%) but also increase DOC (19 vs. 0%) and TKN (12 vs. -3%) removal capacity to a lesser degree. Alum applications within close proximity of the treatment wetland effluent points should be implemented with caution due to the production of alum floc-bound P which could potentially affect discharge permit compliance for total suspended solids or total P.

  11. 43 CFR 404.14 - How will Reclamation provide notice of opportunities for assistance under the program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY... Web site for announcement of Federal assistance opportunities. Opportunities for assistance will also... program? Notice of opportunities for assistance to conduct an appraisal investigation or a...

  12. Relations between Municipal Water Use and Selected Meteorological Parameters and Drought Indices, East-Central and Northeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Louis C.

    2009-01-01

    Water-use data collected between 1992 and 2006 at eight municipal water-supply utilities in east-central and northeast Florida were analyzed to identify seasonal trends in use and to quantify monthly variations. Regression analyses were applied to identify significant correlations between water use and selected meteorological parameters and drought indices. Selected parameters and indices include precipitation (P), air temperature (T), potential evapotranspiration (PET), available water (P-PET), monthly changes in these parameters (Delta P, Delta T, Delta PET, Delta(P-PET), the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Selected utilities include the City of Daytona Beach (Daytona), the City of Eustis (Eustis), Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU), Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA), Orange County Utilities (OCU), Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC), Seminole County Utilities (SCU), and the City of St. Augustine (St. Augustine). Water-use rates at these utilities in 2006 ranged from about 3.2 million gallons per day at Eustis to about 131 million gallons per day at JEA. Total water-use rates increased at all utilities throughout the 15-year period of record, ranging from about 4 percent at Daytona to greater than 200 percent at OCU and SCU. Metered rates, however, decreased at six of the eight utilities, ranging from about 2 percent at OCU and OUC to about 17 percent at Eustis. Decreases in metered rates occurred because the number of metered connections increased at a greater rate than did total water use, suggesting that factors other than just population growth may play important roles in water-use dynamics. Given the absence of a concurrent trend in precipitation, these decreases can likely be attributed to changes in non-climatic factors such as water-use type, usage of reclaimed water, water-use restrictions, demographics, and so forth. When averaged for the eight utilities, metered water-use rates depict a clear

  13. 43 CFR 404.23 - How will Reclamation determine whether you or your contractor is qualified to conduct an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... expertise needed may include, but are not limited to, water management planning, engineering, hydrology, biology, demography, finance, and economics. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.23 How will...

  14. 43 CFR 404.23 - How will Reclamation determine whether you or your contractor is qualified to conduct an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... expertise needed may include, but are not limited to, water management planning, engineering, hydrology, biology, demography, finance, and economics. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.23 How will...

  15. 43 CFR 404.23 - How will Reclamation determine whether you or your contractor is qualified to conduct an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... expertise needed may include, but are not limited to, water management planning, engineering, hydrology, biology, demography, finance, and economics. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.23 How will...

  16. 43 CFR 404.23 - How will Reclamation determine whether you or your contractor is qualified to conduct an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... expertise needed may include, but are not limited to, water management planning, engineering, hydrology, biology, demography, finance, and economics. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.23 How will...

  17. 43 CFR 404.23 - How will Reclamation determine whether you or your contractor is qualified to conduct an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... expertise needed may include, but are not limited to, water management planning, engineering, hydrology, biology, demography, finance, and economics. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.23 How will...

  18. Algal Nitrate Assimilation and Productivity in an Urban, Concrete-Lined Stream Dominated by Tertiary Treated Municipal Waste-Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, R. H.; Burton, C. A.

