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Sample records for munitions container pa103

  1. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ([minus]60[degrees]F) temperatures.

  2. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ({minus}60{degrees}F) temperatures.

  3. PA103 Container Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on PA103 containers unitized on a pallet with dunnage assemblies...supplied by Olin Ordnance. This report contains test results with the palletized unit load tested failing to meet MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for

  4. Explosive Containment Chamber Vulnerability to Chemical Munition Fragment Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Benham, R.A.; Fischer, S.H.; Kipp, M.E.; Martinez, R.R.

    1999-02-01

    Scenarios in which the explosive burster charge in a chemical munition accidentally detonates inside demilitarization containment chambers are analyzed. The vulnerability of an inner Auxiliary Pressure Vessel and the primary Explosive Containment Chamber to impact by fragments from the largest explosive charge expected to be placed in these chambers (M426, 8 inch, chemical, 7 lbs Comp B) is evaluated. Numerical (CTH) and empirical (ConWep) codes are used to characterize the munition fragments, and assess the consequences of their impact and penetration on the walls of these vessels. Both pristine and corroded configurations of the munition have been considered, with and without liquid agent fill. When the munition burster charge detonates, munition case fragments impact and perforate the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel wall, resulting in extensive breakup of this inner chamber and the formation of additional fragments. These residual munition case and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel fragments have sufficient mass and velocity to crater the Explosive Containment Chamber inner wall layer, with accompanying localized permanent deformation (bulging) of both the inner and outer chamber walls. The integrity of the Explosive Containment Chamber was retained under all of the APV / munition configurations considered in this study, with no evidence that primary (munition) or secondary (munition and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel) fragments will perforate the inner chamber wall. Limited analyses of munition detonation without the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel present indicate that some munition span fragments could form under those conditions that have sufficient mass and velocity to perforate the inner wall of the Explosive Containment Chamber.

  5. Millimeter Wave Active Sensing Technology For Self-Contained Munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunton, Andrew J.

    1983-10-01

    Active millimeter wave (MMW) sensing technology is playing an increasing role throughout the DoD research and development community in the area of Self Contained Munitions (SCM's), autonomous missiles and armament primarily intended for air and surface launched standoff antiarmor weapon systems. Each type of SCM, which requires fire-and-forget search, detection, discrimination and warhead aiming sensing functions, places varied operational, packaging and performance specifications on its MMW sensor subsystem. This paper attempts to portray the rationale for implementation of active MMW sensing devices into SCM's, along with a description of the spectrum of SCM sensor operational parameters. A treatise of active MMW sensor technologies required for ultimate successful weaponization will include discussions in the areas of signal processing and MMW RF hardware. Ultimately, as active MMW technology matures, the critical trade between complexity, cost and effectiveness must be analyzed for each SCM type. A qualitative discussion in this area will be covered as well, yielding insight into future MMW development areas which require increased heavy emphasis in order to meet the stringent requirements on SCM active MMW sensing subsystems.

  6. A portable local exhaust hood system used to sample one-ton containers (TCs) previously filled with chemical warfare munitions

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.R.; McFeters, J.J.; Williams, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Muscle Shoals, Alabama, by contract with the Department of the Army, Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA), Denver, Colorado, sampled and verified the decontamination level of 2,354 empty one-ton containers (TCs) previously used to store chemical warfare munitions. The TCs had previously been chemically and/or thermally decontaminated and were stored on RMA awaiting removal and disposal. The size and weight of the TCs prohibited placing them inside an enclosure during sampling. To enable sampling containers in place, a portable local exhaust hood was devised to protect sampling personnel and to prevent the release of any residual chemical agent vapors to the environment. Agent vapors captured by the hood were scrubbed through a 200-pound bed of activated charcoal before being released to the ambient environment. Engineers and work crews on-site in Denver conceived the hood design and tested three prototypes before obtaining a functional unit. Crafts persons in Muscle Shoals fabricated the hood designs and made modifications. Over a five-month period in the summer of 1990, TVA successfully sampled 2,354 TCs for four chemical agents with no personnel exposures and no release of agent into the environment. Residual contamination was identified in 547 TCs.

  7. Classification of munition fill using laser acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.G.; Blackwood, L.G.

    1997-08-01

    Identification of a munition fill is easier if one can determine if there is fill material present (empty versus full), and if so, the phase (solid or liquid) of the fill. Previous munition inspection efforts by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) determined that resonance information could determine the fill. A portable, noncontacting laser-acoustic system was developed by INEEL that uses a low-power laser system to measure the container`s vibration characteristics in response to an acoustic excitation. These vibration characteristics were shown to be functions of the fill material and munition geometry. The laser acoustic system was used to characterize the fill of over one hundred 155-mm munitions. Additional research and development using this system is being performed for the Mobile Munitions Assessment System.

  8. Mobile munitions assessment system development

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, L.C.; Watts, K.D.; Jorgensen, C.L.

    1996-05-01

    The United States has been involved in the development, testing, storage and disposal of chemical weapons since World War I. As a result, there are numerous sites which contain the presence of chemical warfare materiel. This materiel is in the form of buried surplus munitions, munitions that did not detonate during testing and other forms. These items pose a significant human health and environmental hazard and must be disposed of properly. The US Army was tasked by the Department of Defense with the remediation of all non-stockpile chemical warfare materiel. To help comply with this tasking, the Army Project Manager for Nonstockpile Chemical Materiel is sponsoring the development of a Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS). The system is being developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Dugway Proving Ground. The purpose of the system is to inspect suspect munitions and containers, identify the fill, evaluate the fuzing and firing train and analyze samples from the surrounding area to determine if chemical warfare materiel is present. The information gained from the application of the MMAS and other systems is intended to be used to establish the best method to handle and dispose of a given munition and its contents.

  9. 2001 Industry Studies: Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    industry can pay, and the munitions industry has difficulty providing the lucrative stock options and other equity attractions that other industries...improve the financial strength of the munitions industry, and result in an enhanced ability to provide stock options and equity attractions to both

  10. The munitions provisions of the Federal Facility Compliance Act

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Green, D.R.; Queen, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) was signed by President Bush on October 6, 1992. This Act amends the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the primary law governing hazardous waste management in the US The most significant provision of the FFCA was the waiver of sovereign immunity. This waiver subjects Federal facilities to the same ``incentives`` as the private sector for compliance. While the waiver has broad implications for all Federal facilities, other provisions of the FFCA impact specific sectors of the Federal complex. The focus of this paper is the FFCA Munitions Provisions, which have the potential to change some aspects of the structure of munitions management within the military. The Munitions Provisions, contained in Section 107 of the FFCA, modifies Section 3004 of RCRA by adding a new subsection (y) on Munitions. Section 107 requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop, after consultation with the Department of Defense (DOD) and appropriate State officials, regulations identifying when military munitions (including conventional and chemical munitions) become hazardous waste, and to provide for the safe transportation and storage of such waste. The FFCA requires EPA to promulgate the final ``Munitions Rule`` by October 6, 1994. These are the only provisions of the FFCA that require a new rulemaking. It is clear that the Munitions Rule could have a significant effect on the way in which DOD manages munitions. Demilitarization, range management, training activities, and emergency response actions may be affected. It is important for DOD, the Services, and individual installations, to be aware of potential impacts of the FFCA on munitions management operations. The purpose of this paper is to review several important munitions Rule issues, and to discuss potential impacts of these issues.

  11. Munitions integrity and corrosion features observed during the HUMMA deep-sea munitions disposal site investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Jeff A. K.; Chock, Taylor

    2016-06-01

    An evaluation of the current condition of sea-disposed military munitions observed during the 2009 Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment Project investigation is presented. The 69 km2 study area is located south of Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, and is positioned within a former deep-sea disposal area designated as Hawaii-05 or HI-05 by the United States Department of Defense. HI-05 is known to contain both conventional and chemical munitions that were sea-disposed between 1920 and 1951. Digital images and video reconnaissance logs collected during six remotely operated vehicle and 16 human-occupied vehicle surveys were used to classify the integrity and state of corrosion of the 1842 discarded military munitions (DMM) objects encountered. Of these, 5% (or 90 individual DMM objects) were found to exhibit a mild-moderate degree of corrosion. The majority (66% or 1222 DMM objects) were observed to be significantly corroded, but visually intact on the seafloor. The remaining 29% of DMM encountered were found to be severely corroded and breached, with their contents exposed. Chemical munitions were not identified during the 2009 investigation. In general, identified munitions known to have been constructed with thicker casings were better preserved. Unusual corrosion features were also observed, including what are termed here as 'corrosion skirts' that resembled the flow and cementation of corrosion products at and away from the base of many munitions, and 'corrosion pedestal' features resembling a combination of cemented corrosion products and seafloor sediments that were observed to be supporting munitions above the surface of the seafloor. The origin of these corrosion features could not be determined due to the lack of physical samples collected. However, a microbial-mediated formation hypothesis is presented, based on visual analysis, which can serve as a testable model for future field programs.

  12. Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions

    DOEpatents

    Tschritter, Kenneth L.; Haroldsen, Brent L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Stofleth, Jerome H.; DiBerardo, Raymond A.

    2005-04-19

    An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment and neutralization of the munition's chemical fills, and means for heating and agitating the contents of the vessel. The system is portable, rapidly deployable and provides the capability of explosively destroying and detoxifying chemical munitions within a gas-tight enclosure so that there is no venting of toxic or hazardous chemicals during detonation.

  13. Implementing Advanced Classification on Munitions Response Sites: A Guide to Informed Decision Making for Project Managers, Regulators, and Contractors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT The Munitions Response Program ( MRP ) is charged with characterizing and, where necessary...Summary The Munitions Response Program ( MRP ) is charged with characterizing and, where necessary, remediating munitions-contaminated sites. During a...be nonhazardous, some of these expensive measures could be eliminated or they could be left unexcavated entirely. The MRP is severely constrained

  14. Munitions, Industry Study. Spring 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    munitions industry has been transforming from one dominated by conventional munitions (artillery, bullets, mortar , etc.) to an industry dominated by... bombs were introduced during Vietnam. These new weapons enabled the US to Page 1 destroy a bridge in four sorties that previously had required 870...the effectiveness of thousands of unguided bombs . This 8% total represented 84% of the total cost of munitions used in Operation DESERT STORM. As

  15. Emergency destruction system for recovered chemical munitions

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, T.J.; Stofleth, J.H.; Haroldsen, B.L.

    1998-04-01

    At the request of the US Army Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, Sandia National Laboratories is developing a transportable system for destroying recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions. The system uses shaped charges to access the agent and burster followed by chemical neutralization to destroy them. The entire process takes place inside a sealed pressure vessel. In this paper, they review the design, operation, and testing of a prototype system capable of containing up to one pound of explosive.

  16. SERDP munition disposal source characterization pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.C.; Couch, R.G.; Fried, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting studies to develop and implement technologies for the safe, efficient, and environmentally sound disposal of obsolete munitions and propellants which are stored at various locations across the country. One proposed disposal technique is the open-air burning or detonation (OB/OD) of this material. Although OB/OD is viewed as an efficient and cost-effective method for reducing the inventory of unwanted munitions and propellants, questions regarding its safety and environmental impacts must be addressed. Since very large amounts of munitions and propellants must be consumed inexpensively in relatively short time periods and with the very restrictive Federal and State regulations on environmental issues, it is clear that traditional OB/OD procedures will not be acceptable and that it is necessary to develop modified or advanced OB/OD technology. The effectiveness and environmental impact of the OB/OD technology must be verified by experimental data and with validated numerical models for acceptance by Federal and State regulators. Specifically, technology must be developed and tested that minimizes toxic bum and detonation products the noise (peak pressure) and destructive effect (impulse) of the explosive blast generation and travel distance of shrapnel, and entrainment of dust. Three explosion attenuation scenarios are analyzed: Contained water, aqueous foams, and wet sand.

  17. Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    2005 FEB 2005 Selective Availability Anti- Spoofing Module (SAASM)/ GPS Anti-Jam Production Award N/A MAR 2005 SEP 2005 MAR 2005 Change Explanations...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-503 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) As of FY 2015 President’s Budget...2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  18. The Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Margo H.; Shjegstad, Sonia M.; Wilkens, Roy; King, James C.; Carton, Geoff; Bala, Deserie; Bingham, Brian; Bissonnette, Martine C.; Briggs, Christian; Bruso, Natalie S.; Camilli, Rich; Cremer, Max; Davis, Roger B.; DeCarlo, Eric H.; DuVal, Carter; Fornari, Daniel J.; Kaneakua-Pia, Iolana; Kelley, Christopher D.; Koide, Shelby; Mah, Christopher L.; Kerby, Terry; Kurras, Gregory J.; Rognstad, Mark R.; Sheild, Lukas; Silva, Jeff; Wellington, Basil; Woerkom, Michael Van

    2016-06-01

    The Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) is the most comprehensive deep-water investigation undertaken by the United States to look at sea-disposed chemical and conventional munitions. HUMMA's primary scientific objective is to bound, characterize and assess a historic deep-water munitions sea-disposal site to determine the potential impact of the ocean environment on sea-disposed munitions and of sea-disposed munitions on the ocean environment and those that use it. Between 2007 and 2012 the HUMMA team conducted four field programs, collecting hundreds of square kilometers of acoustic data for high-resolution seafloor maps, tens of thousands of digital images, hundreds of hours of video of individual munitions, hundreds of physical samples acquired within two meters of munitions casings, and a suite of environmental data to characterize the ocean surrounding munitions in the study area. Using these data we examined six factors in the study area: (1) the spatial extent and distribution of munitions; (2) the integrity of munitions casings; (3) whether munitions constituents could be detected in sediment, seawater or animals near munitions; (4) whether constituent levels at munitions sites differed significantly from levels at reference control sites; (5) whether statistically significant differences in ecological population metrics could be detected between the two types of sites; and (6) whether munitions constituents or their derivatives potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health. Herein we provide a general overview of HUMMA including overarching goals, methodologies, physical characteristics of the study area, data collected and general results. Detailed results, conclusions and recommendations for future research are discussed in the accompanying papers included in this volume.

  19. Locating and Evaluating Sea-Disposed Munitions--Examples from the Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, M.; Wilkens, R. H.; Kelley, C.; de Carlo, E. H.; MacDonald, K.; Garcia, S.; Vanwoerkom, M.; Payne, Z.; Dupra, V.; Rosete, M.; Cox, M.; Fineran, S.; King, J. C.; Carton, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Army, under its Environmental Quality Technology (EQT) Program funded the HUMMA Project to assess the location of, and potential risk to human health posed by, sea disposed munitions (discarded military munitions (DMM)) at a study site south of Pearl Harbor, Hawai‘i known as HI-05. These conventional and chemical munitions are believed to have been exposed to undersea biochemical and mechanical erosion since the late 1940’s. To locate <2-meter long DMM at depths of 300-600 meters, we used a series of nested surveys beginning with an IMI-120 sidescan sonar survey of HI-05. From backscatter data gridded into 0.5-2m cells, we identified trails of highly reflective targets as candidate study sites. We initially surveyed these sites using a towed video camera. Subsequently, during a 12-day program aboard the R/V Kaimikai-o-Kanaloa, we surveyed selected targets using PISCES submersibles and an RCV-150 remotely operated vehicle operated by the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab. Every trail of reflective targets identified in the IMI-120 data was subsequently shown to contain DMM of various types. In combination with completing optical surveys to augment the IMI-120 acoustic data, the PISCES submersibles collected 96 sediment and 24 water samples within 1 and 2 meters of high-interest DMM as well as comparative background sites. The Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center supported dive operations to ensure crew personnel were not exposed to chemical agents (CA) and processed samples on board to determine if CA was present. The processed samples were then packaged and shipped to various shore-based laboratories to determine the presence of energetics and metals. Upon completion of the diving program, various species of locally consumed snapper and shrimp were collected near several of the sediment and water sample sites for analogous laboratory analyses. Our approach proved to be highly successful, identifying in a 5-day long IMI-120 survey the location of dozens of

  20. Prototype integration of the joint munitions assessment and planning model with the OSD threat methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, R.Y.S.; Bolmarcich, J.J.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this Memorandum is to propose a prototype procedure which the Office of Munitions might employ to exercise, in a supportive joint fashion, two of its High Level Conventional Munitions Models, namely, the OSD Threat Methodology and the Joint Munitions Assessment and Planning (JMAP) model. The joint application of JMAP and the OSD Threat Methodology provides a tool to optimize munitions stockpiles. The remainder of this Memorandum comprises five parts. The first is a description of the structure and use of the OSD Threat Methodology. The second is a description of JMAP and its use. The third discusses the concept of the joint application of JMAP and OSD Threat Methodology. The fourth displays sample output of the joint application. The fifth is a summary and epilogue. Finally, three appendices contain details of the formulation, data, and computer code.

  1. Munitions: An Industry in Peril

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    806, of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for FY99 and the Defense Export Loan Guarantee Program) by European companies. To gain the...cost. 11 Policy Guidance The U.S. government needs to streamline restrictive import and export regulations executed by the Departments of State...Defense and Commerce. U.S. munitions producers have experienced export delays due to export license application processes and approval procedures causing

  2. The Impact of Downsizing on the Munitions Carrier Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    truckload shipments weigh under 10,000 pounds. Dromedary shipments consist of munition movements made in a container mounted behind the power unit of a...into truckload, 4 less-than-truckload, and dromedary categories. Truckload shipments consist of those weighing 10,000 pounds or more. Less-than...Delivery to Authorized Person or Magazine 18 Detention of Power Units .......... 37 Dispatch Instructions 18 Delivering on Baggev Billing 40 Description

  3. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  4. NATO Insensitive Munitions Information Center (NIMIC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    e ) Chemical Abstracts, etc. Subject Matter in Pilot NIMIC Energetic Materials ............. 1748 Munitions 1149 Detonics ( XDT , DDT, etc...I.M. problem area, namely Sympathetic Detonation . Attendees were polled after the 90 three day session whether such information would be beneficial...bullet impact, sympathetic detonation , fuel fire, etc. (2) &&sives and Munitions - Rockets, missiles, bombs, torpedoes, fuzes, propellants, etc. (3

  5. OB & OD Munition Emissions Database Guidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Processes MACS CENTRALIZED DATABASES Munitions Characterization ─MIDAS GM– PEAS DfD Process Engineering (pending) Munitions Analytical Compliance Suite...AND TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCERS, FOUR PLACES 3" THROUGH PIPE, ELECTRIC OPERA TED BUTTERFLY VALVE ON OUTSIDE OF CHAMBER 2’ THICK REINFORCED CONCRETE

  6. Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment-An evaluation of the dumped munitions problem in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bełdowski, Jacek; Klusek, Zygmunt; Szubska, Marta; Turja, Raisa; Bulczak, Anna I.; Rak, Daniel; Brenner, Matthias; Lang, Thomas; Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Jakacki, Jaromir; Fricke, Nicolai; Östin, Anders; Olsson, Ulf; Fabisiak, Jacek; Garnaga, Galina; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Majewski, Piotr; Broeg, Katja; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula; Popiel, Stanisław; Nawała, Jakub; Lehtonen, Kari; Berglind, Rune; Schmidt, Beata

    2016-06-01

    Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project has performed studies on chemical weapon (CW) detection, sediment pollution and spreading as well as biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea. Results suggest that munitions containing CWAs are more scattered on the seafloor than suspected, and previously undocumented dumpsite was discovered in Gdansk Deep. Pollution of sediments with CWA degradation products was local and close to the detected objects; however the pollution range was larger than predicted with theoretical models. Bottom currents observed in the dumpsites were strong enough for sediment re-suspension, and contributed to the transport of polluted sediments. Diversity and density of the faunal communities were poor at the dumping sites in comparison to the reference area, although the direct effects of CWA on benthos organisms were difficult to determine due to hypoxic or even anoxic conditions near the bottom. Equally, the low oxygen might have affected the biological effects assessed in cod and caged blue mussels. Nonetheless, both species showed significantly elevated molecular and cellular level responses at contaminated sites compared to reference sites.

  7. Munitions Constituents (MC) and the Military Munitions Response Program (MMRP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-29

    caps. Lead Styphnate * Priming compositions, ignition of lead azide BUILDING STRONG® Tetracene Priming compositions, boosters Potassium...Cannon Propellants USACE Common Operations Reports, PEP Table 10 M2 M5 M26A1 Nitrocellulose 77.45% 81.95% 68.7% Nitroglycerin 19.50 15.00 25 Barium ...RSLs (residential soil) ► 2.3e+01 24 3/25/2011 9 Barium  Occurrence in munitions ► Present as barium nitrate in some pyrotechnics  Regulatory

  8. Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-503 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then Year...N/A Feb 2005 Feb 2005 Feb 2005 Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM)/GPS Anti-Jam Production Award N/A Mar 2005 Mar 2005 Mar 2005

  9. Totally Integrated Munitions Enterprise ''Affordable Munitions Production for the 21st Century''

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, R.R.; Poggio, M.E.; Rosenberg, S.J.; McWilliams, T.

    2000-09-13

    The U.S. Army faces several munitions manufacturing issues: downsizing of the organic production base, timely fielding of affordable smart munitions, and munitions replenishment during national emergencies. Totally Integrated Munitions Enterprise (TIME) is addressing these complex issues via the development and demonstration of an integrated enterprise. The enterprise will include the tools, network, and open modular architecture controllers to enable accelerated acquisition, shortened concept to volume production, lower life cycle costs, capture of critical manufacturing processes, and communication of process parameters between remote sites to rapidly spin-off production for replenishment by commercial sources. TIME addresses the enterprise as a system, integrating design, engineering, manufacturing, administration, and logistics.

  10. Totally Integrated Munitions Enterprise ''Affordable Munitions Production for the 21st Century''

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, R.R.; Poggio, M.E.; Rosenberg, S.J.; McWilliams, T.

    2000-08-18

    The U.S. Army faces several munitions manufacturing issues: downsizing of the organic production base, timely fielding of affordable smart munitions, and munitions replenishment during national emergencies. Totally Integrated Munitions Enterprise (TIME) is addressing these complex issues via the development and demonstration of an integrated enterprise. The enterprise will include the tools, network, and open modular architecture controllers to enable accelerated acquisition, shortened concept to volume production, lower life cycle costs, capture of critical manufacturing processes, and communication of process parameters between remote sites to rapidly spin-off production for replenishment by commercial sources. TIME addresses the enterprise as a system, integrating design, engineering, manufacturing, administration, and logistics.

  11. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulation of waste non-chemical military munitions in transportation. (1) Waste military munitions that are... munitions are not chemical agents or chemical munitions; (ii) The waste military munitions must be... waste shall apply only to the transportation of non-chemical waste military munitions. It does...

  12. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulation of waste non-chemical military munitions in transportation. (1) Waste military munitions that are... munitions are not chemical agents or chemical munitions; (ii) The waste military munitions must be... waste shall apply only to the transportation of non-chemical waste military munitions. It does...

  13. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulation of waste non-chemical military munitions in transportation. (1) Waste military munitions that are... munitions are not chemical agents or chemical munitions; (ii) The waste military munitions must be... waste shall apply only to the transportation of non-chemical waste military munitions. It does...

  14. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulation of waste non-chemical military munitions in transportation. (1) Waste military munitions that are... munitions are not chemical agents or chemical munitions; (ii) The waste military munitions must be... waste shall apply only to the transportation of non-chemical waste military munitions. It does...

  15. Environmentally Acceptable Disposal of Munition and Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    and fireworks Fireworks Contaminated waste Fuses Small calibre munition Medium calibre munitioi Large calibre munition Bombs/mines Rockets...of Azidcs by trcatment with NaNO2 . However the method is difficult to apply to organic explosives; it caues an explosion risk and, at the end, we...by pipes and injcctut in the bcd. This type of furnace is used to dispose of domestic waste . The advantages are: flexibility and low cost

  16. The Environmental Challenge of Military Munitions and Federal Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Department of Defense (DoD) must address the contamination legacy left by military munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) and other hazardous munitions materials from military live-fire training or testing.

  17. Defense Industrial Base (DIB): Munitions Realignment for 2020

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    the munitions production capacity was again divested. Commercial industry abandoned military munitions support to avoid being branded as “merchants of...Ammunition Middletown, GOCO Medium and large caliber munitions, tank 13 Plant (IAAAP) Iowa ammunition, artillery, mines , and mortar production. ARMS...Plant (SCAAP) Scranton, Pennsylvania GOCO Manufacture projectiles and mortars. ARMS program Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) Pine Bluff, Arkansas GOGO

  18. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section 145... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.53 Firearms and munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the...

  19. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section 145... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.53 Firearms and munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the...

  20. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section 145... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.53 Firearms and munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the...

  1. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section 145... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.53 Firearms and munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the...

  2. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section 145... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.53 Firearms and munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the...

  3. Evaluation of Impact Damage to the Burster Detonation Vessel Caused by Fragments from a Drained M121A1 Chemical Munition Detonated with an Initiation Charge

    SciTech Connect

    KIPP, MARLIN E.

    2001-12-01

    Explosive charges placed on the fuze end of a drained chemical munition are expected to be used as a means to destroy the fuze and burster charges of the munition. Analyses are presented to evaluate the effect of these additional initiation charges on the fragmentation characteristics for the M121A1 155mm chemical munition, modeled with a T244 fuze attached, and to assess the consequences of these fragment impacts on the walls of a containment chamber--the Burster Detonation Vessel. A numerical shock physics code (CTH) is used to characterize the mass and velocity of munition fragments. Both two- and three-dimensional simulations of the munition have been completed in this study. Based on threshold fragment velocity/mass results drawn from both previous and current analyses, it is determined that under all fragment impact conditions from the munition configurations considered in this study, no perforation of the inner chamber wall will occur, and the integrity of the Burster Detonation Vessel is retained. However, the munition case fragments have sufficient mass and velocity to locally damage the surface of the inner wall of the containment vessel.

  4. Military Munitions Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-30

    This report presents the findings of the Military Munitions Waste Working Group in its effort to achieve the goals directed under the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT Committee) for environmental restoration and waste management. The Military Munitions Waste Working Group identified the following seven areas of concern associated with the ordnance (energetics) waste stream: unexploded ordnance; stockpiled; disposed -- at known locations, i.e., disposal pits; discharged -- impact areas, unknown disposal sites; contaminated media; chemical sureties/weapons; biological weapons; munitions production; depleted uranium; and rocket motor and fuel disposal (open burn/open detonation). Because of time constraints, the Military Munitions Waste Working Group has focused on unexploded ordnance and contaminated media with the understanding that remaining waste streams will be considered as time permits. Contents of this report are as follows: executive summary; introduction; Military Munitions Waste Working Group charter; description of priority waste stream problems; shortcomings of existing approaches, processes and technologies; innovative approaches, processes and technologies, work force planning, training, and education issues relative to technology development and cleanup; criteria used to identify and screen potential demonstration projects; list of potential candidate demonstration projects for the DOIT committee decision/recommendation and appendices.

  5. Totally Integrated Munitions Enterprise ''Affordable Munitions Production for the 21st Century''

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, R.R.; Poggio, M.E.; Rosenberg, S.J.; McWilliams, T.

    2000-07-14

    The U.S. Army faces several munitions manufacturing issues: downsizing of the organic production base, timely fielding of affordable smart munitions, and munitions replenishment during national emergencies. TIME is addressing these complex issues via the development and demonstration of an integrated enterprise. The enterprise will include the tools, network, and open modular architecture controller to enable accelerated acquisition, shortened concept to volume production, lower life cycle costs, capture of critical manufacturing processes, and communication of process parameters between remote sites to rapidly spin-off production for replenishment by commercial sources. TIME addresses the enterprise as a system, integrating design, engineering, manufacturing, administration, and logistics.

  6. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste non-chemical military munitions in storage. (1) Waste military munitions in storage that exhibit a...), unless all the following conditions are met: (i) The waste military munitions are not chemical agents or chemical munitions. (ii) The waste military munitions must be subject to the jurisdiction of the...

  7. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste non-chemical military munitions in storage. (1) Waste military munitions in storage that exhibit a...), unless all the following conditions are met: (i) The waste military munitions are not chemical agents or chemical munitions. (ii) The waste military munitions must be subject to the jurisdiction of the...

  8. Occurrence and possible sources of arsenic in seafloor sediments surrounding sea-disposed munitions and chemical agents near O´ahu, Hawai´i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, Michael S.; De Carlo, Eric Heinen

    2016-06-01

    The Department of Defense disposed of conventional and chemical munitions as well as bulk containers of chemical agents in US coastal waters including those surrounding the State of Hawai´i. The Hawai´i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment has been collecting biota, water, and sediment samples from two disposal areas south of the island of O´ahu in waters 500 to 600 m deep known to have received both conventional munitions and chemical agents (specifically sulfur mustard). Unlike a number of other sea-disposed munitions investigations which used grabs or corers lowered from surface vessels, we used manned submersibles to collect the samples. Using this approach, we were able to visually identify the munitions and precisely locate our samples in relation to the munitions on the seafloor. This paper focuses on the occurrence and possible sources of arsenic found in the sediments surrounding the disposed military munitions and chemical agents. Using nonparametric multivariate statistical techniques, we looked for patterns in the chemical data obtained from these sediment samples in order to determine the possible sources of the arsenic found in these sediments. The results of the ordination technique nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicate that the arsenic is associated with terrestrial sources and not munitions. This was not altogether surprising given that: (1) the chemical agents disposed of in this area supposedly did not contain arsenic, and (2) the disposal areas studied were under terrestrial influence or served as dredge spoil disposal sites. The sediment arsenic concentrations during this investigation ranged from <1.3 to 40 mg/kg-dry weight with the lower concentrations typically found around control sites and munitions (not located in dredge disposal areas) and the higher values found at dredge disposal sites (with or without munitions). During the course of our investigation we did, however, discover that mercury appears to be loosely associated

  9. Investigations of emergency destruction methods for recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions: Interim emergency destruction methods - evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Cooper, P.W.; Kipp, M.E.

    1995-07-01

    At the request of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Office, the Sandia Explosives Containment System Design Team investigated mature destruction systems for destroying recovered chemical warfare munitions (CWM). The goal of the investigations was to identify and examine available techniques for the destruction of recovered CWM. The result of this study is a recommendation for an interim solution, a solution for use on any munitions found while an optimal, long-term solution is developed. Sandia is also performing the long-term solution study to develop a system that destroys CWM, contains the blast and fragments, and destroys the chemical agent without insult to the environment.

  10. Detection of munitions grade g-series nerve agents using Raman excitation at 1064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Eric; Wilcox, Phillip G.; Hoffland, Soren; Pardoe, Ian

    2015-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for obtaining molecular structure information of a sample. While Raman spectroscopy is a common laboratory based analytical tool, miniaturization of opto-electronic components has allowed handheld Raman analyzers to become commercially available. These handheld systems are utilized by Military and First Responder operators tasked with rapidly identifying potentially hazardous chemicals in the field. However, one limitation of many handheld Raman detection systems is strong interference caused by fluorescence of the sample or underlying surface which obscures the characteristic Raman signature of the target analyte. Munitions grade chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are produced and stored in large batches and typically have more impurities from the storage container, degradation, or unreacted precursors. In this work, Raman spectra of munitions grade CWAs were collected using a handheld Raman spectrometer with a 1064 nm excitation laser. While Raman scattering generated by a 1064 nm laser is inherently less efficient than excitation at shorter wavelengths, high quality spectra were easily obtained due to significantly reduced fluorescence of the munitions grade CWAs. The spectra of these less pure, but more operationally relevant, munitions grade CWAs were then compared to spectra of CASARM grade CWAs, as well as Raman spectra collected using the more common 785 nm excitation laser.

  11. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    SciTech Connect

    Powels, C.C.; Bon, I.; Okusu, N.M.

    1997-12-31

    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m{sup 2} (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site.

  12. Insensitive Munitions Development for General Purpose Bombs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    combat readiness. There has been a concerted effort by industry and A i r Force explosive development teams t o provide an energetic material w h...Insensitive Munitions Development for General Purpose Bombs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...house efforts, the Air Force has stimulated commercial industry involvement i n explosives research and development . output from this ef for t has

  13. Mobile Munitions Assessment System Field Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; K. D. Watts

    1999-05-27

    The US has developed, stored, tested, and conducted disposal operations on various forms of chemical munitions for several decades. The remnants of these activities have resulted in the presence of suspect CWM at more than 200 sites in the US, the District of Columbia, and the US Virgin Islands. An advanced Mobile Munitions Assessment System (Phase II MMAS) has been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory under contract to the US Army's Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel for use in the assessment and characterization of ''non-stockpile'' chemical warfare materiel (CWM). The Phase II MMAS meets the immediate need to augment response equipment currently used by the US Army with a system that includes state-of-the-art assessment equipment and advanced sensors. The Phase II MMAS will be used for response to known storage and remediation sites. This system is designed to identify the munition type; evaluate the condition of the CWM; evaluate the environmental conditions in the vicinity of the CWM; determine if fuzes, bursters, or safety and arming devices are in place; identify the chemical fill; provide other data (e.g., meteorological data) necessary for assessing the risk associated with handling, transporting, and disposing of CWM; and record the data on a dedicated computer system. The Phase II MMAS is capable of over-the-road travel and air transport to any site for conducting rigorous assessments of suspect CWM. The Phase II MMAS utilizes a specially-designed commercial motor home to provide a means to transport an interactive network of non-intrusive characterization and assessment equipment. The assessment equipment includes radiography systems, a gamma densitometer system, a Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) system, a Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) system, air monitoring equipment (i.e., M-90s and a field ion spectroscopy system), and a phase determination

  14. Mini-Warriors: Microelectromechanical Systems: A Munitions Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    research, they can do the incredibly small tasks with respect to munitions and even micro -vehicles. Fuzes could further shrink for nano -energetics...in micro -thrusters for miniature munitions or aerial mi- cro-vehicles. An autonomous, 4-by-7-millimeter micro -robot, using nano -energetics integrated...Richard Feynman proposed the idea of very tiny machines that could perform micro -level tasks with macro-level effects. Today such machines exist

  15. Safe arming system for two-explosive munitions

    DOEpatents

    Jaroska, Miles F.; Niven, William A.; Morrison, Jasper J.

