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Sample records for municipality maracaibo zulia

  1. [Occupational accidents in Municipio Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, 1979-1990. Determination of the frequency and risk factors which play a role in their production].

    PubMed

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Montero-Proaño, G

    1993-01-01

    During the period of 1979-1990 job-related injuries were studied in Maracaibo, Zulia state, in order to analyze frequencies and causes. This information was obtained from annual reports on job-related injuries Form Number 15-411 of the Venezuelan Institute of Social Security (IVSS) which has been implemented nationally since 1982. Accidents that caused loss of man-hours were considered; variables considered were: age, risk category, day of the week, work shift, month, type of accident, agent, type of lesion, mechanical cause, body part affected and type of the activity in which the company is involved. The results were expressed as absolute values (mean +/- SE) and relative values. The mean accidents/year was 1651 +/- 177.97, most of them occurring in the age groups of 20-29 years (368.8) and 30-39 years (359.8). The triannual mean rate was higher for the group of the non-serious accidents (50%). Tuesday was the day of higher accidental incidence (22%) in addition to the morning shift between 9 and 11 hours (55%). Manufacturing was the economic activity most affected (43%). The most common causative agents were materials, substances and radiations (35%). The use of defective tools were the most frequent causes of mechanical accidents (31%). Upper limbs (46%) and between the type of lesion contusions or/and bruises (53%). It was concluded that, although the number of workers and accidents slowly diminished, the accidents rate slightly increased.

  2. [Prenatal diagnosis. I: Prenatal diagnosis program at the Medical Genetics Unit of the Universidad de Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Prieto-Carrasquero, M; Molero, A; Carrasquero, N; Paz, V; González, S; Pineda-Del Villar, L; Del Villar, A; Rojas-Atencio, A; Quintero, M; Fulcado, W; Mena, R; Morales-Machin, A

    1998-06-01

    The Prenatal Diagnosis Program of the Medical Genetic Unit of University of Zulia has the following objectives: Identification of Genetic Risk Factors (GRF) in those couples who attend to the Prenatal Genetic Clinic, application of different prenatal diagnostic procedures (PDP), and providing adequate genetic counseling. The goal of this paper is to show preliminary results obtained between January 1993 and December 1996. Three hundred and twenty one pregnant women were analyzed by determining the GRF and taking into account the genetic clinical history. The GRF analyzed were: Advanced maternal age (AMA), congenital malformation history (CMH), previous child with chromosomic anomalies (PCCA), defects of neural tube history (DNTH), congenital heart disease history (CHDH), any parent carrier of chromosomic anomaly (PCA), habitual abortion (HA), abnormal fetal echography (AFE), altered maternal serum levels of alpha-feto-protein (AMSAFP) and OTHERS: exposure to teratogenic agents, history of Mendelian diseases, maternal systemic diseases and anxiety in the mother or in her partner. The PDP was designed according to the GRF, which included fetal echography (FE), fetal echocardiography (FEc), amniocentesis (AMN), chordocentesis (CCT) and AMSAFP. Results showed that 58.4% of the expectant mothers asked for counseling during the 2nd trimester, 70% of the total showed only one GRF, and AMA was the most frequent GRF found (40.3%), followed by PCCA, AFE, CHDH, HA, DNTH, PCA, and OTHERS in that order. The specific PDP applied to the identified GRF allowed a health evaluation of the fetus. The GRF identification gave the opportunity of establishing a Prenatal Diagnostic Program producing a response to the couple's needs and showed the utility of an integral and multidisciplinary management directed to any expecting mother in order to identify any high GRF.

  3. [Human fasciolosis in Mara municipality, Zulia state. Venezuela: prevalence and asociated factors].

    PubMed

    Freites, Azael; Colmenares, Cecilia; Alarcón-Noya, Belkisyolé; García, María Eugenia; Díaz-Suárez, Odelis

    2009-12-01

    In Venezuela, human Fasciolosis shows a low frequency. However, Mara Municipality is a highly endemic region for bovine fasciolosis and there are no reports of this parasite infection in humans. To determine the prevalence and associated factors to human fasciolosis in Mara municipality - Zulia state, a total of 51 blood and stool samples were collected. Serums were tested by ELISA and Western Blot (WB) assays, with excretion-secretion antigens of Fasciola hepatica (AFhES). The serum samples that resulted positive by these assays were tested by ELISA IgG anti Toxocara sp, Toxoplasma gondii and cysticerosis. Stool samples were concentrated by the Ritchie and rapid sedimentation techniques. Two serum samples were reactive to ELISA AFhES (3.9%) and these did not recognize the specific molecules of WB-AFhES detected by serum from patients with an absolutely demonstrated infection. Both participants were not positive to IgG anti Toxocara sp, Toxoplasma gondii, cysticerosis, and stool samples of these were negative to intestinal parasites. The general prevalence of intestinal parasites was 52.9% (27/51), being protozoa more frequent than helminthes. No Fasciola eggs were found. The two positives participants had in common that both had worked as fresh pasture cutters. These results suggest that the population had been in contact with F. hepatica, with no active infection because of the lack of specific molecules recognition and the absence of eggs in stool samples. Human fasciolosis has a low frequency in Venezuela and is underestimated and underrecognized by health workers and the general population.

  4. [Presence of urban rabies in Zulia State, Venezuela. Years 1996-2006].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Belkis; Panunzio, Amelia; Larreal, Yraima; Leal, Jenith; Villarroel, Francis; Parra, Irene; Velasco, Doris; Prieto, Yelitza

    2008-12-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease and in Zulia State, it constitutes a public health problem of a high social impact, due to the report of cases in human beings. In this study, the presence of urban rabies was determined in Zulia's State and its distribution was identified according to municipalities and affected species during 1996-2006. In the scope of a descriptive study, a documented revision of Zulia's State Zoonosis Regional Coordination registries for the period in study was carried out. A total occurrence of 1.033 rabies cases was observed, 1.017 were in animals and 16 in human beings. The biggest incidences were for Maracaibo (31.40%) and San Francisco (15.68%) municipalities. The type of predominant rabies was the urban one; the principal reservoir and transmitter was the canine one (91.60%). Of the reported cases in human beings, the biggest incidence was in in Maracaibo Municipality (37.5%) and the most affected age group was <15 years (81.2%). A low percentage in the coverage of vaccination was presented (33%). A high incidence of rabies is demonstrated in Zulia's State in spite of this being a preventable immune disease. A positive correlation was determined between the number of admissions and cases (rs=0.948 P<0.01). It is necessary to implement an effective control of the sources of infection and to support a minimal coverage of vaccination of 80% in canines and furthermore, to implement community education programs, to diminish the risk of infection and the occurrence of cases.

  5. [Floristic and physiognomic characteristics of disturbed thorny xerophytic scrubland in Punta de Piedras, Miranda Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Vera, Antonio; Martínez, Maritza; Ayala, Yin; Montes, Sadieth; González, Anderson

    2009-01-01

    We determined the floristic and physiognomic aspects of disturbed thorny xerophytic scrubland in Punta de Piedras, Miranda Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela. Botanical sampling was done twice monthly (November 2005-June 2006), in both rainy and dry seasons, for a total of 16 samples. The sampling was done in 10 vegetation patches, in an average area of 718,2 +/- 706,24 m2, and adjacent graminoid floristic components were identified using three 400 m2 (20 x 20 m) plots, divided into 4 subplots (20 x 5 m2) and in these, were delimited 12 subplots (1 x 1 m2). In addition, human paths were carried out in order to identify other species plant. Thorny xerophytic scrubland showed human disturbances e.g. periodic fires, solid wastes, roads and human settlements and coastal semiarid thorny scrubland characteristics, similar to another Venezuelan localities. Forty-five species, in 22 families were identified, and the Poaceae (6), Mimosaceae (4), Boraginaceae (3), Cactaceae (3), Caesalpinaceae (3), Euphorbiaceae (3) and Fabaceae (3) presented the highest number of species. Human disturbances probably favor the appearance of vegetation patches and secondary grassland formations. In the last, Aristida venesuelae, Aristida pittieri y Portulaca pilosa showed the highest relative abundances and frequencies values with a summatory of 49,38% and 46,86%, respectively, while in the patches there were observed two layer: an herbaceous layer (less than 1 m high) as well as a bush-tree layer (2.63 +/- 1.37 m high), comprised mostly of Opuntia wentiana, Piptadenia flava and Jatropha gossypifolia with relative abundances of 32,82, 15,60 and 15,14%, respectively. The thorny xerophytic scrubland in Punta de Piedras presents a low number of species; however, the physiognomic characteristics are similar to other undisturbed thorny xerophytic scrublands in Venezuela.

  6. [Evaluation of immunity against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and dengue in the human population of San Carlos, the Almirante Padilla Island Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela. 1996].

    PubMed

    Valero, N; Añez, F; Larreal, Y; Arias, J; Rodríguez, Z; Espina, L M

    2001-09-01

    The Insular Municipality of Almirante Padilla, historically, has been affected by Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) epidemics, that have occurred cyclically in the Paez, Mara and Almirante Padilla Municipalities of the State of Zulia. During the last epidemic outbreak (1995), the studies reported a great number of cases of VEE in humans, based on epidemiologic-clinical diagnosis; occupying this municipality, the first place in the attack rate by the virus. At the same time, Dengue has been defined as an endemic illness affecting different regions, whose etiologic agent has previously circulated in the studied zone. In order to evaluate the immunity acquired against these viruses, a serological study was conducted in San Carlos Island. Two hundred and ten blood samples were obtained at random, among individuals of an age range between < 1 and 69 years, with and without antecedents of viral illness symptomatology at the moment of the epidemic outbreak, occurred in 1995. The samples were classified according to sex and age, and analyzed through the test of ELISA for specific IgG antibodies against the VEE and Dengue viruses. From the total of the samples processed, 116 (55.2%) were positive for VEE, affecting uniformly all age-groups with a slight masculine predominance. Likewise, 88 cases (41.9%) were determined positive for Dengue virus, affecting mainly the group ranging from 10 to 19 years. These results let us suggest that the epidemic outbreak occurred in 1995 at the Almirante Padilla Insular Municipality, had a double nature with both viruses being involved in the etiology of febrile cases.

  7. [Frequency of sickle-cell anemia in the population of "Cuatro Bocas," Parroquia Ricaurte, Mara municipality, Zulia state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Torres-Guerra, E; Torres-Guerra, T; Valbuena, G; Arteaga Vizcaíno, M; Soto, L

    1993-01-01

    Isla de Toas is an island on the north of the Maracaibo Lake, it is known in the scientific community, for the high frequency of sickle cell disease, in a population with caucasoid phenotype. The purpose of the present work was to determine the frequency of sickle cell anemia in the population of Cuatro Bocas, situated 35 km from the southwest of Isla de Toas. The town is the center of confluence of a rural population constituted mainly of farmers. The sample consisted of 870 persons of both sexes, aged from 8 months to 66 years. The presence of the sickling phenomenon was determined in all the individuals, and hemoglobin electrophoresis in agarose was performed in all the positive samples. The following results were obtained: fifty-six cases (6.4%), showed drepanocytic changes, and forty-six of them were haemoglobin A/S, 8 were S/S and 2 were S/C. The higher frequency of hemoglobin S was in adolescents and adults. The family backgrounds suggest an insular origin of the sickle cell gene. About 75% of the affected population was ignorant of this condition. The hemoglobin values were lower in the individuals with the sickle cell disease (p < 0.05), than in the normal persons. Iron deficiency in adolescents was suspected because or their low hemoglobin values. The results indicate that the sickle cell gen is expanding to the nearest communities of the Mara county. It is important to consider that the findings of the present work should serve as an alert to the Public Health authorities, and that education of the population is important in order to prevent the spreading of the disease.

  8. [Case reports of drug-induced liver injury in a reference hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Ruiz-Soler, María; Silva-Suarez, Niniveth; Andrade-Bellido, Raúl; Lucena-González, Maribel; Bessone, Fernando; Hernández, Nelia; Sánchez, Adriana; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with varied geographical differences. The aim of this prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was to identify and characterize cases of DILI in a hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela. Thirteen patients with a presumptive diagnosis of DILI attended by the Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario, Zulia state, Venezuela, from December-2012 to December-2013 were studied. Ibuprofen (n = 3; 23.1%), acetaminophen (n = 3; 23.1), isoniazid (n = 2; 15.4%) and Herbalife products (n = 2; 15.4%) were the main drugs involved with DILI. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen showed a mixed pattern of liver injury (n = 3; 23.1%) and isoniazid presented a hepatocellular pattern (n = 2; 15.4%). The CIOMS/RUCAMS allowed the identification of possible (n = 7; 53.9%), probable (n = 4; 30.8%) and highly-probable cases (n = 2; 15.4%) of DILI. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, isoniazid, isotretinoin, methotrexate and Herbalife nutritional products were implicated as highly-probable and probable agents. The highest percentage of DILI corresponded to mild cases that recovered after the discontinuation of the agent involved (n = 9; 69.3%). The consumption of Herbalife botanical products is associated with probable causality and fatality (n = 1; 7.7%). In conclusion, the frequency of DILI cases controlled by the Department of Gastroenterology of the Hospital Universitario of Maracaibo was low, being ibuprofen, acetaminophen, isoniazid and products Herbalife the products most commonly involved. It is recommended to continue with the prospective registration of cases, with an extended follow up monitoring period and to facilitate the incorporation of other hospitals in the Zulia State and Venezuela.

  9. Epidemiologic Behavior of Obesity in the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Pacheco, Maikol; Rojas, Joselyn; Córdova, Evelyn; Velázquez, Rossibel; Carrillo, Daniela; Parra, María G.; Toledo, Alexandra; Añez, Roberto; Fonseca, Eneida; Marcano, Rafael París; Cano, Clímaco; Miranda, José López

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a worldwide public health issue. Since the epidemiological behaviour of this disease is not well established in our country, the purpose of this study was to determinate its prevalence in the Maracaibo City, Zulia State- Venezuela. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken using the data set from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study. The sample consists of 2108 individuals from both genders and randomly selected: 1119 (53.09%) women and 989 (46.91%) men. The participants were interrogated for a complete clinical history and anthropometric measurements. To classify obesity, the WHO criteria for Body Mass Index (BMI), and Waist Circumference (WC) from the IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO-2009 (IDF-2009) and ATPIII statements were applied. Results For BMI, obesity had an overall prevalence of 33.3% (n = 701), and according to gender women had 32.4% (n = 363) and men had 34.2% (n = 338). Overweight had a prevalence of 34.8% (n = 733), Normal weight had 29.8% (n = 629), and Underweight had 2.1% (n = 45). Adding Obesity and Overweight results, the prevalence of elevated BMI (>25 Kg/m2) was 68.1%. Using the IDF-2009 WC's cut-off, Obesity had 74.2% prevalence, compared to 51.7% using the ATPIII parameters. Conclusions These results show a high prevalence of abdominal obesity in our locality defined by the WHO, IDF-2009 and ATPIII criteria, which were not designed for Latin-American populations. We suggest further investigation to estimate the proper values according to ethnicity, genetic background and sociocultural aspects. PMID:22530014

  10. Oil Slicks on Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Several oil slicks occurred on Lake Maracaibo in northwestern Venezuela between December 2002 and January 2003, and were observed by various satellite instruments. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) provide new information relating to one such event near the center of Lake Maracaibo on December 26, 2002.

    In unpolluted areas, the water surface is 'ruffled' by wind and the resulting wave facets divert reflected rays into many directions. An oil film dampens the presence of small wind-driven 'capillary' waves, resulting a smoother, more mirror-like surface. Also, oil is more strongly absorbing than the surrounding water. Therefore, at most viewing angles, a surface slick will appear darker than the surrounding unpolluted areas, whereas near the specular angle (the angle at which a perfect mirror reflects light) it will appear brighter. Simultaneous observation at multiple view angles therefore enhances the reliability of oil-slick detection using optical imaging.

    An example of how the optical contrast of an oil film on a water surface changes as a function of viewing angle is illustrated by these false-color MISR images, comprised of near-infrared, red and blue spectral data at three different angles, using the vertical-viewing camera (left), the 26o-forward-viewing camera (center) and the 46o-forward-viewing camera (right). A swirly area in the middle of the lake appears darker than the surrounding waters at both the nadir and 46o views, but brighter than the surrounding waters at the 26o view. Of the three images, only the 26o camera observes close to specular reflection angle.

    Lake Maracaibo is the largest lake in South America. The lake is somewhat saline, since it is connected to the Gulf of Venezuela by a narrow strait in the north. Venezuela is the largest oil producing nation in the Western Hemisphere, and the Lake Maracaibo basin includes the largest oil fields and almost a quarter of this nation's population

  11. Thermal modeling in Ceuta, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Marcano, F.; Padron, S. )

    1993-02-01

    Hydrocarbon generation from Upper Cretaceous source rocks (Fm.La Luna) in Ceuta, center-eastern Maracaibo lake area in Venezuela, is modeled here, using a kinetic method and the conventional Time-Temperature Index (TTI) procedure. Geological evolution, burial and erosional history is based on available interpretation of 3D seismic and well data. Fragmentary present-day subsurface temperature data comes from corrected measurements in a few wells. Paleogradient/heat paleoflux was estimated during the thermal modeling on wells, by calculating vitrinite reflectances (Ro) or Tmax values and then comparing them with measured ones. However, thermal-indicator data does not always appear to be consistent and some data had to be rejected. Paleogradient evolution in the Cretaceous is controlled by the development of a isolated thermal compartment related to overpressures in a thick shaly sequence in the Upper Cretaceous. A geological section was studied in detail to illustrate possible migration paths to known fields and undrilled traps. Results show a good fit between the thermal evolution of the source rock and the maturity of the crude produced in the area.

  12. [Detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by polymerase chain reaction in a community in Zulia State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Zulbey; Bracho, Angela; Calchi, Marinella; Díaz, Iris; Acurero, Ellen; Maldonado, Adriana; Chourio, Glenis; Arráiz, Nailet; Corzo, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Differential identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar is essential for both appropriate patient treatment and epidemiological purposes. To determine the prevalence of these amoeba infections in Santa Rosa de Agua (Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela), a PCR assay using specific primers for each species was standardized and applied. 204 stool samples were analyzed through direct microscopic examination with SSF (0.85%) and lugol, formol-ether concentration, and PCR. Under direct microscopy, 42 individuals (20.58%) presented the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex. Meanwhile PCR showed 47 positive cases for these amoebas: 22 E. histolytica (10.78%), 16 E. dispar (7.84%), and 9 (4.41%) mixed infections. There was no significant difference in the presence of E. histolytica and/or E. dispar according to either gender or age. There were no cases of these amoebas in children under 2 years of age. Observed frequency of E. histolytica (31/204) shows the endemic nature of amoeba infection in this community.

  13. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-10-26

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families.

  14. Structural interpretation along the Icotea Fault, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno, E.; Zubizarreta, J.; Pinto, J.; Taylor, C.; Prieto, E. )

    1993-02-01

    This structural interpretation, performed on an interactive workstation, corresponds to an area covered by three 3D seismic surveys in Lake Maracaibo. These surveys (Block I, Northern and Southern Lama) focus on the Icotea fault trend, which is one of the major structural features in the Maracaibo Basin. The present study is centered on the interpretation of the origin and evolution of this fault trend. The Maracaibo Basin evolved from an initial phase dominated by extensional tectonism to a later compressional phase. The Icotea fault is interpreted as the border of a Triassic-Jurassic half graben. Subsequent to the deposition of shelf sediments, the fault became reactivated during the Paleocene and Lower to Middle Eocene. During the change to compressional tectonics within the upper Eocene, the half graben became inverted. As an associated event during the structural inversion, a sinistral strike slip deformation took place along the fault. The latest stage of faulting developed during Miocene, and resulted in lateral offsets along the Icotea fault system.

  15. [Hand injuries in workers on the eastern shore of Marcaibo Lake in the state of Zulia, Venezuela, 1986-1993].

    PubMed

    Sirit-Urbina, Yadira; Fernández-D'Pool, Janice; Lubo-Palma, Adonías

    2002-06-01

    In order to analyze the frequency, injury rate and cause of on site accidents to the hands of workers on the east coast of lake of Maracaibo in Zulia State, data was obtained from the accident reports registered with the Venezuelan Institute of Social Security. An occupational hand injury was defined as a traumatic injury to the hands, fingers or wrists that occurred while the employee was at work; that resulted from a single exposure to a hazardous agent. The following variables were analyzed: age, severity, economic activity, material agent, mechanic cause, type of injury, type of accident and unsafe action. The frequency rate was used to analyze the annual accident rate. During the period under study 2.456 injuries to the hand were registered, representing 36% of the total injuries reported; 95% were light injuries, 5% incapacitating and two cases resulted in the death of the worker. 72% of the injuries were located in the fingers, 22% in the hands and 6% in the wrists. The greatest frequency of injuries were found in the economic activity in mines and quarries with a rate of 123.1 per thousand. The age group most affected was of 20-29 years (42%), Wounds or contusions and crushings were the injuries most commonly reported, in 39% and 36% of the cases respectively. The main type of injuries were caused by run over, running into or blow from objects. The principal agents causing injuries were materials, substances and radiations in 45% of the cases. It is concluded that the hand injury rate is very high in the exploitation of mines and quarries and represents the main cause of worker's disability.

  16. Caribbean basin framework, 4: Maracaibo basin, northwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Maracaibo basin is presently located in a topographic depression on the Maracaibo block, a triangular, fault-bounded block within the Caribbean-South America plate boundary of northwestern Venezuela. Intense oil exploration over the last 50 years has produced a large amount of seismic and well data that can be used to constrain four Jurassic to Recent tectonic and depositional events that affected the region: (1). Late Jurassic rift phase and subsidence along normal faults striking north-northeast across the floor of the basin; (2) Cretaceous to early Eocene subsidence recorded by shallow to deep marine carbonate and clastic rocks that thicken from south to north and completely cover Permian rocks of the Merida arch; (3) Eocene folding, thrusting, and initial reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as convergent strike-slip and reverse faults. Eocene clastic sediments are thickest in a narrow northwest-trending foredeep on the northeastern margin of the basin; (4) Late Miocene to Recent northwest-southeast convergence is marked by continued reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faults, uplift of mountain ranges bordering the basin, and deposition of up to 10 km of clastic sediment.

  17. [Vitamin A deficiency and the anthropometric nutritional status of urban and rural marginalized children in the state of Zulia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Daisy; Viloria-Castejón, Haydée; Ortega, Pablo; Gómez, Gisela; Urrieta, Jesús R; Lobo, Pablo; Estévez, Jesús

    2002-06-01

    The present transversal study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of both vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and protein-energy malnutrition among children (24 to 85 months) from three urban slums (n = 173) in Maracaibo city, Zulia State, Venezuela and a rural slum area (n = 34), vieinal to Maracaibo, by measuring serum retinol and z score of anthropometric indices Height//Age (H//AZ); Weight//Age (W//AZ) and Weight//Height (W//HZ), compared to NCHS-WHO reference values. The Graffar's methodology adapted to Venezuela by Méndez Castellano (1986) confirmed the underprivileged socio-economic condition of the children population. For serum retinol analysis, peripheral venous blood was drawn and serum was treated according to the Bieri et al. (1979) technique and HPLC procedure. Values were recorded in microgram/dL. Statistical analysis was done by using Epi Info 2000, release 1.0 and SAS release 6.0 (1996) computer programs. The prevalence of VAD (serum retinol < 20 micrograms/dL) in the total children population (n = 207) was 22.2%, being higher in urban children than in rural children (22.5% vs 20.5%). No clinical signs of VAD were detected in the children. The nutritional status analysed by Z score of anthropometric indices revealed that 27.4% of children suffered from undernutrition (Z score = -2 to > -3 SD), being 15.4% stunted, 9.6% wasted and 2.6% with acute protein-energy malnutrition. Neither severe malnutrition nor overweight were detected. According with the H//AZ index, 54.6% of children had adequate nutrition. However 23% of them suffered from VAD. In children at risk of developing undernutrition (Z score = -1 to > -2 SD), 20.9% had VAD and of the stunted children, 21.9% presented VAD. With W//AZ, 60.3%, 29.9% and 9.1% of children were with adequate nutrition, at risk, or wasted respectively; of each group, 25.6%, 17.7% and 15%, respectively had serum retinol values below 20 micrograms/dL. The Z score of W//HZ indicator revealed that 87.4%, 10.4% and 2

  18. Sequence stratigraphy of the Misoa Formation (Eocene) Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Marais-Gilchrist, G.; Higgs, R. )

    1993-02-01

    A preliminary sequence analysis of the Misoa Formation has been done in the Maraven concession area, Lake Maracaibo, using well logs supported by palynological and seismic data. The Misoa Formation is interpreted to comprise a lower transgressive unit containing at least four third-order cycles (lithostratigraphic units C7 to C3, approximately), and an upper dominantly regressive unit consisting of six third-order cycles (approximately C2 to B1). A major flooding surface (gamma-ray log maximum) provides a marker near the top of the lower unit, almost coincident with the important N-M local pollen zone. A tentative correlation can be achieved with the Haq-Vail coastal onlap curves for the Tejas A 2.3 to 3.3 third-order cycles, 55 to 44 ma. The maximum flooding surface would correlate with the maximum Eocene onlap at 52.5 ma. These ages broadly agree with the local pollen zonation. Incised valley fill units interpreted on the basis of blocky log character in some wells could have accumulated during global Eocene sea level falls, particularly those between 55 and 54 ma. The sequences gradually onlap onto the Paleocene unconformity and converge in a southwestward (landward) direction. Although north-south-oriented high-angle sinusoidal events are evident on some seismic lines, these are thought to indicate rotated listric fault-bounded blocks formed during an extensional episode, possibly syn-Misoa. The study should aid exploration for stratigraphic traps in the lake area.

  19. Coiled tubing workover saves horizontal well in Lake Maracaibo

    SciTech Connect

    Lizak, K.; Patterson, J.; Suarez, D.; Salas, J.

    1996-12-31

    A slotted liner horizontal completion became stuck while being run. Inflatable packers were to be used to isolate the productive interval from a water-bearing, unconsolidated sand in the curved section of this well. While personnel were deciding how to cement the well, the liner was left in the hole with the inflatable packers unset, and the production tubing was run. Coiled tubing was used to log the well, isolate the productive interval, and remove damage to restore well productivity. Personnel considered all possible options, and a thorough decision-making process guided the workover. Because of severe lost-circulation problems, extensive ``what if`` scenarios were made and updated daily for the engineers on location. Service company and oil company personnel worked together to guarantee the job designs were practical and did not exceed the limits of the equipment on location. Computer simulations of all operations were run to allow corrective action to be taken if unusual circumstances arose. All fluids were thoroughly laboratory tested and witnessed by oil company personnel to ensure job success. Problems on the job included lost circulation, locating the exact positions of the packers and water zone, ensuring correct cement placement, removing mud and workover fluids without damaging the squeeze, and bad weather on Lake Maracaibo. Advantages and disadvantages of all the solutions that were considered are included to assist anyone in a similar situation. Post-job oil production has stabilized at 900 BOPD with no water or sand production. Careful job planning and the versatility of coiled tubing saved this well and proved economical with an estimated payout of 33 days, assuming a price of $12 per barrel of oil.

  20. The Counseling Program at the University of Zulia: An International Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, George Davy

    2011-01-01

    A personal description of the international counselor education program at the University of Zulia in Venezuela is presented including educational objectives of the counseling degree, various services counselors are trained to provide, and a sample curriculum. This description serves as an example of one international counselor education program…

  1. Tectonic implications of Paleocene-Eocene Foreland Basin, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. ); Mann, P. )

    1993-02-01

    A compilation of industry geological and geophysical data indicates that Paleocene-Eocene clastic sedimentation in the Maracaibo basin records the first manifestation of Cenozoic foreland basin tectonics in northern South America. Isopach maps based on industry seismic data and well logs suggest that the Maracaibo foreland basin formed a 100 to 200 km wide elongate trough along the northeastern edge of the present-day Lake Maracaibo. The basin is asymmetric with a deep (7 km) northeastern margin adjacent to an exposed southwest-verging thrust belt mapped by previous workers. Isopach mapping of seven seismic units within the Eocene suggest a nor-northwest to southeast migration of the depocenter from Paleocene to Middle Eocene time at a rate of 0.6 cm/year. A similar style of foreland basin has been previously identified over a distance of 1000 Km from western central Venezuela to Trinidad. Eocene to Pliocene ages of foreland basin sedimentation in these areas suggest time transgressive, oblique collision of the Caribbean plate along the northern margin of South America. Comparison of the age of deformation along both the northern and southern edges of the pro-Caribbean plate yield reasonable estimates for the rate of relative motion of this small plate relative to the larger America plates.

  2. Genetic variation of 15 STR autosomal loci in the Maracaibo population from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Lennie Pineda; Borjas, Lisbeth; Zabala, William; Portillo, María Gabriela; Fernández, Erika; Delgado, Wilmer; Tovar, Florangel; Lander, Noelia; Chiurillo, Miguel Angel; Ramírez, José Luis; García, Oscar

    2006-08-10

    Allele frequencies for 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) autosomal loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA, included in the AmpFLSTR Identifiler, Applied Biosystems) were studied in the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela and were compared with other published Latin-American populations for the same loci. Population and forensic parameters were estimated.