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the extent and variabiltity of nitrate loss in a 2.85 km reach of Cucamonga Creek, which is concrete-lined and dominated by treated municipal waste-water. Primary production was measured to determine if the loss could be attributed to algal assimilation. Samples for nitrite plus nitrate analysis were collected at the top and bottom of the study reach every hour throughout the 24-hour sampling period; samples for analyses of other parameters were collected less frequently. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and specific conductance were monitored continuously throughout the sampling period using in-stream probes. During the two weeks prior to the study, periphyton samples were collected periodically at four stations along the reach for standing crop measurements and a growth rate time-series using Chlorophyll A and ash-free-dry mass. Water samples from the upstream station were compared to those taken an hour later (the approximate travel time) at the downstream station. Nitrate concentrations were lower at the downstream station in 21 of 25 of the paired samples, indicating nearly continuous loss in the reach. The total loss of NO3 for the day was about 0.71 g as N/m2. Most of the loss occurred during daylight hours, with the peak occurring at midday. During the night, CO2 concentrations were relatively constant at about 25 mg/L. Concentrations began to decline at sunrise, and declined to 0 mg/L at the lower site after midday. Peak nitrate loss occurred at about the same time as the CO2 concentration was at its minimum. DO declined slightly during the night, began to rise at sunrise, reached a peak during midday, and declined in late afternoon through evening; pH followed a similar pattern. Net primary productivity, as measured by the differences in DO between the two sites was 13 g O2/m2 for the day. Using the Redfield ratio, the predicted nitrate assimilation is about 0.66 g NO3 as N/m2. The continuous loss of nitrate between the two

  19. Free-living amoebae, Legionella and Mycobacterium in tap water supplied by a municipal drinking water utility in the USA.

    PubMed

    Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Jamerson, Melissa; Kaneshiro, Edna S

    2010-03-01

    Legionella and Mycobacterium can proliferate within free-living amoebae (FLA) where they are protected from disinfectants at concentrations that can kill bacteria but not protozoa. Despite effective treatment of drinking water, microbes can enter water utility distribution systems (DS) and hence the plumbing within building premises. Additionally, biofilm formation may account for the persistence of microbes in the DS. In the present study a domestic water tap in north-central United States (USA) was sampled in March and September 2007 and analysed for FLA, Legionella and Mycobacterium. Identification of organisms was determined by growth on specific culture media, light and electron microscopy, and amplification of DNA probes specific for each organism. In both the spring and fall samples, amoebae, Legionella and Mycobacterium were detected. However, Acanthamoeba was prominent in the spring sample whereas Vahlkampfia and Naegleria were the amoebae detected in the autumn. Bacterial proliferation in laboratory cultures was noticeably enhanced in the presence of amoebae and biofilms rapidly formed in mixed amoebae and bacteria cultures. It is hypothesized that temperature affected the dynamics of FLA species population structure within the DS and that pathogenic bacteria that proliferate within FLA, which are themselves opportunistic pathogens, pose dual public health risks.

  20. Ground water withdrawn for municipal, industrial, and irrigation use in the Upper Peace and Alafia River basins, west-central Florida, 1970-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Alton F.; Mills, L.R.; Parsons, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented for ground-water withdrawals for municipal, industrial and irrigation use in the upper Peace and Alafia River basins during 1970-71. Within the 1,160-square-mile study area, the principal source of ground water is the Floridan aquifer. Methods used to determine ground-water withdrawal include: metering water use; relating measured well discharge to power consumption of pumping time; and relating water use to phosphate production, citrus irrigation or processing. About 90 percent of municipal pumpage is metered, and annual pumpage increased from 11,165 million gallons in 1970 to 13,455 in 1974. Water use per ton of phosphate produced is estimated to be 3,320 gallons per ton prior to 1971 and 2,460 gallons per ton from 1971 through 1974. Estimated ground-eater use by the phosphate industry has declined from 93.3 billion gallons in 1970 to 78.7 in 1974. Citrus irrigation pumpage is obtained by extrapolating pumpage obtained from pilot areas of unmeasured areas and has declined from 33.4 billion gallons in 1970 to 31.3 in 1974. The citrus processing industry used about 4.9 billion gallons in 1970 and about 5.9 in 1974. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. The effectiveness of coagulation for water reclamation from a wastewater treatment plant that has a long hydraulic and sludge retention times: A case study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaochun; Zhou, Dandan; Fan, Wei; Huo, Mingxin; Crittenden, John C; Yu, Zhisen; Ju, Pengfei; Wang, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Coagulation is a feasible process to reclaim municipal wastewater, however, the role of coagulation in removing effluent organic matter (EfOM) from underutilized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has not been fully explored. We identified the characteristics of the EfOM from a typical underutilized WWTP (i.e., the ratio of actual capacity to design capacity is 50%-70%), and investigated the performance of coagulation on suspended solids (SS) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal. The effluent could even satisfy the highest national standard of China (Class 1 A) for WWTP effluent, as evaluated by the traditional parameters such as SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD). However, the DOM in the EfOM we studied contained considerable biomass-associated products (BAPs), which were dominated by proteins with a molecular weight of approximately 150 kDa. In addition, protein also dominated the DOM after coagulation. Fulvic acid and humic-like acid organics were poorly removed by either AlCl3 or polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulation, even with a dosage as high as 24 mg Al L(-1). Biodegradability was very poor, as the ratio of biological oxygen demand (BOD5) to COD was less than 0.17. After coagulation the typical BAPs, protein and polysaccharide, remained as high as 1.6 mg L(-1) and 1.2 mg L(-1) respectively. In this study we found coagulation was ineffective for removal of recalcitrant BAPs. PMID:27231881