    1978-01-01

    A system for safely and positively detonating high-explosive munitions, including a source of electrical signals, a split-phase square-loop transformer responsive solely to a unique series of signals from the source for charging an energy storage circuit through a voltage doubling circuit, and a spark-gap trigger for initiating discharge of the energy in the storage circuit to actuate a detonator and thereby fire the munitions.

  16. The Political Economy of the Munitions Supply Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    costs, up until the discovery is made. Second-growth forest trees yielding different lumber products or herding dairy cows yielding skim milk and cream...of supply vision that drove the MSP by requiring domestic production of mostly army munitions but may be perceived as very different in the post-Cold...modernization of production operations for a number of key facilities and the increased competitiveness of Canadian munitions firms. Recently, however

  17. Mobile and stationary laser weapon demonstrators of Rheinmetall Waffe Munition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewigt, K.; Riesbeck, Th.; Baumgärtel, Th.; Schmitz, J.; Graf, A.; Jung, M.

    2014-10-01

    For some years Rheinmetall Waffe Munition has successfully developed, realised and tested a variety of versatile high energy laser (HEL) weapon systems for air- and ground-defence scenarios like C-RAM, UXO clearing. By employing beam superimposition technology and a modular laser weapon concept, the total optical power has been successively increased. Stationary weapon platforms and now military mobile vehicles were equipped with high energy laser effectors. Our contribution summarises the most recent development stages of Rheinmetalls high energy laser weapon program. We present three different vehicle based HEL demonstrators: the 5 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Track V integrated in an M113 tank, the 20 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX integrated in a multirole armoured vehicle GTK Boxer 8x8 and the 50 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Container L integrated in a reinforced container carried by an 8x8 truck. As a highlight, a stationary 30 kW Laser Weapon Demonstrator shows the capability to defeat saturated attacks of RAM targets and unmanned aerial vehicles. 2013 all HEL demonstrators were tested in a firing campaign at the Rheinmetall testing centre in Switzerland. Major results of these tests are presented.

  18. EMMA: The expert system for munition maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, Barry E.

    1988-01-01

    Expert Missile Maintenance Aid (EMMA) is a first attempt to enhance maintenance of the tactical munition at the field and depot level by using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The ultimate goal of EMMA is to help a novice maintenance technician isolate and diagnose electronic, electromechanical, and mechanical equipment faults to the board/chassis level more quickly and consistently than the best human expert using the best currently available automatic test equipment (ATE). To this end, EMMA augments existing ATE with an expert system that captures the knowledge of design and maintenance experts. The EMMA program is described, including the evaluation of field-level expert system prototypes, the description of several study tasks performed during EMMA, and future plans for a follow-on program. This paper will briefly address several study tasks performed during EMMA. The paper concludes with a discussion of future plans for a follow-on program and other areas of concern.

  19. Fuel-air munition and device

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Gary A.

    1976-01-01

    An aerially delivered fuel-air munition consisting of an impermeable tank filled with a pressurized liquid fuel and joined at its two opposite ends with a nose section and a tail assembly respectively to complete an aerodynamic shape. On impact the tank is explosively ruptured to permit dispersal of the fuel in the form of a fuel-air cloud which is detonated after a preselected time delay by means of high explosive initiators ejected from the tail assembly. The primary component in the fuel is methylacetylene, propadiene, or mixtures thereof to which is added a small mole fraction of a relatively high vapor pressure liquid diluent or a dissolved gas diluent having a low solubility in the primary component.

  20. Dredging in Sediments Containing Munitions and Explosives of Concern (MEC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    146 Figure 68. Extracted debris (note aluminum illumination round fragment...tension on anchors deployed around the barge, and/or by dropping spuds (vertically- oriented large-diameter steel pipe) into the bottom sediment. The... steel pipe) and twenty-four 46 cm long sections of rebar were installed by divers in a relatively unclut- tered area. Their positions were carefully

  1. Stabilization/solidification of munition destruction waste by asphalt emulsion.

    PubMed

    Cervinkova, Marketa; Vondruska, Milan; Bednarik, Vratislav; Pazdera, Antonin

    2007-04-02

    Destruction of discarded military munitions in an explosion chamber produces two fractions of hazardous solid waste. The first one is scrap waste that remains in the chamber after explosion; the second one is fine dust waste, which is trapped on filters of gas products that are exhausted from the chamber after explosion. The technique of stabilization/solidification of the scrap waste by asphalt emulsion is described in this paper. The technique consists of simple mixing of the waste with anionic asphalt emulsion, or two-step mixing of the waste with cationic asphalt emulsion. These techniques are easy to use and the stabilized scrap waste proves low leachability of contained heavy metals assessed by TCLP test. Hence, it is possible to landfill the scrap waste stabilized by asphalt emulsion. If the dust waste, which has large specific surface, is stabilized by asphalt emulsion, it is not fully encapsulated; the results of the leaching tests do not meet the regulatory levels. However, the dust waste solidified by asphalt emulsion can be deposited into an asphalted disposal site of the landfill. The asphalt walls of the disposal site represent an efficient secondary barrier against pollutant release.

  2. Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing for Shoulder Launched Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-07

    November 2014 9 a. Existence and nature of actual and potential munition hazards to personnel and equipment. b. Safety of the munitions...The safety tests recommended in this document are intentionally conservative in nature in order to account for a wide range of potential deployment...for storage, transportation, handling, maintenance, and firing of the munitions. Natural and induced environmental factors for storage

  3. 22 CFR 121.2 - Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List. 121.2 Section 121.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.2 Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions...

  4. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems and initial assessment of material interaction with plant genetic material. Validation of the metabolic fate of munitions materials (TNT, RDX) in mature crops

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this effort were to confirm and expand data related to the behavior and impacts of munitions residues upon human food chain components. Plant species employed included corn (Zea mays), alfalfa (Medicago sativa). spinach (Spinacea oleraceae), and carrot (Daucus carota). Plants were grown from seed to maturity (70 to 120 days) in a low-fertility soil (Burbank) amended with either {sup 14}C-TNT or {sup 14}C-RDX at which time they were harvested and analyzed for munitions uptake, partitioning, and chemical form of the munition or munition-metabolite. All four of the plant species used in this study accumulated the {sup 14}C-TNT- and RDX-derived label. The carrot, alfalfa, and corn demonstrated a higher percentage of label retained in the roots (62, 73, and 83% respectively). The spinach contained less activity in its root (36%) but also contained the highest TNT specific activity observed (>4600 jig TNT equivalents/g dry wt.). The specific uptake values of RDX for the spinach and alfalfa were comparable to those previously reported for wheat and bean (314 to 590 {mu}g RDX-equivalents/g dry wt. respectively). An exception to this may be the carrot where the specific activity was found to exceed 4200 {mu}g RDX-equivalents/g dry wt. in the shoot. The total accumulation of TNT by the plants ranged from 1.24% for the spinach to 2.34% for the carrot. The RDX plants ranging from 15% for the spinach to 37% for the carrot. There was no identifiable TNT or amino dinitrotoluene (ADNT) isomers present in the plants however, the parent RDX compound was found at significant levels in the shoot of alfalfa (> 1 80 {mu}g/g) and corn (>18 {mu}g/g).

  5. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.

    1997-09-18

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  6. Munition Mass Properties Measurement Procedures Using a Spin Balance Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-09

    determines the mass properties, balance configurations, and balance specification(s) of live or inert munitions; namely, the Center of Gravity (CG...the Moment of Inertia (MOI), and the Product of Inertia (POI). 15. SUBJECT TERMS Center of Gravity Product of Inertia Moment of Inertia Spin...B-1 C. CENTER OF GRAVITY ...................................................... C-1 D

  7. Explosive particle soil surface dispersion model for detonated military munitions.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, John E; Rishel, Jeremy P; Walsh, Marianne E; Walsh, Michael R; Taylor, Susan

    2015-07-01

    The accumulation of high explosive mass residue from the detonation of military munitions on training ranges is of environmental concern because of its potential to contaminate the soil, surface water, and groundwater. The US Department of Defense wants to quantify, understand, and remediate high explosive mass residue loadings that might be observed on active firing ranges. Previously, efforts using various sampling methods and techniques have resulted in limited success, due in part to the complicated dispersion pattern of the explosive particle residues upon detonation. In our efforts to simulate particle dispersal for high- and low-order explosions on hypothetical firing ranges, we use experimental particle data from detonations of munitions from a 155-mm howitzer, which are common military munitions. The mass loadings resulting from these simulations provide a previously unattained level of detail to quantify the explosive residue source-term for use in soil and water transport models. In addition, the resulting particle placements can be used to test, validate, and optimize particle sampling methods and statistical models as applied to firing ranges. Although the presented results are for a hypothetical 155-mm howitzer firing range, the method can be used for other munition types once the explosive particle characteristics are known.

  8. Defense Science Board Task Force on Munitions System Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Brunch ") to discuss future procurement and acquisition policies in order to preserve and optimize our national capability. The munitions battery and fuze...for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics should host a fuze and battery industry executive meeting (a "Last Brunch ") to discuss future procurement

  9. Environmental Assessment. Weapons and Munitions Maintenance and Storage Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    14. ABSTRACT This EA is to study the proposed action which is to provide proper starage and handling of the modern weapons systems currently... modern weapons systems and consequently cannot efficiently store and handle these modern systems. Many of the older munitions storage buildings also...include upgrading the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system including controls, boilers, chillers, ductwork , pumps, piping, and

  10. LOCATING BURIED WW1 MUNITIONS WITH REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of t...

  11. REMOTE SENSING IN DETECTING BURIED MUNITIONS FROM WORLD WAR I

    EPA Science Inventory



    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...

  12. Arsenic concentrations in Baltic Sea sediments close to chemical munitions dumpsites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bełdowski, Jacek; Szubska, Marta; Emelyanov, Emelyan; Garnaga, Galina; Drzewińska, Anna; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Vanninen, Paula; Östin, Anders; Fabisiak, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    In addition to natural sources and land-originated pollution, the Baltic Sea has another anthropogenic source of arsenic in bottom sediments-arsenic-based Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA). To examine the potential usage of arsenic contents results for monitoring the leakage from chemical weapons, sediment samples were collected from officially reported and potential chemical weapon dumpsites located in the Baltic Sea, and total and inorganic arsenic concentrations were analyzed. Results showed an elevated arsenic content in dumpsite areas compared to reference areas. Correlations of arsenic with other metals and organic matter were studied to elucidate any unusual behavior of arsenic in the dumpsites. In the area of the Bornholm Deep, such behavior was observed for inorganic arsenic. It appears that in close vicinity of dumped munitions, the inorganic arsenic concentration of sediments is not correlated with either organic matter content or authigenic minerals formation, as is commonly observed elsewhere. Investigations on CWA concentrations, performed within the CHEMSEA (Chemical Munition Search and Assesment) project, allowed us to compare the results of arsenic concentrations with the occurrence of arsenic-containing CWA.

  13. Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing for Surface and Underwater Launched Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-05

    Existence and nature of actual and potential munition hazards to personnel and equipment. b. Safety of the munitions throughout the planned LCEP...munition. Natural and induced environmental factors for storage, transportation, and deployment are selected from AECTP 100, Annex A. Climatic test...seasonally in mid-latitude areas. The procedure recommended by this document is an aggravated test. It does not reproduce naturally occurring or service

  14. Characterization of deflagrating munitions by rotating prism high speed photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, Trevor J.; Bussell, Tim J.; Chick, Michael C.

    1992-08-01

    We report on the use of a rotating prism high speed camera for determining the characteristics of a munition undergoing rapid deflagration in field experiments. The technique has been applied to study the controlled deflagration of Composition B filled 105 mm shell and 81 mm mortar bombs as representative thick and thin cased munitions respectively; however the report is mostly illustrated with results from the study on 105 mm shell. The deflagration event has been characterized in terms of case expansion rate, initial fragment velocity, time to case burst, time to reaction from the nose end and the deflagration rate of the filling. Products escaping from the fracturing case eventually obscured the image which limited the extent of the measurement.

  15. The Future of Gun-Fired Precision Munitions (GFPM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    drivers such as inertial measurement units, semiactive laser seek- ers, canard actuation systems, power sup- plies, and fuze safe and arm devices must be...projectile prior to firing to aid in target acquisition. Designate is when the munition searches for a semiactive laser designator return from the target and... semiactive lasers , height of burst sensors, super capacitors, inertial measurement units, novel actuation mechanisms, alternate energy sources, common

  16. Industry Study 5240-14: Final Reports Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    mortar , etc.) to an industry dominated by precision-guided munitions; from an industry reliant on massive stockpiles to an industry dependent on smaller...accomplish the mission. Although primarily a dumb war, laser-guided bombs were introduced during Vietnam. These new weapons enabled the US to...on the battlefield as a single precision weapon delivered the effectiveness of thousands of unguided bombs . This 8% total represented 84% of the

  17. Mobile munitions assessment system design, testing, operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.D.; Snyder, A.M.; Rowe, L.C.

    1997-08-01

    The remnants of America`s chemical weapons program exist at more than 200 sites in the United States. The U.S. Army`s Project Manager for Non-stockpile Chemical Material (PMNSCM) has the responsibility for the remediation of non-stockpile chemical warfare material (CWM). PMNSCM must respond to a variety of situations involving discovered, recovered or buried material. This response requires unique hardware capabilities to characterize, assess, and provide information to develop plans for disposing of the material. PMNSCM sponsored the development of a Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet the need to characterize and assess non-stockpile chemical warfare material. The MMAS equipment is capable of distinguishing CWM from conventional munitions, identifying the agent fill and level, and assessing the status of the firing train. The MMAS has a data processing, collection, and storage subsystem and a communications link to a Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) database. A typical data package includes X-rays, elemental spectra, weather data, physical descriptions, photographs, video, etc. The MMAS data will be used by the Army`s Munition Assessment and Review Board (MARB) to help determine the appropriate methods and safeguards necessary to store, transport, and dispose of non-stockpile CWM.

  18. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, Jahangir; Pereira, Carlos M.; Feng, Dake

    2016-05-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices such as emergency devices or remote sensors that have to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries require sometimes in excess of 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources have to be provided to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper the development of a hybrid reserve power source obtained by the integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery that can provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is also provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  19. Data communication through multiple physical media: applications to munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Kwok, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Electronic systems comprising of subassemblies, distributed across different physical media, require seamless communication between processors and sensors embedded in the disparate volumes. For example, smart munitions systems embed sensors and other key control electronics, throughout the structure, in vastly different physical media. In addition to the obvious space constraints, these structures are subjected to high G forces during launch. Thus, communications through wire harnesses becomes cumbersome, make assembly process and testing difficult, and challenging to make survive high G firing. Here we focus on an approach that takes advantage of the partial optical transparency of epoxy material commonly used in potting electronic components in munitions, as well as the wave guiding that is possible through the body of the munitions wall which is made from composite materials. Experimental results show that a wireless optical link, connecting various parts of the distributed system, is possible at near IR frequencies. Data can be rapidly parsed between a processor, sensors and actuators. We present experimental data for a commercial epoxy system, which is used to embed a number of IrDA devices inside the cone of 120 mm mortar shell. IrDA devices using the FIR data rates establish point-to-point communication through various media, representative of the environment inside the 120 mm mortar cone.

  20. 22 CFR 123.8 - Special controls on vessels, aircraft and satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List. 123.8 Section 123.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... on vessels, aircraft and satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List. (a) Transferring registration or control to a foreign person of any aircraft, vessel, or satellite on the U.S. Munitions List is...

  1. 22 CFR 123.8 - Special controls on vessels, aircraft and satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List. 123.8 Section 123.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... on vessels, aircraft and satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List. (a) Transferring registration or control to a foreign person of any aircraft, vessel, or satellite on the U.S. Munitions List is...

  2. 22 CFR 123.8 - Special controls on vessels, aircraft and satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List. 123.8 Section 123.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... on vessels, aircraft and satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List. (a) Transferring registration or control to a foreign person of any aircraft, vessel, or satellite on the U.S. Munitions List is...

  3. 22 CFR 123.8 - Special controls on vessels, aircraft and satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List. 123.8 Section 123.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... on vessels, aircraft and satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List. (a) Transferring registration or control to a foreign person of any aircraft, vessel, or satellite on the U.S. Munitions List is...

  4. Hybrid analysis of multiaxis electromagnetic data for discrimination of munitions and explosives of concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, M. J.; Asch, T. H.; Oden, C.

    2012-08-01

    The remediation of land containing munitions and explosives of concern, otherwise known as unexploded ordnance, is an ongoing problem facing the U.S. Department of Defense and similar agencies worldwide that have used or are transferring training ranges or munitions disposal areas to civilian control. The expense associated with cleanup of land previously used for military training and war provides impetus for research towards enhanced discrimination of buried unexploded ordnance. Towards reducing that expense, a multiaxis electromagnetic induction data collection and software system, called ALLTEM, was designed and tested with support from the U.S. Department of Defense Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. ALLTEM is an on-time time-domain system that uses a continuous triangle-wave excitation to measure the target-step response rather than traditional impulse response. The system cycles through three orthogonal transmitting loops and records a total of 19 different transmitting and receiving loop combinations with a nominal spatial data sampling interval of 20 cm. Recorded data are pre-processed and then used in a hybrid discrimination scheme involving both data-driven and numerical classification techniques. The data-driven classification scheme is accomplished in three steps. First, field observations are used to train a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, a self-organizing map (SOM). Second, the SOM is used to simultaneously estimate target parameters (depth, azimuth, inclination, item type and weight) by iterative minimization of the topographic error vectors. Third, the target classification is accomplished by evaluating histograms of the estimated parameters. The numerical classification scheme is also accomplished in three steps. First, the Biot-Savart law is used to model the primary magnetic fields from the transmitter coils and the secondary magnetic fields generated by currents induced in the target materials in the

  5. Hybrid analysis of multiaxis electromagnetic data for discrimination of munitions and explosives of concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.; Asch, T.H.; Oden, C.

    2012-01-01

    The remediation of land containing munitions and explosives of concern, otherwise known as unexploded ordnance, is an ongoing problem facing the U.S. Department of Defense and similar agencies worldwide that have used or are transferring training ranges or munitions disposal areas to civilian control. The expense associated with cleanup of land previously used for military training and war provides impetus for research towards enhanced discrimination of buried unexploded ordnance. Towards reducing that expense, a multiaxis electromagnetic induction data collection and software system, called ALLTEM, was designed and tested with support from the U.S. Department of Defense Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. ALLTEM is an on-time time-domain system that uses a continuous triangle-wave excitation to measure the target-step response rather than traditional impulse response. The system cycles through three orthogonal transmitting loops and records a total of 19 different transmitting and receiving loop combinations with a nominal spatial data sampling interval of 20 cm. Recorded data are pre-processed and then used in a hybrid discrimination scheme involving both data-driven and numerical classification techniques. The data-driven classification scheme is accomplished in three steps. First, field observations are used to train a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, a self-organizing map (SOM). Second, the SOM is used to simultaneously estimate target parameters (depth, azimuth, inclination, item type and weight) by iterative minimization of the topographic error vectors. Third, the target classification is accomplished by evaluating histograms of the estimated parameters. The numerical classification scheme is also accomplished in three steps. First, the Biot–Savart law is used to model the primary magnetic fields from the transmitter coils and the secondary magnetic fields generated by currents induced in the target materials in the

  6. 19 CFR 4.73 - Neutrality; exportation of arms and munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neutrality; exportation of arms and munitions. 4...; exportation of arms and munitions. (a) Clearance shall not be granted to any vessel if the port director has... and about to depart from the United States with a cargo consisting principally of arms and...

  7. 19 CFR 4.73 - Neutrality; exportation of arms and munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neutrality; exportation of arms and munitions. 4...; exportation of arms and munitions. (a) Clearance shall not be granted to any vessel if the port director has... and about to depart from the United States with a cargo consisting principally of arms and...

  8. 19 CFR 4.73 - Neutrality; exportation of arms and munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neutrality; exportation of arms and munitions. 4...; exportation of arms and munitions. (a) Clearance shall not be granted to any vessel if the port director has... and about to depart from the United States with a cargo consisting principally of arms and...

  9. 19 CFR 4.73 - Neutrality; exportation of arms and munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neutrality; exportation of arms and munitions. 4...; exportation of arms and munitions. (a) Clearance shall not be granted to any vessel if the port director has... and about to depart from the United States with a cargo consisting principally of arms and...

  10. 78 FR 57567 - Safety Zone; Military Munitions Recovery, Raritan River, Raritan, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625AA00 Safety Zone; Military Munitions Recovery, Raritan River....1. 0 2. Add Sec. 165.170 to read as follows: Sec. 165.170 Safety Zone; Military Munitions...

  11. Categorizing High Energy Laser Effects for the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    CATEGORIZING HIGH ENERGY LASER EFFECTS FOR THE JOINT MUNITIONS EFFECTIVENESS MANUAL THESIS...AFIT/GOR/ENS/05-11 CATEGORIZING HIGH ENERGY LASER EFFECTS FOR THE JOINT MUNITIONS EFFECTIVENESS MANUAL THESIS Presented to the Faculty...Captain, USAF June 2005 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT/GOR/ENS/05-11 CATEGORIZING HIGH ENERGY LASER EFFECTS FOR

  12. 28 CFR 0.89 - Authority to seize arms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... war. 0.89 Section 0.89 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.89 Authority to seize arms and munitions of war. The Director... arms and munitions of war, and other articles, pursuant to section 1 of title VI of the act of June...

  13. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section 266.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste regulation...

  14. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 179 - Tables of the Munitions Response Site Prioritization Protocol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tables of the Munitions Response Site Prioritization Protocol A Appendix A to Part 179 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. A Appendix A to Part 179—Tables of the Munitions Response Site Prioritization Protocol The...

  16. USE OF SALMONELLA MICROSUSPENSION BIOASSAY TO DETECT THE MUTGENICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUNDS AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Use of a Salmonella Microsuspension Bioassay to Detect the Mutagenicity of
    Munitions Compounds at Low Concentrations

    Abstract

    Past production and handling of munitions has resulted in soil contamination at various military facilities. Depending on...

  17. High throughput chemical munitions treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Haroldsen, Brent L [Manteca, CA; Stofleth, Jerome H [Albuquerque, NM; Didlake, Jr., John E.; Wu, Benjamin C-P [San Ramon, CA

    2011-11-01

    A new High-Throughput Explosive Destruction System is disclosed. The new system is comprised of two side-by-side detonation containment vessels each comprising first and second halves that feed into a single agent treatment vessel. Both detonation containment vessels further comprise a surrounding ventilation facility. Moreover, the detonation containment vessels are designed to separate into two half-shells, wherein one shell can be moved axially away from the fixed, second half for ease of access and loading. The vessels are closed by means of a surrounding, clam-shell type locking seal mechanisms.

  18. Demilitarization and disposal technologies for conventional munitions and energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, A.A.; Wheelis, W.T.; Blankenship, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    Technologies for the demilitarization and disposal of conventional munitions and energetic materials are presented. A hazard separation system has been developed to remove hazardous subcomponents before processing. Electronic component materials separation processes have been developed that provide for demilitarization as well as the efficient recycling of materials. Energetic materials demilitarization and disposal using plasma arc and molten metal technologies are currently being investigated. These regulatory compliant technologies will allow the recycling of materials and will also provide a waste form suitable for final disposal.

  19. Characterization and Neutralization of Recovered Lewisite Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    chlorine being rated as 1.0.51 Oxidative Species Relative Oxidizing Strength* Fluorine 2.23 Hydroxyl Radical 2.06 Atomic Oxygen 1.78 Hydrogen...containing carbon-carbon double bonds, aldehyde groups or hydroxyl groups. As an electrophile , the permnanganate ion is strongly attracted to the electrons

  20. Biodegradation of munitions compounds by a sulfate reducing bacterial enrichment culture

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of several munitions compounds was studied. The compounds included 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocine, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TNB), and 2,4-dinitrotoluene. All of the compounds studied were degraded by the sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) enrichment culture. The SRB culture did not use the munitions compounds as their sole source of carbon. However, all the munitions compounds tested served as the sole source of nitrogen for the SRB culture. Degradation of munitions compounds was achieved by a co-metabolic process. The SRB culture used a variety of carbon sources including pyruvate, ethanol, formate, lactate, and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}. The SRB culture was an incomplete oxidizer, unable to carry out the terminal oxidation of organic substrates to CO{sub 2} as the sole product, and it did not use acetate or methanol as a carbon source. In addition to serving as nitrogen sources, the munitions compounds also served as electron acceptors in the absence of sulfate. A soil slurry experiment with 5% and 10% munitions compounds-contaminated soil showed that the contaminant TNT was metabolized by the SRB culture in the presence of pyruvate as electron donor. This culture may be useful in decontaminating munitions compounds-contaminated soil and water under anaerobic conditions.

  1. A database system for characterization of munitions items in conventional ammunition demilitarization stockpiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, K.C.; Chiu, S.Y.; Ditmars, J.D.; Huber, C.C.; Nortunen, L.; Sabb, R.

    1994-05-01

    The MIDAS (Munition Items Disposition Action System) database system is an electronic data management system capable of storage and retrieval of information on the detailed structures and material compositions of munitions items designated for demilitarization. The types of such munitions range from bulk propellants and small arms to projectiles and cluster bombs. The database system is also capable of processing data on the quantities of inert, PEP (propellant, explosives and pyrotechnics) and packaging materials associated with munitions, components, or parts, and the quantities of chemical compounds associated with parts made of PEP materials. Development of the MIDAS database system has been undertaken by the US Army to support disposition of unwanted ammunition stockpiles. The inventory of such stockpiles currently includes several thousand items, which total tens of thousands of tons, and is still growing. Providing systematic procedures for disposing of all unwanted conventional munitions is the mission of the MIDAS Demilitarization Program. To carry out this mission, all munitions listed in the Single Manager for Conventional Ammunition inventory must be characterized, and alternatives for resource recovery and recycling and/or disposal of munitions in the demilitarization inventory must be identified.

  2. Time-lapse camera studies of sea-disposed chemical munitions in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Margo H.; Fornari, Daniel J.; Rognstad, Mark R.; Kelley, Christopher D.; Mah, Christopher L.; Davis, Logan K.; Flores, Kyle R. M.; Main, Erin L.; Bruso, Natalie L.

    2016-06-01

    The interactions between fauna and sea-disposed munitions provide important evidence regarding whether munitions constituents affect the health of the ocean environment and its inhabitants. To date few studies of these interactions have been conducted at deep-water disposal sites; typically observations of fauna in the vicinity of sea-disposed munitions are limited to the few minutes or hours required to collect physical samples at a specific location. During the 2012 Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) field program we deployed two deep-sea time-lapse camera systems with the objectives of cataloging the diversity of fauna visiting sea-disposed chemical munitions and observing faunal behavior and physiology. Over the 1- and 3-day deployments we recorded 28 different species of fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, cnidarians, and echinoderms at the two sites. Both cameras captured the previously undocumented behavior of brisingid sea stars repositioning themselves along chemical munitions casings. Despite the fact that brisingid sea stars are able to move, for the duration of both time-lapse experiments they remained on chemical munitions casings. We interpret this result to indicate that the advantages of residing on a hard substrate slightly elevated above the seafloor outweigh the effects of chemical munitions constituents for brisingid sea stars. One type of physiological anomaly observed on several arms of the brisingid sea stars at the time-lapse sites led to the collection and examination of six specimens. As reported by Mah (2015. Deep Sea Res. II, 2015, XX-XX), these physiological features are the result of parasitic crustaceans and are not caused by chemical munitions constituents.

  3. The joint DoD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Repa, J.V. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The joint Department of Defense (DoD)/Department of Energy (DOE) Munitions Technology Development Program is a cooperative, jointly funded effort of research and development to improve nonnuclear munitions technology across all service mission areas. This program is enabled under a Memorandum of Understanding, approved in 1985 between the DoD and the DOE, that tasks the nuclear weapons laboratories of the DOE to solve problems in conventional defense. The selection of the technical areas to be investigated is based on their importance to the military services, the needs that are common to the conventional and nuclear weapons programs, the expertise of the performing organization, and the perceived benefit to the overall national defense efforts. The research benefits both DoD and DOE programs; therefore, funding, planning, and monitoring are joint activities. Technology Coordination Groups (TCGs), organized by topical areas, serve as technology liaisons between the DoD and DOE for the exchange of information. The members of the TCGs are technical experts who meet semiannually in an informal workshop format to coordinate multiagency requirements, establish project plans, monitor technical activity, and develop classification guidance. A technical advisory committee of senior DoD and DOE managers administers the program and provides guidance on policy and strategy. The abstracts in this volume were collected from the technical progress report for fiscal year 1993. The annual report is organized by major technology areas. Telephone and fax numbers for the principal contacts are provided with each abstract.

  4. 20000G shock energy harvesters for gun-fired munition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemin, J.; Boisseau, S.; Olmos, L.; Gallardo, M.; Despesse, G.; Robert, T.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a 20000G shock energy harvester dedicated to gun-fired munitions and based on a mass-spring resonant structure coupled to a coil-magnet electromagnetic converter. The 20000G shock energy is firstly stored in the spring as elastic potential energy, released as mass-spring mechanical oscillations right after the shock and finally converted into electricity thanks to the coil-magnet transducer. The device has been modeled, sized to generate 200mJ in 150ms, manufactured and tested in a gun-fired munition. The prototype sizes 117cm3 and weighs 370g. 210mJ have been generated in a test bench and 140mJ in real conditions; this corresponds to a mean output power of 0.93W (7.9mW/cm3) and a maximum output power of 4.83W (41.3mW/cm3) right after the shock.

  5. Evaluation of ingredients for the development of new insensitive munitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Johnston, Lois A.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille

    2004-12-01

    Several ingredients being considered by the U.S. Army for the development of new insensitive munitions have been examined. One set of ingredients consists of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX). In this set, the decomposition of the mixture was examined to determine whether adding DNPH to RDX would generate a sufficient quantity of gas to rupture the case of a munition prior to the onset of the rapid reaction of RDX, thus mitigating the violence of reaction. The second set of ingredients consists of three different reduced sensitivity RDX (RS-RDX) powders manufactured by SNPE and Dyno-Nobel. In this set, the objective was to determine properties of RS-RDX powders that may distinguish them from normal RDX powder and may account for their reduced shock sensitivity. The decomposition reactions and sublimation properties of these materials were examined using two unique instruments: the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) instrument and the Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry instrument. These instruments provide the capability to examine the details of decomposition reactions in energetic materials. DNPH does not appear to be a good candidate to mitigate the violence of the RDX reaction in a munition. DNPH decomposes between 170 C and 180 C. When mixed with RDX it decomposes between 155 C and 170 C. It decomposes to form 1,3-dintrobenzene (DNB), ammonia, water and nitrogen. Of these compounds only nitrogen and ammonia are capable of generating high pressures within a munition. When DNPH is mixed with RDX, the DNB formed in the decomposition of DNPH interacts with RDX on the surface of the RDX powder leading to a higher rate of formation of CH2O and N2O. The CH2O is consumed by reaction with DNPH to form 2-methylene-1-(2,4-dintrophenyl)hydrazine. As a result, DNPH does not generate a large quantity of gas that will lead to rupture of a munition case. Another

  6. Phytoremediation of munitions by aquatic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, N.L.; McCutcheon, S.M.; Carriera, L.H.; Ou, T.

    1995-12-31

    An isolated enzyme system from plants and the whole plant containing the enzyme have been shown to degrade TNT, RDX and HMX to environmental acceptable compounds. As a result of detailed laboratory studies, the general process is on a sound scientific basis. The overall process along with the analytical procedures for chemical analysis are described. The process has been scaled up in the field in static systems. The results have been consistent with the laboratory findings. In the field pilot study employing a TNT contaminated sediment/water/parrot feather system, it was possible to drive the aqueous phase TNT and the transient amino intermediates to below 0.1 ppm (the limit of detection of these studies). The studies have been scaled up in the laboratory using emerged macrophytes in a flow through system.

  7. 28 CFR 0.89 - Authority to seize arms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.89 Authority to seize arms and munitions of war. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is authorized to exercise the authority conferred upon...

  8. 28 CFR 0.89 - Authority to seize arms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.89 Authority to seize arms and munitions of war. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is authorized to exercise the authority conferred upon...

  9. 28 CFR 0.89 - Authority to seize arms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.89 Authority to seize arms and munitions of war. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is authorized to exercise the authority conferred upon...

  10. 28 CFR 0.89 - Authority to seize arms and munitions of war.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.89 Authority to seize arms and munitions of war. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is authorized to exercise the authority conferred upon...