  3. [Distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae) in the Sistema de Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Nava, Mario; Severeyn, Héctor; Machado, Nakary

    2011-09-01

    The presence of a microgastropod identified as Potamopyrgus sp. was detected previously in the Maracaibo System; nevertheless, a detailed morphological analysis identified this snail in other genera. The objective of this work is to update the distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis in the Maracaibo System, Venezuela in samples obtained between 2001 and 2009. The presence of hundreds of individuals of P. platyrachis were observed in the estuary, indeed in the localities of the Gran Eneal lagoon (4 111 snails), Peonías lagoon (229 snails), Punta Capitán Chico (758 snails), San Francisco (2 517 snails), Curarire (240 snails), Apon River mouth (173 snails), Ojeda City (240 snails), Bachaquero (128 snails) and Tomoporo de Agua (385 snails). We performed a taxonomical analysis, and emphasized in ecological aspects, such as the distribution of the species and habitat features, as near vegetation and type of associated sediment. We found three morphotypes of the species, one smooth, another with spiral striations and the other with spines. Smooth morphotype was exclusive of the Gran Eneal lagoon, Peonías lagoon, Punta Capitan Chico and Apon River mouth localities, whereas the other two morphotypes were found together in the remaining localities. According to our detailed anatomical and taxonomical analysis we propose a synonymy between P. platyrachis and the other species described like Pyrgophorus parvulus and Pyrgophorus spinosus.

  4. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Maracaibo Basin Province of Venezuela and Colombia, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phoung A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 656 million barrels of oil and 5.7 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Maracaibo Basin Province, Venezuela and Colombia.

  5. [Cryptosporidium sp infections and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Freites, Azael; Colmenares, Deisy; Pérez, Marly; García, María; Díaz de Suárez, Odelis

    2009-03-01

    Cryptosporidiosis in food handlers from Venezuela is unknown, being this an important public health problem in immunosuppressed patients. To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia State, one hundred nineteen fecal samples were evaluated by wet mount, concentrated according to Ritchie and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Fourteen (11.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium sp and associated with other protozoosis (P < 0.05), being most frequent Endolimax nana (42.9%). The general prevalence of the intestinal parasitism was 48.7%, emphasizing E. nana (41.2%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (38.7%) and Entamoeba coli (17.6%). The most frequent pathogenic protozoa was Giardia lamblia (13.4%), followed by the complex Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.2%). 4.1% were positive for intestinal helminthes. The infection by Cryptosporidium sp is frequent in food handlers from Zulia State. Given to the results of this investigation and the nonexistence of studies in this population, is necessary to deepen in the impact of this parasitism in food handlers and the consumers of their products.

  6. [Prevalence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in HIV positive patients to Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rivero-Rodríguez, Zulbey; Hernández Sierra, Amparo; Arráiz, Nailet; Bracho Mora, Angela; Villalobos Perozo, Rafael

    2013-03-01

    Microsporidioses are considered emerging and opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to identify the species of intestinal microsporidia in patients with HIV-AIDS from the Servicio Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo, Venezuela (SAHUM). Fecal samples were collected from 50 patients with confirmed diagnosis of HIV, during the years 2007 and 2008; the CD4 values were obtained from 42 patients. The samples were analyzed by separate PCRs to identify Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Microsporidia species showed a 36% prevalence: ten patients had Encephalitozoon intestinalis, four Enterocytozoon bieneusi and four both species. An inverse and statistically significant relationship between the CD4 count and the presence of microsporidia in the fecal sample was also found. It is remarkable the high prevalence of microsporidia species observed in the HIV patients studied, with a predominance of E. intestinalis.

  7. Applied geointegration to hydrocarbon exploration in the San Pedro-Machango Area, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, A.; Navarro, A.; Osorio, R.; Corvo, F.; Arismendi, J.

    1996-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration has nowadays a diversity of technological resources to capture, merge and interpret information from diverse sources. To accomplish this, the integration of geodata for modeling was done through the use of new technologies like Remote Sensing and Geographical Systems of Information and applied to the San Pedro-Machango area, located in the Serrania de Trujillo, west of Costa Bolivar (onshore), eastern Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. The main purpose of this work was to optimize the design of an exploration program in harmony with environmental conservation procedures. Starting with satellital and radar images that incorporated geophysical, geological and environmental information, they then were analyzed and merged to improve the lithological, structural and tectonic interpretation, generating an integrated model that allowed better project design. The use of a system that combines information of geographical, geodetical, geophysical and geological origins with satellital and radar images produced up to date cartography and refined results of image interpretation.

  8. [Hemostatic coronary risk factors in a healthy population of Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Diez-Ewald, María; Campos, Gilberto; Rivero, Francisco; Alvarez, Luis; Torres, Enrique; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Ryder, Elena; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Fernández, Nelson

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) as well as platelet aggregation, in an apparently healthy population of 306 men and 41 women, 33 to 65 years of age, workers of the national oil industry (PDVSA, Maracaibo), as a base investigation in a 5-year prospective national collaborative study. The participants were previously subjected to a thorough clinical examination with cardiovascular evaluation and laboratory tests. Clottable fibrinogen and VWF concentrations were determined in platelet poor plasma, the last one by immunoclectrophoresis, and a multimeric analysis of VWF was performed on those plasmas with concentrations higher than 150 U/dL by SDS agarose electrophoresis, followed by cellulose membrane transference. Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet rich plasma with no addition of stimulants and after collagen and ristocetin were added. Forty per cent of men and 65.8% of women, showed fibrinogen concentrations above 300 mg/dL (p < 0.01) and 12.2% of men and 15.4% of women had VWF values higher than 150 U/dL, with normal multimeric distribution. Fourteen individuals presented spontancous platelet aggregation and increased aggregation in 12 and 13 of them, after induction with collagen and ristocetin respectively. Comparing these findings with those of previous collaborative studies from other countries, the present results could mean that an important proportion of the population here studied, could be at risk for a future coronary event; however, as these are the base findings in Maracaibo, the significance of our results will be better evaluated at the end of the five year study.

  9. ERTS: A multispectral image analysis contribution for the geomorphological evaluation of southern Maracaibo Lake Basin. [geological survey and drainage patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, F.; Cabello, O.; Alarcon, F.; Ferrer, C.

    1974-01-01

    Multispectral analysis of ERTS-A images at scales of 1:1,000,000 and 1:500,000 has been conducted with conventional photointerpretation methods. Specific methods have been developed for the geomorphological analysis of southern Maracaibo Lake Basin which comprises part of the Venezuelan Andean Range, Perija Range, the Tachira gap and the Southern part of the Maracaibo Lake depression. A steplike analysis was conducted to separate macroforms, landscapes and relief units as well as drainage patterns and tectonic features, which permitted the delineation of tectonic provinces, stratigraphic units, geomorphologic units and geomorphologic positions. The geomorphologic synthesis obtained compares favorably with conventional analysis made on this area for accuracy of 1:100,000 scale, and in some features with details obtained through conventional analysis for accuracy of 1:15,000 and field work. Geomorphological units in the mountains were identified according to changes in tone, texture, forms orientation of interfluves and tectonic characteristics which control interfluvial disimetrics.

  10. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Insulin Resistance in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Palmar, Jim; Cabrera, Mayela

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Insulin resistance (IR) is a prominent pathophysiologic component in a myriad of metabolic disorders, including obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are common in our locality. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IR and factors associated with this condition in an adult population from Maracaibo city, Venezuela. Methodology. A cross-sectional, descriptive study with multistaged randomized sampling was carried out in 2026 adults. IR was defined as HOMA2-IR ≥ 2. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed in order to evaluate factors associated with IR. Results. The prevalence of IR was 46.5% (n = 943), with 46.7% (n = 450) in the general population, 46.4% (n = 493) in females, and 47.90% (n = 970) in males (p = 0.895). IR prevalence tended to increase with age and was significantly greater in subjects aged ≥30 years (χ2 = 16.726; p = 2.33 × 10−4). Employment, alcohol consumption, obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, and dysglycemia were associated with greater odds of IR, whereas a high level of physical activity appeared to be weak protective factor against IR. Conclusions. The prevalence of IR is elevated in our locality. The main determinants of this condition appear to be the presence of obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, dysglycemia, and alcohol intake. PMID:27579182

  11. Oil geochemistry study; Blocks III and IV Bachaquedro Field, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, B.A.; Villarroel, H.G. de; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Blocks III and IV Bachaquero, Field, located on the east side of Lake Maracaibo, comprise an area of 40 square kilometers. In 1956 the discovery well penetrated oil saturated sands in a south dipping homoclinal structure. In 1958 production reached a maximum of 245,000 barrels per day of moderate gravity oil from three Miocene age Lagunillas Formation sands, designated as L, M, and N. The Bachaquero Field has experienced production problems including high gas-oil ratios from M and N sands to the north, high water cuts in all three sands to the south, and low production rates in the southeast. In addition, the vertical and lateral continuity of the oil pools are unknown. High resolution gas chromatography and analysis of biological markers was employed in order to resolve the continuity of the oil pools, determine genetic origin of the oils, and shed light on erratic production. Oil in the L sands are vertically discontinuous from oil in the M+N sands. The two oil pools appear laterally continuous within the study area, indicating absence of fault barriers. Well VLD 311, open to both L and M sands, produces a mix of oils, but with a strong contribution from the M sand. Bachaquero Field reservoirs were charged with oil from two different facies of the Upper Cretaceous La Luna or perhaps from La Luna and Colon source rocks as the stratigraphically younger L sands contain less mature oil with a stronger terrigenous imprint than oil the M and N sands.

  12. Sedimentological and petryphysical characterization of the Cogollo Group, Cretaceous, Block IX, Maracaibo Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, P.; Verenzuela, X. ); Franssen, R.; Vahrenramp, V. )

    1993-02-01

    The present study contains the most important results from the sedimentological and petrophysical analysis of two Cretaceous cores (SVS-225/229) located in the Block IX of Lake maracaibo, northwestern Venezuela. In order to better define and locate sites for exploratory drilling, a study was undertaken to describe calcareous facies and their relationship to matrix porosity, open fractures, sedimentary and flow units. The sedimentary units were grouped on the basis similar characteristics and vertical and horizontal extrapolation potential. They also serve as indicators to determine the major sedimentary environments and help define the sedimentological model for the section under study. The most promising calcareous facies are composed of dolomites, wackestones, packstones and grainstones. They are all related to the open fractures, their orientation and density. The flow units were determined using these characteristics together with the oil impregnation observed in the cores. Also they were found to be mainly related to the coarsening upper sedimentary sequences. The identification of these units and their correlation to neighboring areas is useful for in the effectively managing processes for the Cretaceous oil reservoirs.

  13. Geology and geochemistry of the La Luna Formation type sections in the Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Baptista, N.; Scherer, W.

    1996-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous La Luna Formation is the most important source rock of hydrocarbons in Western Venezuela. Curiously enough it has two type sections, the formation was first defined in 1926 in Perija on the western flank of the Maracaibo basin; 30 years later the La Aguada, Chejende and Timbetes members were defined 260 km toward the east, on the shelf of the basin. The purpose of this study is to compare these sections and to define the vertical and horizontal variability of geological and geochemical characteristics that might have influenced the generation of hydrocarbons. The study consisted of detailed, bed level sampling, macroscopic sedimentary descriptions, petrography of 168 thin sections with 40 variables recorded in a statistical data matrix for determination of lithomicrofacies, as well as geochemical analysis of total organic carbon (TOC), visual kerogen, Rock-Eval pyrolysis and gas chromatography. The western type section is characterized by alternating thinly laminated and massive bedded limestones. Thermally immature, amorphous organic matter of marine origin is abundant in this section; TOC values range from 0.23% to 8.56%, generally increasing toward the top. Hydrogen index values range from 327 to 1078, indicating good to excellent oil generating potential. The eastern type sections have a higher level of thermal maturity; they show increasing amounts of clastic material, less authigenic minerals and abundant Favreina sp crab fecal pellets. The mainly terrestrially derived organic matter concentrations are considerably less, ranging from 0.07 to 3.39, again increasing toward the top of the section.

  14. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Insulin Resistance in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Valmore; Salazar, Juan; Martínez, María Sofía; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Calvo, María José; Palmar, Jim; Bautista, Jordan; Ramos, Eduardo; Cabrera, Mayela; Pachano, Freddy; Rojas, Joselyn

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Insulin resistance (IR) is a prominent pathophysiologic component in a myriad of metabolic disorders, including obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are common in our locality. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IR and factors associated with this condition in an adult population from Maracaibo city, Venezuela. Methodology. A cross-sectional, descriptive study with multistaged randomized sampling was carried out in 2026 adults. IR was defined as HOMA2-IR ≥ 2. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed in order to evaluate factors associated with IR. Results. The prevalence of IR was 46.5% (n = 943), with 46.7% (n = 450) in the general population, 46.4% (n = 493) in females, and 47.90% (n = 970) in males (p = 0.895). IR prevalence tended to increase with age and was significantly greater in subjects aged ≥30 years (χ (2) = 16.726; p = 2.33 × 10(-4)). Employment, alcohol consumption, obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, and dysglycemia were associated with greater odds of IR, whereas a high level of physical activity appeared to be weak protective factor against IR. Conclusions. The prevalence of IR is elevated in our locality. The main determinants of this condition appear to be the presence of obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, dysglycemia, and alcohol intake.

  15. Kinetic modeling of petroleum formation in the Maracaibo Basin: Final report, Annex 12

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.; Braun, R.L.; Sweeney, J.J.; Reynolds, J.G.; Vallejos, C.; Talukdar, S.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and test improved kinetic models of petroleum generation and cracking, pore pressure buildup, and fluid expulsion. The work was performed jointly between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Research Organization of the Venezuelan National Petroleum Company under Annex 12 of an agreement between DOE and the Venezuelan Ministry of Energy and Mines. Laboratory experiments were conducted at both LLNL and INTEVEP to obtain the reaction rate and product composition information needed to develop chemical kinetic models. Experiments at INTEVEP included hydrous pyrolysis and characterization of oils by gas and liquid chromatography. Experiments at LLNL included programmed pyrolysis in open and self-purging reactors, sometimes including on-line gas analysis by tandem mass spectrometry, and characterization of oils by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The PMOD code was used to develop a detailed pyrolysis mechanism from the extensive laboratory data. This mechanism is able to predict yield of bitumen, oil, and gas as a function of time and temperature for such diverse laboratory conditions as hydrous pyrolysis and rapid, programmed, open pyrolysis. PMOD calculations were compared to geologic observations for 22 wells in the Maracaibo basin. When permeability parameters are chosen to match calculated pore pressures with measured present day values, the PMOD calculations indicate that organic maturation reactions contribute a significant fraction of the overpressure during oil generation and early oil cracking. Calculations agreed with observed geochemical maturity parameters of the source rock. 37 refs., 64 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Mass transport between a semienclosed basin and the ocean: Maracaibo System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laval, B.; Imberger, J.; Findikakis, A. N.

    2003-07-01

    Field data and three-dimensional numerical (Estuary and Lake Computer Model) simulations are used to investigate exchange between Lake Maracaibo and the Gulf of Venezuela. This exchange occurs along a dredged shipping lane 100 km long and 14 m deep. It is driven by a density difference between the lake and gulf and modulated at tidal and subtidal timescales by water level fluctuations in the gulf propagating to the lake. At tidal frequencies, exchange is modulated by barotropic forcing and nonlinear baroclinic response, leading to a severance of high-salinity bottom water into seaward and landward segments. Bottom water in the landward segment is moved lakeward along the shipping lane, where it is mixed vertically and flushed out. Subtidal water level fluctuations in the gulf force barotropic currents along the shipping lane, dominating variability of volume and salt flux at timescales of 1-4 weeks. The barotropic component of simulated salt flux decreases from the gulf to the lake, as depth-averaged salinity decreases, while simulated baroclinic exchange is only 20% of that predicted by quasi-steady two-layer hydraulic theory. These reductions in salt flux are due to intense mixing that occurs throughout the shipping lane.

  17. [Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Determination of antibodies in the human population of Municipio Mirand, Estado Zulia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ryder, S; Núñez-Camargo, J; Rangel, P; Añez, F

    1993-01-01

    With the purpose of determining antibodies prevalence against Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus in the population of Puertos de Altagracia and Sabaneta de Palmas of Miranda county, Zulia State, Venezuela, 199 subjects were studied: 57 from Puertos de Altagracia and 142 from Sabaneta de Palmas. They were classified in older (42.78%) and younger (57.2%) than 15 years. The blood specimens were processed for Hemagglutination Inhibition Test using EEV antigen Goajira strain at pH 6.5. We found that all 57 specimens from Puertos de Altagracia were negative, whereas of 142 specimens from Sabaneta de Palmas 17 were positive (11.97%). Of these, one was from a subject less than 15 years-old (5.85%) and 16 from individuals more than 15 years-old (94.15%). Positive titers were higher than 1:160 in 80% of cases. Being Sabaneta de Palmas one of the most affected areas in the 1962 epidemic in the Miranda county and keeping the affected ones high positivity with elevated titers, we conclude that this population could represent an enzootic zone similar to Paez county where a similar situation, of high positivity and elevated titers, many years after the last epidemic occurred in that area, has been described.

  18. Steinernema goweni n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from Zulia State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    San-Blas, Ernesto; Morales-Montero, Patricia; Portillo, Edgar; Nermuť, Jiří; Puza, Vladimir

    2016-01-21

    A nematode from the genus Steinernema was isolated in Zulia state (North-western, Venezuela). Morphological, morphometric and molecular studies indicated that this nematode belongs to the "bicornutum" group and is described herein as Steinernema goweni n. sp. Steinernema goweni n. sp. is characterised by morphometrics of its infective juveniles, with body length 640 (531-719) µm, pharynx length of 119 (109-126) µm, tail of 67 (59-89) µm, c ratio = 9 (6-11) and E% = 77 (48-94). First generation male specimens can be recognised by the shape and size of spicules (55 (50-57) µm long) and gubernaculum (35 (30-40) µm long), and %D value 42 (28-59), which is at the lower limit within the "bicornutum" group. The number of genital papillae in males is also distinctive for S. goweni n. sp. presenting up to 27 (13 pairs + 1) papillae in 15% of specimens. The phasmids can be seen in scanning electron microscopy in all stages, characters not previously reported within the "bicornutum" group. Phylogenetic analyses of the "bicornutum" group based on both ITS and D2D3 regions showed a clear separation of S. goweni n. sp. from the other species. In both analyses S. goweni n. sp. formed a strongly supported group of American species.

  19. Petrophysical and sedimentological evaluation of the Tertiary sandstones of Barua-Motatan, Eastern Zulia

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona, R.; Mederos, S.

    1996-08-01

    The combined application of conventional well logs such as resistivity, gamma ray, neutron density and sonic, and specialized logs such as acoustic image and analysis of fluid and rotary coring tool samples are excellent means of evaluating reservoir rock quality, fluid saturations, and hole conditions. This paper describes the application of such a technique and presents the results thereof of reservoir characterization as applied to an exploration well PAA-1X in the eastern coast of the Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela. The PAA-1X well was drilled on the flank of a monocline west of Mene Grande fault near the border of Mene Grande field to explore the Misca Formation of Eocene age. Intermediate and Basal Pauji sandstones were not present in PAA-1X well, contrary to our expectations. The similarity of well logs and geological columns with an earlier exploration well, Tom-3X, confirmed this finding. The sandstones are medium to fine grained, with porosities of 5-21% and permeabilities of 0.02-0.8 md. The acoustic image log shows an ovalness of the hole, a characteristic typical of silty and shaly formations. The interpretation with the aforementioned tools indicates that the exploratory well has very few thin productive intervals and is therefore likely to be deemed uneconomic. This is corroborated by the DST of the upper part of the Misoa Formation that produced only water. The study does indicate that this set of tools can be used very effectively in an integrated manner to accurately assess and evaluate prospects.

  20. Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose Prediction Using Anthropometric Indices in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Salazar, Juan; Rojas, Joselyn; Calvo, María; Rojas, Milagros; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Añez, Roberto; Cabrera, Mayela

    2016-12-01

    To determine the predictive power of various anthropometric indices for the identification of dysglycemic states in Maracaibo, Venezuela. A cross-sectional study with randomized, multi-staged sampling was realized in 2230 adult subjects of both genders who had their body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-height ratio (WHR) determined. Diagnoses of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were made following ADA 2015 criteria. ROC curves were used to evaluate the predictive power of each anthropometric parameter. Area under the curve (AUC) values were compared through Delong's test. Of the total 2230 individuals (52.6 % females), 8.4 % were found to have DM2, and 19.5 % had IFG. Anthropometric parameters displayed greater predictive power regarding newly diagnosed diabetics, where WHR was the most important predictor in both females (AUC = 0.808; CI 95 % 0.715-0.900. Sensitivity: 82.8 %; specificity: 76.2 %) and males (AUC = 0.809; CI 95 % 0.736-0.882. Sensitivity: 78.6 %; specificity: 68.1 %), although all three parameters appeared to have comparable predictive power in this subset. In previously diagnosed diabetic subjects, WHR was superior to both WC and BMI in females, and WHR and WC were both superior to BMI in males. Lower predictive values were found for IFG in both genders. Accumulation of various altered anthropometric measurements was associated with increased odds ratios for both newly and previously diagnosed DM2. The predictive power of anthropometric measurements was greater for DM2 than IFG. We suggest assessment of as many available parameters as possible in the clinical setting.

  1. Geochemical and geological control on filling history of Eocene reservoirs, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Alberdi, M.; Maguregui, J.; Toro, C.; Marquina, M.

    1996-08-01

    Crude oils of Eocene fluvio-deltaic reservoirs in {open_quotes}Bloque V{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Centro Lago{close_quotes} fields in the center of the Maracaibo Lake show many differences in composition, which are due to stratigraphically and structurally controlled reservoir geometry and a low rate of in-reservoir mixing of at least two successive petroleum charges. Oils produced from the top of structural highs contain 18(H) oleanane, higher Pr/Ph and C{sub 23-3}/C{sub 24-4} ratios, a lower proportion of DBT/P compounds, and clearly different fingerprint patterns in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 15} range, than those observed in oils produced from the lower parts of the structures. These compositional differences suggest that two source rocks, or two distinctive organic facies within the same Cretaceous La Luna Formation, generated and filled vertically poorly connected Eocene reservoirs. On the other hand, saturate-biomarkers ratios, triaromatics (C{sub 21}/C{sub 21}+C{sub 28}), n-paraffins (n-C{sub 20}/n-C{sub 29}) and n-heptane index suggest that oils in upper reservoirs are slightly less mature than oils in lower reservoirs and, consequently filled the structure first. Additional evidence from formation water analysis and tectonic basin evolution allow us to interpret at least two petroleum pulses from Cretaceous source rocks during Upper Miocene to present day kitchens located in the Andes foredeep at the southeast of the study area.

  2. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  3. Integrated reservoir characterization to define a hydrodynamic model in the Misoa formation, Eocene, Center Lake Field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Azuaje, V.; Gil, J.

    1996-08-01

    The Center Lake Field is one of the most important light oil reservoirs in the Maracaibo Basin. Field production of {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} sandstones, Misoa formation, Eocene, started in 1968. Actual cumulative production is 630 MMBls, which represents 23% of the original oil in place. Flank water injection programs have been executed since 1976; however, reservoirs within this field still have shown pressure and production declination. A multidisciplinary study has been conducted to produce an updated hydrodynamic model which matches the static and dynamic behavior of the reservoirs. An integrated interpretation team has merged geological, geophysical and engineering data and criteria to generate an updated and consistent interpretation of today`s performance of reservoirs. The integration of a 3D seismic survey with a sequence- stratigraphy analysis, petrophysical and production data allowed us to determine a new structural and stratigraphic framework. The first important conclusion is that active aquifer is not located at the flanks of the structure, as traditionally worked out. Instead, a water-bottom drive system was interpreted and validated with production data so a different strategy for water injection was recommended. The latter interpretation restricted the injection to those areas where rock volume calculation, permeability, porosity and depositional environment make it suitable and profitable. A pattern injection program is going to be developed in C-4-X.46 reservoir and 21.6 MMBls additional recovery is expected in respect to the old production scheme.

  4. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  5. By analogy with late paleozoic orogeny in the Venezuelan Andes, Maracaibo Basin is en route to a granitic event

    SciTech Connect

    Shagam, R.; Giegengack, R.F.; Lutz, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    Postulated stages of orogeny in a continental crustal setting are:- 1. Stresses of plate convergence lead to block uplift and complementary basin subsidence. The basin fills with 12-14 km of illite-rich flysch (1km/3Ma). This about doubles the thickness of K-rich sial. 2. In situ heating of the flysch by radioactive decay provides a thermal gradient of c.35/sup 0/C/km and it is metamorphosed (pre-deformation) to greenschists facies. 3. After maximum crustal subsidence continued compression results in updoming of crust and overlying flysch. Cannibalism of flysch, cooling and mild subsidence follow; autometamorphism declines. 4. Thin deltaic-marine deposits complete basin fill over the meta-flysch. The unconformity (a span of only 5-10 Ma) is of minor import. 5. Resetting of the thermal profile of the depressed crust lags far behind that in the flysch. Parallels to the above in the Maracalbo basin fill are: -thickness (approx.11km), nature (flysch abounds), rate of deposition (c.1km/3-4Ma), thermal gradient (c.33/sup 0/C/km) and overall tesselar shape. Presence of impermeable strata in the Maracaibo Basin suggests that large-scale fluid convection is inhibited; conductive models of heat transfer can be used. Computer modeling suggests that radiogenic heat, augmented by exothermic oxidation of organic matter, and with a normal mantle heat flow will explain the autometamorphism of the flysch. Alternative orogenic models invoking pull-apart basins do not explain the great thickness of sediments and absence of volcanic activity.

  6. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  7. 76 FR 4103 - Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Midwest Municipal Transmission Group; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Midwest Municipal Transmission... Municipal Power Agency and Midwest Municipal Transmission Group submitted an amendment to a petition for...

  8. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Pieces of material which become lodged in the openings of the conveyor belt may be removed by cylindrical deraggers or pressurized air. The crushed materials may be fed onto the conveyor belt by a vibrating feed plate which shakes the materials so that they tend to lie flat.

  9. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, John L.

    1989-01-01

    Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Consecutive conveyors may be connected by an intermediate vibratory plate. An air knife can be used to further separate materials based on weight.

  10. Guidance: Interim Municipal Settlement Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Interim guidance and fact sheets regarding settlements involving municipalities or municipal waste under Section 122 CERCLA as amended by SARA. Interim policy sets forth the criteria by which EPA generally determines whether to exercise enforcement discretion to pursue MSW generators and transporters as PRPs.

  11. Energy Management in Municipal Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Community Affairs, Boston. Energy Conservation Project.

    This manual is written for the manager or supervisor responsible for instituting an energy management program for municipal buildings. An introduction discusses the management issues facing municipal government in dealing with the need to reduce energy consumption. The guide reviews methods for central coordination of activity to ensure that…

  12. Venezuela: Lake Maracaibo

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... facets divert reflected rays into many directions. An oil film dampens the presence of small wind-driven "capillary" waves, resulting a ... An example of how the optical contrast of an oil film on a water surface changes as a function of viewing angle is illustrated ...

  13. Prioritizing pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral presentation at SETAC North America 32nd annual meeting, describing our prioritization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), based on estimates of risks posed by API residues originating from municipal wastewater. Goals of this project include prioritization of APIs f...

  14. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

  15. Photovoltaics for municipal planners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

  16. Municipal landfill leachate management

    SciTech Connect

    Kusterer, T.; Willson, R.; Bruce, S.C.; Tissue, E. Lou, P.J.

    1998-12-31

    From 1995 to 1997, the Montgomery County Leachate Pretreatment Facility (MCLPF) has successfully pretreated in excess of 18,000,000 gallons of leachate generated by the county`s municipal solid waste landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill, the new lined section, and the ash cell to the leachate pump station. The leachate, prior to being pumped to the leachate pretreatment system, is equalized in two storage lagoons with a combined capacity of more than 5,000,000 gallons. The innovative leachate treatment system, incorporating a biological reactor system equipped with a submerged fixed-film reactor using a patented Matrix Biological Film (MBF) media, continues to provide excellent pretreatment results for the leachate generated at the Oaks Landfill in Montgomery County, Maryland. In 1995 and 1996, the system responded to the substantial challenges imposed by the changing characteristics of the material being landfilled and by the significant amounts of incinerator ash, received in 1995 from the county`s resource recovery facility (RRF), which influenced the influent leachate characteristics.