  2. AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

    1995-01-01

    A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

  3. Reclamation of waste polystyrene by sulfonation

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, Yasuhito; Kuromiya, Miyuki; Noguchi, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Haruo

    1999-06-08

    Waste polystyrene containing additives was converted into a polymeric flocculant by a chemical modification. Specifically, waste polystyrene and waste high-impact polystyrene (HI-PS) containing rubber components or a coloring agent were sulfonated to produce a water-soluble polymer whose molecular weight ranged from 400,000 to 700,000. The polymer provides superior purification of the supernatant after flocculating a kaolin suspension than a conventional polymeric flocculant such as a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (hereafter abbreviate PAA). Moreover, using the polymer and a PAA together provides a higher sedimentation rate and a purer supernatant in the treatment of actual wastewater than using each one separately. A new reclamation technology to convert waste plastic into a functional polymer is reported.

  4. Development of a preliminary design of a method to measure the effectiveness of virus exclusion during water process reclamation at zero-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.; Linnecke, C. B.

    1976-01-01

    Organon Diagnostics has developed, under NASA sponsorship, a monitoring system to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water. In this system, a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. An engineering preliminary design has been performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings present a preliminary instrument design of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation.

  5. Drivers for and against municipal wastewater recycling: a review.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Nadja C; Fischer, Manuel; Ingold, Karin; Hering, Janet G

    2016-01-01

    The reclamation, treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater can provide important environmental benefits. In this paper, 25 studies on this topic were reviewed and it was found that there are many (>150) different drivers acting for and against wastewater recycling. To deal with the challenge of comparing studies which entailed different research designs, a framework was developed which allowed the literature to be organized into comparable study contexts. Studies were categorized according to the level of analysis (wastewater recycling scheme, city, water utility, state, country, global) and outcome investigated (development/investment in new schemes, program implementation, percentage of wastewater recycled, percentage of water demand covered by recycled water, multiple outcomes). Findings across comparable case studies were then grouped according to the type (for or against recycling) and category of driver (social, natural, technical, economic, policy or business). The utility of the framework is demonstrated by summarizing the findings from four Australian studies at the city level. The framework offers a unique approach for disentangling the broad range of potential drivers for and against water recycling and to focus on those that seem relevant in specific study contexts. It may offer a valuable starting point for building hypotheses in future work.

  6. Drivers for and against municipal wastewater recycling: a review.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Nadja C; Fischer, Manuel; Ingold, Karin; Hering, Janet G

    2016-01-01

    The reclamation, treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater can provide important environmental benefits. In this paper, 25 studies on this topic were reviewed and it was found that there are many (>150) different drivers acting for and against wastewater recycling. To deal with the challenge of comparing studies which entailed different research designs, a framework was developed which allowed the literature to be organized into comparable study contexts. Studies were categorized according to the level of analysis (wastewater recycling scheme, city, water utility, state, country, global) and outcome investigated (development/investment in new schemes, program implementation, percentage of wastewater recycled, percentage of water demand covered by recycled water, multiple outcomes). Findings across comparable case studies were then grouped according to the type (for or against recycling) and category of driver (social, natural, technical, economic, policy or business). The utility of the framework is demonstrated by summarizing the findings from four Australian studies at the city level. The framework offers a unique approach for disentangling the broad range of potential drivers for and against water recycling and to focus on those that seem relevant in specific study contexts. It may offer a valuable starting point for building hypotheses in future work. PMID:26819379

  7. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: Reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, Joao C.M.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The Dutch Building Material Decree (BMD) was used to APC residues from MSWI. > BMD is a straightforward tool to calculate expectable loads to the environment of common pollutants. > Chloride load to the environment lead to classification of building material not allowed. > At least a pre-treatment (e.g. washing) is required in order to remove soluble salts. > The stabilization with phosphates or silicates eliminate the problem of heavy metals. - Abstract: Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of 'building material not allowed'. The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but

  8. Proceedings, 1983 symposium on surface mining, hydrology, sedimentology, and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.H.