  11. Tensor Invariant Processing for Munitions/Clutter Classifications Interim Report on SNR and Background Leveling Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    INTERIM REPORT Tensor Invariant Processing for Munitions/Clutter Classifications Interim Report on SNR and Background Leveling Requirements...00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tensor Invariant Processing for Munitions/Clutter Classifications Interim Report on SNR and...Camp Beale in 2011 and found no impact due to signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ) and background leveling effects. However, the minimum polarizability

  12. Ecological Risk Assessment of Munitions Compounds on Coral and Coral Reef Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    FINAL REPORT Ecological Risk Assessment of Munitions Compounds on Coral and Coral Reef Health SERDP Project ER-2125 January 2014...COVERED 00-10-2011 to 00-01-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ecological Risk Assessment of Munitions Compounds on Coral and Coral Reef Health 5a. CONTRACT...impact corals , and to determine the ecological risk they may pose to coral and coral reef health. At the outset of this project, we were asked by the

  13. Superconducting Magnetic Tensor Gradiometer System for Detection of Underwater Military Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    FINAL REPORT Superconducting Magnetic Tensor Gradiometer System for Detection of Underwater Military Munitions SERDP Project MR-1661 JUNE...SUBTITLE Superconducting Magnetic Tensor Gradiometer System for Detection of Underwater Military Munitions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...platform. • For limited platform movement, such as might be expected in an underwater capsule, use of global feedback field cancellation coil may

  14. An Analysis of Craters Produced by Artillery Munitions during Dusty Infrared Test Series.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    various military munitions. However, Mason and Carnes , show that craters formed by cased munitions are irregular in shape and have "troughs" on each side...crater. Carnes attributed this to the work exerted on the soil by the shell fragments. Further studies have indicated that there are different equivalences...Bruce W., B. I. Carnes , and James B. Mason, "Dusty Infrared Test II (DIRT-II)," presented to Smoke/Obscurant Symposium IV, Adelphl, MD, April 1980. 9

  15. Overview of the laser activities at Rheinmetall Waffe Munition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewigt, Klaus; Riesbeck, Thomas; Schünemann, B.; Graf, A.; Jung, Markus; Schreiber, Th.; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, A.

    2012-11-01

    The paper will give an overview over the laser weapon activities at RWM (Rheinmetall Waffe Munition) over the last years. Starting from the actual scenarios for laser weapon applications as: CRAM (Counter Rocket Artillery Mortar), Air Defence and UXO (unexploded ordnance) clearing. The basic requirements of a future laser weapon as beam diameter, beam quality, tracking capability, adaptive optics were deduced. For the UXO scenario a mobile directed energy laser demonstrator for humanitarian mine and UXO clearing based on fiber lasers is presented. Based on the parameters the system concept including the cooling system, power supply and the integration into the armoured vehicle TM 170 are explained. The contribution show first experiments of UXO and IED clearing. Different technical approaches to achieve laser power in the 100 kW regime combined with very good beam quality are discussed to fulfil the requirements of the CRAM and Air Defence scenario. Spectral coupling and the beam superimposing both are performed by Rheinmetall Waffe Munition. At the spectral coupling the basic technology parameters for the fiber laser and the dielectric grating as the latest results were put into context with the power levels reached at other groups. For the beam super imposing technology the basic experiments regarding the tracking capability and compensation of the atmosphere on the test range at Unterlüß will be explained. A generic 10 kW Laser Weapon Demonstrator based on 2 Laser Weapon Modules (LWM) from RWM each 5 kW fiber Laser with beam forming and tracking integrate by the team of RWM and RAD (Rheinmetall Air Defense) into a Ground based Air Defend system consisting of Skyguard and Millenium turret are presented. The flight path of the UAV within the valley of the life firing range at Ochsenboden Switzerland is shown. Selected results of the successful tests against UAV's are presented. It shows the capability of the generic 10 kW Laser Weapon Demonstrator to track and

  16. Evaluation of a chemical munition dumpsite in the Baltic Sea based on geophysical and chemical investigations.

    PubMed

    Missiaen, Tine; Söderström, Martin; Popescu, Irina; Vanninen, Paula

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses the results of geophysical and chemical investigations carried out in a chemical munition dumpsite in the southern Baltic Sea, east of the island of Bornholm. After WW2 over 32,000 tons of chemical war material was dumped here including shells and bombs as well as small drums and containers. The geophysical investigations combined very-high-resolution seismics and gradiometric measurements. The results indicate the presence of a large number of objects buried just below the seafloor. The size of the objects and their distribution, with a marked increase in density towards the center of the dumpsite, suggests that we are dealing with dumped war material. Sediment and near-bottom water samples, taken within the dumpsite and in the surrounding area, were analysed for the presence of various chemical warfare agents (CWA) including Adamsite, Clark, sulphur mustard, tabun, chlorobenzene and arsine oil. The results indicate a widespread contamination that reaches far beyond the dumpsite boundary. CWA degradation products were found in most of the sediment samples. The contamination was mostly related to arsenic containing compounds; only one sample indicated the presence of sulfur mustard. Although the correlation between detected objects and CWA concentrations is not always straightforward, the overall results suggest that a lot of the dumped war material is leaking and that over the years the contamination has reached the seafloor sediments.

  17. A New Method for Determining Residues Generated during Munition Demilitarization Activities: Analysis of Environmental Soil and Water Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-18

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) gradient method was developed, and used to screen samples for a wide range of munitions and PAHs. Quantitation of munitions and their environmental reduction products was accomplished using an HPLC isocratic method. Recoveries of munitions and degradation products spiked into sandy loam soils were greater than 90% in all cases. Corresponding recoveries from aqueous samples were comparable for the nitroaromatics, but were poorer for the

  18. Bioinspired polarization navigation sensor for autonomous munitions systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giakos, G. C.; Quang, T.; Farrahi, T.; Deshpande, A.; Narayan, C.; Shrestha, S.; Li, Y.; Agarwal, M.

    2013-05-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs (SUAVs), micro air vehicles (MAVs), Automated Target Recognition (ATR), and munitions guidance, require extreme operational agility and robustness which can be partially offset by efficient bioinspired imaging sensor designs capable to provide enhanced guidance, navigation and control capabilities (GNC). Bioinspired-based imaging technology can be proved useful either for long-distance surveillance of targets in a cluttered environment, or at close distances limited by space surroundings and obstructions. The purpose of this study is to explore the phenomenology of image formation by different insect eye architectures, which would directly benefit the areas of defense and security, on the following four distinct areas: a) fabrication of the bioinspired sensor b) optical architecture, c) topology, and d) artificial intelligence. The outcome of this study indicates that bioinspired imaging can impact the areas of defense and security significantly by dedicated designs fitting into different combat scenarios and applications.

  19. VCSEL-based microsensors for photonic proximity fuzing of munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, G. A.; Mar, A.; Geib, K. M.; Hsu, A. Y.; Serkland, D. K.; Peake, G. M.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes technologies developed at Sandia National Laboratories to support a joint DoD/DoE initiative to create a compact, robust, and affordable photonic proximity sensor for munitions fuzing. The proximity fuze employs high-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays, resonant-cavity photodetectors (RCPDs), and refractive micro-optics that are integrated within a microsensor whose volume is approximately 0.01 cm3. Successful development and integration of these custom photonic components should enable a g-hard photonic proximity fuze that replaces costly assemblies of discrete lasers, photodetectors, and bulk optics. Additional applications of this technology include void sensing, ladar and short-range 3-D imaging.

  20. Nitroaromatic munition compounds: environmental effects and screening values.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Opresko, D M; Maxwell, C J; Welsh, C J; Cretella, F M; Reno, P H; Daniel, F B

    1999-01-01

    Available data on the occurrence, transport, transformation, and toxicity of eight nitroaromatic munition compounds and their degradation products, TNT, TNB, DNB, DNA, 2-ADNT, RDX, HMX, and tetryl were used to identify potential fate in the environment and to calculate screening benchmarks or safe environmental levels for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Results of monitoring studies revealed that some of these compounds persist at sites where they were produced or processed. Most of the compounds are present in soil, sediment, and surface water or groundwater at military sites. Soil adsorption coefficients indicate that these chemicals are only moderately adsorbed to soil and may leach to groundwater. Most of these compounds are transformed by abiotic or biotic mechanisms in environmental media. Primary transformation mechanisms involve photolysis (TNT, RDX, HMX, tetryl), hydrolysis (tetryl), and microbial degradation (TNT, TNB, DNB, DNA, 2-ADNT, and HMX). Microbial degradation for both nitro and nitramine aromatic compounds involves rapid reduction of nitro groups to amino groups, but further metabolism is slow. With the exception of DNB, complete mineralization did not usually occur under the conditions of the studies. RDX was resistant to microbial degradation. Available ecotoxicological data on acute and chronic studies with freshwater fish and invertebrates were summarized, and water quality criteria or ecotoxicological screening benchmarks were developed. Depending on the available data, criteria/benchmarks were calculated according to USEPA Tier I or Tier II guidelines. The munitions chemicals are moderately to highly toxic to freshwater organisms, with chronic screening values < 1 mg/L. For some chemicals, these low values are caused by inherent toxicity; in other cases, they result from the conservative methods used in the absence of data. For nonionic organic munitions chemicals, sediment quality benchmarks were calculated (based on Kow values and the

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7007 - Prohibition on Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military Companies. 252.225-7007 Section... Chinese Military Companies. As prescribed in 225.1103(4), use the following clause: Prohibition On Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items From Communist Chinese Military Companies (SEP 2006)...

  2. 48 CFR 225.770 - Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. 225.770 Section 225... of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. This...

  3. 22 CFR 121.2 - Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. 121.2 Section 121.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles §...

  4. 22 CFR 121.2 - Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. 121.2 Section 121.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles §...

  5. 22 CFR 121.2 - Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. 121.2 Section 121.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles §...

  6. 22 CFR 121.2 - Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. 121.2 Section 121.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles §...

  7. 22 CFR 123.8 - Special controls on vessels, aircraft and satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List. 123.8 Section 123.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE....8 Special controls on vessels, aircraft and satellites covered by the U.S. Munitions List. (a) Transferring registration or control to a foreign person of any aircraft, vessel, or satellite on the...

  8. Precision targeting in guided munition using infrared sensor and millimeter wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulochana, Sreeja; Hablani, Hari B.; Arya, Hemendra

    2016-07-01

    Conventional munitions are not guided with sensors and therefore miss the target, particularly if the target is mobile. The miss distance of these munitions can be decreased by incorporating sensors to detect the target and guide the munition during flight. This paper is concerned with a precision guided munition equipped with an infrared (IR) sensor and a millimeter wave radar (MmW). Three-dimensional flight of the munition and its pitch and yaw motion models are developed and simulated. The forward and lateral motion of a target tank on the ground is modeled as two independent second-order Gauss-Markov processes. To estimate the target location on the ground and the line-of-sight (LOS) rate to intercept it, an extended Kalman filter is composed whose state vector consists of cascaded state vectors of missile dynamics and target dynamics. The LOS angle measurement from the IR seeker is by centroiding the target image in 40 Hz. The centroid estimation of the images in the focal plane is at a frequency of 10 Hz. Every 10 Hz, centroids of four consecutive images are averaged, yielding a time-averaged centroid, implying some measurement delay. The miss distance achieved by including image processing delays is 1.45 m.

  9. Precision targeting in guided munition using IR sensor and MmW radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, S.; Hablani, H. B.; Arya, H.

    2015-10-01

    Conventional munitions are not guided with sensors and therefore miss the target, particularly if the target is mobile. The miss distance of these munitions can be decreased by incorporating sensors to detect the target and guide the munition during flight. This paper is concerned with a Precision Guided Munition(PGM) equipped with an infrared sensor and a millimeter wave radar [IR and MmW, for short]. Three-dimensional flight of the munition and its pitch and yaw motion models are developed and simulated. The forward and lateral motion of a target tank on the ground is modeled as two independent second-order Gauss-Markov process. To estimate the target location on the ground and the line-of-sight rate to intercept it an Extended Kalman Filter is composed whose state vector consists of cascaded state vectors of missile dynamics and target dynamics. The line-of-sight angle measurement from the infrared seeker is by centroiding the target image in 40 Hz. The centroid estimation of the images in the focal plane is at a frequency of 10 Hz. Every 10 Hz, centroids of four consecutive images are averaged, yielding a time-averaged centroid, implying some measurement delay. The miss distance achieved by including by image processing delays is 1:45m.

  10. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Combustion in Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Compton, L. E.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical wastes burned with minimal handling in storage containers. Technique for disposing of chemical munitions by burning them inside shells applies to disposal of toxic materials stored in drums. Fast, economical procedure overcomes heat-transfer limitations of conventional furnace designs by providing direct contact of oxygenrich combustion gases with toxic agent. No need to handle waste material, and container also decontaminated in process. Oxygen-rich torch flame cuts burster well and causes vaporization and combustion of toxic agent contained in shell.

  11. Water quality criteria/toxicological benchmarks for nitroaromatic munitions compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, S.S.; Opresko, D.M.; Hovatter, P.S.; Daniel, F.B.

    1995-12-31

    There is a need to develop screening level and cleanup criteria for nitroaromatic compounds at US Army Superfund sites. Using available methodologies, Water Quality Criteria (WQC) for aquatic organisms and toxicological benchmarks for terrestrial plants and wildlife were developed for eight nitroaromatic munitions compounds and/or their degradation products: 2,4,6-trinitroluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 3,5-dinitroaniline, 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene, RDX, HMX, and tetryl. Depending on available data, acute and chronic WQC for aquatic species were developed based on US EPA Tier 1 or Tier 2 guidelines. Criteria for sediment-associated organisms were derived based on Equilibrium Partitioning. In the absence of criteria or guidance for effects on terrestrial wildlife, plants and soil processes, ecotoxicological benchmarks, i.e., NOAELs and LOECs for effects on these organisms were identified. Benchmarks for terrestrial wildlife species were derived from experimental data identifying toxicological endpoints for wildlife or laboratory species. NOAELs were based on endpoints of population growth and survival following oral exposures. These values were used as the basis for calculation of NOAELs or screening benchmarks for food and water intake for seven selected mammalian wildlife species: the short-tailed shrew, white footed mouse, meadow vole, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer. Equivalent NOAELs were calculated by scaling the test data on the basis of differences in body weight. Benchmarks for terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates and heterotrophic processes were based on LOECs.

  12. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1

    SciTech Connect

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  13. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  14. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  15. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  16. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  17. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  18. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  19. Processing Requirements For Multi-Sensor, Low-Cost Brilliant Munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Lawrence A.; Kassis, Suhail Y.

    1989-09-01

    A generic mission for an autonomous fire-and-forget brilliant munition is presented and used to identify the functions that an embedded signal processor must perform. Based on these functions and other operational factors (such as weather, larger search areas, lower false alarm rates, and munition maneuverability), the processing loads in bits/second, messages/second, operations/second, and instructions/second are derived. The paper concludes with an evaluation of general implementation issues, such as the requirements for data fusion, distributed and parallel processing architectures, trusted software, and low-cost hardware.

  20. Toxicity of a complex munitions wastewater to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.H.W.; Bailey, H.C.; Pearson, J.G.

    1981-10-01

    The toxicity to freshwater organisms of a complex munitions effluent called condensate wastewater was determined using a novel and relatively economical approach proposed by Pearson and co-workers at the Second Annual ASTM Symposium on Aquatic Toxicology. Applicable only to complex wastewaters in which the concentrations of the individual chemical components are relatively constant over time, the approach emphasizes performing toxicity and related tests on a chemical mixture representative of the actual wastewater, with secondary attention being directed toward testing the individual chemical components, which is the conventional approach. The testing program comprised several series of static acute toxicity tests on authentic wastewater, artificial wastewater, and selected components to identify the conditions under which they are most toxic and to identify the most sensitive species; a series of flow-through acute toxicity tests on the artificial wastewater using the most sensitive species; a series of short-term bioconcentration tests; several early life-stage tests; and, finally, several life-cycle chronic tests. Twelve species representing three trophic levels were employed in the program. It was concluded that the approach economically and rapidly provided a sufficient data base for assessing the effects of the wastewater on aquatic life. Two modifications were recommended to decrease the cost and time of obtaining the data. One was to perform a static and a flow-through test early in the testing program to identify the most appropriate exposure condition to use in the initial portion of the program. The other was to compute the octanol-water partition coefficients of the organic components of the wastewater before performing any bioconcentration test and to use the coefficients to determine if bioconcentration tests are necessary.

  1. Inspection of the Department`s export licensing process for dual-use and munitions commodities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-10

    The purpose of our inspection was to review the Department of Energy`s (Energy) export licensing process for dual-use and military (munitions) commodities subject to nuclear nonproliferation controls. Specifically, we reviewed Energy`s authorities, procedures, and policies pertaining to the export licensing process and examined procedures for safeguarding data transmitted between Energy and other agencies involved in the export licensing process. We also reviewed Energy`s role as a member of the Subgroup on Nuclear Export Coordination. Our review of the sample of 60 export cases did not find evidence to lead us to believe that Energy`s recommendations for these cases were inappropriate or incorrect. We identified, however, problems regarding management systems associated with the export license review process. We found that without documentation supporting export licensing decisions by the Export Control Operations Division (ECOD), we could not determine whether ECOD analysts considered all required criteria in their review of export cases referred to Energy. For example, we found that the ECOD did not retain records documenting the bases for its advice, recommendations, or decisions regarding its reviews of export license cases or revisions to lists of controlled commodities and, therefore, was not in compliance with certain provisions of the Export Administration Act, as amended, and Energy records management directives. Additionally, we found that the degree of compliance by Energy with the export licensing review criteria contained in the Export Administration Regulations and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 could not be determined because ECOD did not retain records documenting the bases for its advice and recommendations on export cases.

  2. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (e) Amendments to DDESB storage standards. The DDESB storage standards applicable to waste military... solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section 266.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC...

  3. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (e) Amendments to DDESB storage standards. The DDESB storage standards applicable to waste military... solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section 266.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC...

  4. Munitions Classification Library Update and Expansion Blossom Point Data Collection Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-10

    example munitions at the Blossom Point test facility using three sensors: the Modified Portable Decoupled Electromagnetic Induction Sensor (MPEDEMIS), the...Unexploded Ordnance (UXO), Electromagnetic Induction (EMI), Classification 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...Decoupled ElectroMagnetic Induction Sensor MPEDEMIS Modified PEDEMIS PVC Poly Vinyl Chloride RX Receiver SERDP Strategic Environmental Research and

  5. Insensitive Munitions and Energetic Materials Symposium Held on 10-13 March 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-13

    Evaluation of Sympathetic Detonation Shielding Concepts for Ship-Stowed Munitions by Edward J. O’Connor, NSWC SESSION 3: Formulation I CL-20 PAX...Inc. A Comparison of Techniques for Modeling XDT in Explosives and Propellants by Edward J. O’Connor, NSWC Dahlgren Division SESSION 7a

  6. ENHANCED RHIZODEGRADATION OF MUNITIONS EXPLOSIVES TNT AND RDX BY SELECTED PLANT SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and water contamination by the military munitions explosives TNT (2,4.6-trinitrotoluene)and RDX (1,3,5-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitrotriazine)and their degradation products have raised many public health and environmental concerns. Phytoremediation techniques could provide a potential cost-effective...

  7. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  8. 22 CFR 121.1 - General. The United States Munitions List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Each U.S. Munitions List category starts with end-platform designations followed by major systems and..., close assault weapons systems) having a special military application regardless of caliber. * (d) Combat... IV. * (d) Kinetic energy weapon systems specifically designed or modified for destruction...

  9. 27 CFR 447.21 - The U.S. Munitions Import List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true The U.S. Munitions Import List. 447.21 Section 447.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... tear gases: (1) A-Brombenzyl cyanide (BBC). (2) Chloroacetophenone (CN). (3) Dibromodimethyl ether....

  10. 27 CFR 447.21 - The U.S. Munitions Import List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The U.S. Munitions Import List. 447.21 Section 447.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... tear gases: (1) A-Brombenzyl cyanide (BBC). (2) Chloroacetophenone (CN). (3) Dibromodimethyl ether....

  11. 27 CFR 447.21 - The U.S. Munitions Import List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The U.S. Munitions Import List. 447.21 Section 447.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... tear gases: (1) A-Brombenzyl cyanide (BBC). (2) Chloroacetophenone (CN). (3) Dibromodimethyl ether....

  12. 27 CFR 447.21 - The U.S. Munitions Import List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true The U.S. Munitions Import List. 447.21 Section 447.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... tear gases: (1) A-Brombenzyl cyanide (BBC). (2) Chloroacetophenone (CN). (3) Dibromodimethyl ether....

  13. Munitions Classification With Portable Advanced Electromagnetic Sensors, Demonstration at the former Camp Beale, CA, Summer 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    FINAL REPORT MUNITIONS CLASSIFICATION WITH PORTABLE ADVANCED ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSORS Demonstration at the former Camp Beale, CA, Summer...2011 JULY 2012 Herbert Nelson Anne Andrews SERDP and ESTCP Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public... reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  14. Powered low cost autonomous attack system: a network-centric munition concept demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James C.; O'Neal, John K.; Brown, Robert A.

    2006-05-01

    The Powered Low Cost Autonomous Attack System (PLOCAAS) is an Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) program. The PLOCAAS objective is to demonstrate a suite of technologies in an affordable miniature munition to autonomously search, detect, identify, attack and destroy ground mobile targets of military interest. PLOCAAS incorporates a solid state Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) seeker and Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) algorithms, miniature turbojet engine, multi-mode warhead, and an integrated INS/GPS into a 36" long, high lift-to-drag ratio airframe. Together, these technologies provide standoff beyond terminal defenses, wide area search capability, and high probability of target report with low false target attack rate with high loadouts. Four LADAR seeker captive flight tests provided the sequestered data for robust Air Force ATA algorithm performance assessment. During Part I of the ATD, three successful free-flight tests were completed in which the LADAR seeker and Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) algorithms have detected, acquired, identified, and tracked ground mobile targets. Part II of the ATD demonstrated the ability to redirect the munition post release via a commercial satellite datalink. In addition to summarizing all program accomplishments, this paper will present results and lessons learned from Part II of the ATD. Part II's objective was to demonstrate the military utility of a two- ay data-link. The data-link allows an Operator-In-The-Loop (OITL) to monitor and control multiple cooperative, wide-area-search munitions and enables these munitions to serve as non-traditional Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets in a networkcentric environment.

  15. U.S. Corps of Engineers (COE) Letters to California, Texas and Illinois Regarding Munitions on Closed Military Ranges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum responds to three letters sent by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) representatives to the States of Texas, California, and Illinois involving interpretations of the Military Munitions Rule and state authority.

  16. Military Munitions-Related Compounds Fate and Effects: A Literature Review Relative to Threatened and Endangered Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ER D C /C ER L TR -0 5- 10 Military Munitions-Related Compounds Fate and Effects ... Effects A Literature Review Relative to Threatened and Endangered Species Katherine von Stackleberg and Craig Amos Menzie-Cura and Associates...the fate and effects of military munitions com- pounds (MMCs) in the environment. More than 340 reports and other scientific papers were identified

  17. Mammalian Toxicity of Munitions Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses Part II. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    II: Effects of Multiple Doses Part !I: 2,4-T)initrotoiuene I Progres Report No. 3 oNovember 1978 by 3I Cheng-Chun Lee U Hirty V. Ellis, III Jo.,n J...Sciences Division November 1978 vii :. •I~~~~AMMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUNDS ... ... PHASE IIz Effects of Multiple Doses m . ............... PART...161 xi MAMOMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITION COMPOUNDS PHASE II: Effects of Multiple Dones PART II: 2,4

  18. Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewaters Containing Perchlorate from Munitions Handling and Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    result in hypothyroidism , mental retardation, and speech and hearing degradation. Treatment technology Perchlorate treatment technologies are...the perchlorate perturbation did not affect overall performance of the three bioreactors. There was no pH fluctuation, accumulation of volatile fatty...increased to 14.5 times its stoichiometric amount (day 591). This rise in ethanol significantly affected performance of the bioreactor during the

  19. Distribution of chemical warfare agent, energetics, and metals in sediments at a deep-water discarded military munitions site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Christian; Shjegstad, Sonia M.; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Edwards, Margo H.

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong need to understand the behavior of chemical warfare agent (CWA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites to determine the potential threat to human health or the environment, yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. chemical munitions were disposed. As part of the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA), sediments adjacent to chemical and conventional DMM at depths of 400-650 m were sampled using human occupied vehicles (HOVs) in order to quantify the distribution of CWA, energetics, and select metals. Sites in the same general area, with no munitions within 50 m in any direction were sampled as a control. Sulfur mustard (HD) and its degradation product 1,4-dithiane were detected at each CWA DMM site, as well as a single sample with the HD degradation product 1,4-thioxane. An energetic compound was detected in sediment to a limited extent at one CWA DMM site. Metals common in munitions casings (i.e., Fe, Cu, and Pb) showed similar trends at the regional and site-wide scales, likely reflecting changes in marine sediment deposition and composition. This study shows HD and its degradation products can persist in the deep-marine environment for decades following munitions disposal.

  20. For a Real Increase in the Military Platforms Safety, as a Consequence of the Transition to Insensitive Munitions: A Complex Issue Which Requires Intrinsic Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    FOR A REAL INCREASE IN THE MILITARY PLATFORMS SAFETY, AS A CONSEQUENCE OF THE TRANSITION TO INSENSITIVE MUNITIONS: A complex issue which requires...33.1.64.99.12.34. Fax : 33.1.64.99.15.95 ABSTRACT The transition to Insensitive Munitions ( IM ) is a need coming from the necessity of increasing the...safety of weapon platforms which are going to carry, to store or to use munitions. This transition to IM must then bring solutions to the requirements

  1. Depleted uranium dust from fired munitions: physical, chemical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Mitchel, R E J; Sunder, S

    2004-07-01

    This paper reports physical, chemical and biological analyses of samples of dust resulting from munitions containing depleted uranium (DU) that had been live-fired and had impacted an armored target. Mass spectroscopic analysis indicated that the average atom% of U was 0.198 +/- 0.10, consistent with depleted uranium. Other major elements present were iron, aluminum, and silicon. About 47% of the total mass was particles with diameters <300 microm, of which about 14% was <10 microm. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the uranium was present in the sample as uranium oxides-mainly U3O7 (47%), U3O8 (44%) and UO2 (9%). Depleted uranium dust, instilled into the lungs or implanted into the muscle of rats, contained a rapidly soluble uranium component and a more slowly soluble uranium component. The fraction that underwent dissolution in 7 d declined exponentially with increasing initial burden. At the lower lung burdens tested (<15 microg DU dust/lung) about 14% of the uranium appeared in urine within 7 d. At the higher lung burdens tested (~80-200 microg DU dust/lung) about 5% of the DU appeared in urine within 7 d. In both cases about 50% of that total appeared in urine within the first day. DU implanted in muscle similarly showed that about half of the total excreted within 7 d appeared in the first day. At the lower muscle burdens tested (<15 microg DU dust/injection site) about 9% was solubilized within 7 d. At muscle burdens >35 microg DU dust/injection site about 2% appeared in urine within 7 d. Natural uranium (NU) ore dust was instilled into rat lungs for comparison. The fraction dissolving in lung showed a pattern of exponential decline with increasing initial burden similar to DU. However, the decline was less steep, with about 14% appearing in urine for lung burdens up to about 200 microg NU dust/lung and 5% at lung burdens >1,100 microg NU dust/lung. NU also showed both a fast and a more slowly dissolving component. At the higher lung burdens of both

  2. Munitions having an insensitive detonator system for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-08-04

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  3. Guidance Document: Surface Soils Sampling for Munitions Residues in Military Live Fire Training Ranges: Canadian Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    concentration des résidus de munitions dans les sols de surface. Il est basé sur plus de 15 années de recherche pluridisciplinaire consacrée à l’étude de...moyennes de résidus dans les sols , à l’intérieur d’unités de décisions, soient les zones où la présence de résidus de munitions est suspectée. Le...l’application d’un échantillonnage multi incrémenté du sol dans les unités de décision de jugement et un processus rigoureux d’homogénéisation ultérieure du

  4. Environmental Assessment: Demolition of Munitions Storage Area Facilities at Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    South Dakota and Federal Ambient Air Quality Standards .............................................. 3 -20 3 -4 Summary of Annual Emissions ( TPY ...power plants show the highest annual emissions for all parameters. Table 3 -4. Summary of Annual Emissions ( TPY ) Counties VOCs CO NOx SOx PM10 PM2.5...2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3 . DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Environmental Assessment: Demolition of Munitions Storage

  5. Cleaning of Residues from Equipment Surfaces After Demilitarization of Arsenical-Based Munitions and Fill Materiels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    demilitarization process for the destruction of recovered arsenical-based munitions. Presently, this includes the use of PMNSCM’s Explosive Destruction...as the surfaces must be clean in order to achieve a good seal to prevent leaks during operations. A field-useable process for removing the residues was...data generated from the present study will be used to support operation of a non-stockpile demilitarization process for the destruction of recovered

  6. A two-stage extraction procedure for insensitive munition (IM) explosive compounds in soils.

    PubMed

    Felt, Deborah; Gurtowski, Luke; Nestler, Catherine C; Johnson, Jared; Larson, Steven

    2016-12-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is developing a new category of insensitive munitions (IMs) that are more resistant to detonation or promulgation from external stimuli than traditional munition formulations. The new explosive constituent compounds are 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), nitroguanidine (NQ), and nitrotriazolone (NTO). The production and use of IM formulations may result in interaction of IM component compounds with soil. The chemical properties of these IM compounds present unique challenges for extraction from environmental matrices such as soil. A two-stage extraction procedure was developed and tested using several soil types amended with known concentrations of IM compounds. This procedure incorporates both an acidified phase and an organic phase to account for the chemical properties of the IM compounds. The method detection limits (MDLs) for all IM compounds in all soil types were <5 mg/kg and met non-regulatory risk-based Regional Screening Level (RSL) criteria for soil proposed by the U.S. Army Public Health Center. At defined environmentally relevant concentrations, the average recovery of each IM compound in each soil type was consistent and greater than 85%. The two-stage extraction method decreased the influence of soil composition on IM compound recovery. UV analysis of NTO established an isosbestic point based on varied pH at a detection wavelength of 341 nm. The two-stage soil extraction method is equally effective for traditional munition compounds, a potentially important point when examining soils exposed to both traditional and insensitive munitions.

  7. Improving Understanding of the Fate and Transport of Munitions Constituents to Enhance Sustainability of Operational Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Reversible and Resistant Components of Munitions Constituents of Adsorption and Desorption on Soils. Water, Air , and Soil Pollution (in review).   González...diffusion and partitioning models. 4 Background The fate of contaminants in the environment has been studied intensely since pollution became a...determines the concentration of soluble organic matter, which in turn has dramatic effects on the mobility of pollutants in the environment. Sorption of

  8. Identification of Barriers to Munitions Detection Technology Transfer: Unexploded Ordnance Wide Area Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Noblis Technical Report Identification of Barriers to Munitions Detection Technology Transfer Unexploded Ordnance Wide Area Assessment...September 2008 Jon Horin Robert S. Wassmann Customer: SERDP/ESTCP Contract No.: FA8903-04-D-8715 Noblis Dept. No.: H300 Project No... Noblis ,3150 Fairview Park Drive South,Falls Church,VA,22042-4504 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  9. Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Technologies on Munitions Response Sites Fort Rucker, Alabama

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    DEMONSTRATION REPORT Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Technologies on Munitions Response Sites Fort Rucker, Alabama ...Rucker, Alabama 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This document serves as the Environmental Security Technology

  10. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Staub, W.P.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1990-09-01

    This is the 1990 Addendum (Volume 2) for the Phase I report on the disposal of chemicals and munitions at Anniston Army Depot. Included in the Addendum are responses to reviewers' comments on population density estimates, seismicity information, fault locations, and references. Reviewing agencies errata, and conclusions are also listed. Information presented does not change the principal conclusion reached by the Phase I report, that on-site disposal remains valid for Anniston Army Depot. (SM)

  11. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  12. Final Finding of No Significant Impact Munitions Storage Area at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-11

    Munitions Storage Area 6 •Jack Siegel • Deborah Tharp •MSgt Randy Russell • Romru1 Alvarez • Mike Faldowski •Carl T. Hoffman AETC/CE AETC/CE AFSC/SEW...office about project. Additional documentalion/research is required. Comments attached. SIGNEO "{)\\ a ~~~ w.RaAL~ "" Duncan Jay Cairns Chief, Bur

  13. Optimizing Terminal Conditions Using Geometric Guidance for Low-Control Authority Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    37 5.1 Optimal Performance and Guidance Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 5.2 “Ideal” Control Up Time Statistics ...constraints. Figure 2.1 shows a publicly released picture of and some statistics on one such program, the Extended Range Guided Munition (ERGM) built by...in the same way. The center of gravity equation is mathematically derived to represent the empirically derived data of the center of gravity as the

  14. Assessment of Fragmentation Performance of Blast-enhanced Explosive Fragmentation Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    aluminized blast-enhanced PAX-Al composition. The experimental assessment of the fragmentation performance of tested charges was accomplished using...charges, rapid expansion of high pressure detonation products results in high-strain high-strain-rate dilation of the hardened steel shell, which...eventually ruptures generating a “spray” of high-velocity steel fragments. Defining the longitudinal axis of the munition as the polar axis z, the

  15. In-line fuzing development for tactical airfield attack munition (TAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.J.

    1981-03-18

    The shock-hardened new-concept safing, arming, and in-line fuzing system developed for US Air Force modular weapons is being advanced for the Tactical Airfield Attack Munition (TAAM) as an alternate fuzing system. The high power slapper detonator system is being reduced in volume by an approximate factor of 10 and the energy by a factor of 3. In addition, the fuze has the capability of functioning after many hours of delay to provide area-denial capabilities.

  16. The development of design requirements and application of guided hard-launch munitions on aerial platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Matthew David

    This thesis outlines the potential and need for a paradigm shift that will fundamentally alter the way aerial engagement is carried out in the coming decades. The implementation of guided hard-launch munitions on aerial platforms will effectively allow for greater target versatility while providing a defense system for the aircraft in question. A rearward facing gun barrel equipped with several smaller caliber guided rounds can effectively mitigate air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles from hostile forces, while larger caliber rounds in a traditional forward or side mounted barrel can engage both surface and airborne targets at close and medium-ranges. This study outlines the concept of operations for various mission types implementing these guided munitions from short-range direct fire encounters to long-range indirect fire. A computational model was then established to outline the design requirements for this particular type of munition family. The aerodynamics, structures, and guidance, navigation and controls were considered for each engagement type. A sample guided projectile concept was then applied to three airframes, the F-35A, AC-130U, and A-10, in order to demonstrate basic capability as a retrofit on exiting gunnery systems. The modified system capability was then juxtaposed with existing aerial combat potential.