  17. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report defines and characterizes types of medical waste, discusses the impacts of burning medical waste on combustor emissions, and outlines important handling and operating considerations. Facility-specific design, handling, and operating practiced are also discussed for municipal waste combustors (MWCs) that reportedly accept medical waste in the U.S., Europe, and Canada. nly very limited data are available on the emission impacts associated with the combustion of medical waste in MWGs. Especially lacking is information needed to fully evaluate the impacts on acid gas, dioxin, and metals emissions, as well as the design and operating requirements for complete destruction of solvents, cytotoxic chemicals, and pathogens. The EPA's Office of Air Quatity Planning and Standards is developing emission standards and guidelines for new and existing MWCs under Sections 111(b) and 111(d) of the Clean Air Act. In support of these regulatory development efforts, the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory in EPA's Office of Research and Development has conducted an assessment to examine the incineration of medical waste in MWGs from an emission standpoint. Potential worker safety and health problems associated with handling of medical wastes and residues were also identified. information

  18. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  19. Effect of vertical heterogeneities in a petrophysical evaluation of low resistivity pay zones, B sands, upper Eocene, Block III, Lake Maracaibo

    SciTech Connect

    Coll, C.; Cortiula, B.; Gonzalez, G.; Meza, E.; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Thin-bed reservoirs can exist as intercalations of thin porous beds and shales. For a proper petrophysical evaluation and geological characterization of this type of reservoir it is necessary to implement an integrated analysis, which includes knowledge of the depositional environment to avoid missing oil zones by applying standard petrophysical evaluations. The normal resistivity logs used on this area do not have enough vertical resolution for detecting thin low resistivity pay zones. Consequently, the common water saturation models indicate high water saturation when they are evaluated. The Middle Eocene Upper B sands are part of the Misoa Formation in Block III of Lake Maracaibo. They have been exploited since 1965 when the first production test was made. The cumulative oil production to date stands at 11.49 MMSTB. In order to supplement the existing geological information in this area, a continuous core was taken which showed the high degree of shales and thin sands intercalations in the pay zone. A careful core-log calibration was made and a new set of petrophysical parameters were established for this reservoir based on the core measurements. This allowed the establishment of a new petrophysical evaluation procedure that helps the calculation of permeability, hydrocarbon volume in place and productivity of this reservoir.

  20. Application of sequence stratigraphy in an integrated reservoir characterization of the Miocene Lower Lagunillas member in the further development of blocks III/IV, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Gamero De Villarroel, H.; Coll, C.M.; Jimenez, Z.; Lozada, T.; Leon, K.; Brandt, R.; Padron, R.; Rondon, L.; Maraven, S.A.; Gomez, E.; Munoz, M.A.; Ripple, R.A.; Luneau, B.A.

    1996-08-01

    An integrated sequence stratigraphic framework has been developed for the Lower Lagunillas and Laguna members of the Miocene Lagunillas Formation at Blocks III/IV, Lake Maracaibo. These reservoirs were discovered in the 1950s and have produced over 1132 MMBO. The Lower Lagunillas and Laguna had traditionally been interpreted as delta plain and coastal bar deposits, with each member consisting of 3 reservoir subdivisions developed as single drainage units. Subsequent engineering studies showed that this geologic model did not adequately address the heterogeneity of the reservoirs. Sedimentological interpretation of 8 cored wells led to the development of a new model which was further enhanced by integrating 210 well logs, 3D seismic data, petrophysical analysis, and production and pressure data. In this model the basal Lower Lagunillas is interpreted as a fluvially dominated upper delta plain. The upper part of the Lower Lagunillas and Laguna represents deposition in a tidally dominated lower delta plain and delta front environment. Fluctuations between tides and river floods were responsible for generating thick, very heterogeneous reservoirs. The new reservoir model provides the basis for additional development by the identification of (1) recompletion intervals, (2) low resistivity pay zones as potential targets for horizontal wells, and (3) infill drilling targets. Use of this predictive reservoir model will ensure the optimal exploitation and recovery of the remaining oil at Blocks III/IV.

  1. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.

  2. 75 FR 6199 - Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency and Midwest Municipal Transmission Group, Inc.; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency and Midwest Municipal Transmission Group, Inc.; Notice of Filing February 1, 2010. Take notice that on January 25, 2010, Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency and Midwest Municipal Transmission Group, Inc. (CMMPA/ MMTG) filed with...

  3. Baghdad Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-19

    SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SIGIR PA... Solid Waste Landfill 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Municipal Solid Waste Landfill , Baghdad, Iraq (Report Number SIGIR-PA-06-067) We are providing this project assessment report for your information

  4. [Nutritional and metabolic factors as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in an adult population in the city of Maracibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    García-Araujo, M; Semprún-Fereira, M; Sulbarán, T A; Silva, E; Calmón, G; Campos, G

    2001-03-01

    To analyze the nutritional and metabolic risk factors for Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) present in a group of people in the city of Maracaibo a study was performed with 209 volunteers (145 women and 64 men) between 20 and 89 years of age who underwent: a) Anthropometric Evaluation: Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Physical Examination: Systolic (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP); b) Dietetic Evaluation (24 hours recall), and c) Biochemical Evaluation: Glycemia (GLYC), Triglycerides (TG), Total Cholesterol (CHOL), HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C, applying enzymatic methods. It was also investigated, their Age, Family History of Metabolic Alterations (FHMA), physical activity, smoking habits and alcohol consumption. More than 50% of the individuals showed a BMI > 25; 64% of women showed a WHR value > 0.8; 34 and 28% of men and women respectively had a high fat ingestion (HFI); 36% of men had hypertriglyceridemia and high levels of VLDL-C; 41% of women and 30% of men showed decreased HDL-C. A high frequency of FHMA was found in 85% of women and 78% of men followed by sedentary life in 64% of men and 79% of women. The age significantly (p < 0.05) affected the values for WHR, SBP, DBP, GLYC, CHOL, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C. The dietetic evaluation showed a diet that was low in calories, high in protein, normal in fat and low in carbohydrates. It is concluded that the population elected for this study might be considered under a high risk for CVD, since both nutritional and metabolic factors, as well as the other risk factors analyzed, were present in a high percentage of the individuals studied.

  5. Composting of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the composting process, which is one of the technological options for the processing of municipal solid wastes (MSWs). The process assumes a great significance, particularly from the point of its economic viability, capability for recycling of nutrients and waste minimization with minimum environmental problems. A number of studies on various aspects of the composting process, including process control and monitoring parameters such as temperature, pH, moisture content, aeration, and porosity are reviewed. Salient observations on microbial properties of composting are described and details of vermicomposting, as well as a detailed analysis of patents on composting of MSW, are presented.

  6. Municipal solid waste gasification: Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, R.; Overend, R.P.; Chornet, E.; Craig, K.R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of the transparencies that were used during the presentation. Flowcharts are presented for processing options for municipal solid wastes and refuse derived fuels, and for the gasification of refuse derived fuels. Summaries are presented on gasification and gas conditioning goals, the history of MSW gasification, clean gas requirements for engines, and recent history of several gasification processes (Lurgi CFB, TPS CFB, Thermoselect pilot plant, and Proler pilot plant). Challenges are listed and a flowchart for a typical gasification/gas conditioning process is given.

  7. Ethanol from municipal cellulosic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. J., Jr.; Timbario, T. J.; Mulloney, J. A., Jr.

    This paper addresses the use of municipal cellulosic wastes as a feedstock for producing ethanol fuels, and describes the application of enzymatic hydrolysis technology for their production. The concept incorporates recent process technology developments within the framework of an existing industry familiar with large-scale ethanol fermentation (the brewing industry). Preliminary indications are that the cost of producing ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis in an existing plant with minimal facility modifications (low capital investment) can be significantly less than that of ethanol from grain fermentation.

  8. Lessons Learned: Community Solar for Municipal Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    2016-12-01

    This report outlines the work that STAT has completed, discusses the range of approaches utilities are taking, and highlights several challenges municipal utilities face in deciding whether and how to pursue community solar. As this report shows, there is no 'silver bullet' in terms of municipal utility community solar design or implementation - programs vary significantly and are highly dependent on localized contexts.

  9. 78 FR 67467 - Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... financial advisors to register with the and comply with regulations issued by the .'' \\4\\ \\2\\ See, e.g... transparency when engaging in transactions or investments with municipal advisors. \\8\\ See, e.g., MSRB Study... provide municipal advisory services, unless they are statutorily excluded.\\10\\ \\9\\ See 15 U.S.C....

  10. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  11. Municipal pleural cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Abente, G; Hernandez-Barrera, V; Pollan, M; Aragones, N; Perez-Gomez, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pleural cancer is a recognised indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality. Aims: To investigate the distribution of municipal mortality due to this tumour, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York, and Molliè. Methods: It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability that RR >1. Results: There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to municipalities where asbestos using industries once existed for many years, the prime example being the municipal pattern registered for Barcelona Province. The quality of mortality data, the suitability of the model used, and the usefulness of municipal atlases for environmental surveillance are discussed. PMID:15723885

  12. [Evaluation model for municipal health planning management].

    PubMed

    Berretta, Isabel Quint; Lacerda, Josimari Telino de; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

    2011-11-01

    This article presents an evaluation model for municipal health planning management. The basis was a methodological study using the health planning theoretical framework to construct the evaluation matrix, in addition to an understanding of the organization and functioning designed by the Planning System of the Unified National Health System (PlanejaSUS) and definition of responsibilities for the municipal level under the Health Management Pact. The indicators and measures were validated using the consensus technique with specialists in planning and evaluation. The applicability was tested in 271 municipalities (counties) in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, based on population size. The proposed model features two evaluative dimensions which reflect the municipal health administrator's commitment to planning: the guarantee of resources and the internal and external relations needed for developing the activities. The data were analyzed using indicators, sub-dimensions, and dimensions. The study concludes that the model is feasible and appropriate for evaluating municipal performance in health planning management.

  13. Biogasification of municipal solid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, L. F.; Savage, G. M.; Trezek, G. J.; Golueke, C. G.

    1981-06-01

    A series of experiments on the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal refuse was performed. The refuse fraction used in the study was one of the portions segregated in a resource recovery system developed at the University of California, Berkeley. The scale of experiments includes 4, 9, and 1600-L digesters. The refuse used as feed was enriched by the addition of raw sewage sludge in various ratios, i.e., from 0-100 percent of the total volatile solids. No other sources of nutrients or chemicals for pH control were introduced into the reactors. Organic loading rates ranging from 1.1-6.4 g of volatile solids/Ld were obtained. Typical hydraulic detention times were 15 to 30 days. Temperatures were kept within the range of 72-104 F (22-40 C). Digestion efficiency was based on energy conversion and gas production.

  14. East Bay Municipal Utility District Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The East Bay Municipal Utility District and its seven member communities own and operate a separate sanitary sewer system, which serves approximately 650,000 customers on the eastern side of San Francisco Bay in California.

  15. Functional Opportunities of the School Administration in Municipalities with Local Agencies and Free Municipality Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Efforts to achieve greater decentralization, deregulation, and management by objectives in the public sector have left an indelible mark on the school sector in Sweden during the 1980s. The experimental scheme of local agencies and free municipalities illustrates two such reforms. Under the free municipality experiment, a number of municipalities…

  16. Benchmarking in municipal solid waste recycling.

    PubMed

    Lavee, Doron; Khatib, Mahmood

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the recycling potential of municipalities in Israel, including population size and density, geographic location, current waste levels, and current waste management system. We employ a standard regression analysis in order to develop an econometric model to predict where potential for economically efficient recycling is highest. By applying this model to readily available data, it is possible to predict with close to 90% accuracy whether or not recycling will be economically efficient in any given municipality. Government agencies working to promote advanced waste management solutions have at their disposal only limited resources and budget, and so must concentrate their efforts where they will be most effective. The paper thus provides policy-makers with a powerful tool to help direct their efforts to promote recycling at those municipalities where it is indeed optimal.

  17. Municipal solid wastes and their disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, R

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the sources, characteristics, and toxic constituents of municipal solid wastes. Several methods are presented for handling, treating, and disposal of solid wastes. Monitoring the landfill site is necessary; there has been a trend to recognize that municipal solid wastes may be hazardous and to provide separate secure handling, treatment, and disposal for their dangerous constituents. Under current state and Federal regulations, permits are being required to assure that proper handling of conventional solid wastes and more hazardous constituents are carefully managed. PMID:738240

  18. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATION PROTOCOL FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents a generalized protocol for conducting a Toxicity Reduction evaluation (TRE) at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This protocol is designed to provide guidance to municipalities in preparing TRE plans, evaluating the information generated durin...

  12. 77 FR 59061 - Extension of Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... the temporary registration of municipal advisors under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Exchange... permanent registration of municipal advisors. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 63576 (December 20... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND...

  13. 75 FR 70759 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ...: Provide that each municipal securities broker, municipal securities dealer, and municipal advisor shall... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing...

  14. 40 CFR 40.115-4 - Municipality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.115-4 Municipality. (a) Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, a city, town... 208 of the act. (b) Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a city, town, borough, county... planning or administration of solid waste management, or an Indian tribe or authorized tribal...

  15. 40 CFR 40.115-4 - Municipality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.115-4 Municipality. (a) Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, a city, town... 208 of the act. (b) Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a city, town, borough, county... planning or administration of solid waste management, or an Indian tribe or authorized tribal...

  16. 40 CFR 40.115-4 - Municipality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.115-4 Municipality. (a) Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, a city, town... 208 of the act. (b) Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a city, town, borough, county... planning or administration of solid waste management, or an Indian tribe or authorized tribal...

  17. 40 CFR 40.115-4 - Municipality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.115-4 Municipality. (a) Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, a city, town... 208 of the act. (b) Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a city, town, borough, county... planning or administration of solid waste management, or an Indian tribe or authorized tribal...

  18. 40 CFR 40.115-4 - Municipality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.115-4 Municipality. (a) Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, a city, town... 208 of the act. (b) Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a city, town, borough, county... planning or administration of solid waste management, or an Indian tribe or authorized tribal...

  19. Municipal Finance: The Duke Law Journal Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

    This special issue addresses many of the more salient aspects of municipal finance. Colin Blaydon and Steven Gilford survey a number of social and economic issues that lie at the heart of any attempt to deal meaningfully with the current urban crisis. Donna Shalala and Carol Bellamy focus on the state's attempts to meet the financial emergency…

  20. Hydrothermal carbonization of municipal waste streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that can be used to convert municipal waste streams into sterilized, value-added hydrochar. HTC has been mostly applied and studied on a limited number of feedstocks, ranging from pure substances to slightly more complex biomass ...

  1. 76 FR 823 - Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    .... To help the Commission process and review your comments more efficiently, please use only one method... Public Reference Room, 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC 20549, on official business days between the... advisors.'' \\9\\ Research also suggests that participation by municipal advisory firms in the issuance...

  2. CP corrosion control of municipal infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    Since its introduction in 1824, cathodic protection (CP) technology has developed to become a fundamental tool for preventing corrosion on municipal infrastructure. Potable water storage tanks and piping, prestressed concrete cylinder pipe, reinforced concrete structures, bridges, parking structures, underground fuel tanks, and effluent treatment clarifiers now benefit from this technology.

  3. Chlorine Disinfection of Blended Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to manage wet weather events when the influx of storm water to municipal treatment facilities could compromise the hydraulic capacity of the facility’s biological treatment system. To prevent this, wastewater is treated thro...

  4. Municipal Theater of Lima: Reconstruction after fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Jorge; Segami, Mario; Ferrari, Jose; Moscoso, Richard A.

    2002-11-01

    The Municipal Theater of Lima was inaugurated on 28 July 1920 as the Forero Theater and was acquired by the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima in 1929. On 2 August 1998 it was partially destroyed by fire. The damage to the audience area was minimal, allowing complete restoration. However, the stage was destroyed, which required a complete reconstruction. The Municipality of Lima launched a project competition for its reconstruction and restoration the results of which were known in 2001. One of the objectives was the correction of well-known acoustical defects, which had been never solved. The results of computer simulations of the original theater with a commercially available ray-tracing-type computer program will be presented, showing its acoustical evaluation and available options to correct the acoustical defects. The acquisition of five lots around the theater site will allow increases in the fly tower, the dressing rooms, the pit, and the shops. There are plans for the modernization of the technical and mechanical services, the accesses, the air-conditioning system, and security as well. These modifications will allow all types of presentations of contemporary arts. Retaking its position as first in the national scene, the Municipal Theater will be able to house sophisticated national and international performances.

  5. Ecologically based municipal land use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Honachefsky, W.B.

    2000-07-01

    The book presents compelling evidence and sound arguments that make the case for sound land use policies that will reduce sprawl. The book provides easily understood solutions for municipal land planners dealing with urban sprawl; discusses ecological resources; emphasizes the use of new environmental indicators; and includes the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) to problem solving.

  6. Tapping Resources in Municipal Solid Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal is becoming complex as costs, wastes, and environmental restrictions increase. Recovery and recycling of materials presents problems of financing, ownership, and operation, technology, and marketing. Energy and materials recovery offers long-term economic and environmental incentives in terms of growing shortages and…

  7. Development of Microbial Assays for Municipal Sludge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following a review of the Federal regulations and the supporting science for land application of municipal sludge, The National Research Council (NRC) recommended that the analytical methods used for determining the density of microorganisms in biosolids be validated by multi-lab...

  8. Municipal Underbounding: Annexation and Racial Exclusion in Small Southern Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Parisi, Domenico; Grice, Steven Michael; Taquino, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines patterns of annexation, including municipal "underbounding," in nonmetropolitan towns in the South; that is, whether blacks living adjacent to municipalities are systematically excluded from incorporation. Annexation--or the lack of annexation--can be a political tool used by municipal leaders to exclude disadvantaged or…

  9. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  10. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, O. O.

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  11. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  12. Sensor placement for municipal water networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Jean-Paul; Berry, Jonathan W.; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Boman, Erik Gunnar; Hart, David Blaine; Carr, Robert D.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Hart, William Eugene; Murray, Regan Elizabeth; Riesen, Lee Ann

    2010-12-01

    We consider the problem of placing a limited number of sensors in a municipal water distribution network to minimize the impact over a given suite of contamination incidents. In its simplest form, the sensor placement problem is a p-median problem that has structure extremely amenable to exact and heuristic solution methods. We describe the solution of real-world instances using integer programming or local search or a Lagrangian method. The Lagrangian method is necessary for solution of large problems on small PCs. We summarize a number of other heuristic methods for effectively addressing issues such as sensor failures, tuning sensors based on local water quality variability, and problem size/approximation quality tradeoffs. These algorithms are incorporated into the TEVA-SPOT toolkit, a software suite that the US Environmental Protection Agency has used and is using to design contamination warning systems for US municipal water systems.

  13. Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze; Coruh, Semra; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental problem in Turkey, as in many developing countries. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient collection and transportation and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, primitive disposal methods such as open dumping and discharge into surface water have been used in various parts of Turkey. This study presents a brief history of the legislative trends in Turkey for MSW management. The study also presents the MSW responsibility and management structure together with the present situation of generation, composition, recycling, and treatment. The results show that approximately 25 million ton of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. About 77% of the population receives MSW services. In spite of efforts to change open dumping areas into sanitary landfills and to build modern recycling and composting facilities, Turkey still has over 2000 open dumps.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Nemerow, N.L.; Farooq, S.; Daly, E.L. Jr.; Sengupta, S.; Gerrish, H.P.; Wong, K.F.

    1981-03-01

    A demonstration anaerobic digestion plant has been installed at Pompano Beach, Florida, capable of treating 100 tons per day of municipal solid waste. The suitability of this process and its environmental effects at a full scale operation level is being examined. The study presented and discussed in this paper had as its main objective the characterization of various waste streams and an assessment of their environmental effects if discharged into the environment.

  15. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents.

  16. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: a shared input DEA-model.

    PubMed

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-10-01

    This paper proposed an adjusted "shared-input" version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

  17. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Nemerow, N.L.; Farooq, S.; Daly, E.L.Jr.; Sengupta, S.; Gerrish, H.P.; Wong, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Filtrate from an anaerobic municipal waste digestion plant at Pompano Beach, Florida, has BOD, COD, and total organic C contents of 1075, 6855, and 1655 mg/L, respectively. The treatment does not inactivate total coliforms; that of the digester slurry and filtrate are 2.3 X 10 to the power of 6 and 1.7 X 10 to the power of 6/100 mL, respectively. The average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn in the filtrate are 0.48, 1.29, 7.29, 32, 0.35, and 11 mg/L, respectively. The filtrate requires treatment prior to discharge.

  19. Endemic giardiasis and municipal water supply.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, G G; Cooke, K R

    1991-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that endemic giardiasis may be transmitted by unfiltered municipal water supplies, the incidence of laboratory-confirmed giardiasis was studied in a natural experiment due to the arrangement of the public water supply of Dunedin, New Zealand. The incidence rate ratio was 3.3 (90% CI = 1.1, 10.1) for the population receiving unfiltered (microstrained) water relative to that using sand filtered water. In a parallel case-control study of incident cases, the odds ratio for giardiasis and unfiltered (microstrained) water supply was 1.8 (90% CI = 0.5, 6.9). PMID:2029049

  20. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  1. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  2. Policy for municipality and municipal solid waste CERCLA settlements at NPL co-disposal sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, S.A.

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this policy is to provide a fair, consistent, and efficient settlement methodology for resolving the potential liability under CERCLA of generators and transporters of municipal sewage sludge and/or municipal solid waste at co-disposal landfills on the National Priorities List (NPL), and municipal owners and operators of such sites. This policy is intended to reduce transaction costs, including those associated with third-party litigation, and to encourage global settlements at sites.

  3. Estimation of municipal solid waste landfill settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, H.I.; Leshchinsky, D.; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Kawabata, Toshinori

    1998-01-01

    The municipal solid waste landfill suffers from large postclosure settlement that occurs over an extended period of time. A large differential settlement may impair foundations, utilities, and other associated facilities constructed on top of a landfill. It may also lead to breakage of the geomembrane and damage of the cover system in a modern municipal solid waste landfill. The waste material exhibits heterogeneous engineering properties that vary over locations and time within a landfill. These factors, combined with the fact that a landfill is not fully saturated, render a traditional soil mechanics approach less attractive for settlement prediction. An empirical approach of expressing settlement rate using logarithmic and power relationships is commonly used in conjunction with an observational procedure. In this paper, validity of these functions is reexamined based on published settlement results from three landfill sites. A hyperbolic function is proposed as an improved tool to simulate the settlement-time relationships, as well as to detect final settlement. The relationships between the parameters of these empirical functions and water content are examined.

  4. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato . E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

    2006-07-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  5. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul

    SciTech Connect

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-08-15

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

  6. Methane emission during municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Daelman, Matthijs R J; van Voorthuizen, Ellen M; van Dongen, Udo G J M; Volcke, Eveline I P; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2012-07-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants emit methane. Since methane is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change, the abatement of the emission is necessary to achieve a more sustainable urban water management. This requires thorough knowledge of the amount of methane that is emitted from a plant, but also of the possible sources and sinks of methane on the plant. In this study, the methane emission from a full-scale municipal wastewater facility with sludge digestion was evaluated during one year. At this plant the contribution of methane emissions to the greenhouse gas footprint were slightly higher than the CO₂ emissions related to direct and indirect fossil fuel consumption for energy requirements. By setting up mass balances over the different unit processes, it could be established that three quarters of the total methane emission originated from the anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. This amount exceeded the carbon dioxide emission that was avoided by utilizing the biogas. About 80% of the methane entering the activated sludge reactor was biologically oxidized. This knowledge led to the identification of possible measures for the abatement of the methane emission.

  7. Synchronous municipal sewerage-sludge stabilization.

    PubMed

    Bukuru, Godefroid; Jian, Yang

    2005-01-01

    A study on a pilot plant accomplishing synchronous municipal sewerage-sludge stabilization was conducted at a municipal sewerage treatment plant. Stabilization of sewerage and sludge is achieved in three-step process: anaerobic reactor, roughing filter and a microbial-earthworm-ecofilter. The integrated ecofilter utilizes an artificial ecosystem to degrade and stabilize the sewerage and sludge. When the hydraulic retention time(HRT) of the anaerobic reactor is 6 h, the hydraulic load(HL) of the bio-filter is 16 m3/(m2 x d), the HL of the eco-filter is 5 m3/(m2 x d), the recycle ratio of nitrified liquor is 1.5, the removal efficiency is 83%-89% for COD(Cr), 94%-96% for BOD5, 96%-98% for SS, and 76%-95% for NH3-N. The whole system realizes the zero emission of sludge, and has the characteristics of saving energy consumption and operational costs.

  8. Hydrothermal carbonization of municipal waste streams.

    PubMed

    Berge, Nicole D; Ro, Kyoung S; Mao, Jingdong; Flora, Joseph R V; Chappell, Mark A; Bae, Sunyoung

    2011-07-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that can be used to convert municipal waste streams into sterilized, value-added hydrochar. HTC has been mostly applied and studied on a limited number of feedstocks, ranging from pure substances to slightly more complex biomass such as wood, with an emphasis on nanostructure generation. There has been little work exploring the carbonization of complex waste streams or of utilizing HTC as a sustainable waste management technique. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the environmental implications associated with the carbonization of representative municipal waste streams (including gas and liquid products), to evaluate the physical, chemical, and thermal properties of the produced hydrochar, and to determine carbonization energetics associated with each waste stream. Results from batch carbonization experiments indicate 49-75% of the initially present carbon is retained within the char, while 20-37% and 2-11% of the carbon is transferred to the liquid- and gas-phases, respectively. The composition of the produced hydrochar suggests both dehydration and decarboxylation occur during carbonization, resulting in structures with high aromaticities. Process energetics suggest feedstock carbonization is exothermic.

  9. [Integration activities of a central municipal hospital].

    PubMed

    Shchepin, O P; Tregubov, Iu G; Rytvĭnskiĭ, S S; Parkhachev, V F

    2001-01-01

    Scientifically-based integration of therapeutic and prophylactic institutions is needed for better meeting the population requirement of medical care, and it is desirable to unite the financial resources and personnel; such is the objective reality for municipal therapeutic and prophylactic institutions of local public health systems. In order to make medical care available for the population and to ensure its high quality, structural changes in the public health of a region are needed. These changes include integration of medical services of these territories; creation of a network of therapeutic and prophylactic institutions corresponding to medical demographic structure of population, so that the scope of medical care be increased and specialized care made easier available for the population; and creation of the optimal managing system. Comparative studies of population health and its time course, public health organization at neighboring territories, where therapeutic and prophylactic institutions, such as Central Municipal Hospital and Central Regional Hospital have autonomous managing and financing, confirmed the need in integration of public health units functioning at a certain territory into a universal system, and in development of approaches to overcome the present-day miscellaneous network by integrating the activities of treatment-and-prophylaxis institutions. Identical economic, geographic, and macroeconomic living conditions of the population, similarity of medical demographic structure and similar changes in it, as well as similar morbidity structure, are sufficient grounds for integration of public health services.

  10. Production of hydrogen from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) includes gasification and the process for producing a gasificable slurry from raw MSW by using high pressures of steam. A potential energy source, MSW is a composite of organic materials such as: paper, wood, food waste, etc. There are different paper grades producing different results with low-quality paper forming better slurries than high-quality papers; making MSW a difficult feedstock for gasification. The objective of the bench-scale laboratory work has been to establish operating conditions for a hydrothermal pre-processing scheme for municipal solid waste (MSW) that produces a good slurry product that can be pumped and atomized to the gasifier for the production of hydrogen. Batch reactors are used to determine product yields as a function of hydrothermal treatment conditions. Various ratios of water-to-paper were used to find out solid product, gas product, and soluble product yields of MSW. Experimental conditions covered were temperature, time, and water to feed ratio. Temperature had the strongest effect on product yields.

  11. 75 FR 4126 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Order Approving Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Municipal Securities Business) and Rule G-8 (Books and Records To Be Made by Brokers, Dealers and Municipal... business) and Rule G-8 (books and records to be made by brokers, dealers and municipal securities...

  12. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water supplies. In addition, certain commonly used water treatment chemicals have the potential for... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a)...

  17. 75 FR 33099 - Amendment to Municipal Securities Disclosure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...The Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'' or ``SEC'') is adopting amendments to Rule 15c2-12 (``Rule 15c2-12'' or ``Rule'') under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Exchange Act'') relating to municipal securities disclosure. The amendments revise certain requirements regarding the information that a broker, dealer, or municipal securities dealer acting as an underwriter in a......

  18. 77 FR 47061 - American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 30, 2012, American Municipal Power, Inc. filed a Proposed Revenue Requirement for reactive supply...

  19. 77 FR 61595 - Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing October 2, 2012. Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Northern Illinois Municipal Power filed its Revised and...

  20. 77 FR 47062 - Kentucky Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kentucky Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 30, 2012, Kentucky Municipal Power Agency filed a Proposed Revenue Requirement for reactive...

  1. 77 FR 61596 - American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on October 1, 2012, American Municipal Power, Inc. filed its Revised and Superseding Proposed...

  2. 77 FR 47060 - Indiana Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Indiana Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 30, 2012, Indiana Municipal Power Agency filed a Proposed Revenue Requirement for reactive supply...

  3. 77 FR 61594 - Indiana Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Indiana Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Filing Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Indiana Municipal Power Agency filed its Revised and Superseding Proposed...

  4. 77 FR 61595 - Kentucky Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kentucky Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Filing Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Kentucky Municipal Power Agency filed its Revised and Superseding Proposed...

  5. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  6. 77 FR 47060 - Illinois Municipal Electric Agency; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Illinois Municipal Electric Agency; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 30, 2012, Illinois Municipal Electric Agency filed a Proposed Revenue Requirement for...