    1983-12-01

    Papers were presented on the following topics: mining technology; hydrology; sedimentology; reclamation; surface mining technology and policy; poster presentations; phosphate and arid land reclamation; reclamation special applications; and hydrology-sedimentology special applications. 45 papers have been abstracted separately.

  9. Preliminary risk assessment of the wet landscape option for reclamation of oil sands mine tailings: bioassays with mature fine tailings pore water.

    PubMed

    Madill, R E; Orzechowski, M T; Chen, G; Brownlee, B G; Bunce, N J

    2001-06-01

    Chemical and biological assays have been carried out on the "pore water" that results from the settling of the tailings that accompany bitumen recovery from the Athabasca oil sands. Examination of the nonacidic extracts of pore water by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy allowed the identification of numerous two- to three-ring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), to a total concentration of 2.6 micrograms/L of pore water. The PACs were biodegraded by microflora naturally present in the pore water. Acute toxicity was associated principally with the acidic fraction (naphthenic acids) of pore water extracts according to the Microtox assay; other work has shown that acute toxicity dissipates fairly rapidly. Both individual PACs and concentrated pore water extracts showed minimal levels of binding to the rat Ah receptor and induced minimal ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in primary rat hepatocytes, showing an insignificant risk of inducing monooxygenase activity. Taken together with previous work showing negligible mutagenic activity of these extracts, we conclude that it should be possible to develop tailing slurries into biologically productive artificial lakes.

  10. Effectiveness of an alluvial wetland on improving ground-water quality in a municipal well field, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1998-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.

    2008-01-01

    An alluvial wetland proved useful in improving water quality. Samples from observation wells completed in the alluvial wetland near the municipal well field had nitrate concentrations that were four to six times lower when compared to river or upland sites; however, iron and manganese concentrations in samples from observation wells in the wetland areas were an order of magnitude higher when compared to the river or an upgradient well. Biological and chemical reduction processes were determined to mobilize inorganic constituents in accordance with physical chemistry principles. Generally, selected pesticides and two pesticide degradates of atrazine that were sampled for in alluvial wetland wells remained relatively unchanged, and indicated only a slight decrease in concentration compared to the Cedar River water samples. Pesticides were not detected above regulatory limits in any of the observation wells; however, one sample from the Cedar River had an atrazine detection at 4.5 micrograms per liter, which is above the maximum contaminant level of 3.0 micrograms per liter for drinking-water regulations for that compound. Results indicate that alluvial wetlands may provide substantial reductions of nitrate concentrations in ground water, and may be a useful strategy for the reduction of nitrate for municipal wells. Results for reducing pesticides were less dramatic than for nitrate, as pesticide concentrations were reduced slightly from the river to the wetland.

  11. Health assessment for South Municipal Water Supply Well, Hillsborough County, Peterborough, Cheshire County, New Hampshire, Region 1. CERCLIS No. NHD980671069. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-16

    The South Municipal Water Supply Well Site is on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL). The site area is in a rural portion of the Contoocook River Valley approximately two miles south of downtown Peterborough, New Hampshire. The site consists of two areas: the South Well, located approximately 350 feet east of the Contoocook River, and the New Hampshire Ball Bearing Inc. (NHBB) manufacturing facility and associated property. Improper disposal practices at NHBB led to contamination of on-site soil, groundwater, and surface water from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and contamination of sediment from VOCs, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It is not presently clear whether soil contaminants are volatilizing into the ambient air. Off-site contamination includes low levels of VOCs in surface water, PCBs and PAHs in sediments, and VOCs in groundwater. Based on the information reviewed, the authors have concluded that the South Municipal Water Supply Site is of potential public health concern under current conditions because of the potential risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects.

  12. Disputes over science and dispute resolution approaches - A survey of Bureau of Reclamation employees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkardt, Nina; Ruell, Emily W.