  17. A novel class of MEMS accelerometers for guidance and control of gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Pereira, Carlos M.

    2015-05-01

    The state of art in shock resistant MEMS accelerometer design is to reduce the size of the proof-mass, thereby reducing the generated forces and moments due to shock loading. Physical stops are also provided to limit proof-mass motion to prevent damage to various moving components. The reduction of the proof-mass size reduces the sensor sensitivity. In addition, to increase the sensor dynamic response, proof-mass motion needs to be minimally damped, resulting in a significant sensor settling time after experiencing a high shock loading such as those experienced by gun-fired munitions during firing. The settling time is particularly important for accelerometers that are used in gun-fired munitions and mortars for navigation and guidance. This paper describes the development of a novel class of accelerometers that are provided with the means of locking the sensor proof-mass in its "null" position when subjected to acceleration levels above prescribed thresholds, thereby protecting the moving parts of the accelerometer. In munitions applications, the proof-mass is thereby locked in its null position during the firing and released during the flight to begin to measure flight acceleration with minimal settling time. Details of the design and operation of the developed sensors and results of their prototyping and testing are presented. The application of the developed technology to other types of inertial sensors and devices is discussed.

  18. Novel piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources for gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.; Pereira, C.; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2007-04-01

    A novel class of piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources is presented for gun-fired munitions and other similar applications that require very high G survivability. The power sources are designed to harvest energy from the firing acceleration as well as vibratory motion of munitions during the flight and convert it to electrical energy to power onboard electronics. The developed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting power sources produce enough electrical energy for applications such as fuzing. The power sources are designed to withstand firing accelerations in excess of 100,000 G. In certain applications such as fuzing, the developed power sources have the potential of completely eliminating the need for chemical batteries. In fuzing applications, the developed power sources have the added advantage of providing additional safety, since with such power sources the fuzing electronics are powered only after the munitions have exited the barrel and have traveled a safe distance from the weapon platform. The design of a number of prototypes, including their packaging for high G hardening, and the results of laboratory and air-gun testing are presented. Methods to increase the efficiency of such energy-harvesting power sources and minimize friction and damping losses are discussed.

  19. Inspection report: the Department of Energy's export licensing process for dual-use and munitions commodities

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Gregory H.

    1999-05-01

    Export of commodities, encouraged by both the private sector and the Federal Government, helps to improve our position in the global economy and is in the national interest of the US. However, exports of commodities or technologies, without regard to whether they may significantly contribute to the military potential of individual countries or combination of countries or enhance the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, may adversely affect the national security of the US. The Federal Government, therefore, implements several laws, Executive Orders, and regulations to control the export of certain commodities and technologies. These commodities and technologies require a license for export. Some of the controlled items are designated as ''dual-use,'' that is, commodities and technologies that have both civilian and military application. Some dual-use commodities are designated as ''nuclear dual-use''--items controlled for nuclear nonproliferation purposes. Another group of controlled commodities is designated as munitions, which are goods and technologies that have solely military uses. The Department of Energy (Energy) conducts reviews of export license applications for nuclear dual-use items and certain munitions. On August 26, 1998, the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs requested that the Inspectors General from the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, State, and Treasury, and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), update and expand on a 1993 interagency review conducted by the Inspectors General of the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State of the export licensing processes for dual-use and munitions commodities.

  20. Absorbent Analysis of Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Munition Demilitarization Building (MDB) Banks 1 and 2 Filter Samples Following Completion of The GB Agent and VX Rocket Campaigns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    ADSORBENT ANALYSIS OF ANNISTON CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL FACILITY MUNITION...DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2007 – July 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adsorbent Analysis of Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Munition...Building (MDB) Banks 1 and 2 ventilation filters from the Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility were analyzed for the level of GB and VX

  1. AMCCOM (Army Armament, Munitions and Chemical Command) Management Study of Procurement Work Directive (PWD) Processing Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-23

    MANAGEM ENT STUDIES DIVISION MANAGEMENT DIRECTORATE US ARMY ARMAMENT. AUG 1 9 Bf MUNITIONS AND CHEMICAL COMMANDW ROCK ISLAND . IL 61299-6000 a I SECURITY...ZIPCode) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) Rock Island , IL 61299-6000 8a. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT...PWD versus a funded PWD are virtually the same, costs developed are representative of both types of PWDs. i1 c. Rock Island site Headquarters, U.S. Army

  2. Piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting and storage methods and electronics for munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Pereira, C.; Ervin, M.; Feng, D.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Armament Research development Center (ARDEC) and the Army Research Laboratories in Adelphi, Maryland, and their small business collaborator (Omnitek Partners, LLC) have been developing alternatives to current reserve batteries for certain munitions applications. It is shown that using a novel passive method, efficiency of over 70 percent could be achieved in the transfer of generated electrical charges to appropriate selected storage mediums. The paper also describes the development of test-beds to simulate electrical charge generation of the energy harvesting power sources during the firing and the flight for use in the design and evaluation of the collection electronics.

  3. Mammalian Toxicity of Munitions Compounds Identification of Waste Products from RDX and HMX Manufacture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    COMPOUNDS IDENTIFICATION OF WASTE PRODUCTS FROM L , I RDX AND HMX MANUFACTURE L PROGRESS REORT NO. 10 April 24, 1979 1ly Danny U. Helton William Burton...BEOR ~ COMLETIG OR1 1.REOR NUOBE ANESON 3.R tPENT’S CATALOG NUNGEtR tRProgreussRepr No.* 10 /OYA~ 4. TITLE (and 1ubAA159) S. TYPE O~F REPORT a PERIOD...COVERED Mammalian Toxicity of Munitions Compounds ?rogress Report No. 10 Identification of Waste Products from RDX / MAN 13-. 1976 - Nov- a1. 1978 S_

  4. Acoustic Response of Underwater Munitions near a Sediment Interface: Measurement Model Comparisons and Classification Schemes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-23

    FINAL REPORT Acoustic Response of Underwater Munitions near a Sediment Interface: Measurement Model Comparisons and Classification Schemes SERDP...6 Figure 2. Effect of fish on acoustic color templates during GULFEX12 …………… 8 Figure 3. Selection of targets deployed during TREX13 and BAYEX14...deployed during TREX13 and BAYEX14 …… 29 Figure 16. Ray diagrams for the acoustic ray model …………………………… 29 Figure 17. Model-model and data-model

  5. Common Low-cost IM Explosive Program. Development of Next Generation Insensitive Munitions: A Success Story

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-30

    to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data...Insensitive Munitions Business Case Analysis (BCA) Filter 1 Criteria Cheetah Calculations Standard Safety Tests Electrostatic Friction Impact...Cook‐off V Heating rate is 3.3°C/hr Bullet Impact into HE IV Type V if scored to criteria that  existed  at program start Fragment Impact into HE V  2,532

  6. Hardware-in-the-loop testing for the LOCAAS laser radar antimateriel munition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Lawrence Y., III; Thompson, Rhoe A.

    1996-05-01

    The KHILS facility in the Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate at Eglin AFB has developed a hardware-in-the- loop (HWIL) simulation for the Low Cost Autonomous Attack System. Unique techniques have been developed for real-time closed-loop signal injection testing of this Laser Radar (LADAR) guided munition concept. The overall HWIL layout will be described including discussion of interfaces, real- time 3D LADAR scene generation, flight motion simulation, and real-time graphical visualization. In addition, the practical application of a new simulation Verification, Validation and Accreditation procedure will be described in relation to this HWIL simulation.

  7. Swords & Plowshares: Modifications to the MLRS Family of Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    terrain and the effects that weather, natural and man-made obstacles and canalization have on that terrain. Due to the inherently close proximity to...Materiel (APAM). The Israeli APAM contains six (6) explosives charges with multiple fuzing options. In the point detonating (PD) mode, all six

  8. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    Sampling and Analysis TATB has been analyzed by thin layer chromatography or Silica gel G- Zn dust utilizing 2-dimensional development with 1,2...Washington, D.C. Garber, K. (1970), "Air Pollution by Heavy-Metal-Containing Dusts . Effects on Plants." LandAirt, Forsch, Sonderh., 25, 59-68...plasticizer for nitrile rubbers. It is also used as a lubricant in electric pre-shave lotions, dielectric liquid and flavoring (Union Camp, 1972). 4

  9. Environmental Fate Studies on Certain Munition Wastewater Constituents - Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    conducted soil column tests to determine whether TNT migrates into groundwater. However, the experiments were terminated before enough data were...TNT after 6 days. Ro TNT disappearmce was observed in inoculated flasks containing only mineral salt and 2,4,6-Th. Klausseier et al. (1973) then tested ...1975) demonstrated that "t activity from metabolized ring 24C-tNT was in ninhydrin -positive materials obtained from the hydrolysis of cellular

  10. 77 FR 70958 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Revision of U.S. Munitions List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... rule. SUMMARY: As part of the President's Export Control Reform effort, the Department of State... electronics) of the U.S. Munitions List (USML) to describe more precisely the articles warranting control on... after the close of the comment period via the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls Web site at...

  11. 76 FR 76097 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Establishment of U.S. Munitions List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... List: Revising Descriptions of Items and Foreign Availability,'' 75 FR 76664 (December 9, 2010) and ``Revision to the United States Munitions List,'' 75 FR 76935 (December 10, 2010)). The notices also called... designed'' in the December 2010 ANPRM (75 FR 76935) and noted the term would be used minimally in the...

  12. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  13. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  14. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR 1 MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  15. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  16. Final Environmental Assessment to Modernize Storage Facilities in the Munitions Complex and Throughout Edwards Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA June 2006 95th Air Base Wing Civil Engineer Directorate...documentation. For: 95th Air Base Wing Civil Engineer Directorate Environmental Management Division Edwards AFB CA FINAL iii Munitions...be renovated as part of this project. Under Alternative A, the Preferred Alternative, the 95th Air Base Wing, Civil Engineer Directorate

  17. Influence of carbon and metal oxide nanomaterials on aqueous concentrations of the munition constituents cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and tungsten.

    PubMed

    Brame, Jonathon A; Kennedy, Alan J; Lounds, Christopher D; Bednar, Anthony J; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Scott, Andrea M; Stanley, Jacob K

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing likelihood of interactions between nanomaterials and munitions constituents in the environment resulting from the use of nanomaterials as additives to energetic formulations and potential contact in waste streams from production facilities and runoff from training ranges. The purpose of the present research was to determine the ability of nano-aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to adsorb the munitions constituents cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and tungsten (W) from aqueous solution as a first step in determining the long-term exposure, transport, and bioavailability implications of such interactions. The results indicate significant adsorption of RDX by MWCNTs and of W by nano-Al(2)O(3) (but not between W and MWCNT or RDX and nano-Al(2)O(3)). Kinetic sorption and desorption investigations indicated that the most sorption occurs nearly instantaneously (<5 min), with a relatively slower, secondary binding leading to statistically significant but relatively smaller increases in adsorption over 30 d. The RDX sorption that occurred during the initial interaction was irreversible, with long-term, reversible sorption likely the result of a secondary interaction; as interaction time increased, however, the portion of W irreversibly sorbed onto nano-Al(2)O(3) also increased. The present study shows that strong interactions between some munitions constituents and nanomaterials following environmental release are likely. Time-dependent binding has implications for the bioavailability, migration, transport, and fate of munitions constituents in the environment.

  18. 75 FR 28848 - Lifting of Policy of Denial of Munitions Export Licenses and Other Approvals Destined for Tula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... of Policy of Denial of Munitions Export Licenses and Other Approvals Destined for Tula Instrument Design Bureau SUMMARY: The Department of State is lifting the policy of denial for Tula Instrument Design Bureau pursuant to ] section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) and section 126.7 of...

  19. 78 FR 31444 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Revision of U.S. Munitions List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... XV (Spacecraft Systems and Related Articles) of the U.S. Munitions List (USML) to describe more... (USMIL). The transfer of defense articles from the ITAR's USML to the EAR's CCL for the purpose of export... to be revised to more specifically describe the articles controlled therein. Paragraph (b) is to...

  20. Evaluation of a soil slurry reactor system for treating soil contaminated with munitions compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.; Montemagno, C.; Kulpa, C.F.

    1994-05-01

    Two 0.5-L semicontinuous soil slurry reactors were operated for seven months to evaluate the performance of the slurry reactor system in bioremediating soil contaminated with munitions compounds. Nitrogen and carbon were supplemented. The soil slurry was mixed continuously and aerated 10 min/day. Ten percent of the contaminated soil was replaced every week. The 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) concentration in soil began to drop after 15 days of treatment, falling to less than 0.5 mg/kg from 7800 mg/kg. Total plate counts in both reactors indicated that the bacterial population was maintained, with an average plate count of about 10{sup 8} CFU/mL. The soil slurry was slightly acidic. In addition to TNT, the slurry reactor also removed the other munitions compounds trinitrobenzene (TNB), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), RDX, and HMX. Radiolabeling studies on the reactor biomass showed that 23% of [{sup C}14]TNT was mineralized, while 27% was used as biomass and 8% was adsorbed on to the soil. The rest of the [{sup 14}C]TNT was accounted for as TNT metabolites. Increasing the frequency of soil replacement from once to two or three times weekly did not affect the TNT removal rates. However, the slurry system showed signs of stress, with highly acidic conditions and low oxygen uptake rates.

  1. Analysis of munitions constituents in IMX formulations by HPLC and HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Russell, A L; Seiter, J M; Coleman, J G; Winstead, B; Bednar, A J

    2014-10-01

    The use of Insensitive Munitions eXplosives (IMX) is increasing as the Army seeks to replace certain conventional munitions constituents, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotolene (TNT), for improved safety. The IMX formulations are more stable and therefore less prone to accidental detonation while designed to match the performance of legacy materials. Two formulations, IMX 101 and 104 are being investigated as a replacement for TNT in artillery rounds and composition B Army mortars, respectively. The chemical formulations of IMX-101 and 104 are comprised of four constituents;2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), 1-nitroguanidine (NQ), and Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) which are mixed in various ratios to achieve the desired performance. The current work details the analysis of the IMX constituents by single column HPLC-UV-ESI-MS. Detection limits determined are in agreement with similar HPLC analysis of compounds, ranging from 7 to 9μg/L. Gradient mobile phases are used to allow separation of the 4 target compounds in more complex mixture of other concomitant compounds. Mass spectra are used to confirm analyte identity with chromatographic retention time.

  2. A Market-Basket Approach to Predict the Acute Aquatic Toxicity of Munitions and Energetic Materials.

    PubMed

    Burgoon, Lyle D

    2016-06-01

    An ongoing challenge in chemical production, including the production of insensitive munitions and energetics, is the ability to make predictions about potential environmental hazards early in the process. To address this challenge, a quantitative structure activity relationship model was developed to predict acute fathead minnow toxicity of insensitive munitions and energetic materials. Computational predictive toxicology models like this one may be used to identify and prioritize environmentally safer materials early in their development. The developed model is based on the Apriori market-basket/frequent itemset mining approach to identify probabilistic prediction rules using chemical atom-pairs and the lethality data for 57 compounds from a fathead minnow acute toxicity assay. Lethality data were discretized into four categories based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. Apriori identified toxicophores for categories two and three. The model classified 32 of the 57 compounds correctly, with a fivefold cross-validation classification rate of 74 %. A structure-based surrogate approach classified the remaining 25 chemicals correctly at 48 %. This result is unsurprising as these 25 chemicals were fairly unique within the larger set.

  3. Interactions between ingredients in IMX-101: Reactive Chemical Processes Control Insensitive Munitions Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard; Kay, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry (STMBMS) measurements have been conducted on a new Insensitive Munitions (IM) formulation. IMX-101 is the first explosive to be fully IM qualified under new NATO STANAG guidelines for fielded munitions. The formulation uses dinitroanisole (DNAN) as a new melt cast material to replace TNT, and shows excellent IM performance when formulated with other energetic ingredients. The scope of this work is to explain this superior IM performance by investigating the reactive processes occurring in the material when subjected to a well-controlled thermal environment. The dominant reactive processes observed were a series of complex chemical interactions between the three main ingredients (DNAN, NQ, and NTO) that occurs well below the onset of the normal decomposition process of any of the individual ingredients. This process shifts the thermal response of the formulations to a much lower temperature, where the kinetically controlled reaction processes are much slower. This low temperature shift has the effect of allowing the reactions to consume the reactive solids (NQ, NTO) well before the reaction rates increase and reach thermal runaway, resulting in a relatively benign response to the external stimuli. The main findings on the interaction processes are presented.

  4. Increasing Range and Lethality of Extended-Range Munitions (ERMS) using Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and the AUV Workbench to Compute a Ballistic Correction (BALCOR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Environmental effects have a direct impact on the ability of weapons to reach their intended target. One example of this impact was during the dust storm that... dust storm , and were able to make changes to planned weapons loads, favoring GPS-guided munitions over laser guided munitions (Anderson, 2004). The...2004). An Analysis of a Dust Storm impacting Operation Iraqi Freedom, 25-27 March 2003. (M.S. Naval Postgraduate School). Annati, M. (2003

  5. Bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, and metals in deep-sea shrimp from discarded military munitions sites off Pearl Harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Shelby; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Dupra, Vilma; Edwards, Margo

    2016-06-01

    The bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals at former military deep-water disposal sites is poorly understood. This paper presents the results of human-food-item biota sampling to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, arsenic, and additional munitions-related metals in deep-sea shrimp tissue samples collected during the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project to date. The HUMMA investigation area is located within a former munitions sea-disposal site located south of Pearl Harbor on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, designated site Hawaii-05 (HI-05) by the United States Department of Defense. Indigenous deep-sea shrimp (Heterocarpus ensifer) were caught adjacent to discarded military munitions (DMM) and at control sites where munitions were absent. Tissue analysis results showed that chemical warfare agents and their degradation products were not present within the edible portions of these samples at detectable concentrations, and energetic materials and their degradation products were detected in only a few samples at concentrations below the laboratory reporting limits. Likewise, arsenic, copper, and lead concentrations were below the United States Food and Drug Administration's permitted concentrations of metals in marine biota tissue (if defined), and their presence within these samples could not be attributed to the presence of DMM within the study area based on a comparative analysis of munitions-adjacent and control samples collected. Based on this current dataset, it can be concluded that DMM existing within the HUMMA study area is not contributing to the bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals for the biota species investigated to date.

  6. Photo-degradation of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN): An emerging munitions compound.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Walsh, Marianne E; Becher, Julie B; Ringelberg, David B; Mannes, Philip Z; Gribble, Gordon W

    2017-01-01

    The US military is developing insensitive munitions (IM) that are less sensitive to shock and high temperatures to minimize unintentional detonations. DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole) is one of the main ingredients of these IM formulations. During live-fire training, chunks of IM formulations are scattered by partial detonations and, once on the soil, they weather and dissolve. DNAN changes color when exposed to sunlight suggesting that it photodegrades into other compounds. We investigated the photo-degradation of DNAN both as a pure solid and as part of solid IM formulations, IMX101, IMX104 and PAX21. The concentrations of degradation products found were small, <1%, relative to DNAN concentrations. We saw transient peaks in the chromatograms indicating intermediate, unstable products but we consistently found methoxy nitrophenols and methoxy nitroanilines. We also found one unknown in most of the samples and other unknowns less frequently.

  7. Environmental genotoxicity assessment along the transport routes of chemical munitions leading to the dumping areas in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Baršienė, Janina; Butrimavičienė, Laura; Grygiel, Włodzimierz; Stunžėnas, Virmantas; Valskienė, Roberta; Greiciūnaitė, Janina; Stankevičiūtė, Milda

    2016-02-15

    The frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB) and nuclear buds on filament (NBf) were examined in 660 specimens of herring (Clupea harengus) collected in 2009-2014 at 65 study stations located mainly along the chemical munition transport routes in the Baltic Sea. The frequency of nuclear abnormalities was strongly increased in herring caught at four stations located close to chemical munition dumping sites, or CWAs - substances (chemical warfare agents) in sediments. Significant increase of MN, NB and NBf was observed in fish caught November 2010-2013 compared to 2009. The most significantly increased genotoxicity responses were recorded in fish caught at stations along CW (chemical weapons) transport routes, close to the Bornholm CW dumping area, in zones with CWAs in sediments and with oil-gas platforms.

  8. Geophysical System Verification (GSV): A Physics-Based Alternative to Geophysical Prove-Outs for Munitions Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-24

    Geoffrey Carton, CALIBRE Systems , supporting the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Environment, Safety and Occupational Health...IVS instrument verification strip MR munitions response MTADS Multi-sensor Towed Array Detection System NAOC National Association of Ordnance and...verification strip and is used to check that the noise level of the instrument is what would be expected for that site and that system noise is

  9. Geophysical System Verification (GSV): A Physics-Based Alternative to Geophysical Prove-Outs for Munitions Response. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-24

    Geoffrey Carton, CALIBRE Systems , supporting the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Environment, Safety and Occupational Health...IVS instrument verification strip MR munitions response MTADS Multi-sensor Towed Array Detection System NAOC National Association of Ordnance and...verification strip and is used to check that the noise level of the instrument is what would be expected for that site and that system noise is

  10. Joint Ordnance Test Procedure (JOTP)-010 Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing for Shoulder Launched Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-08

    but also consists of radiography and non- destructive examinations (i.e. ultrasonic , tomography, magna-flux, eddy-current, etc.) of all munitions and...removal process. Dynamic burst testing using a modified or choked nozzle is an acceptable method if the results are repeatable. Either test method...rocket motor case, heat damage to nozzle /venture, and damage to thermal barrier (if present). f. The probability of motor case rupture is

  11. Economic Evaluation of Munitions Manufacturing Pink Wastewater Treatment Alternatives Using a Present Value-Unit Cost Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    present value- unit cost (PVUC) methodology and compares seven state -of-the- art processes: activated granular carbon adsorption with and without...The United States Army controls seventeen Army Ammunition Plants (AAP) engaged in explosive or propellant manufacture. Seven AAP’s engage only in mar...Army manufactures all explosives (except nitroglycerin) employed by the United States Air Force and the Army LAP facilities process Air Force munitions

  12. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  13. A Field Program to Identify TRI Chemicals and Determine Emission Factors from DoD Munitions Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    primer used in all six munitions tested. These were: barium as barium nitrate, lead as lead styphnate , and antimony as antimony sulfide. A...7440-38-2 A 3, 13, 14 barium 7440-39-3 A 13, 14, 17, 18 benzene 71-43-2 A 3, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 benzidine 92-87-5 A 10 benzyl chloride 100-44...dichloropropane antimony diethylphthalate benzidine 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane barium dibutylphthalate biphenyl tetrachloroethylene cobalt chlorine

  14. Piezoelectric-based event sensing and energy-harvesting power sources for thermal battery initiation in gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Feng, D.; Pereira, C.

    2014-06-01

    A novel class of piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices with integrated safety and firing setback event detection electronics and logic circuitry that can be used in gun-fired munitions is presented. In this paper, the application of the device to the development of initiators for thermal reserve batteries in gun-fire munitions is presented. The novel and highly efficient electrical energy collection and storage and event detection and safety electronics used allows the use of a very small piezoelectric element. As a result, such devices can be highly miniaturized for used in small reserve batteries. For thermal battery initiation, when the prescribed firing setback acceleration profile, i.e., the prescribed all-fire condition is detected, a highly efficient charge collection electronic circuitry routes the charges generated by the piezoelectric element of the device to the initiator bridge element, thereby causing the thermal battery pyrotechnic material to be ignited. For munitions powered by thermal reserve batteries, the present initiation device provides a self-powered initiator with full no-fire safety circuitry for protection against accidental drops, transportation vibration, and other similar low amplitude accelerations and/or high amplitude but short duration acceleration events. The device is shown to be readily set to initiate thermal batteries under almost any all-fire conditions. The device can be readily hardened to withstand very high G firing setback accelerations in excess of 100,000 G and the harsh firing environment. The design of prototypes and testing under realistic conditions are presented.

  15. Microanalytical X-ray imaging of depleted uranium speciation in environmentally aged munitions residues.

    PubMed

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2014-01-01

    Use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions has resulted in contamination of the near-surface environment with penetrator residues. Uncertainty in the long-term environmental fate of particles produced by impact of DU penetrators with hard targets is a specific concern. In this study DU particles produced in this way and exposed to the surface terrestrial environment for longer than 30 years at a U.K. firing range were characterized using synchrotron X-ray chemical imaging. Two sites were sampled: a surface soil and a disposal area for DU-contaminated wood, and the U speciation was different between the two areas. Surface soil particles showed little extent of alteration, with U speciated as oxides U3O7 and U3O8. Uranium oxidation state and crystalline phase mapping revealed these oxides occur as separate particles, reflecting heterogeneous formation conditions. Particles recovered from the disposal area were substantially weathered, and U(VI) phosphate phases such as meta-ankoleite (K(UO2)(PO4) · 3H2O) were dominant. Chemical imaging revealed domains of contrasting U oxidation state linked to the presence of both U3O7 and meta-ankoleite, indicating growth of a particle alteration layer. This study demonstrates that substantial alteration of DU residues can occur, which directly influences the health and environmental hazards posed by this contamination.

  16. Ecotoxicological assessment of a high energetic and insensitive munitions compound: 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN).

    PubMed

    Dodard, Sabine G; Sarrazin, Manon; Hawari, Jalal; Paquet, Louise; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2013-11-15

    The high explosive nitroaromatic 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) is less shock sensitive than 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and is proposed as a TNT replacement for melt-cast formulations. Before using DNAN in munitions and potentially leading to environmental impact, the present study examines the ecotoxicity of DNAN using selected organisms. In water, DNAN decreased green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth (EC50 = 4.0mg/L), and bacteria Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence (Microtox, EC50 = 60.3mg/L). In soil, DNAN decreased perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne growth (EC50 =7 mg/kg), and is lethal to earthworms Eisenia andrei (LC50 = 47 mg/kg). At sub-lethal concentrations, DNAN caused an avoidance response (EC50 = 31 mg/kg) by earthworms. The presence of DNAN and 2-amino-4-nitroanisole in earthworms and plants suggested a role of these compounds in DNAN toxicity. Toxicity of DNAN was compared to TNT, tested under the same experimental conditions. These analyses showed that DNAN was equally, or even less deleterious to organism health than TNT, depending on the species and toxicity test. The present studies provide baseline toxicity data to increase the understanding of the environmental impact of DNAN, and assist science-based decision makers for improved management of potential DNAN contaminated sites.

  17. Biodegradation of insensitive munition formulations IMX101 and IMX104 in surface soils.

    PubMed

    Indest, Karl J; Hancock, Dawn E; Crocker, Fiona H; Eberly, Jed O; Jung, Carina M; Blakeney, Gary A; Brame, Jon; Chappell, Mark A

    2017-03-03

    The biodegradation potential of insensitive munition melt cast formulations IMX101 and IMX104 was investigated in two unamended training range soils under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. Changes in community profiles in soil microcosms were monitored via high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing over the course of the experiments to infer key microbial phylotypes that may be linked to IMX degradation. Complete anaerobic biotransformation occurred for IMX101 and IMX104 constituents 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one during the 30-day incubation period with Camp Shelby (CS) soil. By comparison, soil from Umatilla chemical depot demonstrated incomplete DNAN degradation with reduced transformation rates for both IMX101 and IMX104. Aerobic soil microcosms for both soils demonstrated reduced transformation rates compared to anaerobic degradation for all IMX constituents with DNAN the most susceptible to biotransformation by CS soil. Overall, IMX constituents hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and 1-nitroguanidine did not undergo significant transformation. In CS soil, organisms that have been associated with explosives degradation, namely members of the Burkholderiaceae, Bacillaceae, and Paenibacillaceae phylotypes increased significantly in anaerobic treatments whereas Sphingomonadaceae increased significantly in aerobic treatments. Collectively, these data may be used to populate fate and transport models to provide more accurate estimates for assessing environmental costs associated with release of IMX101 and IMX104.

  18. Mortality in US Army Gulf War Veterans Exposed to 1991 Khamisiyah Chemical Munitions Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Bullman, Tim A.; Mahan, Clare M.; Kang, Han K.; Page, William F.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether US Army Gulf War veterans who were potentially exposed to nerve agents during the March 1991 weapons demolitions at Khamisiyah, Iraq, are at increased risk of cause-specific mortality. Methods. The cause-specific mortality of 100487 exposed US Army Gulf War veterans was compared with that of 224980 unexposed US Army Gulf War veterans. Exposure was determined with the Department of Defense 2000 plume model. Relative risk estimates were derived from Cox proportional hazards models. Results. The risks of most disease-related mortality were similar for exposed and unexposed veterans. However, exposed veterans had an increased risk of brain cancer deaths (relative risk [RR]=1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.12, 3.34). The risk of brain cancer death was larger among those exposed 2 or more days than those exposed 1 day when both were compared separately to all unexposed veterans (RR=3.26; 95% CI=1.33, 7.96; RR=1.72; 95% CI=0.95,3.10, respectively). Conclusions. Exposure to chemical munitions at Khamisiyah may be associated with an increased risk of brain cancer death. Additional research is required to confirm this finding. PMID:16043669

  19. Adsorption of Emerging Munitions Contaminants on Cellulose Surface: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Investigation.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Manoj K; Poda, Aimee

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript reports results of an integrated theoretical and experimental investigation of adsorption of two emerging contaminants (DNAN and FOX-7) and legacy compound TNT on cellulose surface. Cellulose was modeled as trimeric form of the linear chain of 1 → 4 linked of β-D-glucopyranos in (4)C1 chair conformation. Geometries of modeled cellulose, munitions compounds and their complexes were optimized at the M06-2X functional level of Density Functional Theory using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set in gas phase and in water solution. The effect of water solution was modeled using the CPCM approach. Nature of potential energy surfaces was ascertained through harmonic vibrational frequency analysis. Interaction energies were corrected for basis set superposition error and the 6-311G(d,p) basis set was used. Molecular electrostatic potential mapping was performed to understand the reactivity of the investigated systems. It was predicted that adsorbates will be weakly adsorbed on the cellulose surface in water solution than in the gas phase.

  20. Using transfer functions as a method for predicting lightning effects on munitions storage bunkers

    SciTech Connect

    Struck, J.K.; Chiefa, M.A.; Grenert, J.E. ); Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Measurements have recently been conducted and computer models constructed to determine the coupling of lightning energy into munition storage bunkers as detailed in companion conference papers. In this paper transfer functions from the incident current to the measured parameters are used to construct simple circuit models that explain much of the important observed quantitative and qualitative information and differences in transfer functions are used to identify nonlinearities in the response data. In particular, V{sub oc} -- the open-circuit voltage generated between metal objects in the structure, I{sub sc} -- the short-circuit current generated in a wire connecting metal objects in the structure, and a typical current measurement in the buried counterpoise system behave in a relatively simple manner explainable by one or several circuit elements. The circuit elements inferred from measured data are comparable in magnitude with those developed from simple analytical models for inductance and resistance. These analytical models are more useful in predicting bounding electromagnetic environment values rather than providing exact time domain waveforms. 2 refs.

  1. Using transfer functions as a method for predicting lightning effects on munitions storage bunkers

    SciTech Connect

    Struck, J.K.; Chiefa, M.A.; Grenert, J.E.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.

    1992-06-01

    Measurements have recently been conducted and computer models constructed to determine the coupling of lightning energy into munition storage bunkers as detailed in companion conference papers. In this paper transfer functions from the incident current to the measured parameters are used to construct simple circuit models that explain much of the important observed quantitative and qualitative information and differences in transfer functions are used to identify nonlinearities in the response data. In particular, V{sub oc} -- the open-circuit voltage generated between metal objects in the structure, I{sub sc} -- the short-circuit current generated in a wire connecting metal objects in the structure, and a typical current measurement in the buried counterpoise system behave in a relatively simple manner explainable by one or several circuit elements. The circuit elements inferred from measured data are comparable in magnitude with those developed from simple analytical models for inductance and resistance. These analytical models are more useful in predicting bounding electromagnetic environment values rather than providing exact time domain waveforms. 2 refs.

  2. Computer-based test system for the Tactical Airfield Attack Munition (TAAM) safing, arming, and fuzing system

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.; Castleton, R.; Lanning, S.

    1981-12-01

    Testing and quality assurance of large numbers of firing systems are an essential part of the development of the Tactical Airfield Attack Munition (TAAM). A computerized test and data acquisition system has been developed to make the testing and quality assurance workload manageable. The system hardware utilizes an LSI-11/23 computer, a Tektronix 7612 transient digitizer, and various other programmable instruments and power supplies. The system is capable of measuring and analyzing mechanical shock and fireset transient waveforms, automating testing sequences, and making records and comparisons of the test results. The system architecture is flexible for general purpose firing system development work.

  3. Next Generation Munitions Handler: Human-Machine Interface and Preliminary Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Jansen, J.F.; Pin, F.G.; Rowe, J.C.