  7. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorization to protect municipal water supplies, the authorized forest officer shall specify the types of uses... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of Municipal Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorization to protect municipal water supplies, the authorized forest officer shall specify the types of uses... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Management of Municipal Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorization to protect municipal water supplies, the authorized forest officer shall specify the types of uses... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Management of Municipal Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. The Economic Relationships between Institutions of Higher Education and Municipalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dale H.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between municipal government and a local, private, nonprofit institution of higher education (IHE) can be characterized as a delicate balance between conflict and cooperation. In recent years as municipal expenses have significantly increased, revenue generated from tax collection and state aid has lagged, creating an increasing…

  11. Municipal Overburden. State-of-the-Knowledge Series, No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, LeRoy J.

    The discrepancy between a city's financial obligations and its fiscal capacity to meet those obligations with reasonable effort is referred to in this paper as "municipal overburden." The literature concerning the causes and the impact of municipal overburden on school support for essential school services is analyzed. Attempted…

  12. Apparatus for processing municipal solid waste and sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Harendza-harinxma, A. J.

    1980-08-12

    Sewage sludge and municipal solid waste are simultaneously processed by first dissolving a catalyst, such as sodium aluminate, in the sludge, then mixing the sludge-aluminate mixture with the municipal waste to form a carbonizing mixture. After dewatering and drying, the mixture is carbonized in a furnace heated by a mixture of city gas and pyrolysis gases given off by the furnace.

  13. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, FROM PARK AND MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, FROM PARK AND MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, ALONG 20TH STREET NORTH TOWARDS THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH BIRMINGHAM MUSEUM OF ART (BOTTOM LEFT), BIRMINGHAM MUNICIPAL AUDITORIUM (BOTTOM RIGHT), BIRMINGHAM CITY HALL (CENTER RIGHT), JEFFERSON COUNTY COURTHOUSE (CENTER LEFT) AND LINN PARK (CENTER) - Linn Park, Bounded by Park Place, Eighth Avenue, Short Twentieth & Twenty-first Streets, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 76 FR 80733 - Extension of Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... provides for the temporary registration of municipal advisors under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934... rules for the permanent registration of municipal advisors. See Securities Exchange Act Release No... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND...

  15. [Bayesian rates for homicide mapping in Brazilian municipalities].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alexandre Xavier Ywata de; Silva, Gabriela Drummond Marques da; Almeida Júnior, Gilberto Rezende de; Albuquerque, Pedro Henrique Melo de

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes homicide incidence per municipality (county) in Brazil in the year 2008. The authors estimate and compare homicide rates according to different methods, finding evidence that depending on the method employed, the results can differ significantly, especially for small municipalities. Bayesian spatial procedures were employed, allowing minimization of variation in the rate estimates. The methods consider a priori distributions and information on contiguity of municipalities. According to the findings, the impact of corrective procedures is not relevant for large municipalities, but such estimates present significant differences for small municipalities. Comparing the different estimates, the authors conclude that there may be distortions in the rates published in the literature. To overcome such potential distortions, it is necessary to take the main goal in each analysis into account. When the emphasis is on overall visualization of the homicide phenomenon, the best option is spatial corrections. However, to obtain more accurate local estimates, Bayesian methods are more appropriate.

  16. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  17. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  18. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  19. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  20. 33 CFR 151.1009 - Transportation of municipal or commercial waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste §...

  1. Co-combusting municipal and wastewater solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kunio Nojuchi )

    1992-12-01

    In the face of difficulties securing adequate landfill sites, Kyoto City, Japan, built an incineration system to co-combust its municipal refuse and wastewater solids. The system consists of two plants: the Ishida Wastewater Treatment Plant and the Higashi Incineration Plant (see Diagram). The merits of the co-combustion system lie in the heat content of the solids. The Higashi plant's design incineration capacity is 400 Mg/d, which can produce 135,456 kWh/d. Sixty-two percent of the steam produced by solids incineration is used for electrical power generation at Higashi and 25% is used at Ishida. The power supplied to Ishida meets 92% of the electrical consumption needs of the plant, of which 16% is used to dry and dewater solids.

  2. Optimum municipal solid waste collection using geographical information system (GIS) and vehicle tracking for Pallavapuram municipality.

    PubMed

    Kanchanabhan, T E; Abbas Mohaideen, J; Srinivasan, S; Sundaram, V Lenin Kalyana

    2011-03-01

    Waste collection and transportation is the contact point between waste generators and waste management systems. A proposal for an innovative model for the collection and transportation of municipal solid waste (MSW) which is a part of a solid waste management system using a spatial geo database, integrated in a geographical information system (GIS) environment is presented. Pallavapuram is a fast-developing municipality of Chennai city in the southern suburbs about 20 km from Chennai, the state capital of Tamil Nadu in India. The disposal of MSW was previously occurring in an indiscriminate and irrational manner in the municipality. Hence in the present study an attempt was made to develop an engineered design of solid waste collection using GIS with a vehicle tracking system and final disposal by composting with investment costs. The GIS was used to analyse existing maps and data, to digitize the existing ward boundaries and to enter data about the wards and disposal sites. The proposed GIS model for solid waste disposal would give information on the planning of bins, vehicles and the optimal route. In the case of disposal, composting would be a successful strategy to accelerate the decomposition and stabilization of the biodegradable components of waste in MSW.

  3. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    SciTech Connect

    Gangolells, Marta Casals, Miquel Forcada, Núria Macarulla, Marcel

    2014-01-15

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  4. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model

    SciTech Connect

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted 'shared-input' version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

  5. Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil

  6. 40 CFR 60.54b - Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combustor unit; (3) Procedures for receiving, handling, and feeding municipal solid waste; (4) Municipal... proper combustion air supply levels; (6) Procedures for operating the municipal waste combustor unit...) Procedures for handling ash; (10) Procedures for monitoring municipal waste combustor unit emissions; and...

  7. 40 CFR 60.54b - Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustor unit; (3) Procedures for receiving, handling, and feeding municipal solid waste; (4) Municipal... proper combustion air supply levels; (6) Procedures for operating the municipal waste combustor unit...) Procedures for handling ash; (10) Procedures for monitoring municipal waste combustor unit emissions; and...

  8. 76 FR 48197 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... connection with municipal financial products or the issuance of municipal securities; or (B) an investment... investment advisory services to or on behalf of such municipal entity. (C) providing research or analytical... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

  9. 75 FR 70756 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... advisors with respect to municipal financial products, the issuance of municipal securities, and... municipal advisors play a key role in the structuring of offerings of municipal securities and the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND...

  10. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Municipal Demolition Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memos about the Asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants provide clarification on demolition concerns such as the definition of a facility, and the applicability of asbestos NESHAP to structures demolished by municipal entities.

  11. SMUDGEO #1, Sacramento Municipal Utility District First Geothermal Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Keilman, Lee R.

    1980-12-01

    This description of the SMUDGEO No.1 geothermal power plant of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) and its associated well field development has been prepared to acquaint persons with the project.

  12. Modeling environmental loading rates of municipal wastewater contaminants: steroidal estrogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estrogenic compounds in municipal wastewater are of substantial interest because of suspicion that they may cause reproductive disruption in aquatic invertebrates, and because of their potential to contaminate human drinking water sources. Previous work suggests the primary contr...

  13. Green Infrastructure Opportunities that Arise During Municipal Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides approaches that local government officials and municipal program managers in small to midsize communities can use to incorporate green infrastructure components into work they are doing in public spaces.

  14. 132. MAP OF MUNICIPAL WATER PIPES SUPPLIED BY FAIRMOUNT WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. MAP OF MUNICIPAL WATER PIPES SUPPLIED BY FAIRMOUNT WATER WORKS, From Annual Report of 1851, Water Department of Philadelphia - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site, located on the western edge of Milford, New Hampshire, consists of a source area and an extended plume that is approximately 6,000 feet long and 2,500 feet wide.

  16. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: COMBUSTION CONTROL AT EXISTING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides the supporting data and rationale used to establish baseline emission levels for model plants that represent portions of the planned and projected population of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The baseline emissions represent performance levels that are exp...

  17. Bacterial antibiotic resistance in soils irrigated with reclaimed municipal wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation and groundwater recharge is an increasingly attractive option for extending water supplies. However, public health concerns include the potential for development of antibiotic resistance (AR) in soil bacteria after exposure to residual chemicals in rec...

  18. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management.

    PubMed

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2016-02-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems, etc. This paper compares municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in various EU countries to identify the characteristics and key issues from a waste management and reverse logistics point of view. Further, we investigate literature on modelling municipal solid waste logistics in general. Comparing issues addressed in literature with the identified issues in practice result in a research agenda for modelling municipal solid waste logistics in Europe. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be considered at different decision levels simultaneously. A holistic view and taking into account the characteristics of different waste types are necessary when modelling a reverse supply chain for MSW recycling.

  19. NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the key design and operating parameters, commercial status, demonstrated performance, and cost of three technologies available for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), and identifies technology research and developme...

  20. 12. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riveside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riveside Municipal Museum, Historical Resources Department), photographer and date unknown. TENTING OF CITRUS TREES AT NIGHT - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  1. 31. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, Historical Resources Department), photographer unknown, ca. 1900-1910. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF UNKNOWN PACKING HOUSE - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  2. 8. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, Historical Resources Department), photographer unknown, ca. 1916. VIEW OF VICTORIA AVENUE FROM COUNTRY CLUB PARK - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  3. 20. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, Historical Resources Department), S.P. Tresslar, photographer and date unknown. EARLY VIEW OF UNLINED GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL. - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  4. 32. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, Historical Resources Department), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF EARLY ROPE AND ROLL PONY SIZER - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  5. 7. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, Historical Resources Department), photographer and date unknown. VIEW OF VICTORIA AVENUE NEAR MYRTLE STREET - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  6. Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial Pilot Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031827, the Crow Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from the Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial (MR&I) Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Bighorn County, Montana to the Bighorn River.

  7. Coastal Stormwater Management Through Green Infrastructure Handbook for Municipalities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This handbook is designed to assist municipalities within the Massachusetts Bay and Cape Cod Bay areas to incorporate green infrastructure into their stormwater management planning. It can also be readily applied to other states.

  8. Coastal Stormwater Management Through Green Infrastructure: A Handbook for Municipalities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The handbook is designed to assist municipalities within the Massachusetts Bay and Cape Cod Bay areas to incorporate green infrastructure into their stormwater management planning. It can also be readily applied to other states.

  9. Implementing District Energy Systems: Municipal Approaches To Overcoming Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Kevin George

    Climate change and energy security are issues facing municipalities throughout the world. Efficient, resilient, sustainable, community-based energy systems, such as district energy systems (DES), fuelled mostly by renewables, are an important tool for addressing both climate change and energy security at the municipal level. In spite of their benefits, DES are not widely adopted in Canada (CDEA, 2011). This is due to the complex nature of the barriers which project proponents face. This thesis examines the experience of the City of Prince George in adopting and implementing the Downtown DES. Using a case study methodology, data was collected through a review of relevant municipal documents and a series of semi-structured, open-ended interviews. A thematic analysis revealed unexpected barriers related to lack of adequate public consultation and negative perceptions regarding biomass as a fuel for the DES. These `lessons learned' were then developed into recommendations for other municipalities considering DES.

  10. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA guidance on land treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater is updated for the first time since 1984. The significant new technilogical changes include phytoremediation, vadose zone monitoring, new design approaches to surface irrigation, center pivot irrigation,...

  11. Moisture Effects on Nitrogen Availability in Municipal Biosolids from End-of-Life Municipal Lagoons.

    PubMed

    Jeke, Nicholson N; Zvomuya, Francis; Ross, Lisette

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability affects plant biomass yield and, hence, phytoextraction of contaminants during phytoremediation of end-of-life municipal lagoons. End-of-life lagoons are characterized by fluctuating moisture conditions, but the effects on biosolid N dynamics have not been adequately characterized. This 130-d laboratory incubation investigated effects of three moisture levels (30, 60, and 90% water-filled pore space [WFPS]) on N mineralization (N) in biosolids from a primary (PB) and a secondary (SB) municipal lagoon cell. Results showed a net increase in N with time at 60% WFPS and a net decrease at 90% WFPS in PB, while N at 30% WFPS did not change significantly. Moisture level and incubation time had no significant effect on N in SB. Nitrogen mineralization rate in PB followed three-half-order kinetics. Potentially mineralizable N (N) in PB was significantly greater at 60% WFPS (222 mg kg) than at 30% WFPS (30 mg kg), but rate constants did not differ significantly between the moisture levels. Nitrogen mineralization in SB followed first-order kinetics, with N significantly greater at 60% WFPS (68.4 mg kg) and 90% WFPS (94.1 mg kg) than at 30% WFPS (32 mg kg). Low N in SB suggests high-N-demanding plants may eventually have limited effectiveness to remediate biosolids in the secondary cell. While high N in PB would provide sufficient N to support high biomass yield, phytoextraction potential is reduced under dry and near-saturated conditions. These results have important implications on the management of moisture during phytoextraction of contaminants in end-of-life municipal lagoons.

  12. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Elena Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  13. Report to Congress: Municipal Wastewater Lagoon Study. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Municipal Wastewater Lagoon Study performed by the USEPA in response to Section 3018 of RCRA and Sec. 246 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste amendments of 1984. The objectives are to determine: number and size of municipal lagoons; types and quantities of waste contained in such lagoons; the extent to which such waste has been or may be released from such lagoons and contaminates ground water; and available alternatives for preventing or controlling such releases.

  14. Surfactant toxicity identification with a municipal wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, J.R.; Wayment, D.D.

    1998-12-31

    An acute toxicity identification evaluation following US EPA guidelines was performed with a municipal wastewater to identify effluent components responsible for lethality of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Ammonia toxicity, also present in the effluent, was not the object of this study. The study was designed to characterize effluent toxicity not due to ammonia. To minimize ammonia toxicity interferences, all Phase 1 testing was performed at pH`s where ammonia toxicity would be negligible. Phase 1 toxicity characterization results indicated surfactants as the class of compounds causing acute non-ammonia toxicity for both test species. A distinct toxicant characteristic, specifically sublation at alkaline pH, was employed to track suspect surfactant loadings in the collection system. Concurrently, effluent surfactant residue testing determined nonionic surfactants were at adequate concentrations and were sufficiently toxic to cause the measured adverse effects. Influent surfactant toxicity was determined to be much less than in the final effluent indicating the treatment process was enhancing surfactant toxicity.

  15. Municipal waste landfill permitting in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Mentzer, G.F.

    1996-11-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has 50 permitted municipal waste landfills (MWL) with calculated capacities ranging from 0.5 to 25.3 million tons. The most common size for our landfills is in the range of 3 to 5 million tons, with three landfills exceeding the 20+ million ton capacity. Future expansion projects will increase a few landfills to in excess of 35+ million tons. Exact VOC emission numbers are not available since not all landfills have or are required to report their emissions to the Pennsylvania air emissions database. However, estimates from several of our larger facilities indicates the uncontrolled VOC emissions are in the range of 250 to 350 TPY with a possible high of 580 TPY. Although the numbers are not exact, it does point out the fact that landfills are a major source of VOC emissions. With the advent of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) proposed New Source Performance Standards (Subpart WWW) and emissions guidance (Subpart Cc), the EPA declared that the MWL are a source of air pollution. Following the release of these proposed regulations, the Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Air Quality began in mid 1994 the task of permitting landfills. Through the use of customized forms G(A) and G(B), the Department made in 1995 its first attempt to identify and quantify emissions from its landfills. The process of quantifying and verifying emission estimates is still on going. To date, the Department is in various stages of permitting eight MWL.

  16. Energy content of municipal solid waste bales.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, Ismail; Durmusoglu, Ertan

    2013-07-01

    Baling technology is a preferred method for temporary storage of municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to final disposal. If incineration is intended for final disposal of the bales, the energy content of the baled MSW gains importance. In this study, nine cylindrical bales containing a mix of different waste materials were constructed and several parameters, including total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, moisture content, loss on ignition, gross calorific value and net calorific value (NCV) were determined before the baling and at the end of 10 months of storage. In addition, the relationships between the waste materials and the energy contents of the bales were investigated by the bivariate correlation analyses. At the end, linear regression models were developed in order to forecast the decrease of energy content during storage. While the NCVs of the waste materials before the baling ranged between 6.2 and 23.7 MJ kg(-1) dry basis, they ranged from 1.0 to 16.4 MJ kg(-1) dry basis at the end of the storage period. Moreover, food wastes exhibited the highest negative correlation with NCVs, whereas plastics have significant positive correlation with both NCVs and TCs. Similarly, TOCs and carbon/nitrogen ratios decreased with the increase in food amounts inside the bales. In addition, textile, wood and yard wastes increase the energy content of the bales slightly over the storage period.

  17. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-12-15

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  18. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-shan; Yang, Lei; Qu, Xiao-Yan; Sui, Yu-mei

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km(2) with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

  19. Unsaturated flow parameters of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Zheng, Qi-Teng; Chen, H X

    2017-01-24

    Leachate pollution/recirculation and landfill gas emission are the major environmental concerns in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. A good understanding and prediction of MSW unsaturated properties are critical for the design of piping systems and the control of these problems within landfills. This paper reviews the recent studies of unsaturated properties of MSW, including experimental methods, theoretical models and corresponding model parameters. For experimental methods, the sample size is a common and significant limitation and large test apparatuses (e.g., >80cm in diameter) are generally required and valuable. The theoretical models for MSW also have some limitations due to the changes in waste composition and particle size distribution caused by biodegradation. Thus, the available data of intrinsic permeabilities, water retention curves, relative permeabilities and anisotropy of MSW were summarized to investigate the influences of porosity, waste composition and particle size distribution. A series of estimation methods were subsequently proposed to determine the parameters of water retention curve like θLm, θLr, nv and α. The other parameters such as the pore connectivity term (l) and the degree of anisotropy (k) were significantly lacking data, thus only their relationships with porosity were proposed. The results show that it is possible to define the second order effects caused by variations in porosity, waste composition and particle size distribution. However, the estimation methods still need more experimental data for improvement, especially their dependence on waste composition and particle size distribution.

  20. Health in All Policies utilization by municipal governments: scoping review.

    PubMed

    Van Vliet-Brown, Cheryl E; Shahram, Sana; Oelke, Nelly D

    2017-03-14

    The aim of this scoping review was to examine the utilization of a Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach in municipal government settings. Specific objectives included: to review peer reviewed and grey literature, to identify common themes from the literature, and to highlight gaps in the evidence base for HiAP. An iterative scoping review method was used. Documents were identified through searches of academic databases, reference lists and journal indices, and the World Wide Web. Included documents focused on HiAP in the local or municipal government context, published in English, between 2006 and 2015. Data were extracted and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a narrative thematic method. As of June 2015, 26 documents met the inclusion criteria. A lack of research studies examining HiAP in the municipal government context was identified. Three broad themes were abstracted from analysis of the documents: the conceptualization of HiAP, the adoption of HiAP, and the implementation of HiAP. The focus on a HiAP approach at the municipal level of government is growing. A majority of the existing documents provide narrative evidence and recommendations for implementing a HiAP approach at the municipal level. Research is needed in the areas of conceptualization, implementation, adoption and evaluation of a HiAP approach in municipal settings.

  1. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Kadapa Town: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Sumithra, S; Sunitha, V; Nagaraju, G

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a worldwide phenomenon. It is a big challenge all over the world for human beings. The problem of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is also prevailing in the environment of Kadapa town in India. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to find out the problems and prospects of municipal solid waste in Kadapa town. A detailed investigation was made regarding the methods of practices associated with sources, quantity generated, collection, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste in the study area. The data related to SWM in the study area was obtained through questionnaire, individual field visits, interaction with people and authentic record of municipal corporation. Status of the MSW in Kadapa town was studied. The results indicated that the major constituents of municipal solid waste were organic in nature and approximately one fourth of municipal solid waste was recyclable. Detailed data on solid waste management practices, including collection, recovery and disposal method, has been presented in this paper.

  2. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from -290kg CO2 e (glass) to -19111kg CO2 e (metals - Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186kg CO2 e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  3. 40 CFR 62.15090 - What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15090 Section 62.15090... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress § 62.15090 What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1635 - What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1635 Section 60.1635... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Increments of Progress § 60.1635 What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1635 - What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1635 Section 60.1635... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Increments of Progress § 60.1635 What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15090 - What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit and then restart my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15090 Section 62.15090... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress § 62.15090 What must I do if I close my municipal waste combustion unit and then...

  7. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few

  8. Carbon footprint estimation of municipal water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhshi, Ali A.

    2009-11-01

    This research investigates the embodied energy associated with water use. A geographic information system (GIS) was tested using data from Loudoun County, Virginia. The objective of this study is to estimate the embodied energy and carbon emission levels associated with water service at a geographical location and to improve for sustainability planning. Factors that affect the carbon footprint were investigated and the use of a GIS based model as a sustainability planning framework was evaluated. The carbon footprint metric is a useful tool for prediction and measurement of a system's sustainable performance over its expected life cycle. Two metrics were calculated: tons of carbon dioxide per year to represent the contribution to global warming and watt-hrs per gallon to show the embodied energy associated with water consumption. The water delivery to the building, removal of wastewater from the building and associated treatment of water and wastewater create a sizable carbon footprint; often the energy attributed to this water service is the greatest end use of electrical energy. The embodied energy in water depends on topographical characteristics of the area's local water supply, the efficiency of the treatment systems, and the efficiency of the pumping stations. The questions answered by this research are: What is the impact of demand side sustainable water practices on the embodied energy as represented by a comprehensive carbon footprint? What are the major energy consuming elements attributed to the system? What is a viable and visually identifiable tool to estimate the carbon footprint attributed to those Greenhouse Gas (GHG) producing elements? What is the embodied energy and emission associated with water use delivered to a building? Benefits to be derived from a standardized GIS applied carbon footprint estimation approach include: (1) Improved environmental and economic information for the developers, water and wastewater processing and municipal

  9. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-09-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  10. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  11. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-04-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  12. Municipal waste-to-energy technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.E.; Krause, H.H., Jr.; Engdahl, R.B.; Levy, A.; Oxley, J.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Two major technologies are available to burn municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate steam for the production of electricity: mass-burn and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) systems. Mass-burn systems process as-received waste directly in a combustor, such as a reciprocating, rotary, or roller-grate furnace, with only limited removal of undesirable objects. Refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) systems first process the waste to produce refuse-derived fuel via shredding and other operations before combustion in spreader-stoker, fluidized-bed, and other suitable combustors. Although mass-burn systems with specially designed grates are now considered proven technology, there is much interest in RDF systems, because RDF can be used in a wide range of combustors, including some utility power plants of conventional design. However, a number of technical issues remain for both mass-burn and RDF-firing systems, and further research is warranted. Disposal of the ash residues from the combustor and/or the waste from the air-pollution control equipment is a major issue preventing more widespread use of this technology. Selection of materials of construction is also an important issue. Continuous-emission-monitoring requirements may be exceeding the technical capabilities for reliable, long-term operation. The occasional receipt of biologically active waste or waste containing heavy metals is still a troublesome issue. Dioxin emissions seem to be a problem only in plants of early design, although the issue of dioxin emissions continues to be a major one in permit applications and public relations. 58 refs., 28 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Metals removal and recovery from municipal sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.L.; Scheybeler, B.J.; Smith, M.L.; Baird, R.; Lo, M.P.; Haug, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of metals removal from municipal sludges that may be disposed of on agricultural land was studied. Heavy metal accumulation in such vegetables as lettuce and heavy metal toxicity to such crops as oats, beans, corn, and radishes is of concern. The purpose of the study was to assess metal removal systems for sludges obtained from the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant, Carson, Calif. Primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and their anaerobically digested counterparts were dosed with sulfuric acid and the chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), to effect metal solubilization. Seven metals were examined for removal from sludge: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Recovery of metals from the sludges was also examined. Using an acid dosage to effect pH decrease to pH 2 and a-stirring time of 24 hours, the removal efficiencies for Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr were found to be upwards of 75%. Removal efficiencies for Pb and Cd were less, at about 30 to 70%. At less than 10%, Cu was hardly removed. Metal extraction using EDTA gave slightly higher removal efficiencies for Cd, Pb, and Cu. The recovery of solubilized metals from solution with lime was very successful at greater than 90% efficiencies. Examination of the dewaterability of the acid-treated sludge found no significant difference between treated and untreated. Preliminary estimates indicated that about 0.5 metric ton of acid would be required for each dry metric ton of sludge solids to effect significant metal removal of better than 50% of the cadmium and 33% of the lead. To precipitate the metals from the acid filtrate, 1 metric ton of lime per dry metric ton of sludge would be needed. Considering the chemical costs and metal removal efficiency by sludge acidification, it would seem that industrial source control would be a more practical approach, although its full economic impact on the industries has not been estimated.

  14. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  15. Estrogenic activity in Finnish municipal wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Välitalo, Pia; Perkola, Noora; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Sillanpää, Markus; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Mikola, Anna; Hollert, Henner; Schultz, Eija

    2016-01-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a major source of estrogenic compounds to the aquatic environment. In the present work, estrogenic activities of effluents from eight municipal WWTPs in Finland were studied. The main objectives of the study were to quantify the concentrations of selected estrogenic compounds, to evaluate their contribution to estrogenic potency and to test the feasibility of the commercial bioassays for wastewater analysis. The effluent samples were analyzed by two in vitro tests, i.e. ERα-CALUX(®) and ELISA-E2, and by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for six estrogenic compounds: estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17α-estradiol and bisphenol A (BPA). Estrogenic effects were found in all of the effluent samples with both of the bioassays. The concentrations measured with ELISA-E2 (8.6-61.6 ng/L) were clearly higher but exhibited a similar pattern than those with chemical analysis (E2

  16. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. H.; Rogers, R. S.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1995-04-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL's focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  17. Promoting health by addressing living conditions in Norwegian municipalities.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Susanne; Torp, Steffen; Helgesen, Marit; Fosse, Elisabeth

    2016-07-10

    Worldwide, inequalities in health are increasing, even in well-developed welfare states such as Norway, which in 2012, saw a new public health act take effect that enshrined equity in health as national policy and devolved to municipalities' responsibility to act on the social determinants of health. The act deems governance structures and "Health in All Policies" approaches as important steering mechanisms for local health promotion. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Norway's municipalities address living conditions - economic circumstances, housing, employment and educational factors - in local health promotion, and what factors are associated with doing so. All Norway's municipalities (n= 428) were included in this cross-sectional study, and both register and survey data were used and were subjected to descriptive and bi- and multivariate regression analyses. Eighty-two percent of the municipalities reported that they were capable of reducing inequalities in health. Forty percent of the municipalities defined living conditions as a main challenge in their local public health promotion, while 48% cited it as a main health promotion priority. Our study shows that defining living conditions as a main challenge is positively associated with size of municipality, and also its assessment of its own capability in reducing inequalities in health. The latter factor was also associated with actually prioritizing living conditions in health promotion, as was having established cross-sectorial working groups or inter-municipal collaboration related to local health promotion. This study underlines the importance of inter-sectoral collaboration to promote health and well-being.

  18. DPSIR Framework - A Decision - Making Tool for Municipalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorošová, M.

    2016-12-01

    Many municipalities in Central Europe deal with the problem of invasive species in their natural ecosystems. Invasive vegetation eradicates native species and causes dense stands that damage the natural environment. This work shows how important it is to have an informative tool for municipalities to be successful in their struggles with invasive species. A Driver - Pressure - State - Impact - Response (DPSIR) framework is a decision - making tool, and this one is particularly applied to the species Fallopia japonica. Fallopia japonica is an extremely invasive and aggressive weed, and it is very often found in riverbank vegetation. This specific framework can be used as a tool for municipal managers to highlight all the problems with Fallopia japonica and define all the responses that should be provided by the municipalities. The work points out the steps that show how important it is to have a strategy or a clear concept of how to begin with such a serious issue as the presence of Fallopia japonica in riverbank vegetation and its eradication. This framework provides simple steps that cannot be excluded when a municipality start actions against Fallopia japonica. All the indicators used in the model are based on the information known about Fallopia japonica that are presented in the literature.

  19. Transitioning to a waterways city: municipal context, capacity and commitment.

    PubMed

    Morison, P J; Brown, R R; Cocklin, C

    2010-01-01

    In Melbourne, Australia, the adoption of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) and the inclusion of best practice in new urban development has shifted the "drained city" of the 1960s toward an environmentally-oriented "waterways city" for the future. However, the "waterways city" is tenuous owing to the variable commitment of local municipalities to WSUD. This paper reports on the first phase of a social research project, which aims to secure a model of the waterways city by addressing the commitment and capacity deficits of local municipalities. Municipal commitment and capacity across three geographical areas in Melbourne are measured quantitatively using an innovative, comprehensive, and replicable assessment technique. The results show variability in municipal capacity and commitment across the areas, with a pronounced deficit in the rural-regional area. Consequently, intergovernmental attempts to normalise modes of integrated urban water management (such as WSUD) need to include innovative and flexible mechanisms that are responsive to the dynamics of municipal commitment and capacity. These principles have broader application to cities internationally where the management of urban stormwater is the shared responsibility of multiple governments.