    2012-01-01

    Water resources in parts of the Western United States are over-allocated, which intensifies the pressure to support water management decisions with strong scientific evidence. Because scientific studies sometimes provide uncertain or competing results or recommendations, science can become a source of disputes during decision-making processes. The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is an important water manager in the Western United States, and Reclamation decision processes are often contested by a variety of affected constituencies. We conducted a Web-based survey of Reclamation employees to determine (1) which types of disputes over science are occurring and how common they are, (2) which approaches have been used by Reclamation to try to resolve these different types of disputes, (3) how useful Reclamation employees find these approaches at resolving these types of disputes, (4) the final outcomes of these disputes and the decision-making processes that were hindered by the disputes over science, and (5) the potential usefulness of several different types of dispute resolution resources that Reclamation could provide for employees that become involved in disputes over science. The calculated minimum response rate for the survey was 59 percent. Twenty-five percent of respondents indicated that they had been involved in a dispute over science while working at Reclamation. Native species and species listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 were the most common issue types reported in these disputes over science. Survey respondents indicated that they used a variety of approaches to resolve disputes over science and rated most approaches as either neutral or somewhat helpful in these endeavors. Future research is needed to determine whether there are additional variables underlying these disputes that were not measured in this survey that may identify when dispute resolution methods are most effective, or whether resolving aspects of these disputes, such as

  13. Online Tools at the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, S. M.

    2004-12-01

    Reclamation is the major Federal water resources management agency operating in the 17 western States, where it has over 350 reservoirs, numerous irrigation systems, and related infrastructure. Escalating human needs for finite water supplies make it essential that Reclamation manage its many water systems with the greatest practical efficiency. Efficient system operation depends heavily on accurate short-term and seasonal streamflow forecasts. Spring streamflows, derived largely from snowmelt and rains on snow, are especially critical to Reclamation's water management. The inability to quantitatively predict such streamflows beyond climatological values has been a major problem, and one of the major causes of this inability is inaccurate or spatially sparse quantitative precipitation estimate (QPE) data. To address these shortcomings, Reclamation's River Systems and Meteorology group has developed several online tools for QPE data access and visualization. The major tool is the Agricultural WAter Resources Decision Support (AWARDS) system. The purpose of the AWARDS system is to improve the efficiency of water management and irrigation scheduling by providing guidance on when and where to deliver water, and how much to apply. The AWARDS system has been designed for use by reservoir system operators, water district staff, and on-farm irrigators. AWARDS is operational in several regions of the West. At the heart of AWARDS is near-real-time QPE from the national WSR-88D radar network, providing hourly and daily accumulations at a nominal 2 km spatial resolution. The QPE is produced by either the National Weather Service Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) or Reclamation's Precipitation Accumulation Algorithm (PAA). The latter algorithm can estimate snow water equivalent (SWE) or snow depth from snowfall. Reclamation scientists have pursued close collaboration with other agencies in the formulation of AWARDS and precipitation-related information systems. A

  14. 36 CFR 9.11 - Reclamation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reclamation requirements. 9.11 Section 9.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.11 Reclamation requirements. (a) As contemporaneously...

  15. 36 CFR 9.11 - Reclamation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reclamation requirements. 9.11 Section 9.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.11 Reclamation requirements. (a) As contemporaneously...

  16. 36 CFR 9.11 - Reclamation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reclamation requirements. 9.11 Section 9.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.11 Reclamation requirements. (a) As contemporaneously...

  17. 36 CFR 9.11 - Reclamation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reclamation requirements. 9.11 Section 9.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.11 Reclamation requirements. (a) As contemporaneously...

  18. 36 CFR 9.11 - Reclamation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., injure or damage, federally owned lands. (2) On any claim which was patented with surface use... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.11 Reclamation requirements. (a) As contemporaneously as... writing by the Regional Director, each operator shall initiate reclamation as follows: (1) Where the...

  19. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping; Zhang, Weiling; Fan, Yupeng; Jiao, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The growing water stress both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration promotes the development of reclaimed water as a new water resource use. This paper reviewed wastewater reuse practices in China, and the opportunities and challenges of expanding reclaimed water use were analyzed. Rapid urbanization with the increasing of water demand and wastewater discharge provides an opportunity for wastewater reuse. The vast amount of wastewater discharge and low reclaimed water production mean that wastewater reuse still has a great potential in China. Many environmental and economic benefits and successful reclamation technologies also provide opportunities for wastewater reuse. In addition, the overall strategy in China is also encouraging for wastewater reuse. In the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse, there are many significant challenges to expand wastewater reuse in China including slow pace in adopting urban wastewater reuse programs, the establishment of integrated water resources management framework and guidelines for wastewater reuse programs, incoherent water quality requirements, the limited commercial development of reclaimed water and the strengthening of public awareness and cooperation among stakeholders.