    1999-04-25

    The Next Generation Munitions Handler/Advanced Technology Demonstrator (NGMI-VATTD) is a technology demonstrator for the application of an advanced robotic device for re-arming U.S. Air Force (USAF) and U.S. Navy (USN) tactical fighters. It comprises two key hardware components: a heavy-lift dexterous manipulator (HDM) and a nonholonomic mobility platform. The NGMWATTD is capable of lifting weapons up to 4400 kg (2000 lb) and placing them on any weapons rack on existing fighters (including the F-22 Raptor). This report describes the NGMH mission with particular reference to human-machine interfaces. It also describes preliminary testing to garner feedback about the heavy-lift manipulator arm from experienced fighter load crewmen. The purpose of the testing was to provide preliminary information about control system parameters and to gather feed- back from users about manipulator arm functionality. To that end, the Air Force load crewmen interacted with the NGMWATTD in an informal testing session and provided feedback about the performance of the system. Certain con- trol system parameters were changed during the course of the testing and feedback from the participants was used to make a rough estimate of "good" initial operating parameters. Later, formal testing will concentrate within this range to identify optimal operating parameters. User reactions to the HDM were generally positive, All of the USAF personnel were favorably impressed with the capabilities of the system. Fine-tuning operating parameters created a system even more favorably regarded by the load crews. Further adjustment to control system parameters will result in a system that is operationally efficient, easy to use, and well accepted by users.

  4. Uptake of munitions materiels (TNT, RDX) by crop plants and potential interactions of nitrogen nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.; Mitchell, W.

    1995-12-31

    Munitions materiel such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and their combustion/decomposition products can accumulate/cycle in terrestrial environs. High soil organic matter and fertility have been previously shown to negatively correlate with both TNT or RDX uptake in plants such as grass, wheat, and bean. The present study was therefore conducted using low fertility soil to assess uptake and distribution patterns of C-radiolabelled TNT and RDX (15 and 30 {micro}g/g) within corn (Zea mays), spinach (Spinacea oleraceae), carrot (Daucus carota), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown to maturity in growth chambers. Uptake by the plants at maturity (90- to 120-days) ranged from 1.8 to 2.7% of total amended {sup 14}C-TNT for carrots and corn respectively and 17 to 33% of total amended {sup 14}C-RDX for corn and carrots respectively. Distribution patterns of total radiolabel indicate that the TNT-derived label was primarily retained within the roots (60 to 85%) while the RDX-derived label was distributed to the shoots (85 to 97%). Less than 0.01 {micro}g/g dry wt. TNT was found in all analyzed shoot tissues with > 90% of the TNT-derived radiolabel in the form of polar metabolites. Concentrations of RDX in shoot tissues of corn exceeded 180 {micro}g/g dry wt. Alfalfa grown in unfertilized, fertilized (NO{sub 3}), or unfertilized-inoculated (Rhizobia) soil exhibited a 70 to 100% increase in dry wt. after 45 days in the TNT-amended (15 {micro}g/g) fertilized and unfertilized-inoculated plants versus the controls. A potential TNT/nitrogen interaction will be discussed.

  5. Modeling midwave infrared muzzle flash spectra from unsuppressed and flash-suppressed large caliber munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, Bryan J.; Perram, Glen P.; Gross, Kevin C.

    2012-07-01

    Time-resolved infrared spectra of firings from a 152 mm howitzer were acquired over an 1800-6000 cm-1 spectral range using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. The instrument collected primarily at 32 cm-1 spectral and 100 Hz temporal resolutions. Munitions included unsuppressed and chemically flash suppressed propellants. Secondary combustion occurred with unsuppressed propellants resulting in flash emissions lasting ˜100 ms and dominated by H2O and CO2 spectral structure. Non-combusting plume emissions were one-tenth as intense and approached background levels within 20-40 ms. A low-dimensional phenomenological model was used to reduce the data to temperatures, soot absorbances, and column densities of H2O, CO2, CH4, and CO. The combusting plumes exhibit peak temperatures of ˜1400 K, areas of greater than 32 m2, low soot emissivity of ˜0.04, with nearly all the CO converted to CO2. The non-combusting plumes exhibit lower temperatures of ˜1000 K, areas of ˜5 m2, soot emissivity of greater than 0.38 and CO as the primary product. Maximum fit residual relative to peak intensity are 14% and 8.9% for combusting and non-combusting plumes, respectively. The model was generalized to account for turbulence-induced variations in the muzzle plumes. Distributions of temperature and concentration in 1-2 spatial regions demonstrate a reduction in maximum residuals by 40%. A two-region model of combusting plumes provides a plausible interpretation as a ˜1550 K, optically thick plume core and ˜2550 K, thin, surface-layer flame-front. Temperature rate of change was used to characterize timescales and energy release for plume emissions. Heat of combustion was estimated to be ˜5 MJ/kg.

  6. Development and commercialization strategy for piezoelectric energy-harvesting power sources for gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.

    2010-04-01

    A novel class of piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources has been developed for gun-fired munitions and similar high-G applications. The power sources are designed to harvest energy primarily from the firing acceleration, but from in-flight vibratory motions as well. During the firing, a spring-mass element reacts to the axial acceleration, deforming and storing mechanical potential energy. After the projectile has exited the muzzle, the spring-mass element is free to vibrate, and the energy of the vibration is harvested using piezoelectric materials. These piezoelectric-based devices have been shown to produce enough electrical energy for many applications such as fuzing, and are able to eliminate the need for chemical batteries in many applications. When employed in fuzing applications, the developed power sources have the added advantage of providing augmented safety, since the fuzing electronics are powered only after the projectile has exited the muzzle and traveled a safe distance from the weapon platform. An overview of the development of these novel power sources is provided, especially designing and packaging for the high-G environment. Extensive laboratory and field testing has been performed on various prototypes; the methods and results of these experiments are presented. In addition to presenting the development and validation of this technology, methods for integrating the generators into different classes of projectiles are discussed along with strategies for manufacturing. This technology is currently validated to the extent that prototype devices have been successfully fired on-board actual gun-fired projectiles, demonstrating survivability and indicating performance. Strategies for designing the devices for a particular round and transitioning to commercialization are also discussed.

  7. An Investigation to Improve Quality Evaluations of Primers and Propellant for 20mm Munitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Holmes, C.; McGrory, J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    To reduce the frequency of electrically initiated, 20mm munition hangfires (delayed ignitions), a joint Army/NASA investigation was conducted to recommend quality evaluation improvements for acceptance of both primers and gun propellant. This effort focused only on evaluating ignition and combustion performance as potential causes of hangfires: poor electrical initiation of the primer, low output performance of the primer, low ignition sensitivity of the gun propellant, and the effects of cold temperature. The goal was to determine the "best" of the Army and NASA test methods to assess the functional performance of primers and gun propellants. The approach was to evaluate the performance of both high-quality and deliberately defective primers to challenge the sensitivity of test methods. In addition, the ignition sensitivity of different manufacturing batches of gun propellants was evaluated. The results of the investigation revealed that improvements can be made in functional evaluations that can assist in identifying and reducing ignition and performance variations. The "best" functional evaluation of primers and propellant is achieved through a combination of both Army and NASA test methods. Incorporating the recommendations offered in this report may provide for considerable savings in reducing the number of cartridge firings, while significantly lowering the rejection rate of primer, propellant and cartridge lots. The most probable causes for ignition and combustion-related hangfires were the lack of calcium silicide in the primer mix, a low output performance of primers, and finally, poor ignition sensitivity of gun propellant. Cold temperatures further reduce propellant ignition sensitivity, as well as reducing burn rate and chamber pressures.

  8. 22 CFR 120.3 - Policy on designating or determining defense articles and services on the U.S. Munitions List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy on designating or determining defense articles and services on the U.S. Munitions List. 120.3 Section 120.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.3 Policy on designating or...

  9. 22 CFR 123.11 - Movements of vessels and aircraft covered by the U.S. Munitions List outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movements of vessels and aircraft covered by the U.S. Munitions List outside the United States. 123.11 Section 123.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.11 Movements of vessels and aircraft covered...

  10. 41 CFR 102-36.430 - May we dispose of excess Munitions List Items (MLIs)/Commerce Control List Items (CCLIs)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May we dispose of excess Munitions List Items (MLIs)/Commerce Control List Items (CCLIs)? 102-36.430 Section 102-36.430 Public... export licensing when transported from the U.S....

  11. 41 CFR 102-36.430 - May we dispose of excess Munitions List Items (MLIs)/Commerce Control List Items (CCLIs)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May we dispose of excess Munitions List Items (MLIs)/Commerce Control List Items (CCLIs)? 102-36.430 Section 102-36.430 Public... export licensing when transported from the U.S....

  12. THER ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING AND REMOVING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Am1y as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  13. THE ROLE OF THE REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    EPA Science Inventory



    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...

  14. An Evaluation of the Environmental Fate and behavior of Munitions Materiel (TNT, RDX) in Soil and Plant Systems. Environmental Fate and behavior of TNT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    surface), a day/night temperatura of 26/22°C, and 50% relative humidity. 2.3.1 Hydrononic StudIeS Plants were grown for 18 to 26 days on hydroponic... Corporation , Syracuse, New York. Small, M. J., and 0. H. Rosenblatt. 1974. Munitions Production Products of PoQtential Concern - Phase 11. Technical

  15. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  16. Toxicity of the conventional energetics TNT and RDX relative to new insensitive munitions constituents DNAN and NTO in Rana pipiens tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Biedenbach, James M; Chappell, Pornsawan; Gust, Kurt A

    2015-04-01

    An initiative within the US military is targeting the replacement of traditional munitions constituents with insensitive munitions to reduce risk of accidental detonation. The purpose of the present study was to comparatively assess toxicity of the traditional munitions constituents 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) with the new insensitive munitions constituents 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO). The following exposure durations were performed with Rana pipiens (leopard frog) tadpoles: TNT and DNAN, 96 h and 28 d; RDX, 10 d and 28 d; NTO, 28 d. The 96-h 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values and 95% confidence intervals for TNT and DNAN were 4.4 mg/L (4.2 mg/L, 4. 7 mg/L) and 24.3 mg/L (21.3 mg/L, 27.6 mg/L), respectively. No significant impacts on survival were observed in the 10-d exposure to RDX up to 25.3 mg/L. Effects on tadpole swimming distance were observed with a lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) of 5.9 mg/L RDX. In the 28-d exposures, the LOECs for survival for TNT, DNAN, and NTO were 0.003 mg/L, 2.4 mg/L, and 5.0 mg/L, respectively. No significant mortality was observed in the RDX chronic 28-d exposure up to the highest treatment level tested of 28.0 mg/L. Neither tadpole developmental stage nor growth was significantly affected in any of the 28-d exposures. Rana pipiens were very sensitive to chronic TNT exposure, with an LOEC 3 orders of magnitude lower than those for insensitive munitions constituents DNAN and NTO.

  17. Experimental determination of solvent-water partition coefficients and Abraham parameters for munition constituents.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuzhen; Kuo, Dave T F; Allen, Herbert E; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2016-10-01

    There is concern about the environmental fate and effects of munition constituents (MCs). Polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs) that employ Abraham solute parameters can aid in evaluating the risk of MCs to the environment. However, poor predictions using pp-LFERs and ABSOLV estimated Abraham solute parameters are found for some key physico-chemical properties. In this work, the Abraham solute parameters are determined using experimental partition coefficients in various solvent-water systems. The compounds investigated include hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX), hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5- nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), and 4-nitroanisole. The solvents in the solvent-water systems are hexane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, octanol, and toluene. The only available reported solvent-water partition coefficients are for octanol-water for some of the investigated compounds and they are in good agreement with the experimental measurements from this study. Solvent-water partition coefficients fitted using experimentally derived solute parameters from this study have significantly smaller root mean square errors (RMSE = 0.38) than predictions using ABSOLV estimated solute parameters (RMSE = 3.56) for the investigated compounds. Additionally, the predictions for various physico-chemical properties using the experimentally derived solute parameters agree with available literature reported values with prediction errors within 0.79 log units except for water solubility of RDX and HMX with errors of 1.48 and 2.16 log units respectively. However, predictions using ABSOLV estimated solute parameters have larger prediction errors of up to 7.68 log units. This large discrepancy is probably due to the missing R2NNO2

  18. Estimation of the potential leakage of the chemical munitions based on two hydrodynamical models implemented for the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Golenko, Mariya

    2014-05-01

    Two hydrodynamical models (Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and Parallel Ocean Program (POP)) have been implemented for the Baltic Sea area that consists of locations of the dumped chemical munitions during II War World. The models have been configured based on similar data source - bathymetry, initial conditions and external forces were implemented based on identical data. The horizontal resolutions of the models are also very similar. Several simulations with different initial conditions have been done. Comparison and analysis of the bottom currents from both models have been performed. Based on it estimating of the dangerous area and critical time have been done. Also lagrangian particle tracking and passive tracer were implemented and based on these results probability of the appearing dangerous doses and its time evolution have been presented. This work has been performed in the frame of the MODUM project financially supported by NATO.

  19. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs), their evolution and some economic considerations, Working Paper No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    A brief study was made of some of the forces driving the move to Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs), including the quest for military effectiveness, combat experience, and logistic compression. PGMs cost from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars per Kg but are tens to hundreds of times more effective than conventional munitions. A year's peacetime plateau production of each US PGM can be carried by a few C-5 aircraft. Surge quantities of PGMs are within US airlift capabilities, taking some of the risk out of off-shore procurement. The improving capability of antiaircraft PGMs and the escalating cost of combat aircraft (50 to 100-fold in constant dollars since WW II) may bring into question the economic viability of manned attack aircraft. The same may be true to a slightly lesser degree for heavy armored vehicles. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in flounder (Platichthys flesus), herring (Clupea harengus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from chemical munitions dumping zones in the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Baršienė, Janina; Butrimavičienė, Laura; Grygiel, Wlodzimierz; Lang, Thomas; Michailovas, Aleksandras; Jackūnas, Tomas

    2014-05-01

    The data on environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity levels as well as on genotoxicity risk in flounder (Platichthys flesus), herring (Clupea harengus) and cod (Gadus morhua) collected in 2010-2012 at 42 stations located in chemical munitions dumping areas of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The frequency of micronuclei, nuclear buds and nucleoplasmic bridges in erythrocytes was used as genotoxicity endpoint and the induction of fragmented-apoptotic, bi-nucleated and 8-shaped erythrocytes as cytotoxicity endpoint. The most significantly increased geno-cytotoxicity levels were determined in fish collected near known chemical munitions dumpsites. Extremely high genotoxicity risk for flounder were identified at 21 out of 24 stations, for herring at 29 out of 31 and for cod at 5 out of 10 stations studied. The reference level of genotoxicity was not recorded at any of the stations revealing that in the sampling area fish were affected generally.

  1. Bioaccumulation kinetics of the conventional energetics TNT and RDX relative to insensitive munitions constituents DNAN and NTO in Rana pipiens tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Guilherme R; Biedenbach, James M; Sims, Jerre G; Chappell, Pornsawan; Stanley, Jacob K; Gust, Kurt A

    2015-04-01

    The manufacturing of explosives and their loading, assembling, and packing into munitions for use in testing on training sites or battlefields has resulted in contamination of terrestrial and aquatic sites that may pose risk to populations of sensitive species. The bioaccumulative potential of the conventional explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and of the insensitive munitions (i.e., less shock sensitive) compound 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) were assessed using the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Trinitrotoluene entering the organism was readily biotransformed to aminodinitrotoluenes, whereas no transformation products were measured for RDX or DNAN. Uptake clearance rates were relatively slow and similar among compounds (1.32-2.19 L kg(-1) h(-1) ). Upon transfer to uncontaminated water, elimination rate was very fast, resulting in the prediction of fast time to approach steady state (5 h or less) and short elimination half-lives (1.2 h or less). A preliminary bioconcentration factor of 0.25 L kg(-1) was determined for the insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-trizole-5-one (NTO) indicating negligible bioaccumulative potential. Because of the rapid elimination rate for explosives, tadpoles inhabiting contaminated areas are expected to experience harmful effects only if under constant exposure conditions given that body burdens can rapidly depurate preventing tissue concentrations from persisting at levels that may cause detrimental biological effects.

  2. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    What do Knute Rockne, Notre Dame's famed football coach, and Lewisite, a chemical warfare agent dubbed "the dew of death", have in common? Both owe their discovery to Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland.1 Rockne's legacy lives on in the Fighting Irish and their tradition of excellence on the gridiron. Lewisite, together with other arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents, provide a legacy that lives on, too, but with less cheerful consequences. The book Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions makes clear the challenges faced in dealing with those consequences. This book documents the proceedings of a workshop devoted to arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents and their associated munitions. The workshop, held in Poland in 1996, included nine lectures, eight posters, and three discussion groups; and the contents of all these are presented. Major support for the workshop came from the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO as part of on ongoing series of meetings, cooperative research projects, and related efforts dealing with problems leftover from the Cold War and, in the case of the arsenicals and mustards, from conflicts dating to World War I. These problems can be seen in contemporary accounts, including a January 1999 news report that the U.S. Department of Defense intends to survey Washington, DC, areas near both American University and the Catholic University of America (CUA), site of the original synthesis of Lewisite, for chemical warfare agents and other materials disposed at the end of World War I.2 The first nine chapters of the book present the workshop's lectures. Of these, readers interested in chemical weapon destruction might find especially useful the first chapter, in which Ron Mansley of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons presents a scholarly overview covering historical aspects of the arsenicals and mustards; their production and use; prospective destruction

  3. Sharps container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Angelene M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

  4. Expression in grasses of multiple transgenes for degradation of munitions compounds on live-fire training ranges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Routsong, Ryan; Nguyen, Quyen; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Bruce, Neil C; Strand, Stuart E

    2016-11-10

    The deposition of toxic munitions compounds, such as hexahydro-1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazine (RDX), on soils around targets in live-fire training ranges is an important source of groundwater contamination. Plants take up RDX but do not significantly degrade it. Reported here is the transformation of two perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), with the genes for degradation of RDX. These species possess a number of agronomic traits making them well equipped for the uptake and removal of RDX from root zone leachates. Transformation vectors were constructed with xplA and xplB, which confer the ability to degrade RDX, and nfsI, which encodes a nitroreductase for the detoxification of the co-contaminating explosive 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The vectors were transformed into the grass species using Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. All transformed grass lines showing high transgene expression levels removed significantly more RDX from hydroponic solutions and retained significantly less RDX in their leaf tissues than wild-type plants. Soil columns planted with the best-performing switchgrass line were able to prevent leaching of RDX through a 0.5-m root zone. These plants represent a promising plant biotechnology to sustainably remove RDX from training range soil, thus preventing contamination of groundwater.

  5. A Bayesian model for the identification of differentially expressed genes in Daphnia magna exposed to munition pollutants.

    PubMed

    Cassese, Alberto; Guindani, Michele; Antczak, Philipp; Falciani, Francesco; Vannucci, Marina

    2015-09-01

    In this article we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for the identification of differentially expressed genes in Daphnia magna organisms exposed to chemical compounds, specifically munition pollutants in water. The model we propose constitutes one of the very first attempts at a rigorous modeling of the biological effects of water purification. We have data acquired from a purification system that comprises four consecutive purification stages, which we refer to as "ponds," of progressively more contaminated water. We model the expected expression of a gene in a pond as the sum of the mean of the same gene in the previous pond plus a gene-pond specific difference. We incorporate a variable selection mechanism for the identification of the differential expressions, with a prior distribution on the probability of a change that accounts for the available information on the concentration of chemical compounds present in the water. We carry out posterior inference via MCMC stochastic search techniques. In the application, we reduce the complexity of the data by grouping genes according to their functional characteristics, based on the KEGG pathway database. This also increases the biological interpretability of the results. Our model successfully identifies a number of pathways that show differential expression between consecutive purification stages. We also find that changes in the transcriptional response are more strongly associated to the presence of certain compounds, with the remaining contributing to a lesser extent. We discuss the sensitivity of these results to the model parameters that measure the influence of the prior information on the posterior inference.

  6. Microbial toxicity of the insensitive munitions compound, 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), and its aromatic amine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jidong; Olivares, Christopher; Field, Jim A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2013-11-15

    2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is an insensitive munitions compound considered to replace conventional explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). DNAN undergoes facile microbial reduction to 2-methoxy-5-nitroaniline (MENA) and 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN). This study investigated the inhibitory effect of DNAN, MENA, and DAAN toward various microbial targets in anaerobic (acetoclastic methanogens) and aerobic (heterotrophs and nitrifiers) sludge, and the bioluminescent bacterium, Aliivibrio fischeri, used in the Microtox assay. Aerobic heterotrophic and nitrifying batch experiments with DAAN could not be performed because the compound underwent extensive autooxidation in these assays. DNAN severely inhibited methanogens, nitrifying bacteria, and A. fischeri (50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) ranging 41-57μM), but was notably less inhibitory to aerobic heterotrophs (IC50>390 μM). Reduction of DNAN to MENA and DAAN lead to a marked decrease in methanogenic inhibition (i.e., DNAN>MENA≈DAAN). Reduction of all nitro groups in DNAN also resulted in partial detoxification in assays with A. fischeri. In contrast, reduction of a single nitro group did not alter the inhibitory impact of DNAN toward A. fischeri and nitrifying bacteria given the similar IC50 values determined for MENA and DNAN in these assays. These results indicate that reductive biotransformation could reduce the inhibitory potential of DNAN.

  7. Benthic communities in chemical munitions dumping site areas within the Baltic deeps with special focus on nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea has been one of the tasks of the Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project. Three sites have been selected for investigation: Bornholm Deep, Gotland Deep and Gdansk Deep. Fauna collected from these locations were compared with the reference area located between the studied regions at similar depths below 70 m. In total, four scientific cruises occurred in different seasons between 2011 and 2013. The total lack of any representatives of macrozoobenthos in all of the investigated dumping sites was noted. As a practical matter, the Baltic deeps were inhabited by nematodes as the only meiofauna representatives. Therefore, nematodes were used as a key group to explore the faunal communities inhabiting chemical dumping sites in the Baltic deeps. In total, 42 nematode genera belonging to 18 families were identified, and the dominant genus was Sabatieria (Comesomatidae), which constituted 37.6% of the overall nematode community. There were significant differences in nematode community structure (abundance and taxa composition) between the dumping areas and the reference site (Kruskal-Wallis H=30.96, p<0.0001). Such clear differences suggest that nematode assemblages could mirror the environmental conditions.

  8. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Final, Phase 1: Environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, J.W.; Blasing, T.J.; Ensminger, J.T.; Johnson, R.O.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Shor, J.T.; Staub, W.P.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1995-04-01

    Under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the US Army proposes to dispose of lethal chemical agents and munitions stored at eight existing Army installations in the continental United States. In 1988, the US Army issued the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP. The FPEIS and the subsequent Record of Decision (ROD) identified an on-site disposal process as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. That is, the FPEIS determined the environmentally preferred alternative to be on-site disposal in high-temperature incinerators, while the ROD selected this alternative for implementation as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. In this Phase I report, the overall CSDP decision regarding disposal of the PUDA Stockpile is subjected to further analyses, and its validity at PUDA is reviewed with newer, more detailed data than those providing the basis for the conclusions in the FPEIS. The findings of this Phase I report will be factored into the scope of a site-specific environmental impact statement to be prepared for the destruction of the PUDA stockpile. The focus of this Phase I report is on those data identified as having the potential to alter the Army`s previous decision regarding disposal of the PUDA stockpile; however, several other factors beyond the scope of this Phase I report must also be acknowledged to have the potential to change or modify the Army`s decisions regarding PUDA.

  9. Performance properties of formulations containing diaminozoxyfurazan as replacements for PBXN-7

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, Elizabeth Green; Morris, John S; Sanders, Victor E

    2010-11-09

    In an effort to increase safety and take advantage of extremely insensitive explosives like TATB, PBXN-7 was developed. It is an integral part of the insensitive munition (IM) effort and has contributed significantly to improvements seen in slow cook-off (SCO). Other explosives exist, while not as insensitive as TATB, which show promise in performance while maintaining insensitivity to common insults. Furazan chemistry developments over the past 30 years have yielded several, and Diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF) is one of the forerunners. DAAF has many intriguing properties, which indicated it might be a good fit in formulations designed to replace PBXN-7. A project funded through the Joint Insensitive Munitions Technology Program was launched in 2009 to develop and test formulations containing DAAF and RDX, DAAF and HMX, DAAF and TATB, and DAAF (by itself). All used the same binder, Viton, in 5 weight percent. The testing included performance testing with rate stick, shock sensitivity testing with the IHE gap test, and cold temperature performance testing with rate sticks and front curvature measurements.

  10. Collapsing Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  11. CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous waste containment's primary objective is to isolate wastes deemed as hazardous from man and environmental systems of air, soil, and water. Hazardous wastes differ from other waste classifications due to their increased potential to cause human health effects or environ...

  12. Characterization and Neutralization of Arsenical-Based WWII Era Chemical Munition Fills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Fluorine 2.23 Hydroxyl Radical 2.06 Atomic Oxygen 1.78 Hydrogen Peroxide 1.31 Perhydroxyl Radical 1.25 Permanganate 1.24 Hypobromous Acid 1.17 Chlorine...containing carbon-carbon double bonds, aldehyde groups or hydroxyl groups. As an electrophile , the permanganate ion is strongly attracted to the

  13. Wide Area Assessment (WAA) for Marine Munitions and Explosives of Concern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Underwater Archaeological Resources. The special use permit for the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at various locations at Martha’s Vineyard...approaches for conducting wide area assessment (WAA) of sites potentially containing underwater MEC. The WAA demonstration was performed at the South...3.0  PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES....................................................................................... 3-1  3.1  DETECTION OF UNDERWATER

  14. Repository containment

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, H.; Mogg, C.

    1994-12-31

    UK Nirex Limited is concentrating its further investigations at Sellafield in Cumbria to establish the sites suitability as a safe location for a deep disposal facility for intermediate and low level radioactive waste. Good progress has been achieved in the Site Characterization Program. The emerging picture of the geology and hydrogeology continues to suggest that the site holds good promise as a potential repository location. This paper sets out the latest results from site investigations at Sellafield and reviews some possibilities for enhancing waste containment deep underground at the site.

  15. A Bayesian Model for the Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Daphnia Magna Exposed to Munition Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Cassese, Alberto; Guindani, Michele; Antczak, Philipp; Falciani, Francesco; Vannucci, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this paper we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for the identification of differentially expressed genes in Daphnia Magna organisms exposed to chemical compounds, specifically munition pollutants in water. The model we propose constitutes one of the very first attempts at a rigorous modeling of the biological effects of water purification. We have data acquired from a purification system that comprises four consecutive purification stages, which we refer to as “ponds”, of progressively more contaminated water. We model the expected expression of a gene in a pond as the sum of the mean of the same gene in the previous pond plus a gene-pond specific difference. We incorporate a variable selection mechanism for the identification of the differential expressions, with a prior distribution on the probability of a change that accounts for the available information on the concentration of chemical compounds present in the water. We carry out posterior inference via MCMC stochastic search techniques. In the application, we reduce the complexity of the data by grouping genes according to their functional characteristics, based on the KEGG pathway database. This also increases the biological interpretability of the results. Our model successfully identifies a number of pathways that show differential expression between consecutive purification stages. We also find that changes in the transcriptional response are more strongly associated to the presence of certain compounds, with the remaining contributing to a lesser extent. We discuss the sensitivity of these results to the model parameters that measure the influence of the prior information on the posterior inference. PMID:25771699

  16. Insensitive Munitions (Les Munitions a Risque Attenue)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    rencontrees. eat largement utilisee pour caracteriser la vulnerabilite des nouveaux explosifa dana des est naturellement 1lincendie. susceptible d𔄀tre...seconde) permettent de vi- tes, tlu thrie en la pos~se globale (par capteurs de sualiser des instants caractdfistiques de- l’incendie. La du- force...34volume dmettetiur" concernent Ia pression (par capteur ), Ia tempdraturc (par thermocouple), la vi- pour les calculs d’impact de jets; (tempdrature

  17. BZ Disposal Facility Development and Design. Task 4, Incineration of Pyrotechnic Munitions in a Deactivation Furnace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    AGENCY ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MARYLAND 21010 ■ 8 Li 82 10 29 006 f J DISCLAIMER The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Battelle Columbus Laboratories 505 King Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201 10 . PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT...Distribution unlimited. Cleared for public release. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (ol Ihm mbatfel ml»nd In Block 10 , II dlllormt «ram Koport) IS

  18. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems. Initial assessment of plant DNA mutation spectra as a biomarker

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.; Cataldo, D.A.; Fellows, R.J.; Jarrell, A.E.; Harvey, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    Munitions material can enter the environment as a result of manufacturing activities and field usage. Predictor methodologies, or biomarkers would enhance evaluation of environmental impacts. The goal of this exploratory study deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mutation frequency as a biomarker for munitions exposure. The approach e resolution of an effective repetitive sequence probe for the identification of characteristic mutations, and (2) the development of a testing media [a clonal cell line of carrot (Daucus carota) spension cells]. Commercially available probes demonstrated marginal resolution therefore a low-C{sub o}t library was then constructed. Three colonies from the low-C{sub o}t DNA library were screened and the DNA isolates sequenced. A suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota) was developed. A mutation spectra experiment was initiated at a 10-mg TNT/L exposure concentration with the attempt to clone over 1500 single TNT-exposed cells. Over the following six months greater than 98% of the initially isolated cells were unable to survive and produce micro calluses. The remaining calli were too few to be statistically significant and the experiment was terminated. The biomarker concept itself remains to be disproved, but the need for large numbers of uniform clones to differentiate true mutations suggest that more direct techniques using whole tissues need to be developed.

  19. Methodology for Long-Term Permeation Test Periods for HD in High-Density Polyethylene: Universal Munitions Storage Container for the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Regression lines intersect at about 1330–1340 min. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 120 240 360 480 600 720 840 960 1080 1200 1320 1440 1560 M as s P er...m ea te d , n g Time, min y = 5E-05x + 0.7842 R² = 0.2619 y = 0.0076x - 9.3979 R² = 0.9817 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 600 720 840 960 1080 1200

  20. Environmental Fate Studies on Certain Munitions Wastewater Constituents. Phase 5. Lagoon Model Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    I z ~ .G.*. . . . . . . . . Water zɘo SI m 1< ;. .. ... ... . - . - .. r ’ - . - . . , , ,• . . , ; , .. -. . Seepage Diffusion Sorption Desorption...24 20 5 *5ý E 16 -4 E z 0 z 12 -3 x xS8 -2 S.. 5...I- 0 24 SI I I I I I Io TNT 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 RDX 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CONCENTRATION IN BULK WATER...s*/D (26) I and D depend on sky conditions and lagoon geometry, respectively. D can be calculated for water in a container with vertical si |es and a

  1. Magnetic and GPR surveys of a former munitions foundry site at the Denver Federal Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, David L.; Beanland, Shay; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Powers, Michael H.

    2000-01-01

    We made magnetometer and ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys over part of the foundation of a World War II-era foundry located on the Denver Federal Center. The site contains a number of highly magnetic source bodies, concrete foundation walls, and underground openings, buried under a clay cap. The cap is several feet thick and has a conductivity of about 35 mS/m, making the features underneath it a poor target for conventional GPR. Indeed, the raw data look unlike typical GPR data, but rather show reverberation (?) bands under sidewalks and other shallow buried sources. Using a newly-written computer package, we made plan maps of the GPR response at different time slices. The sliced GPR data did not outline buried foundry foundations, as we had hoped it might. The resulting plan maps of the sliced data show sidewalks and other blobby features, some of which correspond to magnetometer highs.

  2. Prediction of Toxic Pollution Resulting From Warfare Chemical Munitions Dumped In The Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotenko, K. A.

    A 3-D high-resolution Hydrodynamic/Transport model was developed to predict chemical pollution in marine environment with a special reference to warfare chem- icals dumped in the Baltic Sea. The Flow module was developed on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The grid step is chosen at 1/15Deg and 1/30/Deg along x- and y-axes (that is, about 4.0 km and 3.7 km, respectively). The model grid covers the Baltic from 9.3 to 24.6E and from 53.0 to 60.2N. The Transport module of the model takes the predetermined velocity field and uses the random walk technique to predict the motion of individual particles, the sum of which constitutes a consid- ered chemical agent. Several different approaches for modeling are used for different kind of chemical agents. Basic processes affecting the chemicals to be modeled are hydrolysis, solubility, and microbiological destruction. All available toxicity data re- garding the chemical warfare agents of primary concern and the expected degradation products in the Baltic environment were gathered and summarized. This information was used to compare the toxicities of the different agents and their degradation prod- ucts and to decide which chemicals may represent a toxic threat to the environment. The model was adapted to be used for chemical agents with various characteristics and behavior (as Sarin, Lewsite, Musturd, etc.) in seawaters. Special algorithms are developed to describe nonlinear reactions producing toxic and nontoxic products in result of the warfare agent destruction. Sources of chemical pollution in the sea are considered as steady state (chronic) point and/or distributed releases because princi- pally different two methods were used in dumping CW: 1) concentrated dumping of containers, shells, and bombs together with ships; 2) dispersed dumping of individual containers, shells and aircraft bombs from moving vessels. The model was run with four most recurrent climatic wind fields for the Bornholm and Gotland

  3. Advanced MicroObserver UGS integration with and cueing of the BattleHawk squad level loitering munition and UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Bob; Finklea, John; Kershaw, James; Loughman, Cathy; Shaffner, Patti; Frost, Dean; Deller, Sean

    2014-06-01

    Textron's Advanced MicroObserver(R) is a next generation remote unattended ground sensor system (UGS) for border security, infrastructure protection, and small combat unit security. The original MicroObserver(R) is a sophisticated seismic sensor system with multi-node fusion that supports target tracking. This system has been deployed in combat theaters. The system's seismic sensor nodes are uniquely able to be completely buried (including antennas) for optimal covertness. The advanced version adds a wireless day/night Electro-Optic Infrared (EOIR) system, cued by seismic tracking, with sophisticated target discrimination and automatic frame capture features. Also new is a field deployable Gateway configurable with a variety of radio systems and flexible networking, an important upgrade that enabled the research described herein. BattleHawkTM is a small tube launched Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) with a warhead. Using transmitted video from its EOIR subsystem an operator can search for and acquire a target day or night, select a target for attack, and execute terminal dive to destroy the target. It is designed as a lightweight squad level asset carried by an individual infantryman. Although BattleHawk has the best loiter time in its class, it's still relatively short compared to large UAVs. Also it's a one-shot asset in its munition configuration. Therefore Textron Defense Systems conducted research, funded internally, to determine if there was military utility in having the highly persistent MicroObserver(R) system cue BattleHawk's launch and vector it to beyond visual range targets for engagement. This paper describes that research; the system configuration implemented, and the results of field testing that was performed on a government range early in 2013. On the integrated system that was implemented, MicroObserver(R) seismic detections activated that system's camera which then automatically captured images of the target. The geo-referenced and time-tagged Micro

  4. Metabolism and bioaccumulation of nitroaromatic munitions by-products in earthworms and plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, T.V.; Chang, L.W.; Smith, M.K.; Daniel, F.B.; Wiechman, B.; Reddy, G.

    1994-12-31

    Previously the authors have used earthworm and plant bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of nitroaromatic ammunition by-products. In the present study, they investigated the uptake, metabolism and possible bioaccumulation of these compounds in earthworms and plants. Earthworms were maintained on artificial soil supplemented with {sup 14}[C] trinitrobenzene (TNB). The authors also studied the translocation, metabolism and bioaccumulation of {sup 14}[C] 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) by germinating oat and lettuce seeds planted on artificial soil. Acetone extracts of tissue and gut contents of earthworms exposed to TNB for different intervals contained only a small fraction of the original radioactivity, which did not increase with time. The radioactivity extracted from earthworms co-eluted with 1,3-dinitroaniline (DNAN) on HPLC and the amount of radioactivity decreased with time. In the DNB plant studies, five day old oat seedlings accumulated 17% of {sup 14}[C] radioactivity. HPLC of acetone extracts revealed unidentified radioactive peaks but DNB radioactivity was not detected. The radioactivity from butanol extracts of both oats and lettuce coeluted with aniline and 3-nitroaniline and the radioactivity increased with time. These results suggest that oats and lettuce bioaccumulate DNB metabolites, which might result in the transfer of toxicants to herbivores.

  5. Environmental risk assessment of white phosphorus from the use of munitions - a probabilistic approach.

    PubMed

    Voie, Øyvind Albert; Johnsen, Arnt; Strømseng, Arnljot; Longva, Kjetil Sager

    2010-03-15

    White phosphorus (P(4)) is a highly toxic compound used in various pyrotechnic products. Ammunitions containing P(4) are widely used in military training areas where the unburned products of P(4) contaminate soil and local ponds. Traditional risk assessment methods presuppose a homogeneous spatial distribution of pollutants. The distribution of P(4) in military training areas is heterogeneous, which reduces the probability of potential receptors being exposed to the P(4) by ingestion, for example. The current approach to assess the environmental risk from the use of P(4) suggests a Bayesian network (Bn) as a risk assessment tool. The probabilistic reasoning supported by a Bn allows us to take into account the heterogeneous distribution of P(4). Furthermore, one can combine empirical data and expert knowledge, which allows the inclusion of all kinds of data that are relevant to the problem. The current work includes an example of the use of the Bn as a risk assessment tool where the risk for P(4) poisoning in humans and grazing animals at a military shooting range in Northern Norway was calculated. P(4) was detected in several craters on the range at concentrations up to 5.7g/kg. The risk to human health was considered acceptable under the current land use. The risk for grazing animals such as sheep, however, was higher, suggesting that precautionary measures may be advisable.

  6. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  7. Development of colorimetric field screening methods for munitions compounds in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Thomas F.; Walsh, Marianne E.; Schumacher, Patricia W.; Thorne, Philip G.

    1995-10-01

    Simple colorimetric tests have been developed to screen for the presence of TNT, TNB, DNT, DNB, tetryl, RDX, HMX, nitroglycerine (NG), PETN, nitrocellulose (NC), nitroguanidine (NQ), picric acid and ammonium picrate in soil. Soils are extracted by manual shaking with acetone. For the nitroaromatics, the extracts are reacted with potassium hydroxide and sodium sulfite to form their colored Janowsky complexes. For RDX, HMX, NG, PETN, NC and NQ, extracts are passed through an anion exchange resin to remove nitrate, and then acidified with acetic acid; the nitramines and nitrate esters are reduced with zinc to form nitrous acid. The nitrous acid is detected by the Griess reaction using a Hach Nitriver 3 powder pillow, which produces a highly colored azo dye. Detection of these analytes can be obtained visually and concentrations estimated from absorbance measurements at 540 nm for TNT, TNB and tetryl, 570 nm for DNTs and DNB, and at 510 nm for RDX, HMX, NG, PETN, NC and NQ. For picric acid/ammonium picrate, the acetone extract is passed through a basic ion-exchange column that retains picrate ion. The column is rinsed with methanol to elute interferences, and the picrate is desorbed with acetone containing several drops of sulfuric acid. The extract is diluted with deionized water, and the concentration of picrate is obtained from the absorbance at 400 nm. Detection limits are about 1 (mu) g/g for all analytes except NG, NC and NQ, which are slightly higher. Results from field screening at a number of sites have been correlated with laboratory analyses for TNT and RDX. The results indicate that the field screening methods do not suffer from false negatives and the rate of false positives is low. Concentration estimates from field screening compared favorably with results from the standard laboratory methods.

  8. Halomonhystera disjuncta - a young-carrying nematode first observed for the Baltic Sea in deep basins within chemical munitions disposal sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzelak, Katarzyna; Kotwicki, Lech

    2016-06-01

    Three deep basins in the Baltic Sea were investigated within the framework of the CHEMSEA project (Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment), which aims to evaluate the ecological impact of chemical warfare agents dumped after World War II. Nematode communities, which comprise the most numerous and diverse organisms in the surveyed areas, were investigated as a key group of benthic fauna. One of the most successful nematode species was morphologically identified as Halomonhystera disjuncta (Bastian, 1865). The presence of this species, which is an active coloniser that is highly resistant to disturbed environments, may indicate that the sediments of these disposal sites are characterised by toxic conditions that are unfavourable for other metazoans. Moreover, ovoviviparous reproductive behaviour in which parents carry their brood internally, which is an important adaptation to harsh environmental conditions, was observed for specimens from Gdansk Deep and Gotland Deep. This reproductive strategy, which is uncommon for marine nematodes, has not previously been reported for nematodes from the Baltic Sea sediment.

  9. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) transformation by clostridia isolated from a munition-fed bioreactor: comparison with non-adapted bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ederer, M M; Lewis, T A; Crawford, R L

    1997-01-01

    Several bacterial strains were examined for their ability to degrade the nitroaromatic explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The strains examined included various clostridial strains isolated from a 4-year-old munition enrichment, related clostridial strains obtained from a culture collection, two enteric bacteria, and three lactobacilli. All Clostridium species tested were able to reduce TNT rapidly in a complex medium. In cell suspension experiments, these strains were also able to reduce 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (DANT) to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene (TAT) and to produce a compound that is not yet identified; thus, they could not be distinguished from one another with regard to the pathway of transformation. The enteric strains and the lactobacilli were able to perform the initial reduction of TNT, but none was capable of reducing DANT in cell suspensions.

  10. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems and initial assessment of material interaction with plant genetic material (DNA). Initial assessment of plant DNA adducts as biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    Genetic damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has long been suspected of being a fundamental event leading to cancer. A variety of causal factors can result in DNA damage including photodimerization of base pairs, ionizing radiation, specific reaction of DNA with environmental pollutants, and nonspecific oxidative damage caused by the action of highly reactive oxidizing agents produced by metabolism. Because organisms depend on an unadulterated DNA template for reproduction, DNA repair mechanisms are an important defense for maintaining genomic integrity. The objective of this exploratory project was to evaluate the potential for TNT to form DNA adducts in plants. These adducts, if they exist in sufficient quantities, could be potential biomarkers of munitions exposure. The ultimate goal is to develop a simple analytical assay for the determination of blomarkers that is indicative of munitions contamination. DNA repair exists in dynamic equilibrium with DNA damage. Repair mechanisms are capable of keeping DNA damage at remarkably low concentrations provided that the repair capacity is not overwhelmed.

  11. 2009 Munitions Executive Summit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-05

    Ordnance Safety (SEA 00V) and NAVSEA Deputy Commander for Surface Warfare (SEA 21) · BGen Michael M. Brogan, Commander, Marine Corps Systems ...Maneuver Ammunition Systems · COL Ole Knudson, Project Manager Conventional Ammunition Systems · COL Andre Kirnes, Project Director...Joint Services · COL Ray Nulk, Project Manager-Close Combat Systems · Mr. William (Bill) Sanville, Project Director For Non-Standard

  12. Optimization of Munitions Storage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    UPTOT,TOTKEY,KEY 479 CHARACTER IT*41(1O)/" BLDC NUMBER (XxXXXX)","NAME (AAAAAA)", 480 & "TYPE (99)","CLASS/DIV 1.1 NfW (9999999) IN IBS", 481 & "CLASS...O") 1309* * 1310 3 FORMAT (7X,’U",I4,"=",14) 1311* * 1312 6 FORMAT (7X," BLDC :",A6,": VOL=",FI2.3) 1313* * 1314 7 FORMAT (7X,"SSET:",A6, "=I" ) 1315

  13. Precision guided antiaircraft munition

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1987-01-01

    A small diameter, 20 mm to 50 mm, guided projectile is used in antiaircraft defense. A pulsing laser designator illuminates the target aircraft. Energy reflected from the aircraft is received by the guided projectile. The guided projectile is fired from a standard weapon but the spining caused by the riflings are removed before active tracking and guidance occurs. The received energy is focused by immersion optics onto a bridge cell. AC coupling and gating removes background and allows steering signals to move extended vanes by means of piezoelectric actuators in the rear of the guided projectile.

  14. 2011 Munitions Executive Summit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-04

    Regulations Supply Policy Explosive Safety Stockpile Reliability - Systems SAAS-MOD WARS/ LMP NLAC - CL V Accountability - CL V Audits - Modularity...Cal $198 $160 $ 103 $182 $180 $131 $139 $147 $140 Small Cal $547 $573 $800 $698 $675 $504 $443 $404 $389 $- $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200

  15. Powered low cost autonomous attack system: cooperative, autonomous, wide-area-search munitions with capability to serve as non-traditional ISR assets in a network-centric environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James C.; O'Neal, J. K.; Brown, Robert A.; Keeler, Joseph E.

    2005-05-01

    The Powered Low Cost Autonomous Attack System (PLOCAAS) is an Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate Advanced Technology Demonstration program. The PLOCAAS objective is to demonstrate a suite of technologies in an affordable miniature munition to autonomously search, detect, identify, track, attack and destroy ground mobile targets of military interest. PLOCAAS incorporates a solid state LADAR seeker and Autonomous Target Acquisition (ATA) algorithms, miniature turbojet engine, multi-mode warhead, and an integrated INS/GPS into a 36" high lift-to-drag airframe. Together, these technologies provide standoff beyond terminal defenses, wide area search capability, and high probability of target report with low false target attack rate with high load-outs. Four LADAR seeker captive flight tests provided the sequestered data for robust Air Force ATA algorithm performance assessment and non-sequestered data for algorithm development. PLOCAAS has had three successful free-flight tests in which the LADAR seeker and ATA algorithms have detected, acquired, identified, tracked, and engaged ground mobile targets. In addition to summarizing program activities to date, this paper will present requirements and capabilities to be demonstrated in the next phase of PLOCAAS development. This phase"s objective is to demonstrate the military utility of a two-way data-link. The data-link allows Operator-In-The-Loop monitoring and control of miniature, cooperative, wide-area-search munitions and enables them to serve as non-traditional Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets in a network-centric environment.

  16. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOEpatents

    Sparks, Michael H.

    2001-06-12

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  17. Interaction of hydration, aging, and carbon content of soil on the evaporation and skin bioavailability of munition contaminants.

    PubMed

    Reifenrath, William G; Kammen, Harold O; Reddy, Gunda; Major, Michael A; Leach, Glenn J

    2008-01-01

    Water plays a key role in enhancing the permeability of human skin to many substances. To further understand its ability to potentially increase the bioavailability of soil contaminants, artificial sweat was applied to excised pig skin prior to dosing with munition-contaminated soils. Skin was mounted in chambers to allow simultaneous measurement of evaporation and penetration and to control air flow, which changed the dwell time of skin surface water within a l-h period post application of test materials. Additional variables included type of compound, aging of spiked soil samples, and carbon content of soil. To this end, the evaporation and skin penetration of C-14 labeled hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (26DNT), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were determined from two soil types, Yolo, having 1.2% carbon, and Tinker, having 9.5% carbon. RDX soil samples aged 27 mo and 62 mo were compared to freshly spiked soils samples. Similarly, 26DNT samples aged 35-36 mo and TNT samples aged 18 mo were compared to freshly spiked samples. Approximately 10 microg/cm(2) of radiolabeled compound was applied in 10 mg/cm(2) of soil. Radiolabel recovered from the dermis and tissue culture media (receptor fluid) was summed to determine percent absorption from the soils. Radiolabel recovered from vapor traps determined evaporation. Mean skin absorption of all compounds was higher for low-carbon soil, regardless of soil age and skin surface water as affected by air flow conditions. For 26DNT, a simultaneous increase in evaporation and penetration with conditions that favored enhanced soil hydration of freshly prepared samples was consistent with a mechanism that involved water displacement of 26DNT from its binding sites. A mean penetration of 17.5 +/- 3.6% was observed for 26DNT in low-carbon soil, which approached the value previously reported for acetone vehicle (24 +/- 6%). 26DNT penetration was reduced to 0.35% under dryer conditions and to 0

  18. Neurotoxicogenomic investigations to assess mechanisms of action of the munitions constituents RDX and 2,6-DNT in Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Gust, Kurt A; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Quinn, Michael J; Johnson, Mark S; Escalon, Lynn; Indest, Karl J; Guan, Xin; Clarke, Joan; Deng, Youping; Gong, Ping; Perkins, Edward J

    2009-07-01

    Munitions constituents (MCs) including hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and TNT derivatives are recognized to elicit aberrant neuromuscular responses in many species. The onset of seizures resulting in death was observed in the avian model Northern bobwhite after oral dosing with RDX beginning at 8 mg/kg/day in subacute (14 days) exposures, whereas affective doses of the TNT derivative, 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), caused gastrointestinal impacts, lethargy, and emaciation in subacute and subchronic (60 days) exposures. To assess and contrast the potential neurotoxicogenomic effects of these MCs, a Northern bobwhite microarray was developed consisting of 4119 complementary DNA (cDNA) features enriched for differentially-expressed brain transcripts from exposures to RDX and 2,6-DNT. RDX affected hundreds of genes in brain tissue, whereas 2,6-DNT affected few (

  19. Hazardous Waste Removal Operations Conducted in Support of the BZ Agent/Munitions Disposal Facility Remediation Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    americium were removed. Electronic equipment such as computer monitors from the Control Room was removed. All material was containerized and labeled as...provided to ECBC on December 16, 2009. The smoke detectors containing americium were shipped to Environmental Management and Controls, Incorporated...mercury switches, americium in smoke alarms, and hydraulic oils) as well as dissemble contaminated equipment (if necessary) prior to the mass

  20. Sealed container sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Sampling device, by means of a tapered needle, pierces a sealed container while maintaining the seal and either evacuates or pressurizes the container. This device has many applications in the chemical, preservative and battery-manufacturing industries.

  1. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  2. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  3. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, Bradley G.; Downing, Jr., John P.; Neal, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  4. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  5. Generic Fortran Containers (GFC)

    SciTech Connect

    Liakh, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    The Fortran language does not provide a standard library that implements generic containers, like linked lists, trees, dictionaries, etc. The GFC software provides an implementation of generic Fortran containers natively written in Fortran 2003/2008 language. The following containers are either already implemented or planned: Stack (done), Linked list (done), Tree (done), Dictionary (done), Queue (planned), Priority queue (planned).

  6. Personal Container Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the study of personal containers and their uses in art creation for children. States that children are fascinated by boxes and containers. Provides examples of personal containers, such as lunch boxes, pencil cases, purses and valets, and school bags. (CMK)

  7. Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Technologies on Munitions Response Sites, Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area, Wyoming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    inert 60mm mortars,  1 inert 3-in. Stokes mortar, and  40 small industry standard objects (ISOs) (1-in. nominal pipe nipples , 4-in. long). 13...were used as reference seed items. ISOs are commonly available Schedule 40, 1 in. by 4 in. pipe nipples , threaded on both ends, made from black welded...four seed item objects (two 1 in. x 4 in. pipe nipples , 37mm, and 75mm) and position plots only for the shotput containing data acquired throughout

  8. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  9. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  10. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  11. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  12. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, Stanley R.

    1985-01-01

    A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

  13. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  14. CONTAIN independent peer review

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Denning, R.S.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  15. Flywheel containment technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppa, A. P.; Zweben, C. H.; Mirandy, L.

    1980-07-01

    The important effect of containment weight on the density of a flywheel was examined for a selection of flywheel designs incorporating metallic and composite construction as contained by steel housings. Three different flywheel constructions are presented, namely laminated rotor, shaped disk, and multirim. Materials are steel for the first two types and E glass, S glass and Kevlar composites for the third type. All of the flywheels were comparable in that their stress levels were based on long term high cycle operation. All of the specific energy values were penalized heavily by the containment weight, the least being the laminated rotor (-29 percent) and the greatest being the shaped disk (-72 percent). The penalties for the multirim designs are -45 percent (E glass), -55 percent (S glass), and -60 percent (Kevlar). The low penalty of the laminated steel rotor was due to the fact that the containment weight was based on withstanding the rupture of only one of the constituent disks. The high penalty of the shaped steel disk, on the other hand, reflects the severe containment action that resulted from its bursting into large, hard, and axially narrow fragments. The intermediate but nevertheless substantial containment penalty of the multidrum composite rotors resulted from their relatively mild containment behavior.

  16. OBOE containment prospectus

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N R

    1999-11-19

    The OBOE series of experiments presents a new fielding concept for LLNL subcritical experiments. An experimental alcove will be reused for many different experiments. Each individual experiment will be conducted within a steel experimental vessel. After each experiment, the vessel will be moved to the back of the alcove and entombed in grout. The alcove is designed with sufficient space to entomb 12 experiment vessels. Each experiment in the OBOE series of experiments is composed of one experimental package. Each experimental package will have high explosive (HE) and special nuclear material (SNM) in a subcritical assembly. Each experimental package will be placed in a steel experimental vessel within the OBOE zero-room. Each experiment will be detonated inside its experimental vessel in the OBOE zero-room that is formed by a steel and concrete barrier at the entrance to the U1a.102C drift. The containment plan for the OBOE series of experiments utilizes a two containment vessel concept. The first containment vessel is formed by the primary containment barrier that seals the U1a.102C drift. The second containment vessel is formed by the secondary containment barrier in the U1a.100 drift. While it is likely that the experiment vessel will contain the SNM from an experiment, the containment plan for the OBOE series only assumes that the steel experiment vessel provides shock mitigation and is a heat sink for the heat produced by the detonation of the HE. It is possible that one or more of the experimental vessels may seep SNM in the zero-room from a failure of a seal on the vessel. We are presenting a containment plan for the entire series of OBOE experiments. At this time, we do not know exactly how many experiments will actually be conducted in the OBOE series. However, we do know that the maximum number of experiments in the OBOE series is 12. After the final experiment in the OBOE series, a larger experiment will be conducted in the U1a.102C alcove. This

  17. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  18. Lanthanide-containing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

    1987-01-01

    The preparation of a variety of lanthanide-containing polyimide films is described, and results of their characterization are presented. The properties investigated include the glass transition temperature, thermooxidative stability, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity of the polymer. Films containing lanthanide chlorides, fluorides, and sulfides are flexible, but those containing lanthanide nitrates are extremely brittle. The addition of lanthanide acetates and acetylacetonates caused immediate gelation of two of the synthesis-mixture ingredients. It was found that, in general, the addition of lanthanide to the polyimide increases the density and glass transition temperature of the polymer but slightly decreases the thermooxidative stability.

  19. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-02-08

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. The advanced containment system comprises a plurality of casing sections with each casing section interlocked to an adjacent casing section. Each casing section includes a complementary interlocking structure that interlocks with the complementary interlocking structure on an adjacent casing section. A barrier filler substantially fills the casing sections and may substantially fill the spaces of the complementary interlocking structure to form a substantially impermeable barrier. Some of the casing sections may include sensors so that the casing sections and the zone of interest may be remotely monitored after the casing sections are emplaced in the ground.

  20. Lightweight flywheel containment

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James R.

    2001-01-01

    A lightweight flywheel containment composed of a combination of layers of various material which absorb the energy of a flywheel structural failure. The various layers of material act as a vacuum barrier, momentum spreader, energy absorber, and reaction plate. The flywheel containment structure has been experimentally demonstrated to contain carbon fiber fragments with a velocity of 1,000 m/s and has an aerial density of less than 6.5 g/square centimeters. The flywheel containment, may for example, be composed of an inner high toughness structural layer, and energy absorbing layer, and an outer support layer. Optionally, a layer of impedance matching material may be utilized intermediate the flywheel rotor and the inner high toughness layer.

  1. Lightweight flywheel containment

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James R.

    2004-06-29

    A lightweight flywheel containment composed of a combination of layers of various material which absorb the energy of a flywheel structural failure. The various layers of material act as a vacuum barrier, momentum spreader, energy absorber, and reaction plate. The flywheel containment structure has been experimentally demonstrated to contain carbon fiber fragments with a velocity of 1,000 m/s and has an aerial density of less than 6.5 g/square centimeters. The flywheel containment, may for example, be composed of an inner high toughness structural layer, and energy absorbing layer, and an outer support layer. Optionally, a layer of impedance matching material may be utilized intermediate the flywheel rotor and the inner high toughness layer.

  2. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  3. Container cover closure apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Griesau, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to handling and/or storing hazardous waste materials, such as radioactive materials, and is more specifically directed to loading and/or unloading radioactive material into or out of a container, such as a drum, by remote operation, and more particularly the present invention relates to the remote opening and/or closing of a container secured by a compression ring.

  4. Coatings for secondary containment

    SciTech Connect

    Ellisor, M.W.

    1995-12-31

    Federal environmental legislation has established minimum requirements for secondary containment of both hazardous wastes and petroleum products for aboveground storage tanks. Of the systems listed, the most commonly used containment is the concrete vault. Regulations require that the vault must be protected with an impermeable lining that is also compatible with the stored waste. This paper explores the selection criteria for such linings and the various types of linings on the market today.

  5. Echo 1 container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Echo 1 container: The design of this container was one of the most difficult technical tasks. Hansen writes: 'After several weeks of examining potential solutions to this problem, the Langley engineers narrowed the field of ideas to five. They then built working models of these five container designs, and 12-foot-diameter models of the satellite for simulation studies. With help from Langley's Engineering Service and Mechanical Service divisions, the Echo group built a special 41-foot-diameter spherical vacuum chamber equipped with pressure-proof windows. There the dynamics of opening the container and inflating the satelloon could be studies as the satelloon fell to the bottom of the tank.' 'The container-opening mechanism that eventually resulted from these vacuum tests was surely one of the oddest explosive devices ever contrived. The container was a sphere that opened at its equator into top and bottom hemispheres. the top half fit on the bottom half much like a lid fits snugly atop a kitchen pot. The joint between the two hemispheres, therefore, formed a sliding valve. The halves had to move apart an inch or two before the canister was actually open. It was in this joint between the hemispheres that the charge was placed.' The whole whole system was laced together with fishing line which resulted in many disdainful comments from visiting scientists and engineers but the system worked. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 180.

  6. Sensitive determination of RDX, nitroso-RDX metabolites, and other munitions in ground water by solid-phase extraction and isotope dilution liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure electro-spray [correction of chemical] ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cassada, D A; Monson, S J; Snow, D D; Spalding, R F

    1999-06-04

    Recent improvements in the LC-MS interface have increased the sensitivity and selectivity of this instrument in the analysis of polar and thermally-labile aqueous constituents. Determination of RDX, nitroso-RDX metabolites, and other munitions was enhanced using LC-MS with solid-phase extraction, 15N3-RDX internal standard, and electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative ion mode. ESI produced a five-fold increase in detector response over atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) for the nitramine compounds, while the more energetic APCI produced more than twenty times the ESI response for nitroaromatics. Method detection limits in ESI for nitramines varied from 0.03 microgram l-1 for MNX to 0.05 microgram l-1 for RDX.

  7. Explosion containment device

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  8. Magnetometer Response of Commonly Found Munitions Items and Munitions Surrogates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-12

    curve as well, any remanent magnetization causes more problems for the maximum response curve than the minimum response curve. Maximum response curves...and shape of the object, its orientation relative to the geomagnetic field, the geomagnetic field strength, and any residual or remanent ...magnetization in the object. When the remanent magnetization is negligible (e.g. if the object has been degaussed), the weakest anomalies occur when the object

  9. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  10. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2004-10-12

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  11. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-05-24

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  12. Silicone-containing composition

    DOEpatents

    Mohamed, Mustafa

    2012-01-24

    A silicone-containing composition comprises the reaction product of a first component and an excess of an isocyanate component relative to the first component to form an isocyanated intermediary. The first component is selected from one of a polysiloxane and a silicone resin. The first component includes a carbon-bonded functional group selected from one of a hydroxyl group and an amine group. The isocyanate component is reactive with the carbon-bonded functional group of the first component. The isocyanated intermediary includes a plurality of isocyanate functional groups. The silicone-containing composition comprises the further reaction product of a second component, which is selected from the other of the polysiloxane and the silicone resin. The second component includes a plurality of carbon-bonded functional groups reactive with the isocyanate functional groups of the isocyanated intermediary for preparing the silicone-containing composition.

  13. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Solomon, David E.

    1977-01-01

    A container for the storage, shipping and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same which has compactness, which is safe against fracture or accident, and which is reusable. The container consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example, of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and will be retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  14. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  15. Material containment enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David O.

    1993-01-01

    An isolation enclosure and a group of isolation enclosures useful when a relatively large containment area is required. The enclosure is in the form of a ring having a section removed so that a technician may enter the center area of the ring. In a preferred embodiment, an access zone is located in the transparent wall of the enclosure and extends around the inner perimeter of the ring so that a technician can insert his hands into the enclosure to reach any point within. The inventive enclosures provide more containment area per unit area of floor space than conventional material isolation enclosures.

  16. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, S.B.; Brown, R.L.; Cantrell, J.R.; Wilcox, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  17. PANAMINT: Containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.; Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-03-01

    The PANAMINT event was detonated in hole U2gb of the Nevada Test Site at 13:59 PDT on May 21, 1986. This paper contains a discussion of that event, with special attention given to the instrumentation designed to monitor stemming emplacement and performance. Data from those instruments are presented.

  18. FRISCO containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1996-03-01

    This document is the containment data report for the Frisco Event. This event was detonated in hole U8m of the Nevada Test Site on September 23, 1982. Discussion of the instrumentation and stemming is included, as is stemming performance (radiation and pressure, motion, and collapse).

  19. ISLAY containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1997-06-01

    This containment data report for the ISLAY event provides a description of the event, including the site, emplacement, and instrumentation. Stemming performance is reported, including radiation pressure and motion. Collapse phenomena are reported, including motion and radiation pressure. Measurements on the emplacement pipe are reported, including motion, pressure, temperature, and radiation.

  20. Polyazomethines containing trifluoromethylbenzene units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Soluble, amorphous, aromatic polyazomethine polymers and copolymers were prepared by reacting a dialdehyde monomer with a diamine monomer containing trifluoromethylbenzene and various combinations thereof in a solvent, such as N,N-dimethylacetamide. The reaction was heated to reflux yielding a polyazomethine which, after cooling to room temperature, was precipitated. These polymers and copolymers may be used to make films, coatings, composites and adhesives.

  1. Polyazomethines containing trifluoromethylbenzene units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Soluble, amorphous, aromatic polyazomethine polymers and copolymers were prepared by reacting a dialdehyde monomer with a diamine monomer containing trifluoromethylbenzene and various combinations thereof in a solvent, such as N,N-dimethylacetamide. The reaction was heated to reflux yielding a polyazomethine which, after cooling to room temperature, was precipitated. These polymers and copolymers may be used to make films, coatings, composites and adhesives.

  2. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  3. Crash resistant container

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Jim D.

    1994-01-01

    A container for hazardous materials capable of protecting the enclosed materials from high speed impact. Energy absorption is provided by a multiplicity of crushable layers of either wire mesh or perforated metal sheets which thin and flow together under impact loading. Layers of a higher tensile strength material are interspersed within the crushable layers to confine them and increase performance.

  4. Crash resistant container

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, J.D.

    1994-08-16

    A container for hazardous materials capable of protecting the enclosed materials from high speed impact is disclosed. Energy absorption is provided by a multiplicity of crushable layers of either wire mesh or perforated metal sheets which thin and flow together under impact loading. Layers of a higher tensile strength material are interspersed within the crushable layers to confine them and increase performance. 1 fig.

  5. JARLSBERG: Containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.; Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1994-12-01

    Information on the JARLSBERG event at the Nevada Test Site is given. Emphasis is on stemming performance, surface motion, and satellite hole (free-field) measurements. Some of the instrumentation was rendered inoperative by a preshot lightning strike on the grounding system and the EMP. The containment was satisfactory.

  6. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  7. Survey of Munitions Response Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Va.). Table 2-1. Site difficulty levels used in vegetation removal. Class Vegetation Terrain Obstacles Class 1 (easy) Light grass and vegetation up...to 2 feet high. Fairly level terrain. Minimal debris and obstacles . Class 2 (moderate) Moderate vegetation with sparse brush 2 to 4 feet high...Level to light rolling terrain with some ruts. Some debris and obstacles . Class 3 (difficult) Moderate vegetation with brush, saplings, and

  8. Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ - Economic Eng...Assets Availability .. lt- Award Lot 3 (LRIP) ·- IOT &E/OPEVAL (Dedicated .. .. _ IOC (FA-18) ··~ Milestone Ill (2000 lb) .. , OT&E/OPEVAL Complete (1...Required Assets Availability (AF) MAR 1999 MAR 1999 SEP 1999 MAR 1999 Award Lot 3 (LRIP) JUN 1999 JUN 1999 DEC 1999 JUN 1999 IOT &E/OPEVAL (Dedicated 2000 lb

  9. Deep Water Munitions Detection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    UXO unexploded ordnance GPS global positioning system MTA marine towed array TG towed gradiometer Mag magnetic nT nanotesla rms root mean square...other sites were used which had been surveyed with Geometrics Towed Gradiometer (TG) systems. In both of the gradiometer based surveys the data from...the individual magnetometers that made up the gradiometer were available. Magnetic anomalies from each site were reanalyzed to produce uniform target

  10. Coating Technologies for Insensitive Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    elements, combined with an aliphatic poly- aspartic with graphite particles. 4. Polyurea is a sprayable, rapid cure, two-component coating that provides...25 Figure 25. Polyurea (black) - 06-0265-4−3528-50-1...26 Figure 26. Polyurea (black) - 06-0265-4−3528-50-1

  11. BWR steel containment corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.P.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes regulatory actions taken after corrosion was discovered in the drywell at the Oyster Creek Plant and in the torus at the Nine Mile Point 1 Plant. The report describes the causes of corrosion, requirements for monitoring corrosion, and measures to mitigate the corrosive environment for the two plants. The report describes the issuances of generic letters and information notices either to collect information to determine whether the problem is generic or to alert the licensees of similar plants about the existence of such a problem. Implementation of measures to enhance the containment performance under severe accident conditions is discussed. A study by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the performance of a degraded containment under severe accident conditions is summarized. The details of the BNL study are in the appendix to the report.

  12. Polymer composites containing nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bley, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer composite materials containing carbon nanotubes, particularly to those containing singled-walled nanotubes. The invention provides a polymer composite comprising one or more base polymers, one or more functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers and carbon nanotubes. The invention also relates to functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers, particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having side chain functionalization, and more particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having olefin side chains and alkyl epoxy side chains. The invention further relates to methods of making polymer composites comprising carbon nanotubes.

  13. Melt containment member

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  14. BWR zero pressure containment

    SciTech Connect

    Dillmann, C.W.; Townsend, H.E.; Nesbitt, L.B.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes the operation of a nuclear reactor system, the system including a containment defining a drywall space wherein a nuclear reactor is disposed, there being a suppression pool in the containment with the suppression pool having a wetwell space above a level of the pool to which an non-condensable gases entering the suppression pool can vent. It comprises: continuously exhausting the wetwell space to remove gas mixture therefrom while admitting inflow of air from an atmospheric source thereof to the wetwell during normal operation by blocking off the inflow during a loss-of-coolant-accident whenever a pressure in the wetwell space is above a predetermined value, and subjecting the gas subsequent to its removal from the wetwell to a treatment operation to separate any particulate material entrained therein from the gas mixture.

  15. Concrete containment aging study

    SciTech Connect

    Pachner, J.; Tai, T.M.; Naus, D.

    1994-04-01

    In 1989, IAEA initiated a pilot study on the management of aging of nuclear power plant components. The Phase I and II studies of concrete containment are discussed. With the data base, plant owners will be able to review and enhance their existing programs. IAEA will analyze data provided by participating plants and the report is scheduled to be released by late 1994 (final report release mid-1995).

  16. Hydrogen storage container

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  17. Plastic container bagless transfer

    DOEpatents

    Tibrea, Steven L.; D'Amelio, Joseph A.; Daugherty, Brent A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus are provided for transferring material from an isolated environment into a storage carrier through a conduit that can be sealed with a plug. The plug and conduit can then be severed to provide a hermetically sealed storage carrier containing the material which may be transported for storage or disposal and to maintain a seal between the isolated environment and the ambient environment.

  18. Fluorine-containing polyformals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trischler, F. D. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A fluorine-containing polymeric polyformals is described which has the repeating unit O CH2 O CH2 (CF2) sub n CH2 wherein n is an integer of from about 3 to about 6 prepared by reacting trioxane with a diol having the formula HO CH2 (CF2) sub n CH2 OH. These polymeric polyformals are useful directly for impervious coatings on metals and the like.

  19. CORNUCOPIA containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.; Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-03-01

    The CORNUCOPIA event was detonated on July 24, 1986. A crater resulted from the event that was 137.5 m in diameter and a maximum depth of 16.9 m. No radiation was detected above the ground surface and containment was satisfactory. This report describes measuring methods utilized, maps indicating the location of the event, and a discussion, with data, concerning the collapse progression.

  20. ARMADA containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1996-04-01

    ARMADA was detonated in hole U9cs of Nevada Test Site. Depth of burial was 265 m in the Paintbrush Tuff of area 9, about 400 m above the Paleozoic formation and 310 m above the standing water level. Detonation time was 05:53 PDT on April 22, 1983, and collapse progressed to the surface at about 0.4 hour after detonation. Resulting crater had a mean radius of 72.9 m and a max depth of 7.7 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the ARMADA containment was considered successful.

  1. Buckminsterfullerene-containing microemulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Honeychuck, R.V.; Hussam, A.

    1996-03-06

    We have shown that C{sub 60}-containing microemulsions can be readily prepared. This opens up the possibility of studying C{sub 60} molecules in a medium which has significant practical applications. One of the most intriguing aspects of this work is the revelation of a local C{sub 60} environment, inside the micelles, which is largely aromatic and weakly polar. This shows that van der Waals interactions between a fullerene molecule and the aromatic {pi} cloud of the solvent molecules are important in bringing the solute into solution in a largely aliphatic micellar interior. 23 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Confinement Contains Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  3. Intrauterine devices containing progesterone.

    PubMed

    Murad, F

    1977-05-01

    Characteristics of progesterone-releasing IUDs are reported. At present, the only progesterone-containing IUD on the market is Progestasert, a T-shaped ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer device containing 38 mg progesterone in silicone. The device releases approximately 65 mcg/day into the uterine cavity over the course of 1-year. The device does not alter pituitary function or ovulation, nor does it depend on a local mechanical effect. Rather, it may exert its effect by inhibiting sperm capacitation or survival, or it may prevent nidation by alterning the endometrium. The reported pregnancy rate for Progestasert is 1.9% in parous women and 2.5% in nulliparous women. This efficacy rate is similar to that for other IUDs and low-dose progestin-only oral contraceptives. Breakthrough bleeding is the most common side effect, and perhaps 10-15% of the acceptors will have the device removed for either bleeding, pain, or infection. The rate of spontaneous expulsion of the device is about 3-8%. It is recommended that the device be inserted during or shortly after the menstrual period.

  4. Assessment of Energetic Compounds, Semi-volatile Organic Compounds, and Trace Elements in Streambed Sediment and Stream Water from Streams Draining Munitions Firing Points and Impact Areas, Fort Riley, Kansas, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coiner, R.L.; Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of energetic compounds (explosive and propellant residues) and associated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and trace elements in streambed sediment and stream water from streams draining munitions firing points and impact areas at Fort Riley, northeast Kansas, was performed during 2007-08 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army. Streambed sediment from 16 sampling sites and stream-water samples from 5 sites were collected at or near Fort Riley and analyzed for as many as 17 energetic compounds, 65 SVOCs, and 27 trace elements. None of the energetic compounds or SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment collected from sites within the Fort Riley Military Reservation. This may indicate that these compounds either are not transported from dispersal areas or that analytical methods are not sensitive enough to detect the small concentrations that may be transported. Concentrations of munitions-associated trace elements did not exceed sediment-quality guidelines recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and are not indicative of contamination of streambed sediment at selected streambed sampling sites, at least in regards to movement from dispersal areas. Analytical results of stream-water samples provided little evidence of contamination by energetic compounds, SVOCs, or associated trace elements. Perchlorate was detected in 19 of 20 stream-water samples at concentrations ranging from an estimated 0.057 to an estimated 0.236 ug/L (micrograms per liter) with a median concentration of an estimated 0.114 ug/L, substantially less than the USEPA Interim Health Advisory criterion (15 ug/L), and is in the range of documented background concentrations. Because of these small concentrations and possible natural sources (precipitation and groundwater), it is likely that the occurrence of perchlorate in stream water is naturally occurring, although a definitive identification of the source of perchlorate in

  5. FUEL CONTAINER CLOSURE

    DOEpatents

    Stone, C.C.; Noland, R.A.

    1962-07-17

    A method of producing a spherical closed end on a small thin-walled tube forming a container for reactor fuel is described. An end cap inserted in the tube has a long slender external projection extending axially of the tube. A heavy electrical current is applied to the projection, and simultaneously a portion of the tube very near the end cap is chilled. A part of the projection is vaporized, and the balance is melted, along with portions of the end cap and the tube. As a result, the end cap is welded to the tube, and the projection in melting is spread out to form a spherical surface on the end cap. (AEC)

  6. NORMANNA containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.; Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-03-01

    The second in a series of three similar experiments, NORMANNA was located in hole U10cb in area 10 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The first experiment of this series (JARLSBERG) was conducted about one year earlier. The diameter of the emplacement hole was 2.18 m and the depth-of-burial of 203 m placed the working point in alluvium about 100 m above the Paleozoic contact and nearly 300 m above the static water level. NORMANNA was detonated on July 12, 1984 at 07:00 PDT. All phenomena appeared normal with a chimney collapse to the ground surface about 7 minutes later. The mean radius of the resulting crater was 54.1 m and its maximum depth was 8.8 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and containment was satisfactory.

  7. HAVARTI containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1997-06-01

    The HAVARTI event was detonated in hole U10bg of the Nevada Test Site. The HAVARTI device had a depth-of-burial of 200 m in the Tunnel Bed tuffs of area 10, about 280 m above the Paleozoic formation and 330 m above the standing water level. Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole is described. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver). Detonation time was 06:41 PDT on August 5 1981. At a depth of 149 m there was an indication of subsurface collapse occurring 1780 s after detonation. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the HAVARTI containment was considered successful.

  8. CABRA containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, T.

    1996-03-01

    The CABRA event was detonated in hole U20aj of the Nevada Test Site as indicated in figure 1.1. The CABRA device had a depth-of-burial (DOB) of 542 m in the Tuffs and rhyolites of area 20, about 20 m above the standing water level, as shown in figure 1.2(l). Figure 1.3 is a plan map of the immediate Vicinity of hole U20aj showing the drill holes used in the construction of the cross section plot of figure 1.2. Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan shown in figure 1.4. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver. Detonation time was 12:20 PST on March 26,1983, and a sub-surface collapse to a depth of 380 m was observed. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the CABRA containment was considered successful.

  9. Organic containment separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  10. Gestodene-containing contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, H; Jung-Hoffmann, C; Wiegratz, I

    1995-12-01

    As GSD is the most potent progestogen used in oral contraceptives, the doses of GSD can be lower than those of other progestogen components. The monophasic (30 micrograms EE + 75 micrograms GSD) and the triphasic formulation (30 micrograms EE + 50 micrograms GSD/40 micrograms EE + 70 micrograms GSD/30 micrograms EE + 100 micrograms GSD) suppress gonadotropin release and ovarian function profoundly and inhibit ovulation reliably. The strong anti-estrogenic and progestogenic effectiveness of GSD is based on the high GSD serum concentrations achieved during daily intake. Because of the weak androgenic properties of GSD, both formulations can be characterized as estrogen-dominant with respect to their hepatic effects. Except for the first cycles, both formulations afford good cycle control, and the rate of side effects is similar to that with comparable low-dose oral contraceptives. The levels of total and free androgens and androgen precursors, as well as of peripheral androgen activity, are significantly reduced, resulting in a reduced incidence of acne. The concentrations of SHBG and other serum-binding globulins are elevated considerably, and thyroid function is almost unaffected. The estrogen-dominant effect on hepatic metabolism of both formulations also is reflected by a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides and VLDL, HDL, and some apolipoproteins, while LDL-CH and total CH remain unchanged. Similar to other low-dose oral contraceptives, the GSD-containing preparations cause a slight impairment of glucose tolerance that does not appear to be of clinical relevance. However, a significant increase exists in pro-coagulatory and fibrinolytic activity that leads to a considerable stimulation of fibrin turnover. In predisposed women, this may contribute to an elevated risk of venous and arterial thromboembolic diseases.

  11. VILLE containment data report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-03-01

    The VILLE event was detonated in hole U4am of the Nevada Test Site as indicated in Fig. 1.1. A plan view map of the local region around hole U4am indicating the inferred faults and drill holes is shown in figure 1.2. The device had a depth-of-burial of 293 m in the alluvium of Area 4, about 240 m above the standing water level (SWL), as shown in Figure 1.3. Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan shown in Fig. 1.4. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes and Narver. Detonation time was 08:15 PDT on June 13, 1985 and about 28 minutes later the chimney collapsed to the surface leaving a crater with a mean radius of 59.7 m and a maximum depth of 17.3 m. No radiation arrivals were detected in the emplacement hole and the VILLE containment was considered successful. Three of the five stemming plugs (the first, fourth and fifth) were composed of coarse gypsum aggregate in a gypsum cement slurry. Each of these three gypsum-filled-aggregate (GFA) plugs was monitored during emplacement with arrays of conductivity probes and thermistors. The remaining two plugs were soft, coal tar aggregate (CT/A) gas seal membranes having a thickness of about 1.5 m sandwiched between layers of fines material. A layer of CT/A was poured on the top of each of the top two GFA plugs.

  12. Prenatal Experiences of Containment in the Light of Bion's Model of Container/Contained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiello, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of possible proto-experiences of the prenatal child in the context of Bion's model of container/contained. The physical configuration of the embryo/foetus contained in the maternal uterus represents the starting point for an enquiry into the unborn child's possible experiences of its state of being contained in a…

  13. A Snapshot of the EPA Pesticide Container and Containment Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This brochure provides an overview of the EPA pesticide container and containment rule for registrants, retailers, distributors, commercial applicators, custom blenders and pesticide users It describes who must comply and provides requirement information.

  14. Consequences of the Introduction of Insensitive Munitions on Safety, Collateral Damage and Operations (consequenties van de invoering van mkm-munitie op veiligheid, gevolgschade en (internationaal) opereren

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    fragmenten. Pumice filled voids PumicePumice flled pan Figuur 8 SLAM-ER met puimnsteen-epoxy lijm als ’mitigation’ van sympathische reactie. Figuur 9...24/28 SD Test rrnBLIC RELEASE Pumice Modified Container "* SD test conducted 11 February 2004 at China Lake Cactus Flats Test Range "* Passing...puimsteen en epoxy-lijm met links in het midden de donor en rondom de acceptor systemen. SD Test Results PUBLIC RELEASE Pumice Modified Container * No

  15. An Evaluation of the Environmental Fate and Behavior of Munitions Materiel (Tetryl and Polar Metabolites of TNT) in Soil and Plant Systems. Environmental Fate and Behavior of Tetryl

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    3.2.4 Chemical Fate of Tetryl in Hydroponically Grown Plants .,,,_,_,-._ 55 3.2.5 Transport Form of Tetryl in Xylem Exudates ........ 64 3.3 ABSORPTION...with a small amount of radiolabel being transported to the shoot and leaves. Studies examining the xylem exudate of bush beans grown in TNT-containing...hydroponic solutions allowed identification of the primary transport forms of TNT. Acid-hydrolyzed xylem exudate was found to contain 2-amino-4,6

  16. CONTAINER MATERIALS, FABRICATION AND ROBUSTNESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.; Rawls, G.; Sindelar, R.; Zapp, P.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-11-10

    The multi-barrier 3013 container used to package plutonium-bearing materials is robust and thereby highly resistant to identified degradation modes that might cause failure. The only viable degradation mechanisms identified by a panel of technical experts were pressurization within and corrosion of the containers. Evaluations of the container materials and the fabrication processes and resulting residual stresses suggest that the multi-layered containers will mitigate the potential for degradation of the outer container and prevent the release of the container contents to the environment. Additionally, the ongoing surveillance programs and laboratory studies should detect any incipient degradation of containers in the 3013 storage inventory before an outer container is compromised.

  17. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale.

  18. Conductive Container for Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    Container for semiconductor components not only protects them against mechanical damage but ensures they are not harmed by electrostatic discharges. Container holds components in fixed positions so they can be serialized and identified from their locations. Suitable for holding components during both storing and shipping. Originally developed for microwave diodes, container concept readily adaptable to transistors and integrated circuits.

  19. Global Container Management Process Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    GLOBAL CONTAINER MANAGEMENT PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS GRP Traci L. Bowman, Major, USAF AFIT-ENS-GRP-15...020 GLOBAL CONTAINER MANAGEMENT PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS GRP Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate...STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENS-GRP-15-J-020 GLOBAL CONTAINER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

  20. Pressure sensor for sealed containers

    DOEpatents

    Hodges, Franklin R.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic pressure sensor for sensing a pressure change inside a sealed container. The sensor includes a sealed deformable vessel having a first end attachable to an interior surface of the sealed container, and a second end. A magnet mounted to the vessel second end defining a distance away from the container surface provides an externally detectable magnetic field. A pressure change inside the sealed container causes deformation of the vessel changing the distance of the magnet away from the container surface, and thus the detectable intensity of the magnetic field.

  1. METHOD OF TESTING HERMETIC CONTAINERS

    DOEpatents

    Borst, L.B.

    1959-02-17

    A method is presented for testing hermetic containers enclosing a material capable of chemically combining with a fluid at elevated temperatures. In accordance with the invention, the container to be tested is weighed together with the material therein. The container and its contents are then immersed in the fluid and heated to a temperature sufficiently high to cause a reaction to take place between the contents and the fluid and maintained under such conditions for a definite period of time. The container and its contents are then cooled and re-weighed. The rate of change in weight is determined and utilized as an index to determine the possibility of container failure.

  2. RESIDUAL STRESSES IN 3013 CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-11-10

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  3. Polyimides containing pendent siloxane groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Novel polyimides containing pendent siloxane groups (PISOX) were prepared by the reaction of functionalized siloxane compounds with hydroxy containing polyimides (PIOH). The pendent siloxane groups on the polyimide backbone offer distinct advantages such as lowering the dielectric constant and moisture resistance and enhanced atomic oxygen resistance. The siloxane containing polyimides are potentially useful as protective silicon oxide coatings and are useful for a variety of applications where atomic oxygen resistance is needed.

  4. Leak test adapter for containers

    DOEpatents

    Hallett, Brian H.; Hartley, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    An adapter is provided for facilitating the charging of containers and leak testing penetration areas. The adapter comprises an adapter body and stem which are secured to the container's penetration areas. The container is then pressurized with a tracer gas. Manipulating the adapter stem installs a penetration plug allowing the adapter to be removed and the penetration to be leak tested with a mass spectrometer. Additionally, a method is provided for using the adapter.

  5. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  6. Plasmids as Tools for Containment.

    PubMed

    García, José L; Díaz, Eduardo

    2014-10-01

    Active containment systems are a major tool for reducing the uncertainty associated with the introduction of monocultures, genetically engineered or not, into target habitats for a large number of biotechnological applications (e.g., bioremediation, bioleaching, biopesticides, biofuels, biotransformations, live vaccines, etc.). While biological containment reduces the survival of the introduced organism outside the target habitat and/or upon completion of the projected task, gene containment strategies reduce the lateral spread of the key genetic determinants to indigenous microorganisms. In fundamental research, suicide circuits become relevant tools to address the role of gene transfer, mainly plasmid transfer, in evolution and how this transfer contributes to genome plasticity and to the rapid adaptation of microbial communities to environmental changes. Many lethal functions and regulatory circuits have been used and combined to design efficient containment systems. As many new genomes are being sequenced, novel lethal genes and regulatory elements are available, e.g., new toxin-antitoxin modules, and they could be used to increase further the current containment efficiencies and to expand containment to other organisms. Although the current containment systems can increase the predictability of genetically modified organisms in the environment, containment will never be absolute, due to the existence of mutations that lead to the appearance of surviving subpopulations. In this sense, orthogonal systems (xenobiology) appear to be the solution for setting a functional genetic firewall that will allow absolute containment of recombinant organisms.

  7. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-02-28

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids.

  8. Shipping Containers as Structural Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    0(’I Tec h nical N1,iiiutor t u l this study was Nit. R. II. Barnard . CDL J. F. iLu~ is Commander and [)irector of CERL. and Dr. I . R. Shaffer is...Technology Transfer 2 ANAL YTICAL STUDIES 8 Finite Element Model for Sing le Container Matrix Reduction for Single Container Box Beam Roof System 3 LABORATORY... Studies Test Results 4 FIELD TESTS 11 Construct ion Techniques Loading Procedures Endurance Tests Test Results 5 DEDICATED CONTAINERS 13 Containerized

  9. Seal device for ferromagnetic containers

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Ross E.; Jason, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    A temporary seal or patch assembly prevents the escape of contents, e.g., fluids and the like, from within a container having a breach therethrough until the contents can be removed and/or a repair effected. A frame that supports a sealing bladder can be positioned over the breach and the frame is then attached to the container surface, which must be of a ferromagnet material, by using switchable permanent magnets. The permanent magnets are designed to have a first condition that is not attracted to the ferromagnetic surface and a second conditions whereby the magnets are attracted to the surface with sufficient force to support the seal assembly on the surface. Latching devices may be attached to the frame and engage the container surface with hardened pins to prevent the lateral movement of the seal assembly along the container surface from external forces such as fluid drag or gravity.

  10. Seal device for ferromagnetic containers

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, R.E.; Jason, A.J.

    1994-10-18

    A temporary seal or patch assembly prevents the escape of contents, e.g., fluids and the like, from within a container having a breach there through until the contents can be removed and/or a repair effected. A frame that supports a sealing bladder can be positioned over the breach and the frame is then attached to the container surface, which must be of a ferromagnet material, by using switchable permanent magnets. The permanent magnets are designed to have a first condition that is not attracted to the ferromagnetic surface and a second conditions whereby the magnets are attracted to the surface with sufficient force to support the seal assembly on the surface. Latching devices may be attached to the frame and engage the container surface with hardened pins to prevent the lateral movement of the seal assembly along the container surface from external forces such as fluid drag or gravity. 10 figs.

  11. VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of municipal ahd hazardous waste in the United States is primarily accomplished by containment in lined and capped landfills. Evapotranspiration cover systems offer an alternative to conventional landfill cap systems. These covers work on completely different principles ...

  12. LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-04-21

    Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

  13. Building a secondary containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  14. Waste product profile: Glass containers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1995-09-01

    In 1992, Waste Age initiated the Waste Product Profile series -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the solid waste stream. This popular series of profiles high-lighted a product, explained how it fit into integrated waste management systems, and provided current data on recycling and markets for the product. Glass containers are made from sand, limestone, soda ash, cullet (crushed bottles), and various additives, including those used to produce green, brown, and blue glass. Other glass products include flat glass, such as windows, and fiberglass products, such as insulation and glassware. These products are manufactured using different processes and different additives than container glass. This profile covers only glass containers.

  15. TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Waber, J.T.

    1960-02-23

    Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

  16. Scintillator materials containing lanthanum fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    An improved radiation detector containing a crystalline mixture of LaF.sub.3 and CeF.sub.3 as the scintillator element is disclosed. Scintillators made with from 25% to 99.5% LaF.sub.3 and the remainder CeF.sub.3 have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is equal to or superior to other known scintillator materials, and which may be processed from natural starting materials containing both rare earth elements. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in positron emission tomography.

  17. Shipping container for fissile material

    DOEpatents

    Crowder, H.E.

    1984-12-17

    The present invention is directed to a shipping container for the interstate transportation of enriched uranium materials. The shipping container is comprised of a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical-shaped outer vessel lined with thermal insulation. Disposed inside the thermal insulation and spaced apart from the inner walls of the outer vessel is a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical inner vessel impervious to liquid and gaseous substances and having the inner surfaces coated with a layer of cadmium to prevent nuclear criticality. The cadmium is, in turn, lined with a protective shield of high-density urethane for corrosion and wear protection. 2 figs.

  18. Identification of microbial populations assimilating nitrogen from RDX in munitions contaminated military training range soils by high sensitivity stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A; Lillis, Lorraine; Strand, Stuart E

    2013-09-17

    The leaching of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) from particulates deposited in live-fire military training range soils contributes to significant pollution of groundwater. In situ microbial degradation has been proposed as a viable method for onsite containment of RDX. However, there is only a single report of RDX degradation in training range soils and the soil microbial communities involved in RDX degradation were not identified. Here we demonstrate aerobic RDX degradation in soils taken from a target area of an Eglin Air Force Base bombing range, C52N Cat's Eye, (Eglin, Florida U.S.A.). RDX-degradation activity was spatially heterogeneous (found in less than 30% of initial target area field samples) and dependent upon the addition of exogenous carbon sources to the soils. Therefore, biostimulation (with exogenous carbon sources) and bioaugmentation may be necessary to sustain timely and effective in situ microbial biodegradation of RDX. High sensitivity stable isotope probing analysis of extracted soils incubated with fully labeled (15)N-RDX revealed several organisms with (15)N-labeled DNA during RDX-degradation, including xplA-bearing organisms. Rhodococcus was the most prominent genus in the RDX-degrading soil slurries and was completely labeled with (15)N-nitrogen from the RDX. Rhodococcus and Williamsia species isolated from these soils were capable of using RDX as a sole nitrogen source and possessed the genes xplB and xplA associated with RDX-degradation, indicating these genes may be suitable genetic biomarkers for assessing RDX degradation potential in soils. Other highly labeled species were primarily Proteobacteria, including: Mesorhizobium sp., Variovorax sp., and Rhizobium sp.

  19. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  20. Metal-containing lubricant compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, M.W.; Kennedy, S.

    1987-05-12

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising: a major amount of a lubricating oil; from 1 to 10 (wt)% of an ashless dispersant compound; or from 0.3 to 10 (wt)% of a nitrogen or ester containing polymeric viscosity index improver dispersant.

  1. Diamines Containing Pendent Phenylethynyl Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Controlled molecular weight imide oligomers and co-oligomers containing pendent phenylethynyl groups (PEPIs) and endcapped with nonreactive or phenylethynyl groups have been prepared by the cyclodehydration of the precursor amide acid oligomers or co-oligomers containing pendent phenylethynyl groups and endcapped with nonreactive or phenylethynyl groups. The amine terminated amide acid oligomers or co-oligomers are prepared from the reaction of dianhydride(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and diamine containing pendent phenylethynyl groups and subsequently endcapped with a phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride or monofunctional anhydride. The anhydride terminated amide acid oligomers and co-oligomers are prepared from the reaction of diamine(s) and diamine containing pendent phenylethynyl group(s) with an excess of dianhydride(s) and subsequently endcapped with a phenylethynyl amine or monofunctional amine. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as and N,N-dimethylacetamide under nitrogen at room temperature. The amide acid oligomers or co-oligomers are subsequently cyclodehydrated either thermally or chemically to the corresponding imide oligomers. The polymers and copolymers prepared from these materials exhibit a unique and unexpected combination of properties that includes higher glass transition temperatures after curing and higher retention of neat resin, adhesive and carbon fiber reinforced mechanical properties at temperatures up to 204 C under wet conditions without sacrificing melt flow behavior and processability as compared to similar materials. These materials are useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings, and composite matrices.

  2. Control And Containment Design Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    his work plan (571-pages) is called the “SWMU-3-1 and 3-4 Control and Containment Design Report” was written to be in compliance with new FEMA requirements that the design must not create any positive change in the 100 year flood elevation.

  3. Container Soil-Water Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spomer, L. Art; Hershey, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an activity that illustrates the relationship between the soil found in containers and soil in the ground including the amount of air and water found in each. Sponges are used to represent soil. Materials, procedures, and probable results are described. (KR)

  4. Anaerobic treatment of army ammunition production wastewater containing perchlorate and RDX.

    PubMed

    Atikovic, Emina; Suidan, Makram T; Maloney, Stephen W

    2008-08-01

    Perchlorate is an oxidizer that has been routinely used in solid rocket motors by the Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Royal Demolition Explosive (RDX) is a major component of military high explosives and is used in a wide variety of munitions. Perchlorate bearing wastewater typically results from production of solid rocket motors, while RDX is transferred to Army industrial wastewaters during load, assemble and pack operations for new munitions, and hot water or steam washout for disposal and deactivation of old munitions (commonly referred to as demilitarization, or simply demil). Biological degradation in Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactors (AFBR), has been shown to be an effective method for the removal of both perchlorate and RDX in contaminated wastewater. The focus of this study was to determine the effectiveness of removal of perchlorate and RDX, individually and when co-mingled, using ethanol as an electron donor under steady state conditions. Three AFBRs were used to assess the effectiveness of this process in treating the wastewater. The performance of the bioreactors was monitored relative to perchlorate, RDX, and chemical oxygen demand removal effectiveness. The experimental results demonstrated that the biodegradation of perchlorate and RDX was more effective in bioreactors receiving the single contaminant than in the bioreactor where both contaminants were fed.

  5. 27 CFR 30.44 - Weighing containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Weighing containers. 30.44... Weighing containers. (a) Weighing containers of more than 10 wine gallons. The weight of containers having.... (b) Weighing containers of 10 wine gallons or less. The weight for containers of a capacity of...

  6. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko; David J.

    2007-05-08

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  7. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, Geoffrey L.; Kanazirev, Vladislav

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  8. Hybrid Ionosilica containing aromatic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thach, U. D.; Prelot, B.; Hesemann, P.

    2015-07-01

    Ionosilicas are defined as mesostructured silica based materials bearing covalently bound ionic groups. These materials, situated at the interface of ionic liquids and structured silica mesophases, are usually synthesized following template directed hydrolysis-polycondensation procedures starting from silylated ionic compounds. Here, we report new ammonium type hybrid ionosilicas containing aromatic groups which can serve as a new platform for the design of functional materials, for applications in the areas of ion exchange reactions, drug delivery or wastewater treatment.

  9. Propelling Charge Container Leak Rate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    effective leakage hole size for the total population of 349 containers does not exceed 1.2 mils. L 4 5Based upon the work of Somerville as reported...1977. 4. Paul N. Somerville , Tables for Obtaining Non-rarametric Tolerance Limits, Annals of Mathematical Statistics, Vol 29, Nc,. 2, pp 5991- 601, June...1958. 5. Mary Natrella, "Engineering design Handbook, Experimental Statistics," SEction 5, Tables. US Army Materiel rommand, AMCP 706-114, July 1963

  10. Nonaggregating Microspheres Containing Aldehyde Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Cobalt gamma irradiation of hydrophilic monomers in presence of acrolein yields exceptionally-stable, nonaggregating microspheres. Mixtures of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrolein form homogeneous solutions in distilled water containing 0.4 percent polyethylene oxide (PEO). After deaeration with nitrogen, mixtures irradiated at room temperature with gamma rays from cobalt source; total exposure time 4 hours, at rate of 0.2 milliroentgen per hour. Reaction product centrifuged three times for purification and kept in distilled water.

  11. A silaproline-containing dipeptide.

    PubMed

    Vivet, B; Cavelier, F; Martinez, J; Didierjean, C; Marraud, M; Aubry, A

    2000-12-01

    The silaproline-containing dipeptide N-(3, 3-dimethyl-1-pivaloyl-1-aza-3-sila-5-cyclopentylcarbonyl)-L- alanine isopropylamide, C(17)H(33)N(3)O(3)Si, has two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit and each adopts a beta-II folded conformation, where the amide on the terminal C interacts intramolecularly with the pivaloyl O atom. The five-membered silaproline ring is C(beta)-puckered, an infrequent conformation for the homologous proline ring.

  12. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  13. REM-containing silicate concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, V. F.; Shabanova, O. V.; Pavlov, I. V.; Pavlov, M. V.; Shabanov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    A new method of advanced complex processing of ores containing rare-earth elements (REE) is proposed to obtain porous X-ray amorphous aluminosilicate material with a stable chemical composition which concentrates oxides of rare-earth metals (REM). The ferromanganese oxide ores of Chuktukon deposit (Krasnoyarsk Region, RF) were used for the experiment. The obtained aluminosilicate material is appropriate for treatment with 5 - 15% solutions of mineral acids to leach REM.

  14. Platelet preservation: agitation and containers.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    For platelets to maintain their in vitro quality and in vivo effectiveness, they need to be stored at room temperature with gentle agitation in gas-permeable containers. The mode of agitation affects the quality of the platelets, and a gentle method of agitation, either a circular or a flat bed movement, provides the best results. Tumblers or elliptical agitators induce platelet activation and subsequent damage. As long as the platelets remain in suspension, the agitation speed is not important. Agitation of the platelet concentrates ensures that the platelets are continuously oxygenated, that sufficient oxygen can enter the storage container and that excess carbon dioxide can be expelled. During transportation of platelet concentrates, nowadays over long distances where they are held without controlled agitation, platelets may tolerate a certain period without agitation. However, evidence is accumulating that during the time without agitation, local hypoxia surrounding the platelets may induce irreversible harm to the platelets. Over the decades, more gas-permeable plastics have been used to manufacture platelet containers. The use of different plastics and their influence on the platelet quality both in vitro and in vivo is discussed. The improved gas-permeability has allowed the extension of platelet storage from 3 days in the early 1980s, to currently at least 7 days. In the light of new developments, particularly the introduction of pathogen reduction techniques, the use of platelet additive solutions and the availability of improved automated separators, further (renewed) research in this area is warranted.

  15. Characterization of Aerosols Containing Microcystin

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Zhou, Yue; Irvin, C. Mitch; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic blooms of cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in both freshwater and brackish water sources throughout the world. One class of cyanobacterial toxins, called microcystins, is cyclic peptides. In addition to ingestion and dermal, inhalation is a likely route of human exposure. A significant increase in reporting of minor symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms was associated with exposure to higher levels of cyanobacteria during recreational activities. Algae cells, bacteria, and waterborne toxins can be aerosolized by a bubble-bursting process with a wind-driven white-capped wave mechanism. The purposes of this study were to: evaluate sampling and analysis techniques for microcystin aerosol, produce aerosol droplets containing microcystin in the laboratory, and deploy the sampling instruments in field studies. A high-volume impactor and an IOM filter sampler were tried first in the laboratory to collect droplets containing microcystins. Samples were extracted and analyzed for microcystin using an ELISA method. The laboratory study showed that cyanotoxins in water could be transferred to air via a bubble-bursting process. The droplets containing microcystins showed a bimodal size distribution with the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 1.4 and 27.8 μm. The sampling and analysis methods were successfully used in a pilot field study to measure microcystin aerosol in situ. PMID:18463733

  16. Profiles in garbage glass containers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1997-09-01

    Glass containers are made from sand, limestone, soda ash, cullet (crushed bottles), and various additives, including those used to color brown, green, or blue bottles. Sixty percent of the glass used in the US is clear (flint) and one-fourth is brown (amber). Almost half of the green bottles are imported wind and beer bottles. Other glass products include flat glass such as windows; fiberglass insulation; and glassware. These products use different manufacturing processes and different additives than container glass. This profile covers only container glass. Glass bottles are commonly collected in curb-side programs. Losses due to breakage and the abrasiveness of glass during collection and processing offset their low collection and processing costs. Breakage solutions include installation of interior baffles or nets in the collection trucks, special glass-only truck compartments, and limiting the number of times glass is transferred after collection before final processing. Ten states require deposits on glass bottles for beer and soft drinks and related items.

  17. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions...

  18. 7 CFR 51.911 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 51.911 Section 51.911 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.911 Container. Container... of grapes in packages containing 5 pounds or less, mean the master container in which the...

  19. 27 CFR 19.581 - Authorized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorized containers. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Containers § 19.581 Authorized containers. (a) General. Proprietors shall use for any purpose of containing,...

  20. Antimicrobial hydantoin-containing polyesters.

    PubMed

    Tan, Licheng; Maji, Samarendra; Mattheis, Claudia; Zheng, Mengyao; Chen, Yiwang; Caballero-Díaz, E; Gil, Pilar Rivera; Parak, Wolfgang J; Greiner, Andreas; Agarwal, Seema

    2012-08-01

    A new N-hydantoin-containing biocompatible and enzymatically degradable polyester with antibacterial properties is presented. Different polyesters of dimethyl succinate, 1,4-butanediol, and 3-[N,N-di(β-hydroxyethyl)aminoethyl]-5,5-dimethylhydantoin in varying molar ratios are prepared via two-step melt polycondensation. The antibacterially active N-halamine form is obtained by subsequent chlorination of the polyesters with sodium hypochlorite. Chemical structures, thermal properties, and spherulitic morphologies of the copolymers are studied adopting FT-IR, NMR, TGA, DSC, WAXD, and POM. The polyesters exhibit antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The adopted synthetic approach can be transferred to other polyesters in a straightforward manner.

  1. Cobalt ion-containing epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Varying concentrations of an organometallic cobalt complex were added to an epoxy system currently used by the aerospace industry as a composite matrix resin. Methods for combining cobalt (III) acetylacetonate with a tetraglycidyl 4,4 prime - diaminodiphenylmethane-based epoxy were investigated. The effects of increasing cobalt ion concentration on the epoxy cure were demonstrated by epoxy gel times and differential scanning calorimetry cure exotherms. Analysis on cured cobalt-containing epoxy castings included determination of glass transition temperatures by thermomechanical analysis, thermooxidative stabilities by thermogravimetric analysis, and densities in a density gradient column. Flexural strength and stiffness were also measured on the neat resin castings.

  2. Bilateral Inguinal Hernias Containing Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Basrur, Gurudutt Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal hernias are rare in females. The authors report a case of bilateral inguinal hernias in a 10-year-old female. On exploration, the patient was found to be having a sliding hernia containing incarcerated ovary as contents on both sides. Peroperatively the contents were reduced, the sac was transfixed at its base and the redundant sac was excised. The repair of this form of hernias is more difficult because of adhesions between the contents and the wall of the sac and risk of damage during dissection. A description of this clinical presentation in the pre operative assessment and operative management are discussed in this report. PMID:25918632

  3. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOEpatents

    Frost, C.B.

    1984-05-18

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 A. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  4. Split ring containment attachment device

    DOEpatents

    Sammel, Alfred G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device 10 for operatively connecting a glovebag 200 to plastic sheeting 100 covering hazardous material. The device 10 includes an inner split ring member 20 connected on one end 22 to a middle ring member 30 wherein the free end 21 of the split ring member 20 is inserted through a slit 101 in the plastic sheeting 100 to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting 100. A collar potion 41 having an outer ring portion 42 is provided with fastening means 51 for securing the device 10 together wherein the glovebag 200 is operatively connected to the collar portion 41.

  5. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  6. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Charles B.

    1985-01-01

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 .ANG.. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  7. Metal ion-containing epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    A variety of metallic and organometallic complexes to be used as potential additives for an epoxy used by the aerospace industry as a composite matrix resin were investigated. A total of 9 complexes were screened for compatibility and for their ability to accelerate or inhibit the cure of a highly crosslinkable epoxy resin. Methods for combining the metallic complexes with the resin were investigated, gel times recorded, and cure exotherms studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Glass transition temperatures of cured metal ion containing epoxy castings were determined by thermomechanical analysis. Thermal stabilities of the castings were determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Mechanical strength and stiffness of these doped epoxies were also measured.

  8. [Isoflavone-containing dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Leane; Soukup, Sebastian T; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Vollmer, Günter; Kulling, Sabine E

    2017-03-01

    Isoflavones (IFs) from soy and other legumes have weak estrogenic properties. Isolated IFs are available as dietary supplements and advertised to alleviate symptoms of menopause. The present chapter provides an overview of the occurrence, the chemical structure of IFs and their metabolites, the market situation and reviews the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of IF-containing dietary supplements.The biological effectiveness of IFs is attributable to the activation of the estrogen receptor (ER). Studies on the influence of IFs on endogenous estrogen levels in women show inconsistent results. So far, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has rejected all submitted health claims for IFs due to insufficient scientific evidence for any of the postulated health effects. Based on the results of their recent risk assessment, the EFSA concluded that the available human studies did not support the hypothesis of adverse effects of isolated IFs on the human mammary gland, uterus or thyroid in healthy postmenopausal women. However, the assessment does not allow a general statement on the safety of IF-containing dietary supplements. Studies in animal models are often not comparable with the complex interactions in humans due to differences in the metabolism of IFs, in the developmental stage at time of consumption and in the temporarily restricted uptake of IFs during certain stages of life.

  9. Radiological containment selection, design, and specification guide

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides guidance to Tank Waste Remediation Systems personnel in determining what containment is appropriate for work activities, what containments are available, general applications of each, design criteria, and other information needed to make informed decisions concerning containment application.

  10. High Energy Flywheel Containment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Trase, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A flywheel testing facility is being constructed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility is to be used for life cycle testing of various flywheel rotors. The lifecycle testing consists of spinning a rotor from a low rpm (approx. 20,000 ) to a high rpm (approx. 60,000) and then back to the low rpm. This spin cycle will model that which the rotor will see during use. To simulate the lifetime of the rotor, the spin cycle will be performed tens of thousands of times. A typical life cycle spin test is expected to last six months. During this time the rotor will be spun through a cycle every five minutes. The test will run continuously for the six month period barring a flywheel failure. Since it is not reasonable to have the surrounding area evacuated of personnel for the duration of the testing, the flywheel facility has to be designed to withstand a flywheel rotor failure and insure that there is no danger to any personnel in the adjacent buildings or surrounding areas. In order to determine if the facility can safely contain a flywheel rotor failure an analysis of the facility in conjunction with possible flywheel failure modes was performed. This analysis is intended as a worst case evaluation of the burst liner and vacuum tank's ability to contain a failure. The test chamber consists of a cylindrical stainless steel vacuum tank, two outer steel containment rings, and a stainless steel burst liner. The stainless steel used is annealed 302, which has an ultimate strength of 620 MPa (90,000 psi). A diagram of the vacuum tank configuration is shown. The vacuum tank and air turbine will be located below ground in a pit. The tank is secured in the pit with 0.3 m (12 in.) of cement along the base and the remaining portion of the tank is surrounded by gravel up to the access ports. A 590 kg (1300 lb.) bulkhead is placed on top of the pit during operation and the complete facility is housed within a concrete structure which has 7.5 cm (3 in.) thick walls. A cutaway

  11. Boundary control of container cranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hahn; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2005-12-01

    The control objectives in this paper are to move the gantry of a container crane to its target position and to suppress the transverse vibration of the payload. The crane system is modeled as an axially moving nonlinear string, in which control inputs are applied at both ends, through the gantry and the payload. The dynamics of the moving string are derived using Hamilton's principle. The Lyapunov function method is used in deriving a boundary control law, in which the Lyapunov function candidate is introduced from the total mechanical energy of the system. The performance of the proposed control law is compared with other two control algorithms available in the literature. Experimental results are given.

  12. Metal containing polymeric functional microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric functional microspheres containing metal or metal compounds are formed by addition polymerization of a covalently bondable olefinic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate in the presence of finely divided metal or metal oxide particles, such as iron, gold, platinum or magnetite, which are embedded in the resulting microspheres. The microspheres can be covalently bonded to chemotherapeutic agents, antibodies, or other proteins providing a means for labeling or separating labeled cells. Labeled cells or microspheres can be concentrated at a specific body location such as in the vicinity of a malignant tumor by applying a magnetic field to the location and then introducing the magnetically attractable microspheres or cells into the circulatory system of the subject. Labeled cells can be separated from a cell mixture by applying a predetermined magnetic field to a tube in which the mixture is flowing. After collection of the labeled cells, the magnetic field is discontinued and the labeled sub-cell population recovered.

  13. Response of Robust Munitions to Secondary Fragmentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    sympathetic reaction (SR) with the possibility of deflagration- detonation transition (DDT) or unknown stimulus - detonation transition ( XDT ). SR is...at 600 ft/s. Although detonation was only predicted to occur at 1200 ft/s, it could take place upon case cracking due to DDT or XDT transition...Malvar Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center Port Hueneme, CA 93043 ABSTRACT Sympathetic detonation (SD) criteria is being developed for the design

  14. Bioremediation of munitions-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tuomi, E.; Coover, M.; Stroo, H.

    1994-12-31

    Military installations nationwide are required to cleanup soils contaminated with ordnance compounds, such as 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocine (HMX), and 1,3,5-2,4,2-triazine (RDX), introduced into the environment during the manufacture, use, storage, and disposal of explosives. Numerous laboratory and field studies have confirmed the effectiveness of aerobic biological treatment (composting) for remediation of soils contaminated with these and related nitroaromatics. Composting involves the incubation of contaminated soils with organic amendments under thermophilic conditions (i.e., temperatures between 40 and 70 C). Recently, the remediation of soils contaminated with nitroaromatics has also been demonstrated under anaerobic treatment conditions in bench- and field-scale studies. These studies have involved the incubation of soils in closed reactors or flooded soil cells with obligate anaerobic bacteria. Presented in this paper are the results of parallel bench-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatability studies carried out to aid in the selection of a treatment remedy for nitroaromatic contaminated soils. Bench-scale composting reactors were established by adding organic substrates to each soil at a 70% loading (on a volume basis). To investigate the anaerobic treatment of ordnance compounds, the SIMPLOT proprietary process was evaluated using a consortium of anaerobic bacteria. This process effectively remediated soil contaminated with Dinoseb, a related nitroaromatic compound, when tested in a field demonstration of the technology.

  15. Insensitive Munitions -- New Explosives on the Horizon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    DNAN ); the second was 3-nitro-1, 2, 4-tri- azol-5-one (NTO). OSI manufactures DNAN and NTO in a facility originally designed to destroy explosive...explosive ingredients, including DNAN and NTO. OSI used DNAN , NTO and other in- gredients to develop Ordnance Systems Explosive-Common Ammunition New- fill

  16. Fluidic Actuation and Control of Munition Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-31

    compute the vorticity and turbulent kinetic energy. Hot wire anemometry measurements were taken in the wake of the model, for the model with control at...constructed of strain gages. A temperature compensation algorithm, much like the temperature compensation procedure for hot - wire anemometry , is...is characterized by the PIV and hot - wire anemometry . IV.1 Actuation by a Single Jet The variation of the magnitude of the normal force coefficient

  17. Buried Underwater Munitions and Clutter Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    6 Figure 4 Map of study area and plots of interferometric bathymetry from the regions indicated by the white boxes. Bathymetry is color- coded ...Systems Command (NAVAIR), along with the Automated Warning and Response Engine ( AWARE ), which combine to form an Integrated Battlespace Visualization ...instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information

  18. Another Analytical Approach to Predicting Munition Trajectories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    000 2 0 000 2 1n 22 n 2 2n 0 1n 0 VV and0x,yxy, y gx cosV gy,tany,0y 1yg yVV2 y . (4) For convenience, two length scales are defined as 2 0 VgYy... cosV 1Y, g tanVV Y,0Y, 1 VV Yg Y2Y 0 0 00 00 2 1n 2 00 2 2n . (5) Please note that equation 5 is equivalent to equation 1 even when ( )λ = λ y

  19. Munitions Test Administrative Support Facility Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-03

    beds of eolian, fluvial, or marine sands on broad, nearly level to very steep uplands in the Lower Coastal Plain. Depth to seasonal water table is...adhesion, and aggregate stability) • Low fertility • Relatively low diversity, activity, and populations of soil organisms (bacteria, actinomycetes ...species, which have adapted well to man-made environments. Native blue jay, cardinal, American crow, and the nonnative English house sparrow and

  20. Environmental Compliant Munitions RDT&E.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    episodes with hundreds of casualties in New York City, and the Love Canal fiasco, among other events, led to an increased awareness of the problem...34 Legislation To complement RCRA and provide the means for dealing with uncontrolled or improperly managed hazardous waste sites, such as the Love Canal , the

  1. Study of Reaction Mechanism in Tracer Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    Regression Rates (Furnished by Frankford Arsenal) 35 13 Calculated Heat Fluxes and Energy Partitions 43 4 I NOMENCLATURE B = preexponential factor... anhydride disproportionates in a fast step: N2 0 3 - 2 + NO (4) so that the resulting dioxide can react with more nitrite in another fast reaction: Sr

  2. Thermal Coating for Insensitive-Munitions Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    cookoff requirements. An intumescent coating has all the properties of ordinary paint ; furthermore, this coating will not sustain combustion...20 Figure 13. Photograph of the propane burner exposure fire...during testing at the Aberdeen Test Center. The complexity of this project included paint delamination, cracking and chipping after the drop, and

  3. Cluster Munitions Civilian Protection Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2009-02-11

    02/11/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2154) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Cluster Munitions Civilian Protection Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2011-03-10

    03/10/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1561) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

  6. An Alternate View Of Munition Sensor Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayersak, J. R.

    1988-08-01

    An alternate multimode sensor fusion scheme is treated. The concept is designed to acquire and engage high value relocatable targets in a lock-on-after-launch sequence. The approach uses statistical decision concepts to determine the authority to be assigned to each mode in the acquisition sequence voting and decision process. Statistical target classification and recognition in the engagement sequence is accomplished through variable length feature vectors set by adaptive logics. The approach uses multiple decision for acquisition and classification, in the number of spaces selected, is adaptively weighted and adjusted. The scheme uses type of climate -- arctic, temperate, desert, and equatorial -- diurnal effects --- time of day -- type of background, type of countermeasures present -- signature suppresssion or obscuration, false target decoy or electronic warfare -- and other factors to make these selections. The approach is discussed in simple terms. Voids and deficiencies in the statistical data base used to train such algorithms is discussed. The approach is being developed to engage deep battle targets such as surface-to-surface missile systems, air defense units and self-propelled artillery.

  7. Defining the next generation munitions handler

    SciTech Connect

    Cassiday, B.K.; Koury, G.J.; Pin, F.G.

    1995-07-01

    RHIC 8 cm aperture dipole magnets and quadrupole cold masses are being built for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Northrop-Grumman Corporation at a production rate of one dipole magnet and two quadrupole cold masses per day. This work was preceded by a lengthy Technology Transfer effort which is described elsewhere. This paper describes the tooling which is being used for the construction effort, the production operations at each workstation, and also the use of trend plots of critical construction parameters as a tool for monitoring performance in production. A report on the improvements to production labor since the start of the programs is also provided. The magnet and cold mass designs, and magnetic test results are described in more detail in a separate paper.

  8. Underwater Munitions Expert System: Preliminary Design Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-21

    water and...Velocity  Example     3.2. Input  Nodes:  Geologic  Setting       3.2.1. Sediment  characterization       3.2.2. Water ...Depth           3.3. Input  Nodes:  Wave  Forcing     3.3.1. Shallow   Water  Wave  Transformation    

  9. Large panel design for containment air baffle

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel.

  10. Large panel design for containment air baffle

    DOEpatents

    Orr, R.S.

    1992-12-08

    The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel. 9 figs.

  11. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26...

  12. 7 CFR 987.48 - Container regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container regulation. 987.48 Section 987.48... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Container Regulation § 987.48 Container regulation. Whenever the Committee deems it advisable to establish a container regulation for any variety...

  13. 21 CFR 100.100 - Misleading containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Misleading containers. 100.100 Section 100.100... containers. In accordance with section 403(d) of the act, a food shall be deemed to be misbranded if its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading. (a) A container that does not allow...

  14. 46 CFR 160.023-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.023-6 Section 160.023-6 Shipping COAST... Container. (a) General. The container for storing the signals on lifeboats and liferafts is not required to be of a special design or be approved by the Coast Guard. The container must meet the requirements...

  15. 7 CFR 58.923 - Filling containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.923 Section 58.923 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.923 Filling containers. (a) The filling of small containers with product shall be done in a sanitary manner. The containers shall not contaminate or detract from the quality of the product in any...

  16. 46 CFR 160.036-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.036-6 Section 160.036-6 Shipping COAST... § 160.036-6 Container. (a) General. The container for storing the signals on lifeboats and liferafts is not required to be of a special design or be approved by the Coast Guard. The container must meet...

  17. 7 CFR 58.729 - Forming containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forming containers. 58.729 Section 58.729 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.729 Forming containers. Containers either lined or unlined shall be assembled and stored in a sanitary manner to prevent contamination. The handling of containers by filler crews should be done...

  18. 46 CFR 160.026-3 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.026-3 Section 160.026-3 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Water, Emergency Drinking (In Hermetically Sealed Containers), for Merchant Vessels § 160.026-3 Container. (a) General. The emergency drinking water container...

  19. 7 CFR 201.42 - Small containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small containers. 201.42 Section 201.42 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.42 Small containers. In sampling seed in small containers that it is not practical to sample as required in § 201.41, a portion of one unopened container...

  20. 21 CFR 1230.47 - Rejected containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rejected containers. 1230.47 Section 1230.47 Food... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.47 Rejected containers. (a) In all cases where the containers... notification to the importer that the containers must be exported under customs supervision within 3...

  1. 76 FR 46805 - Notice of Utah Adoption by Reference of the Pesticide Container Containment Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Utah Adoption by Reference of the Pesticide Container Containment Rule AGENCY... the State of Utah's adoption by reference of the federal Pesticide Container Containment (PCC)...

  2. Economic alternatives for containment barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, P.J.; Jasperse, B.H.; Fisher, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Fixation, barriers, and containment of existing landfills and other disposal areas are often performed by insitu auger type soil mixing and jet grouting. Cement or other chemical reagents are mixed with soil to form both vertical and horizontal barriers. Immobilization of contaminants can be economically achieved by mixing soil and the contaminants with reagents that solidify or stabilize the contaminated area. Developed in Japan, and relatively new to the United States, the first large scale application was for a vertical barrier at the Jackson Lake Dam project in 1986. This technology has grown in both the civil and environmental field since. The paper describes current United States practice for Deep Soil Mixing (over 12 meters in depth), and Shallow Soil Mixing for vertical barriers and stabilization/solidification, and Jet Grouting for horizontal and vertical barriers. Creating very low permeability barriers at depth with minimal surface return often makes these techniques economical when compared to slurry trenches. The paper will discuss equipment, materials, soil and strength parameters, and quality control.

  3. Generalized waste package containment model

    SciTech Connect

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.

    1985-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a performance assessment strategy to demonstrate compliance with standards and technical requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in geologic repositories. One aspect of this strategy is the development of a unified performance model of the entire geologic repository system. Details of a generalized waste package containment (WPC) model and its relationship with other components of an overall repository model are presented in this paper. The WPC model provides stochastically determined estimates of the distributions of times-to-failure of the barriers of a waste package by various corrosion mechanisms and degradation processes. The model consists of a series of modules which employ various combinations of stochastic (probabilistic) and mechanistic process models, and which are individually designed to reflect the current state of knowledge. The WPC model is designed not only to take account of various site-specific conditions and processes, but also to deal with a wide range of site, repository, and waste package configurations. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Synthesizing topological structures containing RNA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Shao, Yaming; Chen, Gang; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching; Piccirilli, Joseph A; Weizmann, Yossi

    2017-03-31

    Though knotting and entanglement have been observed in DNA and proteins, their existence in RNA remains an enigma. Synthetic RNA topological structures are significant for understanding the physical and biological properties pertaining to RNA topology, and these properties in turn could facilitate identifying naturally occurring topologically nontrivial RNA molecules. Here we show that topological structures containing single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) free of strong base pairing interactions can be created either by configuring RNA-DNA hybrid four-way junctions or by template-directed synthesis with a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) topological structure. By using a constructed ssRNA knot as a highly sensitive topological probe, we find that Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I has low RNA topoisomerase activity and that the R173A point mutation abolishes the unknotting activity for ssRNA, but not for ssDNA. Furthermore, we discover the topological inhibition of reverse transcription (RT) and obtain different RT-PCR patterns for an ssRNA knot and circle of the same sequence.

  5. Contained radiological analytical chemistry module

    DOEpatents

    Barney, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A system which provides analytical determination of a plurality of water chemistry parameters with respect to water samples subject to radiological contamination. The system includes a water sample analyzer disposed within a containment and comprising a sampling section for providing predetermined volumes of samples for analysis; a flow control section for controlling the flow through the system; and a gas analysis section for analyzing samples provided by the sampling system. The sampling section includes a controllable multiple port valve for, in one position, metering out sample of a predetermined volume and for, in a second position, delivering the material sample for analysis. The flow control section includes a regulator valve for reducing the pressure in a portion of the system to provide a low pressure region, and measurement devices located in the low pressure region for measuring sample parameters such as pH and conductivity, at low pressure. The gas analysis section which is of independent utility provides for isolating a small water sample and extracting the dissolved gases therefrom into a small expansion volume wherein the gas pressure and thermoconductivity of the extracted gas are measured.

  6. Contained radiological analytical chemistry module

    DOEpatents

    Barney, David M.

    1989-01-01

    A system which provides analytical determination of a plurality of water chemistry parameters with respect to water samples subject to radiological contamination. The system includes a water sample analyzer disposed within a containment and comprising a sampling section for providing predetermined volumes of samples for analysis; a flow control section for controlling the flow through the system; and a gas analysis section for analyzing samples provided by the sampling system. The sampling section includes a controllable multiple port valve for, in one position, metering out sample of a predetermined volume and for, in a second position, delivering the material sample for analysis. The flow control section includes a regulator valve for reducing the pressure in a portion of the system to provide a low pressure region, and measurement devices located in the low pressure region for measuring sample parameters such as pH and conductivity, at low pressure. The gas analysis section which is of independent utility provides for isolating a small water sample and extracting the dissolved gases therefrom into a small expansion volume wherein the gas pressure and thermoconductivity of the extracted gas are measured.

  7. Heteroatom-Containing Porphyrin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tamal; Shetti, Vijayendra S; Sharma, Ritambhara; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli

    2017-02-22

    The heteroatom-containing porphyrin analogues or core-modified porphyrins that resulted from the replacement of one or two pyrrole rings with other five-membered heterocycles such as furan, thiophene, selenophene, tellurophene, indene, phosphole, and silole are highly promising macrocycles and exhibit quite different physicochemical properties compared to regular azaporphyrins. The properties of heteroporphyrins depend on the nature and number of different heterocycle(s) present in place of pyrrole ring(s). The heteroporphyrins provide unique and unprecedented coordination environments for metals. Unlike regular porphyrins, the monoheteroporphyrins are known to stabilize metals in unusual oxidation states such as Cu and Ni in +1 oxidation states. The diheteroporphyrins, which are neutral macrocycles without ionizable protons, also showed interesting coordination chemistry. Thus, significant progress has been made in last few decades on core-modified porphyrins in terms of their synthesis, their use in building multiporphyrin arrays for light-harvesting applications, their use as ligands to form interesting metal complexes, and also their use for several other studies. The synthetic methods available in the literature allow one to prepare mono- and diheteroporphyrins and their functionalized derivatives, which were used extensively to prepare several covalent and noncovalent heteroporphyrin-based multiporphyrin arrays. The methods are also developed to synthesize different hetero analogues of porphyrin derivatives such as heterocorroles, heterochlorins, heterocarbaporphyrinoids, heteroatom-substituted confused porphyrins, and so on. This Review summarizes the key developments that have occurred in heteroporphyrin chemistry over the last four decades.

  8. 75 FR 26268 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Permit To Transfer Containers to a Container Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Containers to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... concerning the: Permit to Transfer Containers to a Container Station. This request for comment is being made... Containers to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0049. Form Number: None. Abstract: This...

  9. Characterization and mobility of arsenic and heavy metals in soils polluted by the destruction of arsenic-containing shells from the Great War.

    PubMed

    Thouin, Hugues; Le Forestier, Lydie; Gautret, Pascale; Hube, Daniel; Laperche, Valérie; Dupraz, Sebastien; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne

    2016-04-15

    Destruction of chemical munitions from World War I has caused extensive local top soil contamination by arsenic and heavy metals. The biogeochemical behavior of toxic elements is poorly documented in this type of environment. Four soils were sampled presenting different levels of contamination. The range of As concentrations in the samples was 1937-72,820mg/kg. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Pb reached 90,190mg/kg, 9113mg/kg and 5777mg/kg, respectively. The high clay content of the subsoil and large amounts of charcoal from the use of firewood during the burning process constitute an ample reservoir of metals and As-binding materials. However, SEM-EDS observations showed different forms of association for metals and As. In metal-rich grains, several phases were identified: crystalline phases, where arsenate secondary minerals were detected, and an amorphous phase rich in Fe, Zn, Cu, and As. The secondary arsenate minerals, identified by XRD, were adamite and olivenite (zinc and copper arsenates, respectively) and two pharmacosiderites. The amorphous material was the principal carrier of As and metals in the central part of the site. This singular mineral assemblage probably resulted from the heat treatment of arsenic-containing shells. Microbial characterization included total cell counts, respiration, and determination of As(III)-oxidizing activities. Results showed the presence of microorganisms actively contributing to metabolism of carbon and arsenic, even in the most polluted soil, thereby influencing the fate of bioavailable As on the site. However, the mobility of As correlated mainly with the availability of iron sinks.

  10. Biopolymers Containing Unnatural Building Blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-06-30

    Although the main chain structure of polymers has a profound effect on their materials properties, the side groups can also have dramatic effects on their properties including conductivity, liquid crystallinity, hydrophobicity, elasticity and biodegradability. Unfortunately control over the side chain structure of polymers remains a challenge – it is difficult to control the sequence of chain elongation when mixtures of monomers are polymerized, and postpolymerization side chain modification is made difficult by polymer effects on side chain reactivity. In contrast, the mRNA templated synthesis of polypeptides on the ribosome affords absolute control over the primary sequence of the twenty amino acid monomers. Moreover, the length of the biopolymer is precisely controlled as are sites of crosslinking. However, whereas synthetic polymers can be synthesized from monomers with a wide range of chemically defined structures, ribosomal biosynthesis is largely limited to the 20 canonical amino acids. For many applications in material sciences, additional building blocks would be desirable, for example, amino acids containing metallocene, photoactive, and halogenated side chains. To overcome this natural constraint we have developed a method that allows unnatural amino acids, beyond the common twenty, to be genetically encoded in response to nonsense or frameshift codons in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells with high fidelity and good yields. Here we have developed methods that allow identical or distinct noncanonical amino acids to be incorporated at multiple sites in a polypeptide chain, potentially leading to a new class of templated biopolymers. We have also developed improved methods for genetically encoding unnatural amino acids. In addition, we have genetically encoded new amino acids with novel physical and chemical properties that allow selective modification of proteins with synthetic agents. Finally, we have evolved new metal-ion binding sites in proteins

  11. IP-1 Certification of Cargo Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Hagler, Lisle

    2010-10-05

    The purpose and scope of this engineering note is to demonstrate that the structural design of the cargo container complies with the IP-1 container requirements of 49 CFR 173.410 as required by CFR 173.411.

  12. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    DOEpatents

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  13. 46 CFR 160.037-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-6 Container. (a....021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “Hand Orange Smoke...

  14. 46 CFR 160.037-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-6 Container. (a....021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “Hand Orange Smoke...

  15. 46 CFR 160.037-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-6 Container. (a....021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “Hand Orange Smoke...

  16. 46 CFR 160.037-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-6 Container. (a....021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “Hand Orange Smoke...

  17. 46 CFR 160.037-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-6 Container. (a....021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “Hand Orange Smoke...

  18. Remote possibly hazardous content container sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Volz, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to an apparatus capable of sampling enclosed containers, where the contents of the container is unknown. The invention includes a compressed air device capable of supplying air pressure, device for controlling the amount of air pressure applied, a pneumatic valve, a sampling device having a hollow, sampling insertion needle suspended therein and device to communicate fluid flow between the container and a containment vessel, pump or direct reading instrument.

  19. 7 CFR 58.339 - Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.339 Containers. (a) Containers used for the packaging of butter and related products shall be..., parchment liners for bulk butter packages shall be completely immersed in a boiling salt solution in a... contamination of the liner prior to filling. (c) Filling bulk butter containers. The lined butter...

  20. 7 CFR 58.339 - Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.339 Containers. (a) Containers used for the packaging of butter and related products shall be..., parchment liners for bulk butter packages shall be completely immersed in a boiling salt solution in a... contamination of the liner prior to filling. (c) Filling bulk butter containers. The lined butter...

  1. Vacuum-Gauge Connection For Shipping Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    External connector enables measurement of vacuum in stored part. Remote-readout connector added to shipping container and connected to thermo-couple vacuum gauge in vacuum-insulated cryogenic line packed in container. Enables monitoring of condition of vacuum without opening container.

  2. 49 CFR 178.318-2 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-2 Container. (a) Every container for detonators and..., phenolresinous or other resinous material, or other nonmetallic, nonsparking material, except that metal...

  3. 49 CFR 178.318-2 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-2 Container. (a) Every container for detonators and..., phenolresinous or other resinous material, or other nonmetallic, nonsparking material, except that metal...

  4. 49 CFR 178.318-2 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-2 Container. (a) Every container for detonators and..., phenolresinous or other resinous material, or other nonmetallic, nonsparking material, except that metal...

  5. 49 CFR 178.318-2 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.318-2 Container. (a) Every container for detonators and..., phenolresinous or other resinous material, or other nonmetallic, nonsparking material, except that metal...

  6. 27 CFR 30.44 - Weighing containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fractional part of a gallon equivalent to 1 pound, to obtain the weight of the spirits in pounds and... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Procedures Determination of Quantity by Weight § 30.44 Weighing containers. (a) Weighing containers of more than 10 wine gallons. The weight of containers...

  7. 27 CFR 30.44 - Weighing containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fractional part of a gallon equivalent to 1 pound, to obtain the weight of the spirits in pounds and... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Procedures Determination of Quantity by Weight § 30.44 Weighing containers. (a) Weighing containers of more than 10 wine gallons. The weight of containers...

  8. 7 CFR 916.14 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 916.14 Section 916.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.14 Container. Container means a box, bag, crate, lug, basket,...

  9. 7 CFR 922.17 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 922.17 Section 922.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.17 Container. Container means a box,...

  10. 40 CFR 63.688 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Containers. 63.688 Section... Standards: Containers. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air emissions from containers for which § 63.683(b)(1)(i) of this subpart references the use of this section for such...

  11. 7 CFR 966.13 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 966.13 Section 966.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.13 Container. Container means a box, bag, crate, hamper,...

  12. 7 CFR 948.14 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 948.14 Section 948.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.14 Container. Container means a sack, bag, crate,...

  13. 7 CFR 959.13 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 959.13 Section 959.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.13 Container. Container means a box, bag, crate, hamper,...

  14. 7 CFR 920.14 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 920.14 Section 920.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 920.14 Container. Container means a box, bag, crate, lug, basket, carton, package, or any...

  15. 7 CFR 956.9 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 956.9 Section 956.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.9 Container. Container means a...

  16. 7 CFR 946.18 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 946.18 Section 946.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.18 Container. Container means a sack, box, bag,...

  17. 7 CFR 924.17 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 924.17 Section 924.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Container. Container means a box, bag, crate, lug, basket, carton, package, or any other type of...

  18. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking containers. 160.32 Section 160.32 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have...

  19. 40 CFR 264.1086 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Containers. 264.1086... Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 264.1086 Standards: Containers. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air pollutant emissions...

  20. 7 CFR 956.162 - Container markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container markings. 956.162 Section 956.162... WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.162 Container markings. Effective April 15, 1997, no handler shall ship any container of Walla Walla Sweet Onions...

  1. 7 CFR 923.17 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 923.17 Section 923.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.17 Container. Container means a box,...

  2. 27 CFR 28.94 - Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers. 28.94 Section... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.94 Containers. Distilled spirits authorized to be withdrawn without payment... be withdrawn from such establishment in such containers as may be authorized in part 19 of...

  3. 27 CFR 27.121 - Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers. 27.121 Section... Spirits In Bulk § 27.121 Containers. Imported distilled spirits may be bottled in either domestic or imported containers conforming to the provisions of subpart N of this part. (72 Stat. 1374; 26 U.S.C. 5301)...

  4. 27 CFR 20.145 - Encased containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Encased containers. 20.145... Denatured Alcohol § 20.145 Encased containers. Completely denatured alcohol may be packaged by distributors in unlabeled containers which are completely encased in wood, fiberboard, or similar material so...

  5. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars...

  6. 46 CFR 160.028-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.028-6 Section 160.028-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Container. (a) General. Containers for the stowage of signal pistols and pistol projected parachute...

  7. 7 CFR 958.17 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 958.17 Section 958.17 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.17 Container. Container means a sack, box, bag, crate, hamper, basket, carton, package, or any other type of...

  8. 7 CFR 58.150 - Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers. 58.150 Section 58.150 Agriculture... Identification § 58.150 Containers. (a) The size, style, and type of packaging used for dairy products shall be commercially acceptable containers and packaging materials which will satisfactorily cover and protect...

  9. 7 CFR 906.12 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 906.12 Section 906.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.12 Container. Container...

  10. 7 CFR 925.13 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 925.13 Section 925.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.13 Container. Container means any lug, box, bag, crate, carton,...

  11. 27 CFR 20.177 - Encased containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Encased containers. 20.177... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Dealers § 20.177 Encased containers. (a) A dealer may package specially denatured spirits in unlabeled containers which are completely encased in...

  12. 40 CFR 265.1087 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Containers. 265.1087... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1087 Standards: Containers. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air pollutant...

  13. 7 CFR 945.16 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 945.16 Section 945.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Container. Container means a sack, box, bag, crate, hamper, basket, carton, package, barrel, or any...

  14. 7 CFR 917.12 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 917.12 Section 917.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.12 Container. Container means a box, bag, crate,...

  15. 7 CFR 51.911 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Container. 51.911 Section 51.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Definitions § 51.911 Container. Container as used in these standards shall, for the purposes of...

  16. 7 CFR 51.911 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Container. 51.911 Section 51.911 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Definitions § 51.911 Container. Container as used in these standards shall, for the purposes of...

  17. 46 CFR 160.021-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.021-6 Container. (a) General. Containers for stowage of hand red flare distress signals in lifeboats and life rafts on merchant... corrosion-resistant to salt water and spray. The type container illustrated by Figure Number 160.021-6(a)...

  18. 46 CFR 160.021-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.021-6 Container. (a) General. Containers for stowage of hand red flare distress signals in lifeboats and life rafts on merchant... corrosion-resistant to salt water and spray. The type container illustrated by Figure Number 160.021-6(a)...

  19. 46 CFR 160.021-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.021-6 Container. (a) General. Containers for stowage of hand red flare distress signals in lifeboats and life rafts on merchant... corrosion-resistant to salt water and spray. The type container illustrated by Figure Number 160.021-6(a)...

  20. Sliding indirect hernia containing both ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Carol L

    2005-09-01

    Although sliding indirect inguinal hernias containing the ipsilateral ovary and fallopian tube are not uncommon in infant girls, sliding hernias containing both ovaries are rare. This report describes a large indirect inguinal hernia in a 1-year-old infant girl that contained the left uterine fundus, left bladder ear, as well as both ovaries and fallopian tubes.