  20. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities’ preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities’ capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  1. Public water supplies of selected municipalities in Florida, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    Water use by 169 municipalities and 5 county water systems in Florida as of December 1975 is summarized. Included in the listing, by city or system, are water use data, sewage data, and chemical analyses of raw and treated water. In addition, miscellaneous public supply data for three small communities and municipalities (population generally less than 5,000) and historical public supply pumpage for selected municipalities for 1945, 1947, 1956, 1965 and 1970-74 are tabulated. Also included is a list of reports published in 1970-75 relating to hydrology, geology, and water resources of the areas where the cities are located. The demand for freshwater for municipal use in Florida increased sharply during 1970-75. Statewide ground-water use for municipal supply increased from 759 mgd in 1970 to 976 mgd in 1975 and surface-water use has increased from 125 mgd in 1970 to 166 mgd in 1975. The 28 percent increase in ground-water use and the 33 percent increase in surface-water use reflects the continuing rapid population growth and the accompanying expanding economic activity in the State. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Governance in managing public health resources in Brazilian municipalities.

    PubMed

    Avelino, George; Barberia, Lorena G; Biderman, Ciro

    2014-09-01

    This study contributes to the health governance discussion by presenting a new data set that allows for comparisons of the management of health resources among Brazilian municipalities. Research on Brazil is particularly important as the provision of health services was decentralized in 1988 and since then municipalities have been given greater responsibilities for the management of fiscal resources for public health service provision. Based on detailed information on corruption practices (such as over-invoicing, illegal procurement and fake receipts) from audit reports of health programmes in 980 randomly selected Brazilian municipalities, this study deepens understanding of the relationship between health governance institutions and the incidence of corruption at the local level by exploring the extent to which horizontal and vertical accountabilities contribute to reducing the propensity of municipal government officials to divert public health resources for private gain. The results of our multiple regression analysis suggest that the experience of health municipal councils is correlated with reductions in the incidence of corruption in public health programmes. This impact is significant over time, with each additional year of health council experience reducing corruption incidence levels by 2.1% from baseline values. The findings reported in this study do not rely on the subjectivity of corruption measures which usually conflate the actual incidence of corruption with its perception by informants. Based on our results, we provide recommendations that can assist policy makers to reduce corruption.

  3. Chemical healthcare waste management in small Brazilian municipalities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João A; Bila, Danielle M; Ritter, Elisabeth; Braga, Ana Cs

    2012-12-01

    The disposal of healthcare waste (HCW) seems to have been solved in developed countries, while in most developing countries the problem persists because the disposal methods are expensive and larger than the budget of small- and medium-sized municipalities. The current study evaluates the encapsulation process for the disposal of medical chemical waste. The experiment was developed in the Piraí municipality (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and the chemical wastes were produced in the local public hospital, as well as the 12 units of primary care health services. Chemical waste generated at health services units may include the liquid waste from cleaning materials and disinfectants, expired and unused pharmaceutical products, and cytotoxins. These are all considered hazardous waste products and they must be disposed of via an authorised system at approved sites (e.g. industrial landfills). The process of encapsulating chemical medical waste in concrete (cement, crushed stones and sand) followed by their disposal at sanitary landfills is a procedure that is not considered in Brazilian Legislation. Despite the oversight, this method of disposal was used in the municipality of Piraí, with the approval of the Rio de Janeiro State Agency for Environmental Control. The safety aspects of this method and the limits of its applicability, particularly in small municipalities, were evaluated in this study. The results indicate that, within certain parameters, this method may provide a viable solution for the disposal of HCW in small municipalities.

  4. Partnerships for development: municipal solid waste management in Kasese, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Vanhille, Josefine; Wolf, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This article highlights strategic partnerships as a way to affect a distributed agency among several sets of stakeholders to break so-called path dependencies, which occur when such unsustainable pathways arise, stabilize and become self-reinforcing over time. Experiences from a North-South collaborative effort provide some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark, respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilized stakeholders around improving the municipal solid waste management system in Kasese District. Through a municipal solid waste management system characterization and mapping exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. First, socio-technical lock-in effects in the municipal solid waste management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration technologies. However, opportunities in the municipal solid waste management system can exist within other areas, and synergies can be sought with interlinking systems, such as those represented with sanitation.

  5. Municipal, industrial, and irrigation water use in Washington, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dion, N.P.; Lum, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of water use in 1975 in the 39 counties and 62 Water Resources Inventory Areas of Washington, indicated that 2.49 trillion gallons of water was used for municipal, industrial, and irrigation purposes. That amount represents a 10-percent increase over a similar water-use assessment in 1965, but a slight decrease from that of 1970. Total municipal water use, which includes municipally supplied industrial water, was 283 billion gallons. Industry used 442 billion gallons, of which 121 billion gallons was from municipal systems and 321 billion gallons was for self-suppled systems. Of the 604 billion gallons of water used for municipal and industrial supplies 145 billion gallons was ground water, 444 billion gallons was fresh surface water, and 14.8 billion gallons was saline surface water. A compilation of statewide industrial use as categorized by SIC (Lumber and Wood Products), SIC 28 (Chemicals and Allied Products), and SIC 20 (Food and Kindred Products)--accounted for about 65 percent of the total water used in industrial processes , In 1975, 5.79 million acre-feet of irrigation water (1,890 billion gallons) as applied to 1.52 million acres. This water was 95 percent surface water and 5 percent ground water. About 97 percent of the irrigation water was supplied in eastern Washington, to about 94 percent of the irrigated acreage in the State. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Municipality and Neighborhood Influences on Volunteering in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Dury, Sarah; Willems, Jurgen; De Witte, Nico; De Donder, Liesbeth; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    This article explores the relationships between municipality features and volunteering by older adults. In the literature, strong evidence exists of the influence of place on older people's health. However, the question how neighborhoods and municipalities promote or hinder volunteer participation remains under-explored. Data for the research are derived from the Belgian Aging Studies. We estimate logistic multilevel models for older individuals' engagement in volunteering across 141 municipalities in Belgium (N = 67,144). Analysis shows that neighborhood connectedness, neighborhood satisfaction, home ownership, and presence of services predict voluntary engagement at older ages. The findings support that perceptions and quality of social resources that relate to neighborhoods may be important factors to explain volunteering among older adults. Moreover, the findings suggest that volunteering in later life must be considered within a broader framework.

  7. Small enterprise opportunities in municipal solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Grierson, J P; Brown, A

    1999-02-01

    Most developing countries are rapidly urbanizing, with growing urban populations fueling demand for more and better urban services which many cities simply cannot provide given the current financial constraints. With the public sector unable to service the needs of expanding cities, small businesses are moving in to fill the vacuum. Such fledgling private sector initiatives have often prevented problems from becoming crises, while also demonstrating that private sector enterprises have an important role to play in meeting the demand for municipal services. Waste collection and processing is an area which could benefit from private sector involvement and greater public-private coordination. The authors examine the progress to date of an action-research initiative led by the Collaborative Group on Municipal Solid Waste Management in Low-income Countries which is developing best practice guidelines for expanding the involvement of micro- and small enterprises in municipal solid waste management.

  8. Buffering municipal wastewater pollution using urban wetlands in sub-Saharan Africa: a case of Masaka municipality, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bateganya, Najib Lukooya; Nakalanzi, Diana; Babu, Mohammed; Hein, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In many sub-Saharan Africa municipalities and cities, wastewater is discharged with limited or no treatment at all, thus creating public and environmental health risks. This study assessed the performance of a conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), based on effluent pollution flux, in Masaka Municipality, Uganda. Also, the downstream pollution attenuation through a natural wetland was analysed to ascertain its role in buffering the WWTP performance deficits. Generally, there was deficiency in WWTP performance, with 100% failure over a five-year assessment period, for example, the mean effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)5 and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations (mg l(-1)) were found to be 316 ± 15 and 582 ± 28 compared with 50 and 100 maximum permissible environment discharge limits, respectively. Despite these deficits in WWTP performance, the wetland buffer effectively reduced pollutant loads for suspended solids (73%), organic matter (BOD5, 88% and COD, 75%), nutrients (total nitrogen, 74% and total phosphorus, 83%) and pathogens (faecal coliforms, 99%). These findings underpin the challenge of managing municipal wastewater using centralized mechanical WWTPs in the region. However, the wetland buffer system demonstrated a critical role these ecosystems play in abating both pulse and intermittent pollution loads from urban environments of sub-Saharan Africa whose sanitation systems are defective and inadequate. Therefore, it was concluded that integrating wetland ecosystems in urban planning as natural landscape features to enhance municipal wastewater management and pollution control is paramount.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  10. 78 FR 16346 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Signature This section requests information about the municipal securities principal or executive officer..., settling, processing information with respect to, and facilitating transactions in municipal securities and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND...

  11. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND REDEVELOPING BROWNFIELDS SITES: MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS AND ILLEGAL DUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically, municipal landfill and illegal dump sites. The document helps use...

  12. 77 FR 13589 - Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc. and Florida Municipal Power Agency v.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc. and Florida Municipal Power Agency v....206 (2011), Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc. and Florida Municipal Power Agency...

  13. 76 FR 37809 - The Connecticut Transmission Municipal Electric Energy Cooperative; Notice of Request for Waiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The Connecticut Transmission Municipal Electric Energy Cooperative; Notice... Municipal Electric Energy Cooperative filed a petition requesting full waiver or exemption from...

  14. 76 FR 60958 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Interpretive Notice Concerning the Application of Rule G-17 to Municipal Advisors September...

  15. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  16. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  17. The Adoption of Technological Innovations by Municipal Governments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Irwin; Menzel, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Data on the adoption of 43 technological innovations in four service delivery areas were obtained from nationally representative samples of municipal governments. The service delivery areas included fire fighting, solid waste collection and disposal, traffic control, and air pollution control. (Author/RLV)

  18. Landfill Leachate Toxicity Removal in Combined Treatment with Municipal Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kalka, J.

    2012-01-01

    Combined treatment of landfill leachate and municipal wastewater was performed in order to investigate the changes of leachate toxicity during biological treatment. Three laboratory A2O lab-scale reactors were operating under the same parameters (Q-8.5–10 L/d; HRT-1.4–1.6 d; MLSS 1.6–2.5 g/L) except for the influent characteristic and load. The influent of reactor I consisted of municipal wastewater amended with leachate from postclosure landfill; influent of reactor II consisted of leachate collected from transient landfill and municipal wastewater; reactor III served as a control and its influent consisted of municipal wastewater only. Toxicity of raw and treated wastewater was determinted by four acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Vibrio fischeri, and Raphidocelis subcapitata. Landfill leachate increased initial toxicity of wastewater. During biological treatment, significant decline of acute toxicity was observed, but still mixture of leachate and wastewater was harmful to all tested organisms. PMID:22623882

  19. Municipal Broadband in Wilson, North Carolina: A Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Boyle, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little empirical attention has been paid to the political economy of publicly-retailed fiber-optic broadband internet service. To address this gap in the literature, this dissertation examines the history, dynamics and trends in the municipal broadband movement. In specific, Wilson, North Carolina's Greenlight service is examined in…

  20. Girls' Groups and Boys' Groups at a Municipal Technology Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen-Karlsson, Minna

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Swedish initiative of municipal technology centres from a gender point of view. These centres provide after-school technology education for children aged 6-16. By means of an ethnographic study, the effects of the use of single-sex groups in increasing the interest of girls and boys in technical activities have been…

  1. Survey of Single-Judge Municipal Court Libraries in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Cornelia

    In this age of limited resources, municipal courts scrutinize their library budgets with a view to maintaining adequate legal information sources and services at the lowest possible cost. Some courts relying on the authority of the Ohio Revised Code Section 2303.201 assess additional court costs to fund the acquisition and maintenance of…

  2. Insight into chemical phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Li, Jixiang; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xinbo; Jia, Hui

    2017-01-15

    Phosphate plays an irreplaceable role in the production of fertilizers. However, its finite availability may not be enough to satisfy increasing demands for the fertilizer production worldwide. In this scenario, phosphate recovery can effectively alleviate this problem. Municipal wastewater has received high priority to recover phosphate because its quantity is considerable. Therefore, phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater can bring many benefits such as relieving the burden of increasing production of fertilizers and reduction in occurrence of eutrophication caused by the excessive concentration of phosphate in the released effluent. The chemical processes are the most widely applied in phosphate recovery in municipal wastewater treatment because they are highly stable and efficient, and simple to operate. This paper compares chemical technologies for phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater. As phosphate in the influent is transferred to the liquid and sludge phases, a technical overview of chemical phosphate recovery in both phases is presented with reference to mechanism, efficiency and the main governing parameters. Moreover, an analysis on their applications at plant-scale is also presented. The properties of recovered phosphate and its impact on crops and plants are also assessed with a discussion on the economic feasibility of the technologies.

  3. Individual and Contextual Variables in Municipal Officers' Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraes, Valéria Vieira; Borges-Andrade, Jairo Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate workplace learning among municipal officers in the high-learning-demanding organizational context of their work practice in the first year of mandate. Design/methodology/approach: A before-and-after quasi-experimental design was used to assess the effect of time of work practice on learning work…

  4. Norway's Day-Care Initiative: A Municipal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemeth, Beate; Lokken, Gisle

    2012-01-01

    Norway is gearing up to provide places in day care centres for all children aged between one and six and the need for more facilities has therefore increased substantially in recent years. In Tromso, the municipality has become closely involved in child-care pedagogics and architecture; a design competition it launched has brought rewarding…

  5. Brazilian municipalities and their own expenditures on health: some associations.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carmem Emmanuely Leitão; Gonçalves, Guilherme Quaresma; Machado, José Angelo

    2017-03-01

    In a context that combines decentralization and underfunding of public health policy, Brazilian municipalities expressively extend their spending in this sector, allocating a proportion of their own revenues (direct taxation added to the mandatory intergovernmental transfers from the Union and the states) at levels above the ones that are constitutionally determined. However, there have been incipient studies investigating the expenditure composition on health in these federative units, in order to describe its main characteristics and explanations. In order to contribute to eliminating this gap, this article explores some associations between attributes of the municipalities (population size, region of the country, the proportion of older adults, child mortality, hiring private services and SUS transfer) and health expenditure implemented with the municipalities' own recipes. The study used descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions in order to investigate such associations with data for 2010. The results point to tax inequities in the sector when comparing municipalities of different population groups and socioeconomic conditions, including the perception of important differences in terms of per capita spending on the analyzed expenditure items.

  6. [Municipal Health Promotion in Germany: Duties, Rights and Potential].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Volkenand, K

    2016-10-18

    Municipalities have an overarching structure in health promotion. Due to the right to self-government, municipalities are in charge of both voluntary and obligatory tasks. Some of the original and fundamental tasks can be summarized as "services to the public". Current common definitions do not include the term "health promotion". In the present study, a sub-target of a joint project, legal acts, requirements and recommendations were researched and analyzed. The results show substantive cornerstones of health promotion in various regulations of different disciplines. Based on these findings, health promotion can be interpreted as being part of services to the public. Currently the regulations for education, social tasks, environmental and consumer protection constitute the legal framework for community health promotion, but also include constitutions. They range from public international law to municipal resolutions. Quality management and also quality development are already an integral part in some communal departments. The management of structures, processes and results arises from commitments or measurable targets. In contrast, quality management for health promotion is not based on binding requirements. Specifications of other neighboring sectors (e. g. education, social sector) demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of legal policy guidelines, seen as a frame. A transparent communication about the current regulations is indispensable for formulating future guidelines. The German National Prevention Act opens opportunities for municipalities. However, its interpretation and local engagement will still guide the practice of communal health promotion.

  7. Phycoremediation of municipal wastewater by microalgae to produce biofuel.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Nikunj; Farooqi, Humaira; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Mock, Thomas; Kumar, Shashi

    2017-02-03

    Municipal wastewater (WW), if not properly remediated, poses a threat to the environment and human health by carrying significant loads of nutrients and pathogens. These contaminants pollute rivers, lakes and natural reservoirs where they cause eutrophication and pathogen-mediated diseases. However, the high nutrient content of WW makes it an ideal environment for remediation with microalgae that require high nutrient concentrations for growth and are not susceptible to toxins and pathogens. Given that an appropriate algal strain is used for remediation, the incurred biomass can be refined for the production of biofuel. Four microalgal species (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella sp., Parachlorella kessleri-I and Nannochloropsis gaditana) were screened for efficient phycoremediation of municipal WW and potential use for biodiesel production. Among the four strains tested, P. kessleri-I showed the highest growth rate and biomass production in 100% WW. It efficiently removed all major nutrients with a removal rate of up to 98% for phosphate after ten days of growth in 100% municipal WW collected from Delhi. The growth of P. kessleri-I in WW resulted in a 50% increase of biomass and a 115% increase of lipid content in comparison to growth in control media. The FAME and fuel properties of lipids isolated from cells grown in WW complied with international standards. The present study provides evidence that the green alga P. kessleri-I effectively remediates municipal WW and can be used to produce biodiesel.

  8. Sacremento Municipal Utility District 100-MW sub e photovoltaic plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. V.

    1982-01-01

    A status report on plans for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) 1-MW photovoltaic power plant is presented. DOE, the California Energy Commission, and SMUD will fund the project cooperatively. Emphasis is placed on the details of the government contract/cooperation agreement.

  9. HOLISTIC APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents results from the application of a new municipal solid waste (MSW) management planning aid to EPA's new facility in the Research Triangle Park, NC. This planning aid, or decision support tool, is computer software that analyzes the cost and environmental impact ...

  10. Municipal Overburden: Its Influence on Education Expenditures in Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazer, Harvey E.; McCarty, Therese A.

    The study reported in this document found no evidence for the minicipal overburden (m/o) hypothesis of urban school finance. The theory asserts that there is a causal relationship between high levels of non-school municipal expenditure or tax rates and low levels of school spending. Demand for expenditure on education in a sample of school…

  11. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  12. Prerequisites for Setting Up Management System in Municipal Retail Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suraeva, Maria O.; Grigoryants, Igor A.; Karpova, Galina A.; Khoreva, Lyubov V.; Schreyer, Alexander V.; Sirotkin, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem Urban district, management, trade, sales network is determined by the number of complex problems that exist in present Samara municipal retail trade system, which is manifested in the lack of regulation, a glut of sales area, and poorly developed infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to form a…

  13. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  14. NATIONAL SCREENING SURVEY OF EDCS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2002 and 2003 the USEPA's Office of Research and Development asked Regional EPA inspectors, state EPA inspectors and municipal plant operators to collect four gallons effluent, either as a grab or composite sample, from up to 50 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), and ship the...

  15. Women Aspiring to Administrative Positions in Kenya Municipal Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combat, Victor F. O.

    2014-01-01

    Even though female teachers in Kenya municipal primary schools are majority and highly qualified, they fill fewer administrative positions than men. This study assesses the extent of women's participation in leadership positions, society's perception of female leaders, selection criteria of educational administrators, and barriers that affect or…

  16. 6. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Riverside Municipal Museum, Historic Resources Department), photographer unknown, ca. 1902. VIEW OF ARLINGTON HEIGHTS CITRUS GROVES, VICTORIA HILL AND VICTORIA RANCH CHASE HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  17. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for municipal supply wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Andrew; Gharabaghi, Bahram; McBean, Ed; Levison, Jana; Parker, Beth

    2015-12-01

    De-icing agents containing chloride ions used for winter road maintenance have the potential to negatively impact groundwater resources for drinking water supplies. A novel methodology using commonly-available geospatial data (land use, well head protection areas) and public accessible data (salt application rates, hydrometric data) to identify salt vulnerable areas (SVAs) for groundwater wells is developed to prioritize implementation of better management practices for road salt applications. The approach uses simple mass-balance terms to collect chloride input from 3 pathways: surface runoff, shallow interflow and baseflow. A risk score is calculated, which depends on the land use within the respective municipal supply well protection area. Therefore, it is plausible to avoid costly and extensive numerical modeling (which also would bear many assumptions, simplifications and uncertainties). The method is applied to perform a vulnerability assessment on twenty municipal water supply wells in the Grand River watershed, Ontario, Canada. The calculated steady-state groundwater recharge chloride concentration for the supply wells is strongly correlated to the measured transient groundwater chloride concentrations in the case study evaluation, with an R2 = 0.84. The new method provides a simple, robust, and practical method for municipalities to assess the long-term risk of chloride contamination of municipal supply wells due to road salt application.

  18. Women in Municipal Management: Choice, Challenge and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Ruth Ann; And Others

    This study on women in municipal management examines their personal agendas, the barriers they encounter as individual professionals, their career opportunities, the credentialing requirements they face, and the skills they perceive as necessary for their effective performance and career advancement. Data were collected through survey research,…

  19. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMBUSTOR ASH DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM - "THE BOATHOUSE"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of a research program designed to examine the engineering and environmental acceptability of using municipal solid waste (MSW) combustor ash as an aggregate substitute in the manufacture of construction quality cement blocks. 50 tons of MSW combust...

  20. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  1. Characterization of thermal properties of municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Faitli, József; Magyar, Tamás; Erdélyi, Attila; Murányi, Attila

    2015-02-01

    Municipal waste landfills represent not only a source of landfill gases, but a source of thermal energy as well. The heat in landfills is generated by physical, chemical and microbiological processes. The goal of our study was to characterize the thermal properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples of the given landfill. A new apparatus was designed and constructed to measure heat flow. A systematic test series of 17 discrete measurements was carried out with municipal waste samples of 1.0-1.7 m(3). The thermal conductivity, heat diffusivity and specific heat capacity of the samples were determined. Analysing the results of the sampling and our experiments it was realized that the theoretical fundaments should be clarified. Two theories were developed for the serial and for the parallel heat flow in three phase disperse systems. The serial and parallel models resulted in different theoretical estimations. The measured thermal conductivity and heat diffusivity were better characterized by the parallel heat flow estimations. The results show that heat can flow parallel in solid, liquid and gas phases. Characterization of thermal properties serves to establish the fundament of heat extraction from municipal waste landfills.

  2. COMBUSTION CONTROL OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than two decades ago, researchers identified benzo(a)pyrene and other organic species in the emissions from incineration of solid waste. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and-furans (CDD/CDF) were first detected in municipal waste combustor (MWC) emissions in 1977. Since then, C...

  3. Municipal Leadership for Afterschool: Citywide Approaches Spreading across the Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Bela Shah

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the broadest look yet at a growing trend in America's cities: the emergence of city-led efforts to build comprehensive afterschool and out-of-school time (OST) systems that meet the needs of children and youth in their communities. Mayors and other municipal officials who have demonstrated leadership in this area are…

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  6. 40 CFR 35.907 - Municipal pretreatment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program; (4) A determination of technical information necessary to support development of an industrial... the development of an approvable municipal pretreatment program as required by part 403 of this... section 208 planning grant has not provided for the development of a program approvable under part 403...

  7. 40 CFR 35.907 - Municipal pretreatment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program; (4) A determination of technical information necessary to support development of an industrial... the development of an approvable municipal pretreatment program as required by part 403 of this... section 208 planning grant has not provided for the development of a program approvable under part 403...

  8. Municipal Decision-Making Factors Relative to Cable Television Ownership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Richard E., Ed.

    A study was made to identify and provide information and factors which should be taken into consideration by a municipality in its development of policy regarding the ownership, franchising, and ordinance issues involved in cable television. Since the report discusses Southern California activities, specifically those of the San Gabriel Valley, it…

  9. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of traditional'' electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states' least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  10. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of ``traditional`` electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states` least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  11. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual presents a rational procedure for the design of land treatment systems. Slow rate, rapid infiltration, and overland flow processes for the treatment of municipal wastewaters are discussed in detail, and the design concepts and criteria are presented. A two-phased plann...

  12. 76 FR 11545 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... products, and, in general, to protect investors, municipal entities, obligated persons, and the public... investors, municipal entities, obligated persons, and the public in their choice of brokers, dealers... appropriate in the public interest and for the protection of investors, municipal entities, and...

  13. 76 FR 70207 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Order Granting Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... services for issuers in connection with the issuance of municipal securities; 3. Research or investment... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Order Granting Approval of... November 3, 2011. I. Introduction On September 13, 2011, the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board...

  14. 17 CFR 240.15c2-12 - Municipal securities disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board's Internet Web site or filed with the Commission. (4) The... the public on the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board's Internet Web site or filed with the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Municipal...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  16. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal...

  17. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of MSW... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission guidelines for municipal...

  18. 40 CFR 60.54b - Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Large Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor... Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification. (a) No later than the date...

  19. 40 CFR 60.53b - Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Performance for Large Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After September 20, 1994... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor... municipal waste combustor operating practices. (a) On and after the date on which the initial...

  20. 40 CFR 60.53b - Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance for Large Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After September 20, 1994... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor... municipal waste combustor operating practices. (a) On and after the date on which the initial...

  1. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On and... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1010 - Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30... waste combustion unit? 60.1010 Section 60.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1010 Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? Yes, if your municipal...

  3. 40 CFR 60.53b - Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Performance for Large Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After September 20, 1994... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor... municipal waste combustor operating practices. (a) On and after the date on which the initial...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1010 - Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30... waste combustion unit? 60.1010 Section 60.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1010 Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? Yes, if your municipal...

  6. 40 CFR 60.56a - Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Performance for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction Is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and On or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.56a Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste...

  7. 40 CFR 60.54b - Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Large Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor... Standards for municipal waste combustor operator training and certification. (a) No later than the date...

  8. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction Is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and On or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On and... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  10. 40 CFR 60.56a - Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.56a Standards for municipal waste combustor operating practices. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste...

  11. 40 CFR 60.55b - Standards for municipal waste combustor fugitive ash emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance for Large Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After September 20, 1994... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor... municipal waste combustor fugitive ash emissions. (a) On and after the date on which the initial...

  12. 76 FR 604 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Order Granting Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Order Granting Approval of... Municipal Securities Transactions Reported to the Board and to Institute a New Technology Fee on Reported Sales Transactions December 29, 2010. I. Introduction On September 30, 2010, the Municipal...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1010 - Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit? 60.1010 Section 60.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30....1010 Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? Yes, if your municipal...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1015 - What is a new municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustion unit? 60.1015 Section 60.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999... What is a new municipal waste combustion unit? (a) A new municipal waste combustion unit is a...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15010 - Is my municipal waste combustion unit covered by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is my municipal waste combustion unit... FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of This Subpart § 62.15010 Is my municipal waste...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1010 - Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit? 60.1010 Section 60.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30....1010 Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? Yes, if your municipal...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1015 - What is a new municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion unit? 60.1015 Section 60.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999... What is a new municipal waste combustion unit? (a) A new municipal waste combustion unit is a...

  18. 40 CFR 62.15010 - Is my municipal waste combustion unit covered by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Is my municipal waste combustion unit... FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of This Subpart § 62.15010 Is my municipal waste...

  19. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Fff of... - Municipal Waste Combustor Operating Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Municipal Waste Combustor Operating... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Large Municipal Waste Combustors Constructed on or Before September 20, 1994 Pt. 62, Subpt. FFF, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart FFF of Part 62—Municipal Waste...

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Cb of... - Municipal Waste Combustor Operating Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal Waste Combustor Operating... and Compliance Times for Large Municipal Waste Combustors That are Constructed on or Before September 20, 1994 Pt. 60, Subpt. Cb, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart Cb of Part 60—Municipal Waste...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Fff of... - Municipal Waste Combustor Operating Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Municipal Waste Combustor Operating... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Large Municipal Waste Combustors Constructed on or Before September 20, 1994 Pt. 62, Subpt. FFF, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart FFF of Part 62—Municipal Waste...

  2. 77 FR 42493 - Proposed Consent Decree Relating to the New Source Performance Standards for Municipal Solid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree Relating to the New Source Performance Standards for Municipal Solid Waste... performance standards (``NSPS'') for municipal solid waste landfills (``MSW Landfills''). The Act requires EPA... (``NSPS'') for municipal solid waste landfills (``MSW Landfills''), 40 CFR part 60, subpart WWW (40 CFR...

  3. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve New Hampshire's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 28, 2010...

  4. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... determination to approve a modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research,...

  5. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve Massachusetts's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7,...

  6. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... modification to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA... certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted...

  7. 78 FR 39038 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    .... Jones & Co. (``Edward Jones''); Financial Planning Association (``FPA''); Full Life Financial LLC... municipal financial products, to remove impediments to and perfect the mechanism of a free and open market in municipal securities and municipal financial products, and, in general, to protect...

  8. 76 FR 53678 - Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit) Pursuant to section 4.95(a) of the Commission's regulations,\\1\\ Calleguas Municipal Water... exemption for Project No. 11651 on June 7, 1999. Calleguas Municipal Water District, 87 FERC ] 62,256...

  9. Municipal-building conservation project: financing conservation in municipal buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gatton, David; Mounts, Richard; Scrimger, Kay; Wood, Elizabeth; Musselwhite, Ron; Wanning, Helen; Frazier, Andrew; Pyles, Odessa

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess one dimension of the energy problem that confronts cities - energy costs for public buildings - and to see how a sample of local governments had confronted that problem. While cities of all sizes tend to have a considerable variety of buildings, most are related to the basic municipal service of administration, police and fire protection, public works, and recreation. Most of these buildings consume natural gas and electricity as their primary source of energy, sources whose price is likely to rise more rapidly than the rate of inflation in the next few years. While it is difficult to assess the reports of energy costs without comparing them to the total city budget, these costs were found to be sizable among small and medium cities, and quite large among larger cities. While several of the conservation programs in the sample dated back to 1976, almost half (14) were relatively new, having been undertaken only in the last three years. Administratively, most have been placed under the direction of budget or public works officials, and, substantively, have emphasized no-cost/low-cost measures, such as employee awareness programs and improvements in building maintenance. In keeping with this, most of the programs have been supported by reprogramming funds, supplemented with local capital improvement funds, and state and federal grants. Case studies for five localities are appended.