  20. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping; Zhang, Weiling; Fan, Yupeng; Jiao, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The growing water stress both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration promotes the development of reclaimed water as a new water resource use. This paper reviewed wastewater reuse practices in China, and the opportunities and challenges of expanding reclaimed water use were analyzed. Rapid urbanization with the increasing of water demand and wastewater discharge provides an opportunity for wastewater reuse. The vast amount of wastewater discharge and low reclaimed water production mean that wastewater reuse still has a great potential in China. Many environmental and economic benefits and successful reclamation technologies also provide opportunities for wastewater reuse. In addition, the overall strategy in China is also encouraging for wastewater reuse. In the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse, there are many significant challenges to expand wastewater reuse in China including slow pace in adopting urban wastewater reuse programs, the establishment of integrated water resources management framework and guidelines for wastewater reuse programs, incoherent water quality requirements, the limited commercial development of reclaimed water and the strengthening of public awareness and cooperation among stakeholders. PMID:26899648

  1. Results of a monitoring program of continuous water levels and physical water properties at the Operable Unit 1 area of the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire, water years 2000-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2005-01-01

    The Milford-Souhegan glacial-drift (MSGD) aquifer, in south-central New Hampshire, is an important source of industrial, commercial, and domestic water. The MSGD aquifer was also an important source of drinking water for the town of Milford until it was found to contain high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Savage and Keyes municipal-supply wells in the early 1980s. A VOC plume was found to cover part of the southwestern half of the MSGD aquifer. In September 1984, the site was designated a Superfund site, called the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site. The primary source area of contaminants was a former tool manufacturing facility (called the OK Tool facility, and now called the Operable Unit 1 (OU1) area) that disposed of solvents at the surface and in the subsurface. The facility was closed in 1987 and removed in 1998. A low-permeability containment barrier wall was constructed and installed in the overburden (MSGD aquifer) in 1998 to encapsulate the highest concentrations of VOCs, and a pump-and-treat remediation facility was also added. Remedial operations of extraction and injection wells started in May 1999. A network of water-level monitoring sites was implemented in water year 2000 (October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000) in the OU1 area to help assess the effectiveness of remedial operations to mitigate the VOC plume, and to evaluate the effect of the barrier wall and remedial operations on the hydraulic connections across the barrier and between the overburden and underlying bedrock. Remedial extraction and injections wells inside and outside the barrier help isolate ground-water flow inside the barrier and the further spreading of VOCs. This report summarizes both continuous and selected periodic manual measurements of water level and physical water properties (specific conductance and water temperature) for 10 monitoring locations during water years 2000-03. Additional periodic manual measurements of water levels were

  2. Results of chemical and isotopic analyses of sediment and water from alluvium of the Canadian River near a closed municipal landfill, Norman, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, George N.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Christenson, Scott C.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.; Fey, David L.; Berry, Cyrus J.

    2005-01-01

    Results of physical and chemical analyses of sediment and water collected near a closed municipal landfill at Norman, Oklahoma are presented in this report. Sediment analyses are from 40 samples obtained by freeze-shoe coring at 5 sites, and 14 shallow (depth <1.3 m) sediment samples. The sediment was analyzed to determine grain size, the abundance of extractable iron species and the abundances and isotopic compositions of forms of sulfur. Water samples included pore water from the freeze-shoe core, ground water, and surface water. Pore water from 23 intervals of the core was collected and analyzed for major and trace dissolved species. Thirteen ground-water samples obtained from wells within a few meters of the freeze-shoe core sites and one from the landfill were analyzed for major and trace elements as well as the sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of dissolved sulfate. Samples of surface water were collected at 10 sites along the Canadian River from New Mexico to central Oklahoma. These river-water samples were analyzed for major elements, trace elements, and the isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate.

  3. Future material selection guidelines for coatings on concrete for changing exposure conditions in large municipal waste water collection/treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, R.