  10. Photovoltaics for municipal planners. Cost-effective municipal applications of photovoltaics for electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

  11. Teacher Empowerment and Developing a Curricular Management System in Municipal Schools Using Cooperation between University and Municipality in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erawan, Prawit

    2008-01-01

    This participatory action research project responded to the needs for educational reform and involved cooperation between Mahasarakham Municipality, which provided primary school education, and the Faculty of Education at Mahasarakham University, which played a role as academic mentor. The project aimed to improve the quality of education…

  12. Landslide susceptibility assessment and validation in the framework of municipal planning in Portugal: the case of Loures Municipality.

    PubMed

    Guillard, Clemence; Zezere, Jose

    2012-10-01

    The legislation that demands the evaluation of landslide susceptibility in Portugal at the municipal level is the National Ecological Reserve (NER). A methodology for the evaluation of landslide susceptibility to be used in municipal planning is applied in Loures Municipality (169.3 km²) located north of Lisbon (Portugal). A landslide inventory was made for the whole area interpreting orthophoto maps and aerial photographs and using standard geomorphologic techniques in field work. It consists of 686 polygons, each polygon representing a rotational, a deep translational or a shallow translational slide, and is integrated into a GIS database. Landslide susceptibility is evaluated using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Information Value Method) over unique-condition terrain units in a raster basis. Three susceptibility models are elaborated independently according to the type of slide (rotational, deep translational, shallow translational). The landslide susceptibility maps are prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel susceptibility value in descending order. The robustness and accuracy of the landslide susceptibility models are evaluated by prediction-rate curves, which are used for the quantitative interpretation of the landslide susceptibility maps. Unstable slopes that have to be included into the National Ecological Reserve are extracted from the three susceptibility maps following the general rules to draw the NER that state that the area to be included in the NER should guarantee the inclusion of at least 70 % of the landslides identified in the landslide inventory. The obtained results allow us to conclude that 70 % of the future landslides should occur in these areas, classified as most susceptible to landslides corresponding to 20.3 % of the total area of Municipality. Thus, the consideration of these 20.3 % as regards prevention and protection of landslide risk could potentially reduce damage resulting from 70

  13. Simulation of municipal solid waste degradation in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bhagwan Shamrao; C, Agnes Anto; Singh, Devendra Narain

    2017-03-01

    Municipal solid waste generation is huge in growing cities of developing nations such as India, owing to the rapid industrial and population growth. In addition to various methods for treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (landfills, composting, bio-methanation, incineration and pyrolysis), aerobic/anaerobic bioreactor landfills are gaining popularity for economical and effective disposal of municipal solid waste. However, efficiency of municipal solid waste bioreactor landfills primarily depends on the municipal solid waste decomposition rate, which can be accelerated through monitoring moisture content and temperature by using the frequency domain reflectometry probe and thermocouples, respectively. The present study demonstrates that these landfill physical properties of the heterogeneous municipal solid waste mass can be monitored using these instruments, which facilitates proper scheduling of the leachate recirculation for accelerating the decomposition rate of municipal solid waste.

  14. 40 CFR 62.15265 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15265 Section 62.15265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units... my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam,...

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 2 Table 2 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units For the following municipal waste combustion units You...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... municipal waste combustion unit? If this subpart AAAA applies to your municipal waste combustion unit,...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15265 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15265 Section 62.15265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units... my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam,...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... municipal waste combustion unit? If this subpart AAAA applies to your municipal waste combustion unit,...

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 2 Table 2 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units For the following municipal waste combustion units You...

  20. 40 CFR 62.15265 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15265 Section 62.15265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units... my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam,...

  1. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  2. The impact of municipal waste combustion in small heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantúch, Martin; Kaduchová, Katarína; Lenhard, Richard

    2016-06-01

    At present there is a tendency to make greater use for heating houses for burning solid fuel, such as pieces of wood, coal, coke, local sources of heat to burn natural gas. This tendency is given both the high price of natural gas as well as the availability of cheaper solid fuel. In many cases, in the context saving heating costs, respectively in the context of the disposal of waste is co-incinerated with municipal solid fuels and wastes of different composition. This co entails increased production emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide), NOx (nitrogen oxides), particulate matter (particulate matter), PM10, HCl (hydrogen chloride), PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and others. The experiment was focused on the emission factors from the combustion of fossil fuels in combination with municipal waste in conventional boilers designed to burn solid fuel.

  3. Municipal bond insurance can assist resource recovery projects

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, S.J. )

    1989-12-01

    As landfill capacity around the country shrinks, the need for resource recovery plants grows. This trend will only increase in years to come. In many regions, the disposal crisis will make the solid waste sector an increasingly important area of the municipal bond industry. This is true despite federal tax reform, which has placed more restrictions on the issuance of tax-exempt debt over the past five years. Often, bond insurance can help issuers of resource recovery bonds. Insurance broadens their appeal to investors while reducing interest costs to the issuer. In this article, the author discusses the elements that a municipal bond insurer evaluates. As with all insurance, resource recovery plant insurance depends on the amount of risk, the type of risk, and how the risk is structured.

  4. Trends in the management of residual municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Rada, E C; Istrate, I A; Ragazzi, M

    2009-06-01

    In agreement with European Union directives, the integrated management of municipal solid waste must be developed ensuring a balanced relationship between the streams of selective collection and the one regarding the residual waste. A theoretical scenario is made where the residual municipal solid waste is composed only of non-recyclable fractions. An important aspect concerns the role of the organic fraction as selective collection can significantly decrease its content in the residual waste. This paper focuses on the planning, design and management consequences of this unsteady scenario. The treatments that are considered are: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, integrated thermal plants, aerobic mechanical-biological treatments, anaerobic mechanical-biological treatments and other types of treatment. The considerations are based on the experience of the authors not only in terms of development of research but also in terms of transfer of the research results to the real scale, and knowledge of the state-of-the-art of the sector.

  5. [Combustion characteristics of municipal solid wastes in China].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuqi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Li, Xiaodong; Ma, Zengyi; Jiang, Xuguang; Ni, Mingjiang; Kefa, Cen

    2002-05-01

    On the basis of about 40 groups of statistical data of municipal solid wastes(MSW) from 23 main cities in China, equations to calculate net heat value and theoretical air were regressed, furthermore, the mathematical relation between net heat value and adiabatic flame temperature, critical heat value for MSW incineration without support fuel and effect of such parameters as excess air and temperature of preheated air on critical heat value were analyzed.

  6. Electricity production from municipal solid waste using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, H Y; Pai, T Y; Liu, M H; Chang, C A; Lo, F C; Chang, T C; Lo, H M; Chiang, C F; Chao, K P; Lo, W Y; Lo, S W; Chu, Y L

    2016-07-01

    The organic content of municipal solid waste has long been an attractive source of renewable energy, mainly as a solid fuel in waste-to-energy plants. This study focuses on the potential to use microbial fuel cells to convert municipal solid waste organics into energy using various operational conditions. The results showed that two-chamber microbial fuel cells with carbon felt and carbon felt allocation had a higher maximal power density (20.12 and 30.47 mW m(-2) for 1.5 and 4 L, respectively) than those of other electrode plate allocations. Most two-chamber microbial fuel cells (1.5 and 4 L) had a higher maximal power density than single-chamber ones with corresponding electrode plate allocations. Municipal solid waste with alkali hydrolysis pre-treatment and K3Fe(CN)6 as an electron acceptor improved the maximal power density to 1817.88 mW m(-2) (~0.49% coulomb efficiency, from 0.05-0.49%). The maximal power density from experiments using individual 1.5 and 4 L two-chamber microbial fuel cells, and serial and parallel connections of 1.5 and 4 L two-chamber microbial fuel cells, was found to be in the order of individual 4 L (30.47 mW m(-2)) > serial connection of 1.5 and 4 L (27.75) > individual 1.5 L (20.12) > parallel connection of 1.5 and 4 L (17.04) two-chamber microbial fuel cells . The power density using municipal solid waste microbial fuel cells was compared with information in the literature and discussed.

  7. Technology assessment of aquaculture systems for municipal waste water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, H.C.; Ross, R.S.; Sturmer, L.

    1984-08-01

    The innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (PL 95-217) provide financial incentives to communities that use wastewater treatment alternatives to reduce costs or energy consumption over conventional systems. Some of these technologies have been only recently developed and are not in widespread use in the United States. This document discusses the applicability and technical and economic feasibility of using aquaculture systems for municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

  8. Municipal resilience: A paradigm shift in emergency and continuity management.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Greg; Luchia, Mike

    More than a decade of emergency and continuity management vision was instrumental in providing the unprecedented level of response and recovery from the great flood of 2013. Earlier assessments, planning and validation promulgated development of corporate continuity, emergency and contingency plans along with tactical, strategic and recovery operations centres that all led to a reliable emergency management model that will continue to provide the backbone for municipal resilience.

  9. Worcester Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Worcester was issued NPDES Permit MAS010002 for discharging storm water from its municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) which became effective on October 30, 1998. The permit expired five years later on October 30, 2003; however, EPA administratively continued the permit as allowed by regulation. Proceeding to reissue this NPDES permit, EPA and MassDEP have now issued a draft permit and fact sheet (which provides EPA's technical basis for establishing permit conditions).

  10. Municipal mortality due to thyroid cancer in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Ramis, Rebeca; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is a tumor with a low but growing incidence in Spain. This study sought to depict its spatial municipal mortality pattern, using the classic model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Methods It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardized mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the posterior probability that RR > 1. Results From 1989 to 1998 a total of 2,538 thyroid cancer deaths were registered in 1,041 municipalities. The highest relative risks were mostly situated in the Canary Islands, the province of Lugo, the east of La Coruña (Corunna) and western areas of Asturias and Orense. Conclusion The observed mortality pattern coincides with areas in Spain where goiter has been declared endemic. The higher frequency in these same areas of undifferentiated, more aggressive carcinomas could be reflected in the mortality figures. Other unknown genetic or environmental factors could also play a role in the etiology of this tumor. PMID:17173668

  11. Blazing the energy trail: The Municipal Energy Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force pioneers energy and environmental solutions for US cities and counties. When local officials participate in the task force, they open the door to many resources for their communities. The US is entering a period of renewed interest in energy management. Improvements in municipal energy management allow communities to free up energy operating funds to meet other needs. These improvements can even keep energy dollars in the community through the purchase of services and products used to save energy. With this idea in mind, the US Department of Energy Municipal Energy Management Program has funded more than 250 projects that demonstrate innovative energy technologies and management tools in cities and counties through the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF). UCETF helps the US Department of Energy foster municipal energy management through networks with cities and urbanized counties and through links with three national associations of local governments. UCETF provides funding for projects that demonstrate innovative and realistic technologies, strategies, and methods that help urban America become more energy efficient and environmentally responsible. The task force provides technical support to local jurisdictions selected for projects. UCETF also shares information about successful energy management projects with cities and counties throughout the country via technical reports and project papers. The descriptions included here capsulize a sample of UCETF`s demonstration projects around the country.

  12. Sustainable kerbside recycling in the municipal garbage contract.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Moe

    2009-12-01

    In an era of global warming, rising energy costs and increasing volumes of wastes destined for landfills and incinerators, communities should set up environmentally sustainable services that are cost-effective for their citizens and revenue generators for municipalities. A win-win garbage collection and kerbside recycling program established more than eight years ago in a small rural community in Ohio, US is still going strong. It is offering a relatively inexpensive way for waste disposal by providing an incentive-based and highly participatory kerbside recycling and at the same time bringing in substantial franchise fees for the municipal coffers. Unlike garbage contracts in most communities that are designed for only residential waste collection, this program extends disposal and recycling services to non-residential establishments. It picks up hard-to-dispose household furniture, appliances and other bulky items without additional costs to the residents. By being creative and assessing local political and socio-economic milieu, public officials can implement a comprehensive service package for taking care of their community throwaways. However, before establishing such programs in partnership with a private firm, city administrators must understand the intricacies of bid specifications customized for municipal wastes and recyclable materials.

  13. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Troschinetz, Alexis M; Mihelcic, James R

    2009-02-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  14. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  15. Municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Vidal, Enrique; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier; Cabanes, Anna; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Methods Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. Results During the study period (1989–1998), 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain), the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain) and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west). Eivissa (Balearic Islands) and El Hierro (Canary Islands) also registered increased risks. Conclusion Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale. PMID:18789142

  16. Municipal-wastewater treatment using upflow-anaerobic filters.

    PubMed

    Manariotis, loannis D; Grigoropoulos, Sotirios G

    2006-03-01

    Three 12.5-L upflow-anaerobic filters (AF), with ceramic-saddle, plastic-ring, and crushed-stone packing, were used to evaluate the sustained treatment of municipal wastewater. The reactors were initially fed dogfood-fortified wastewater and then raw municipal wastewater, and operated at 25.4 degrees C (32 months) and 15.5 degrees C (2 months). During 23 months, the AF units treated municipal wastewater (mean chemical oxygen demand [COD] 442 mg/L and total suspended solids [TSS] 247 mg/L), the hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged from 3.1 to 0.30 d (empty bed), and the organic loading rate ranged from 0.115 to 1.82 kg COD/m3d. At the higher temperature and an HRT (void volume) of 1.0 d, COD and TSS removals ranged from 74 to 79% and 95 to 96%, respectively; however, efficiencies declined substantially at HRT values less than 0.4 d. Reactor performance, under the same hydraulic and organic loadings, deteriorated with time and was adversely affected by lower temperature.

  17. Trans-Americas leads the way into municipal textile recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgley, H.

    1998-08-01

    Most textile waste in the US still goes to the landfill--an estimated 6.6 million tons each year. But thanks to the efforts of textile recycles--such as Trans-Americas Textile Recycling CO. (Brooklyn, NY)--another 1.25 million tons gets salvaged for reuse overseas or as a feedstock for the wiping and fiber industries, according to the Council for Textile Recycling. In an era where global population levels are increasing the demand for textile waste from the Western world and municipalities are struggling to reach their waste diversion goals, boosting textile recovery rates makes sense. And it`s a waste that can be easily incorporated into existing municipal curbside or drop-off recycling programs. Since 1942, when the company first opened its doors in Brooklyn, NY, it purchased textile discards from charities. While those discards still make up the majority of Trans-Americas` supply, in the last two years, the company also began purchasing post-consumer material from municipalities. Textiles are definitely going to be an increasingly important part of recycling, as states look to meet their mandates.

  18. Knowledge and technology transfer to improve the municipal solid waste management system of Durango City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Vázquez, Roberto; Pérez-López, Maria E; Vicencio-de-la-Rosa, María G; Martínez-Prado, María A; Rubio-Hernández, Rubén

    2014-09-01

    As society evolves its welfare level increases, and as a consequence the amount of municipal solid waste increases, imposing great challenges to municipal authorities. In developed countries, municipalities have established integrated management schemes to handle, treat, and dispose of municipal solid waste in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Municipalities of developing and transition countries are not exempted from the challenges involving municipal solid waste handling, but their task is not easy to accomplish since they face budget deficits, lack of knowledge, and deficiencies in infrastructure and equipment. In the northern territory of Mexico, the municipality of Durango is facing the challenge of increased volumes of waste with a lack of adequate facilities and infrastructure. This article analyses the evolution of the municipal solid waste management of Durango city, which includes actions such as proper facilities construction, equipment acquisition, and the implementation of social programmes. The World Bank, offering courses to municipal managers on landfill operation and waste management, promoted the process of knowledge and technology transfer. Thereafter, municipal authorities attended regional and some international workshops on waste management. In addition they followed suggestions of international contractors and equipment dealers with the intention to improve the situation of the waste management of the city. After a 15-year period, transfer of knowledge and technology resulted in a modern municipal solid waste management system in Durango municipality. The actual system did not reach the standard levels of an integrated waste management system, nevertheless, a functional evaluation shows clear indications that municipality actions have put them on the right pathway.

  19. An overview of municipal state of the environment reporting in Canada.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M E; Maclaren, V W

    1995-01-01

    State of the Environment (SOE) reporting is an emerging municipal management tool designed to monitor and increase awareness of the current status, changes and trends in the condition of the local environment. A multifaceted investigation was undertaken to examine municipal SOE reporting in Canada and to identify barriers to its widespread implementation. Highlights of the case study and survey components are summarized and a conceptual model for municipal SOE reporting is proposed. Overall, the study revealed considerable interest in environmental reporting, however, the lack of common municipal indicators, organizing frameworks and environmental data accessible at the local level impedes its widespread implementation. Future needs to enhance SOE reporting include: development of common municipal indicators, including environmental sustainability indicators; enhancement of the compatibility of SOE reporting frameworks across municipal, provincial and national levels; and re-examination of the data collected by diverse levels of government to optimize their utilization at the local level.

  20. An Integrated Facility for Municipal Solid Waste Disposal, Electrical Generation, and Desalination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for a facility that uses municipal solid waste as file for generating electricity and cogeneration steam for a... municipal solid waste will provide nearly 2% of per capita electrical power needs and 7% of fresh water requirements. This thesis proposes a new arrangement... Municipal Solid Waste . Developing new power plant sources for electrical generation now requires searching for scarce energy resources and regularly

  1. A review on current status of municipal solid waste management in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Kumar, Vinit

    2015-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a major environmental issue in India. Due to rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization and population, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and towns is also increased. Mismanagement of municipal solid waste can cause adverse environmental impacts, public health risk and other socio-economic problem. This paper presents an overview of current status of solid waste management in India which can help the competent authorities responsible for municipal solid waste management and researchers to prepare more efficient plans.

  2. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  3. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs.

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting's contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  5. Western municipal water conservation policy: The case of disaggregated demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burness, Stuart; Chermak, Janie; Krause, Kate

    2005-03-01

    We investigate aspects of the felicity of both incentive-based and command and control policies in effecting municipal water conservation goals. When demand can be disaggregated according to uses or users, our results suggest that policy efforts be focused on the submarket wherein demand is more elastic. Under plausible consumer parameters, a household production function approach to water utilization prescribes the nature of demand elasticities in alternative uses and squares nicely with empirical results from the literature. An empirical example illustrates. Overall, given data and other informational limitations, extant institutional structures, and in situ technology, our analysis suggests a predisposition for command and control policies over incentive-based tools.

  6. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Gharabaghi, B. Singh, M.K.; Inkratas, C. Fleming, I.R. McBean, E.

    2008-07-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability

  7. Space monitoring of municipal solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakova, Olga; Shagarova, Lyudmila

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are special facilities designed for waste isolation and disposal ensuring sanitary and epidemiological safety of population. A solid waste landfill is a complex object with its own specific features. Modern remote-sensing methods are an indispensable source of information for the analysis of space images of solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan. Space monitoring of solid waste landfills includes the following tasks: 1. Identification and mapping of landfill areas according to the data of remote earth sensing. 2. Studying of energy and structural characteristics of landfills based on remote sensing data. 3. Analysis of the state of landfills based on a comparison of current and archive remote sensing data. Space monitoring of territories of municipal solid waste landfills uses modern computer technologies. They include satellite imagery combined with sub-satellite research, as well as other sources of information used for identification and mapping of landfill territories. Investigation of municipal solid waste landfills requires targeted survey of landfill areas, remote sensing using operational and archival data including theoretical foundations of physical optics and statistical data. Processing of digital satellite information uses methods of pattern recognition, automated image processing and correlation analysis. Based on spectral energy and textural characteristics of municipal solid waste landfills obtained by remote sensing methods, the technology of space monitoring of landfill areas, including landfill recognition and characterization of solid waste landfills from remote observations was developed. Monitoring of MSW landfills uses satellite images of ultrahigh and medium spatial resolution. Medium-resolution images are used to determine temperature, vegetation cover and soil degradation. High-resolution images are used to detect landfills, to determine forms of soil degradation, to calculate geometrical parameters, and

  8. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  9. Alteration of municipal and industrial slags under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafał Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2014-05-01

    The Waste Management System in Poland is being consequently built since 1998. After important changes in legislation, local governments have taken over the duty of waste collection. New points of selective collection of wastes have been opened and new sorting and composting plants were built. The last stage of introducing the Waste Management System is construction of waste incineration power plants. From nine installations which were planned, six are now under construction and they will start operating within the next two years. It is assumed that the consumption of raw wastes for these installations will reach 974 thousand tons per year. These investments will result in increased slags and ashes production. Now in Poland several local waste incinerators are operating and predominant amount of produced incineration residues is landfilled. These materials are exposed to atmospheric conditions in time of short term storage (just after incineration) and afterwards for a longer period of time on the landfill site. During the storage of slags low temperature mineral transformations and chemical changes may occur and also some components can be washed out. These materials are stored wet because of the technological processes. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of storage in atmospheric conditions on slags from incineration of industrial and municipal wastes. The experiment started in January 2013. During this period slag samples from incineration of industrial and municipal wastes were exposed to atmospheric conditions. Samples were collected after 6 and 12 months. Within this time the pH value was measured monthly, and during the experimental period remained constant on the level of 9.5. After 6 months of exposure only slight changes in mineral compositions were observed in slags. The results of XRD analysis of municipal slags showed increase in content of carbonate minerals in comparison to the raw slag samples. In industrial slags, a decrease in

  10. Cost of phosphate removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuessler, H.

    1983-01-01

    Construction and operating costs of advanced wastewater treatment for phosphate removal at municipal wastewater treatment plants have been investigated on orders from the Federal Environmental Bureau in Berlin. Particular attention has been paid to applicable kinds of precipitants for pre-, simultaneous and post-precipitation as well as to different phosphate influent and effluent concentrations. The article offers detailed comments on determination of technical data, investments, capital costs, operating costs and annual costs as well as potential cost reductions resulting from precipitation. Selected results of the cost investigation are shown in graphical form as specific investments, operating and annual costs depending on wastewater flow.

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1992-08-01

    This study was initiated to compile publicly available data on the five major options commonly used for municipal solid waste MSW management today: Landfilling, mass burning for energy recovery, production and combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and composting. The report also provides some data on energy, environmental releases, and economics for the following less commonly used options: Anaerobic digestion, coining of RDF with coal, gasification/pyrolysis. Because no commercial anaerobic digestion and gasification/pyrolysis facilities have operated in the United States, the data for these options are based on pilot plant results.

  12. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm(3) (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2 e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from -145 to 1016 kg CO2 e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO2 e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

  13. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ► A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ► These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ► Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from −145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement

  14. Management of municipal solid waste in the Three Gorges region

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Liao Pei Tingquan Huang Chuan; Yuan Hui

    2009-07-15

    As the fourth phase of the Three Gorges reservoir project commenced in 2008, the rate of water flow in the Yangtze River has obviously decelerated further downstream and water clarity within the storage facility has decreased. Meanwhile, the rate of urbanization in the region is adding to the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) being generated by every day life. The composition of the waste is becoming more diversified and complicated, thereby presenting an increasing threat to the ecological environment and water resources of the Three Gorges region. This paper is a probe into MSW in terms of its characteristics as well as methods of storage, collection, transportation, recycling, treatment and disposal, the protection of environmental ecosystems. Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental problems in the Three Gorges region, and indeed the whole of China. Based on the analysis of the present situation of MSWM and its treatment/disposal, some methods of sorting, recycling, decomposing, incineration and reuse are described, sanitary landfill as the main disposal method in Chongqing city, incineration being the second. Sanitary landfill or dump was also used for MSW treatment in the Three Gorges region, and this paper also provides some suggestions for improving MSWM in the Three Gorges region.

  15. Fungal and enzymatic treatment of mature municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Kalčíková, Gabriela; Babič, Janja; Pavko, Aleksander; Gotvajn, Andreja Žgajnar

    2014-04-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate biotreatability of mature municipal landfill leachate by using white rot fungus and its extracellular enzymes. Leachates were collected in one active and one closed regional municipal landfill. Both chosen landfills were operating for many years and the leachates generated there were polluted by organic and inorganic compounds. The white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens was able to grow in the mature leachate from the closed landfill and as it utilizes present organic matter as a source of carbon, the results were showing 60% of DOC and COD removal and decreased toxicity to the bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri. On the other hand, growth of the fungus was inhibited in the presence of the leachate from the active landfill. However, when the leachate was introduced to a crude enzyme filtrate containing extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, removal levels of COD and DOC reached 61% and 44%, respectively. Furthermore, the treatment led to detoxification of the leachate to the bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri and to reduction of toxicity (42%) to the plant Sinapis alba. Fungal and enzymatic treatment seems to be a promising biological approach for treatment of mature landfill leachates and their application should be further investigated.

  16. Fate and removal of estrogens in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Racz, LeeAnn; Goel, Ramesh K

    2010-01-01

    Natural and synthetic estrogens are some of the most potent endocrine disrupting compounds found in municipal wastewater. Much research has been conducted on the source and fate of estrogens in wastewater treatment plants. Sorption and biodegradation are the primary removal mechanisms for estrogens in activated sludge systems, which are widely used biological treatment techniques for municipal wastewater treatment. However, when removal of estrogens in a wastewater treatment plant is incomplete, these compounds enter the environment through wastewater discharges or waste activated sludge at concentrations that can cause endocrine-reproductive system alterations in birds, reptiles and mammals. Therefore, studies have also focused on potential advanced treatment technologies with the aim of removing the compounds before discharging wastewater effluent or disposing waste sludge. This review discusses the physiological effects of these estrogens and the degree of problems estrogens pose as they enter the wastewater stream. Thereafter, this review also analyzes their fate in wastewater treatment systems and how they may reach drinking water sources. Furthermore, this review includes a discussion on various treatment technologies being investigated and future research trends for this pressing environmental issue.

  17. Patterns of municipal health expenditure in interwar England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Levene, Alysa; Powell, Martin A; Stewart, John

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to fill a gap in the history of medical services in England and Wales in the interwar period by focusing on the historiographically neglected municipal sector--a relative neglect that is particularly unjustified given that this sector provided an increasingly wide array of medical services over the period. Focusing on the highly urbanized county boroughs, this article investigates whether and how expenditure on municipal health services changed over the interwar period, and whether these patterns were replicated by boroughs across England and Wales. It is found that many of the largest personal health services were experiencing a common pattern of growing investment over the period, but that county boroughs did not act uniformly in their spending decisions. Considered regionally, the Northeast and the West Midlands were found to perform poorly in expenditure terms compared to the data set as a whole, while the large conurbations of Leeds, Manchester, and Liverpool raised the average performance of the Northwest and Yorkshire. Regional patterns are found to be less consistent in the south of the country, where voluntary provision and demands arising from the boroughs' geographical position (for example, seaside resorts) may have exerted significant influences over levels of expenditure on health.

  18. Planning of municipal solid waste management under dual uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Guo H; Nie, Xianghui; Chen, Yumin; Lin, Qianguo

    2010-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a complex and multidisciplinary problem, involving a number of impact factors associated with various uncertainties. In this study, a hybrid interval-parameter possibilistic programming (IPP) approach was developed and applied for planning municipal solid waste management under dual uncertainties. The IPP improves upon the existing management approaches by allowing possibility distributions of the lower and upper bounds of some interval parameters in the objective function and interval information in the modelling coefficients to be effectively incorporated within its optimization. By introducing the concept of possibilistic interval numbers, the dual uncertainties can be communicated into the optimization process and the resulting solutions, such that the generated decision schemes can effectively reflect the highly complex system features under uncertainty. The results of the case study indicate that useful information can be obtained for providing feasible decision schemes for waste flow allocation. Different decision schemes can be generated by adjusting waste flow allocation patterns within the solution intervals. Lower decision variable values should be used to obtain lower system cost of waste treatment and disposal under advantageous conditions, and higher decision variable values should be used under demanding conditions (worst case conditions). A strong desire to acquire the lower system cost will lead to the decreased probability of meeting the treatment and disposal requirements (i.e. the increased risk of unforeseen conditions); willingness to accept the upper limit of the system cost will guarantee that waste treatment and disposal requirements are met.

  19. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  20. Possibilities of composting disposable diapers with municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Colón, Joan; Ruggieri, Luz; Sánchez, Antoni; González, Aina; Puig, Ignasi

    2011-03-01

    The possibilities for the management of disposable diapers in municipal solid waste have been studied. An in-depth revision of literature about generation, composition and current treatment options for disposable diapers showed that the situation for these wastes is not clearly defined in developed recycling societies. As a promising technology, composting of diapers with source-separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied at full scale to understand the process performance and the characteristics of the compost obtained when compared with that of composting OFMSW without diapers. The experiments demonstrated that the composting process presented similar trends in terms of evolution of routine parameters (temperature, oxygen content, moisture and organic matter content) and biological activity (measured as respiration index). In relation to the quality of both composts, it can be concluded that both materials were identical in terms of stability, maturity and phytotoxicity and showed no presence of pathogenic micro-organisms. However, compost coming from OFMSW with a 3% of disposable diapers presented a slightly higher level of zinc, which can prevent the use of large amounts of diapers mixed with OFMSW.

  1. Municipal solid waste open dumping, implication for land degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, M.; Monavari, M.; Omrani, G. A.; Shariat, M.; Hosseini, M.

    2015-03-01

    Open dumping is the common procedure for final disposal of MSW in Iran. Several environmental pollutions and land degradation have caused because of poor planning, insufficient financial resources, improper organizational chart for MSW management system, and the lack of rules, guidelines and regulations. In Iran standards and regulations of environmental issues are not perfectly attended, evaluation an open dumping can show existing restrictions and troubles in these areas. So recognition of the municipal solid waste landfill state is required to prevent the increase of environmental problems and decrease the negative environmental impacts. The suitability of Tonekabon existing municipal landfill site in the west area of Mazandaran province, located in north of Iran, and the south coast of the Caspian Sea is the significance of the present study as a case study of land degradation. In order to carry out this evaluation, two guidelines are used. After reviewing all the considered criteria in each of the guidelines, the authenticity of the deposit site of the study area and also the entire city was examined; and eventually the appropriate areas were identified. The conclusion of the results indicated the incoherence in appropriateness of the existing landfill site, with two mentioned methods and field work.

  2. An Industrial Ecology Approach to Municipal Solid Waste ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste provides abundant opportunities for industrial ecology-based symbiotic use. Energy production, economics, and environmental aspects are analyzed for four alternatives based on different technologies: incineration with energy recovery, gasification, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation. In these cases electricity and ethanol are the products considered, but other products and attempts at symbiosis can be made. The four technologies are in various states of commercial development. To highlight their relative complexities some adjustable parameters which are important for the operability of each process are discussed. While these technologies need to be considered for specific locations and circumstances, generalized economic and environmental information suggests relative comparisons for newly conceptualized processes. The results of industrial ecology-based analysis suggest that anaerobic digestion may improve seven emission categories, while fermentation, gasification, and incineration successively improve fewer emissions. A conceptual level analysis indicates that gasification, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation alternatives lead to positive economic results. In each case the alternatives and their assumptions need further analysis for any particular community. Presents information useful for analyzing the sustainability of alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste.

  3. An industrial ecology approach to municipal solid waste ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be viewed as a feedstock for industrial ecology inspired conversions of wastes to valuable products and energy. The industrial ecology principle of symbiotic processes using waste streams for creating value-added products is applied to MSW, with examples suggested for various residual streams. A methodology is presented to consider individual waste-to-energy or waste-to-product system synergies, evaluating the economic and environmental issues associated with each system. Steps included in the methodology include identifying waste streams, specific waste components of interest, and conversion technologies, plus steps for determining the economic and environmental effects of using wastes and changes due to transport, administrative handling, and processing. In addition to presenting the methodology, technologies for various MSW input streams are categorized as commercialized or demonstrated to provide organizations that are considering processes for MSW with summarized information. The organization can also follow the methodology to analyze interesting processes. Presents information useful for analyzing the sustainability of alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste.

  4. Municipal water supplies in Lee County, Florida, 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    In 1974 the total pumpage for Lee County, Fla., municipal supplies reached 5,700 Mgal (million gallons annually), an increase of 54 percent over 1970 levels. Pumpage from individual sources included: Caloosahatchee River, 1,312 Mgal; water-table aquifer, 2,171 Mgal; the water-bearing zone in the Tamiami Formation, 340 Mgal; the water-bearing zone in the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation, 1,399 Mgal; the saline water zones in the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation and the Suwannee Limestone, 483 Mgal. Among the various sources, the water-table aquifer showed the greatest increase in municipal pumpage over 1970 levels (60 percent) while the saline zones in the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation and Suwannee Limestone showed the least (40 percent). Intensive pumpage from the water bearing zone in the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation has caused a progressive decline in water levels in wells tapping that zone. The quality of fresh ground water in areas unaffected by intrusion of saline water, generally meets all the recommended limits of the Environmental Protection Agency. The chemical treatment processes utilized by water plants in the county are generally effective in producing finished water that meets EPA preliminary drinking water standards. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Biological responses of marine flatfish exposed to municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Baker, Michael E; Hardiman, Gary; Reyes, Jesus A; Kelley, Kevin M; Schlenk, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing concern over the presence of pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, and other chemicals collectively known as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in municipal effluents, yet knowledge of potential environmental impacts related to these compounds is still limited. The present study used laboratory exposures to examine estrogenic, androgenic, and thyroid-related endocrine responses in marine hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) exposed to CECs from municipal effluents with 2 degrees of treatment. Fish were exposed for 14 d to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent (0.5%) and to a higher concentration (5%) to investigate dose responses. Plasma concentrations of estradiol (E2), vitellogenin (VTG), 11-keto testosterone, and thyroxine were measured to assess endocrine responses. Contaminants of emerging concern were analyzed to characterize the effluents. Diverse types of effluent CECs were detected. Statistically significant responses were not observed in fish exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent. Elevated plasma E2 concentrations were observed in males exposed to ammonia concentrations similar to those found in effluents. However, exposure to ammonia did not induce VTG production in male fish. The results of the present study highlight the importance of conducting research with sentinel organisms in laboratory studies to understand the environmental significance of the presence of CECs in aquatic systems.

  6. Metals in municipal landfill leachate and their health effects.

    PubMed Central

    James, S C

    1977-01-01

    The leachate from five municipal landfills (containing no industrial waste or sewage sludge) was studied in 1975 by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Copper was not present in concentrations above EPA standards. Zinc concentrations decreased with age of the site and were below standards. The amounts of cadmium and chromium appear to vary greatly from site to site. Lead, selenium, iron, and mercury were present at each site in concentrations above standards, regardless of site age. Although raw leachate contains concentrations of heavy metals in excess of the drinking water standards, it is not clear how likely it would be for these recorded levels to be found in drinking water supplies or for contamination to reach the human body. Before leachate reaches an aquifer, it is subject to the attenuating effect of the unsaturated zone. If municipal solid waste is placed directly into ground water, or if leachate is allowed to drain directly into surface water, severe damage to water quality can result. Further study of the environmental effects of leachate are being undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:857685

  7. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using artificial intelligence modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Maryam; El Hanandeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern to local governments to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. The design and operation of an effective MSW management system requires accurate estimation of future waste generation quantities. The main objective of this study was to develop a model for accurate forecasting of MSW generation that helps waste related organizations to better design and operate effective MSW management systems. Four intelligent system algorithms including support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbours (kNN) were tested for their ability to predict monthly waste generation in the Logan City Council region in Queensland, Australia. Results showed artificial intelligence models have good prediction performance and could be successfully applied to establish municipal solid waste forecasting models. Using machine learning algorithms can reliably predict monthly MSW generation by training with waste generation time series. In addition, results suggest that ANFIS system produced the most accurate forecasts of the peaks while kNN was successful in predicting the monthly averages of waste quantities. Based on the results, the total annual MSW generated in Logan City will reach 9.4×10(7)kg by 2020 while the peak monthly waste will reach 9.37×10(6)kg.

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  9. [The limits of collective action in municipal health councils].

    PubMed

    Farias Filho, Milton Cordeiro; Silva, Andréia Neves da; Mathis, Armin

    2014-06-01

    This article addresses the collective actions of participation in the municipal health councils. The underlying research sought to establish the performance of the councilors in the municipal health councils in the Metropolitan Region of Belém in the State of Pará. A survey of documents for the 2005-2010 period, structured interviews and observations with counselors in sessions of meetings of the boards of three counties were analyzed. An indicator of three levels of participation centered on the legal functions of the health councils and based on the theory of social groups as its analytical principle was constructed. The results indicate that the activities of the councils are marked by the co-option of councilors and the definition of deliberative agendas on the part of representatives of management, in which individual interests predominate over the collective interests of the councilors in the deliberations. The conclusion is that such behavior is contrary to the principles of the Unified Health System - SUS and weakens the social image of the councils, in addition to opening up a new analytical perspective.

  10. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Swapan Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr.

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.

  11. Heavy metals content of municipal wastewater and sludges in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

    2004-01-01

    Municipal wastewater may contain heavy metals, which are hazardous to the environment and humans. With stringent regulations concerning water reuse and sludge utilization in agriculture, there is a great need to determine levels of heavy metals in liquid wastes, sludges and agricultural crops. The state of Kuwait has programs to utilize waste sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants as soil conditioner and fertilizer for greenery and agricultural development projects and to reuse treated wastewater effluents in irrigation. The common metals found in Kuwait's raw wastewater and sludge are Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The effects of accumulation of heavy metals in soil are long lasting and even permanent. In this study, the variations in the concentration levels of heavy metals were measured in wastewater and sludge produced at Ardiya municipal wastewater treatment plant in Kuwait. A relationship was observed between the concentrations of heavy metals in treated wastewater and sludge used for agriculture and the level of accumulated heavy metals found in residual tissues of some crops.

  12. Estimation of the components of municipal solid waste settlement.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar Babu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the municipal solid waste settlements and the contribution of each of the components are essential in the estimation of the volume of the waste that can be accommodated in a landfill and increase the post-usage of the landfill. This article describes an experimental methodology for estimating and separating primary settlement, settlement owing to creep and biodegradation-induced settlement. The primary settlement and secondary settlement have been estimated and separated based on 100% pore pressure dissipation time and the coefficient of consolidation. Mechanical creep and biodegradation settlements were estimated and separated based on the observed time required for landfill gas production. The results of a series of laboratory triaxial tests, creep tests and anaerobic reactor cell setups were conducted to describe the components of settlement. All the tests were conducted on municipal solid waste (compost reject) samples. It was observed that biodegradation accounted to more than 40% of the total settlement, whereas mechanical creep contributed more than 20% towards the total settlement. The essential model parameters, such as the compression ratio (Cc'), rate of mechanical creep (c), coefficient of mechanical creep (b), rate of biodegradation (d) and the total strain owing to biodegradation (EDG ), are useful parameters in the estimation of total settlements as well as components of settlement in landfill.

  13. Municipal waste management in Sicily: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Messineo, Antonio Panno, Domenico

    2008-07-01

    There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste.

  14. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi Moghadam, M.R. Mokhtarani, N. Mokhtarani, B.

    2009-01-15

    Pollution and health risks generated by improper solid waste management are important issues concerning environmental management in developing countries. In most cities, the use of open dumps is common for the disposal of wastes, resulting in soil and water resource contamination by leachate in addition to odors and fires. Solid waste management infrastructure and services in developing countries are far from achieving basic standards in terms of hygiene and efficient collection and disposal. This paper presents an overview of current municipal solid waste management in Rasht city, Gilan Province, Iran, and provides recommendations for system improvement. The collected data of different MSW functional elements were based on data from questionnaires, visual observations of the authors, available reports and several interviews and meetings with responsible persons. Due to an increase in population and changes in lifestyle, the quantity and quality of MSW in Rasht city has changed. Lack of resources, infrastructure, suitable planning, leadership, and public awareness are the main challenges of MSW management of Rasht city. However, the present situation of solid waste management in this city, which generates more than 400 tons/d, has been improved since the establishment of an organization responsible only for solid waste management. Source separation of wastes and construction of a composting plant are the two main activities of the Rasht Municipality in recent years.

  15. Municipal solid waste development phases: Evidence from EU27.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Goran; Gonzalez-Roof, Alvaro; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Ragossnig, Arne M

    2015-12-01

    Many countries in the European Union (EU) have very developed waste management systems. Some of its members have managed to reduce their landfilled waste to values close to zero during the last decade. Thus, European Union legislation is very stringent regarding waste management for their members and candidate countries, too. This raises the following questions: Is it possible for developing and developed countries to comply with the European Union waste legislation, and under what conditions? How did waste management develop in relation to the economic development in the countries of the European Union? The correlation between waste management practices and economic development was analysed for 27 of the European Union Member States for the time period between 1995 and 2007. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to estimate landfilling of waste in relation to gross domestic product for every country. The results showed a strong correlation between the waste management variables and the gross domestic product of the EU27 members. The definition of the municipal solid waste management development phases followed a closer analysis of the relation between gross domestic product and landfilled waste. The municipal solid waste management phases are characterised by high landfilling rates at low gross domestic product levels, and landfilling rates near zero at high gross domestic product levels. Hence the results emphasize the importance of wider understanding of what is required for developing countries to comply with the European Union initiatives, and highlight the importance of allowing developing countries to make their own paths of waste management development.

  16. Object-oriented data model of the municipal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuqing; Sheng, Yehua; Zhang, Guiying

    2008-10-01

    The transportation problem is always one of main questions each big city all over the world faces. Managing the municipal transportation using GIS is becoming the important trend. And the data model is the transportation information system foundation. The organization and storage of the data must consider well in the system design. The data model not only needs to meet the demand that the transportation navigates, but also needs to achieve the good visual effects, also can carry on the management and the maintenance to the traffic information. According to the object-oriented theory and the method, the road is divided into segment, intersection. This paper analyzed the driveway, marking, sign and other transportation facilities and the relationship with the segment, intersection and constructed the municipal transportation data model which is adequate to the demand of vehicles navigation, visual and management. The paper also schemes the the all kinds of transportation data. The practice proves that this data model can satisfy the application demands of traffic management system.

  17. Leaching of nano-ZnO in municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Sakallioglu, T; Bakirdoven, M; Temizel, I; Demirel, B; Copty, N K; Onay, T T; Uyguner Demirel, C S; Karanfil, T

    2016-11-05

    Despite widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial products and their potential disposal in landfills, the fate of ENMs in solid waste environments are still not well understood. In this study, the leaching behavior of nano ZnO -one of the most used ENMs- in fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) was investigated. Batch reactors containing municipal solid waste samples were spiked with three different types of nano ZnO having different surface stabilization. The leaching of ZnO was examined under acidic, basic and elevated ionic strength (IS) conditions. The results of the 3-day batch tests showed that the percent of the added nano-ZnO mass retained within the solid waste matrix ranged between 80% and 93% on average for the three types of nano-ZnO tested. The pH and IS conditions did not significantly influence the leaching behavior of ZnO. To further analyze the behavior of ZnO in the MSW matrix, a kinetic particle deposition/detachment model was developed. The model was able to reproduce the main trends of the batch experiments. Reaction rate constants for the batch tests ranged from 0.01 to 0.4 1/hr, reflecting the rapid deposition of nano-ZnO within the MSW matrix.

  18. Responses to Public Comments on EPA’s Standards of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills and Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: Proposed Rules - July 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Responses to Public Comments on EPA’s Standards of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills and Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: Proposed Rules - July 2016

  19. 78 FR 57149 - Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund III..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 23, 2013, Western Minnesota Municipal Power... permit applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study...

  20. 78 FR 20313 - American Municipal Power, Inc.; Michigan Public Power Agency; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission American Municipal Power, Inc.; Michigan Public Power Agency; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 29, 2013, American Municipal Power, Inc. and Michigan Public...

  1. 78 FR 50409 - Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid... Municipal Energy Agency (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Sunflower Electric Power Corporation... that Sunflower Electric Power Corporation and Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC are in violation of...

  2. 76 FR 60953 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... issuers in connection with the issuance of municipal securities; 3. research or investment advice with... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of Proposed...'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on September 13, 2011, the...

  3. Ecosystem biomass, carbon, and nitrogen five years after restoration with municipal solid waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escalating municipal solid waste generation coupled with decreasing landfill space needed for disposal has increased the pressure on military installations to evaluate novel approaches to handle this waste. One approach to alleviating the amount of municipal solid waste being landfilled is the use o...

  4. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation... Beach for New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq....

  5. 40 CFR 62.14104 - Requirements for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy from the American Society of... Before September 20, 1994 § 62.14104 Requirements for municipal waste combustor operating practices. (a... with the municipal waste combustor operating practice requirements listed in 40 CFR 60.53b(b) and...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14104 - Requirements for municipal waste combustor operating practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy from the American Society of... Before September 20, 1994 § 62.14104 Requirements for municipal waste combustor operating practices. (a... with the municipal waste combustor operating practice requirements listed in 40 CFR 60.53b(b) and...

  7. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 510 - Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In D Appendix D to Part 510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Pt. 510, App. D Appendix D to Part 510—Municipalities Eligible...

  8. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 510 - Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In D Appendix D to Part 510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Pt. 510, App. D Appendix D to Part 510—Municipalities Eligible...

  9. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 510 - Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In D Appendix D to Part 510 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Pt. 510, App. D Appendix D to Part 510—Municipalities Eligible...

  10. 77 FR 70855 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... services to issuers of municipal securities; communications to customers about any municipal securities... ``Definitions; general standard for advertisements'' is added to the description for Rule G-21(a). ``Product... reflect amendment to the rule. Communications With Customers Rule citation for ``Review and retention...

  11. From "Monroe" to "Monell": Defining the Scope of Municipal Liability in Federal Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    Examines opinions of lower federal courts that have struggled with problems revised by assertions of municipal liability based on section 1981, the Fourteenth Amendment, and pendent state law claims. Concludes that Monell will compound confusion and inconsistency of lower court opinions on municipal liability. Available from Business Editor, 1719…

  12. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 510 - Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In D... OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR... Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of the municipalities in Puerto Rico and the...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 510 - Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In D... OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR... Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of the municipalities in Puerto Rico and the...

  14. 17 CFR 240.17a-21 - Reports of the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board shall include in its annual report a statement and an analysis of its... Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-21 Reports of the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board. (a) Annual Report of... Board shall file with the Commission an annual report for the period from its formation until June...

  15. 78 FR 22024 - Request To Release Airport Property at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL), Oakley, Kansas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Request To Release Airport Property at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL... proposes to rule and invites public comment on the release of land at the Oakley Municipal Airport (OEL... following address: Lynn D. Martin, Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration,...

  16. 75 FR 55392 - State of the Municipal Securities Market Field Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... COMMISSION State of the Municipal Securities Market Field Hearings AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of field hearings. SUMMARY: On May 7, 2010, the Chairman of the Securities and Exchange... facts, opinions and analyses about the municipal securities market by holding a series of field...

  17. Security of Data, Stored in Information Systems of Bulgarian Municipal Administrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapralyakov, Petko

    2011-12-01

    Massive influx of information technology in municipal administrations increases their efficiency in delivering public services but increased the risk of theft of confidential information electronically. The report proposed an approach for improving information security for small municipal governments in Bulgaria through enhanced intrusion detection and prevention system.

  18. Planning for Pedestrians and Bicyclists: Results From a Statewide Municipal Survey

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Aytur, Semra A.; Satinsky, Sara B.; Kerr, Zachary Y.; Rodríguez, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background We surveyed North Carolina (NC) municipalities to document the presence of municipal walking- and bicycling-related projects, programs, and policies; to describe whether prevalence of these elements differed if recommended in a plan; and to characterize differences between urban and rural municipalities. Methods We surveyed all municipalities with ≥ 5000 persons (n = 121) and sampled municipalities with < 5000 persons (216/420), with a response rate of 54% (183/337). Responses were weighted to account for the sampling design. Results From a list provided, staff reported on their municipality’s use of walking- and bicycling-related elements (8 infrastructure projects, 9 programs, and 14 policies). The most commonly reported were projects on sidewalks (53%), streetscape improvements (51%), bicycle/walking paths (40%); programs for cultural/recreational/health (25%), general promotional activities (24%), Safe Routes to School (24%), and law enforcement (24%); and policies on maintenance (64%), new facility construction (57%), and restricted automobile speed or access (45%). Nearly all projects, programs, or policies reported were more likely if included in a plan and more prevalent in urban than rural municipalities. Conclusion These results provide cross-sectional support that plans facilitate the implementation of walking and bicycling elements, and that rural municipalities plan and implement these elements less often than urban municipalities. PMID:21918242

  19. Disposal of municipal refuse and RDF in Japan by a two-bed pyrolysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, N.; Ishi, Y.; Ito, K. Hirayama, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This system efficiently and effectively produces high-quality, high-heating-value fuel gas from municipal refuse and RDF. In 1978, the commercial demonstration plant was constructed in Yokohama and since 1979 it has operated with municipal solid waste, RDF, and industrial refuse. The technology is now ready for commercialization.

  20. Guidance: Policy for Municipality and MSW CERCLA Settlements at NPL Co-Disposal Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Transmittal memorandum and policy supplementing the 9/30/89 Interim Policy on CERCLA Settlements Involving Municipalities and Municipal Wastes. 1998 MSW Policy states that EPA will continue its policy of generally not identifying generators and transporters of MSW as PRPs at NPL sites.

  1. 78 FR 75398 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Order Granting Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... facilitating the collection and delivery of consents. Subparagraph (l)(i)(E) will except a dealer, in its... cooperation and coordination with persons engaged in regulating, clearing, settling, processing information with respect to, and facilitating transactions in municipal securities and municipal financial...

  2. Development of Effective Teacher Program: Teamwork Building Program for Thailand's Municipal Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chantathai, Pimpka; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn

    2015-01-01

    This research is aimed to formulate the effective teacher teamwork program in municipal schools in Thailand. Primary survey on current situation and problem was conducted to develop the plan to suggest potential programs. Samples were randomly selected from municipal schools by using multi-stage sampling method in order to investigate their…

  3. 76 FR 28249 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... the MSRB believes is a fair and reasonable fee for such municipal securities transaction data... MSRB believes is a fair and reasonable fee for such municipal securities transaction data. Additionally... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND...

  4. 75 FR 61806 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...\\ These amendments to Section 15B of the Exchange Act will be effective on October 1, 2010.\\8\\ \\7\\ See...-Frank Act). \\17\\ See id. B. Proposal To implement the terms of the Dodd-Frank Act by the effective date... ``no material business relationship'' with any municipal securities broker, municipal securities...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1015 - What is a new municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999... waste combustion unit that meets either of two criteria: (1) Commenced construction after August 30... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is a new municipal...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1015 - What is a new municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999... waste combustion unit that meets either of two criteria: (1) Commenced construction after August 30... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is a new municipal...

  7. Fate of Malathion in an Activated Sludge Municipal Wastewater Treatment System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    1. The degradation of malathion by municipal WWTP AS a) The capacity for AS to degrade malathion b) Degradation kinetics of AS with respect to...abiotically. Sorption kinetics and isotherm experiments resulted in negligible malathion sorption to AS minimizing the potential for sludge...FATE OF MALATHION IN AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM THESIS

  8. 76 FR 56826 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... municipal financial product is suitable for its obligated person client, and that it provide disclosure of... provide written disclosure of all material facts about the solicitation to the municipal entity being... clarification about whether the disclosure of risks and material incentives had to be in writing, as well...

  9. [Inter-municipal health consortia: the case of Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nicoletto, Sônia Cristina Stefano; Cordoni, Luiz; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2005-01-01

    Inter-municipal health consortia emerged in Brazil's Unified National Health System (SUS) policy in the late 1980s. Municipal health administrators adhered to this strategy with the aim of upgrading health services supplied to the population. This research analyzes the profile of such consortia in Paraná State, focusing on specialized medical care. Data were obtained from reports by the State Health Council and questionnaires sent to all 20 existing municipal health consortia. Governmental Decree no. 1,101 and data published in 2000 on the profile of the health system in Paraná were used as references. Of the 399 municipalities in Paraná State, 81.5% have joined municipal consortia. Specialists are allocated by municipalities (4.4%), the State government (13.6%), or Federal Government (12.8%); another 69.2% are hired by the consortia themselves. The supply of consultations with specialists is either insufficient or inadequately distributed, and there are flaws in the referral and counter-referral system. Municipal health consortia serve as viable instrument for expanding and increasing the capacity of municipalities to supply specialized care, although there is a need for well-defined criteria, planning, and improving of the referral and counter-referral system.

  10. 78 FR 20156 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Order Granting Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Independent Public Finance Advisors, dated March 12, 2013 (``NAIPFA Letter''). See also, Letters to Ronald W. Smith, Corporate Secretary, MSRB, from Ellen S. Miller, Co-Founder and Executive Director, The Sunlight... municipal securities dealers (``dealers''), their municipal finance professionals (``MFPs''),...

  11. 78 FR 72879 - Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC.... Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency Project No. 14540-000 2. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC Project No. 14539-000 Dated: November 26,...

  12. 78 FR 64494 - FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC--Project No. 13579-002 2. Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency--Project No. 14491-000 Dated: October 23, 2013. Nathaniel...

  13. 78 FR 62350 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC for Project No. 14539-000 and Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency for Project No. 14540-000. \\1\\ Under the Commission's Rules of Practice and...

  14. 78 FR 62350 - FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... Polk County, Iowa. The applications were filed by FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC for Project No. 13579-002 and Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency for Project No. 14491-000. \\1\\ Under the...

  15. 40 CFR 60.53a - Standard for municipal waste combustor organics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. 60.53a Section 60.53a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.53a Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. (a) (b) On and after the...

  16. 40 CFR 60.53a - Standard for municipal waste combustor organics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. 60.53a Section 60.53a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.53a Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. (a) (b) On and after the...

  17. 40 CFR 60.53a - Standard for municipal waste combustor organics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. 60.53a Section 60.53a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.53a Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. (a) (b) On and after the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.53a - Standard for municipal waste combustor organics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. 60.53a Section 60.53a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.53a Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. (a) (b) On and after the...

  19. 40 CFR 60.53a - Standard for municipal waste combustor organics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. 60.53a Section 60.53a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.53a Standard for municipal waste combustor organics. (a) (b) On and after the...

  20. 76 FR 45250 - Elk River Municipal Utilities; Notice of Petition for Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Elk River Municipal Utilities; Notice of Petition for Waiver Take notice... Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, Elk River Municipal Utilities (Elk River) filed a petition for...) requirements that may apply under Order Nos. 888, 889, 890, 2003, 2004, and 717. Elk River states that it...

  1. 77 FR 47060 - Missouri Joint Municipal Electric Utility Commission; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Missouri Joint Municipal Electric Utility Commission; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 30, 2012, Missouri Joint Municipal Electric Utility Commission filed a...

  2. 77 FR 61594 - Missouri Joint Municipal Electric Utility Commission; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Missouri Joint Municipal Electric Utility Commission; Notice of Filing Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Missouri Joint Municipal Electric Utility Commission filed its...

  3. 77 FR 67642 - The Municipal Electric Utilities, Association of New York, Complainant v. Niagara Mohawk Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission The Municipal Electric Utilities, Association of New York, Complainant v. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, New York Independent System Operator, Inc., Respondent; Notice of... of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e) and 825(e), the Municipal Electric Utilities...

  4. Clean Energy in City Codes: A Baseline Analysis of Municipal Codification across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Jeffrey J.; Aznar, Alexandra; Dane, Alexander; Day, Megan; Mathur, Sivani; Doris, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Municipal governments in the United States are well positioned to influence clean energy (energy efficiency and alternative energy) and transportation technology and strategy implementation within their jurisdictions through planning, programs, and codification. Municipal governments are leveraging planning processes and programs to shape their energy futures. There is limited understanding in the literature related to codification, the primary way that municipal governments enact enforceable policies. The authors fill the gap in the literature by documenting the status of municipal codification of clean energy and transportation across the United States. More directly, we leverage online databases of municipal codes to develop national and state-specific representative samples of municipal governments by population size. Our analysis finds that municipal governments with the authority to set residential building energy codes within their jurisdictions frequently do so. In some cases, communities set codes higher than their respective state governments. Examination of codes across the nation indicates that municipal governments are employing their code as a policy mechanism to address clean energy and transportation.

  5. 76 FR 72013 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Nicholas, Chief Executive Officer, Bond Dealers of America, dated September 30, 2010 (``BDA Letter... municipal securities in connection with municipal securities underwritings (e.g., issue price certificates...-17 includes an implied representation that the price an underwriter pays to an issuer is fair...

  6. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit... Domenic Calabro, Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics, U.S. EPA, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite...

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  8. 76 FR 60959 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed New Rule A-11, on Municipal Advisor Assessments, and New Form A-11-Interim September 26, 2011....

  9. 76 FR 60955 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule G-36, on Fiduciary Duty of Municipal Advisors, and a Proposed Interpretive Notice...

  10. Municipal Government Efforts to Provide Career Employment Opportunities for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Floyd A.; And Others

    The study, conducted in Dayton, Detroit, El Paso, New York City, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C., investigated efforts to create municipal career employment and training opportunities for those who cannot meet traditional entrance requirements. It also examined the impact of programs on municipal services, and ways in which such programs can…

  11. 49 CFR 22.15 - Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt. 22.15 Section 22.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.15 Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality...

  12. 49 CFR 22.15 - Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt. 22.15 Section 22.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.15 Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality...

  13. 49 CFR 22.15 - Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt. 22.15 Section 22.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.15 Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality...

  14. 49 CFR 22.15 - Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt. 22.15 Section 22.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.15 Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality...

  15. 49 CFR 22.15 - Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt. 22.15 Section 22.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.15 Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality...

  16. Decision Support Model for Municipal Solid Waste Management at Department of Defense Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    This research focuses on the development of a decision support model to identify the preferred strategy for managing municipal solid waste using the...principles of decision analysis theory. The model provides an effective decision making tool to evaluate and compare different municipal solid waste management

  17. 40 CFR 60.52a - Standard for municipal waste combustor metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor metals. 60.52a Section 60.52a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.52a Standard for municipal waste combustor metals. (a) On and after the date...

  18. 40 CFR 60.52a - Standard for municipal waste combustor metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor metals. 60.52a Section 60.52a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.52a Standard for municipal waste combustor metals. (a) On and after the date...

  19. 40 CFR 60.52a - Standard for municipal waste combustor metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor metals. 60.52a Section 60.52a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.52a Standard for municipal waste combustor metals. (a) On and after the date...

  20. 40 CFR 60.52a - Standard for municipal waste combustor metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor metals. 60.52a Section 60.52a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.52a Standard for municipal waste combustor metals. (a) On and after the date...

  1. 40 CFR 60.52a - Standard for municipal waste combustor metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor metals. 60.52a Section 60.52a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... September 20, 1994 § 60.52a Standard for municipal waste combustor metals. (a) On and after the date...

  2. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... landfill emissions. 62.14353 Section 62.14353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  4. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of...

  5. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  6. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of...

  7. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  8. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  9. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of...

  10. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... landfill emissions. 62.14353 Section 62.14353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  11. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of...

  12. Decision Support Model to Select the Optimal Municipal Solid Waste Management Strategy at United States Air Force Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The United States Air Force has recently defined three objectives in developing strategies regarding the management of municipal solid waste at the...insight concerning the selection and implementation of a municipal solid waste management policy.

  13. Decision Support Model to Select the Optimal Municipal Solid Waste Management Policy at United States Air Force Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-03

    The United States Air Force has recently defined three objectives in developing strategies regarding the management of municipal solid waste at the...insight concerning the selection and implementation of a municipal solid waste management policy.

  14. Distribution of Brazilian dermatologists according to geographic location, population and HDI of municipalities: an ecological study*

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of dermatologists in Brazilian municipalities in relation to the population, regions of the country and human development index. We conducted an ecological study based on data from the 2010 census, the 2010 human development index, and the records of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology. 5565 municipalities and 6718 dermatologists were surveyed. Only 504 (9.1%) municipalities had dermatologists, and accounted for 56.2% of the Brazilian population. The smallest population size and lowest HDI rate that best discriminated municipalities that did not have dermatologists were found to be 28,000 and 0.71, respectively. The average population density of dermatologists in cities was 1/23.000 inhabitants, and variations were independently associated with the HDI, the population of the municipalities and the region of the country. PMID:25387516

  15. Reported municipal costs from outdoor smoke-free by-laws-experience from Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2006, enclosed public and workplaces in Ontario were made smoke-free by the Smoke-free Ontario Act (SFOA). Numerous area municipalities across the province have since developed local by-laws that are more restrictive than the SFOA and ban smoking in outdoor environments including parks, beaches, and patios. The current study measured reported costs associated with the implementation and enforcement of smoke-free outdoor municipal by-laws including materials and staffing costs. The study also assessed the number of warnings or tickets issued to smokers. Ontario communities with a by-law in force for at least 2 years were included in the sample (n = 42). The study was completed by 88% of area municipalities (n = 37). Municipal staff and managers completed a survey by telephone between June-September 2012. Findings No area municipality surveyed reported that they hired additional enforcement staff as a result of their community’s smoke-free by-law. Most municipalities (95%) posted signage to support awareness of their by-law; signs costs ranged from $40-$150/sign with most municipalities reporting signs were made in-house. Most communities reported actively enforcing the by-law; six communities reported they had issued tickets to people not in compliance with outdoor smoking restrictions. Conclusions The implementation, promotion, and enforcement of outdoor smoke-free by-laws have required municipal staff time and in most cases have promotional costs, but these have come from existing budgets and using existing staff. Outdoor smoke-free by-laws have not created significant burdens on municipal enforcement staff or on municipal budgets. PMID:24581326

  16. Achievements and future path of Tehran municipality in urban health domain: An Iranian experience

    PubMed Central

    Damari, Behzad; Riazi-Isfahani, Sahand

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to national laws and world experiences; provision, maintenance, and improving citizens’ health are considered to be the essential functions of municipalities as a "social institute". In order to equitably promote health conditions at urban level, particularly in marginal areas, since 2004 targeted efforts have been implemented in the municipality of Tehran metropolis. This study was intended to identify and analyze these targeted measures and tries to analyze health interventions in a conceptual framework and propose a future path. Methods: This is a qualitative study with content analysis approach. Reviewing documents and structured interviews with national health policy making and planning experts and executive managers of 22-region municipalities of Tehran metropolis were used to collect data. The data were analyzed on the basis of conceptual framework prepared for urban health in 4 domains including municipal interventions, goal achievements, drivers and obstacles of success, and the way forward. Results: From the viewpoint of interviewees, these new health actions of Tehran municipality are more based on public participation and the municipality was able to prioritize health issue in the programs and policies of Tehran city council. Tehran municipality has accomplished three types of interventions to improve health, which in orders of magnitude are: facilitative, promotional, and mandatory interventions. Development and institutionalization of public participation is the greatest achievement in health-oriented actions; and expansion of environmental and physical health-oriented facilities and promoting a healthy lifestyle are next in ranks. Conclusion: Since management alterations seriously challenges institutionalization of actions and innovations especially in the developing countries, it is suggested that mayors of metropolitan cities like Tehran document and review municipal health measures as soon as possible and while eliminating

  17. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required quarterly usage of carbon using the appropriate equation in § 62.15390. (e) Your municipal waste... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1550 - What municipal waste combustion units must I address in my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What municipal waste combustion units... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1550 What municipal waste combustion units...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15020 - Can my small municipal waste combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Can my small municipal waste combustion... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units... combustion unit be exempt from this subpart? (a) Small municipal waste combustion units that combust...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1550 - What municipal waste combustion units must I address in my State plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What municipal waste combustion units... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of State Plans § 60.1550 What municipal waste combustion units...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1810 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1810 Section 60.1810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30... combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam, you must install,...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1545 - Does this subpart directly affect municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State? 60.1545 Section 60.1545 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State? (a) No, this subpart does not...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1045 - Are there different subcategories of small municipal waste combustion units within this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... small municipal waste combustion units within this subpart? 60.1045 Section 60.1045 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... combustion units within this subpart? (a) Yes, this subpart subcategorizes small municipal waste...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1545 - Does this subpart directly affect municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State? 60.1545 Section 60.1545 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... municipal waste combustion unit owners and operators in my State? (a) No, this subpart does not...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1045 - Are there different subcategories of small municipal waste combustion units within this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... small municipal waste combustion units within this subpart? 60.1045 Section 60.1045 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... combustion units within this subpart? (a) Yes, this subpart subcategorizes small municipal waste...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1320 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1320 Section 60.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After... Monitoring Requirements § 60.1320 How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit? (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1810 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1810 Section 60.1810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30... combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam, you must install,...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1320 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1320 Section 60.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After... Monitoring Requirements § 60.1320 How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit? (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1810 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1810 Section 60.1810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30... combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam, you must install,...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1320 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1320 Section 60.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After... Monitoring Requirements § 60.1320 How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit? (a)...

  11. Economic feasibility of drying municipal solid-waste combustion residue

    SciTech Connect

    Blaisdell, M.; Lee, D.; Baetz, B. . Dept. of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics)

    1990-08-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is increasing in many parts of the world. Waste incineration creates an ash residue that must be disposed of typically in a solid-waste landfill. The ash is often water-quenched after incineration and may contain up to 50% moisture by weight. This moisture increases the weight of the ash sent to the landfill and the leachate load placed on the landfill's leachate collection system. In this paper, current literature on MSW ash is reviewed, current ash handling practices are outlined, and the economic feasibility of ash-moisture reduction schemes are investigated. Electric heating of the quenched bottom ash is shown to be an economically feasible scheme for moisture reduction. For current cost levels, the net yearly benefit may be as high as $1,200,000 for a typical 500 tons per day (TPD) plant.

  12. Municipal solid waste landfill siting using intelligent system

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Jarrah, Omar . E-mail: aljarrah@just.edu.jo; Abu-Qdais, Hani . E-mail: hqdais@just.edu.jo

    2006-07-01

    Historically, landfills have been the dominant alternative for the ultimate disposal of municipal solid waste. This paper addresses the problem of siting a new landfill using an intelligent system based on fuzzy inference. The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including topography and geology, natural resources, socio-cultural aspects, and economy and safety. The system will rank sites on a scale of 0-100%, with 100% being the most appropriate one. A weighting system is used for all of the considered factors. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  13. Municipal solid waste landfill siting using intelligent system.

    PubMed

    Al-Jarrah, Omar; Abu-Qdais, Hani

    2006-01-01

    Historically, landfills have been the dominant alternative for the ultimate disposal of municipal solid waste. This paper addresses the problem of siting a new landfill using an intelligent system based on fuzzy inference. The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including topography and geology, natural resources, socio-cultural aspects, and economy and safety. The system will rank sites on a scale of 0-100%, with 100% being the most appropriate one. A weighting system is used for all of the considered factors. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  14. Aerobic biological treatment of leachates from municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Andrés, P; Gutierrez, F; Arrabal, C; Cortijo, M

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to improve chemical oxygen demand (COD) elimination by secondary biological treatment from leachate of municipal solid waste landfill. This effluent was a supernatant liquid obtained after physicochemical processes and coagulating with Al3+ followed by ammoniacal stripping. First, respirometric assays were carried out to determine the substrate biodegradability. Specific sludge respiration rate (R(s)) vs. concentration of substrate (S), showed an increasing specific rate of assimilation of substrate (Rs), which reached the highest value, when the substrate concentration (COD) was between 75 and 200 mg O2 L(-1). Second, continuous experiments were made in an aerobic digester to test the previous respirometric data and the results showed removal efficiency of COD between 83 and 69%, and a substrate assimilation rate between 1.3 and 3.1 g COD g(-1) volatile suspended solids d(-1).

  15. Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ro, Kyoung S.; Cantrell, Keri; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hunt, Patrick G.

    2007-02-21

    Applicability of wet gasification technology for various animal and municipal wastes was examined. Wet gasification of swine manure and raw sewage sludge generated high number of net energies. Furthermore, the moisture content of these wastes is ideal for current wet gasification technology. Significant quantities of water must be added to dry feedstock wastes such as poultry litter, feedlot manures and MSW to make the feedstock pumpable. Because of their high ash contents, MSW and unpaved feedlot manure would not generate positive energy return from wet gasification. The costs of a conceptual wet gasification manure management system for a model swine farm were significantly higher than that of the anaerobic lagoon system. However, many environmental advantages of the wet gasification system were identified, which might reduce the costs significantly. Due to high sulfur content of the wastes, pretreatment to prevent the poisoning of catalysts is critically needed.

  16. Energy recovery and cogeneration from an existing municipal incinerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crego, D. F.; Eller, V. L.; Stephenson, J. W.

    1982-02-01

    An existing 727 TPD incinerator burning mixed municipal refuse was deemed to be a feasible candidate for a cogeneration energy retrofit. It is indicated that equipment and construction of the retrofit will cost $17.6 million or $24,200/rated tonne in 1980 dollars; air pollution control equipment will cost 10.4 million or $14,300/tonne. Furnace temperature and gas samplings along with pilot air pollution control equipment tests were conducted. Refuse was characterized on both wet and dry seasons. Final design is based upon burning 155,000 TPY of refuse from which can be generated, sufficient steam and electricity for inhouse use and an additional amount of 64 million kWh for sale.

  17. Fractionation of mutagens from municipal sludge and waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.W.; Stewart, D.L.; Weimer, W.C.

    1989-02-01

    There are potential environmental concerns from the disposal of municipal waste-water effluents and sewage-treatment-plant sludges. The report summarizes the microbial mutagenic evaluation of 13 sewage-sludge samples from various locations in Texas and Washington state. The sewage sludge samples were air-dried followed by sequential Soxhlet extraction with pentane, methylene chloride, and methanol. The organic extracts from three of the samples were further fractionated by normal phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The obtained extracts and fractions were bioassayed for microbial mutagenic response using the standard histidine reversion assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, both with and without S9 metabolic activation. Extracts and fractions were chemically analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (GC) using a variety of element-specific detectors, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS).

  18. Geologic report, Middlesex Municipal Landfill site, Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This is a report on geologic and hydrologic investigations of the former Municipal Landfill, Middlesex, New Jersey, conducted during 1982 and 1983 by Bechtel National, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office. The investigations were designed to assess the feasibility of stabilizing the radioactive contamination present on site. The investigations were conducted in two phases: Phase 1 consisted of permeability tests; Phase 2 consisted of tests to ascertain the extent of hydraulic interconnection between various stratigraphic units. The investigations revealed that a complete separation of bedrock and overburden did not exist and that the clay present could not be relied upon to confine vertical migration of contaminants over the long term. 6 references, 27 figures, 6 tables.

  19. A municipal scale bioenergy facility at Folsom California

    SciTech Connect

    Kayhanian, M.; Tchobanoglous, G.; Harrison, L.

    1994-12-31

    The California Prison Industry Authority, in conjunction with the City of Folsom, is constructing a 100 ton/d municipal solid waste recovery facility to be operated using inmate labor. Through manual sorting, all useful organic and inorganic materials will be recovered. The remaining organic material will be further processed to remove hazardous and inert material. An anaerobic digestion process will be used to recover energy from the processed organic material. It is proposed that the gas generated by the digestion process be used to power a fuel cell, for the production of electricity. The digested solids will be mixed with shredded wood and aerobically composted for marketing. Major benefits expected from the Folsom Correctional Resource Recovery Facility include: (i) diversion of MSW from landfill, (ii) production of energy, (iii) production of a quality compost for sale or use, and (iv) elimination of the environmental problems associated with landfilling.

  20. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Manaf, Latifah Abd Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-15

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  1. Awareness about taeniasis and neurocysticercosis among municipal schoolteachers in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Mishra, D; Kalra, V; Aggarwal, K

    2007-12-01

    Taenia solium is the commonest parasitic infection of CNS and an important cause of new-onset seizures and epilepsy in children and adults. Human activities impact on almost every one of the stages of the lifecycle of the worm as man is responsible for dispersion of the parasite's egg through outdoor defecation and indiscriminate disposal of feces. Health education to cause behavioral changes in these practices can therefore be an effective intervention strategy. We conducted a study to assess KAP regarding taeniasis and neurocysticercosis among municipal school teachers in Delhi. The findings are presented in this communication. The study revealed that, general information related to personal food hygiene was known to majority of the teachers but core information in the context of taeniasis/cysticercosis and seizure prevention was lacking.

  2. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Roy, James W; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources.

  3. An overview of municipal solid waste management in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xudong; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2010-04-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in China warrants particular attention as China has become the largest MSW generator in the world and the total amount of MSW it produces continues to increase. In recent years, central and local governments have made great efforts to improve MSWM in China. New regulations and policies have been issued, urban infrastructure has been improved, and commercialization and international cooperation have been encouraged. Considering these developments, an overview is necessary to analyze the current state as well as new opportunities and challenges regarding MSWM in China. This paper shows that since the late 1990s, the amount of MSW collected has been largely decoupled from economic growth and incineration has become an increasingly widespread treatment method for MSW. We identify and discuss four major challenges and barriers related to China's MSWM, and propose an integrated management framework to improve the overall eco-efficiency of MSWM.

  4. Trace elemental characteristics of aerosols emitted from municipal incinerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a continuing investigation of high temperature combustion aerosols, elemental composition of size differentiated aerosols emitted from a local municipal incinerator was studied. Aerosols were aerodynamically separated into eight diameter groups ranging from 0.43 mm to 20 mm, collected, and analyzed by charged particle induced X-ray emission technique. On line data collection and reduction codes generated aerial densities for elements from Na to U with sensitivities in the ng/cu m range for most elements. From the total weights of aerosols collected per stage, their size distribution was determined to be bimodal, with one group centered at a diameter of 0.54 mm and the other at a diameter of 5.6 mm. Measured elemental concentrations in various size ranges indicate that K and S show a strong tendency to concentrate on aerosol surfaces. A weaker trend for surface preference was also observed for Mn and Ni, but other elements show no such trend.

  5. An overview of municipal solid waste management in China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xudong; Geng Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2010-04-15

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in China warrants particular attention as China has become the largest MSW generator in the world and the total amount of MSW it produces continues to increase. In recent years, central and local governments have made great efforts to improve MSWM in China. New regulations and policies have been issued, urban infrastructure has been improved, and commercialization and international cooperation have been encouraged. Considering these developments, an overview is necessary to analyze the current state as well as new opportunities and challenges regarding MSWM in China. This paper shows that since the late 1990s, the amount of MSW collected has been largely decoupled from economic growth and incineration has become an increasingly widespread treatment method for MSW. We identify and discuss four major challenges and barriers related to China's MSWM, and propose an integrated management framework to improve the overall eco-efficiency of MSWM.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The overall objective of the study in this report was to gather data on waste management technologies to allow comparison of various alternatives for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objectives of the study were to: 1. Compile detailed data for existing waste management technologies on costs, environmental releases, energy requirements and production, and coproducts such as recycled materials and compost. Identify missing information necessary to make energy, economic, and environmental comparisons of various MSW management technologies, and define needed research that could enhance the usefulness of the technology. 3. Develop a data base that can be used to identify the technology that best meets specific criteria defined by a user of the data base. Volume I contains the report text. Volume II contains supporting exhibits. Volumes III through X are appendices, each addressing a specific MSW management technology. Volumes XI and XII contain project bibliographies.

  7. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  8. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  9. A technologist's view on municipal solid waste landfill risks

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    There are risks associated with all human activity. The level of risk that is acceptable is a matter of choice, personal judgement, and public policy. We are not conscious of many of the risks that we take. We tend to be unbalanced in our assessments of risk. We attach more importance to accidents and catastrophic events where large numbers of people die (e.g., airplane crashes) than to the individual deaths from a large number of events (e.g., deaths from automobile accidents). Scientists do not communicate technical risks well. Public risk perceptions are based on broad considerations such as justice, equity, choice, concern for future generations, morality, etc. Thus, there are frequent differences between a technical assessment of risk versus the public's perception of the risk. As engineers and scientists, it is our duty to effectively communicate risk options facing society. Technologists must understand why the public feels the way it does about waste risks and address the root causes of those concerns. There is a disturbing trend to concentrate on small'' risks (e.g., chemicals in clothing) and to minimize truly important and large risks (e.g., the disparity between rich and poor). The risks posed by the modern municipal waste landfill are small compared to others we face daily. Regarding contamination of drinking water, the EPA reported in its 1988 report to Congress that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills pose between no and very low risks, some 12% pose moderate risks, and only a small fraction of a percent nationwide have a high risk. The risks from gas emissions are summarily low. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J.; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. • The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. • A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. • Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.

  11. Briquette comprising caking coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, H.W.

    1980-09-30

    Briquettes of specified geometry and composition are produced to serve as feed material or ''burden'' in a moving-burden gasifier for the production of a synthesis or fuel gas from organic solid waste materials and coal, including especially, the so-called ''caking'' coals, as in the process of copending application number 675,918. The briquettes are formed from a well-blended mixture of shredded organic solid wastes, including especially, municipal solid waste (Msw) or biomass, and crushed caking coal, including coal fines. A binder material may or may not be required, depending on the coal/msw ratio and the compaction pressure employed. The briquettes may be extruded, stamped, or pressed, employing compaction pressures in excess of 1000 psi, and preferably in the range of 2000 to 10,000 psi. The briquettes may be circular, polygonal, or irregular in cross-section; they may be solid, or concentrically perforated to form a hollow cylinder or polygon; they may be formed into saddles, pillows or doughnuts. The ratio of caking coal to shredded municipal solid waste is controlled so that each part of the predominantly cellulosic organic solid waste will be blended with 0.5 to 3.0 parts of crushed coal. Suitable binder materials include dewatered sewage slude (Dss), ''black liquor'' rich in lignin derivatives, black strap molasses, waste oil, and starch. The binder concentration is preferably in the range of 2 to 6 percent. If coals high in sulfur content are to be processed, at least a stoichiometric equivalent of dolomite may be included in the briquette formulation to eliminate a major fraction of the sulfur with the slag.

  12. Attenuation of municipal landfill leachate through land treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of municipal landfill’s leachate is considered as one of the most significant environmental issues. In this study a laboratory experiment was conducted through land treatment, achieving an efficient and economical method by using Vetiver plant. Moreover, the effects of land treatment of leachate of municipal landfills on the natural reduction of organic and inorganic contaminants in the leachate after the pre-treatment in the Aradkouh disposal center are invested. Three pilots including the under-investigation region’s soil planted by Vetiver plant, the region’s intact soil pilot and the artificial composition of the region’s soil including the natural region’s soil, sand, and rock stone are used. The leachate, having passed its initial treatment, passed through the soil and to the pilot. It was collected in the end of the pilots and its organic and inorganic contaminants were measured. However, the land treatment of leachate was conducted in a slow rate at various speeds. According to the results, in order to remove COD, BOD5, TDS, TSS, TOC the best result was obtained in the region’s soil planted with Vetiver plant and at the speed of 0.2 ml per minute which resulted 99.1%, 99.7%, 52.4%, 98.8%, 94.9% removal efficiencies, respectively. It also can be concluded that the higher the organic rate load is, the lower the efficiency of the removal would be. In addition, EC & pH were measured and the best result was obtained in the region’s soil planted with Vetiver plant and at the speed of 0.2 ml/min. PMID:24397862

  13. Evaluation in health: participatory methodology and involvement of municipal managers

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Cristiane Andrea Locatelli; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze scopes and limits of the use of participatory methodology of evaluation with municipal health managers and administrators. METHODS Qualitative research with health policymakers and managers of the Comissão Intergestores Regional (CIR – Regional Interagency Commission) of a health region of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Representatives from seven member cities participated in seven workshops facilitated by the researchers, with the aim of assessing a specific problem of the care line, which would be used as a tracer of the system integrality. The analysis of the collected empirical material was based on the hermeneutic-dialectic methodology and aimed at the evaluation of the applied participatory methodology, according to its capacity of promoting a process of assessment capable to be used as a support for municipal management. RESULTS With the participatory approach of evaluation, we were able to promote in-depth discussions with the group, especially related to the construction of integral care and to the inclusion of the user’s perspective in decision-making, linked to the search for solution to concrete problems of managers. By joint exploration, the possibility of using data from electronic information systems was opened, as well as information coming directly from the users of the services, to enhance discussions and negotiations between partners. The participants were disbelievers of the replication potential of this type of evaluation without the direct monitoring of the academy, given the difficulty of organizing the process in everyday life, already taken by emergency and political issues. CONCLUSIONS Evaluations of programs and services carried out within the Regional Interagency Commission, starting from the local interest and facilitating the involvement of its members by the use of participatory methodologies, can contribute to the construction of integral care. To the extent that the act of evaluating stay

  14. Municipal solid waste management in Kolkata, India - A review

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, Subhasish Dutta, Amit Ray, Subhabrata

    2009-04-15

    Kolkata is one of four metropolitan cities in India. With an area of 187.33 sq km and a population of about 8 million, it generates around 3,000 t d{sup -1} of municipal solid waste (MSW) at a rate of 450-500 g per capita per day. With rapid urbanization as a result of planned and unplanned growth and industrialization, the problems associated with handling MSW have increased at an alarming rate over the past few years. No source segregation arrangement exists; there is only limited (60%) house-to-house collection; and 50-55% open vats are used in the present collection system. The operational efficiency of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) transport system is about 50%, with a fleet composed of about 30-35% old vehicles. The majority (80%) of these, particularly the hired vehicles, are more than 20 years old. The newly added areas covered by KMC have even lower collection efficiencies, and only an informal recycling system exists. The waste collected has a low energy value (3,350-4,200 kJ kg{sup -1}) with high moisture and inert content. A 700 t d{sup -1} compost plant set up in 2000 has not been functioning effectively since 2003. Open dumping (without liners and without a leachate management facility) and the threat of groundwater pollution, as well as saturation of an existing landfill site (Dhapa) are the most pressing problems for the city today. KMC spends 70-75% of its total expenditures on collection of solid waste, 25-30% on transportation, and less than 5% on final disposal arrangements. The Kolkata Environmental Improvement Project, funded by the Asian Development Bank, is seen as only a partial solution to the problem. A detailed plan should emphasize segregation at the source, investment in disposal arrangements (including the use of liners and leachate collection), and an optimized transport arrangement, among improvements.

  15. Adverse Health Problems Among Municipality Workers in Alexandria (Egypt)

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W.; Eassa, Safaa M.; Lotfi, Sameh E.; El Masry, Sanaa A.; Shatat, Hanan Z.; Kotkat, Amira M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Solid waste management has emerged as an important human and environmental health issue. Municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs) are potentially exposed to a variety of occupational biohazards and safety risks. The aim of this study was to describe health practices and safety measures adopted by workers in the main municipal company in Alexandria (Egypt) as well as the pattern of the encountered work related ill health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013. We interviewed and evaluated 346 workers serving in about 15 different solid waste management activities regarding personal hygiene, the practice of security and health care measures and the impact of solid waste management. Results: Poor personal hygiene and self-care, inadequate protective and safety measures for potentially hazardous exposure were described. Impact of solid waste management on health of MSWWs entailed high prevalence of gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin and musculoskeletal morbidities. Occurrence of accidents and needle stick injuries amounted to 46.5% and 32.7% respectively. The risk of work related health disorders was notably higher among workers directly exposed to solid waste when compared by a group of low exposure potential particularly for diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-3.8), vomiting (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-6.6), abdominal colic (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2), dysentery (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10), dyspepsia (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3), low back/sciatic pain (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.8-7), tinnitus (OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 0.3-122) and needle stick injury (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.1-5.5). Conclusions: Workers exposed to solid waste exhibit significant increase in risk of ill health. Physician role and health education could be the key to assure the MSWWs health safety. PMID:24932385

  16. Heavy metal partitioning in a municipal solid waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sorum, L.; Fossum, M.; Hustad, J.E.; Evensen, E.

    1997-12-01

    Norway has the following priorities for management of municipal solid waste (MSW) (1) Reduce waste generation and toxic components in waste, (2) Encourage re-use, recycling and energy recovery, and (3) Secure an environmentally safe management of residues. MSW consists of household waste and waste from the service and trade industry delivered to municipal waste treatment plants or recycling schemes. In 1995, a total of 2.7 million tons of MSW (1.26 million tons of household waste and 1.44 million tons of waste from service and trade industry) was handled as follows: 68% was deposited on landfills, 18% was combusted, 13% recycled and 1% composted. Combustion of MSW is handled in five larger plants with energy recovery located in different cities in Norway. In addition, a new incinerator for MSW is planned. This incinerator will have to meet the new emission regulations given by the European Union which are more stringent than the present regulations. Hence, Norway is moving towards more stringent regulations, leading to an increased interest in the environmental aspects of MSW incinerators. During 1995 Trondheim Energy Company carried out an investigation program to examine the residues from the incinerator. Primary attention was on the heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and the landfill leacate. The program was conducted in order to establish more information about characteristics of the residues and thus be able to undertake a sounder evaluation of the environmental aspects of the final treatment of these products. This program was supplementary to the emission analysis done periodically for the flue gas and drain water. The objective of this work has been to establish knowledge about the partitioning of heavy metals through the incinerator and calculate the concentrations of heavy metal in the input MSW.

  17. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily (134)Cs and (137)Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added (133)Cs (stable nuclide) or (134)Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, (133)Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. (134)Cs behaved in a similar fashion as (133)Cs. We found through TG-DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations.

  18. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal) upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics) and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling). It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Results Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Conclusions Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants. PMID:21284885

  19. Estimation of municipal solid waste generation and landfill area in Asian developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, Anupam; Yamamoto, Yugo; Morioka, Tohru

    2010-09-01

    In developing Asian countries, the municipal cooperations are unable to handle the increasing amount of municipal solid waste, which into the uncollected waste being spread on roads and in other public areas leading to tremendous pollution and destruction of land and negative impact on human health. Generation of municipal solid waste increases with the rapid urbanization and accelerated economic development with in the rapidly growing advanced technological societies. The nature of municipal solid waste is a term usually applied to a heterogeneous collection group of waste produced in urban areas, the nature of which varies from region to region. The common problem faced by all developing Asian countries, is the disposal of municipal solid waste and availability of land fill site area. Present study explains the correlation analysis of among different factors of municipal solid waste and the objective is to assess the future municipal solid waste stream in Asian developing countries. The other goal of this study was to calculate the future land area that would be required for landfill site disposal in Asian developing countries.

  20. Co-combustion of shredder residues and municipal solid waste in a Swedish municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Redin, L A; Hjelt, M; Marklund, S

    2001-12-01

    Incinerating automotive shredder residue (ASR) in order to increase the recovery from end of life vehicles (ELVs) is an attractive option when recycling this material. In this study, incineration combined with energy recovery, was investigated. The incineration experiments, where 20% shredder residue (SR) was burnt with conventional municipal solid waste (MSW), were conducted in a full-scale MSW horizontal grate incinerator. Measurements were made before, during and after the incineration. The results showed some minor increases in the emission levels of raw gases sampled after an electrostatic filter, but almost no significant differences when sampled after a wet scrubber. An increased level of 'non-toxic' metals was detected within the bottom ash. It was concluded that refined SR, in small quantities, is suitable to add to MSW.