    1997-08-01

    Because of government mandated industrial pretreatment, longer detention times for waste water due to construction of regional treatment plants, recent air quality regulations, and other factors, concrete structures in waste water treatment plants are exposed to more severe exposure conditions now than in the past. Protective coating systems which had performed successfully for many years no longer provide adequate protection. The result is frequent coating failure and rapid concrete degradation. This paper discusses the more aggressive service conditions today and the changes which have promoted them. The paper will give examples and then present suggested material selection criteria to be used in the future by engineers and operators to ensure successful long term corrosion protection of concrete structures in municipal Waste Water Treatment Systems.

  4. Design and development of a prototype wet oxidation system for the reclamation of water and the disposition of waste residues onboard space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagow, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Laboratory investigations to define optimum process conditions for oxidation of fecal/urine slurries were conducted in a one-liter batch reactor. The results of these tests formed the basis for the design, fabrication, and testing of an initial prototype system, including a 100-hour design verification test. Areas of further development were identified during this test. Development of a high pressure slurry pump, materials corrosion studies, oxygen supply trade studies, comparison of salt removal water recovery devices, ammonia removal investigation, development of a solids grinder, reactor design studies and bearing life tests, and development of shutoff valves and a back pressure regulator were undertaken. The development work has progressed to the point where a prototype system suitable for manned chamber testing can be fabricated and tested with a high degree of confidence of success.

  5. Zebra mussel monitoring research program at the Bureau of Reclamation summary of 1996 monitoring activities. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, T.

    1997-04-17

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) manages water related resources in 17 western states, west of the Mississippi River. The agency is the nation`s sixth largest hydroelectric power generator. Reclamation projects include 343 storage dams and reservoirs (308 of these sites offer a variety of recreation activities), 58 hydroelectric power plants, and 54,550 miles of canals and other conveyance and distribution facilities. Infestation by zebra mussels would very likely have a dramatic effect on Reclamation`s ability to provide these services and manage facilities. It is presently known only to occur in the navigable portion of the Arkansas River as far West as Tulsa, Oklahoma. In order to provide early detection of zebra mussels in at-risk facilities, monitoring activities continued in 1996. Also, the sensitivity testing of the bridal veil method was continued.

  6. Effects of surface coal mining and reclamation on the geohydrology of six small watersheds in West-Central Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Duwelius, Richard F.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrologic effects of mining and reclamation were identified by comparing the hydrologic systems at mined and reclaimed watersheds with those at unmined agricultural watersheds. The presence or absence of a large final-cut lake in the reclaimed watershed greatly influences the hydrologic systems and the effects of mining and reclamation. Surface coal mining and reclamation can decrease base flow, annual runoff, and peak flow rates; increase the variability of flow and recharge to the bedrock; reestablish the premining relation between surface- and ground-water divides; and lower the water table in upland areas.

  7. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  8. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  9. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  10. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  11. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  12. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  13. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    SciTech Connect

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-12-31

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite.

  14. 43 CFR 3601.40 - Mining and reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mining and reclamation plans. 3601.40... Materials Disposal; General Provisions Mining and Reclamation Plans § 3601.40 Mining and reclamation plans. BLM may require you to submit mining and reclamation plans before we begin any environmental review...

  15. 43 CFR 3601.40 - Mining and reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mining and reclamation plans. 3601.40... Materials Disposal; General Provisions Mining and Reclamation Plans § 3601.40 Mining and reclamation plans. BLM may require you to submit mining and reclamation plans before we begin any environmental review...

  16. 43 CFR 3601.40 - Mining and reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mining and reclamation plans. 3601.40... Materials Disposal; General Provisions Mining and Reclamation Plans § 3601.40 Mining and reclamation plans. BLM may require you to submit mining and reclamation plans before we begin any environmental review...

  17. 43 CFR 3601.40 - Mining and reclamation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mining and reclamation plans. 3601.40... Materials Disposal; General Provisions Mining and Reclamation Plans § 3601.40 Mining and reclamation plans. BLM may require you to submit mining and reclamation plans before we begin any environmental review...

  18. 30 CFR 875.15 - Reclamation priorities for noncoal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reclamation priorities for noncoal program. 875.15 Section 875.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION CERTIFICATION AND NONCOAL RECLAMATION §...

  19. 30 CFR 875.15 - Reclamation priorities for noncoal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reclamation priorities for noncoal program. 875.15 Section 875.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION CERTIFICATION AND NONCOAL RECLAMATION §...

  20. 30 CFR 870.15 - Reclamation fee payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reclamation fee payment. 870.15 Section 870.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION...