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Sample records for muon identification algorithm

  1. Muon identification with Muon Telescope Detector at the STAR experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T. C.; Ma, R.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Ruan, L.; Todoroki, T.; Xu, Z.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Zha, W.

    2016-07-15

    The Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) is a newly installed detector in the STAR experiment. It provides an excellent opportunity to study heavy quarkonium physics using the dimuon channel in heavy ion collisions. In this paper, we report the muon identification performance for the MTD using proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 500 GeV with various methods. Here, the result using the Likelihood Ratio method shows that the muon identification efficiency can reach up to ~ 90% for muons with transverse momenta greater than 3 GeV/c and the significance of the J/ψ signal is improved by a factor of 2 compared to using the basic selection.

  2. Muon identification with Muon Telescope Detector at the STAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T. C.; Ma, R.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Ruan, L.; Todoroki, T.; Xu, Z.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Zha, W.

    2016-10-01

    The Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) is a newly installed detector in the STAR experiment. It provides an excellent opportunity to study heavy quarkonium physics using the dimuon channel in heavy ion collisions. In this paper, we report the muon identification performance for the MTD using proton-proton collisions at √{ s }=500 GeV with various methods. The result using the Likelihood Ratio method shows that the muon identification efficiency can reach up to ∼90% for muons with transverse momenta greater than 3 GeV/c and the significance of the J / ψ signal is improved by a factor of 2 compared to using the basic selection.

  3. Muon identification with Muon Telescope Detector at the STAR experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, T. C.; Ma, R.; Huang, B.; ...

    2016-07-15

    The Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) is a newly installed detector in the STAR experiment. It provides an excellent opportunity to study heavy quarkonium physics using the dimuon channel in heavy ion collisions. In this paper, we report the muon identification performance for the MTD using proton-proton collisions atmore » $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 500 GeV with various methods. Here, the result using the Likelihood Ratio method shows that the muon identification efficiency can reach up to ~ 90% for muons with transverse momenta greater than 3 GeV/c and the significance of the J/ψ signal is improved by a factor of 2 compared to using the basic selection.« less

  4. Preliminary results from IMB3 muon/electron identification tests at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Bratton, C.B.; Breault, J.; Conner, Z.

    1995-09-01

    A test has been conducted at KEK, Japan using beams of electrons and muons in a 1 kiloton water Cherenkov detector instrumented with IMB3 phototubes and electronics to evaluate IMB`s algorithms for identifying electrons and muons. This identification is important because the IMB3 detector`s results on the atmospheric neutrino anomaly depend on the proper identification of the electrons and muons produced in neutrino charged-current interactions. Preliminary results are presented.

  5. ATLAS Muon Identification and Reconstruction Performance in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsten, Laura; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This talk aims to describe the ATLAS muon identification and reconstruction performance in 2016. Reconstruction and isolation efficiencies as well as the transverse momentum scale and transverse momentum resolution are measured from LHC proton-proton collision data recorded by ATLAS in 2016 at a center-of-mass-energy of 13 TeV. The measurements are performed by studying the abundantly produced and well known J / Ψ and Z-boson resonances decaying into two oppositely-charged muons. Muon momenta ranging from 5 to a few hundred GeV and covering the pseudo-rapidity range | η | < 2 . 5 are found to be in good agreement with tuned detector simulations. Furthermore, the performance of the detector for data collected in 2016 is compared to the performance for data collected during 2015.

  6. Improvements to the LC Muon tracking and identification software

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Fisk, G.; Para, A.

    2005-03-01

    This note summarizes the evolution of the Muon-ID package originally written by R. Markeloff at NIU. The original method used a helical swimmer to extrapolate the tracks from the interaction point and to collect hits in all sub-detectors: the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and muon detector. The package was modified to replace the swimmer by a stepper which does account for both the effects of the magnetic field and for the losses by ionization in the material encountered by the particle. The modified package shows a substantial improvement in the efficiency of muon identification. Further improvement should be reached by accounting for stochastic processes via the utilization of a Kalman filter.

  7. Improved autonomous star identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Li-Yan; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Jing-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The log-polar transform (LPT) is introduced into the star identification because of its rotation invariance. An improved autonomous star identification algorithm is proposed in this paper to avoid the circular shift of the feature vector and to reduce the time consumed in the star identification algorithm using LPT. In the proposed algorithm, the star pattern of the same navigation star remains unchanged when the stellar image is rotated, which makes it able to reduce the star identification time. The logarithmic values of the plane distances between the navigation and its neighbor stars are adopted to structure the feature vector of the navigation star, which enhances the robustness of star identification. In addition, some efforts are made to make it able to find the identification result with fewer comparisons, instead of searching the whole feature database. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition rate and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the LPT algorithm and the modified grid algorithm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014_CXJJ-DH_12), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. JB141303 and 201413B), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), and the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant. No CXY1350(4)).

  8. A binned clustering algorithm to detect high-Z material using cosmic muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J. J.; Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Morris, P. A. W.; Steer, C.; Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Stapleton, M.

    2013-10-01

    We present a novel approach to the detection of special nuclear material using cosmic rays. Muon Scattering Tomography (MST) is a method for using cosmic muons to scan cargo containers and vehicles for special nuclear material. Cosmic muons are abundant, highly penetrating, not harmful for organic tissue, cannot be screened against, and can easily be detected, which makes them highly suited to the use of cargo scanning. Muons undergo multiple Coulomb scattering when passing through material, and the amount of scattering is roughly proportional to the square of the atomic number Z of the material. By reconstructing incoming and outgoing tracks, we can obtain variables to identify high-Z material. In a real life application, this has to happen on a timescale of 1 min and thus with small numbers of muons. We have built a detector system using resistive plate chambers (RPCs): 12 layers of RPCs allow for the readout of 6 x and 6 y positions, by which we can reconstruct incoming and outgoing tracks. In this work we detail the performance of an algorithm by which we separate high-Z targets from low-Z background, both for real data from our prototype setup and for MC simulation of a cargo container-sized setup. (c) British Crown Owned Copyright 2013/AWE

  9. A fast algorithm for muon track reconstruction and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spiess, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-04-01

    An algorithm is presented, that provides a fast and robust reconstruction of neutrino induced upward-going muons and a discrimination of these events from downward-going atmospheric muon background in data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The algorithm consists of a hit merging and hit selection procedure followed by fitting steps for a track hypothesis and a point-like light source. It is particularly well-suited for real time applications such as online monitoring and fast triggering of optical follow-up observations for multi-messenger studies. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and various distributions are compared with that obtained in ANTARES data.

  10. An enhanced mode shape identification algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roemer, Michael J.; Mook, D. Joseph

    1989-01-01

    A mode shape identification algorithm is developed which is characterized by a low sensitivity to measurement noise and a high accuracy of mode identification. The algorithm proposed here is also capable of identifying the mode shapes of structures with significant damping. The combined results indicate that mode shape identification is much more dependent on measurement noise than identification of natural frequencies. Accurate detection of modal parameters and mode shapes is demonstrated for modes with damping ratios exceeding 15 percent.

  11. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  12. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M

    2011-06-27

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects, and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions, and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well-known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms.

  13. Muon ID - taking care of lower momenta muons

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Fisk, G.; Para, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    In the Muon package under study, the tracks are extrapolated using an algorithm which accounts for the magnetic field and the ionization (dE/dx). We improved the calculation of the field dependent term to increase the muon detection efficiency at lower momenta using a Runge-Kutta method. The muon identification and hadron separation in b-bbar jets is reported with the improved software. In the same framework, the utilization of the Kalman filter is introduced. The principle of the Kalman filter is described in some detail with the propagation matrix, with the Runge-Kutta term included, and the effect on low momenta for low momenta single muons particles is described.

  14. Algorithm and implementation of muon trigger and data transmission system for barrel-endcap overlap region of the CMS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotny, W. M.; Byszuk, A.

    2016-03-01

    The CMS experiment Level-1 trigger system is undergoing an upgrade. In the barrel-endcap transition region, it is necessary to merge data from 3 types of muon detectors—RPC, DT and CSC. The Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF) uses the novel approach to concentrate and process those data in a uniform manner to identify muons and their transversal momentum. The paper presents the algorithm and FPGA firmware implementation of the OMTF and its data transmission system in CMS. It is foreseen that the OMTF will be subject to significant changes resulting from optimization which will be done with the aid of physics simulations. Therefore, a special, high-level, parameterized HDL implementation is necessary.

  15. Dynamic hierarchical algorithm for accelerated microfossil identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Cindy M.; Joseph, Dileepan

    2015-02-01

    Marine microfossils provide a useful record of the Earth's resources and prehistory via biostratigraphy. To study Hydrocarbon reservoirs and prehistoric climate, geoscientists visually identify the species of microfossils found in core samples. Because microfossil identification is labour intensive, automation has been investigated since the 1980s. With the initial rule-based systems, users still had to examine each specimen under a microscope. While artificial neural network systems showed more promise for reducing expert labour, they also did not displace manual identification for a variety of reasons, which we aim to overcome. In our human-based computation approach, the most difficult step, namely taxon identification is outsourced via a frontend website to human volunteers. A backend algorithm, called dynamic hierarchical identification, uses unsupervised, supervised, and dynamic learning to accelerate microfossil identification. Unsupervised learning clusters specimens so that volunteers need not identify every specimen during supervised learning. Dynamic learning means interim computation outputs prioritize subsequent human inputs. Using a dataset of microfossils identified by an expert, we evaluated correct and incorrect genus and species rates versus simulated time, where each specimen identification defines a moment. The proposed algorithm accelerated microfossil identification effectively, especially compared to benchmark results obtained using a k-nearest neighbour method.

  16. Applications of an MPI Enhanced Simulated Annealing Algorithm on nuSTORM and 6D Muon Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, A.

    2015-06-01

    The nuSTORM decay ring is a compact racetrack storage ring with a circumference ~480 m using large aperture ($\\phi$ = 60 cm) magnets. The design goal of the ring is to achieve a momentum acceptance of 3.8 $\\pm$10% GeV/c and a phase space acceptance of 2000 $\\mu$m·rad. The design has many challenges because the acceptance will be affected by many nonlinearity terms with large particle emittance and/or large momentum offset. In this paper, we present the application of a meta-heuristic optimization algorithm to the sextupole correction in the ring. The algorithm is capable of finding a balanced compromise among corrections of the nonlinearity terms, and finding the largest acceptance. This technique can be applied to the design of similar storage rings that store beams with wide transverse phase space and momentum spectra. We also present the recent study on the application of this algorithm to a part of the 6D muon cooling channel. The technique and the cooling concept will be applied to design a cooling channel for the extracted muon beam at nuSTORM in the future study.

  17. Algorithm Improvement Program Nuclide Identification Algorithm Scoring Criteria And Scoring Application - DNDO.

    SciTech Connect

    Enghauser, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  18. Muon ID at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Fisk, G.; Para, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes a new way to reconstruct and identify muons with high efficiency and high pion rejection. Since muons at the ILC are often produced with or in jets, for many of the physics channels of interest [1], an efficient algorithm to deal with the identification and separation of particles within jets is important. The algorithm at the core of the method accounts for the effects of the magnetic field and for the loss of energy by charged particles due to ionization in the detector. We have chosen to develop the analysis within the setup of one of the Linear Collider Concept Detectors adopted by the US. Within b-pair production jets, particles cover a wide range in momenta; however {approx}80% of the particles have a momentum below 30 GeV[2]. Our study, focused on bbar-b jets, is preceded by a careful analysis of single energy particles between 2 and 50 GeV. As medium energy particles are a substantial component of the jets, many of the particles lose part of their energy in the calorimeters and the solenoid coil before reaching the muon detector where they may have energy below 2 GeV. To deal with this problem we have implemented a Runge-Kutta correction of the calculated trajectory to better handle these lower energy particles. The multiple scattering and other stochastic processes, more important at lower energy, is addressed by a Kalman-filter integrated into the reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm provides a unique and powerful separation of muons from pions. The 5 Tesla magnetic field from a solenoid surrounds the hadron calorimeter and allows the reconstruction and precision.

  19. Alignment of the Muon System at the CMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Ryan; Perniè, Luca; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Kamon, Teruki; Safonov, Alexei; Brown, Malachi

    2017-01-01

    The muon detectors of the CMS experiment provide fast trigger decisions, muon identifications and muon track measurements. Alignment of the muon detectors is crucial for accurate reconstruction of events with high pT muons that are present in signatures for many new physics scenarios. The muon detector's relative positions and orientations with respect to the inner silicon tracker may be precisely measured using reconstructed tracks propagating from the interaction point. This track-based alignment procedure is capable of aligning individual muon detectors to within 100 microns along sensitive modes. However, weak (insensitive) modes may not be well measured due to the system's design and cause systematic miss-measurements. In this report, we present a new track-based procedure which enables all 6 alignment parameters - 3 positions and 3 rotations for each individual muon detector. The improved algorithm allows for measurement of weak modes and considerably reduced related systematic uncertainties. We describe results of the alignment procedure obtained with 2016 data.

  20. Performance characterization of a combined material identification and screening algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Robert L.; Hargreaves, Michael D.; Gardner, Craig M.

    2013-05-01

    Portable analytical devices based on a gamut of technologies (Infrared, Raman, X-Ray Fluorescence, Mass Spectrometry, etc.) are now widely available. These tools have seen increasing adoption for field-based assessment by diverse users including military, emergency response, and law enforcement. Frequently, end-users of portable devices are non-scientists who rely on embedded software and the associated algorithms to convert collected data into actionable information. Two classes of problems commonly encountered in field applications are identification and screening. Identification algorithms are designed to scour a library of known materials and determine whether the unknown measurement is consistent with a stored response (or combination of stored responses). Such algorithms can be used to identify a material from many thousands of possible candidates. Screening algorithms evaluate whether at least a subset of features in an unknown measurement correspond to one or more specific substances of interest and are typically configured to detect from a small list potential target analytes. Thus, screening algorithms are much less broadly applicable than identification algorithms; however, they typically provide higher detection rates which makes them attractive for specific applications such as chemical warfare agent or narcotics detection. This paper will present an overview and performance characterization of a combined identification/screening algorithm that has recently been developed. It will be shown that the combined algorithm provides enhanced detection capability more typical of screening algorithms while maintaining a broad identification capability. Additionally, we will highlight how this approach can enable users to incorporate situational awareness during a response.

  1. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, H.

    2015-08-17

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  2. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Track reconstruction in the BESIII muon counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu-Tie; Liu, Kun; You, Zheng-Yun; Mao, Ya-Jun; Li, Wei-Dong; Bian, Jian-Ming; Cao, Guo-Fu; Cao, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Shen-Jian; Deng, Zi-Yan; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Gao, Yuan-Ning; Han, Lei; Han, Shao-Qing; He, Kang-Lin; He, Miao; Hu, Ji-Feng; Hu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Bin; Huang, Xing-Tao; Jia, Lu-Kui; Ji, Xiao-Bin; Li, Hai-Bo; Liu, Bei-Jiang; Liu, Chun-Xiu; Liu, Huai-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yong; Luo, Tao; Lu, Qi-Wen; Ma, Qiu-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Mao, Ze-Pu; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Ning, Fei-Peng; Ping, Rong-Gang; Qiu, Jin-Fa; Song, Wen-Bo; Sun, Sheng-Sen; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Yong-Zhao; Tian, Hao-Lai; Wang, Ji-Ke; Wang, Liang-Liang; Wen, Shuo-Pin; Wu, Ling-Hui; Wu, Zhi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Xu, Min; Yan, Jie; Yan, Liang; Yao, Jian; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Yang-Heng; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Zou, Jia-Heng

    2009-08-01

    The reconstruction algorithm for BESIII Muon Counter, MucRecAlg, is developed with the object-oriented language C++ in BESIII offline software environment. MucRecAlg consists of the following functions: to find track seeds either from extrapolation of tracks in the main drift chamber or from the fired strips in muon counter, to select fired strips associated to the candidate tracks, to fit the candidate tracks with a linear or quadratic function and to calculate other parameters of the tracks for muon identification. Monte Carlo samples are generated to check the performance of the reconstruction package, such as reconstruction efficiency, muon remaining rate and pion rejection rate, etc. The preliminary results show that the pion rejection rate is around 3%-4% while the muon remaining rate is better than 90% in 0.4-1.6 GeV/c momentum region, which meets the requirement as shown in the design report.

  3. Real-time Algorithms for Sparse Neuronal System Identification.

    PubMed

    Sheikhattar, Alireza; Babadi, Behtash

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of sparse adaptive neuronal system identification, where the goal is to estimate the sparse time-varying neuronal model parameters in an online fashion from neural spiking observations. We develop two adaptive filters based on greedy estimation techniques and regularized log-likelihood maximization. We apply the proposed algorithms to simulated spiking data as well as experimentally recorded data from the ferret's primary auditory cortex during performance of auditory tasks. Our results reveal significant performance gains achieved by the proposed algorithms in terms of sparse identification and trackability, compared to existing algorithms.

  4. Seismic and acoustic signal identification algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    LADD,MARK D.; ALAM,M. KATHLEEN; SLEEFE,GERARD E.; GALLEGOS,DANIEL E.

    2000-04-03

    This paper will describe an algorithm for detecting and classifying seismic and acoustic signals for unattended ground sensors. The algorithm must be computationally efficient and continuously process a data stream in order to establish whether or not a desired signal has changed state (turned-on or off). The paper will focus on describing a Fourier based technique that compares the running power spectral density estimate of the data to a predetermined signature in order to determine if the desired signal has changed state. How to establish the signature and the detection thresholds will be discussed as well as the theoretical statistics of the algorithm for the Gaussian noise case with results from simulated data. Actual seismic data results will also be discussed along with techniques used to reduce false alarms due to the inherent nonstationary noise environments found with actual data.

  5. [Research on target identification by multi-spectrum separation algorithm].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-xia; Zhuang, Yi-qi

    2010-10-01

    In view of problems such as field poor shock resistance, low target identification rate, low real-time and so on in mechanical scanning optical system, a non-scanning target identification remote sensing system was designed using the multi-spectrum separation algorithm. Using the non-scanning M-Z interferometer to provide a space optical path difference, interference fringes were collected by infrared CCD detector. After CUP processing the system obtains the mix spectrum information, achieves target identification by the coordinate system combined with visible light video image, and the coordinate system, which the union visible light video image provides, achieves the target discrimination The genetic algorithm was used to optimize characteristic wavelengths, and then by the rough collection classification the unknown target spectrum's attribute was extracted. Taking first 1/3 confidence level of the corresponding attribute the testing target type was deduced, and compared with the traditional algorithm the amount of computing was reduced by about nine times. Experiment was done under different weather and different background conditions, so detection limits and identification probabilities of the system under different conditions were obtained. The experimental data showed that the genetic algorithm and rough set classification combined with multi-spectral separation algorithm can quickly and efficiently identify the unknown object types.

  6. Muon colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, R. B.; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.; Tollestrup, A.; Baltz, A. J.; Chen, P.; Cheng, W.-H.; Cho, Y.; Courant, E.; Fernow, R. C.; Gallardo, J. C.; Garren, A.; Green, M.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mills, F.; Mokhov, N.; Morgan, G.; Neuffer, D.; Noble, R.; Norem, J.; Popovic, M.; Schachinger, L.; Silvestrov, G.; Summers, D.; Stumer, I.; Syphers, M.; Torun, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Turner, W.; Van Ginneken, A.; Vsevolozhskaya, T.; Weggel, R.; Willen, E.; Winn, D.; Wurtele, J.

    1996-05-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity μ+μ- colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed.

  7. Muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity {micro}{sup +}{micro}{sup {minus}}colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed.

  8. Identification of Secret Algorithms Using Oracle Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-28

    very little information. Since it is likely for steganography to be used on very large multimedia files, e.g. audio and video, there are substantial...algorithms, the PI developed methods to better detect and estimate +/-K embedding, a common form of steganography . This research project was undertaken at...exist at all. The use of an unusually artificial carrier is suspicious on its face, negating the purpose of steganography . If, however, such a

  9. A Simplified Pattern Match Algorithm for Star Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    A true pattern matching star algorithm similar in concept to the Van Bezooijen algorithm is implemented using an iterative approach. This approach allows for a more compact and simple implementation which can be easily adapted to be either an all-sky, no a priori algorithm or a follow on to a direct match algorithm to distinguish between ambiguous matches. Some simple analysis is shown to indicate the likelihood of mis-identifications. The performance of the algorithm for the all-sky, no a priori situation is detailed assuming he SKYMAP star catalog describes the true sky. The impact of errors and omissions in the SKYMAP catalog on performance are investigated. In addition, differing levels of noise in the star observations are assumed and results shown. The implications for possible implementation on-board spacecraft are discussed.

  10. ELECTRON–MUON IDENTIFICATION BY ATMOSPHERIC SHOWER AND ELECTRON BEAM IN A NEW EAS DETECTOR CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect

    Iori, M.; Denizli, H.; Yilmaz, A.; Ferrarotto, F.; Russ, J.

    2015-03-10

    We present results demonstrating the time resolution and μ/e separation capabilities of a new concept  for an EAS detector capable of measuring cosmic rays arriving with large zenith angles. This kind of detector has been designed to be part of a large area (several square kilometer) surface array designed to measure ultra high energy (10–200 PeV) τ neutrinos using the Earth-skimming technique. A criterion to identify electron-gammas is also shown and the particle identification capability is tested by measurements in coincidence with the KASKADE-GRANDE experiment in Karlsruhe, Germany.

  11. Electron-Muon Ranger: Performance in the MICE muon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. Lastly, the EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100–280 MeV/c.

  12. Electron-Muon Ranger: Performance in the MICE muon beam

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, D.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. Lastly, the EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta inmore » the range 100–280 MeV/c.« less

  13. Closed Loop System Identification with Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    High performance control design for a flexible space structure is challenging since high fidelity plant models are di.cult to obtain a priori. Uncertainty in the control design models typically require a very robust, low performance control design which must be tuned on-orbit to achieve the required performance. Closed loop system identi.cation is often required to obtain a multivariable open loop plant model based on closed-loop response data. In order to provide an accurate initial plant model to guarantee convergence for standard local optimization methods, this paper presents a global parameter optimization method using genetic algorithms. A minimal representation of the state space dynamics is employed to mitigate the non-uniqueness and over-parameterization of general state space realizations. This control-relevant system identi.cation procedure stresses the joint nature of the system identi.cation and control design problem by seeking to obtain a model that minimizes the di.erence between the predicted and actual closed-loop performance.

  14. A new algorithmic approach for fingers detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubashar Khan, Arslan; Umar, Waqas; Choudhary, Taimoor; Hussain, Fawad; Haroon Yousaf, Muhammad

    2013-03-01

    Gesture recognition is concerned with the goal of interpreting human gestures through mathematical algorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Hand gesture detection in a real time environment, where the time and memory are important issues, is a critical operation. Hand gesture recognition largely depends on the accurate detection of the fingers. This paper presents a new algorithmic approach to detect and identify fingers of human hand. The proposed algorithm does not depend upon the prior knowledge of the scene. It detects the active fingers and Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) of the inactive fingers from an already detected hand. Dynamic thresholding technique and connected component labeling scheme are employed for background elimination and hand detection respectively. Algorithm proposed a new approach for finger identification in real time environment keeping the memory and time constraint as low as possible.

  15. TADtool: visual parameter identification for TAD-calling algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Kai; Hug, Clemens B; Hernández-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Vaquerizas, Juan M

    2016-10-15

    Eukaryotic genomes are hierarchically organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). The computational identification of these domains and their associated properties critically depends on the choice of suitable parameters of TAD-calling algorithms. To reduce the element of trial-and-error in parameter selection, we have developed TADtool: an interactive plot to find robust TAD-calling parameters with immediate visual feedback. TADtool allows the direct export of TADs called with a chosen set of parameters for two of the most common TAD calling algorithms: directionality and insulation index. It can be used as an intuitive, standalone application or as a Python package for maximum flexibility.

  16. A Novel Binarization Algorithm for Ballistics Firearm Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongguang

    The identification of ballistics specimens from imaging systems is of paramount importance in criminal investigation. Binarization plays a key role in preprocess of recognizing cartridges in the ballistic imaging systems. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to get the satisfactory binary image using existing binary algorithms. In this paper, we utilize the global and local thresholds to enhance the image binarization. Importantly, we present a novel criterion for effectively detecting edges in the images. Comprehensive experiments have been conducted over sample ballistic images. The empirical results demonstrate the proposed method can provide a better solution than existing binary algorithms.

  17. Muon muon collider: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-18

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice--the authors believe--to allow them to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring which has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design.

  18. Identification of the Roessler system: algebraic approach and genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibanez, C. A.; Sanchez, J. H.; Suarez, M. S. C.; Flores, F. A.; Garrido, R. M.; Martinez, R. G.

    2005-10-01

    This article presents a method to determine the parameters of Rossler's attractor in a very approximated way, by means of observations of an available variable. It is shown that the system is observable and identifiable algebraically with respect to the chosen output. This fact allows to construct a differential parametrization of the output and its derivatives. Using this parametrization an identification scheme based on least mean squares is established and the solution is found with a genetic algorithm.

  19. Splign: algorithms for computing spliced alignments with identification of paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Kapustin, Yuri; Souvorov, Alexander; Tatusova, Tatiana; Lipman, David

    2008-01-01

    Background The computation of accurate alignments of cDNA sequences against a genome is at the foundation of modern genome annotation pipelines. Several factors such as presence of paralogs, small exons, non-consensus splice signals, sequencing errors and polymorphic sites pose recognized difficulties to existing spliced alignment algorithms. Results We describe a set of algorithms behind a tool called Splign for computing cDNA-to-Genome alignments. The algorithms include a high-performance preliminary alignment, a compartment identification based on a formally defined model of adjacent duplicated regions, and a refined sequence alignment. In a series of tests, Splign has produced more accurate results than other tools commonly used to compute spliced alignments, in a reasonable amount of time. Conclusion Splign's ability to deal with various issues complicating the spliced alignment problem makes it a helpful tool in eukaryotic genome annotation processes and alternative splicing studies. Its performance is enough to align the largest currently available pools of cDNA data such as the human EST set on a moderate-sized computing cluster in a matter of hours. The duplications identification (compartmentization) algorithm can be used independently in other areas such as the study of pseudogenes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by: Steven Salzberg, Arcady Mushegian and Andrey Mironov (nominated by Mikhail Gelfand). PMID:18495041

  20. A Frequency-Domain Substructure System Identification Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blades, Eric L.; Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A new frequency-domain system identification algorithm is presented for system identification of substructures, such as payloads to be flown aboard the Space Shuttle. In the vibration test, all interface degrees of freedom where the substructure is connected to the carrier structure are either subjected to active excitation or are supported by a test stand with the reaction forces measured. The measured frequency-response data is used to obtain a linear, viscous-damped model with all interface-degree of freedom entries included. This model can then be used to validate analytical substructure models. This procedure makes it possible to obtain not only the fixed-interface modal data associated with a Craig-Bampton substructure model, but also the data associated with constraint modes. With this proposed algorithm, multiple-boundary-condition tests are not required, and test-stand dynamics is accounted for without requiring a separate modal test or finite element modeling of the test stand. Numerical simulations are used in examining the algorithm's ability to estimate valid reduced-order structural models. The algorithm's performance when frequency-response data covering narrow and broad frequency bandwidths is used as input is explored. Its performance when noise is added to the frequency-response data and the use of different least squares solution techniques are also examined. The identified reduced-order models are also compared for accuracy with other test-analysis models and a formulation for a Craig-Bampton test-analysis model is also presented.

  1. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Brashaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drews, M.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Greis, J. R.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J. -B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Winter, M.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2016-03-01

    Here, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than $\\sim$1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$ at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  2. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Brashaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drews, M.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Greis, J. R.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Winter, M.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2016-03-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ~1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is fπ < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  3. Developing a cosmic ray muon sampling capability for muon tomography and monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Chrysikopoulou, S.; Tsoukalas, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a cosmic ray muon sampling capability using a phenomenological model that captures the main characteristics of the experimentally measured spectrum coupled with a set of statistical algorithms is developed. The "muon generator" produces muons with zenith angles in the range 0-90° and energies in the range 1-100 GeV and is suitable for Monte Carlo simulations with emphasis on muon tomographic and monitoring applications. The muon energy distribution is described by the Smith and Duller (1959) [35] phenomenological model. Statistical algorithms are then employed for generating random samples. The inverse transform provides a means to generate samples from the muon angular distribution, whereas the Acceptance-Rejection and Metropolis-Hastings algorithms are employed to provide the energy component. The predictions for muon energies 1-60 GeV and zenith angles 0-90° are validated with a series of actual spectrum measurements and with estimates from the software library CRY. The results confirm the validity of the phenomenological model and the applicability of the statistical algorithms to generate polyenergetic-polydirectional muons. The response of the algorithms and the impact of critical parameters on computation time and computed results were investigated. Final output from the proposed "muon generator" is a look-up table that contains the sampled muon angles and energies and can be easily integrated into Monte Carlo particle simulation codes such as Geant4 and MCNP.

  4. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Sessler, A.M.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring wich has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design. Muons because of their large mass compared to an electron, do not produce significant synchrotron radiation. As a result there is negligible beamstrahlung and high energy collisions are not limited by this phenomena. In addition, muons can be accelerated in circular devices which will be considerably smaller than two full-energy linacs as required in an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider. A hadron collider would require a CM energy 5 to 10 times higher than 4 TeV to have an equivalent energy reach. Since the accelerator size is limited by the strength of bending magnets, the hadron collider for the same physics reach would have to be much larger than the muon collider. In addition, muon collisions should be cleaner than hadron collisions. There are many detailed particle

  5. The CMS muon system: status and upgrades for LHC Run-2 and performance of muon reconstruction with 13 TeV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battilana, C.

    2017-01-01

    The CMS muon system has played a key role for many physics results obtained from the LHC Run-1 and Run-2 data. During the Long Shutdown (2013-2014), as well as during the last year-end technical stop (2015-2016), significant consolidation and upgrades have been carried out on the muon detectors and on the L1 muon trigger. The algorithms for muon reconstruction and identification have also been improved for both the High-Level Trigger and the offline reconstruction. Results of the performance of muon detectors, reconstruction and trigger, obtained using data collected at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy during the 2015 and 2016 LHC runs, will be presented. Comparison of simulation with experimental data will also be discussed where relevant. The system's state of the art performance will be shown, and the improvements foreseen to achieve excellent overall quality of muon reconstruction in CMS, in the conditions expected during the high-luminosity phase of Run-2, will be described.

  6. Eigensystem realization algorithm modal identification experiences with mini-mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Schenk, Axel; Noll, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes work performed under a collaborative research effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt). The objective is to develop and demonstrate system identification technology for future large space structures. Recent experiences using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), for modal identification of Mini-Mast, are reported. Mini-Mast is a 20 m long deployable space truss used for structural dynamics and active vibration-control research at the Langley Research Center. A comprehensive analysis of 306 frequency response functions (3 excitation forces and 102 displacement responses) was performed. Emphasis is placed on two topics of current research: (1) gaining an improved understanding of ERA performance characteristics (theory vs. practice); and (2) developing reliable techniques to improve identification results for complex experimental data. Because of nonlinearities and numerous local modes, modal identification of Mini-Mast proved to be surprisingly difficult. Methods were available, ERA, for obtaining detailed, high-confidence results.

  7. Elastic-plastic model identification for rock surrounding an underground excavation based on immunized genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Dongliang; Wang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    To compute the stability of underground engineering, a constitutive model of surrounding rock must be identified. Many constitutive models for rock mass have been proposed. In this model identification study, a generalized constitutive law for an elastic-plastic constitutive model is applied. Using the generalized constitutive law, the problem of model identification is transformed to a problem of parameter identification, which is a typical and complicated optimization. To improve the efficiency of the traditional optimization method, an immunized genetic algorithm that is proposed by the author is applied in this study. In this new algorithm, the principle of artificial immune algorithm is combined with the genetic algorithm. Therefore, the entire computation efficiency of model identification will be improved. Using this new model identification method, a numerical example and an engineering example are used to verify the computing ability of the algorithm. The results show that this new model identification algorithm can significantly improve the computation efficiency and the computation effect.

  8. A multi-algorithm-based automatic person identification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monwar, Md. Maruf; Gavrilova, Marina

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometric is an emerging area of research that aims at increasing the reliability of biometric systems through utilizing more than one biometric in decision-making process. In this work, we develop a multi-algorithm based multimodal biometric system utilizing face and ear features and rank and decision fusion approach. We use multilayer perceptron network and fisherimage approaches for individual face and ear recognition. After face and ear recognition, we integrate the results of the two face matchers using rank level fusion approach. We experiment with highest rank method, Borda count method, logistic regression method and Markov chain method of rank level fusion approach. Due to the better recognition performance we employ Markov chain approach to combine face decisions. Similarly, we get combined ear decision. These two decisions are combined for final identification decision. We try with 'AND'/'OR' rule, majority voting rule and weighted majority voting rule of decision fusion approach. From the experiment results, we observed that weighted majority voting rule works better than any other decision fusion approaches and hence, we incorporate this fusion approach for the final identification decision. The final results indicate that using multi algorithm based can certainly improve the recognition performance of multibiometric systems.

  9. Polarized muon beams for muon collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrinsky, A. N.

    1996-11-01

    An option for the production of intense and highly polarized muon beams, suitable for a high-luminosity muon collider, is described briefly. It is based on a multi-channel pion-collection system, narrow-band pion-to-muon decay channels, proper muon spin gymnastics, and ionization cooling to combine all of the muon beams into a single bunch of ultimately low emittance.

  10. A star identification algorithm for large FOV observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yu; Niu, Zhaodong; Chen, Zengping

    2016-10-01

    Due to the broader extent of observation and higher detection probability of space targets, large FOV (field of vision) optical instruments are widely used in astronomical applications.. However, the high density of observed stars and the distortion of the optical system often bring about inaccuracy in star locations. So in large FOV observations, many conventional star identification algorithms do not show very good performance. In this paper, we propose a star identification method with a low requirement for observation accuracy and thus suitable for large FOV circumstances. The proposed method includes two stages. The former is based on the match group algorithm, in addition to which we exploit the information of differential angles of inclination for verification. The inclinations of satellite stars are computed by reference to the selected pole stars. Then we obtain a set of identified stars for further recognition. The latter stage involves four steps. First, we derive the relationship between the rectangular coordinates of catalog stars and sensor stars with the identified locations obtained. Second, we transform the sensor coordinates to the catalog coordinates and find the catalog stars at close range as candidates. Third, we calculate the angle of inclination of each unidentified sensor star in relation to the nearest previously identified one, and the angular separation between them as well, to compare with those of the candidates. At last, candidates satisfying the limitations are considered the appropriate correspondences. The experimental results show that in large FOV observations, the proposed method presents better performance in comparison with several typical star identification methods in open literature.

  11. An algorithm for automated identification of fault zone trapped waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Z. E.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-08-01

    We develop an algorithm for automatic identification of fault zone trapped waves in data recorded by seismic fault zone arrays. Automatic S picks are used to identify time windows in the seismograms for subsequent search for trapped waves. The algorithm calculates five features in each seismogram recorded by each station: predominant period, 1 s duration energy (representative of trapped waves), relative peak strength, arrival delay and 6 s duration energy (representative of the entire seismogram). These features are used collectively to identify stations in the array with seismograms that are statistical outliers. Applying the algorithm to large data sets allows for distinguishing genuine trapped waves from occasional localized site amplification in seismograms of other stations. The method is verified on a test data set recorded across the rupture zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake, for which trapped waves were previously identified manually, and is then applied to a larger data set with several thousand events recorded across the San Jacinto fault zone. The developed technique provides an important tool for systematic objective processing of large seismic waveform data sets recorded near fault zones.

  12. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Asaki, T. J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N. W.; Hogan, G. E.; Morris, C. L.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L. J.; Sottile, M. J.; Vixie, K. R.; Wohlberg, B. E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  13. Statistical reconstruction for cosmic ray muon tomography.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Larry J; Blanpied, Gary S; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Fraser, Andrew M; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Klimenko, Alexei V; Morris, Christopher L; Orum, Chris; Sossong, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    Highly penetrating cosmic ray muons constantly shower the earth at a rate of about 1 muon per cm2 per minute. We have developed a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of these particles to perform nondestructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. In prior work [1]-[3], we have described heuristic methods for processing muon data to create reconstructed images. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood/expectation maximization tomographic reconstruction algorithm designed for the technique. This algorithm borrows much from techniques used in medical imaging, particularly emission tomography, but the statistics of muon scattering dictates differences. We describe the statistical model for multiple scattering, derive the reconstruction algorithm, and present simulated examples. We also propose methods to improve the robustness of the algorithm to experimental errors and events departing from the statistical model.

  14. An algorithm for efficient identification of branched metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Heath, Allison P; Bennett, George N; Kavraki, Lydia E

    2011-11-01

    This article presents a new graph-based algorithm for identifying branched metabolic pathways in multi-genome scale metabolic data. The term branched is used to refer to metabolic pathways between compounds that consist of multiple pathways that interact biochemically. A branched pathway may produce a target compound through a combination of linear pathways that split compounds into smaller ones, work in parallel with many compounds, and join compounds into larger ones. While branched metabolic pathways predominate in metabolic networks, most previous work has focused on identifying linear metabolic pathways. The ability to automatically identify branched pathways is important in applications that require a deeper understanding of metabolism, such as metabolic engineering and drug target identification. The algorithm presented in this article utilizes explicit atom tracking to identify linear metabolic pathways and then merges them together into branched metabolic pathways. We provide results on several well-characterized metabolic pathways that demonstrate that the new merging approach can efficiently find biologically relevant branched metabolic pathways.

  15. Modular detector for deep underwater registration of muons and muon groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demianov, A. I.; Sarycheva, L. I.; Sinyov, N. B.; Varadanyan, I. N.; Yershov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Registration and identification of muons and muon groups penetrating into the ocean depth, can be performed using a modular multilayer detector with high resolution bidimensional readout - deep underwater calorimeter (project NADIR). Laboratory testing of a prototype sensor cell with liquid scintillator in light-tight casing, testifies to the practicability of the full-scale experiment within reasonable expences.

  16. Muon Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duldig, Marc L.

    2000-07-01

    Muon observations are complementary to neutron monitor observations but there are some important differences in the two techniques. Unlike neutron monitors, muon telescope systems use coincidence techniques to obtain directional information about the arriving particle. Neutron monitor observations require simple corrections for pressure variations to compensate for the varying mass of atmospheric absorber over a site. In contrast, muon observations require additional corrections for the positive and negative temperature effects. Muon observations commenced many years before neutron monitors were constructed. Thus, muon data over a larger number of solar cycles is available to study solar modulation on anisotropies and other cosmic ray variations. The solar diurnal and semi-diurnal variations have been studied for many years. Using the techniques of Bieber and Chen it has been possible to derive the radial gradient, parallel mean-free path and symmetric latitude gradient of cosmic rays for rigidities <200 GV. The radial gradient varies with the 11-year solar activity cycle whereas the parallel mean-free path appears to vary with the 22-year solar magnetic cycle. The symmetric latitudinal gradient reverses at each solar polarity reversal. These results are in general agreement with predictions from modulation models. In undertaking these analyses the ratio of the parallel to perpendicular mean-free path must be assumed. There is strong contention in the literature about the correct value to employ but the results are sufficiently robust for this to be, at most, a minor problem. An asymmetric latitude gradient of highly variable nature has been found. These observations do not support current modulation models. Our view of the sidereal variation has undergone a revolution in recent times. Nagashima, Fujimoto and Jacklyn proposed a narrow Tail-In source anisotropy and separate Loss-Cone anisotropy as being responsible for the observed variations. A new analysis

  17. The MICE Muon Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonio, Marco

    2011-10-06

    In the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at RAL, muons are produced and transported in a dedicated beam line connecting the production point (target) to the cooling channel. We discuss the main features of the beamline, meant to provide muons with momenta between 140 MeV/c and 240 MeV/c and emittances up to 10 mm rad, which is accomplished by means of a diffuser. Matching procedures to the MICE cooling channel are also described. In summer 2010 we performed an intense data taking campaign to finalize the calibration of the MICE Particle Identification (PID) detectors and the understanding of the beam line, which completes the STEPI phase of MICE. We highlight the main results from these data.

  18. The MICE Muon Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, Marco

    2011-10-01

    In the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at RAL, muons are produced and transported in a dedicated beam line connecting the production point (target) to the cooling channel. We discuss the main features of the beamline, meant to provide muons with momenta between 140 MeV/c and 240 MeV/c and emittances up to 10 mm rad, which is accomplished by means of a diffuser. Matching procedures to the MICE cooling channel are also described. In summer 2010 we performed an intense data taking campaign to finalize the calibration of the MICE Particle Identification (PID) detectors and the understanding of the beam line, which completes the STEPI phase of MICE. We highlight the main results from these data.

  19. Muons in gamma showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.; Vankov, C. P.; Halzen, F.

    1985-01-01

    Muon production in gamma-induced air showers, accounting for all major processes. For muon energies in the GeV region the photoproduction is by far the most important process, while the contribution of micron + micron pair creation is not negligible for TeV muons. The total rate of muons in gamma showers is, however, very low.

  20. Development of an automatic identification algorithm for antibiogram analysis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luan F R; da Silva, Eduardo S; Noronha, Victor T; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Andrade, Marcelino M de

    2015-12-01

    Routinely, diagnostic and microbiology laboratories perform antibiogram analysis which can present some difficulties leading to misreadings and intra and inter-reader deviations. An Automatic Identification Algorithm (AIA) has been proposed as a solution to overcome some issues associated with the disc diffusion method, which is the main goal of this work. AIA allows automatic scanning of inhibition zones obtained by antibiograms. More than 60 environmental isolates were tested using susceptibility tests which were performed for 12 different antibiotics for a total of 756 readings. Plate images were acquired and classified as standard or oddity. The inhibition zones were measured using the AIA and results were compared with reference method (human reading), using weighted kappa index and statistical analysis to evaluate, respectively, inter-reader agreement and correlation between AIA-based and human-based reading. Agreements were observed in 88% cases and 89% of the tests showed no difference or a <4mm difference between AIA and human analysis, exhibiting a correlation index of 0.85 for all images, 0.90 for standards and 0.80 for oddities with no significant difference between automatic and manual method. AIA resolved some reading problems such as overlapping inhibition zones, imperfect microorganism seeding, non-homogeneity of the circumference, partial action of the antimicrobial, and formation of a second halo of inhibition. Furthermore, AIA proved to overcome some of the limitations observed in other automatic methods. Therefore, AIA may be a practical tool for automated reading of antibiograms in diagnostic and microbiology laboratories.

  1. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua

    2015-07-07

    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms.

  2. Research on palmprint identification method based on quantum algorithms.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Zhanzhan

    2014-01-01

    Quantum image recognition is a technology by using quantum algorithm to process the image information. It can obtain better effect than classical algorithm. In this paper, four different quantum algorithms are used in the three stages of palmprint recognition. First, quantum adaptive median filtering algorithm is presented in palmprint filtering processing. Quantum filtering algorithm can get a better filtering result than classical algorithm through the comparison. Next, quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is used to extract pattern features by only one operation due to quantum parallelism. The proposed algorithm exhibits an exponential speed-up compared with discrete Fourier transform in the feature extraction. Finally, quantum set operations and Grover algorithm are used in palmprint matching. According to the experimental results, quantum algorithm only needs to apply square of N operations to find out the target palmprint, but the traditional method needs N times of calculation. At the same time, the matching accuracy of quantum algorithm is almost 100%.

  3. Research on Palmprint Identification Method Based on Quantum Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhanzhan

    2014-01-01

    Quantum image recognition is a technology by using quantum algorithm to process the image information. It can obtain better effect than classical algorithm. In this paper, four different quantum algorithms are used in the three stages of palmprint recognition. First, quantum adaptive median filtering algorithm is presented in palmprint filtering processing. Quantum filtering algorithm can get a better filtering result than classical algorithm through the comparison. Next, quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is used to extract pattern features by only one operation due to quantum parallelism. The proposed algorithm exhibits an exponential speed-up compared with discrete Fourier transform in the feature extraction. Finally, quantum set operations and Grover algorithm are used in palmprint matching. According to the experimental results, quantum algorithm only needs to apply square of N operations to find out the target palmprint, but the traditional method needs N times of calculation. At the same time, the matching accuracy of quantum algorithm is almost 100%. PMID:25105165

  4. Teaching-learning-based Optimization Algorithm for Parameter Identification in the Design of IIR Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Verma, H. K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm to solve parameter identification problems in the designing of digital infinite impulse response (IIR) filter. TLBO based filter modelling is applied to calculate the parameters of unknown plant in simulations. Unlike other heuristic search algorithms, TLBO algorithm is an algorithm-specific parameter-less algorithm. In this paper big bang-big crunch (BB-BC) optimization and PSO algorithms are also applied to filter design for comparison. Unknown filter parameters are considered as a vector to be optimized by these algorithms. MATLAB programming is used for implementation of proposed algorithms. Experimental results show that the TLBO is more accurate to estimate the filter parameters than the BB-BC optimization algorithm and has faster convergence rate when compared to PSO algorithm. TLBO is used where accuracy is more essential than the convergence speed.

  5. Comparison of Five System Identification Algorithms for Rotorcraft Higher Harmonic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an analysis and performance comparison of five system identification algorithms. The methods are presented in the context of identifying a frequency-domain transfer matrix for the higher harmonic control (HHC) of helicopter vibration. The five system identification algorithms include three previously proposed methods: (1) the weighted-least- squares-error approach (in moving-block format), (2) the Kalman filter method, and (3) the least-mean-squares (LMS) filter method. In addition there are two new ones: (4) a generalized Kalman filter method and (5) a generalized LMS filter method. The generalized Kalman filter method and the generalized LMS filter method were derived as extensions of the classic methods to permit identification by using more than one measurement per identification cycle. Simulation results are presented for conditions ranging from the ideal case of a stationary transfer matrix and no measurement noise to the more complex cases involving both measurement noise and transfer-matrix variation. Both open-loop identification and closed- loop identification were simulated. Closed-loop mode identification was more challenging than open-loop identification because of the decreasing signal-to-noise ratio as the vibration became reduced. The closed-loop simulation considered both local-model identification, with measured vibration feedback and global-model identification with feedback of the identified uncontrolled vibration. The algorithms were evaluated in terms of their accuracy, stability, convergence properties, computation speeds, and relative ease of implementation.

  6. Adaptive Estimation and Parameter Identification Using Multiple Model Estimation Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-23

    Point Continuous Linear Smoothing ," Proc. Joint Automatic Control Conf., June 1967, pp. 249-257. [26] J. S. Meditch , "On Optimal Linear Smoothing ...Theory," Infor- mation and Control, 10, 598-615 (1967). [27] J. S. Meditch , "A Successive Approximation Procedure for Nonlinear Data Smoothing ," Proc...algorithm Kalman filter algorithms multiple model smoothing algorithm 70. ABSTRACT (Coensnia• en rever.e side if eceossuy Adidonilty by block nu.wbe

  7. An algorithm for the identification of genetically modified animals.

    PubMed

    Forabosco, Flavio; Sundström, Fredrik L; Rydhmer, Lotta

    2013-05-01

    The diffusion of genetically modified (GM) animals has generated a demand for accurate and unique identification to assure compliance with relevant national and international legislation. Individual identification of GM animals is essential to improve safety and traceability, as well as to fulfill the present and future expectations of producers, consumers, and authorities.

  8. An Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) for modal parameter identification and model reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, J. N.; Pappa, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A method, called the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), is developed for modal parameter identification and model reduction of dynamic systems from test data. A new approach is introduced in conjunction with the singular value decomposition technique to derive the basic formulation of minimum order realization which is an extended version of the Ho-Kalman algorithm. The basic formulation is then transformed into modal space for modal parameter identification. Two accuracy indicators are developed to quantitatively identify the system modes and noise modes. For illustration of the algorithm, examples are shown using simulation data and experimental data for a rectangular grid structure.

  9. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; ...

    2016-03-01

    Here, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less thanmore » $$\\sim$$1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $$f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$$ at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.« less

  10. Jet production in muon scattering at Fermilab E665

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Nucleon and Muon-Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Nucleon deep-inelastic scattering are compared to Monte Carlo model predictions. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a higher suppression of two-forward jets as compared to one-forward jet production.

  11. A Parametric Study of the Ibrahim Time Domain Modal Identification Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, R. S.; Ibrahim, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of the Ibrahim time Domain (ITD) identification algorithm in extracting structural model parameters from free response functions was studied using computer simulated data for 65 positions on an isotropic, uniform thickness plate with mode shapes obtained by NASTRAN analysis. Natural frequencies were used to study identification results over ranges of modal parameter values and user selectable algorithm constants. Effects of superimposing various levels of noise onto the functions were investigated. No detrimental effects were observed when the number of computational degrees of freedom allowed in the algorithm was made many times larger than the minimum necessary for adequate identification. The use of a high number of degrees of freedom when analyzing experimental data, for the simultaneous identification of many modes in one computer run are suggested.

  12. A fast quantum algorithm for the affine Boolean function identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm (the one-query algorithm) can identify a completely specified linear Boolean function using a single query to the oracle with certainty. The first aim of the paper is to show that if the provided Boolean function is affine, then one more query to the oracle (the two-query algorithm) is required to identify the affinity of the function with certainty. The second aim of the paper is to show that if the provided Boolean function is incompletely defined, then the one-query and the two-query algorithms can be used as bounded-error quantum polynomial algorithms to identify certain classes of incompletely defined linear and affine Boolean functions respectively with probability of success at least 2/3.

  13. Modeling the performance of evolutionary algorithms on the root identification problem: a case study with PBIL and CHC algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yeguas, Enrique; Joan-Arinyo, Robert; Victoria Luz N, Mar A

    2011-01-01

    The availability of a model to measure the performance of evolutionary algorithms is very important, especially when these algorithms are applied to solve problems with high computational requirements. That model would compute an index of the quality of the solution reached by the algorithm as a function of run-time. Conversely, if we fix an index of quality for the solution, the model would give the number of iterations to be expected. In this work, we develop a statistical model to describe the performance of PBIL and CHC evolutionary algorithms applied to solve the root identification problem. This problem is basic in constraint-based, geometric parametric modeling, as an instance of general constraint-satisfaction problems. The performance model is empirically validated over a benchmark with very large search spaces.

  14. A fast iterative recursive least squares algorithm for Wiener model identification of highly nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mahdi; Arefi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an online identification algorithm is presented for nonlinear systems in the presence of output colored noise. The proposed method is based on extended recursive least squares (ERLS) algorithm, where the identified system is in polynomial Wiener form. To this end, an unknown intermediate signal is estimated by using an inner iterative algorithm. The iterative recursive algorithm adaptively modifies the vector of parameters of the presented Wiener model when the system parameters vary. In addition, to increase the robustness of the proposed method against variations, a robust RLS algorithm is applied to the model. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Results confirm that the proposed method has fast convergence rate with robust characteristics, which increases the efficiency of the proposed model and identification approach. For instance, the FIT criterion will be achieved 92% in CSTR process where about 400 data is used.

  15. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  16. Wavelet Algorithm for Feature Identification and Image Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, William C.; Haase, Sebastian; Sedat, John W.

    2005-10-01

    WVL are a set of python scripts based on the algorithm described in "A novel 3D wavelet-based filter for visualizing features in noisy biological data, " W. C. Moss et al., J. Microsc. 219, 43-49 (2005)

  17. Common pharmacophore identification using frequent clique detection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Podolyan, Yevgeniy; Karypis, George

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of a pharmacophore, or the 3D arrangement of features in the biologically active molecule that is responsible for its pharmacological activity, can help in the search and design of a new or better drug acting upon the same or related target. In this paper, we describe two new algorithms based on the frequent clique detection in the molecular graphs. The first algorithm mines all frequent cliques that are present in at least one of the conformers of each (or a portion of all) molecules. The second algorithm exploits the similarities among the different conformers of the same molecule and achieves an order of magnitude performance speedup compared to the first algorithm. Both algorithms are guaranteed to find all common pharmacophores in the data set, which is confirmed by the validation on the set of molecules for which pharmacophores have been determined experimentally. In addition, these algorithms are able to scale to data sets with arbitrarily large number of conformers per molecule and identify multiple ligand binding modes or multiple binding sites of the target.

  18. Common Pharmacophore Identification Using Frequent Clique Detection Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Podolyan, Yevgeniy; Karypis, George

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of a pharmacophore, or the 3D arrangement of features in the biologically active molecule that is responsible for its pharmacological activity, can help in the search and design of a new or better drug acting upon the same or related target. In this paper we describe two new algorithms based on the frequent clique detection in the molecular graphs. The first algorithm mines all frequent cliques that are present in at least one of the conformers of each (or a portion of all) molecules. The second algorithm exploits the similarities among the different conformers of the same molecule and achieves an order of magnitude performance speedup compared to the first algorithm. Both algorithms are guaranteed to find all common pharmacophores in the dataset, which is confirmed by the validation on the set of molecules for which pharmacophores have been determined experimentally. In addition, these algorithms are able to scale to datasets with arbitrarily large number of conformers per molecule and identify multiple ligand binding modes or multiple binding sites of the target. PMID:19072298

  19. Jet production in muon-proton and muon-nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Proton Muon- Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Proton deep-inelastic scattering are compared to perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (PQCD) and Monte Carlo model predictions. We observe hadronic (2+1)-jet rates which are a factor of two higher than PQCD predictions at the partonic level. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a suppression of the jet rates as compared to deuterium. The two- forward jet sample present higher suppression as compared to the one-forward jet sample.

  20. Efficient algorithms for ordinary differential equation model identification of biological systems.

    PubMed

    Gennemark, P; Wedelin, D

    2007-03-01

    Algorithms for parameter estimation and model selection that identify both the structure and the parameters of an ordinary differential equation model from experimental data are presented. The work presented here focuses on the case of an unknown structure and some time course information available for every variable to be analysed, and this is exploited to make the algorithms as efficient as possible. The algorithms are designed to handle problems of realistic size, where reactions can be nonlinear in the parameters and where data can be sparse and noisy. To achieve computational efficiency, parameters are mostly estimated for one equation at a time, giving a fast and accurate parameter estimation algorithm compared with other algorithms in the literature. The model selection is done with an efficient heuristic search algorithm, where the structure is built incrementally. Two test systems are used that have previously been used to evaluate identification algorithms, a metabolic pathway and a genetic network. Both test systems were successfully identified by using a reasonable amount of simulated data. Besides, measurement noise of realistic levels can be handled. In comparison to other methods that were used for these test systems, the main strengths of the presented algorithms are that a fully specified model, and not only a structure, is identified, and that they are considerably faster compared with other identification algorithms.

  1. Investigation of scene identification algorithms for radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diekmann, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    The computation of Earth radiation budget from satellite measurements requires the identification of the scene in order to select spectral factors and bidirectional models. A scene identification procedure is developed for AVHRR SW and LW data by using two radiative transfer models. These AVHRR GAC pixels are then attached to corresponding ERBE pixels and the results are sorted into scene identification probability matrices. These scene intercomparisons show that there generally is a higher tendency for underestimation of cloudiness over ocean at high cloud amounts, e.g., mostly cloudy instead of overcast, partly cloudy instead of mostly cloudy, for the ERBE relative to the AVHRR results. Reasons for this are explained. Preliminary estimates of the errors of exitances due to scene misidentification demonstrates the high dependency on the probability matrices. While the longwave error can generally be neglected the shortwave deviations have reached maximum values of more than 12% of the respective exitances.

  2. Innovative testbed for developing and assessing air-to-air noncooperative target identification algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopow, Jeffrey P.

    1992-07-01

    The development and evaluation of multi-source, multi-spectral, all-aspect airborne target identification algorithms has been proven to be cumbersome as well as disjointed. The algorithm development capability under this testbed concept encompasses model-based reasoning, information fusion, airborne target identification, and target/sensor phenomenology analysis. The evaluation capability assembles multiple sensor and target types coupled with all aspect viewing in an operationally representative air-to-air environment. The importance of developing better techniques for establishing positive target identification for beyond visual ranges has increased in tactical importance, as a result of the Persian Gulf War. In addition to supporting the evaluation of algorithms and associated sensors, this testbed will support on- going R&D in the Air-To-Air Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) arena.

  3. A morphology-based algorithm for label location and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Zhengang; Zhang, Xiaolin; Yang, Xinxin

    2005-07-01

    Label location and recognition has become a crucial task for today"s Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. We proposed a morphology-based algorithm to locate and recognize labels. This algorithm is insensitive to scaling and rotation, and able to work at low resolution. The label positioning and recognition strategy we designed is divided into two steps. First, at the altitude of 10m or so, we apply dilation processing and edge detection on the images sent back by UAV. Then combining the current heading information of the vehicle, we are able to give the topology map of all labels. After that the vehicle is lowered to about 5m and we apply erosion processing on the returned image and then recognize each label using image measurement and image analysis methods. The validity of this algorithm is well verified at ARCC 2004.

  4. An algorithm for image clusters detection and identification based on color for an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Uy, D.L.

    1996-02-01

    An algorithm for detection and identification of image clusters or {open_quotes}blobs{close_quotes} based on color information for an autonomous mobile robot is developed. The input image data are first processed using a crisp color fuszzyfier, a binary smoothing filter, and a median filter. The processed image data is then inputed to the image clusters detection and identification program. The program employed the concept of {open_quotes}elastic rectangle{close_quotes}that stretches in such a way that the whole blob is finally enclosed in a rectangle. A C-program is develop to test the algorithm. The algorithm is tested only on image data of 8x8 sizes with different number of blobs in them. The algorithm works very in detecting and identifying image clusters.

  5. Performance study of LMS based adaptive algorithms for unknown system identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, Shazia; Ahmad, Noor Atinah

    2014-07-01

    Adaptive filtering techniques have gained much popularity in the modeling of unknown system identification problem. These techniques can be classified as either iterative or direct. Iterative techniques include stochastic descent method and its improved versions in affine space. In this paper we present a comparative study of the least mean square (LMS) algorithm and some improved versions of LMS, more precisely the normalized LMS (NLMS), LMS-Newton, transform domain LMS (TDLMS) and affine projection algorithm (APA). The performance evaluation of these algorithms is carried out using adaptive system identification (ASI) model with random input signals, in which the unknown (measured) signal is assumed to be contaminated by output noise. Simulation results are recorded to compare the performance in terms of convergence speed, robustness, misalignment, and their sensitivity to the spectral properties of input signals. Main objective of this comparative study is to observe the effects of fast convergence rate of improved versions of LMS algorithms on their robustness and misalignment.

  6. Model Structures and Algorithms for Identification of Aerodynamic Models for Flight Dynamics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasanth, Ravi K.; Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.; Mehra, Raman K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes model structures and parameter estimation algorithms suitable for the identification of unsteady aerodynamic models from input-output data. The model structures presented are state space models and include linear time-invariant (LTI) models and linear parameter-varying (LPV) models. They cover a wide range of local and parameter dependent identification problems arising in unsteady aerodynamics and nonlinear flight dynamics. We present a residue algorithm for estimating model parameters from data. The algorithm can incorporate apriori information and is described in detail. The algorithms are evaluated on the F-16XL wind-tunnel test data from NAS Langley Research Center. Results of numerical evaluation are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion major issues and directions for future work.

  7. Performance study of LMS based adaptive algorithms for unknown system identification

    SciTech Connect

    Javed, Shazia; Ahmad, Noor Atinah

    2014-07-10

    Adaptive filtering techniques have gained much popularity in the modeling of unknown system identification problem. These techniques can be classified as either iterative or direct. Iterative techniques include stochastic descent method and its improved versions in affine space. In this paper we present a comparative study of the least mean square (LMS) algorithm and some improved versions of LMS, more precisely the normalized LMS (NLMS), LMS-Newton, transform domain LMS (TDLMS) and affine projection algorithm (APA). The performance evaluation of these algorithms is carried out using adaptive system identification (ASI) model with random input signals, in which the unknown (measured) signal is assumed to be contaminated by output noise. Simulation results are recorded to compare the performance in terms of convergence speed, robustness, misalignment, and their sensitivity to the spectral properties of input signals. Main objective of this comparative study is to observe the effects of fast convergence rate of improved versions of LMS algorithms on their robustness and misalignment.

  8. Damage identification of a TLP floating wind turbine by meta-heuristic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettefagh, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Damage identification of the offshore floating wind turbine by vibration/dynamic signals is one of the important and new research fields in the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). In this paper a new damage identification method is proposed based on meta-heuristic algorithms using the dynamic response of the TLP (Tension-Leg Platform) floating wind turbine structure. The Genetic Algorithms (GA), Artificial Immune System (AIS), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) are chosen for minimizing the object function, defined properly for damage identification purpose. In addition to studying the capability of mentioned algorithms in correctly identifying the damage, the effect of the response type on the results of identification is studied. Also, the results of proposed damage identification are investigated with considering possible uncertainties of the structure. Finally, for evaluating the proposed method in real condition, a 1/100 scaled experimental setup of TLP Floating Wind Turbine (TLPFWT) is provided in a laboratory scale and the proposed damage identification method is applied to the scaled turbine.

  9. Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-06

    A 10  MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2  μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}.

  10. PyBact: an algorithm for bacterial identification.

    PubMed

    Nantasenamat, Chanin; Preeyanon, Likit; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2011-01-01

    PyBact is a software written in Python for bacterial identification. The code simulates the predefined behavior of bacterial species by generating a simulated data set based on the frequency table of biochemical tests from diagnostic microbiology textbook. The generated data was used for predictive model construction by machine learning approaches and results indicated that the classifiers could accurately predict its respective bacterial class with accuracy in excess of 99 %.

  11. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  12. Bayesian image reconstruction for improving detection performance of muon tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guobao; Schultz, Larry J; Qi, Jinyi

    2009-05-01

    Muon tomography is a novel technology that is being developed for detecting high-Z materials in vehicles or cargo containers. Maximum likelihood methods have been developed for reconstructing the scattering density image from muon measurements. However, the instability of maximum likelihood estimation often results in noisy images and low detectability of high-Z targets. In this paper, we propose using regularization to improve the image quality of muon tomography. We formulate the muon reconstruction problem in a Bayesian framework by introducing a prior distribution on scattering density images. An iterative shrinkage algorithm is derived to maximize the log posterior distribution. At each iteration, the algorithm obtains the maximum a posteriori update by shrinking an unregularized maximum likelihood update. Inverse quadratic shrinkage functions are derived for generalized Laplacian priors and inverse cubic shrinkage functions are derived for generalized Gaussian priors. Receiver operating characteristic studies using simulated data demonstrate that the Bayesian reconstruction can greatly improve the detection performance of muon tomography.

  13. Muon collider design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, R.; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.; Tollestrup, A.; Baltz, A.; Caspi, S.; P., Chen; W-H., Cheng; Y., Cho; Cline, D.; Courant, E.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.; Garren, A.; Gordon, H.; Green, M.; Gupta, R.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnstone, C.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Kycia, T.; Y., Lee; Lissauer, D.; Luccio, A.; McInturff, A.; Mills, F.; Mokhov, N.; Morgan, G.; Neuffer, D.; K-Y., Ng; Noble, R.; Norem, J.; Norum, B.; Oide, K.; Parsa, Z.; Polychronakos, V.; Popovic, M.; Rehak, P.; Roser, T.; Rossmanith, R.; Scanlan, R.; Schachinger, L.; Silvestrov, G.; Stumer, I.; Summers, D.; Syphers, M.; Takahashi, H.; Torun, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Turner, W.; van Ginneken, A.; Vsevolozhskaya, T.; Weggel, R.; Willen, E.; Willis, W.; Winn, D.; Wurtele, J.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-11-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity \\mu^+ \\mu^- colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Detector background, polarization, and nonstandard operating conditions are discussed.

  14. An almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm for groundwater pollution source identification.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Simin; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Pei; Zheng, Maohui

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal characterization of unknown sources of groundwater pollution is frequently encountered in environmental problems. This study adopts a simulation-optimization approach that combines a contaminant transport simulation model with a heuristic harmony search algorithm to identify unknown pollution sources. In the proposed methodology, an almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm is developed. The performance of this methodology is evaluated on an illustrative groundwater pollution source identification problem, and the identified results indicate that the proposed almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm-based optimization model can give satisfactory estimations, even when the irregular geometry, erroneous monitoring data, and prior information shortage of potential locations are considered.

  15. Gene Identification Algorithms Using Exploratory Statistical Analysis of Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shashi Bajaj; Sen, Pradip Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Studying periodic pattern is expected as a standard line of attack for recognizing DNA sequence in identification of gene and similar problems. But peculiarly very little significant work is done in this direction. This paper studies statistical properties of DNA sequences of complete genome using a new technique. A DNA sequence is converted to a numeric sequence using various types of mappings and standard Fourier technique is applied to study the periodicity. Distinct statistical behaviour of periodicity parameters is found in coding and non-coding sequences, which can be used to distinguish between these parts. Here DNA sequences of Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed with significant accuracy.

  16. SSC muon detector group report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsmith, D.; Groom, D.; Hedin, D.; Kirk, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Reeder, D.; Rosner, J.; Wojcicki, S.

    1986-01-01

    We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4..pi.. detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts; plus we identify SSC physics for which muon detection will play a significant role. We conclude that muon detection at SSC energies and luminosities is feasible and will play an important role in the evolution of physics at the SSC.

  17. Automated mineral identification algorithm using optical properties of crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aligholi, Saeed; Khajavi, Reza; Razmara, Morteza

    2015-12-01

    A method has been developed to automatically characterize the type of mineral phases by means of digital image analysis using optical properties of crystals. The method relies on microscope automation, digital image acquisition, image processing and analysis. Two hundred series of digital images were taken from 45 standard thin sections using a digital camera mounted on a conventional microscope and then transmitted to a computer. CIELab color space is selected for the processing, in order to effectively employ its well-defined color difference metric for introducing appropriate color-based feature. Seven basic optical properties of minerals (A. color; B. pleochroism; C. interference color; D. birefringence; E. opacity; F. isotropy; G. extinction angle) are redefined. The Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator and modeling texture is integrated in the Mineral Identification (MI) scheme to identify homogeneous regions in microscopic images of minerals. The accuracy of mineral identification using the method was %99, %98, %96 and %95 for biotite, hornblende, quartz and calcite minerals, respectively. The method is applicable to other minerals and phases for which individual optical properties of crystals do not provide enough discrimination between the relevant phases. On the basis of this research, it can be concluded that if the CIELab color space and the local binary pattern (LBP) are applied, it is possible to recognize the mineral samples with the accuracy of more than 98%.

  18. Radionuclide identification algorithm for organic scintillator-based radiation portal monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit; Di Fulvio, Angela; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed an algorithm for on-the-fly radionuclide identification for radiation portal monitors using organic scintillation detectors. The algorithm was demonstrated on experimental data acquired with our pedestrian portal monitor on moving special nuclear material and industrial sources at a purpose-built radiation portal monitor testing facility. The experimental data also included common medical isotopes. The algorithm takes the power spectral density of the cumulative distribution function of the measured pulse height distributions and matches these to reference spectra using a spectral angle mapper. F-score analysis showed that the new algorithm exhibited significant performance improvements over previously implemented radionuclide identification algorithms for organic scintillators. Reliable on-the-fly radionuclide identification would help portal monitor operators more effectively screen out the hundreds of thousands of nuisance alarms they encounter annually due to recent nuclear-medicine patients and cargo containing naturally occurring radioactive material. Portal monitor operators could instead focus on the rare but potentially high impact incidents of nuclear and radiological material smuggling detection for which portal monitors are intended.

  19. A novel algorithm for real-time adaptive signal detection and identification

    SciTech Connect

    Sleefe, G.E.; Ladd, M.D.; Gallegos, D.E.; Sicking, C.W.; Erteza, I.A.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a novel digital signal processing algorithm for adaptively detecting and identifying signals buried in noise. The algorithm continually computes and updates the long-term statistics and spectral characteristics of the background noise. Using this noise model, a set of adaptive thresholds and matched digital filters are implemented to enhance and detect signals that are buried in the noise. The algorithm furthermore automatically suppresses coherent noise sources and adapts to time-varying signal conditions. Signal detection is performed in both the time-domain and the frequency-domain, thereby permitting the detection of both broad-band transients and narrow-band signals. The detection algorithm also provides for the computation of important signal features such as amplitude, timing, and phase information. Signal identification is achieved through a combination of frequency-domain template matching and spectral peak picking. The algorithm described herein is well suited for real-time implementation on digital signal processing hardware. This paper presents the theory of the adaptive algorithm, provides an algorithmic block diagram, and demonstrate its implementation and performance with real-world data. The computational efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated through benchmarks on specific DSP hardware. The applications for this algorithm, which range from vibration analysis to real-time image processing, are also discussed.

  20. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  1. Telecommunication using muon beams

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  2. Flavor tagging with muons at SLAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prepost, R.

    1984-05-01

    Identification of muons in hadronic events from e+e- annihilation observed in the MAC detector at PEP at √s=29 GeV provides flavor tagging of heavy quark mesons. A sample enriched in events from bb production is obtained and the b quark fragmentation function is determined. The b quark is found to fragment predominantly with high values of z, with =0.8+/-0.1 and to have an overall semileptonic branching ratio to muons of (15.5+5.4-2.9)%. The sample also provides flavor tagged hadronic jets. Invariant mass and charged multiplicity distributions are presented.

  3. A Comparison of Direction Finding Results From an FFT Peak Identification Technique With Those From the Music Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    MUSIC ALGORITHM (U) by L.E. Montbrland go I July 1991 CRC REPORT NO. 1438 Ottawa I* Government of Canada Gouvsrnweient du Canada I o DParunnt of...FINDING RESULTS FROM AN FFT PEAK IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUE WITH THOSE FROM THE MUSIC ALGORITHM (U) by L.E. Montbhrand CRC REPORT NO. 1438 July 1991...Ottawa A Comparison of Direction Finding Results From an FFT Peak Identification Technique With Those From the Music Algorithm L.E. Montbriand Abstract A

  4. Cloud identification using genetic algorithms and massively parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckles, Bill P.; Petry, Frederick E.

    1996-01-01

    As a Guest Computational Investigator under the NASA administered component of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program, we implemented a massively parallel genetic algorithm on the MasPar SIMD computer. Experiments were conducted using Earth Science data in the domains of meteorology and oceanography. Results obtained in these domains are competitive with, and in most cases better than, similar problems solved using other methods. In the meteorological domain, we chose to identify clouds using AVHRR spectral data. Four cloud speciations were used although most researchers settle for three. Results were remarkedly consistent across all tests (91% accuracy). Refinements of this method may lead to more timely and complete information for Global Circulation Models (GCMS) that are prevalent in weather forecasting and global environment studies. In the oceanographic domain, we chose to identify ocean currents from a spectrometer having similar characteristics to AVHRR. Here the results were mixed (60% to 80% accuracy). Given that one is willing to run the experiment several times (say 10), then it is acceptable to claim the higher accuracy rating. This problem has never been successfully automated. Therefore, these results are encouraging even though less impressive than the cloud experiment. Successful conclusion of an automated ocean current detection system would impact coastal fishing, naval tactics, and the study of micro-climates. Finally we contributed to the basic knowledge of GA (genetic algorithm) behavior in parallel environments. We developed better knowledge of the use of subpopulations in the context of shared breeding pools and the migration of individuals. Rigorous experiments were conducted based on quantifiable performance criteria. While much of the work confirmed current wisdom, for the first time we were able to submit conclusive evidence. The software developed under this grant was placed in the public domain. An extensive user

  5. An improved PSO algorithm for parameter identification of nonlinear dynamic hysteretic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhao; Xia, Pinqi

    2017-02-01

    The nonlinear dynamic hysteretic models used in nonlinear dynamic analysis contain generally lots of model parameters which need to be identified accurately and effectively. The accuracy and effectiveness of identification depend generally on the complexity of model, number of model parameters and proximity of initial values of the parameters. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has the random searching ability and has been widely applied to the parameter identification in the nonlinear dynamic hysteretic models. However, the PSO algorithm may get trapped in the local optimum and appear the premature convergence not to obtain the real optimum results. In this paper, an improved PSO algorithm for identifying parameters of nonlinear dynamic hysteretic models has been presented by defining a fitness function for hysteretic model. The improved PSO algorithm can enhance the global searching ability and avoid to appear the premature convergence of the conventional PSO algorithm, and has been applied to identify the parameters of two nonlinear dynamic hysteretic models which are the Leishman-Beddoes (LB) dynamic stall model of rotor blade and the anelastic displacement fields (ADF) model of elastomeric damper which can be used as the lead-lag damper in rotor. The accuracy and effectiveness of the improved PSO algorithm for identifying parameters of the LB model and the ADF model are validated by comparing the identified results with test results. The investigations have indicated that in order to reduce the influence of randomness caused by using the PSO algorithm on the accuracy of identified parameters, it is an effective method to increase the number of repeated identifications.

  6. Gapped smoothing algorithm applied to defect identification using pulsed thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Ye, Lin; Li, Eric; Shou, Dahua; Li, Zheng; Chang, Li

    2015-04-01

    On the basis of pulsed thermography, this article presents the development of a quantitative detection method for sub-surface defects. A two dimensional gapped smoothing algorithm (GSA) applied in this method to process the surface thermal distribution and no reference information is needed. A new thermal contrast is defined and a damage index based on the thermal contrast is proposed to estimate the probability of location of a defect, and differential curves of thermal contrast are applied for further quantification of defect size. One aluminium plate and one glass fibre reinforced composite laminate containing different depths of flat-bottom holes, delaminations and impurities are introduced to assess the performance of proposed method. Numerical and experimental results indicate that the influence of non-uniform heating is clearly suppressed. Compared with the differentiated absolute contrast approach, distinct enhancement of thermal contrast is achieved, and the location and size of sub-surface instances of damage can be quantitatively determined using the proposed method. The relation of damage index and flaw depth is investigated and a general expression is presented for the evaluation of flaw depth. The influence of the distribution density of the gapped grid on detection accuracy is further discussed. The proposed method, which is less dependent on the capture time, can be used for automatic detection and characterisation of defects. The reliability and applicability of the GSA applied to pulsed thermography are verified.

  7. A brightness-referenced star identification algorithm for APS star trackers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-10-08

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4~5 times that of the pyramid method and 35~37 times that of the geometric method.

  8. A Brightness-Referenced Star Identification Algorithm for APS Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4∼5 times that of the pyramid method and 35∼37 times that of the geometric method. PMID:25299950

  9. Parameters Identification of Fluxgate Magnetic Core Adopting the Biogeography-Based Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenjuan; Shi, Yunbo; Zhao, Wenjie; Wang, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The main part of the magnetic fluxgate sensor is the magnetic core, the hysteresis characteristic of which affects the performance of the sensor. When the fluxgate sensors are modelled for design purposes, an accurate model of hysteresis characteristic of the cores is necessary to achieve good agreement between modelled and experimental data. The Jiles-Atherton model is simple and can reflect the hysteresis properties of the magnetic material precisely, which makes it widely used in hysteresis modelling and simulation of ferromagnetic materials. However, in practice, it is difficult to determine the parameters accurately owing to the sensitivity of the parameters. In this paper, the Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm is applied to identify the Jiles-Atherton model parameters. To enhance the performances of the BBO algorithm such as global search capability, search accuracy and convergence rate, an improved Biogeography-Based Optimization (IBBO) algorithm is put forward by using Arnold map and mutation strategy of Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. Simulation results show that IBBO algorithm is superior to Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, Differential Evolution algorithm and BBO algorithm in identification accuracy and convergence rate. The IBBO algorithm is applied to identify Jiles-Atherton model parameters of selected permalloy. The simulation hysteresis loop is in high agreement with experimental data. Using permalloy as core of fluxgate probe, the simulation output is consistent with experimental output. The IBBO algorithm can identify the parameters of Jiles-Atherton model accurately, which provides a basis for the precise analysis and design of instruments and equipment with magnetic core. PMID:27347974

  10. Underwater measurements of muon intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorov, V. M.; Pustovetov, V. P.; Trubkin, Y. A.; Kirilenkov, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements of cosmic ray muon intensity deep underwater aimed at determining a muon absorption curve are of considerable interest, as they allow to reproduce independently the muon energy spectrum at sea level. The comparison of the muon absorption curve in sea water with that in rock makes it possible to determine muon energy losses caused by nuclear interactions. The data available on muon absorption in water and that in rock are not equivalent. Underground measurements are numerous and have been carried out down to the depth of approx. 15km w.e., whereas underwater muon intensity have been measured twice and only down to approx. 3km deep.

  11. Utilization of advanced clutter suppression algorithms for improved standoff detection and identification of radionuclide threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Shokhirev, Kirill; Mulhall, Phil; Payne, David; Harris, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Technology development efforts seek to increase the capability of detection systems in low Signal-to-Noise regimes encountered in both portal and urban detection applications. We have recently demonstrated significant performance enhancement in existing Advanced Spectroscopic Portals (ASP), Standoff Radiation Detection Systems (SORDS) and handheld isotope identifiers through the use of new advanced detection and identification algorithms. The Poisson Clutter Split (PCS) algorithm is a novel approach for radiological background estimation that improves the detection and discrimination capability of medium resolution detectors. The algorithm processes energy spectra and performs clutter suppression, yielding de-noised gamma-ray spectra that enable significant enhancements in detection and identification of low activity threats with spectral target recognition algorithms. The performance is achievable at the short integration times (0.5 - 1 second) necessary for operation in a high throughput and dynamic environment. PCS has been integrated with ASP, SORDS and RIID units and evaluated in field trials. We present a quantitative analysis of algorithm performance against data collected by a range of systems in several cluttered environments (urban and containerized) with embedded check sources. We show that the algorithm achieves a high probability of detection/identification with low false alarm rates under low SNR regimes. For example, utilizing only 4 out of 12 NaI detectors currently available within an ASP unit, PCS processing demonstrated Pd,ID > 90% at a CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) of 1 in 1000 occupancies against weak activity (7 - 8μCi) and shielded sources traveling through the portal at 30 mph. This vehicle speed is a factor of 6 higher than was previously possible and results in significant increase in system throughput and overall performance.

  12. A NEW ALGORITHM FOR RADIOISOTOPE IDENTIFICATION OF SHIELDED AND MASKED SNM/RDD MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffcoat, R.

    2012-06-05

    Detection and identification of shielded and masked nuclear materials is crucial to national security, but vast borders and high volumes of traffic impose stringent requirements for practical detection systems. Such tools must be be mobile, and hence low power, provide a low false alarm rate, and be sufficiently robust to be operable by non-technical personnel. Currently fielded systems have not achieved all of these requirements simultaneously. Transport modeling such as that done in GADRAS is able to predict observed spectra to a high degree of fidelity; our research is focusing on a radionuclide identification algorithm that inverts this modeling within the constraints imposed by a handheld device. Key components of this work include incorporation of uncertainty as a function of both the background radiation estimate and the hypothesized sources, dimensionality reduction, and nonnegative matrix factorization. We have partially evaluated performance of our algorithm on a third-party data collection made with two different sodium iodide detection devices. Initial results indicate, with caveats, that our algorithm performs as good as or better than the on-board identification algorithms. The system developed was based on a probabilistic approach with an improved approach to variance modeling relative to past work. This system was chosen based on technical innovation and system performance over algorithms developed at two competing research institutions. One key outcome of this probabilistic approach was the development of an intuitive measure of confidence which was indeed useful enough that a classification algorithm was developed based around alarming on high confidence targets. This paper will present and discuss results of this novel approach to accurately identifying shielded or masked radioisotopes with radiation detection systems.

  13. Nuclide identification algorithm based on K-L transform and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Wei, Yi-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Traditional spectrum analysis algorithm based on peak search is hard to deal with complex overlapped peaks, especially in bad resolution and high background conditions. This paper described a new nuclide identification method based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (K-L transform) and artificial neural networks. By the K-L transform and feature extraction, the nuclide gamma spectrum was compacted. The K-L transform coefficients were used as the neural network's input. The linear associative memory and ADALINE were discussed. Lots of experiments and tests showed that the method was credible and practical, especially suitable for fast nuclide identification.

  14. Reconstruction of muon tracks in a buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggi, S.; Insolia, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Trovato, E.

    2012-10-01

    The BATATA muon counter was designed as one of the foreseen detector upgrades of the Pierre Auger Observatory with the main goal of quantifying the electromagnetic contamination of the muon signal as a function of the depth for cosmic ray shower energies above 10 PeV. Nevertheless BATATA offers also the possibility of measuring the incoming direction of secondary muons from both GeV and PeV primary cosmic rays. Large efforts have been already done to quantify from simulations the amount of the electromagnetic contamination and the expected muon identification performances. The present work is focused on the evaluation of the detector performances for muon track reconstruction. To this aim and in view of the detector installation in the field, expected to be completed by the first half of current year, we performed a GEANT4 end-to-end simulation of such device and set up a track reconstruction procedure. Typical results concerning achieved acceptance and angular resolution for muons are presented.

  15. Crater Identification Algorithm for the Lost in Low Lunar Orbit Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanak, Chad; Crain, TImothy

    2010-01-01

    Recent emphasis by NASA on returning astronauts to the Moon has placed attention on the subject of lunar surface feature tracking. Although many algorithms have been proposed for lunar surface feature tracking navigation, much less attention has been paid to the issue of navigational state initialization from lunar craters in a lost in low lunar orbit (LLO) scenario. That is, a scenario in which lunar surface feature tracking must begin, but current navigation state knowledge is either unavailable or too poor to initiate a tracking algorithm. The situation is analogous to the lost in space scenario for star trackers. A new crater identification algorithm is developed herein that allows for navigation state initialization from as few as one image of the lunar surface with no a priori state knowledge. The algorithm takes as inputs the locations and diameters of craters that have been detected in an image, and uses the information to match the craters to entries in the USGS lunar crater catalog via non-dimensional crater triangle parameters. Due to the large number of uncataloged craters that exist on the lunar surface, a probability-based check was developed to reject false identifications. The algorithm was tested on craters detected in four revolutions of Apollo 16 LLO images, and shown to perform well.

  16. A novel impact identification algorithm based on a linear approximation with maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, N.; Meruane, V.; Ortiz-Bernardin, A.

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a novel impact identification algorithm that uses a linear approximation handled by a statistical inference model based on the maximum-entropy principle, termed linear approximation with maximum entropy (LME). Unlike other regression algorithms as artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines, the proposed algorithm requires only parameter to be selected and the impact is identified after solving a convex optimization problem that has a unique solution. In addition, with LME data is processed in a period of time that is comparable to the one of other algorithms. The performance of the proposed methodology is validated by considering an experimental aluminum plate. Time varying strain data is measured using four piezoceramic sensors bonded to the plate. To demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach over existing ones, results obtained via LME are compared with those of ANN and least square support vector machines. The results demonstrate that with a low number of sensors it is possible to accurately locate and quantify impacts on a structure and that LME outperforms other impact identification algorithms.

  17. A class of least-squares filtering and identification algorithms with systolic array architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalson, Seth Z.; Yao, Kung

    1991-01-01

    A unified approach is presented for deriving a large class of new and previously known time- and order-recursive least-squares algorithms with systolic array architectures, suitable for high-throughput-rate and VLSI implementations of space-time filtering and system identification problems. The geometrical derivation given is unique in that no assumption is made concerning the rank of the sample data correlation matrix. This method utilizes and extends the concept of oblique projections, as used previously in the derivations of the least-squares lattice algorithms. Exponentially weighted least-squares criteria are considered for both sliding and growing memory.

  18. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettoni, M.; Bettella, G.; Bonomi, G.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Cortelazzo, G.; Cossutta, L.; Donzella, A.; Furlan, M.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Rigoni Garola, A.; Ronchese, P.; Squarcia, S.; Subieta, M.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zanuttigh, P.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2013-12-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented.

  19. Algorithms for network-based identification of differential regulators from transcriptome data: a systematic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hui, YU; Ramkrishna, MITRA; Jing, YANG; YuanYuan, LI; ZhongMing, ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Identification of differential regulators is critical to understand the dynamics of cellular systems and molecular mechanisms of diseases. Several computational algorithms have recently been developed for this purpose by using transcriptome and network data. However, it remains largely unclear which algorithm performs better under a specific condition. Such knowledge is important for both appropriate application and future enhancement of these algorithms. Here, we systematically evaluated seven main algorithms (TED, TDD, TFactS, RIF1, RIF2, dCSA_t2t, and dCSA_r2t), using both simulated and real datasets. In our simulation evaluation, we artificially inactivated either a single regulator or multiple regulators and examined how well each algorithm detected known gold standard regulators. We found that all these algorithms could effectively discern signals arising from regulatory network differences, indicating the validity of our simulation schema. Among the seven tested algorithms, TED and TFactS were placed first and second when both discrimination accuracy and robustness against data variation were considered. When applied to two independent lung cancer datasets, both TED and TFactS replicated a substantial fraction of their respective differential regulators. Since TED and TFactS rely on two distinct features of transcriptome data, namely differential co-expression and differential expression, both may be applied as mutual references during practical application. PMID:25326829

  20. The Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2010-05-17

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R&D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R&D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  1. The Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-01-05

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R&D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R&D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  2. Muons and neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first generation of large and precise detectors, some initially dedicated to search for nucleon decay has accumulated significant statistics on neutrinos and high-energy muons. A second generation of even better and bigger detectors are already in operation or in advanced construction stage. The present set of experimental data on muon groups and neutrinos is qualitatively better than several years ago and the expectations for the following years are high. Composition studies with underground muon groups, neutrino detection, and expected extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes are discussed.

  3. Bearing fault component identification using information gain and machine learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinay, Vakharia; Kumar, Gupta Vijay; Kumar, Kankar Pavan

    2015-04-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to identify various bearing faults using machine learning algorithm. Vibration signals obtained from faults in inner race, outer race, rolling element and combined faults are considered. Raw vibration signal cannot be used directly since vibration signals are masked by noise. To overcome this difficulty combined time frequency domain method such as wavelet transform is used. Further wavelet selection criteria based on minimum permutation entropy is employed to select most appropriate base wavelet. Statistical features from selected wavelet coefficients are calculated to form feature vector. To reduce size of feature vector information gain attribute selection method is employed. Modified feature set is fed in to machine learning algorithm such as random forest and self-organizing map for getting maximize fault identification efficiency. Results obtained revealed that attribute selection method shows improvement in fault identification accuracy of bearing components.

  4. Subspace-based Identification Algorithm for characterizing causal networks in resting brain.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodaeian Bakhtiari, Shahab; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali

    2012-04-02

    The resting brain has been extensively investigated for low frequency synchrony between brain regions, namely Functional Connectivity (FC). However the other main stream of brain connectivity analysis that seeks causal interactions between brain regions, Effective Connectivity (EC), has been little explored. Inherent complexity of brain activities in resting-state, as observed in BOLD (Blood Oxygenation-Level Dependant) fluctuations, calls for exploratory methods for characterizing these causal networks. On the other hand, the inevitable effects that hemodynamic system imposes on causal inferences in fMRI data, lead us toward the methods in which causal inferences can take place in latent neuronal level, rather than observed BOLD time-series. To simultaneously satisfy these two concerns, in this paper, we introduce a novel state-space system identification approach for studying causal interactions among brain regions in the absence of explicit cognitive task. This algorithm is a geometrically inspired method for identification of stochastic systems, purely based on output observations. Using extensive simulations, three aspects of our proposed method are investigated: ability in discriminating existent interactions from non-existent ones, the effect of observation noise, and downsampling on algorithm performance. Our simulations demonstrate that Subspace-based Identification Algorithm (SIA) is sufficiently robust against above-mentioned factors, and can reliably uncover the underlying causal interactions of resting-state fMRI. Furthermore, in contrast to previously established state-space approaches in Effective Connectivity studies, this method is able to characterize causal networks with large number of brain regions. In addition, we utilized the proposed algorithm for identification of causal relationships underlying anti-correlation of default-mode and Dorsal Attention Networks during the rest, using fMRI. We observed that Default-Mode Network places in a

  5. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  6. An iterative Kalman smoother/least-squares algorithm for the identification of delta-ARX models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. A.; Anderson, S. R.; Kadirkamanathan, V.

    2010-07-01

    Additive measurement noise on the output signal is a significant problem in the δ-domain and disrupts parameter estimation of auto-regressive exogenous (ARX) models. This article deals with the identification of δ-domain linear time-invariant models of ARX structure (i.e. driven by known input signals and additive process noise) by using an iterative identification scheme, where the output is also corrupted by additive measurement noise. The identification proceeds by mapping the ARX model into a canonical state-space framework, where the states are the measurement noise-free values of the underlying variables. A consequence of this mapping is that the original parameter estimation task becomes one of both a state and parameter estimation problem. The algorithm steps between state estimation using a Kalman smoother and parameter estimation using least squares. This approach is advantageous as it avoids directly differencing the noise-corrupted 'raw' signals for use in the estimation phase and uses different techniques to the common parametric low-pass filters in the literature. Results of the algorithm applied to a simulation test problem as well as a real-world problem are given, and show that the algorithm converges quite rapidly and with accurate results.

  7. An Improved Algorithm of Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method for Firearm Evidence Identifications

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for firearm evidence identifications. The CMC method divides the measured image of a surface area, such as a breech face impression from a fired cartridge case, into small correlation cells and uses four identification parameters to identify correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The CMC method was validated by identification tests using both 3D topography images and optical images captured from breech face impressions of 40 cartridge cases fired from a pistol with 10 consecutively manufactured slides. In this paper, we discuss the processing of the cell correlations and propose an improved algorithm of the CMC method which takes advantage of the cell correlations at a common initial phase angle and combines the forward and backward correlations to improve the identification capability. The improved algorithm is tested by 780 pairwise correlations using the same optical images and 3D topography images as the initial validation. PMID:26958441

  8. Optimal sensor placement for time-domain identification using a wavelet-based genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Hossein; Razak, Hashim Abdul

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a wavelet-based genetic algorithm strategy for optimal sensor placement (OSP) effective for time-domain structural identification. Initially, the GA-based fitness evaluation is significantly improved by using adaptive wavelet functions. Later, a multi-species decimal GA coding system is modified to be suitable for an efficient search around the local optima. In this regard, a local operation of mutation is introduced in addition with regeneration and reintroduction operators. It is concluded that different characteristics of applied force influence the features of structural responses, and therefore the accuracy of time-domain structural identification is directly affected. Thus, the reliable OSP strategy prior to the time-domain identification will be achieved by those methods dealing with minimizing the distance of simulated responses for the entire system and condensed system considering the force effects. The numerical and experimental verification on the effectiveness of the proposed strategy demonstrates the considerably high computational performance of the proposed OSP strategy, in terms of computational cost and the accuracy of identification. It is deduced that the robustness of the proposed OSP algorithm lies in the precise and fast fitness evaluation at larger sampling rates which result in the optimum evaluation of the GA-based exploration and exploitation phases towards the global optimum solution.

  9. Final Progress Report: Isotope Identification Algorithm for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Radioisotopes Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Bounds, John Alan; Brumby, Steven P.; Prasad, Lakshman; Sullivan, John P.

    2012-04-30

    This is the final report of the project titled, 'Isotope Identification Algorithm for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Radioisotopes,' PMIS project number LA10-HUMANID-PD03. The goal of the work was to demonstrate principles of emulating a human analysis approach towards the data collected using radiation isotope identification devices (RIIDs). It summarizes work performed over the FY10 time period. The goal of the work was to demonstrate principles of emulating a human analysis approach towards the data collected using radiation isotope identification devices (RIIDs). Human analysts begin analyzing a spectrum based on features in the spectrum - lines and shapes that are present in a given spectrum. The proposed work was to carry out a feasibility study that will pick out all gamma ray peaks and other features such as Compton edges, bremsstrahlung, presence/absence of shielding and presence of neutrons and escape peaks. Ultimately success of this feasibility study will allow us to collectively explain identified features and form a realistic scenario that produced a given spectrum in the future. We wanted to develop and demonstrate machine learning algorithms that will qualitatively enhance the automated identification capabilities of portable radiological sensors that are currently being used in the field.

  10. CorPITA: An Automated Algorithm for the Identification and Analysis of Coronal "EIT Waves"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D. M.; Bloomfield, D. S.; Gallagher, P. T.; Pérez-Suárez, D.

    2014-09-01

    The continuous stream of data available from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) telescopes onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft has allowed a deeper understanding of the Sun. However, the sheer volume of data has necessitated the development of automated techniques to identify and analyse various phenomena. In this article, we describe the Coronal Pulse Identification and Tracking Algorithm ( CorPITA) for the identification and analysis of coronal "EIT waves". CorPITA uses an intensity-profile technique to identify the propagating pulse, tracking it throughout its evolution before returning estimates of its kinematics. The algorithm is applied here to a data set from February 2011, allowing its capabilities to be examined and critiqued. This algorithm forms part of the SDO Feature Finding Team initiative and will be implemented as part of the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK). This is the first fully automated algorithm to identify and track the propagating "EIT wave" rather than any associated phenomenon and will allow a deeper understanding of this controversial phenomenon.

  11. MS Amanda, a Universal Identification Algorithm Optimized for High Accuracy Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Today’s highly accurate spectra provided by modern tandem mass spectrometers offer considerable advantages for the analysis of proteomic samples of increased complexity. Among other factors, the quantity of reliably identified peptides is considerably influenced by the peptide identification algorithm. While most widely used search engines were developed when high-resolution mass spectrometry data were not readily available for fragment ion masses, we have designed a scoring algorithm particularly suitable for high mass accuracy. Our algorithm, MS Amanda, is generally applicable to HCD, ETD, and CID fragmentation type data. The algorithm confidently explains more spectra at the same false discovery rate than Mascot or SEQUEST on examined high mass accuracy data sets, with excellent overlap and identical peptide sequence identification for most spectra also explained by Mascot or SEQUEST. MS Amanda, available at http://ms.imp.ac.at/?goto=msamanda, is provided free of charge both as standalone version for integration into custom workflows and as a plugin for the Proteome Discoverer platform. PMID:24909410

  12. An efficient identification approach for stable and unstable nonlinear systems using Colliding Bodies Optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Pal, Partha S; Kar, R; Mandal, D; Ghoshal, S P

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient approach to identify different stable and practically useful Hammerstein models as well as unstable nonlinear process along with its stable closed loop counterpart with the help of an evolutionary algorithm as Colliding Bodies Optimization (CBO) optimization algorithm. The performance measures of the CBO based optimization approach such as precision, accuracy are justified with the minimum output mean square value (MSE) which signifies that the amount of bias and variance in the output domain are also the least. It is also observed that the optimization of output MSE in the presence of outliers has resulted in a very close estimation of the output parameters consistently, which also justifies the effective general applicability of the CBO algorithm towards the system identification problem and also establishes the practical usefulness of the applied approach. Optimum values of the MSEs, computational times and statistical information of the MSEs are all found to be the superior as compared with those of the other existing similar types of stochastic algorithms based approaches reported in different recent literature, which establish the robustness and efficiency of the applied CBO based identification scheme.

  13. Algorithm for the identification of malfunctioning sensors in the control systems of segmented mirror telescopes.

    PubMed

    Chanan, Gary; Nelson, Jerry

    2009-11-10

    The active control systems of segmented mirror telescopes are vulnerable to a malfunction of a few (or even one) of their segment edge sensors, the effects of which can propagate through the entire system and seriously compromise the overall telescope image quality. Since there are thousands of such sensors in the extremely large telescopes now under development, it is essential to develop fast and efficient algorithms that can identify bad sensors so that they can be removed from the control loop. Such algorithms are nontrivial; for example, a simple residual-to-the-fit test will often fail to identify a bad sensor. We propose an algorithm that can reliably identify a single bad sensor and we extend it to the more difficult case of multiple bad sensors. Somewhat surprisingly, the identification of a fixed number of bad sensors does not necessarily become more difficult as the telescope becomes larger and the number of sensors in the control system increases.

  14. Implementation of an algorithm for cylindrical object identification using range data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Sylvia T.; Martin, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    One of the problems in 3-D object identification and localization is addressed. In robotic and navigation applications the vision system must be able to distinguish cylindrical or spherical objects as well as those of other geometric shapes. An algorithm was developed to identify cylindrical objects in an image when range data is used. The algorithm incorporates the Hough transform for line detection using edge points which emerge from a Sobel mask. Slices of the data are examined to locate arcs of circles using the normal equations of an over-determined linear system. Current efforts are devoted to testing the computer implementation of the algorithm. Refinements are expected to continue in order to accommodate cylinders in various positions. A technique is sought which is robust in the presence of noise and partial occlusions.

  15. Neutron/muon correlation functions to improve neutron detection capabilities outside nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordinario, Donald Thomas

    The natural neutron background rate is largely due to cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere and the subsequent neutron emission from the interaction products. The neutron background is part of a larger cosmic radiation shower that also includes electrons, gamma rays, and muons. Since neutrons interact much differently than muons in building materials, the muon and neutron fluence rates in the natural background can be compared to the measured muon and neutron fluence rate when shielded by common building materials. The simultaneous measurement of muon and neutron fluence rates might allow for an earlier identification of man-made neutron sources, such as hidden nuclear materials. This study compares natural background neutron rates to computer simulated neutron rates shielded by common structural and building materials. The characteristic differences between neutrons and muons resulted in different attenuation properties under the same shielded conditions. Correlation functions between cosmic ray generated neutrons and muons are then used to predict neutron fluence rates in different urban environments.

  16. Design of a muon tomography system with a plastic scintillator and wavelength-shifting fiber arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyun-Il; An, Su Jung; Lee, Chae Young; Baek, Cheol-Ha; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Recently, monitoring nuclear materials to avoid nuclear terrorism has become an important area of national security. It can be difficult to detect gamma rays from nuclear material because they are easily shielded by shielding material. Muon tomography using multiple -Coulomb scattering derived from muons can be utilized to detect special nuclear materials (SNMs) such as uranium-235 and plutonium-239. We designed a muon tomography system composed of four detector modules. The incident and scattered muon tracks can be calculated by two top and two bottom detectors, respectively. 3D tomographic images are obtained by extracting the crossing points of muon tracks with a point-of-closest-approach algorithm. The purpose of this study was to optimize the muon tomography system using Monte Carlo simulation code. The effects of the geometric parameters of the muon tomography system on material Z-discrimination capability were simulated and evaluated.

  17. Fukushima Daiichi Muon Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    Japanese government announced cold-shutdown condition of the reactors at Fukushima Daiichi by the end of 2011, and mid- and long-term roadmap towards decommissioning has been drawn. However, little is known for the conditions of the cores because access to the reactors has been limited by the high radiation environment. The debris removal from the Unit 1 - 3 is planned to start as early as 2020, but the dismantlement is not easy without any realistic information of the damage to the cores, and the locations and amounts of the fuel debris. Soon after the disaster of Fukushima Daiichi, several teams in the US and Japan proposed to apply muon transmission or scattering imagings to provide information of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors without accessing inside the reactor building. GEANT4 modeling studies of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 and 2 showed clear superiority of the muon scattering method over conventional transmission method. The scattering method was demonstrated with a research reactor, Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA), where a fuel assembly was imaged with 3-cm resolution. The muon scattering imaging of Fukushima Daiichi was approved as a national project and is aiming at installing muon trackers to Unit 2. A proposed plan includes installation of muon trackers on the 2nd floor (operation floor) of turbine building, and in front of the reactor building. Two 7mx7m detectors were assembled at Toshiba and tested.

  18. An affine point-set and line invariant algorithm for photo-identification of gray whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandan, Chandan; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Hillman, Gilbert; Wursig, Bernd

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents an affine point-set and line invariant algorithm within a statistical framework, and its application to photo-identification of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). White patches (blotches) appearing on a gray whale's left and right flukes (the flattened broad paddle-like tail) constitute unique identifying features and have been used here for individual identification. The fluke area is extracted from a fluke image via the live-wire edge detection algorithm, followed by optimal thresholding of the fluke area to obtain the blotches. Affine point-set and line invariants of the blotch points are extracted based on three reference points, namely the left and right tips and the middle notch-like point on the fluke. A set of statistics is derived from the invariant values and used as the feature vector representing a database image. The database images are then ranked depending on the degree of similarity between a query and database feature vectors. The results show that the use of this algorithm leads to a reduction in the amount of manual search that is normally done by marine biologists.

  19. Advanced algorithms for the identification of mixtures using condensed-phase FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Andersson, Greger; Levy, Dustin; Tomczyk, Carol; Zou, Peng; Zuidema, Eric

    2011-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. Advances in instrument portability have made possible the use of FT-IR spectroscopy in emergency response and military field applications. The samples collected in those harsh environments are rarely pure and typically contain multiple chemical species in water, sand, or inorganic matrices. In such critical applications, it is also desired that in addition to broad chemical identification, the user is warned immediately if the sample contains a threat or target class material (i.e. biological, narcotic, explosive). The next generation HazMatID 360 combines the ruggedized design and functionality of the current HazMatID with advanced mixture analysis algorithms. The advanced FT-IR instrument allows effective chemical assessment of samples that may contain one or more interfering materials like water or dirt. The algorithm was the result of years of cumulative experience based on thousands of real-life spectra sent to our ReachBack spectral analysis service by customers in the field. The HazMatID 360 combines mixture analysis with threat detection and chemical hazard classification capabilities to provide, in record time, crucial information to the user. This paper will provide an overview of the software and algorithm enhancements, in addition to examples of improved performance in mixture identification.

  20. Precison Muon Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzog, David

    2013-04-01

    The worldwide, vibrant experimental program involving precision measurements with muons will be presented. Recent achievements in this field have greatly improved our knowledge of fundamental parameters: Fermi constant (lifetime), weak-nucleon pseudoscalar coupling (μp capture), Michel decay parameters, and the proton charged radius (Lamb shift). The charged-lepton-violating decay μ->eγ sets new physics limits. Updated Standard Model theory evaluations of the muon anomalous magnetic moment has increased the significance beyond 3 σ for the deviation with respect to experiment. Next-generation experiments are mounting, with ambitious sensitivity goals for the muon-to-electron search approaching 10-17 sensitivity and for a 0.14 ppm determination of g-2. The broad physics reach of these efforts involves atomic, nuclear and particle physics communities. I will select from recent work and outline the most important efforts that are in preparation.

  1. High effective algorithm of the detection and identification of substance using the noisy reflected THz pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Tikhomirov, Vasily V.

    2015-08-01

    Principal limitations of the standard THz-TDS method for the detection and identification are demonstrated under real conditions (at long distance of about 3.5 m and at a high relative humidity more than 50%) using neutral substances thick paper bag, paper napkins and chocolate. We show also that the THz-TDS method detects spectral features of dangerous substances even if the THz signals were measured in laboratory conditions (at distance 30-40 cm from the receiver and at a low relative humidity less than 2%); silicon-based semiconductors were used as the samples. However, the integral correlation criteria, based on SDA method, allows us to detect the absence of dangerous substances in the neutral substances. The discussed algorithm shows high probability of the substance identification and a reliability of realization in practice, especially for security applications and non-destructive testing.

  2. An algorithm for identification of substances using a finite set of secondary-emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, N. S.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    A problem of identification of chemical composition in the absence of sampling procedures is considered. A method that allows identification using spectra of a desired substance is proposed. The measure of the difference between spectral sets is determined. The method is employed in the experiments using a visible and near-UV Fourier spectrometer. The secondary emission of samples is excited by UV sources with maximum intensities at wavelengths of 280 and 310 nm. Anthracene, POPOP, PPO, stilbene, and tryptophan are used in experiments. The ROC curves are constructed and compared to specify the parameters that are used in the algorithm for searching for substances in the database of reference spectra. The results will make it possible to improve the reliability and applicability of express analyzers of chemical substances.

  3. An eigensystem realization algorithm using data correlations (ERA/DC) for modal parameter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Cooper, J. E.; Wright, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A modification to the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) for modal parameter identification is presented in this paper. The ERA minimum order realization approach using singular value decomposition is combined with the philosophy of the Correlation Fit method in state space form such that response data correlations rather than actual response values are used for modal parameter identification. This new method, the ERA using data correlations (ERA/DC), reduces bias errors due to noise corruption significantly without the need for model overspecification. This method is tested using simulated five-degree-of-freedom system responses corrupted by measurement noise. It is found for this case that, when model overspecification is permitted and a minimum order solution obtained via singular value truncation, the results from the two methods are of similar quality.

  4. Accelerated convergence of neural network system identification algorithms via principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, David C.; Davis, Lawrence D.; Denoyer, Keith K.

    1998-12-01

    While significant theoretical and experimental progress has been made in the development of neural network-based systems for the autonomous identification and control of space platforms, there remain important unresolved issues associated with the reliable prediction of convergence speed and the avoidance of inordinately slow convergence. To speed convergence of neural identifiers, we introduce the preprocessing of identifier inputs using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithms. Which automatically transform the neural identifier's external inputs so as to make the correlation matrix identity, resulting in enormous improvements in the convergence speed of the neural identifier. From a study of several such algorithms, we developed a new PCA approach which exhibits excellent convergence properties, insensitivity to noise and reliable accuracy.

  5. Enriched Imperialist Competitive Algorithm for system identification of magneto-rheological dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talatahari, Siamak; Rahbari, Nima Mohajer

    2015-10-01

    In the current research, the imperialist competitive algorithm is dramatically enhanced and a new optimization method dubbed as Enriched Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (EICA) is effectively introduced to deal with high non-linear optimization problems. To conduct a close examination of its functionality and efficacy, the proposed metaheuristic optimization approach is actively employed to sort out the parameter identification of two different types of hysteretic Bouc-Wen models which are simulating the non-linear behavior of MR dampers. Two types of experimental data are used for the optimization problems to minutely examine the robustness of the proposed EICA. The obtained results self-evidently demonstrate the high adaptability of EICA to suitably get to the bottom of such non-linear and hysteretic problems.

  6. Algorithmic identification of limnological features in vertical profiles from the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietsma, T.; Collingsworth, P.; Minsker, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    High volume collection of environmental data in digital format presents a range of challenges for the researcher, from quality control and data management to efficient interpretation of the signal and the development of requisite information technology skills. These challenges have been termed the "data deluge". To aid in efficient data interpretation, we describe several algorithmic approaches for feature identification in signal streams, including gradient estimation, spectral analysis, and the hidden Markov model. These approaches are calibrated and evaluated over vertical temperature profiles from the Great Lakes obtained through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. To demonstrate the value of this data science approach, we describe how the algorithms can be integrated with the historical sampling record to yield an expert system that assists field technicians with adaptive sampling.

  7. Identification of IPMC nonlinear model via single and multi-objective optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Caponetto, Riccardo; Graziani, Salvatore; Pappalardo, Fulvio; Sapuppo, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs) are electro-active polymers transforming mechanical forces into electric signals and vice versa. This paper proposes an improved electro-mechanical grey-box model for IPMC membrane working as actuator. In particular the IPMC nonlinearity has been characterized through experimentation and included within the electric model. Moreover identification of the model parameters has been performed via optimization algorithms using both single- and multi-objective formulation. Minimization was attained via the Nelder-Mead simplex and the Genetic Algorithms considering as cost functions the error between the experimental and modeled absorbed current and the error between experimental and modeled displacement. The obtained results for the different formulations have been then compared.

  8. MIDAS: a database-searching algorithm for metabolite identification in metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingfeng; Kora, Guruprasad; Bowen, Benjamin P; Pan, Chongle

    2014-10-07

    A database searching approach can be used for metabolite identification in metabolomics by matching measured tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) against the predicted fragments of metabolites in a database. Here, we present the open-source MIDAS algorithm (Metabolite Identification via Database Searching). To evaluate a metabolite-spectrum match (MSM), MIDAS first enumerates possible fragments from a metabolite by systematic bond dissociation, then calculates the plausibility of the fragments based on their fragmentation pathways, and finally scores the MSM to assess how well the experimental MS/MS spectrum from collision-induced dissociation (CID) is explained by the metabolite's predicted CID MS/MS spectrum. MIDAS was designed to search high-resolution tandem mass spectra acquired on time-of-flight or Orbitrap mass spectrometer against a metabolite database in an automated and high-throughput manner. The accuracy of metabolite identification by MIDAS was benchmarked using four sets of standard tandem mass spectra from MassBank. On average, for 77% of original spectra and 84% of composite spectra, MIDAS correctly ranked the true compounds as the first MSMs out of all MetaCyc metabolites as decoys. MIDAS correctly identified 46% more original spectra and 59% more composite spectra at the first MSMs than an existing database-searching algorithm, MetFrag. MIDAS was showcased by searching a published real-world measurement of a metabolome from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 against the MetaCyc metabolite database. MIDAS identified many metabolites missed in the previous study. MIDAS identifications should be considered only as candidate metabolites, which need to be confirmed using standard compounds. To facilitate manual validation, MIDAS provides annotated spectra for MSMs and labels observed mass spectral peaks with predicted fragments. The database searching and manual validation can be performed online at http://midas.omicsbio.org.

  9. Identification of handwriting by using the genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qigui; Deng, Kai

    2016-12-01

    As portable digital camera and a camera phone comes more and more popular, and equally pressing is meeting the requirements of people to shoot at any time, to identify and storage handwritten character. In this paper, genetic algorithm(GA) and support vector machine(SVM)are used for identification of handwriting. Compare with parameters-optimized method, this technique overcomes two defects: first, it's easy to trap in the local optimum; second, finding the best parameters in the larger range will affects the efficiency of classification and prediction. As the experimental results suggest, GA-SVM has a higher recognition rate.

  10. Simulated Measurements of Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mohayai, Tanaz; Rogers, Chris; Snopok, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Cooled muon beams set the basis for the exploration of physics of flavour at a Neutrino Factory and for multi-TeV collisions at a Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) measures beam emittance before and after an ionization cooling cell and aims to demonstrate emittance reduction in muon beams. In the current MICE Step IV configuration, the MICE muon beam passes through low-Z absorber material for reducing its transverse emittance through ionization energy loss. Two scintillating fiber tracking detectors, housed in spectrometer solenoid modules upstream and downstream of the absorber are used for reconstructing position and momentum of individual muons for calculating transverse emittance reduction. However, due to existence of non-linear effects in beam optics, transverse emittance growth can be observed. Therefore, it is crucial to develop algorithms that are insensitive to this apparent emittance growth. We describe a different figure of merit for measuring muon cooling which is the direct measurement of the phase space density.

  11. Cosmic ray muons for spent nuclear fuel monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos

    There is a steady increase in the volume of spent nuclear fuel stored on-site (at reactor) as currently there is no permanent disposal option. No alternative disposal path is available and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage containers is anticipated for the near future. In this dissertation, a capability to monitor spent nuclear fuel stored within dry casks using cosmic ray muons is developed. The motivation stems from the need to investigate whether the stored content agrees with facility declarations to allow proliferation detection and international treaty verification. Cosmic ray muons are charged particles generated naturally in the atmosphere from high energy cosmic rays. Using muons for proliferation detection and international treaty verification of spent nuclear fuel is a novel approach to nuclear security that presents significant advantages. Among others, muons have the ability to penetrate high density materials, are freely available, no radiological sources are required and consequently there is a total absence of any artificial radiological dose. A methodology is developed to demonstrate the applicability of muons for nuclear nonproliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel dry casks. Purpose is to use muons to differentiate between spent nuclear fuel dry casks with different amount of loading, not feasible with any other technique. Muon scattering and transmission are used to perform monitoring and imaging of the stored contents of dry casks loaded with spent nuclear fuel. It is shown that one missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the scattering distributions with 300,000 muons or more. A Bayesian monitoring algorithm was derived to allow differentiation of a fully loaded dry cask from one with a fuel assembly missing in the order of minutes and negligible error rate. Muon scattering and transmission simulations are used to reconstruct the stored contents of sealed dry casks

  12. Evaluation of sensor placement algorithms for on-orbit identification of space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassburn, Robin S.; Smith, Suzanne Weaver

    1994-01-01

    Anticipating the construction of the international space station, on-orbit modal identification of space platforms through optimally placed accelerometers is an area of recent activity. Unwanted vibrations in the platform could affect the results of experiments which are planned. Therefore, it is important that sensors (accelerometers) be strategically placed to identify the amount and extent of these unwanted vibrations, and to validate the mathematical models used to predict the loads and dynamic response. Due to cost, installation, and data management issues, only a limited number of sensors will be available for placement. This work evaluates and compares four representative sensor placement algorithms for modal identification. Most of the sensor placement work to date has employed only numerical simulations for comparison. This work uses experimental data from a fully-instrumented truss structure which was one of a series of structures designed for research in dynamic scale model ground testing of large space structures at NASA Langley Research Center. Results from this comparison show that for this cantilevered structure, the algorithm based on Guyan reduction is rated slightly better than that based on Effective Independence.

  13. Correcting encoder interpolation error on the Green Bank Telescope using an iterative model based identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Timothy; Weadon, Tim; Ford, John; Garcia-Sanz, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Various forms of measurement errors limit telescope tracking performance in practice. A new method for identifying the correcting coefficients for encoder interpolation error is developed. The algorithm corrects the encoder measurement by identifying a harmonic model of the system and using that model to compute the necessary correction parameters. The approach improves upon others by explicitly modeling the unknown dynamics of the structure and controller and by not requiring a separate system identification to be performed. Experience gained from pin-pointing the source of encoder error on the Green Bank Radio Telescope (GBT) is presented. Several tell-tale indicators of encoder error are discussed. Experimental data from the telescope, tested with two different encoders, are presented. Demonstration of the identification methodology on the GBT as well as details of its implementation are discussed. A root mean square tracking error reduction from 0.68 arc seconds to 0.21 arc sec was achieved by changing encoders and was further reduced to 0.10 arc sec with the calibration algorithm. In particular, the ubiquity of this error source is shown and how, by careful correction, it is possible to go beyond the advertised accuracy of an encoder.

  14. A measurement fusion method for nonlinear system identification using a cooperative learning algorithm.

    PubMed

    Xia, Youshen; Kamel, Mohamed S

    2007-06-01

    Identification of a general nonlinear noisy system viewed as an estimation of a predictor function is studied in this article. A measurement fusion method for the predictor function estimate is proposed. In the proposed scheme, observed data are first fused by using an optimal fusion technique, and then the optimal fused data are incorporated in a nonlinear function estimator based on a robust least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM). A cooperative learning algorithm is proposed to implement the proposed measurement fusion method. Compared with related identification methods, the proposed method can minimize both the approximation error and the noise error. The performance analysis shows that the proposed optimal measurement fusion function estimate has a smaller mean square error than the LS-SVM function estimate. Moreover, the proposed cooperative learning algorithm can converge globally to the optimal measurement fusion function estimate. Finally, the proposed measurement fusion method is applied to ARMA signal and spatial temporal signal modeling. Experimental results show that the proposed measurement fusion method can provide a more accurate model.

  15. Identification of moisture content in tobacco plant leaves using outlier sample eliminating algorithms and hyperspectral data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Zhou, Xin; Wu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Qinglin

    2016-02-26

    Fast identification of moisture content in tobacco plant leaves plays a key role in the tobacco cultivation industry and benefits the management of tobacco plant in the farm. In order to identify moisture content of tobacco plant leaves in a fast and nondestructive way, a method involving Mahalanobis distance coupled with Monte Carlo cross validation(MD-MCCV) was proposed to eliminate outlier sample in this study. The hyperspectral data of 200 tobacco plant leaf samples of 20 moisture gradients were obtained using FieldSpc(®) 3 spectrometer. Savitzky-Golay smoothing(SG), roughness penalty smoothing(RPS), kernel smoothing(KS) and median smoothing(MS) were used to preprocess the raw spectra. In addition, Mahalanobis distance(MD), Monte Carlo cross validation(MCCV) and Mahalanobis distance coupled to Monte Carlo cross validation(MD-MCCV) were applied to select the outlier sample of the raw spectrum and four smoothing preprocessing spectra. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to extract the most influential wavelengths. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied to build the prediction models based on preprocessed spectra feature in characteristic wavelengths. The results showed that the preferably four prediction model were MD-MCCV-SG (Rp(2) = 0.8401 and RMSEP = 0.1355), MD-MCCV-RPS (Rp(2) = 0.8030 and RMSEP = 0.1274), MD-MCCV-KS (Rp(2) = 0.8117 and RMSEP = 0.1433), MD-MCCV-MS (Rp(2) = 0.9132 and RMSEP = 0.1162). MD-MCCV algorithm performed best among MD algorithm, MCCV algorithm and the method without sample pretreatment algorithm in the eliminating outlier sample from 20 different moisture gradients of tobacco plant leaves and MD-MCCV can be used to eliminate outlier sample in the spectral preprocessing.

  16. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  17. Rotorcraft Blade Mode Damping Identification from Random Responses Using a Recursive Maximum Likelihood Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molusis, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    An on line technique is presented for the identification of rotor blade modal damping and frequency from rotorcraft random response test data. The identification technique is based upon a recursive maximum likelihood (RML) algorithm, which is demonstrated to have excellent convergence characteristics in the presence of random measurement noise and random excitation. The RML technique requires virtually no user interaction, provides accurate confidence bands on the parameter estimates, and can be used for continuous monitoring of modal damping during wind tunnel or flight testing. Results are presented from simulation random response data which quantify the identified parameter convergence behavior for various levels of random excitation. The data length required for acceptable parameter accuracy is shown to depend upon the amplitude of random response and the modal damping level. Random response amplitudes of 1.25 degrees to .05 degrees are investigated. The RML technique is applied to hingeless rotor test data. The inplane lag regressing mode is identified at different rotor speeds. The identification from the test data is compared with the simulation results and with other available estimates of frequency and damping.

  18. Rigid body mode identification of the PAH-2 helicopter using the eigensystem realization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Axel; Pappa, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The rigid body modes of the PAH-2 'Tiger' helicopter were identified using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA). This work complements ground vibration tests performed using DLR's traditional phase resonance technique and the ISSPA (Identification of Structural System Parameters) method. Rigid body modal parameters are important for ground resonance prediction. Time-domain data for ERA were obtained by inverse Fourier transformation of frequency response functions measured with stepped-sine excitation. Mode purity (based on the Phase Resonance Criterion) was generally equal to or greater than corresponding results obtained in the ground vibration tests. All identified natural frequencies and mode shapes correlate well with corresponding ground vibration test results. The modal identification approach discussed in this report has become increasingly attractive in recent years due to the steadily declining cost and increased performance of scientific computers. As illustrated in this application, modern time-domain methods can be successfully applied to data acquired using DLR's existing test equipment. Some suggestions are made for future applications of time domain modal identification in this manner.

  19. A novel algorithm for validating peptide identification from a shotgun proteomics search engine.

    PubMed

    Jian, Ling; Niu, Xinnan; Xia, Zhonghang; Samir, Parimal; Sumanasekera, Chiranthani; Mu, Zheng; Jennings, Jennifer L; Hoek, Kristen L; Allos, Tara; Howard, Leigh M; Edwards, Kathryn M; Weil, P Anthony; Link, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has revolutionized the proteomics analysis of complexes, cells, and tissues. In a typical proteomic analysis, the tandem mass spectra from a LC-MS/MS experiment are assigned to a peptide by a search engine that compares the experimental MS/MS peptide data to theoretical peptide sequences in a protein database. The peptide spectra matches are then used to infer a list of identified proteins in the original sample. However, the search engines often fail to distinguish between correct and incorrect peptides assignments. In this study, we designed and implemented a novel algorithm called De-Noise to reduce the number of incorrect peptide matches and maximize the number of correct peptides at a fixed false discovery rate using a minimal number of scoring outputs from the SEQUEST search engine. The novel algorithm uses a three-step process: data cleaning, data refining through a SVM-based decision function, and a final data refining step based on proteolytic peptide patterns. Using proteomics data generated on different types of mass spectrometers, we optimized the De-Noise algorithm on the basis of the resolution and mass accuracy of the mass spectrometer employed in the LC-MS/MS experiment. Our results demonstrate De-Noise improves peptide identification compared to other methods used to process the peptide sequence matches assigned by SEQUEST. Because De-Noise uses a limited number of scoring attributes, it can be easily implemented with other search engines.

  20. A Novel Algorithm for Validating Peptide Identification from a Shotgun Proteomics Search Engine

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Ling; Niu, Xinnan; Xia, Zhonghang; Samir, Parimal; Sumanasekera, Chiranthani; Zheng, Mu; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Hoek, Kristen L.; Allos, Tara; Howard., Leigh M.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Weil, P. Anthony; Link, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry has revolutionized the proteomics analysis of complexes, cells, and tissues. In a typical proteomic analysis, the tandem mass spectra from a LC/MS/MS experiment are assigned to a peptide by a search engine that compares the experimental MS/MS peptide data to theoretical peptide sequences in a protein database. The peptide spectra matches are then used to infer a list of identified proteins in the original sample. However, the search engines often fail to distinguish between correct and incorrect peptides assignments. In this study, we designed and implemented a novel algorithm called De-Noise to reduce the number of incorrect peptide matches and maximize the number of correct peptides at a fixed false discovery rate using a minimal number of scoring outputs from the SEQUEST search engine. The novel algorithm uses a three step process: data cleaning, data refining through a SVM-based decision function, and a final data refining step based on proteolytic peptide patterns. Using proteomics data generated on different types of mass spectrometers, we optimized the De-Noise algorithm based on the resolution and mass accuracy of the mass spectrometer employed in the LC/MS/MS experiment. Our results demonstrate De-Noise improves peptide identification compared to other methods used to process the peptide sequence matches assigned by SEQUEST. Because De-Noise uses a limited number of scoring attributes, it can be easily implemented with other search engines. PMID:23402659

  1. SNSMIL, a real-time single molecule identification and localization algorithm for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yunqing; Dai, Luru; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Junbai; Hendriks, Johnny; Fan, Xiaoming; Gruteser, Nadine; Meisenberg, Annika; Baumann, Arnd; Katranidis, Alexandros; Gensch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule localization based super-resolution fluorescence microscopy offers significantly higher spatial resolution than predicted by Abbe’s resolution limit for far field optical microscopy. Such super-resolution images are reconstructed from wide-field or total internal reflection single molecule fluorescence recordings. Discrimination between emission of single fluorescent molecules and background noise fluctuations remains a great challenge in current data analysis. Here we present a real-time, and robust single molecule identification and localization algorithm, SNSMIL (Shot Noise based Single Molecule Identification and Localization). This algorithm is based on the intrinsic nature of noise, i.e., its Poisson or shot noise characteristics and a new identification criterion, QSNSMIL, is defined. SNSMIL improves the identification accuracy of single fluorescent molecules in experimental or simulated datasets with high and inhomogeneous background. The implementation of SNSMIL relies on a graphics processing unit (GPU), making real-time analysis feasible as shown for real experimental and simulated datasets. PMID:26098742

  2. Advanced applications of cosmic-ray muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, John

    The passage of cosmic-ray muons through matter is dominated by the Coulomb interaction with electrons and atomic nuclei. The muon's interaction with electrons leads to continuous energy loss and stopping through the process of ionization. The muon's interaction with nuclei leads to angular diffusion. If a muon stops in matter, other processes unfold, as discussed in more detail below. These interactions provide the basis for advanced applications of cosmic-ray muon radiography discussed here, specifically: 1) imaging a nuclear reactor with near horizontal muons, and 2) identifying materials through the analysis of radiation lengths weighted by density and secondary signals that are induced by cosmic-ray muon trajectories. We have imaged a nuclear reactor, type AGN-201m, at the University of New Mexico, using data measured with a particle tracker built from a set of sealed drift tubes, the Mini Muon Tracker (MMT). Geant4 simulations were compared to the data for verification and validation. In both the data and simulation, we can identify regions of interest in the reactor including the core, moderator, and shield. This study reinforces our claims for using muon tomography to image reactors following an accident. Warhead and special nuclear materials (SNM) imaging is an important thrust for treaty verification and national security purposes. The differentiation of SNM from other materials, such as iron and aluminum, is useful for these applications. Several techniques were developed for material identification using cosmic-ray muons. These techniques include: 1) identifying the radiation length weighted by density of an object and 2) measuring the signals that can indicate the presence of fission and chain reactions. By combining the radiographic images created by tracking muons through a target plane with the additional fission neutron and gamma signature, we are able to locate regions that are fissionable from a single side. The following materials were imaged

  3. On muon energy spectrum in muon groups underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, M. V.; Stenkin, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described which was used to measure muon energy spectrum characteristics in muon groups underground using mu-e decays recording. The Baksan Telescope's experimental data on mu-e decays intensity in muon groups of various multiplicities are analyzed. The experimental data indicating very flat spectrum does not however represent the total spectrum in muon groups. Obviously the muon energy spectrum depends strongly on a distance from the group axis. The core attraction effect makes a significant distortion, making the spectrum flatter. After taking this into account and making corrections for this effect the integral total spectrum index in groups has a very small depencence on muon multiplicity and agrees well with expected one: beta=beta (sub expected) = 1.75.

  4. Reconstruction and identification of $\\tau$ lepton decays to hadrons and $\

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-01-29

    This paper describes the algorithms used by the CMS experiment to reconstruct and identify τ→ hadrons + vt decays during Run 1 of the LHC. The performance of the algorithms is studied in proton-proton collisions recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The algorithms achieve an identification efficiency of 50–60%, with misidentification rates for quark and gluon jets, electrons, and muons between per mille and per cent levels.

  5. Reconstruction and identification of $$\\tau$$ lepton decays to hadrons and $$\

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-01-29

    This paper describes the algorithms used by the CMS experiment to reconstruct and identify τ→ hadrons + vt decays during Run 1 of the LHC. The performance of the algorithms is studied in proton-proton collisions recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The algorithms achieve an identification efficiency of 50–60%, with misidentification rates for quark and gluon jets, electrons, and muons between per mille and per cent levels.

  6. Output-only modal dynamic identification of frames by a refined FDD algorithm at seismic input and high damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioldi, Fabio; Ferrari, Rosalba; Rizzi, Egidio

    2016-02-01

    The present paper deals with the seismic modal dynamic identification of frame structures by a refined Frequency Domain Decomposition (rFDD) algorithm, autonomously formulated and implemented within MATLAB. First, the output-only identification technique is outlined analytically and then employed to characterize all modal properties. Synthetic response signals generated prior to the dynamic identification are adopted as input channels, in view of assessing a necessary condition for the procedure's efficiency. Initially, the algorithm is verified on canonical input from random excitation. Then, modal identification has been attempted successfully at given seismic input, taken as base excitation, including both strong motion data and single and multiple input ground motions. Rather than different attempts investigating the role of seismic response signals in the Time Domain, this paper considers the identification analysis in the Frequency Domain. Results turn-out very much consistent with the target values, with quite limited errors in the modal estimates, including for the damping ratios, ranging from values in the order of 1% to 10%. Either seismic excitation and high values of damping, resulting critical also in case of well-spaced modes, shall not fulfill traditional FFD assumptions: this shows the consistency of the developed algorithm. Through original strategies and arrangements, the paper shows that a comprehensive rFDD modal dynamic identification of frames at seismic input is feasible, also at concomitant high damping.

  7. Muon Production Height from the Muon Tracking Detector in KASCADE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, C.; Antoni, T.; Apel, W. D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Blümer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Feßler, F.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K-H.; Klages, H. O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Müller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Vardanyan, A.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    2003-07-01

    The Muon Tracking Detector (MTD; Eµh =0.8 GeV) [5] of the KASCADEt Grande experiment enables the analysis of the longitudinal shower development by means of the Muon production Height (MPH). The analysis employes radial and tangential angles of the muon track with respect to the shower direction, and the distance of the muon hit to the shower core. Comparing analysed MPH of distributions with Monte Carlo simulations (CORSIKA) [6] an increase of ln A d f the primary cosmic rays with lg(Nµr ) is observed. t

  8. Prototype Performance of Novel Muon Telescope Detector at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlusty, David; Ruan, Lijuan

    2008-04-01

    A large area of muon telescope detector is proposed to measure muons of momentum at a few GeV/c at mid-rapidity, allowing for the detection of di-muon pairs from QGP thermal radiation, quarkonia, light vector mesons, possible correlations of quarks and gluons as resonances in QGP, and Drell-Yan production as well as the measurement of heavy flavor hadrons through their semi-leptonic decays into single muons. The R&D research has been carried out for this large area Muon Telescope Detector (MTD). The multi-gap resistive plate chamber technology with large module, long strips and two-end readout (Long-MRPC) was used for this research. The results from cosmic ray and beam test will be presented to address intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for Long-MRPC. Besides, a single prototype of MTD was installed in STAR during the 200 GeV Au+Au run in spring 2007. The detector consists of a long-MRPC layer between two layers of scintillator planes. They are placed outside of the magnet yoke that serves as hadron absorber. We will present results from this prototype run. Muon identification capability, timing and spatial resolution will be reported. We also discuss the implication of these tests on the physics performance and capabilities of full scale detector.

  9. Study Of Sensor Spectral Responses And Data Processing Algorithms And Architectures For Onboard Feature Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, F. O.; Davis, R. E.; Fales, C. L.; Aherron, R. M.

    1982-11-01

    A computational model of the deterministic and stochastic processes involved in remote sensing is used to study spectral feature identification techniques for real-time onboard processing of data acquired with advanced Earth-resources sensors. Preliminary results indicate that: Narrow spectral responses are advantageous; signal normalization improves mean-square distance (MDS) classification accuracy but tends to degrade maximum-likelihood (MLH) classification accuracy; and MSD classification of normalized signals performs better than the computationally more complex MLH classification when imaging conditions change appreciably from those conditions during which reference data were acquired. The results also indicate that autonomous categorization of TM signals into vegetation, bare land, water, snow and clouds can be accomplished with adequate reliability for many applications over a reasonably wide range of imaging conditions. However, further analysis is required to develop computationally efficient boundary approximation algorithms for such categorization.

  10. Study of sensor spectral responses and data processing algorithms and architectures for onboard feature identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Davis, R. E.; Fales, C. L.; Aherron, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    A computational model of the deterministic and stochastic processes involved in remote sensing is used to study spectral feature identification techniques for real-time onboard processing of data acquired with advanced earth-resources sensors. Preliminary results indicate that: Narrow spectral responses are advantageous; signal normalization improves mean-square distance (MSD) classification accuracy but tends to degrade maximum-likelihood (MLH) classification accuracy; and MSD classification of normalized signals performs better than the computationally more complex MLH classification when imaging conditions change appreciably from those conditions during which reference data were acquired. The results also indicate that autonomous categorization of TM signals into vegetation, bare land, water, snow and clouds can be accomplished with adequate reliability for many applications over a reasonably wide range of imaging conditions. However, further analysis is required to develop computationally efficient boundary approximation algorithms for such categorization.

  11. A Benchmark for Evaluation of Algorithms for Identification of Cellular Correlates of Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Aghaeepour, Nima; Chattopadhyay, Pratip; Chikina, Maria; Dhaene, Tom; Van Gassen, Sofie; Kursa, Miron; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Malek, Mehrnoush; Qian, Yu; Qiu, Peng; Saeys, Yvan; Stanton, Rick; Tong, Dong; Vens, Celine; Walkowiak, Sławomir; Wang, Kui; Finak, Greg; Gottardo, Raphael; Mosmann, Tim; Nolan, Garry; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Brinkman, Ryan R.

    2016-01-01

    The Flow Cytometry: Critical Assessment of Population Identification Methods (FlowCAP) challenges were established to compare the performance of computational methods for identifying cell populations in multidimensional flow cytometry data. Here we report the results of FlowCAP-IV where algorithms from seven different research groups predicted the time to progression to AIDS among a cohort of 384 HIV+ subjects, using antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples analyzed with a 14-color staining panel. Two approaches (FlowReMi.1 and flowDensity-flowType-RchyOptimyx) provided statistically significant predictive value in the blinded test set. Manual validation of submitted results indicated that unbiased analysis of single cell phenotypes could reveal unexpected cell types that correlated with outcomes of interest in high dimensional flow cytometry datasets. PMID:26447924

  12. Variance and bias confidence criteria for ERA modal parameter identification. [Eigensystem Realization Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longman, Richard W.; Bergmann, Martin; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1988-01-01

    For the ERA system identification algorithm, perturbation methods are used to develop expressions for variance and bias of the identified modal parameters. Based on the statistics of the measurement noise, the variance results serve as confidence criteria by indicating how likely the true parameters are to lie within any chosen interval about their identified values. This replaces the use of expensive and time-consuming Monte Carlo computer runs to obtain similar information. The bias estimates help guide the ERA user in his choice of which data points to use and how much data to use in order to obtain the best results, performing the trade-off between the bias and scatter. Also, when the uncertainty in the bias is sufficiently small, the bias information can be used to correct the ERA results. In addition, expressions for the variance and bias of the singular values serve as tools to help the ERA user decide the proper modal order.

  13. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  14. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  15. The genetic-algorithm-enhanced blind system identification for water distribution pipeline leak detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2007-07-01

    The conventional leak location is based on the correlation of leak acoustic signals acquired spatially separately. By correlation, the time lag is estimated for localizing the leakage. In these methods, the detection distance is a prerequisite that has to be known beforehand. However, in practice, this prerequisite is not always satisfied. In this case, the correlation-based methods are not feasible. Actually, the acquired signals contain the characteristics related to the acoustic propagation channels; thus the blind system identification strategy is applied to estimate the transmission performances of acoustic channels. Then the times due to the propagation of the leak source signal travelling from the leak point to sensors are determined. In this way, for leak location, the detection distance is no longer a prerequisite. In blind system identification, due to the long impulse responses of the leak acoustic channels, the channels are inevitably ill conditioned and sensitive to the initial values. To overcome the ill conditions, the overlap-save and cross-correlation fitting techniques are utilized to identify the long impulse sequences under a built constraint. In order to avoid converging to the local minima, the genetic algorithm is used to minimize the cost functions. The practical detection results show the validity of the proposed scheme.

  16. [Research on the Source Identification of Mine Water Inrush Based on LIF Technology and SIMCA Algorithm].

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng-cheng; Zhou, Meng-ran; Liu, Qi-meng; Zhang, Kai-yuan; He, Chen-yang

    2016-01-01

    Rapid source identification of mine water inrush is of great significance for early warning and prevention in mine water hazard. According to the problem that traditional chemical methods to identify source takes a long time, put forward a method for rapid source identification of mine water inrush with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technology and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) algorithm. Laser induced fluorescence technology has the characteristics of fast analysis, high sensitivity and so on. With the laser assisted, fluorescence spectrums can be collected real-time by the fluorescence spectrometer. According to the fluorescence spectrums, the type of water samples can be identified. If the database is completed, it takes a few seconds for coal mine water source identification, so it is of great significance for early warning and post-disaster relief in coal mine water disaster. The experiment uses 405 nm laser emission laser into the 5 kinds of water inrush samples and get 100 groups of fluorescence spectrum, and then put all fluorescence spectrums into preprocessing. Use 15 group spectrums of each water inrush samples, a total of 75 group spectrums, as the prediction set, the rest of 25 groups spectrums as the test set. Using principal component analysis (PCA) to modeling the 5 kinds of water samples respectively, and then classify the water samples with SIMCA on the basis of the PCA model. It was found that the fluorescence spectrum are obvious different of different water inrush samples. The fluorescence spectrums after preprocessing of Gaussian-Filter, under the condition of the principal component number is 2 and the significant level α = 5%, the accuracy of prediction set and testing set are all 100% with the SIMCA to classify the water inrush samples.

  17. Identification of regulatory modules in time series gene expression data using a linear time biclustering algorithm.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Sara C; Teixeira, Miguel C; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Oliveira, Arlindo L

    2010-01-01

    Although most biclustering formulations are NP-hard, in time series expression data analysis, it is reasonable to restrict the problem to the identification of maximal biclusters with contiguous columns, which correspond to coherent expression patterns shared by a group of genes in consecutive time points. This restriction leads to a tractable problem. We propose an algorithm that finds and reports all maximal contiguous column coherent biclusters in time linear in the size of the expression matrix. The linear time complexity of CCC-Biclustering relies on the use of a discretized matrix and efficient string processing techniques based on suffix trees. We also propose a method for ranking biclusters based on their statistical significance and a methodology for filtering highly overlapping and, therefore, redundant biclusters. We report results in synthetic and real data showing the effectiveness of the approach and its relevance in the discovery of regulatory modules. Results obtained using the transcriptomic expression patterns occurring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to heat stress show not only the ability of the proposed methodology to extract relevant information compatible with documented biological knowledge but also the utility of using this algorithm in the study of other environmental stresses and of regulatory modules in general.

  18. XSTREAM: A practical algorithm for identification and architecture modeling of tandem repeats in protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Aaron M; Cooper, James B

    2007-01-01

    Background Biological sequence repeats arranged in tandem patterns are widespread in DNA and proteins. While many software tools have been designed to detect DNA tandem repeats (TRs), useful algorithms for identifying protein TRs with varied levels of degeneracy are still needed. Results To address limitations of current repeat identification methods, and to provide an efficient and flexible algorithm for the detection and analysis of TRs in protein sequences, we designed and implemented a new computational method called XSTREAM. Running time tests confirm the practicality of XSTREAM for analyses of multi-genome datasets. Each of the key capabilities of XSTREAM (e.g., merging, nesting, long-period detection, and TR architecture modeling) are demonstrated using anecdotal examples, and the utility of XSTREAM for identifying TR proteins was validated using data from a recently published paper. Conclusion We show that XSTREAM is a practical and valuable tool for TR detection in protein and nucleotide sequences at the multi-genome scale, and an effective tool for modeling TR domains with diverse architectures and varied levels of degeneracy. Because of these useful features, XSTREAM has significant potential for the discovery of naturally-evolved modular proteins with applications for engineering novel biostructural and biomimetic materials, and identifying new vaccine and diagnostic targets. PMID:17931424

  19. Obtaining material identification with cosmic ray radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Borozdin, Konstantin; Bacon, Jeffrey; Chen, Elliott; Lukic, Zarija; Milner, Edward; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Schwellenbach, Dave; Aberle, Derek; Dreesen, Wendi; Green, J. Andrew; McDuff, George G.; Nagamine, Kanetada; Sossong, Michael; Spore, Candace; Toleman, Nathan

    2012-12-15

    The passage of muons through matter is dominated by the Coulomb interaction with electrons and nuclei in the matter. The muon interaction with the electrons leads to continuous energy loss and stopping of the muons. The muon interaction with nuclei leads to angular diffusion. Using both stopped muons and angle diffusion interactions allows us to determine density and identify materials. Here we demonstrate material identification using data taken at Los Alamos with a particle tracker built from a set of sealed drift tubes with commercial electronics and software, the Mini Muon Tracker (MMT).

  20. New Advanced Source Identification Algorithm (ASIA-NEW) for radiation monitors with plastic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Stavrov, Andrei; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2015-07-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM) with plastic detectors represent the main instruments used for primary border (customs) radiation control. RPM are widely used because they are simple, reliable, relatively inexpensive and have a high sensitivity. However, experience using the RPM in various countries has revealed the systems have some grave shortcomings. There is a dramatic decrease of the probability of detection of radioactive sources under high suppression of the natural gamma background (radiation control of heavy cargoes, containers and, especially, trains). NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) existing in objects under control trigger the so-called 'nuisance alarms', requiring a secondary inspection for source verification. At a number of sites, the rate of such alarms is so high it significantly complicates the work of customs and border officers. This paper presents a brief description of new variant of algorithm ASIA-New (New Advanced Source Identification Algorithm), which was developed by the authors and based on some experimental test results. It also demonstrates results of different tests and the capability of a new system to overcome the shortcomings stated above. New electronics and ASIA-New enables RPM to detect radioactive sources under a high background suppression (tested at 15-30%) and to verify the detected NORM (KCl) and the artificial isotopes (Co-57, Ba-133 and other). New variant of ASIA is based on physical principles and does not require a lot of special tests to attain statistical data for its parameters. That is why this system can be easily installed into any RPM with plastic detectors. This algorithm was tested for 1,395 passages of different transports (cars, trucks and trailers) without radioactive sources. It also was tested for 4,015 passages of these transports with radioactive sources of different activity (Co-57, Ba-133, Cs-137, Co-60, Ra-226, Th-232) and these sources masked by NORM (K-40) as well. (authors)

  1. A heuristic algorithm for pattern identification in large multivariate analysis of geophysical data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Pereira, João Eduardo; Strieder, Adelir José; Amador, Janete Pereira; da Silva, José Luiz Silvério; Volcato Descovi Filho, Leônidas Luiz

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to present a heuristic algorithm with factor analysis and a local search optimization system for pattern identification problems as applied to large and multivariate aero-geophysical data. The algorithm was developed in MATLAB code using both multivariate and univariate methodologies. Two main analysis steps are detailed in the MATLAB code: the first deals with multivariate factor analysis to reduce the problem of dimension, and to orient the variables in an independent and orthogonal structure; and the second with the application of a novel local research optimization system based on univariate structure. The process of local search is simple and consistent because it solves a multivariate problem by summing up univariate and independent problems. Thus, it can reduce computational time and render the efficiency of estimates independent of the data bank. The aero-geophysical data include the results of the magnetometric and gammaspectrometric (TC, K, Th, and U channels) surveys for the Santa Maria region (RS, Brazil). After the classification, when the observations are superimposed on the regional map, one can see that data belonging to the same subspace appear closer to each other revealing some physical law governing area pattern distribution. The analysis of variance for the original variables as functions of the subspaces obtained results in different mean behaviors for all the variables. This result shows that the use of factor transformation captures the discriminative capacity of the original variables. The proposed algorithm for multivariate factor analysis and the local search system open up new challenges in aero-geophysical data handling and processing techniques.

  2. Binomial probability distribution model-based protein identification algorithm for tandem mass spectrometry utilizing peak intensity information.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chuan-Le; Chen, Xiao-Zhou; Du, Yang-Li; Sun, Xuesong; Zhang, Gong; He, Qing-Yu

    2013-01-04

    Mass spectrometry has become one of the most important technologies in proteomic analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a major tool for the analysis of peptide mixtures from protein samples. The key step of MS data processing is the identification of peptides from experimental spectra by searching public sequence databases. Although a number of algorithms to identify peptides from MS/MS data have been already proposed, e.g. Sequest, OMSSA, X!Tandem, Mascot, etc., they are mainly based on statistical models considering only peak-matches between experimental and theoretical spectra, but not peak intensity information. Moreover, different algorithms gave different results from the same MS data, implying their probable incompleteness and questionable reproducibility. We developed a novel peptide identification algorithm, ProVerB, based on a binomial probability distribution model of protein tandem mass spectrometry combined with a new scoring function, making full use of peak intensity information and, thus, enhancing the ability of identification. Compared with Mascot, Sequest, and SQID, ProVerB identified significantly more peptides from LC-MS/MS data sets than the current algorithms at 1% False Discovery Rate (FDR) and provided more confident peptide identifications. ProVerB is also compatible with various platforms and experimental data sets, showing its robustness and versatility. The open-source program ProVerB is available at http://bioinformatics.jnu.edu.cn/software/proverb/ .

  3. Development of a Near-Real Time Hail Damage Swath Identification Algorithm for Vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Schultz, Lori A.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Burks, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The Midwest is home to one of the world's largest agricultural growing regions. Between the time period of late May through early September, and with irrigation and seasonal rainfall these crops are able to reach their full maturity. Using moderate to high resolution remote sensors, the monitoring of the vegetation can be achieved using the red and near-infrared wavelengths. These wavelengths allow for the calculation of vegetation indices, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The vegetation growth and greenness, in this region, grows and evolves uniformly as the growing season progresses. However one of the biggest threats to Midwest vegetation during the time period is thunderstorms that bring large hail and damaging winds. Hail and wind damage to crops can be very expensive to crop growers and, damage can be spread over long swaths associated with the tracks of the damaging storms. Damage to the vegetation can be apparent in remotely sensed imagery and is visible from space after storms slightly damage the crops, allowing for changes to occur slowly over time as the crops wilt or more readily apparent if the storms strip material from the crops or destroy them completely. Previous work on identifying these hail damage swaths used manual interpretation by the way of moderate and higher resolution satellite imagery. With the development of an automated and near-real time hail swath damage identification algorithm, detection can be improved, and more damage indicators be created in a faster and more efficient way. The automated detection of hail damage swaths will examine short-term, large changes in the vegetation by differencing near-real time eight day NDVI composites and comparing them to post storm imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Terra and Aqua and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi NPP. In addition land surface temperatures from these instruments will be examined as

  4. An ECG-based Algorithm for the Automatic Identification of Autonomic Activations Associated with Cortical Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Griefahn, Barbara; Müller, Uwe; Plath, Gernot; Samel, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    supplement visual EEG arousal scoring by this automatic, objective, reproducible, cheap, and time-saving method. Citation: Basner M; Griefahn B; Müller U; Plath G; Samel A. An ECG-based Algorithm for the automatic identification of autonomic activations associated with cortical arousal. SLEEP 2007;30(10):1349-1361. PMID:17969469

  5. Ionization Cooling for Muon Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Neuffer, D.; Prebys, E.

    2014-09-18

    Possible application for muon experiments such as mu2e is discussed of the initial part of the ionization cooling channel originally developed for muon collider. It is shown that with the FNAL Booster as the proton driver the mu2e sensitivity can be increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the presently considered experiment.

  6. The D0 muon system and early results on its performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, D. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-10-01

    The D0 detector is a large, general-purpose detector designed to take full advantage of the 2 TeV energy of the Fermilab collider. The design of the experiment emphasizes accurate identification, complete angular acceptance, and precise measurement of the decay products of W and Z bosons: charged leptons (both electrons and muons), quarks and gluons, which emerge as collimated jets of particles, and noninteracting particles, such as neutrinos. The primary physics goals of D0 include searching for new phenomena, such as the top quark or particles outside the standard model, and high-precision studies of the W and Z bosons. In addition, the excellent muon identification will allow the study of b-quark production and decay. This report will describe D0's muon system, give preliminary measurements of chamber and trigger rates, and discuss muon identification.

  7. Adaptive infinite impulse response system identification using modified-interior search algorithm with Lèvy flight.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manjeet; Rawat, Tarun Kumar; Aggarwal, Apoorva

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new meta-heuristic optimization technique, called interior search algorithm (ISA) with Lèvy flight is proposed and applied to determine the optimal parameters of an unknown infinite impulse response (IIR) system for the system identification problem. ISA is based on aesthetics, which is commonly used in interior design and decoration processes. In ISA, composition phase and mirror phase are applied for addressing the nonlinear and multimodal system identification problems. System identification using modified-ISA (M-ISA) based method involves faster convergence, single parameter tuning and does not require derivative information because it uses a stochastic random search using the concepts of Lèvy flight. A proper tuning of control parameter has been performed in order to achieve a balance between intensification and diversification phases. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, mean square error (MSE), computation time and percentage improvement are considered as the performance measure. To validate the performance of M-ISA based method, simulations has been carried out for three benchmarked IIR systems using same order and reduced order system. Genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), cat swarm optimization (CSO), cuckoo search algorithm (CSA), differential evolution using wavelet mutation (DEWM), firefly algorithm (FFA), craziness based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO), harmony search (HS) algorithm, opposition based harmony search (OHS) algorithm, hybrid particle swarm optimization-gravitational search algorithm (HPSO-GSA) and ISA are also used to model the same examples and simulation results are compared. Obtained results confirm the efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. A fuzzy Petri-net-based mode identification algorithm for fault diagnosis of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Propes, Nicholas C.; Vachtsevanos, George

    2003-08-01

    Complex dynamical systems such as aircraft, manufacturing systems, chillers, motor vehicles, submarines, etc. exhibit continuous and event-driven dynamics. These systems undergo several discrete operating modes from startup to shutdown. For example, a certain shipboard system may be operating at half load or full load or may be at start-up or shutdown. Of particular interest are extreme or "shock" operating conditions, which tend to severely impact fault diagnosis or the progression of a fault leading to a failure. Fault conditions are strongly dependent on the operating mode. Therefore, it is essential that in any diagnostic/prognostic architecture, the operating mode be identified as accurately as possible so that such functions as feature extraction, diagnostics, prognostics, etc. can be correlated with the predominant operating conditions. This paper introduces a mode identification methodology that incorporates both time- and event-driven information about the process. A fuzzy Petri net is used to represent the possible successive mode transitions and to detect events from processed sensor signals signifying a mode change. The operating mode is initialized and verified by analysis of the time-driven dynamics through a fuzzy logic classifier. An evidence combiner module is used to combine the results from both the fuzzy Petri net and the fuzzy logic classifier to determine the mode. Unlike most event-driven mode identifiers, this architecture will provide automatic mode initialization through the fuzzy logic classifier and robustness through the combining of evidence of the two algorithms. The mode identification methodology is applied to an AC Plant typically found as a component of a shipboard system.

  9. Comparison and Evaluation of Ship Detection and Identification Algorithms Using Small Boats and ALOS-PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong-In; Wang, Haipeng; Ouchi, Kazuo

    The final goal of the present project is to develop a ship detection and identification system by integrating spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ground-based maritime radar and automatic identification system (AIS); and this article presents the results of the first phase experiments and current status toward achieving this goal. The data acquired by the Phased Array L-band SAR (PALSAR) on board of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) were used as SAR data, and X-band maritime radar including AIS were used as a ground-based system. The work is divided into two experimental phases. The first phase is to examine the ability of PALSAR to detect ships whose sizes are comparable with the SAR resolution cells, and the second is to incorporate the PALSAR data with those acquired by the ground-based radar with AIS. For the experiments in the first phase, we deployed three small fishing boats whose lengths ranged from approximately 8 m to 15m in the Tosa Bay in Kochi, Japan in 2006. The experiments were carried out for four observation PALSAR modes: FBS (Fine Beam Single) 34.3, FBS 21.5, FBD (Fine Beam Double) 41.5, and PLR (PoLaRimetric) 20.5, where the numbers in each modes represent the off-nadir angles. For extracting the boats from the PALSAR images, five algorithms were considered, including amplitude-based, CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate), MLCC (Multi-Look Cross-Correlation), CCF (Cross-Correlation Function) of HH- and HV-polarization amplitudes, and polarimetric analyses. This paper summarizes the results of the first phase experiments; the summary of the integrated system in the second phase will be reported in the near future.

  10. The development of a near-real time hail damage swath identification algorithm for vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Jordan R.

    The central United States is primarily covered in agricultural lands with a growing season that peaks during the same time as the region's climatological maximum for severe weather. These severe thunderstorms can bring large hail that can cause extensive areas of crop damage, which can be difficult to survey from the ground. Satellite remote sensing can help with the identification of these damaged areas. This study examined three techniques for identifying damage using satellite imagery that could be used in the development of a near-real time algorithm formulated for the detection of damage to agriculture caused by hail. The three techniques: a short term Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) change product, a modified Vegetation Health Index (mVHI) that incorporates both NDVI and land surface temperature (LST), and a feature detection technique based on NDVI and LST anomalies were tested on a single training case and five case studies. Skill scores were computed for each of the techniques during the training case and each case study. Among the best-performing case studies, the probability of detection (POD) for the techniques ranged from 0.527 - 0.742. Greater skill was noted for environments that occurred later in the growing season over areas where the land cover was consistently one or two types of uniform vegetation. The techniques struggled in environments where the land cover was not able to provide uniform vegetation, resulting in POD of 0.067 - 0.223. The feature detection technique was selected to be used for the near-real-time algorithm, based on the consistent performance throughout the entire growing season.

  11. Research and Development of Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

  12. The Reconstruction Software for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, A.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Adey, D.; Hanlet, P.; Heidt, C.

    2014-01-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling, for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. In order to measure the change in emittance, MICE is equipped with a pair of high precision scintillating fibre trackers. The trackers are required to measure a 10% change in emittance to 1% accuracy (giving an overall precision of 0.1%). This paper describes the tracker reconstruction software, as a part of the overall MICE software framework, MAUS. Channel clustering is described, proceeding to the formation of space-points, which are then associated with particle tracks using pattern recognition algorithms. Finally a full custom Kalman track fit is performed, to account for energy loss and multiple scattering. Exemplar results are shown for Monte Carlo data.

  13. System identification algorithm analysis of acupuncture effect on mean blood flux of contralateral hegu acupoint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangjun; Han, Jianguo; Litscher, Gerhard; Zhang, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    Background. Acupoints (belonging to 12 meridians) which have the same names are symmetrically distributed on the body. It has been proved that acupoints have certain biological specificities different from the normal parts of the body. However, there is little evidence that acupoints which have the same name and are located bilaterally and symmetrically have lateralized specificity. Thus, researching the lateralized specificity and the relationship between left-side and right-side acupuncture is of special importance. Methodology and Principal Findings. The mean blood flux (MBF) in both Hegu acupoints was measured by Moor full-field laser perfusion imager. With the method of system identification algorithm, the output distribution in different groups was acquired, based on different acupoint stimulation and standard signal input. It is demonstrated that after stimulation of the right Hegu acupoint by needle, the output value of MBF in contralateral Hegu acupoint was strongly amplified, while after acupuncturing the left Hegu acupoint, the output value of MBF in either side Hegu acupoint was amplified moderately. Conclusions and Significance. This paper indicates that the Hegu acupoint has lateralized specificity. After stimulating the ipsilateral Hegu acupoint, symmetry breaking will be produced in contrast to contralateral Hegu acupoint stimulation.

  14. The MeSsI (merging systems identification) algorithm and catalogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Los Rios, Martín; Domínguez R., Mariano J.; Paz, Dante; Merchán, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Merging galaxy systems provide observational evidence of the existence of dark matter and constraints on its properties. Therefore, statistically uniform samples of merging systems would be a powerful tool for several studies. In this paper, we present a new methodology for the identification of merging systems and the results of its application to galaxy redshift surveys. We use as a starting point a mock catalogue of galaxy systems, identified using friends-of-friends algorithms, that have experienced a major merger, as indicated by its merger tree. By applying machine learning techniques in this training sample, and using several features computed from the observable properties of galaxy members, it is possible to select galaxy groups that have a high probability of having experienced a major merger. Next, we apply a mixture of Gaussian techniques on galaxy members in order to reconstruct the properties of the haloes involved in such mergers. This methodology provides a highly reliable sample of merging systems with low contamination and precisely recovered properties. We apply our techniques to samples of galaxy systems obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, the Wide-Field Nearby Galaxy-Cluster Survey (WINGS) and the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS). Our results recover previously known merging systems and provide several new candidates. We present their measured properties and discuss future analysis on current and forthcoming samples.

  15. Computational identification of human long intergenic non-coding RNAs using a GA-SVM algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanqiu; Li, Yang; Wang, Qi; Lv, Yingli; Wang, Shiyuan; Chen, Xi; Yu, Xuexin; Jiang, Wei; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a new type of non-coding RNAs and are closely related with the occurrence and development of diseases. In previous studies, most lincRNAs have been identified through next-generation sequencing. Because lincRNAs exhibit tissue-specific expression, the reproducibility of lincRNA discovery in different studies is very poor. In this study, not including lincRNA expression, we used the sequence, structural and protein-coding potential features as potential features to construct a classifier that can be used to distinguish lincRNAs from non-lincRNAs. The GA-SVM algorithm was performed to extract the optimized feature subset. Compared with several feature subsets, the five-fold cross validation results showed that this optimized feature subset exhibited the best performance for the identification of human lincRNAs. Moreover, the LincRNA Classifier based on Selected Features (linc-SF) was constructed by support vector machine (SVM) based on the optimized feature subset. The performance of this classifier was further evaluated by predicting lincRNAs from two independent lincRNA sets. Because the recognition rates for the two lincRNA sets were 100% and 99.8%, the linc-SF was found to be effective for the prediction of human lincRNAs.

  16. LateBiclustering: Efficient Heuristic Algorithm for Time-Lagged Bicluster Identification.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Joana P; Madeira, Sara C

    2014-01-01

    Identifying patterns in temporal data is key to uncover meaningful relationships in diverse domains, from stock trading to social interactions. Also of great interest are clinical and biological applications, namely monitoring patient response to treatment or characterizing activity at the molecular level. In biology, researchers seek to gain insight into gene functions and dynamics of biological processes, as well as potential perturbations of these leading to disease, through the study of patterns emerging from gene expression time series. Clustering can group genes exhibiting similar expression profiles, but focuses on global patterns denoting rather broad, unspecific responses. Biclustering reveals local patterns, which more naturally capture the intricate collaboration between biological players, particularly under a temporal setting. Despite the general biclustering formulation being NP-hard, considering specific properties of time series has led to efficient solutions for the discovery of temporally aligned patterns. Notably, the identification of biclusters with time-lagged patterns, suggestive of transcriptional cascades, remains a challenge due to the combinatorial explosion of delayed occurrences. Herein, we propose LateBiclustering, a sensible heuristic algorithm enabling a polynomial rather than exponential time solution for the problem. We show that it identifies meaningful time-lagged biclusters relevant to the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heat stress.

  17. Implementation of a conjugate gradient algorithm for thermal diffusivity identification in a moving boundaries system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, L.; Autrique, L.; Gillet, M.

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the thermal diffusivity identification of a multilayered material dedicated to fire protection. In a military framework, fire protection needs to meet specific requirements, and operational protective systems must be constantly improved in order to keep up with the development of new weapons. In the specific domain of passive fire protections, intumescent coatings can be an effective solution on the battlefield. Intumescent materials have the ability to swell up when they are heated, building a thick multi-layered coating which provides efficient thermal insulation to the underlying material. Due to the heat aggressions (fire or explosion) leading to the intumescent phenomena, high temperatures are considered and prevent from linearization of the mathematical model describing the system state evolution. Previous sensitivity analysis has shown that the thermal diffusivity of the multilayered intumescent coating is a key parameter in order to validate the predictive numerical tool and therefore for thermal protection optimisation. A conjugate gradient method is implemented in order to minimise the quadratic cost function related to the error between predicted temperature and measured temperature. This regularisation algorithm is well adapted for a large number of unknown parameters.

  18. Development and validation of the Overlap Muon Track Finder for the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobosz, J.; Mietki, P.; Zawistowski, K.; Żarnecki, G.

    2016-09-01

    Present article is a description of the authors contribution in upgrade and analysis of performance of the Level-1 Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment. The authors are students of University of Warsaw and Gdansk University of Technology. They are collaborating with the CMS Warsaw Group. This article summarises students' work presented during the Students session during the Workshop XXXVIII-th IEEE-SPIE Joint Symposium Wilga 2016. In the first section the CMS experiment is briefly described and the importance of the trigger system is explained. There is also shown basic difference between old muon trigger strategy and the upgraded one. The second section is devoted to Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF). This is one of the crucial components of the Level-1 Muon Trigger. The algorithm of OMTF is described. In the third section there is discussed one of the event selection aspects - cut on the muon transverse momentum pT . Sometimes physical muon with pT bigger than a certain threshold is unnecessarily cut and physical muon with lower pT survives. To improve pT selection modified algorithm was proposed and its performance was studied. One of the features of the OMTF is that one physical muon often results in several muon candidates. The Ghost-Buster algorithm is designed to eliminate surplus candidates. In the fourth section this algorithm and its performance on different data samples are discussed. In the fifth section Local Data Acquisition System (Local DAQ) is briefly described. It supports initial system commissioning. The test done with OMTF Local DAQ are described. In the sixth section there is described development of web application used for the control and monitoring of CMS electronics. The application provides access to graphical user interface for manual control and the connection to the CMS hierarchical Run Control.

  19. Muon Simulation at the Daya Bay SIte

    SciTech Connect

    Mengyun, Guan; Jun, Cao; Changgen, Yang; Yaxuan, Sun; Luk, Kam-Biu

    2006-05-23

    With a pretty good-resolution mountain profile, we simulated the underground muon background at the Daya Bay site. To get the sea-level muon flux parameterization, a modification to the standard Gaisser's formula was introduced according to the world muon data. MUSIC code was used to transport muon through the mountain rock. To deploy the simulation, first we generate a statistic sample of sea-level muon events according to the sea-level muon flux distribution formula; then calculate the slant depth of muon passing through the mountain using an interpolation method based on the digitized data of the mountain; finally transport muons through rock to get underground muon sample, from which we can get results of muon flux, mean energy, energy distribution and angular distribution.

  20. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  1. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel M.

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  2. Delivering the world's most intense muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; D'Arcy, R.; Edmonds, A.; Fukuda, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Lancaster, M.; Mori, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Tran, N. H.; Truong, N. M.; Wing, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2017-03-01

    A new muon beam line, the muon science innovative channel, was set up at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, in Osaka, Japan, using the 392 MeV proton beam impinging on a target. The production of an intense muon beam relies on the efficient capture of pions, which subsequently decay to muons, using a novel superconducting solenoid magnet system. After the pion-capture solenoid, the first 36° of the curved muon transport line was commissioned and the muon flux was measured. In order to detect muons, a target of either copper or magnesium was placed to stop muons at the end of the muon beam line. Two stations of plastic scintillators located upstream and downstream from the muon target were used to reconstruct the decay spectrum of muons. In a complementary method to detect negatively charged muons, the x-ray spectrum yielded by muonic atoms in the target was measured in a germanium detector. Measurements, at a proton beam current of 6 pA, yielded (10.4 ±2.7 )×1 05 muons per watt of proton beam power (μ+ and μ-), far in excess of other facilities. At full beam power (400 W), this implies a rate of muons of (4.2 ±1.1 )×1 08 muons s-1 , among the highest in the world. The number of μ- measured was about a factor of 10 lower, again by far the most efficient muon beam produced. The setup is a prototype for future experiments requiring a high-intensity muon beam, such as a muon collider or neutrino factory, or the search for rare muon decays which would be a signature for phenomena beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Such a muon beam can also be used in other branches of physics, nuclear and condensed matter, as well as other areas of scientific research.

  3. Measurement of muon intensity by Cerenkov method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Li, G. J.; Bai, G. Z.; Liu, J. G.; Geng, Q. X.; Ling, J.

    1985-01-01

    Optical detection is an important technique in studies and observations of air showers, muons and relevant phenomena. The muon intensity is measured in a proper energy range and to study some problems about Cerenkov radiation of cosmic rays are studied, by a muon-telescope operated with Cerenkov detector. It is found that the measured muon intensity agrees with the integral energy spectrum of cosmic ray muons.

  4. Simulation of Underground Muon Flux with Application to Muon Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Lintereur, A.; Kouzes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Muon tomography uses highly energetic muons, produced by cosmic rays interacting within the upper atmosphere, to image dense materials. Like x-rays, an image can be constructed from the negative of the absorbed (or scattered) muons. Unlike x-rays, these muons can penetrate thousands of meters of earth. Muon tomography has been shown to be useful across a wide range of applications (such as imaging of the interior of volcanoes and cargo containers). This work estimates the sensitivity of muon tomography for various underground applications. We use simulations to estimate the change in flux as well as the spatial resolution when imaging static objects, such as mine shafts, and dynamic objects, such as a CO2 reservoir filling over time. We present a framework where we import ground density data from other sources, such as wells, gravity and seismic data, to generate an expected muon flux distribution at specified underground locations. This information can further be fed into a detector simulation to estimate a final experimental sensitivity. There are many applications of this method. We explore its use to image underground nuclear test sites, both the deformation from the explosion as well as the supporting infrastructure (access tunnels and shafts). We also made estimates for imaging a CO2 sequestration site similar to Futuregen 2.0 in Illinois and for imaging magma chambers beneath the Cascade Range volcanoes. This work may also be useful to basic science, such as underground dark matter experiments, where increasing experimental sensitivity requires, amongst other factors, a precise knowledge of the muon background.

  5. Muon capture in deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, E.; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-06-01

    Model dependence of the capture rates of the negative muon capture in deuterium is studied starting from potential models and the weak two-body meson exchange currents constructed in the tree approximation and also from an effective field theory. The tree one-boson exchange currents are derived from the hard pion chiral Lagrangians of the NΔπρωa system. If constructed in conjunction with the one-boson exchange potentials, the capture rates can be calculated consistently. On the other hand, the effective field theory currents, constructed within the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, contain a low energy constant d that cannot be extracted from data at the one-particle level nor determined from the first principles. Comparative analysis of the results for the doublet transition rate allows us to extract the constant d.

  6. Multi-color space threshold segmentation and self-learning k-NN algorithm for surge test EUT status identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Liu, Gui-xiong

    2016-09-01

    The identification of targets varies in different surge tests. A multi-color space threshold segmentation and self-learning k-nearest neighbor algorithm ( k-NN) for equipment under test status identification was proposed after using feature matching to identify equipment status had to train new patterns every time before testing. First, color space (L*a*b*, hue saturation lightness (HSL), hue saturation value (HSV)) to segment was selected according to the high luminance points ratio and white luminance points ratio of the image. Second, the unknown class sample S r was classified by the k-NN algorithm with training set T z according to the feature vector, which was formed from number of pixels, eccentricity ratio, compactness ratio, and Euler's numbers. Last, while the classification confidence coefficient equaled k, made S r as one sample of pre-training set T z '. The training set T z increased to T z+1 by T z ' if T z ' was saturated. In nine series of illuminant, indicator light, screen, and disturbances samples (a total of 21600 frames), the algorithm had a 98.65%identification accuracy, also selected five groups of samples to enlarge the training set from T 0 to T 5 by itself.

  7. Alignment and measurement of the magnetic field for the BESIII muon counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qing; Zhang, Jing-Zhi; Li, Chun-Hua; Yin, Jun-Hao

    2016-11-01

    Based on cosmic ray events without a magnetic field taken with the BESIII detector during the summer shutdown of BEPCII in 2012 and di-muon events from a data sample taken at center-of-mass energy of 3.686 GeV in 2009, we compare the coordinates of hits registered in the BESIII muon counter with the expected interaction point extrapolated from reconstructed tracks from the inner tracking system in the absence of a magnetic field. By minimizing the difference, we align the muon counter with the inner tracking system. Moreover, the strength of the magnetic field in the muon counter is measured for the first time with di-muon events from data taken at a center-of-mass energy of 3.686 GeV. After the alignment and the magnetic field strength measurement, the offsets in the reconstructed hit positions for muon tracks are reduced, which improves the muon identification. The alignment and magnetic field strength measurement have been adopted in the latest version of the BESIII offline software system. This addition to the software reduces the systematic uncertainty for the physics analysis in cases where the muon counter information is used. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856701), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11475187, 11575198, 11521505), 100 Talents Program of CAS (U-25)

  8. Using image processing technology combined with decision tree algorithm in laryngeal video stroboscope automatic identification of common vocal fold diseases.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey Kuo, Chung-Feng; Wang, Po-Chun; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wang, Hsing-Won; Lai, Chun-Yu

    2013-10-01

    This study used the actual laryngeal video stroboscope videos taken by physicians in clinical practice as the samples for experimental analysis. The samples were dynamic vocal fold videos. Image processing technology was used to automatically capture the image of the largest glottal area from the video to obtain the physiological data of the vocal folds. In this study, an automatic vocal fold disease identification system was designed, which can obtain the physiological parameters for normal vocal folds, vocal paralysis and vocal nodules from image processing according to the pathological features. The decision tree algorithm was used as the classifier of the vocal fold diseases. The identification rate was 92.6%, and the identification rate with an image recognition improvement processing procedure after classification can be improved to 98.7%. Hence, the proposed system has value in clinical practices.

  9. Dose from slow negative muons.

    PubMed

    Siiskonen, T

    2008-01-01

    Conversion coefficients from fluence to ambient dose equivalent, from fluence to maximum dose equivalent and quality factors for slow negative muons are examined in detail. Negative muons, when stopped, produce energetic photons, electrons and a variety of high-LET particles. Contribution from each particle type to the dose equivalent is calculated. The results show that for the high-LET particles the details of energy spectra and decay yields are important for accurate dose estimates. For slow negative muons the ambient dose equivalent does not always yield a conservative estimate for the protection quantities. Especially, the skin equivalent dose is strongly underestimated if the radiation-weighting factor of unity for slow muons is used. Comparisons to earlier studies are presented.

  10. LINACS FOR FUTURE MUON FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Slawomir Bogacz, Rolland Johnson

    2008-10-01

    Future Muon Colliders (MC) and Neutrino Factories (NF) based on muon storage rings will require innovative linacs to: produce the muons, cool them, compress longi-tudinally and ‘shape’ them into a beam and finally to rap-idly accelerate them to multi-GeV (NF) and TeV (MC) energies. Each of these four linac applications has new requirements and opportunities that follow from the na-ture of the muon in that it has a short lifetime (τ = 2.2 μsec) in its own rest frame, it is produced in a tertiary process into a large emittance, and its electron, photon, and neutrino decay products can be more than an annoy-ance. As an example, for optimum performance, the linac repetition rates should scale inversely with the laboratory lifetime of the muon in its storage ring, something as high as 1 kHz for a 40 GeV Neutrino Factory or as low as 20 Hz for a 5 TeV Muon Collider. A superconducting 8 GeV Linac capable of CW operation is being studied as a ver-satile option for muon production [1] for colliders, facto-ries, and muon beams for diverse purposes. A linac filled with high pressure hydrogen gas and imbedded in strong magnetic fields has been proposed to rapidly cool muon beams [2]. Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) are possible because muons do not generate significant syn-chrotron radiation even at extremely high energy and in strong magnetic fields. We will describe the present status of linacs for muon applications; in particular the longitu-dinal bunch compression in a single pass linac and multi-pass acceleration in the RLA, especially the optics and technical requirements for RLA designs, using supercon-ducting RF cavities capable of simultaneous acceleration of both μ+ and μ- species, with pulsed linac quadrupoles to allow the maximum number of passes. The design will include the optics for the multi-pass linac and droplet-shaped return arcs.

  11. Muon spin rotation in solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    The muon spin rotation (MuSR) technique is used to probe the microscopic electron density in materials. High temperature MuSR and magnetization measurements in nickel are in progress to allow an unambiguous determination of the muon impurity interaction and the impurity induced change in local spin density. The first results on uniaxial stress induced frequency shifts in an Fe single crystal are also reported.

  12. The muon and the electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, V. W.

    Our present understanding of the muon and of its relationship to the electron is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the contributions of atomic physics to this topic. A large body of precise experimental data has been obtained, and all this evidence still indicates that the muon is a pointlike lepton which has the same electroweak interactions given by the standard theory as does the electron, and hence the muon differs from the electron only in its larger mass. There is as yet no understanding of the relationship of the muon (or tau particle) to the electron, or of a spectrum comprising these apparently independent lepton generations. Nous rappelons ce qui est actuellement compris du muon et de sa relation avec l'électron, en insistant sur les contributions de la Physique Atomique à ce sujet. Une large masse de données expérimentales est maintenant acquise, et tout concourt à indiquer que le muon est une particule ponctuelle qui a les mêmes interactions électrofaibles, données par la théorie standard, que l'électron, et ainsi que le muon ne diffère de l'électron que par une masse plus grande. Il n'y a jusqu'à présent aucune interprétation de cette relation du muon (ou de la particule tau) avec l'électron, ou d'un spectre comprenant ces générations de leptons apparemment indépendants.

  13. Processor core for real time background identification of HD video based on OpenCV Gaussian mixture model algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore

    2013-05-01

    The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the OpenCV version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the OpenCV GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.

  14. A component-level failure detection and identification algorithm based on open-loop and closed-loop state estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Seung-Han; Cho, Young Man; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a component-level failure detection and identification (FDI) algorithm for a cascade mechanical system subsuming a plant driven by an actuator unit. The novelty of the FDI algorithm presented in this study is that it is able to discriminate failure occurring in the actuator unit, the sensor measuring the output of the actuator unit, and the plant driven by the actuator unit. The proposed FDI algorithm exploits the measurement of the actuator unit output together with its estimates generated by open-loop (OL) and closed-loop (CL) estimators to enable FDI at the component's level. In this study, the OL estimator is designed based on the system identification of the actuator unit. The CL estimator, which is guaranteed to be stable against variations in the plant, is synthesized based on the dynamics of the entire cascade system. The viability of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS), which shows that it can detect and identify target failures reliably in the presence of plant uncertainties.

  15. Zero-G experimental validation of a robotics-based inertia identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggemann, Jeremy J.; Ferrel, Ivann; Martinez, Gerardo; Xie, Pu; Ma, Ou

    2010-04-01

    The need to efficiently identify the changing inertial properties of on-orbit spacecraft is becoming more critical as satellite on-orbit services, such as refueling and repairing, become increasingly aggressive and complex. This need stems from the fact that a spacecraft's control system relies on the knowledge of the spacecraft's inertia parameters. However, the inertia parameters may change during flight for reasons such as fuel usage, payload deployment or retrieval, and docking/capturing operations. New Mexico State University's Dynamics, Controls, and Robotics Research Group has proposed a robotics-based method of identifying unknown spacecraft inertia properties1. Previous methods require firing known thrusts then measuring the thrust, and the velocity and acceleration changes. The new method utilizes the concept of momentum conservation, while employing a robotic device powered by renewable energy to excite the state of the satellite. Thus, it requires no fuel usage or force and acceleration measurements. The method has been well studied in theory and demonstrated by simulation. However its experimental validation is challenging because a 6- degree-of-freedom motion in a zero-gravity condition is required. This paper presents an on-going effort to test the inertia identification method onboard the NASA zero-G aircraft. The design and capability of the test unit will be discussed in addition to the flight data. This paper also introduces the design and development of an airbearing based test used to partially validate the method, in addition to the approach used to obtain reference value for the test system's inertia parameters that can be used for comparison with the algorithm results.

  16. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    ScienceCinema

    Tourun, Yagmur [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2016-07-12

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be "at least 20 years away" for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  17. A new method for imaging nuclear threats using cosmic ray muons

    DOE PAGES

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; ...

    2013-08-29

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to generate three-dimensional images of volumes using information contained in the Coulomb scattering of the muons. Advantages of this technique are the ability of cosmic rays to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose delivered to subjects under study beyond the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the relatively long exposure times and poor position resolution and complex algorithms needed for reconstruction. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new method for obtaining improved position resolution and statistical precision for objects with spherical symmetry.

  18. A new method for imaging nuclear threats using cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Rose, Evan; Watson, Scott; White, Tim; Aberle, Derek; Green, J. Andrew; McDuff, George G.; Lukić, Zarija; Milner, Edward C.

    2013-08-15

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to generate three dimensional images of volumes using information contained in the Coulomb scattering of the muons. Advantages of this technique are the ability of cosmic rays to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose delivered to subjects under study above the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the relatively long exposure times and poor position resolution and complex algorithms needed for reconstruction. Here we demonstrate a new method for obtaining improved position resolution and statistical precision for objects with spherical symmetry.

  19. Quasi-isochronous muon collection channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Neuffer, David; Johnson, Rolland P.

    2015-04-26

    Intense muon beams have many potential commercial and scientific applications, ranging from low-energy investigations of the basic properties of matter using spin resonance to large energy-frontier muon colliders. However, muons originate from a tertiary process that produces a diffuse swarm. To make useful beams, the swarm must be rapidly captured and cooled before the muons decay. In this STTR project a promising new concept for the collection and cooling of muon beams to increase their intensity and reduce their emittances was investigated, namely, the use of a nearly isochronous helical cooling channel (HCC) to facilitate capture of the muons into RF bunches. The muon beam can then be cooled quickly and coalesced efficiently to optimize the luminosity of a muon collider, or could provide compressed muon beams for other applications. Optimal ways to integrate such a subsystem into the rest of a muon collection and cooling system, for collider and other applications, were developed by analysis and simulation. The application of quasi-isochronous helical cooling channels (QIHCC) for RF capture of muon beams was developed. Innovative design concepts for a channel incorporating straight solenoids, a matching section, and an HCC, including RF and absorber, were developed, and its subsystems were simulated. Additionally, a procedure that uses an HCC to combine bunches for a muon collider was invented and simulated. Difficult design aspects such as matching sections between subsystems and intensity-dependent effects were addressed. The bunch recombination procedure was developed into a complete design with 3-D simulations. Bright muon beams are needed for many commercial and scientific reasons. Potential commercial applications include low-dose radiography, muon catalyzed fusion, and the use of muon beams to screen cargo containers for homeland security. Scientific uses include low energy beams for rare process searches, muon spin resonance applications, muon beams for

  20. Multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W. )

    1992-02-01

    Measurements of forward multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490 GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. Jets were defined using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The measured rates are presented as function of W, the hadronic center-of-mass energy and the jet resolution parameter, [ital y][sub [ital cut

  1. Muon Tomography for Geological Repositories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Gluyas, J.; Clark, S. J.; Thompson, L. F.; Klinger, J.; Spooner, N. J.; Blackwell, T. B.; Pal, S.; Lincoln, D. L.; Paling, S. M.; Mitchell, C. N.; Benton, C.; Coleman, M. L.; Telfer, S.; Cole, A.; Nolan, S.; Chadwick, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions of primary cosmic rays with atoms in air. Due to their high penetrating power these muons can be used to image the content (primarily density) of matter they pass through. They have already been used to image the structure of pyramids, volcanoes and other objects. Their applications can be extended to investigating the structure of, and monitoring changes in geological formations and repositories, in particular deep subsurface sites with stored CO2. Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO2, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to operate. Our simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon tomography could be used to continuously monitor CO2 injection and migration and complement existing technologies. Here we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO2 plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon tomography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the reservoir is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO2 plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m2 is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO2 injection leads to changes in the column density of about 1%, and that the CO2 plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days. The attached figure show a map of CO2 plume in angular coordinates as reconstructed from observed muons. In parallel with simulation efforts, a small prototype muon detector has been designed, built and tested in a deep subsurface laboratory. Initial calibrations of the detector have shown that it can reach the required angular resolution for muon detection. Stable operation in a small borehole within a few months has been demonstrated.

  2. Using Muons to Image the Subsurface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonal, Nedra; Cashion, Avery Ted; Cieslewski, Grzegorz; Dorsey, Daniel J.; Foris, Adam; Miller, Timothy J.; Roberts, Barry L; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Dreesen, Wendi; Green, J. Andrew; Schwellenbach, David

    2016-11-01

    Muons are subatomic particles that can penetrate the earth 's crust several kilometers and may be useful for subsurface characterization . The absorption rate of muons depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity, making them beneficial for subsurface investigation . Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and the detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, muon tomography can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. This work consists of three parts to address the use of muons for subsurface characterization : 1) assess the use of muon scattering for estimating density differences of common rock types, 2 ) using muon flux to detect a void in rock, 3) measure muon direction by designing a new detector. Results from this project lay the groundwork for future directions in this field. Low-density objects can be detected by muons even when enclosed in high-density material like lead, and even small changes in density (e.g. changes due to fracturing of material) can be detected. Rock density has a linear relationship with muon scattering density per rock volume when this ratio is greater than 0.10 . Limitations on using muon scattering to assess density changes among common rock types have been identified. However, other analysis methods may show improved results for these relatively low density materials. Simulations show that muons can be used to image void space (e.g. tunnels) within rock but experimental results have been ambiguous . Improvements are suggested to improve imaging voids such as tunnels through rocks. Finally, a muon detector has been designed and tested to measure muon direction, which will improve signal-to-noise ratio and help address fundamental questions about the source of upgoing muons .

  3. Algorithms for Digital Micro-Wave Receivers and Optimal System Identification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    estimation, Frequency estimation, Digital receiver design, Improved AR and ARMA modeling, Electronic Warfare (EW) signal detection, Optimal system identification from input/output and frequency domain data.

  4. Muon-muon and other high energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The first section looks at the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron, of lepton and photon-photon colliders for comparison. The second section discusses the physics considerations for the muon collider. The third section covers muon collider components. The fourth section is about the intersection region and detectors. In the fifth section, the authors discuss modifications to enhance the muon polarization`s operating parameters with very small momentum spreads, operations at energies other than the maximum for which the machine is designed, and designs of machines for different maximum energies. The final section discusses a Research and Development plan aimed at the operation of a 0.5 TeV demonstration machine by the year 2010, and of the 4 TeV machine by the year 2020.

  5. The Development of a Parameterized Scatter Removal Algorithm for Nuclear Materials Identification System Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Brandon Robert

    2010-03-01

    This dissertation presents a novel method for removing scattering effects from Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging. The NMIS uses fast neutron radiography to generate images of the internal structure of objects non-intrusively. If the correct attenuation through the object is measured, the positions and macroscopic cross-sections of features inside the object can be determined. The cross sections can then be used to identify the materials and a 3D map of the interior of the object can be reconstructed. Unfortunately, the measured attenuation values are always too low because scattered neutrons contribute to the unattenuated neutron signal. Previous efforts to remove the scatter from NMIS imaging have focused on minimizing the fraction of scattered neutrons which are misidentified as directly transmitted by electronically collimating and time tagging the source neutrons. The parameterized scatter removal algorithm (PSRA) approaches the problem from an entirely new direction by using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the point scatter functions (PScFs) produced by neutrons scattering in the object. PScFs have been used to remove scattering successfully in other applications, but only with simple 2D detector models. This work represents the first time PScFs have ever been applied to an imaging detector geometry as complicated as the NMIS. By fitting the PScFs using a Gaussian function, they can be parameterized and the proper scatter for a given problem can be removed without the need for rerunning the simulations each time. In order to model the PScFs, an entirely new method for simulating NMIS measurements was developed for this work. The development of the new models and the codes required to simulate them are presented in detail. The PSRA was used on several simulated and experimental measurements and chi-squared goodness of fit tests were used to compare the corrected values to the ideal values that would be expected with no scattering. Using

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PARAMETERIZED SCATTER REMOVAL ALGORITHM FOR NUCLEAR MATERIALS IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Brandon R

    2010-05-01

    This report presents a novel method for removing scattering effects from Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging. The NMIS uses fast neutron radiography to generate images of the internal structure of objects nonintrusively. If the correct attenuation through the object is measured, the positions and macroscopic cross sections of features inside the object can be determined. The cross sections can then be used to identify the materials, and a 3D map of the interior of the object can be reconstructed. Unfortunately, the measured attenuation values are always too low because scattered neutrons contribute to the unattenuated neutron signal. Previous efforts to remove the scatter from NMIS imaging have focused on minimizing the fraction of scattered neutrons that are misidentified as directly transmitted by electronically collimating and time tagging the source neutrons. The parameterized scatter removal algorithm (PSRA) approaches the problem from an entirely new direction by using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the point scatter functions (PScFs) produced by neutrons scattering in the object. PScFs have been used to remove scattering successfully in other applications, but only with simple 2D detector models. This work represents the first time PScFs have ever been applied to an imaging detector geometry as complicated as the NMIS. By fitting the PScFs using a Gaussian function, they can be parameterized, and the proper scatter for a given problem can be removed without the need for rerunning the simulations each time. In order to model the PScFs, an entirely new method for simulating NMIS measurements was developed for this work. The development of the new models and the codes required to simulate them are presented in detail. The PSRA was used on several simulated and experimental measurements, and chi-squared goodness of fit tests were used to compare the corrected values to the ideal values that would be expected with no scattering. Using the

  7. Development of a Near Real-Time Hail Damage Swath Identification Algorithm for Vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Schultz, Kori A.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Burks, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    Every year in the Midwest and Great Plains, widespread greenness forms in conjunction with the latter part of the spring-summer growing season. This prevalent greenness forms as a result of the high concentration of agricultural areas having their crops reach their maturity before the fall harvest. This time of year also coincides with an enhanced hail frequency for the Great Plains (Cintineo et al. 2012). These severe thunderstorms can bring damaging winds and large hail that can result in damage to the surface vegetation. The spatial extent of the damage can relatively small concentrated area or be a vast swath of damage that is visible from space. These large areas of damage have been well documented over the years. In the late 1960s aerial photography was used to evaluate crop damage caused by hail. As satellite remote sensing technology has evolved, the identification of these hail damage streaks has increased. Satellites have made it possible to view these streaks in additional spectrums. Parker et al. (2005) documented two streaks using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that occurred in South Dakota. He noted the potential impact that these streaks had on the surface temperature and associated surface fluxes that are impacted by a change in temperature. Gallo et al. (2012) examined at the correlation between radar signatures and ground observations from storms that produced a hail damage swath in Central Iowa also using MODIS. Finally, Molthan et al. (2013) identified hail damage streaks through MODIS, Landsat-7, and SPOT observations of different resolutions for the development of a potential near-real time applications. The manual analysis of hail damage streaks in satellite imagery is both tedious and time consuming, and may be inconsistent from event to event. This study focuses on development of an objective and automatic algorithm to detect these areas of damage in a more efficient and timely manner. This study utilizes the

  8. Muon motion in titanium hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempton, J. R.; Petzinger, K. G.; Kossler, W. J.; Schone, H. E.; Hitti, B. S.; Stronach, C. E.; Adu, N.; Lankford, W. F.; Reilly, J. J.; Seymour, E. F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Motional narrowing of the transverse-field muon spin rotation signal was observed in gamma-TiH(x) for x = 1.83, 1.97, and 1.99. An analysis of the data for TiH1.99 near room temperature indicates that the mechanism responsible for the motion of the muon out of the octahedral site is thermally activated diffusion with an attempt frequency comparable to the optical vibrations of the lattice. Monte Carlo calculations to simulate the effect of muon and proton motion upon the muon field-correlation time were used to interpret the motional narrowing in TiH1.97 near 500 K. The interpretation is dependent upon whether the Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound (BPP) theory or an independent spin-pair relaxation model is used to obtain the vacancy jump rate from proton NMR T1 measurements. Use of BPP theory shows that the field-correction time can be obtained if the rate of motion of the muon with respect to the rate of the motion for the protons is decreased. An independent spin-pair relaxation model indicates that the field-correlation time can be obtained if the rate of motion for the nearest-neighbor protons is decreased.

  9. Muon-pair production by atmospheric muons in CosmoALEPH.

    PubMed

    Maciuc, F; Grupen, C; Hashim, N-O; Luitz, S; Mailov, A; Müller, A-S; Putzer, A; Sander, H-G; Schmeling, S; Schmelling, M; Tcaciuc, R; Wachsmuth, H; Ziegler, Th; Zuber, K

    2006-01-20

    Data from a dedicated cosmic ray run of the ALEPH detector were used in a study of muon trident production, i.e., muon pairs produced by muons. Here the overburden and the calorimeters are the target materials while the ALEPH time projection chamber provides the momentum measurements. A theoretical estimate of the muon trident cross section is obtained by developing a Monte Carlo simulation for muon propagation in the overburden and the detector. Two muon trident candidates were found to match the expected theoretical pattern. The observed production rate implies that the nuclear form factor cannot be neglected for muon tridents.

  10. Muon-fluorine entanglement in fluoropolymers.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, T; Pratt, F L; Blundell, S J; McKenzie, I; Assender, H E

    2009-08-26

    We present the results of muon spin relaxation measurements on the fluoropolymers polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(vinyl fluoride) (PVF). Entanglement between the muon spin and the spins of the fluorine nuclei in the polymers allows us to identify the different muon stopping states that occur in each of these materials and provides a method of probing the local environment of the muon and the dynamics of the polymer chains.

  11. MUON COLLIDERS - IONIZATION COOLING AND SOLENOIDS.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    1999-03-29

    For a muon collider, to obtain the needed luminosity, the phase space volume must be greatly reduced within the muon life time. The ionization cooling is the preferred method used to compress the phase space and reduce the emittance to obtain high luminosity muon beams. Alternating solenoid lattices has been proposed for muon colliders, where the emittance are huge. We present an overview, discuss formalism, transfer maps for solenoid magnets and beam dynamics.

  12. Law of Conservation of Muons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  13. Muon problem in UHECR investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrukhin, A. A.; Bogdanov, A. G.; Kokoulin, R. P.

    2013-02-01

    In many UHECR experiments, some excess of muons is observed, which cannot be explained in frame of the existing theoretical models of hadron interaction. Attempts of its explanation through a heavy mass composition of PCR contradict the results of Xmax measurements. Really, the excess of muons appears already at lower energies (1016 - 1017 eV), but in this domain it may be explained by the trend to a heavier mass composition, which is in a qualitative agreement with the galactic model of CR origin. The absence of heavy nuclei at energies of the order of 1018 eV requires to consider other possibilities of the appearance of muon excess, including changes of hadron interaction model. The actuality of the considered problem is connected with plans of future experiments in UHECR physics, in which the necessity of its solution must be taken into account.

  14. CDF Run 2 muon system

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Ginsburg

    2004-02-05

    The CDF muon detection system for Run 2 of the Fermilab Tevatron is described. Muon stubs are detected for |{eta}| < 1.5, and are matched to tracks in the central drift chamber at trigger level 1 for |{eta}| < 1.25. Detectors in the |{eta}| < 1 central region, built for previous runs, have been enhanced to survive the higher rate environment and closer bunch spacing (3.5 {micro}sec to 396 nsec) of Run 2. Azimuthal gaps in the central region have been filled in. New detectors have been added to extend the coverage from |{eta}| < 1 to |{eta}| < 1.5, consisting of four layers of drift chambers covered with matching scintillators for triggering. The Level 1 Extremely Fast Tracker supplies matching tracks with measured p{sub T} for the muon trigger. The system has been in operation for over 18 months. Operating experience and reconstructed data are presented.

  15. Muon g - 2 and Tests of Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Francis J. M.

    2015-07-01

    After a brief introduction to the muon anomalous moment a ≡ (g-2)/2, the pioneering measurements at CERN are described. This includes the CERN cyclotron experiment, the first Muon Storage Ring, the invention of the "magic energy", the second Muon Storage Ring and stringent tests of special relativity.

  16. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N. H.; Hashim, I. H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-08-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 108 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  17. Testing an alternative search algorithm for compound identification with the 'Wiley Registry of Tandem Mass Spectral Data, MSforID'.

    PubMed

    Oberacher, Herbert; Whitley, Graeme; Berger, Bernd; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    A tandem mass spectral database system consists of a library of reference spectra and a search program. State-of-the-art search programs show a high tolerance for variability in compound-specific fragmentation patterns produced by collision-induced decomposition and enable sensitive and specific 'identity search'. In this communication, performance characteristics of two search algorithms combined with the 'Wiley Registry of Tandem Mass Spectral Data, MSforID' (Wiley Registry MSMS, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA) were evaluated. The search algorithms tested were the MSMS search algorithm implemented in the NIST MS Search program 2.0g (NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) and the MSforID algorithm (John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA). Sample spectra were acquired on different instruments and, thus, covered a broad range of possible experimental conditions or were generated in silico. For each algorithm, more than 30,000 matches were performed. Statistical evaluation of the library search results revealed that principally both search algorithms can be combined with the Wiley Registry MSMS to create a reliable identification tool. It appears, however, that a higher degree of spectral similarity is necessary to obtain a correct match with the NIST MS Search program. This characteristic of the NIST MS Search program has a positive effect on specificity as it helps to avoid false positive matches (type I errors), but reduces sensitivity. Thus, particularly with sample spectra acquired on instruments differing in their setup from tandem-in-space type fragmentation, a comparably higher number of false negative matches (type II errors) were observed by searching the Wiley Registry MSMS.

  18. Applicability of data mining algorithms in the identification of beach features/patterns on high-resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    The available beach classification algorithms and sediment budget models are mainly based on in situ parameters, usually unavailable for several coastal areas. A morphological analysis using remotely sensed data is a valid alternative. This study focuses on the application of data mining techniques, particularly decision trees (DTs) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) to an IKONOS-2 image in order to identify beach features/patterns in a stretch of the northwest coast of Portugal. Based on knowledge of the coastal features, five classes were defined. In the identification of beach features/patterns, the ANN algorithm presented an overall accuracy of 98.6% and a kappa coefficient of 0.97. The best DTs algorithm (with pruning) presents an overall accuracy of 98.2% and a kappa coefficient of 0.97. The results obtained through the ANN and DTs were in agreement. However, the ANN presented a classification more sensitive to rip currents. The use of ANNs and DTs for beach classification from remotely sensed data resulted in an increased classification accuracy when compared with traditional classification methods. The association of remotely sensed high-spatial resolution data and data mining algorithms is an effective methodology with which to identify beach features/patterns.

  19. Multi-User Identification-Based Eye-Tracking Algorithm Using Position Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-user eye-tracking algorithm using position estimation. Conventional eye-tracking algorithms are typically suitable only for a single user, and thereby cannot be used for a multi-user system. Even though they can be used to track the eyes of multiple users, their detection accuracy is low and they cannot identify multiple users individually. The proposed algorithm solves these problems and enhances the detection accuracy. Specifically, the proposed algorithm adopts a classifier to detect faces for the red, green, and blue (RGB) and depth images. Then, it calculates features based on the histogram of the oriented gradient for the detected facial region to identify multiple users, and selects the template that best matches the users from a pre-determined face database. Finally, the proposed algorithm extracts the final eye positions based on anatomical proportions. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improved the average F1 score by up to 0.490, compared with benchmark algorithms. PMID:28035979

  20. Effects of spectrometer band pass, sampling, and signal-to-noise ratio on spectral identification using the Tetracorder algorithm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Chrien, T.H.; Gorelick, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of spectrometer band pass, sampling interval, and signal-to-noise ratio required for identification of pure minerals and plants were derived using reflectance spectra convolved to AVIRIS, HYDICE, MIVIS, VIMS, and other imaging spectrometers. For each spectral simulation, various levels of random noise were added to the reflectance spectra after convolution, and then each was analyzed with the Tetracorder spectra identification algorithm [Clark et al., 2003]. The outcome of each identification attempt was tabulated to provide an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio at which a given percentage of the noisy spectra were identified correctly. Results show that spectral identification is most sensitive to the signal-to-noise ratio at narrow sampling interval values but is more sensitive to the sampling interval itself at broad sampling interval values because of spectral aliasing, a condition when absorption features of different materials can resemble one another. The band pass is less critical to spectral identification than the sampling interval or signal-to-noise ratio because broadening the band pass does not induce spectral aliasing. These conclusions are empirically corroborated by analysis of mineral maps of AVIRIS data collected at Cuprite, Nevada, between 1990 and 1995, a period during which the sensor signal-to-noise ratio increased up to sixfold. There are values of spectrometer sampling and band pass beyond which spectral identification of materials will require an abrupt increase in sensor signal-to-noise ratio due to the effects of spectral aliasing. Factors that control this threshold are the uniqueness of a material's diagnostic absorptions in terms of shape and wavelength isolation, and the spectral diversity of the materials found in nature and in the spectral library used for comparison. Array spectrometers provide the best data for identification when they critically sample spectra. The sampling interval should not be broadened to

  1. The design and construction of the MICE Electron-Muon Ranger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfandiyarov, R.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Bolognini, D.; Cadoux, F.; Debieux, S.; Drielsma, F.; Giannini, G.; Graulich, J. S.; Husi, C.; Karadzhov, Y.; Lietti, D.; Masciocchi, F.; Nicola, L.; Noah Messomo, E.; Prest, M.; Rothenfusser, K.; Sandstrom, R.; Vallazza, E.; Verguilov, V.; Wisting, H.

    2016-10-01

    The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter installed in the beam line of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The experiment will demonstrate ionization cooling, an essential technology needed for the realization of a Neutrino Factory and/or a Muon Collider. The EMR is designed to measure the properties of low energy beams composed of muons, electrons and pions, and perform the identification particle-by-particle. The detector consists of 48 orthogonal layers of 59 triangular scintillator bars. The readout is implemented using FPGA custom made electronics and commercially available modules. This article describes the construction of the detector from its design up to its commissioning with cosmic data.

  2. A totally active scintillator calorimeter for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). Design and construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfandiyarov, Ruslan

    2013-12-01

    The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a totally active scintillator detector to be installed in the muon beam of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) [1] - the main R&D project for the future neutrino factory. It is aimed at measuring the properties of the low energy beam composed of muons, electrons and pions, performing the identification particle by particle. The EMR is made of 48 stacked layers alternately measuring the X- and the Y-coordinate. Each layer consists of 59 triangular scintillator bars. It is shown that the granularity of the detector permits to identify tracks and to measure particle ranges and shower shapes. The read-out is based on FPGA custom made electronics and commercially available modules. Currently it is being built at the University of Geneva.

  3. A Passive Method for Identifying and Locating Fissile Materials Using Cosmic-Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Randy; Morris, Chris; Borozdin, Konstantin; Bacon, Jeffrey; Chung, Kiwhan; Greene, Steve; Wang

    2010-10-01

    The recent signing of the new Strategic Arms Reduction pact between the United States and Russia creates an important need for nonintrusive identification and quantification of nuclear warheads in various deployment scenarios. High-energy muons are able to achieve this goal by taking advantage of the unique fission signature produced when muons stop in fissionable and fissile materials. This can be accomplished in a passive-interrogation scenario using the ubiquitous fluence of muons at the Earth's surface that is produced via cosmic-ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. Combining this method with a muon-tracking system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory furthermore allows us to locate and count individual masses (>10 kg ) of fissionable material in the field. Proof-of-concept experiments are currently being conducted and early results are presented.

  4. Recirculating Linear Accelerators for Future Muon Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Bogacz, K.B.Beard, R.P. Johnson

    2010-05-01

    Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require rapid acceleration of short-lived muons to multi-GeV and TeV energies. A Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) that uses superconducting RF structures can provide exceptionally fast and economical acceleration to the extent that the focusing range of the RLA quadrupoles allows each muon to pass several times through each high-gradient cavity. A new concept of rapidly changing the strength of the RLA focusing quadrupoles as the muons gain energy is being developed to increase the number of passes that each muon will make in the RF cavities, leading to greater cost effectiveness.

  5. Identification of modal strains using sub-microstrain FBG data and a novel wavelength-shift detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitrios; Moretti, Patrizia; Geernaert, Thomas; De Pauw, Ben; Nawrot, Urszula; De Roeck, Guido; Berghmans, Francis; Reynders, Edwin

    2017-03-01

    The presence of damage in a civil structure alters its stiffness and consequently its modal characteristics. The identification of these changes can provide engineers with useful information about the condition of a structure and constitutes the basic principle of the vibration-based structural health monitoring. While eigenfrequencies and mode shapes are the most commonly monitored modal characteristics, their sensitivity to structural damage may be low relative to their sensitivity to environmental influences. Modal strains or curvatures could offer an attractive alternative but current measurement techniques encounter difficulties in capturing the very small strain (sub-microstrain) levels occurring during ambient, or operational excitation, with sufficient accuracy. This paper investigates the ability to obtain sub-microstrain accuracy with standard fiber-optic Bragg gratings using a novel optical signal processing algorithm that identifies the wavelength shift with high accuracy and precision. The novel technique is validated in an extensive experimental modal analysis test on a steel I-beam which is instrumented with FBG sensors at its top and bottom flange. The raw wavelength FBG data are processed into strain values using both a novel correlation-based processing technique and a conventional peak tracking technique. Subsequently, the strain time series are used for identifying the beam's modal characteristics. Finally, the accuracy of both algorithms in identification of modal characteristics is extensively investigated.

  6. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Fellow

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gail G.; Snopak, Pavel; Bao, Yu

    2015-03-20

    Muons are fundamental particles like electrons but much more massive. Muon accelerators can provide physics opportunities similar to those of electron accelerators, but because of the larger mass muons lose less energy to radiation, allowing more compact facilities with lower operating costs. The way muon beams are produced makes them too large to fit into the vacuum chamber of a cost-effective accelerator, and the short muon lifetime means that the beams must be reduced in size rather quickly, without losing too many of the muons. This reduction in size is called "cooling." Ionization cooling is a new technique that can accomplish such cooling. Intense muon beams can then be accelerated and injected into a storage ring, where they can be used to produce neutrino beams through their decays or collided with muons of the opposite charge to produce a muon collider, similar to an electron-positron collider. We report on the research carried out at the University of California, Riverside, towards producing such muon accelerators, as part of the Muon Accelerator Program based at Fermilab. Since this research was carried out in a university environment, we were able to involve both undergraduate and graduate students.

  7. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R. D.; Berg, J. S.; Kirk, H. G.; Palmer, R. B.; Stratkis, D.; Alexahin, Y.; Bross, A.; Gollwitzer, K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, M. A.; Yonehara, K.; Snopok, P.; Bogacz, A.; Roberts, T. J.; Delahaye, J. -P.

    2015-05-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  8. Muon g-2 Experiment Shimming

    SciTech Connect

    Kiburg, Brendan

    2016-06-28

    The Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab will use as its primary instrument a 52-foot-wide electromagnet that creates a precise magnetic field. In this video, Fermilab's Brendan Kiburg explains the lengthy process of finely "shimming" that magnetic field into shape.

  9. Muon g-2 Experiment Shimming

    ScienceCinema

    Kiburg, Brendan

    2016-07-12

    The Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab will use as its primary instrument a 52-foot-wide electromagnet that creates a precise magnetic field. In this video, Fermilab's Brendan Kiburg explains the lengthy process of finely "shimming" that magnetic field into shape.

  10. Cosmic muons, as messengers from the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Brancus, I. M.; Rebel, H.

    2015-02-24

    Penetrating from the outer space into the Earth atmosphere, primary cosmic rays are producing secondary radiation by the collisions with the air target subsequently decaying in hadrons, pions, muons, electrons and photons, phenomenon called Extensive air Shower (EAS). The muons, considered as the “penetrating” component, survive the propagation to the Earth and even they are no direct messenger of the Universe, they reflect the features of the primary particles. The talk gives a description of the development of the extensive air showers generating the secondary particles, especially the muon component. Results of the muon flux and of the muon charge ratio, (the ratio between the positive and the negative muons), obtained in different laboratories and in WILLI experiment, are shown. At the end, the contribution of the muons measured in EAS to the investigation of the nature of the primary cosmic rays is emphasized in KASCADE and WILLI-EAS experiments.

  11. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract DE-FG02-91ER40641.A000 during the period from 1992 to 1995, and is the final report for this award. The group had three main efforts. The first was the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789. Finally, the authors were members of the SDC collaboration at the SSC. The group consisted of four faculty members, three research associates, and undergraduate and graduate students. The D0 experiment at Fermilab is one of two (the other is CDF) general purpose experiments operating at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. Starting in the Fall of 1992, the first data collection occurred at D0. Physics publications are tabulated in the Appendix, with the discovery of the top quark in 1995 being the most prominent. Members of the NIU group worked on a variety of physics topics: Hedin on B-physics and the top-quark search, Fortner on Drell-Yan and other QCD topics, Green on di-Boson production, and Markeloff on excited-quark states. Hedin was also co-coordinator of the B-physics group during this period. The primary emphasis of the NIU D0 group was the muon system. NIU had particular responsibilities for data acquisition; chamber calibration; the Level-2 trigger; and the reconstruction. Hedin also was coordinator of muon software and had the responsibility for muon identification. Work on these items is summarized in a series of D0 Notes listed in the Appendix. Willis, Sirotenko, Hedin and Fortener were also members of the SDC collaboration at the SSC. NIU was a key participant in the calculation of low-energy neutron and photon backgrounds in the SDC experiment, and in designing shielding for the proposed muon system.

  12. NEUTRINO FACTORY BASED ON MUON-STORAGE-RINGS TO MUON COLLIDERS: PHYSICS AND FACILITIES.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-06-18

    Intense muon sources for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams ({nu} factory) represents very interesting possibilities. If successful, such efforts would significantly advance the state of muon technology and provides intermediate steps in technologies required for a future high energy muon collider complex. High intensity muon: production, capture, cooling, acceleration and multi-turn muon storage rings are some of the key technology issues that needs more studies and developments, and will briefly be discussed here. A muon collider requires basically the same number of muons as for the muon storage ring neutrino factory, but would require more cooling, and simultaneous capture of both {+-} {mu}. We present some physics possibilities, muon storage ring based neutrino facility concept, site specific examples including collaboration feasibility studies, and upgrades to a full collider.

  13. A Fast Robot Identification and Mapping Algorithm Based on Kinect Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Shen, Peiyi; Zhu, Guangming; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is driving innovation in an ever-growing set of application domains such as intelligent processing for autonomous robots. For an autonomous robot, one grand challenge is how to sense its surrounding environment effectively. The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with RGB-D Kinect camera sensor on robot, called RGB-D SLAM, has been developed for this purpose but some technical challenges must be addressed. Firstly, the efficiency of the algorithm cannot satisfy real-time requirements; secondly, the accuracy of the algorithm is unacceptable. In order to address these challenges, this paper proposes a set of novel improvement methods as follows. Firstly, the ORiented Brief (ORB) method is used in feature detection and descriptor extraction. Secondly, a bidirectional Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN) k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm is applied to feature match. Then, the improved RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) estimation method is adopted in the motion transformation. In the meantime, high precision General Iterative Closest Points (GICP) is utilized to register a point cloud in the motion transformation optimization. To improve the accuracy of SLAM, the reduced dynamic covariance scaling (DCS) algorithm is formulated as a global optimization problem under the G2O framework. The effectiveness of the improved algorithm has been verified by testing on standard data and comparing with the ground truth obtained on Freiburg University’s datasets. The Dr Robot X80 equipped with a Kinect camera is also applied in a building corridor to verify the correctness of the improved RGB-D SLAM algorithm. With the above experiments, it can be seen that the proposed algorithm achieves higher processing speed and better accuracy. PMID:26287198

  14. A Fast Robot Identification and Mapping Algorithm Based on Kinect Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Shen, Peiyi; Zhu, Guangming; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-08-14

    Internet of Things (IoT) is driving innovation in an ever-growing set of application domains such as intelligent processing for autonomous robots. For an autonomous robot, one grand challenge is how to sense its surrounding environment effectively. The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with RGB-D Kinect camera sensor on robot, called RGB-D SLAM, has been developed for this purpose but some technical challenges must be addressed. Firstly, the efficiency of the algorithm cannot satisfy real-time requirements; secondly, the accuracy of the algorithm is unacceptable. In order to address these challenges, this paper proposes a set of novel improvement methods as follows. Firstly, the ORiented Brief (ORB) method is used in feature detection and descriptor extraction. Secondly, a bidirectional Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN) k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm is applied to feature match. Then, the improved RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) estimation method is adopted in the motion transformation. In the meantime, high precision General Iterative Closest Points (GICP) is utilized to register a point cloud in the motion transformation optimization. To improve the accuracy of SLAM, the reduced dynamic covariance scaling (DCS) algorithm is formulated as a global optimization problem under the G2O framework. The effectiveness of the improved algorithm has been verified by testing on standard data and comparing with the ground truth obtained on Freiburg University's datasets. The Dr Robot X80 equipped with a Kinect camera is also applied in a building corridor to verify the correctness of the improved RGB-D SLAM algorithm. With the above experiments, it can be seen that the proposed algorithm achieves higher processing speed and better accuracy.

  15. Streaming algorithms for identification of pathogens and antibiotic resistance potential from real-time MinION(TM) sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Minh Duc; Ganesamoorthy, Devika; Elliott, Alysha G; Zhang, Huihui; Cooper, Matthew A; Coin, Lachlan J M

    2016-07-26

    The recently introduced Oxford Nanopore MinION platform generates DNA sequence data in real-time. This has great potential to shorten the sample-to-results time and is likely to have benefits such as rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection and identification of drug resistance. However, there are few tools available for streaming analysis of real-time sequencing data. Here, we present a framework for streaming analysis of MinION real-time sequence data, together with probabilistic streaming algorithms for species typing, strain typing and antibiotic resistance profile identification. Using four culture isolate samples, as well as a mixed-species sample, we demonstrate that bacterial species and strain information can be obtained within 30 min of sequencing and using about 500 reads, initial drug-resistance profiles within two hours, and complete resistance profiles within 10 h. While strain identification with multi-locus sequence typing required more than 15x coverage to generate confident assignments, our novel gene-presence typing could detect the presence of a known strain with 0.5x coverage. We also show that our pipeline can process over 100 times more data than the current throughput of the MinION on a desktop computer.

  16. Application of Gauss algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation to the identification of aquifer parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durbin, Timothy J.

    1983-01-01

    The Gauss optimization technique can be used to identify the parameters of a model of a groundwater system for which the parameter identification problem is formulated as a least squares comparison between the response of the prototype and the response of the model. Unavoidable uncertainty in the true stress on the prototype and in the true response of the prototype to that stress will introduce errors into the parameter identification problem. A method for evaluating errors in the predictions of future water levels due to errors in recharge estimates was demonstrated. The method involves a Monte Carlo simulation of the parameter identification problem and of the prediction problem. The steps in the method are: (1) to prescribe the distribution of the recharge estimates; (2) to use this distribution to generate random sets of recharge estimates; (3) to use the Gauss optimization technique to identify the corresponding set of parameter estimates for each set of recharge estimates; (4) to make the corresponding set of hydraulic head predictions for each set of parameter estimates; and (5) to examine the distribution of hydraulic head predictions and to draw appropriate conclusions. Similarly, the method can be used independently or simultaneously to estimate the effect on hydraulic head predictions of errors in the measured water levels that are used in the parameter identification problem. The fit of the model to the data that are used to identify parameters is not a good indicator of these errors. A Monte Carlo simulation of the parameter identification problem can be used, however, to evaluate the effects on water level predictions of errors in the recharge (and pumpage) data used in the parameter identification problem. (Lantz-PTT)

  17. Blind identification and restoration of turbulence degraded images based on the nonnegativity and support constraints recursive inverse filtering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongxing; Zhao, Yan; Dong, Xu

    2008-03-01

    In general image restoration, the point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system, and the observation noise, are known a priori information. The aero-optics effect is yielded when the objects ( e.g, missile, aircraft etc.) are flying in high speed or ultrasonic speed. In this situation, the PSF and the observation noise are unknown a priori. The identification and the restoration of the turbulence degraded images is a challenging problem in the world. The algorithm based on the nonnegativity and support constraints recursive inverse filtering (NAS-RIF) is proposed in order to identify and restore the turbulence degraded images. The NAS-RIF technique applies to situations in which the scene consists of a finite support object against a uniformly black, grey, or white background. The restoration procedure of NAS-RIF involves recursive filtering of the blurred image to minimize a convex cost function. The algorithm proposed in this paper is that the turbulence degraded image is filtered before it passes the recursive filter. The conjugate gradient minimization routine was used for minimization of the NAS-RIF cost function. The algorithm based on the NAS-RIF is used to identify and restore the wind tunnel tested images. The experimental results show that the restoration effect is improved obviously.

  18. Combining computer algorithms with experimental approaches permits the rapid and accurate identification of T cell epitopes from defined antigens.

    PubMed

    Schirle, M; Weinschenk, T; Stevanović, S

    2001-11-01

    The identification of T cell epitopes from immunologically relevant antigens remains a critical step in the development of vaccines and methods for monitoring of T cell responses. This review presents an overview of strategies that employ computer algorithms for the selection of candidate peptides from defined proteins and subsequent verification of their in vivo relevance by experimental approaches. Several computer algorithms are currently being used for epitope prediction of various major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules, based either on the analysis of natural MHC ligands or on the binding properties of synthetic peptides. Moreover, the analysis of proteasomal digests of peptides and whole proteins has led to the development of algorithms for the prediction of proteasomal cleavages. In order to verify the generation of the predicted peptides during antigen processing in vivo as well as their immunogenic potential, several experimental approaches have been pursued in the recent past. Mass spectrometry-based bioanalytical approaches have been used specifically to detect predicted peptides among isolated natural ligands. Other strategies employ various methods for the stimulation of primary T cell responses against the predicted peptides and subsequent testing of the recognition pattern towards target cells that express the antigen.

  19. Investigation of the Muon Pseudorapidities in EAS with the Muon Tracking Detector of the KASCADE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabierowski, J.; Antoni, T.; Apel, W. D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Blümer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Büttner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Feßler, F.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K-H.; Klages, H. O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Müller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Vardanyan, A.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.

    2003-07-01

    High angular accuracy of muon track measurements in KASCADE Muon Tracking Detector (MTD), together with the high precision in determination of the shower direction and shower core position, allow to investigate the pseudorapidity of muons in EAS using the concept of radial and tangential angles. Preliminary results of the pseudorapidity distribution of muons registered by the KASCADE experiment are presented. Mean muon pseudorapidity values at different stages of the longitudinal development of the EAS cascade are calculated using additionally the reconstructed muon production height provided by the MTD data. experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Minimal marker: an algorithm and computer program for the identification of minimal sets of discriminating DNA markers for efficient variety identification.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroshi; Ogata, Tatsushi; Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Iketani, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Tokurou; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Omura, Mitsuo

    2013-04-01

    DNA markers are frequently used to analyze crop varieties, with the coded marker data summarized in a computer-generated table. Such summary tables often provide extraneous data about individual crop genotypes, needlessly complicating and prolonging DNA-based differentiation between crop varieties. At present, it is difficult to identify minimal marker sets--the smallest sets that can distinguish between all crop varieties listed in a marker-summary table--due to the absence of algorithms capable of such characterization. Here, we describe the development of just such an algorithm and MinimalMarker, its accompanying Perl-based computer program. MinimalMarker has been validated in variety identification of fruit trees using published datasets and is available for use with both dominant and co-dominant markers, regardless of the number of alleles, including SSR markers with numeric notation. We expect that this program will prove useful not only to genomics researchers but also to government agencies that use DNA markers to support a variety of food-inspection and -labeling regulations.

  1. Solar collector parameter identification from unsteady data by a discrete-gradient optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Burmeister, L. C.; Bishop, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    A discrete-gradient optimization algorithm is used to identify the parameters in a one-node and a two-node capacitance model of a flat-plate collector. Collector parameters are first obtained by a linear-least-squares fit to steady state data. These parameters, together with the collector heat capacitances, are then determined from unsteady data by use of the discrete-gradient optimization algorithm with less than 10 percent deviation from the steady state determination. All data were obtained in the indoor solar simulator at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  2. A novel protein complex identification algorithm based on Connected Affinity Clique Extension (CACE).

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; He, Tingting; Hu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Junmin; Shen, Xianjun; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Yan

    2014-06-01

    A novel algorithm based on Connected Affinity Clique Extension (CACE) for mining overlapping functional modules in protein interaction network is proposed in this paper. In this approach, the value of protein connected affinity which is inferred from protein complexes is interpreted as the reliability and possibility of interaction. The protein interaction network is constructed as a weighted graph, and the weight is dependent on the connected affinity coefficient. The experimental results of our CACE in two test data sets show that the CACE can detect the functional modules much more effectively and accurately when compared with other state-of-art algorithms CPM and IPC-MCE.

  3. UWM-HBUT at TREC 2014 Microblog Track: Using Query Expansion (QE) and Event Identification Algorithm (EIA) to Improve Microblog Retrieval Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    effectiveness. The ranking score of a retrieved tweet is adjusted by considering how close the tweet time stamp is to the event using Event Identification... stamp is to the event using Event Identification Algorithm (EIA). In addition, we also evaluate the Query Expansion (QE) approach using Google as an...an incremental clustering framework to detect new topics, employing a range of contents and temporal features to help in promptly detecting hot

  4. MO-FG-204-06: A New Algorithm for Gold Nano-Particle Concentration Identification in Dual Energy CT

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L; Shen, C; Ng, M; Zeng, T; Lou, Y; Jia, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Gold nano-particle (GNP) has recently attracted a lot of attentions due to its potential as an imaging contrast agent and radiotherapy sensitiser. Imaging the GNP at its low contraction is a challenging problem. We propose a new algorithm to improve the identification of GNP based on dual energy CT (DECT). Methods: We consider three base materials: water, bone, and gold. Determining three density images from two images in DECT is an under-determined problem. We propose to solve this problem by exploring image domain sparsity via an optimization approach. The objective function contains four terms. A data-fidelity term ensures the fidelity between the identified material densities and the DECT images, while the other three terms enforces the sparsity in the gradient domain of the three images corresponding to the density of the base materials by using total variation (TV) regularization. A primal-dual algorithm is applied to solve the proposed optimization problem. We have performed simulation studies to test this model. Results: Our digital phantom in the tests contains water, bone regions and gold inserts of different sizes and densities. The gold inserts contain mixed material consisting of water with 1g/cm3 and gold at a certain density. At a low gold density of 0.0008 g/cm3, the insert is hardly visible in DECT images, especially for those with small sizes. Our algorithm is able to decompose the DECT into three density images. Those gold inserts at a low density can be clearly visualized in the density image. Conclusion: We have developed a new algorithm to decompose DECT images into three different material density images, in particular, to retrieve density of gold. Numerical studies showed promising results.

  5. Wavelet-packet-based algorithm for identification of quasi-periodic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, Amir Z.; Kozlov, Inna; Zheludev, Valery A.

    2001-12-01

    We present a generic approach that identifies and differentiates among signals for wide range of problems. Originally our algorithm was developed to detect the presence of a specific vehicle belonging to a certain class via the analysis of the acoustic signals emitted while it is moving. A crucial factor in having a successful detection (no false alarm) is to construct signatures built from characteristic features that enable to discriminate between the class of interest and the residual information such as background. We construct the signatures of certain classes by the distribution of the energies among blocks which consist of wavelet packet coefficients. We developed an efficient procedure for adaptive selection of the characteristic blocks. We modified the CART algorithm in order to utilize it to be a decision unit in our scheme. However, this technology, which has many algorithmic variations, can be used to solve a wide range of classification and detection problems which are based on acoustic processing and, more generally, for classification and detection of signals which have near-periodic structure. We present results of successful application of the properly modified algorithm to detection of early symptoms of arterial hypertension in children via real-time analysis of pulse signals.

  6. Radio Frequency Identification Sensor Chips with Anticollision Algorithm for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple DNA Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazawa, Yoshiaki; Oonishi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kazuki; Nemoto, Ryo; Shiratori, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    A newly developed DNA measurement method for multiple single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing using a radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor chip was demonstrated. The RFID sensor chip monolithically integrates a sensor, amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and a passive wireless communication interface for receiving commands and transmitting data on a 2.5×2.5 mm2 silicon chip. For the simultaneous multitarget measurement, anticollision control and peak-power suppression are essential. To assign a unique identification number (UID) for the identification of multiple sensor chips, a reproducible random number generator circuit (RRG) was designed and installed on the chip. Peak-power consumption was reduced to 1018 µW by a clock gating of functional circuit blocks. Multiple SNP typing was carried out by simultaneously operating five RFID sensor chips (four with photosensors and one with a temperature sensor). The target DNA was captured on the sensor chips, and SNPs were detected by observing bioluminescence. Finally, the observed data were wirelessly transmitted to the reader.

  7. An integrated optimization algorithm for parameter structure identification in groundwater modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chung-Che; Tung, Ching-Pin; Chen, Chu-Hui; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2008-03-01

    The inverse problem of parameter structure identification in a distributed parameter system remains challenging. Identifying a more complex parameter structure requires more data. There is also the problem of over-parameterization. In this study, we propose a modified Tabu search for parameter structure identification. We embed an adjoint state procedure in the search process to improve the efficiency of the Tabu search. We use Voronoi tessellation for automatic parameterization to reduce the dimension of the distributed parameter. Additionally, a coarse-fine grid technique is applied to further improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methodology. To avoid over-parameterization, at each level of parameter complexity we calculate the residual error for parameter fitting, the parameter uncertainty error and a modified Akaike Information Criterion. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, we conduct numerical experiments with synthetic data that simulate both discrete hydraulic conductivity zones and a continuous hydraulic conductivity distribution. Our results indicate that the Tabu search allied with the adjoint state method significantly improves computational efficiency and effectiveness in solving the inverse problem of parameter structure identification.

  8. The first muon beam from a new highly-intense DC muon source, MuSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nam Hoai; MuSIC Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    A new DC muon source, MuSIC, is now under construction at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Japan. The MuSIC adopts a new pion/muon collection system and a curved transport solenoid. These techniques are important in realization of future muon programs such as the muon to electron conversion experiments (COMET/Mu2e), neutrino factories, and muon colliders. The pion capture magnet and a part of the transport solenoid have been built and beam tests were carried out to assess the MuSIC's performance. Muon lifetime measurements and muonic X-ray measurements have been used for estimation of muon yield of the MuSIC. The result indicates that the MuSIC would be one of the most intense DC muon beams in the world.

  9. Mapping the distribution of materials in hyperspectral data using the USGS Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; King, T.V.V.; Hoefen, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying materials by measuring and analyzing their reflectance spectra has been an important method in analytical chemistry for decades. Airborne and space-based imaging spectrometers allow scientists to detect materials and map their distributions across the landscape. With new satellite-borne hyperspectral sensors planned for the future, for example, HYSPIRI (HYPerspectral InfraRed Imager), robust methods are needed to fully exploit the information content of hyperspectral remote sensing data. A method of identifying and mapping materials using spectral-feature based analysis of reflectance data in an expert-system framework called MICA (Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm) is described in this paper. The core concepts and calculations of MICA are presented. A MICA command file has been developed and applied to map minerals in the full-country coverage of the 2007 Afghanistan HyMap hyperspectral data. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  10. Pharmacophore identification and bioactivity prediction for triaminotriazine derivatives by electron conformational-genetic algorithm QSAR method.

    PubMed

    Saripinar, Emin; Geçen, Nazmiye; Sahin, Kader; Yanmaz, Ersin

    2010-09-01

    The electron conformational-genetic algorithm (EC-GA) method has been employed as a 4D-QSAR approach to reveal the pharmacophore (Pha) and to predict anticancer activity in the N-morpholino triaminotriazine derivatives. The electron conformational matrices of congruity (ECMCs) identified by electronic and structural parameters are constructed from data of conformational analysis and electronic structure calculation of molecules. Comparing the matrices, electron conformational submatrix of activity (ECSA, Pha) are revealed that are common for these compounds within a minimum tolerance. To predict the theoretical activity of training and test set and to select important variables for describing the activities, genetic algorithm and non-linear least square regression methods were applied. Regression coefficients were found 0.9708 for training and 0.9520 for test set.

  11. Blob identification algorithms applied to laser speckle to characterize optical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauble, Galen D.; Wayne, David T.

    2015-09-01

    Laser beam speckle resulting from atmospheric turbulence contains information about the propagation channel. The number and size of the speckle cells can be used to infer the spatial coherence and thus the Cn2 along a path. The challenge with this technique is the rapidly evolving speckle pattern and non-uniformity of the speckle cells. In this paper we investigate modern blob counting techniques used in biology, microscopy, and medical imaging. These methods are then applied to turbulent speckle images to estimate the number and size of the speckle cells. Speckle theory is reviewed for different beam types and different regimes of turbulence. Algorithms are generated to calculate path Cn2 from speckle information and path geometry. The algorithms are tested on speckle images from experimental data collected over a turbulent 1km path and compared to Cn2 measurements collected in parallel.

  12. Algorithm Summary and Evaluation: Automatic Implementation of Ringdown Analysis for Electromechanical Mode Identification from Phasor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuffner, Francis K.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Lin, Jenglung; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2010-02-28

    Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability. Prony analysis has been successfully applied on ringdown data to monitor electromechanical modes of a power system using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. To facilitate an on-line application of mode estimation, this paper develops a recursive algorithm for implementing Prony analysis and proposed an oscillation detection method to detect ringdown data in real time. By automatically detecting ringdown data, the proposed method helps guarantee that Prony analysis is applied properly and timely on the ringdown data. Thus, the mode estimation results can be performed reliably and timely. The proposed method is tested using Monte Carlo simulations based on a 17-machine model and is shown to be able to properly identify the oscillation data for on-line application of Prony analysis. In addition, the proposed method is applied to field measurement data from WECC to show the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Introduction to Mini Muon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.

    2012-08-13

    Using a mini muon tracker developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory we performed experiments of simple landscapes of various materials, including TNT, 9501, lead, tungsten, aluminium, and water. Most common scenes are four two inches thick step wedges of different dimensions: 12-inch x 12-inch, 12-inch x 9-inch, 12-inch x 6-inch, and 12-inch x 3-inch; and a one three inches thick hemisphere of lead with spherical hollow, and a similar full lead sphere.

  14. Effect of cleavage enzyme, search algorithm and decoy database on mass spectrometric identification of wheat gluten proteins.

    PubMed

    Vensel, William H; Dupont, Frances M; Sloane, Stacia; Altenbach, Susan B

    2011-07-01

    While tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is routinely used to identify proteins from complex mixtures, certain types of proteins present unique challenges for MS/MS analyses. The major wheat gluten proteins, gliadins and glutenins, are particularly difficult to distinguish by MS/MS. Each of these groups contains many individual proteins with similar sequences that include repetitive motifs rich in proline and glutamine. These proteins have few cleavable tryptic sites, often resulting in only one or two tryptic peptides that may not provide sufficient information for identification. Additionally, there are less than 14,000 complete protein sequences from wheat in the current NCBInr release. In this paper, MS/MS methods were optimized for the identification of the wheat gluten proteins. Chymotrypsin and thermolysin as well as trypsin were used to digest the proteins and the collision energy was adjusted to improve fragmentation of chymotryptic and thermolytic peptides. Specialized databases were constructed that included protein sequences derived from contigs from several assemblies of wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including contigs assembled from ESTs of the cultivar under study. Two different search algorithms were used to interrogate the database and the results were analyzed and displayed using a commercially available software package (Scaffold). We examined the effect of protein database content and size on the false discovery rate. We found that as database size increased above 30,000 sequences there was a decrease in the number of proteins identified. Also, the type of decoy database influenced the number of proteins identified. Using three enzymes, two search algorithms and a specialized database allowed us to greatly increase the number of detected peptides and distinguish proteins within each gluten protein group.

  15. Muon reconstruction and selection at the last trigger level of the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, R.

    2010-04-01

    The three-level Trigger and DAQ system of ATLAS is designed to be very selective while preserving the full physics potential of the experiment; out of the ~1 GHz of p-p interactions provided by the LHC at nominal operating conditions, ~200 events/sec are retained. This paper focuses on the muon reconstruction and selection algorithms employed at the last trigger level. One implements an "outside-in" approach; it starts from a reconstruction in the Muon Spectrometer (MS) and performs a backward extrapolation to the interaction point and track combination in the Inner Detector (ID). The other implements an "inside-out" strategy; it starts muon reconstruction from the ID and extrapolates tracks to MS. Algorithm implementations and results on data from real cosmic rays and simulated collisions are described.

  16. Automated Reconstruction Algorithm for Identification of 3D Architectures of Cribriform Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Kerri-Ann; Namazi, Sameera; Barnard, Nicola; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Bhanot, Gyan; Ganesan, Shridar; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Ogawa, Koichi; Shinbrot, Troy

    2012-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a pre-invasive carcinoma of the breast that exhibits several distinct morphologies but the link between morphology and patient outcome is not clear. We hypothesize that different mechanisms of growth may still result in similar 2D morphologies, which may look different in 3D. To elucidate the connection between growth and 3D morphology, we reconstruct the 3D architecture of cribriform DCIS from resected patient material. We produce a fully automated algorithm that aligns, segments, and reconstructs 3D architectures from microscopy images of 2D serial sections from human specimens. The alignment algorithm is based on normalized cross correlation, the segmentation algorithm uses histogram equilization, Otsu's thresholding, and morphology techniques to segment the duct and cribra. The reconstruction method combines these images in 3D. We show that two distinct 3D architectures are indeed found in samples whose 2D histological sections are similarly identified as cribriform DCIS. These differences in architecture support the hypothesis that luminal spaces may form due to different mechanisms, either isolated cell death or merging fronds, leading to the different architectures. We find that out of 15 samples, 6 were found to have ‘bubble-like’ cribra, 6 were found to have ‘tube-like’ criba and 3 were ‘unknown.’ We propose that the 3D architectures found, ‘bubbles’ and ‘tubes’, account for some of the heterogeneity of the disease and may be prognostic indicators of different patient outcomes. PMID:22970156

  17. COMPUTATIONAL NEEDS FOR MUON ACCELERATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    BERG, J.S.

    2004-06-29

    Muon accelerators contain beam lines and components which are unlike any found in existing accelerators. Production of the muons requires targets for beams with powers which are at or beyond what has currently been achieved. Many subsystems use solenoid focusing systems where at any given point, several magnets have a significant influence. The beams that are transported can have energy spreads of {+-}30% or more. The required emittances necessitate accurate tracking of particles with angles of tenths of a radian and which are positioned almost at the edge of the beam pipe. Tracking must be done not only in vacuum, but also in materials; therefore, statistical fluctuations must also be included. Design and simulation of muon accelerators requires software which can: accurately simulate the dynamics of solid and liquid targets under proton bombardment; predict the production of particles from these targets; accurately compute magnetic fields based on either a real magnet design or a model which includes end fields; and accurately design and simulate a beam line where the transported beam satisfies the above specifications and the beam line contains non-standard, overlapping elements. The requirements for computational tools will be discussed, the capabilities of existing tools will be described and compared to what is required.

  18. Identification of anovulation and transient luteal function using a urinary pregnanediol-3-glucuronide ratio algorithm.

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, A; Overstreet, J W; Snow-Harter, C; De Souza, M J; Gold, E B; Lasley, B L

    1996-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of a urinary pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) ratio algorithm to identify anovulatory cycles was studied prospectively in two independent populations of women. Urinary hormone data from the first group was used to develop the algorithm, and data from the second group was used for its validation. PdG ratios were calculated by a cycles method in which daily PdG concentrations indexed by creatinine (CR) from cycle day 11 onward were divided by a baseline PdG (average PdG/Cr concentration for cycle days 6-10). In the interval method, daily PdG/CR concentrations from day 1 onward were divided by baseline PdG (lowest 5-day average of PdG/CR values throughout the collection period). Evaluation of the first study population (n = 6) resulted in cycles with PdG ratios > or = 3 for > or = 3 consecutive days being classified as ovulatory; otherwise they were anovulatory. The sensitivity and specificity of the PdG ratio algorithm to identify anovulatory cycles in the second population were 75% and 89.5%, respectively, for all cycles (n = 88); 50% and 88.3% for first cycles (n = 40) using the cycles method; 75% and 92.2%, respectively, for all cycles (n = 89); and 50% and 94.1% for first cycles (n = 40) using the interval method. The "gold standard" for anovulation was weekly serum samples < or = 2 ng/ml progesterone. The sensitivity values for all cycles and for the first cycle using both methods were underestimated because of apparent misclassification of cycles using serum progesterone due to infrequent blood collection. Blood collection more than once a week would have greatly improved the sensitivity and modestly improved the specificity of the algorithm. The PdG ratio algorithm provides an efficient approach for screening urine samples collected in epidemiologic studies of reproductive health in women. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:8732951

  19. The US Muon Accelerator Program (MAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan D.; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of High Energy Physics has recently approved a Muon Accelerator Program (MAP). The primary goal of this effort is to deliver a Design Feasibility Study for a Muon Collider after a 7 year R&D program. This paper presents a brief physics motivation for, and the description of, a Muon Collider facility and then gives an overview of the program. I will then describe in some detail the primary components of the effort.

  20. Compression and extraction of stopped muons.

    PubMed

    Taqqu, D

    2006-11-10

    Efficient conversion of a standard positive muon beam into a high-quality slow muon beam is shown to be achievable by compression of a muon swarm stopped in an extended gas volume. The stopped swarm can be squeezed into a mm-size swarm flow that can be extracted into vacuum through a small opening in the stop target walls. Novel techniques of swarm compression are considered. In particular, a density gradient in crossed electric and magnetic fields is used.

  1. Materials science with muon spin rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    During this reporting period, the focus of activity in the Materials Science with Muon Spin Rotation (MSMSR) program was muon spin rotation studies of superconducting materials, in particular the high critical temperature and heavy-fermion materials. Apart from these studies, work was continued on the analysis of muon motion in metal hydrides. Results of these experiments are described in six papers included as appendices.

  2. Computed Tomography Image Origin Identification based on Original Sensor Pattern Noise and 3D Image Reconstruction Algorithm Footprints.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuping; Bouslimi, Dalel; Yang, Guanyu; Shu, Huazhong; Coatrieux, Gouenou

    2016-06-08

    In this paper, we focus on the "blind" identification of the Computed Tomography (CT) scanner that has produced a CT image. To do so, we propose a set of noise features derived from the image chain acquisition and which can be used as CT-Scanner footprint. Basically, we propose two approaches. The first one aims at identifying a CT-Scanner based on an Original Sensor Pattern Noise (OSPN) that is intrinsic to the X-ray detectors. The second one identifies an acquisition system based on the way this noise is modified by its 3D image reconstruction algorithm. As these reconstruction algorithms are manufacturer dependent and kept secret, our features are used as input to train an SVM based classifier so as to discriminate acquisition systems. Experiments conducted on images issued from 15 different CT-Scanner models of 4 distinct manufacturers demonstrate that our system identifies the origin of one CT image with a detection rate of at least 94% and that it achieves better performance than Sensor Pattern Noise (SPN) based strategy proposed for general public camera devices.

  3. Identification and removal of non-meteorological echoes in dual-polarization radar data based on a fuzzy logic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo-Young; Lee, GyuWon; Park, Hong-Mok

    2015-09-01

    A major issue in radar quantitative precipitation estimation is the contamination of radar echoes by non-meteorological targets such as ground clutter, chaff, clear air echoes etc. In this study, a fuzzy logic algorithm for the identification of non-meteorological echoes is developed using optimized membership functions and weights for the dual-polarization radar located at Mount Sobaek. For selected precipitation and non-meteorological events, the characteristics of the precipitation and non-meteorological echo are derived by the probability density functions of five fuzzy parameters as functions of reflectivity values. The membership functions and weights are then determined by these density functions. Finally, the nonmeteorological echoes are identified by combining the membership functions and weights. The performance is qualitatively evaluated by long-term rain accumulation. The detection accuracy of the fuzzy logic algorithm is calculated using the probability of detection (POD), false alarm rate (FAR), and clutter-signal ratio (CSR). In addition, the issues in using filtered dual-polarization data are alleviated.

  4. Neutrino induced muons in Soudan 2.

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, D. M.; Soudan 2 Collaboration

    1999-06-23

    The neutrino-induced muon rate underground has been measured at Soudan 2. To discriminate from the intense background of atmospheric muons we consider only the through-going muons which originate from horizontal direction ({minus}0.14 < cos{theta} < 0.14). We calculate the horizontal, neutrino-induced muon rate at Soudan 2 from an exposure of 1.23 x 10{sup 8} s as {Phi}{sub {nu}{mu}} = (3.45 {+-} 0.52 {+-} 0.61) x 10{sup {minus}13} (cm{sup 2} sr s){sup {minus}1}.

  5. Magnets for Muon 6D Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland; Flanagan, Gene

    2014-09-10

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), an innovative technique for six-dimensional (6D) cooling of muon beams using a continuous absorber inside superconducting magnets, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. The implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires high field superconducting magnets that provide superimposed solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole fields. Novel magnet design concepts are required to provide HCC magnet systems with the desired fields for 6D muon beam cooling. New designs feature simple coil configurations that produce these complex fields with the required characteristics, where new high field conductor materials are particularly advantageous. The object of the program was to develop designs and construction methods for HCC magnets and design a magnet system for a 6D muon beam cooling channel. If successful the program would develop the magnet technologies needed to create bright muon beams for many applications ranging from scientific accelerators and storage rings to beams to study material properties and new sources of energy. Examples of these applications include energy frontier muon colliders, Higgs and neutrino factories, stopping muon beams for studies of rare fundamental interactions and muon catalyzed fusion, and muon sources for cargo screening for homeland security.

  6. An Astronomical Pattern-Matching Algorithm for Automated Identification of Whale Sharks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Holmberg, J.; Norman, B.

    2005-01-01

    The largest shark species alive today, whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) are rare and poorly studied. Directed fisheries, high value in international trade, a highly migratory nature, and generally low abundance make this species vulnerable to exploitation. Mark- and-recapture studies have provided our current understanding of whale shark demographics and life history, but conventional tagging has met with limited success. To aid in conservation and management efforts, and to further our knowledge of whale shark biology, an identification technology that maximizes the scientific value of individual sighting is needed.

  7. Parameter identification for continuous point emission source based on Tikhonov regularization method coupled with particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ma, Denglong; Tan, Wei; Zhang, Zaoxiao; Hu, Jun

    2017-03-05

    In order to identify the parameters of hazardous gas emission source in atmosphere with less previous information and reliable probability estimation, a hybrid algorithm coupling Tikhonov regularization with particle swarm optimization (PSO) was proposed. When the source location is known, the source strength can be estimated successfully by common Tikhonov regularization method, but it is invalid when the information about both source strength and location is absent. Therefore, a hybrid method combining linear Tikhonov regularization and PSO algorithm was designed. With this method, the nonlinear inverse dispersion model was transformed to a linear form under some assumptions, and the source parameters including source strength and location were identified simultaneously by linear Tikhonov-PSO regularization method. The regularization parameters were selected by L-curve method. The estimation results with different regularization matrixes showed that the confidence interval with high-order regularization matrix is narrower than that with zero-order regularization matrix. But the estimation results of different source parameters are close to each other with different regularization matrixes. A nonlinear Tikhonov-PSO hybrid regularization was also designed with primary nonlinear dispersion model to estimate the source parameters. The comparison results of simulation and experiment case showed that the linear Tikhonov-PSO method with transformed linear inverse model has higher computation efficiency than nonlinear Tikhonov-PSO method. The confidence intervals from linear Tikhonov-PSO are more reasonable than that from nonlinear method. The estimation results from linear Tikhonov-PSO method are similar to that from single PSO algorithm, and a reasonable confidence interval with some probability levels can be additionally given by Tikhonov-PSO method. Therefore, the presented linear Tikhonov-PSO regularization method is a good potential method for hazardous emission

  8. Extension and field application of an integrated DNAPL source identification algorithm that utilizes stochastic modeling and a Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokou, Zoi; Pinder, George F.

    2011-02-01

    SummaryThe design of an effective groundwater remediation system involves the determination of the source zone characteristics and subsequent source zone removal. The work presented in this paper focuses on the three-dimensional extension and field application of a previously described source zone identification and delineation algorithm. The three-dimensional search algorithm defines how to achieve an acceptable level of accuracy regarding the strength, geographic location and depth of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source while using the least possible number of water quality samples. Target locations and depths of potential sources are identified and given initial importance measures or weights using a technique that exploits expert knowledge. The weights reflect the expert's confidence that the particular source location is the correct one and they are updated as the investigation proceeds. The overall strategy uses stochastic groundwater flow and transport modeling assuming that hydraulic conductivity is known with uncertainty (Monte Carlo approach). Optimal water quality samples are selected according to the degree to which they contribute to the total concentration uncertainty reduction across all model layers and the proximity of the samples to the potential source locations. After a sample is taken, the contaminant concentration plume is updated using a Kalman filter. The set of optimal source strengths is determined using linear programming by minimizing the sum of the absolute differences between modeled and measured concentration values at sampling locations. The Monte Carlo generated suite of plumes emanating from each individual source is calculated and compared with the updated plume. The scores obtained from this comparison serve to update the weights initially assigned by the expert, and the above steps are repeated until the optimal source characteristics are determined. The algorithm's effectiveness is demonstrated by performing a

  9. Density-based cluster algorithms for the identification of core sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Oliver; Keller, Bettina G.

    2016-10-01

    The core-set approach is a discretization method for Markov state models of complex molecular dynamics. Core sets are disjoint metastable regions in the conformational space, which need to be known prior to the construction of the core-set model. We propose to use density-based cluster algorithms to identify the cores. We compare three different density-based cluster algorithms: the CNN, the DBSCAN, and the Jarvis-Patrick algorithm. While the core-set models based on the CNN and DBSCAN clustering are well-converged, constructing core-set models based on the Jarvis-Patrick clustering cannot be recommended. In a well-converged core-set model, the number of core sets is up to an order of magnitude smaller than the number of states in a conventional Markov state model with comparable approximation error. Moreover, using the density-based clustering one can extend the core-set method to systems which are not strongly metastable. This is important for the practical application of the core-set method because most biologically interesting systems are only marginally metastable. The key point is to perform a hierarchical density-based clustering while monitoring the structure of the metric matrix which appears in the core-set method. We test this approach on a molecular-dynamics simulation of a highly flexible 14-residue peptide. The resulting core-set models have a high spatial resolution and can distinguish between conformationally similar yet chemically different structures, such as register-shifted hairpin structures.

  10. A MIMO periodic ARX identification algorithm for the Floquet stability analysis of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, R.; Cacciola, S.; Bottasso, C. L.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a new stability analysis approach applicable to wind turbines. At first, a reduced order periodic model is identified from response time histories, and then stability is assessed using Floquet theory. The innovation of the proposed approach is in the ability of the algorithm to simultaneously consider multiple response time histories, for example in the form of measurements recorded both on the rotor and in the stand still system. As each different measurement carries a different informational content on the system, the simultaneous use of all available signals improves the quality and robustness of the analysis.

  11. Muon Momentum Determination with Multiple Coulomb Scattering for the MicroBooNE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratenko, Polina; MicroBooNE Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    MicroBooNE is an experiment based at Fermilab that uses a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) to investigate the excess of low energy events observed by the MiniBooNE experiment, study neutrino-argon cross-sections, and perform R&D for future LArTPC devices. MicroBooNE relies on the reconstruction of neutrino-induced muons for neutrino energy determination. However, a significant fraction of muons escape the detector. This talk describes a method for determining the momenta of escaping muons in LArTPC-based detectors. The technique uses information from multiple coulomb scattering to compute a muon's momentum through the maximization of a likelihood algorithm. This method was applied to both simulation and data, with momentum resolutions for both measured to be around 20% at typical MicroBooNE energies. Given this, multiple coulomb scattering provides a promising route towards energy determination for muons that escape the detector, and allows MicroBooNE to fully reconstruct and study uncontained, often high energy, events from both the Booster and NuMI neutrino beams. I will present the status and performance of the algorithm applied to simulation and data.

  12. Imaging the Subsurface with Upgoing Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We assess the feasibility of imaging the subsurface using upgoing muons. Traditional muon imaging focuses on more-prevalent downgoing muons. Muons are subatomic particles capable of penetrating the earth's crust several kilometers. Downgoing muons have been used to image the Pyramid of Khafre of Giza, various volcanoes, and smaller targets like cargo. Unfortunately, utilizing downgoing muons requires below-target detectors. For aboveground objects like a volcano, the detector is placed at the volcano's base and the top portion of the volcano is imaged. For underground targets like tunnels, the detector would have to be placed below the tunnel in a deeper tunnel or adjacent borehole, which can be costly and impractical for some locations. Additionally, detecting and characterizing subsurface features like voids from tunnels can be difficult. Typical characterization methods like sonar, seismic, and ground penetrating radar have shown mixed success. Voids have a marked density contrast with surrounding materials, so using methods sensitive to density variations would be ideal. High-energy cosmic ray muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity. Their absorption rate depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, tomography using downgoing muons can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. We present results of exploratory work, which demonstrates that upgoing muon fluxes appear sufficient to achieve target detection within a few months. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Geostationary Communications Satellites as Sensors for the Space Weather Environment: Telemetry Event Identification Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlton, A.; Cahoy, K.

    2015-12-01

    Reliability of geostationary communication satellites (GEO ComSats) is critical to many industries worldwide. The space radiation environment poses a significant threat and manufacturers and operators expend considerable effort to maintain reliability for users. Knowledge of the space radiation environment at the orbital location of a satellite is of critical importance for diagnosing and resolving issues resulting from space weather, for optimizing cost and reliability, and for space situational awareness. For decades, operators and manufacturers have collected large amounts of telemetry from geostationary (GEO) communications satellites to monitor system health and performance, yet this data is rarely mined for scientific purposes. The goal of this work is to acquire and analyze archived data from commercial operators using new algorithms that can detect when a space weather (or non-space weather) event of interest has occurred or is in progress. We have developed algorithms, collectively called SEER (System Event Evaluation Routine), to statistically analyze power amplifier current and temperature telemetry by identifying deviations from nominal operations or other events and trends of interest. This paper focuses on our work in progress, which currently includes methods for detection of jumps ("spikes", outliers) and step changes (changes in the local mean) in the telemetry. We then examine available space weather data from the NOAA GOES and the NOAA-computed Kp index and sunspot numbers to see what role, if any, it might have played. By combining the results of the algorithm for many components, the spacecraft can be used as a "sensor" for the space radiation environment. Similar events occurring at one time across many component telemetry streams may be indicative of a space radiation event or system-wide health and safety concern. Using SEER on representative datasets of telemetry from Inmarsat and Intelsat, we find events that occur across all or many of

  14. Reconstruction and identification of tau leptons in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Tau leptons constitute an important experimental signature for analyses at the CERN LHC related to Higgs boson, Standard Model, and beyond the Standard Model measurements. We describe the algorithm used by the CMS experiment to reconstruct and identify decays of tau leptons into hadrons and a neutrino during Run 1 of the CERN LHC. The performance of the algorithm is studied in proton-proton collisions recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The algorithm achieves an identification efficiency of typically 50-60%, with misidentification rates for quark and gluon jets, electrons and muons that vary between per mille and percent levels.

  15. Automated identification of depsipeptide natural products by an informatic search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Skinnider, Michael A; Johnston, Chad W; Zvanych, Rostyslav; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2015-01-19

    Nonribosomal depsipeptides are a class of potent microbial natural products, which include several clinically approved pharmaceutical agents. Genome sequencing has revealed a large number of uninvestigated natural-product biosynthetic gene clusters. However, while novel informatic search methods to access these gene clusters have been developed to identify peptide natural products, depsipeptide detection has proven challenging. Herein, we present an improved version of our informatic search algorithm for natural products (iSNAP), which facilitates the detection of known and genetically predicted depsipeptides in complex microbial culture extracts. We validated this technology by identifying several depsipeptides from novel producers, and located a large number of novel depsipeptide gene clusters for future study. This approach highlights the value of chemoinformatic search methods for the discovery of genetically encoded metabolites by targeting specific areas of chemical space.

  16. Identification of tertiary structure resemblance in proteins using a maximal common subgraph isomorphism algorithm.

    PubMed

    Grindley, H M; Artymiuk, P J; Rice, D W; Willett, P

    1993-02-05

    A program called PROTEP is described that permits the rapid comparison of pairs of three-dimensional protein structures to identify the patterns of secondary structure elements that they have in common. The representation of the protein structures as labelled graphs, where the secondary structure elements in a protein and the spatial and angular relationships between them correspond to the nodes and edges of a graph, was developed for use with an earlier program, called POSSUM, which identified subgraph isomorphisms in protein structures. PROTEP takes this representation and uses a different and more flexible approach to locating structural patterns in pairs of proteins, using a maximal common subgraph isomorphism algorithm that is based on a clique detection procedure. A range of searches is described to demonstrate that areas of common structural overlap between protein structures taken from the Protein Data Bank can be identified both effectively and efficiently.

  17. A novel star identification technique robust to high presence of false objects: The Multi-Poles Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiattarella, Vincenzo; Spiller, Dario; Curti, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    This work proposes a novel technique for the star pattern recognition for the Lost in Space, named Multi-Poles Algorithm. This technique is especially designed to ensure a reliable identification of stars when there is a large number of false objects in the image, such as Single Event Upsets, hot pixels or other celestial bodies. The algorithm identifies the stars using three phases: the acceptance phase, the verification phase and the confirmation phase. The acceptance phase uses a polar technique to yield a set of accepted stars. The verification phase performs a cross-check between two sets of accepted stars providing a new set of verified stars. Finally, the confirmation phase introduces an additional check to discard or to keep a verified star. As a result, this procedure guarantees a high robustness to false objects in the acquired images. A reliable simulator is developed to test the algorithm to obtain accurate numerical results. The star tracker is simulated as a 1024 × 1024 Active Pixel Sensor with a 20° Field of View. The sensor noises are added using suitable distribution models. The stars are simulated using the Hipparcos catalog with corrected magnitudes accordingly to the instrumental response of the sensor. The Single Event Upsets are modeled based on typical shapes detected from some missions. The tests are conducted through a Monte Carlo analysis covering the entire celestial sphere. The numerical results are obtained for both a fixed and a variable attitude configuration. In the first case, the angular velocity is zero and the simulations give a success rate of 100% considering a number of false objects up to six times the number of the cataloged stars in the image. The success rate decreases at 66% when the number of false objects is increased to fifteen times the number of cataloged stars. For moderate angular velocities, preliminary results are given for constant rate and direction. By increasing the angular rate, the performances of the

  18. Usefulness of epithelial cell adhesion molecule expression in the algorithmic approach to Lynch syndrome identification.

    PubMed

    Musulen, Eva; Blanco, Ignacio; Carrato, Cristina; Fernandez-Figueras, Maria Teresa; Pineda, Marta; Capella, Gabriel; Ariza, Aurelio

    2013-03-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS), the most frequent form of hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, is caused by germ-line mutations in the mismatch repair system genes. Recently, a new mechanism involving the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM)/TACSTD1 gene has been shown to be responsible in cases with abnormal MSH2 expression. Of interest, 3' exons deletions of the EPCAM gene, which is located upstream of MSH2 in chromosome 2, are associated with MSH2 promoter hypermethylation. EPCAM protein, expressed in epithelial tissues, is encoded by the EPCAM/TACSTD1 gene. Our study's aim was to explore EPCAM expression in colorectal carcinomas of MSH2-associated LS cases to evaluate the usefulness of EPCAM protein expression in the algorithm approach to LS population screening. We included a total of 19 MSH2-negative colorectal carcinomas from 14 different patients in whom we were able to perform a complete germ-line analysis. Nine patients showed a deleterious germ-line mutation that involved the MSH2 gene in 3 instances and the EPCAM gene exon 9 in 6 instances. All patients harboring the EPCAM mutation belonged to the same family. Of the 19 colorectal carcinomas, EPCAM expression loss was seen in only 5 tumors, all of them from patients showing a germ-line EPCAM deletion. Of interest, 6 tumors from 3 different patients carrying the same germ-line EPCAM deletion showed normal EPCAM expression. In conclusion, owing to the high specificity of EPCAM protein expression to identify LS patients carrying an EPCAM deletion, we recommend adding EPCAM immunohistochemistry to the LS diagnostic algorithm in MSH2-negative colorectal carcinoma.

  19. A robust linear regression based algorithm for automated evaluation of peptide identifications from shotgun proteomics by use of reversed-phase liquid chromatography retention time

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hua; Yang, Lanhao; Freitas, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Background Rejection of false positive peptide matches in database searches of shotgun proteomic experimental data is highly desirable. Several methods have been developed to use the peptide retention time as to refine and improve peptide identifications from database search algorithms. This report describes the implementation of an automated approach to reduce false positives and validate peptide matches. Results A robust linear regression based algorithm was developed to automate the evaluation of peptide identifications obtained from shotgun proteomic experiments. The algorithm scores peptides based on their predicted and observed reversed-phase liquid chromatography retention times. The robust algorithm does not require internal or external peptide standards to train or calibrate the linear regression model used for peptide retention time prediction. The algorithm is generic and can be incorporated into any database search program to perform automated evaluation of the candidate peptide matches based on their retention times. It provides a statistical score for each peptide match based on its retention time. Conclusion Analysis of peptide matches where the retention time score was included resulted in a significant reduction of false positive matches with little effect on the number of true positives. Overall higher sensitivities and specificities were achieved for database searches carried out with MassMatrix, Mascot and X!Tandem after implementation of the retention time based score algorithm. PMID:18713471

  20. Polarization Effects at a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-11-01

    For Muon Colliders, Polarization will be a useful tool if high polarization is achievable with little luminosity loss. Formulation and effects of beam polarization and luminosity including polarization effects in Higgs resonance studies are discussed for improving precision measurements and Higgs resonance ''discovery'' capability e.g. at the First Muon Collider (FMC).

  1. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2013-06-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  2. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-10-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  3. Improving scintillation crystals using muon tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.H.; Fineman, B.J.; Sandorfi, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The cosmic ray muon scanning array provides information on NaI(T1) crystals using some 65,536 trajectories, each measuring the NaI(T1) response to high energy muons. With this information, it is possible to use established computer-aided-tomography techniques to deconvolute these integrated responses and produce a detailed picture of the detector's interior.

  4. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  5. BATATA: a buried muon hodoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, F.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Paic, G.; Salazar, M. E. Patiño; D'Olivo, J. C.; Molina, R. Alfaro

    2009-04-01

    Muon hodoscopes have several applications, ranging from astrophysics to fundamental particle physics. In this work, we present a detector dedicated to the study, at ground level, of the main signals of cosmic-ray induced showers above 6 PeV. The whole detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes buried at fix depths ranging from 120 g/cm2 to 600 g/cm2 and by a triangular array of water cerenkov detectors located nearby on ground.

  6. Perspectives of a mid-rapidity dimuon program at the RHIC: a novel and compact muon telescope detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, L.; Lin, G.; Xu, Z.; Asselta, K.; Chen, H. F.; Christie, W.; Crawford, H. J.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Hallman, T. J.; Li, C.; Liu, J.; Llope, W. J.; Majka, R.; Nussbaum, T.; Scheblein, J.; Shao, M.; Soja, R.; Sun, Y.; Tang, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.

    2009-09-01

    We propose a large-area, cost-effective muon telescope detector (MTD) at mid-rapidity for the solenoidal tracker at the RHIC (STAR) and for the next generation of detectors at a possible electron-ion collider. We utilize large multi-gap resistive plate chambers with long readout strips (long-MRPC) in the detector design. The results from cosmic ray and beam tests show that the intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a long-MRPC are 60-70 ps and ~1 cm, respectively. The performance of the prototype muon telescope detector at STAR indicates that muon identification at a transverse momentum of a few GeV/c can be achieved by combining information from track matching with the MTD, ionization energy loss in the time projection chamber and time-of-flight measurements. A primary muon over secondary muon ratio of better than 1/3 can be achieved. This provides a promising device for future quarkonium programs and primordial dilepton measurements at the RHIC. Simulations of the muon efficiency, the signal-to-background ratio of J/ψ, the separation of Upsilon 1S from 2S+3S states and the electron-muon correlation from charm pair production in the RHIC environment are presented.

  7. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1990-10-01

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed.

  8. Reverse Emittance Exchange for Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    V. Ivanov, A. Afanasev, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, G.M. Wang, S.A. Bogacz, Y.S. Derbenev

    2009-05-01

    Muon collider luminosity depends on the number of muons in the storage ring and on the transverse size of the beams in collision. Ionization cooling as it is currently envisioned will not cool the beam sizes sufficiently well to provide adequate luminosity without large muon intensities. Six-dimensional cooling schemes will reduce the longitudinal emittance of a muon beam so that smaller high frequency RF cavities can be used for later stages of cooling and for acceleration. However, the bunch length at collision energy is then shorter than needed to match the interaction region beta function. New ideas to shrink transverse beam dimensions by lengthening each bunch will help achieve high luminosity in muon colliders. Analytic expressions for the reverse emittance exchange mechanism were derived, including a new resonant method of beam focusing.

  9. Muon dynamics in a toroidal sector magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Fernow, R.C.; Palmer, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The present scenario for the cooling channel in a high brightness muon collider calls for a quasi-continuous solenoidal focusing channel. The beam line consists of a periodic array of hydrogen absorbers immersed in a solenoid with alternating focusing field and rf linacs at the zero field points. Solenoids and toroidal sectors have a natural place in muon collider design given the large emittance of the beam and consequently, the large transverse momentum of the initial pion beam or the decay muon beam. Bent solenoids as shown were studied for use at the front end of the machine, as part of the capture channel and more recently as part of a diagnostic setup to measure the position and momentum of muons. The authors present a Hamiltonian formulation of muon dynamics in toroidal sector solenoids (bent solenoid).

  10. Multi-alphabet consensus algorithm for identification of low specificity protein-DNA interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Ulyanov, A V; Stormo, G D

    1995-01-01

    A method for the identification and characterization of protein-DNA interactions is presented. We have developed an approach for finding unknown multiple patterns that occur imperfectly in a set of several sequences. The pattern may contain letters from the nucleotide alphabet (A, C, G and T) including ambiguous characters (A/C, A/G, A/T; A/C/G, etc.). This method reveals weak DNA signals on an unaligned set of DNA fragments known to be functionally related and assumes no prior information on the sequences' alignment. It determines the locations of the signals from only the information intrinsic to the sequences themselves. We have applied this method to analyze the binding sites of cAMP receptor protein (CRP). The consensus based on these data are discussed and a comparison of the consensus with the crystal structure of CAP-DNA complex is presented. We further show that in a mixture of DNA sequences, containing binding sites for two different proteins, both classes of binding sites can be discovered simultaneously by this method. The DNA sequences of nucleosome cores from chicken erythrocyte and a set of the other known nucleosomal sequences show existence of symmetrical features in nucleosome-binding DNA sequences. We also show multi-alphabet patterns that can play a role in the phasing signal on the nucleosome DNA molecule and have compared the results with existing models of nucleosome positioning. PMID:7753637

  11. A Bio Medical Waste Identification and Classification Algorithm Using Mltrp and Rvm

    PubMed Central

    ACHUTHAN, Aravindan; AYYALLU MADANGOPAL, Vasumathi

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the histogram features for text analysis and, to classify the types of Bio Medical Waste (BMW) for garbage disposal and management. Methods: The given BMW was preprocessed by using the median filtering technique that efficiently reduced the noise in the image. After that, the histogram features of the filtered image were extracted with the help of proposed Modified Local Tetra Pattern (MLTrP) technique. Finally, the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) was used to classify the BMW into human body parts, plastics, cotton and liquids. Results: The BMW image was collected from the garbage image dataset for analysis. The performance of the proposed BMW identification and classification system was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, classification rate and accuracy with the help of MATLAB. When compared to the existing techniques, the proposed techniques provided the better results. Conclusion: This work proposes a new texture analysis and classification technique for BMW management and disposal. It can be used in many real time applications such as hospital and healthcare management systems for proper BMW disposal. PMID:27957434

  12. Models for identification of erroneous atom-to-atom mapping of reactions performed by automated algorithms.

    PubMed

    Muller, Christophe; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Aires-de-Sousa, João; Varnek, Alexandre

    2012-12-21

    Machine learning (SVM and JRip rule learner) methods have been used in conjunction with the Condensed Graph of Reaction (CGR) approach to identify errors in the atom-to-atom mapping of chemical reactions produced by an automated mapping tool by ChemAxon. The modeling has been performed on the three first enzymatic classes of metabolic reactions from the KEGG database. Each reaction has been converted into a CGR representing a pseudomolecule with conventional (single, double, aromatic, etc.) bonds and dynamic bonds characterizing chemical transformations. The ChemAxon tool was used to automatically detect the matching atom pairs in reagents and products. These automated mappings were analyzed by the human expert and classified as "correct" or "wrong". ISIDA fragment descriptors generated for CGRs for both correct and wrong mappings were used as attributes in machine learning. The learned models have been validated in n-fold cross-validation on the training set followed by a challenge to detect correct and wrong mappings within an external test set of reactions, never used for learning. Results show that both SVM and JRip models detect most of the wrongly mapped reactions. We believe that this approach could be used to identify erroneous atom-to-atom mapping performed by any automated algorithm.

  13. Identification of mild cognitive impairment in ACTIVE: algorithmic classification and stability.

    PubMed

    Cook, Sarah E; Marsiske, Michael; Thomas, Kelsey R; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Wadley, Virginia G; Langbaum, Jessica B S; Crowe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Rates of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have varied substantially, depending on the criteria used and the samples surveyed. The present investigation used a psychometric algorithm for identifying MCI and its stability to determine if low cognitive functioning was related to poorer longitudinal outcomes. The Advanced Cognitive Training of Independent and Vital Elders (ACTIVE) study is a multi-site longitudinal investigation of long-term effects of cognitive training with older adults. ACTIVE exclusion criteria eliminated participants at highest risk for dementia (i.e., Mini-Mental State Examination < 23). Using composite normative for sample- and training-corrected psychometric data, 8.07% of the sample had amnestic impairment, while 25.09% had a non-amnestic impairment at baseline. Poorer baseline functional scores were observed in those with impairment at the first visit, including a higher rate of attrition, depressive symptoms, and self-reported physical functioning. Participants were then classified based upon the stability of their classification. Those who were stably impaired over the 5-year interval had the worst functional outcomes (e.g., Instrumental Activities of Daily Living performance), and inconsistency in classification over time also appeared to be associated increased risk. These findings suggest that there is prognostic value in assessing and tracking cognition to assist in identifying the critical baseline features associated with poorer outcomes.

  14. Identification of spectrally similar materials using the USGS Tetracorder algorithm: The calcite-epidote-chlorite problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, J.B.; Bove, D.J.; Mladinich, C.S.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    A scheme to discriminate and identify materials having overlapping spectral absorption features has been developed and tested based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Tetracorder system. The scheme has been applied to remotely sensed imaging spectroscopy data acquired by the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument. This approach was used to identify the minerals calcite, epidote, and chlorite in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado. The study was motivated by the need to characterize the distribution of calcite in the watershed and assess its acid-neutralizing potential with regard to acidic mine drainage. Identification of these three minerals is difficult because their diagnostic spectral features are all centered at 2.3 ??m, and have similar shapes and widths. Previous studies overestimated calcite abundance as a result of these spectral overlaps. The use of a reference library containing synthetic mixtures of the three minerals in varying proportions was found to simplify the task of identifying these minerals when used in conjunction with a rule-based expert system. Some inaccuracies in the mineral distribution maps remain, however, due to the influence of a fourth spectral component, sericite, which exhibits spectral absorption features at 2.2 and 2.4 ??m that overlap the 2.3-??m absorption features of the other three minerals. Whereas the endmember minerals calcite, epidote, chlorite, and sericite can be identified by the method presented here, discrepancies occur in areas where all four occur together as intimate mixtures. It is expected that future work will be able to reduce these discrepancies by including reference mixtures containing sericite. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Muon implantation of metallocenes: ferrocene.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, Upali A; Grinter, Roger; Hubbard, Penny L; Aston, Georgina M; Stride, John A; Hopkins, Gareth A; Camus, Laure; Reid, Ivan D; Cottrell, Stephen P; Cox, Stephen F J

    2007-01-01

    Muon Spin Relaxation and Avoided Level Crossing (ALC) measurements of ferrocene are reported. The main features observed are five high field resonances in the ALC spectrum at about 3.26, 2.44, 2.04, 1.19 and 1.17 T, for the low-temperature phase at 18 K. The high-temperature phase at 295 K shows that only the last feature shifted down to about 0.49 T and a muon spin relaxation peak at about 0.106 T which approaches zero field when reaching the phase transition temperature of 164 K. A model involving three muoniated radicals, two with muonium addition to the cyclopentadienyl ring and the other to the metal atom, is postulated to rationalise these observations. A theoretical treatment involving spin-orbit coupling is found to be required to understand the Fe-Mu adduct, where an interesting interplay between the ferrocene ring dynamics and the spin-orbit coupling of the unpaired electron is shown to be important. The limiting temperature above which the full effect of spin-orbit interaction is observable in the muSR spectra of ferrocene was estimated to be 584 K. Correlation time for the ring rotation dynamics of the Fe-Mu radical at this temperature is 3.2 ps. Estimated electron g values and the changes in zero-field splittings for this temperature range are also reported.

  16. Muon spin rotation research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Data from cyclotron experiments and room temperature studies of dilute iron alloys and iron crystals under strain were analyzed. The Fe(Mo) data indicate that the effect upon the contact hyperfine field in Fe due to the introduction of Mo is considerably less than that expected from pure dilution, and the muon (+) are attracted to the Mo impurity sites. There is a significant change in the interstitial magnetic field with Nb concentration. The Fe(Ti) data, for which precession could clearly be observed early only at 468K and above, show that the Ti impurities are attractive to muon (+), and the magnitude of B(hf) is reduced far beyond the amount expected from pure dilution. Changes in the intersitital magnetic field with the introduction of Cr, W, Ge, and Si are also discussed. When strained to the elastic limit, the interstitial magnetic field in Fe crystals is reduced by 33 gauss, and the relaxation rate of the precession signal increases by 47%.

  17. The Majorana Muon Veto System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Andrew; Majorana Demonstrator Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Majorana Demonstrator (MJD) is one of the major efforts of the DOE NP to demonstrate very high sensitivity for the search of the neutrino less double beta decay. The ultimate goal of MJD is to prove that background levels for a tonne-scale experiment with a similar design can be as low as 1.0 count/(4 keV*t*y). One source of background is cosmic muons that can interact in the detectors or in the shielding. In order to tag cosmic muon induced background, an efficient veto system is necessary. The MJD veto system is made out of thirty two panels of 1'' plastic scintillator. Understanding the performance of MJD veto system is vital for reducing the background count. Initial data of veto system performance during the commissioning stage will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  18. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, Denver Wade; Mufson, S.; Howard, B.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a physically-motivated model. Both models find tT = 1:52 ms for the decay time constant of the Ar 2 triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the “early” light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value 0.3 found by dark matter and double b-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation for background study of geophysical inspection with cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Taketa, Akimichi; Miyamoto, Seigo; Kasahara, Katsuaki

    2016-08-01

    Several attempts have been made to obtain a radiographic image inside volcanoes using cosmic-ray muons (muography). Muography is expected to resolve highly heterogeneous density profiles near the surface of volcanoes. However, several prior works have failed to make clear observations due to contamination by background noise. The background contamination leads to an overestimation of the muon flux and consequently a significant underestimation of the density in the target mountains. To investigate the origin of the background noise, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation. The main components of the background noise in muography are found to be low-energy protons, electrons and muons in case of detectors without particle identification and with energy thresholds below 1 GeV. This result was confirmed by comparisons with actual observations of nuclear emulsions. This result will be useful for detector design in future works, and in addition some previous works of muography should be reviewed from the view point of background contamination.

  20. Physics Studies for the CMS muon system upgrade with triple-GEM detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, C.

    2014-12-01

    The CMS collaboration considers upgrading the muon forward region with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers, which are able to handle the extreme particle rates expected in this region along with a high spatial resolution. This allows to combine tracking and triggering capabilities, resulting in a lower trigger threshold along with improved muon identification and track reconstruction. In the last year the GEM project took a major leap forward by integrating triple-GEM chambers in the official CMS software, allowing physics studies to be carried out. Several benchmark analyses have been studied for the impact of such detector upgrade on the physics performance. In this contribution the status of the CMS upgrade project with the usage of GEM detector will be reviewed, discussing the trigger, the muon reconstruction performance, and the impact on the physics analyses.

  1. The program in muon and neutrino physics: Superbeams, cold muon beams, neutrino factory and the muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raja et al.

    2001-08-08

    The concept of a Muon Collider was first proposed by Budker [10] and by Skrinsky [11] in the 60s and early 70s. However, there was little substance to the concept until the idea of ionization cooling was developed by Skrinsky and Parkhomchuk [12]. The ionization cooling approach was expanded by Neufer [13] and then by Palmer [14], whose work led to the formation of the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) [3] in 1995. The concept of a neutrino source based on a pion storage ring was originally considered by Koshkarev [18]. However, the intensity of the muons created within the ring from pion decay was too low to provide a useful neutrino source. The Muon Collider concept provided a way to produce a very intense muon source. The physics potential of neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings was investigated by Geer in 1997 at a Fermilab workshop [19, 20] where it became evident that the neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings needed for the muon collider were exciting on their own merit. The neutrino factory concept quickly captured the imagination of the particle physics community, driven in large part by the exciting atmospheric neutrino deficit results from the SuperKamiokande experiment. As a result, the MC realized that a Neutrino Factory could be an important first step toward a Muon Collider and the physics that could be addressed by a Neutrino Factory was interesting in its own right. With this in mind, the MC has shifted its primary emphasis toward the issues relevant to a Neutrino Factory. There is also considerable international activity on Neutrino Factories, with international conferences held at Lyon in 1999, Monterey in 2000 [21], Tsukuba in 2001 [22], and another planned for London in 2002.

  2. Analysis and Identification of Aptamer-Compound Interactions with a Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy and Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShaoPeng; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Jing; Cui, Weiren; Hu, Jerry; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The development of biochemistry and molecular biology has revealed an increasingly important role of compounds in several biological processes. Like the aptamer-protein interaction, aptamer-compound interaction attracts increasing attention. However, it is time-consuming to select proper aptamers against compounds using traditional methods, such as exponential enrichment. Thus, there is an urgent need to design effective computational methods for searching effective aptamers against compounds. This study attempted to extract important features for aptamer-compound interactions using feature selection methods, such as Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy, as well as incremental feature selection. Each aptamer-compound pair was represented by properties derived from the aptamer and compound, including frequencies of single nucleotides and dinucleotides for the aptamer, as well as the constitutional, electrostatic, quantum-chemical, and space conformational descriptors of the compounds. As a result, some important features were obtained. To confirm the importance of the obtained features, we further discussed the associations between them and aptamer-compound interactions. Simultaneously, an optimal prediction model based on the nearest neighbor algorithm was built to identify aptamer-compound interactions, which has the potential to be a useful tool for the identification of novel aptamer-compound interactions. The program is available upon the request. PMID:26955638

  3. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins.

    PubMed

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Dunn, Michael J; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F; Briggs, Dirk R; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge's accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems.

  4. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Dunn, Michael J.; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F.; Briggs, Dirk R.; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge’s accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems. PMID:25894763

  5. Genome-wide search for genetic modulators in gene regulatory pathways: weighted window-based peak identification algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjee; Kim, Kyunga; Park, Taesung

    2011-06-01

    Genome-wide gene expression and genotype data have been integratively analyzed in expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies to elucidate the genetics of gene transcription. Most eQTL analyses have focused on identifying polymorphic genetic variants that influence the expression levels of individual genes, and such analyses may have limitations in explaining gene regulatory pathways that are likely to involve multiple genes and their genetic and/or non-genetic modulators. We have developed a novel two-step method for identifying potential genetic modulators of transcription processes for multiple genes in a biological pathway. We proposed a new weighted window-based peak identification algorithm to improve the detection of genetic modulators for individual genes and employed a Poisson-based test to search for master genetic modulators of multiple genes. Here, we have illustrated this two-step approach by analyzing the gene expression data in the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) lymphoblast cells and single nucleotide polymorphism chip data.

  6. Identification of isomers and control of ionization and dissociation processes using dual-mass-spectrometer scheme and genetic algorithm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhou; Tong, Qiu-Nan; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Hu, Zhan

    2015-04-01

    Identification of acetone and its two isomers, and the control of their ionization and dissociation processes are performed using a dual-mass-spectrometer scheme. The scheme employs two sets of time of flight mass spectrometers to simultaneously acquire the mass spectra of two different molecules under the irradiation of identically shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The optimal laser pulses are found using closed-loop learning method based on a genetic algorithm. Compared with the mass spectra of the two isomers that are obtained with the transform limited pulse, those obtained under the irradiation of the optimal laser pulse show large differences and the various reaction pathways of the two molecules are selectively controlled. The experimental results demonstrate that the scheme is quite effective and useful in studies of two molecules having common mass peaks, which makes a traditional single mass spectrometer unfeasible. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374124).

  7. Analysis and Identification of Aptamer-Compound Interactions with a Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy and Nearest Neighbor Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShaoPeng; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Jing; Cui, Weiren; Hu, Jerry; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The development of biochemistry and molecular biology has revealed an increasingly important role of compounds in several biological processes. Like the aptamer-protein interaction, aptamer-compound interaction attracts increasing attention. However, it is time-consuming to select proper aptamers against compounds using traditional methods, such as exponential enrichment. Thus, there is an urgent need to design effective computational methods for searching effective aptamers against compounds. This study attempted to extract important features for aptamer-compound interactions using feature selection methods, such as Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy, as well as incremental feature selection. Each aptamer-compound pair was represented by properties derived from the aptamer and compound, including frequencies of single nucleotides and dinucleotides for the aptamer, as well as the constitutional, electrostatic, quantum-chemical, and space conformational descriptors of the compounds. As a result, some important features were obtained. To confirm the importance of the obtained features, we further discussed the associations between them and aptamer-compound interactions. Simultaneously, an optimal prediction model based on the nearest neighbor algorithm was built to identify aptamer-compound interactions, which has the potential to be a useful tool for the identification of novel aptamer-compound interactions. The program is available upon the request.

  8. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabady, Dinyar; Ero, Janos; Flouris, Giannis; Fulcher, Jonathan; Loukas, Nikitas; Paradas, Evangelos; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHC's Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer. An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF), as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer: the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT). Both the BMTF and μGMT have been implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-7 card utilizing the microTCA architecture. While the BMTF improves on the proven and well-tested algorithms used in the Drift Tube Track Finder during Run-1, the μGMT is an almost complete re-development due to the re-organization of the underlying systems from track-finders for a specific detector to regional track finders covering a given area of the whole detector. Additionally the μGMT calculates a muon's isolation using energy information received from the calorimeter trigger. This information is added to the muon objects forwarded to the global decision layer, the so-called Global Trigger.

  9. Muon simulation codes MUSIC and MUSUN for underground physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes two Monte Carlo codes dedicated to muon simulations: MUSIC (MUon SImulation Code) and MUSUN (MUon Simulations UNderground). MUSIC is a package for muon transport through matter. It is particularly useful for propagating muons through large thickness of rock or water, for instance from the surface down to underground/underwater laboratory. MUSUN is designed to use the results of muon transport through rock/water to generate muons in or around underground laboratory taking into account their energy spectrum and angular distribution.

  10. Calibration Software for the Muon Detectors at CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannon, Kevin

    2001-04-01

    The muon detector system at CDF consists of the following subsystems: Central Muon Detector (CMU), the Central Muon Upgrade (CMP), the Central Muon Extension (CMX), and the Intermediate Muon Detector (IMU). Each subsystem is a collection of drift chambers and all but the CMU also incorporate scintillation counters for trigger and timing purposes. The muon calibration system performs diagnostics and calibrations on the above systems. We will describe the software that controls the muon calibration system. This software takes advantage of the existing CDF DAQ infrastructure to handle communication between a Java client containing the user interface and the VME crates where the calibration hardware resides.

  11. Calibration Hardware for the Muon Detectors at CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickey, Trevor

    2001-04-01

    The muon detector system at CDF consists of the following subsystems: Central Muon Detector (CMU), the Central Muon Upgrade (CMP), the Central Muon Extension (CMX), and the Intermediate Muon Detector (IMU). Each subsystem is a collection of drift chambers and all but the CMU also incorporate scintillation counters for trigger and timing purposes. We will describe the muon calibration system hardware, which performs diagnostics and calibrations on the above detectors. The muon calibration system injects charge into each channel of the CDF muon detectors to generate a signal similar to that of a muon traversing the chamber. Reading this pulse out with the data acquisition system allows us to spot problems with the muon system electronics as well as to calibrate detector timing and response to different amounts of charge.

  12. Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper for Identification of Gram-Positive Rods: Development of a Diagnostic Algorithm for the Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Bloemberg, Guido V.; Zbinden, Reinhard; Böttger, Erik C.; Hombach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Reported matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification rates of Gram-positive rods (GPR) are low compared to identification rates of Gram-positive cocci. In this study, three sample preparation methods were compared for MALDI-TOF MS identification of 190 well-characterized GPR strains: direct transfer, direct transfer-formic acid preparation, and ethanol-formic acid extraction. Using the interpretation criteria recommended by the manufacturer, identification rates were significantly higher for direct transfer-formic acid preparation and ethanol-formic acid extraction than for direct transfer. Reducing the species cutoff from 2.0 to 1.7 significantly increased species identification rates. In a subsequent prospective study, 215 clinical GPR isolates were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, and the results were compared to those for identification using conventional methods, with discrepancies being resolved by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene analysis. Using the direct transfer-formic acid preparation and a species cutoff of 1.7, congruencies on the genus and species levels of 87.4% and 79.1%, respectively, were achieved. In addition, the rate of nonidentified isolates dropped from 12.1% to 5.6% when using an extended database, i.e., the Bruker database amended by reference spectra of the 190 GPR of the retrospective study. Our data demonstrate three ways to improve GPR identification by the Bruker MALDI Biotyper, (i) optimize sample preparation using formic acid, (ii) reduce cutoff scores for species identification, and (iii) expand the database. Based on our results, we suggest an identification algorithm for the clinical laboratory combining MALDI-TOF MS with nucleic acid sequencing. PMID:24452159

  13. Application of filtered back projection to muon radiography for imaging dry storage casks

    DOE PAGES

    Poulson, Daniel Cris; Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; ...

    2017-10-22

    Radiography with cosmic ray muon scattering has proven to be a successful method of imaging nuclear material through heavy shielding. Of particular interest is monitoring dry storage casks for diversion of plutonium contained in spent reactor fuel. Using muon tracking detectors that surround a cylindrical cask, cosmic ray muon scattering can be simultaneously measured from all azimuthal angles, giving complete tomographic coverage of the cask interior. This article describes the first application of filtered back projection algorithms, typically used in medical imaging, to cosmic ray muon scattering imaging. The specific application to monitoring spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casksmore » is investigated via GEANT4 simulations. With a cylindrical muon tracking detector surrounding a typical spent fuel cask, simulations indicate that missing fuel bundles can be detected with a statistical significance of ∼18σ in less than two days exposure and a sensitivity at 1σ to a 5% missing portion of a fuel bundle. Finally, we discuss potential detector technologies and geometries.« less

  14. Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks

    DOE PAGES

    Poulson, Daniel Cris; Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; ...

    2017-10-22

    Radiography with cosmic ray muon scattering has proven to be a successful method of imaging nuclear material through heavy shielding. Of particular interest is monitoring dry storage casks for diversion of plutonium contained in spent reactor fuel. Using muon tracking detectors that surround a cylindrical cask, cosmic ray muon scattering can be simultaneously measured from all azimuthal angles, giving complete tomographic coverage of the cask interior. This article describes the first application of filtered back projection algorithms, typically used in medical imaging, to cosmic ray muon scattering imaging. The specific application to monitoring spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casksmore » is investigated via GEANT4 simulations. With a cylindrical muon tracking detector surrounding a typical spent fuel cask, simulations indicate that missing fuel bundles can be detected with a statistical significance of ~18σ in less than two days exposure and a sensitivity at 1σ to a 5% missing portion of a fuel bundle. Finally, we discuss potential detector technologies and geometries.« less

  15. Muon-to-Electron Conversion with COMET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The Coherent Muon-to-Electron Transition (COMET) experiment is presented, focusing on the particle detection systems. COMET is currently under construction as the first of two phases at the J-PARC proton accelerator laboratory in Tokai, Japan. COMET will search for muon-to-electron conversion with a single-event sensitivity of 2.6 × 10-17, with Phase-I achieving a sensitivity of 3.1 × 10-15 and due to enter commissioning in 2016. Phase-I will also allow us to study the novel pion and muon beamline and the rates of background processes.

  16. Systematic muon capture rates in PQRPA

    SciTech Connect

    Samana, A. R.; Sande, D.; Krmpotić, F.

    2015-05-15

    In this work we performed a systematic study of the inclusive muon capture rates for several nuclei with A < 60 using the Projected Random Quasi-particle Phase Approximation (PQRPA) as nuclear model, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are more robust for such a purpose.

  17. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Haruo; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Greene, Steve J.; Milner, Edward C.; Morris, Christopher L.; Lukic, Zarija; Masuda, Koji; Perry, John O.

    2013-05-15

    A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  18. The University of Texas Maya Muon Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schwitters, Roy

    2007-05-09

    Plans to explore the ruin of a Maya Pyramid in Belize using cosmic ray muon tomography will be described. Muon tomography was pioneered by Luis Alvarez in the 1960's to explore the Second Pyramid of Chephren in Egypt. Improvements in detector technology since the Alvarez experiment suggest that muon tomography may be a practical method for exploring and monitoring relatively large underground volumes when exposure times of order months are acceptable. A prototype detector based on Fermilab/MINOS scintillator strip/WLS fiber technology has been built and is being tested at UT Austin. Initial results using the detector will be discussed.

  19. Atmospheric muons and neutrinos, and the neutrino-induced muon flux underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion equation for neutrino-induced cosmic ray muons underground was solved. The neutrino-induced muon flux and charge ratio underground have been calculated. The calculated horizontal neutrino-induced muon flux in the energy range 0.1 - 10000 GeV is in agreement with the measured horizontal flux. The calculated vertical flux above 2 GeV is in agreement with the measured vertical flux. The average charge ratio of neutrino-induced muons underground was found to be mu+/mu- = 0.40.

  20. Classification Algorithm for Subspecies Identification within the Mycobacterium abscessus Species, Based on Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fangous, Marie-Sarah; Mougari, Faiza; Gouriou, Stéphanie; Calvez, Elodie; Raskine, Laurent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Payan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, as a species, has been increasingly implicated in respiratory infections, notably in cystic fibrosis patients. The species comprises 3 subspecies, which can be difficult to identify. Since they differ in antibiotic susceptibility and clinical relevance, developing a routine diagnostic tool discriminating Mycobacterium abscessus at the subspecies level is a real challenge. Forty-three Mycobacterium abscessus species isolates, previously identified by multilocus sequence typing, were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A subspecies identification algorithm, based on five discriminating peaks, was drawn up and validated by blind identification of a further 49 strains, 94% of which (n = 46) were correctly identified. Two M. abscessus subsp. massiliense strains were misidentified as M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, and for 1 other strain identification failed. Inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility tests were conclusive. This study presents, for the first time, a classification algorithm for MALDI-TOF MS identification of the 3 M. abscessus subspecies. MALDI-TOF MS proved effective in discriminating within the M. abscessus species and might be easily integrated into the workflow of microbiology labs. PMID:25009048

  1. Intense muon beams and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    2000-10-05

    High intensity muon sources are needed in exploring neutrino factories, lepton flavor violating muon processes, and lower energy experiments as the stepping phase towards building higher energy {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. We present a brief overview, sketch of a neutrino source, and an example of a muon storage ring at BNL with detector(s) at Fermilab, Sudan, etc. Physics with low energy neutrino beams based on muon storage rings ({mu}SR) and conventional Horn Facilities are described and compared. CP violation Asymmetries and a new Statistical Figure of Merit to be used for comparison is given. Improvements in the sensitivity of low energy experiments to study Flavor changing neutral currents are also included.

  2. Development of a Portable Muon Witness System

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Since understanding and quantifying cosmic ray induced radioactive backgrounds in copper and germanium are important to the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, methods are needed for monitoring the levels of such backgrounds produced in materials being transported and processed for the experiment. This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop a muon witness system as a one way of monitoring induced activities. The operational goal of this apparatus is to characterize cosmic ray exposure of materials. The cosmic ray flux at the Earth’s surface is composed of several types of particles, including neutrons, muons, gamma rays and protons. These particles induce nuclear reactions, generating isotopes that contribute to the radiological background. Underground, the main mechanism of activation is by muon produced spallation neutrons since the hadron component of cosmic rays is removed at depths greater than a few tens of meters. This is a sub-dominant contributor above ground, but muons become predominant in underground experiments. For low-background experiments cosmogenic production of certain isotopes, such as 68Ge and 60Co, must be accounted for in the background budgets. Muons act as minimum ionizing particles, depositing a fixed amount of energy per unit length in a material, and have a very high penetrating power. Using muon flux measurements as a “witness” for the hadron flux, the cosmogenic induced activity can be quantified by correlating the measured muon flux and known hadronic production rates. A publicly available coincident muon cosmic ray detector design, the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector (BLCRD), assembled by Juniata College, is evaluated in this work. The performance of the prototype is characterized by assessing its muon flux measurements. This evaluation is done by comparing data taken in identical scenarios with other cosmic ray telescopes. The prototype is made of two plastic scintillator paddles with

  3. Motivations for muon radiography of active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedonio, G.; Martini, M.

    2010-02-01

    Muon radiography represents an innovative tool for investigating the interior of active volcanoes. This method integrates the conventional geophysical techniques and provides an independent way to estimate the density of the volcano structure and reveal the presence of magma conduits. The experience from the pioneer experiments performed at Mt. Asama, Mt. West Iwate, and Showa-Shinzan (Japan) are very encouraging. Muon radiography could be applied, in principle, at any stratovolcano. Here we focus our attention on Vesuvius and Stromboli (Italy).

  4. Preparations for Muon Experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.; Popovic, M.; Prebys, E.; Ankenbrandt, C.; /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2009-05-01

    The use of existing Fermilab facilities to provide beams for two muon experiments--the Muon to Electron Conversion Experiment (Mu2e) and the New g-2 Experiment--is under consideration. Plans are being pursued to perform these experiments following the completion of the Tevatron Collider Run II, utilizing the beam lines and storage rings used today for antiproton accumulation without considerable reconfiguration.

  5. Target and collection optimization for muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Noble, R.J.; Van Ginneken, A.

    1996-01-10

    To achieve adequate luminosity in a muon collider it is necessary to produce and collect large numbers of muons. The basic method used in this paper follows closely a proposed scheme which starts with a proton beam impinging on a thick target ({approximately} one interaction length) followed by a long solenoid which collects muons resulting mainly from pion decay. Production and collection of pions and their decay muons must be optimized while keeping in mind limitations of target integrity and of the technology of magnets and cavities. Results of extensive simulations for 8 GeV protons on various targets and with various collection schemes are reported. Besides muon yields results include-energy deposition in target and solenoid to address cooling requirements for these systems. Target composition, diameter, and length are varied in this study as well as the configuration and field strengths of the solenoid channel. A curved solenoid field is introduced to separate positive and negative pions within a few meters of the target. This permits each to be placed in separate RF buckets for acceleration which effectively doubles the number of muons per bunch available for collisions and increases the luminosity fourfold.

  6. The MICE Demonstration of Muon Ionization Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste; Hunt, Christopher; Palladino, Vittorio; Pasternak, Jaroslaw

    2016-06-01

    Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterised neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavour at the Neutrino Factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions up to several TeV at the Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate muon ionization cooling, the technique proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization-cooling channel, the muon beam traverses a material (the absorber) loosing energy, which is replaced using RF cavities. The combined effect is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). The configuration of MICE required to deliver the demonstration of ionization cooling is being prepared in parallel to the execution of a programme designed to measure the cooling properties of liquid-hydrogen and lithium hydride. The design of the cooling-demonstration experiment will be presented together with a summary of the performance of each of its components and the cooling performance of the experiment.

  7. Muon Emittance Exchange with a Potato Slicer

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Hart, T. L.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Oliveros, S. J.; Perera, L. P.; Neuffer, D. V.

    2015-04-15

    We propose a novel scheme for final muon ionization cooling with quadrupole doublets followed by emittance exchange in vacuum to achieve the small beam sizes needed by a muon collider. A flat muon beam with a series of quadrupole doublet half cells appears to provide the strong focusing required for final cooling. Each quadrupole doublet has a low beta region occupied by a dense, low Z absorber. After final cooling, normalized transverse, longitudinal, and angular momentum emittances of 0.100, 2.5, and 0.200 mm-rad are exchanged into 0.025, 70, and 0.0 mm-rad. A skew quadrupole triplet transforms a round muon bunch with modest angular momentum into a flat bunch with no angular momentum. Thin electrostatic septa efficiently slice the flat bunch into 17 parts. The 17 bunches are interleaved into a 3.7 meter long train with RF deflector cavities. Snap bunch coalescence combines the muon bunch train longitudinally in a 21 GeV ring in 55 µs, one quarter of a synchrotron oscillation period. A linear long wavelength RF bucket gives each bunch a different energy causing the bunches to drift in the ring until they merge into one bunch and can be captured in a short wavelength RF bucket with a 13% muon decay loss and a packing fraction as high as 87 %.

  8. Investigation of the relative abundance of heavy versus light nuclei in primary cosmic rays using underground muon bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaralingam, N.

    1993-06-08

    We study multiple muon events (muon bundles) recorded underground at a depth of 2090 mwe. To penetrate to this depth, the muons must have energies above 0.8 TeV at the Earth`s surface; the primary cosmic ray nuclei which give rise to the observed muon bundles have energies at incidence upon the upper atmosphere of 10 to 10{sup 5}TeV. The events are detected using the Soudan 2 experiment`s fine grained tracking calorimeter which is surrounded by a 14 m {times}10 m {times} 31 m proportional tube array (the ``active shield``). Muon bundles which have at least one muon traversing the calorimeter, are reconstructed using tracks in the calorimeter together with hit patterns in the proportional tube shield. All ionization pulses are required to be coincident within 3 microseconds. A goal of this study is to investigate the relative nuclear abundances in the primary cosmic radiation around the ``knee`` region (10{sup 3} {minus} 10{sup 4} TeV) of the incident energy spectrum. Four models for the nuclear composition of cosmic rays are considered: The Linsley model, the Constant Mass Composition model (CMC), the Maryland model and the Proton-poor model. A Monte Carlo which incorporates one model at a time is used to simulate events which are then reconstructed using the same computer algorithms that are used for the data. Identical cuts and selections are applied to the data and to the simulated events.

  9. Phase Rotation of Muon Beams for Producing Intense Low-Energy Muon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Bao, Y.; Hansen, G.

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy muon beams are useful for rare decay searches, which provide access to new physics that cannot be addressed at high-energy colliders. However, muons are produced within a broad energy spread unmatched to the low-energy required. In this paper we outline a phase rotation method to significantly increase the intensity of low-energy muons. The muons are produced from a short pulsed proton driver, and develop a time-momentum correlation in a drift space following production. A series of rf cavities is used to bunch the muons and phase-energy rotate the bunches to a momentum of around 100 MeV/c. Then another group of rf cavities is used to decelerate the muon bunches to low-energy. This obtains ~0.1 muon per 8 GeV proton, which is significantly higher than currently planned Mu2e experiments, and would enable a next generation of rare decay searches, and other intense muon beam applications.

  10. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Low Energy Muon Science: LEMS`93

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, M.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains papers on research with low energy muons. Topics cover fundamental electroweak physics; muonic atoms and molecules, and muon catalyzed fusion; muon spin research; and muon facilities. These papers have been indexed and cataloged separately.

  11. R&D Toward a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2011-03-20

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in R&D towards a neutrino factory and muon collider. The U.S. Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) has been formed recently to expedite the R&D efforts. This paper will review the U.S. MAP R&D programs for a neutrino factory and muon collider. Muon ionization cooling research is the key element of the program. The first muon ionization cooling demonstration experiment, MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment), is under construction now at RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) in the UK. The current status of MICE will be described.

  12. Muon-fluorine entangled states in molecular magnets.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, T; Blundell, S J; Baker, P J; Brooks, M L; Hayes, W; Pratt, F L; Manson, J L; Conner, M M; Schlueter, J A

    2007-12-31

    The information accessible from a muon-spin relaxation experiment can be limited due to a lack of knowledge of the precise muon stopping site. We demonstrate here the possibility of localizing a spin polarized muon in a known stopping state in a molecular material containing fluorine. The muon-spin precession that results from the entangled nature of the muon spin and surrounding nuclear spins is sensitive to the nature of the stopping site. We use this property to identify three classes of sites that occur in molecular magnets and describe the extent to which the muon distorts its surroundings.

  13. Study of muon-induced neutron production using accelerator muon beam at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Y.; Lin, C. J.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Draeger, E.; White, C. G.; Luk, K. B.; Steiner, H.

    2015-08-17

    Cosmogenic muon-induced neutrons are one of the most problematic backgrounds for various underground experiments for rare event searches. In order to accurately understand such backgrounds, experimental data with high-statistics and well-controlled systematics is essential. We performed a test experiment to measure muon-induced neutron production yield and energy spectrum using a high-energy accelerator muon beam at CERN. We successfully observed neutrons from 160 GeV/c muon interaction on lead, and measured kinetic energy distributions for various production angles. Works towards evaluation of absolute neutron production yield is underway. This work also demonstrates that the setup is feasible for a future large-scale experiment for more comprehensive study of muon-induced neutron production.

  14. Negative muon chemistry: the quantum muon effect and the finite nuclear mass effect.

    PubMed

    Posada, Edwin; Moncada, Félix; Reyes, Andrés

    2014-10-09

    The any-particle molecular orbital method at the full configuration interaction level has been employed to study atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. In this approach electrons and muons are described as quantum waves. A scheme has been proposed to discriminate nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on chemical properties of muonic and regular atoms. This study reveals that the differences in the ionization potentials of isoelectronic muonic atoms and regular atoms are of the order of millielectronvolts. For the valence ionizations of muonic helium and muonic lithium the nuclear mass effects are more important. On the other hand, for 1s ionizations of muonic atoms heavier than beryllium, the quantum muon effects are more important. In addition, this study presents an assessment of the nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on the barrier of Heμ + H2 reaction.

  15. The new high field photoexcitation muon spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, K; Lord, J S; Murahari, P; Wang, K; Dunstan, D J; Waller, S P; McPhail, D J; Hillier, A D; Henson, J; Harper, M R; Heathcote, P; Drew, A J

    2016-12-01

    A high power pulsed laser system has been installed on the high magnetic field muon spectrometer (HiFi) at the International Science Information Service pulsed neutron and muon source, situated at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. The upgrade enables one to perform light-pump muon-probe experiments under a high magnetic field, which opens new applications of muon spin spectroscopy. In this report we give an overview of the principle of the HiFi laser system and describe the newly developed techniques and devices that enable precisely controlled photoexcitation of samples in the muon instrument. A demonstration experiment illustrates the potential of this unique combination of the photoexcited system and avoided level crossing technique.

  16. Atmospheric Muon Lifetime, Standard Model of Particles and the Lead Stopping Power for Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Barazandeh, Cioli; Majewski, Walerian

    2017-01-01

    The muon is a fundamental particles of matter. It decays into three other leptons through an exchange of the weak vector bosons W +/W-. Muons are present in the atmosphere from cosmic ray showers. By detecting the time delay between arrival of the muon and an appearance of the decay electron in our detector, we'll measure muon's lifetime at rest. From the lifetime we should be able to find the ratio gw /MW of the weak coupling constant gw (a weak analog of the electric charge) to the mass of the W-boson MW. Vacuum expectation value v of the Higg's field, which determines the masses of all particles of the Standard Model (SM), could be then calculated from our muon experiment as v =2MWc2/gw =(τ m μc2/6 π3ĥ)1/4m μc2 in terms of muon mass mµand muon lifetime τ only. Using known experimental value for MWc2 = 80.4 GeV we'll find the weak coupling constant gw. Using the SM relation e =gwsin θ√ hc ɛ0 with the experimental value of the Z0-photon weak mixing angle θ = 29o we could find from our muon lifetime the value of the elementary electric charge e. We'll determine the sea-level fluxes of low-energy and high-energy cosmic muons, then we'll shield the detector with varying thicknesses of lead plates and find the energy-dependent muon stopping power in lead.

  17. A genetic algorithm-Bayesian network approach for the analysis of metabolomics and spectroscopic data: application to the rapid identification of Bacillus spores and classification of Bacillus species

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapid identification of Bacillus spores and bacterial identification are paramount because of their implications in food poisoning, pathogenesis and their use as potential biowarfare agents. Many automated analytical techniques such as Curie-point pyrolysis mass spectrometry (Py-MS) have been used to identify bacterial spores giving use to large amounts of analytical data. This high number of features makes interpretation of the data extremely difficult We analysed Py-MS data from 36 different strains of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria encompassing seven different species. These bacteria were grown axenically on nutrient agar and vegetative biomass and spores were analyzed by Curie-point Py-MS. Results We develop a novel genetic algorithm-Bayesian network algorithm that accurately identifies sand selects a small subset of key relevant mass spectra (biomarkers) to be further analysed. Once identified, this subset of relevant biomarkers was then used to identify Bacillus spores successfully and to identify Bacillus species via a Bayesian network model specifically built for this reduced set of features. Conclusions This final compact Bayesian network classification model is parsimonious, computationally fast to run and its graphical visualization allows easy interpretation of the probabilistic relationships among selected biomarkers. In addition, we compare the features selected by the genetic algorithm-Bayesian network approach with the features selected by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The classification accuracy results show that the set of features selected by the GA-BN is far superior to PLS-DA. PMID:21269434

  18. Interaction of cosmic ray muons with spent nuclear fuel dry casks and determination of lower detection limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Choi, C. K.; Tsoukalas, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    The potential non-proliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel sealed in dry casks interacting continuously with the naturally generated cosmic ray muons is investigated. Treatments on the muon RMS scattering angle by Moliere, Rossi-Greisen, Highland and, Lynch-Dahl were analyzed and compared with simplified Monte Carlo simulations. The Lynch-Dahl expression has the lowest error and appears to be appropriate when performing conceptual calculations for high-Z, thick targets such as dry casks. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate dry casks with various fuel loadings and scattering variance estimates for each case were obtained. The scattering variance estimation was shown to be unbiased and using Chebyshev's inequality, it was found that 106 muons will provide estimates of the scattering variances that are within 1% of the true value at a 99% confidence level. These estimates were used as reference values to calculate scattering distributions and evaluate the asymptotic behavior for small variations on fuel loading. It is shown that the scattering distributions between a fully loaded dry cask and one with a fuel assembly missing initially overlap significantly but their distance eventually increases with increasing number of muons. One missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the distributions which is the case of 100,000 muons. This indicates that the removal of a standard fuel assembly can be identified using muons providing that enough muons are collected. A Bayesian algorithm was developed to classify dry casks and provide a decision rule that minimizes the risk of making an incorrect decision. The algorithm performance was evaluated and the lower detection limit was determined.

  19. Jet rates from deep inelastic muon scattering in the W range of 15 to 35 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.

    1991-08-01

    Production rates of forward jets in deep inelastic muon scattering are studied using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The evolution of di-jet rates with W is compared to QCD first order predictions in the W range of 15 to 25 GeV. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Neutrino mass implications for muon decay parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, Rebecca J.; Kile, Jennifer; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Wang Peng

    2007-02-01

    We use the scale of neutrino mass and naturalness considerations to obtain model-independent expectations for the magnitude of possible contributions to muon decay Michel parameters from new physics above the electroweak symmetry-breaking scale. Focusing on Dirac neutrinos, we obtain a complete basis of dimension four and dimension six effective operators that are invariant under the gauge symmetry of the standard model and that contribute to both muon decay and neutrino mass. We show that - in the absence of fine tuning - the most stringent neutrino-mass naturalness bounds on chirality-changing vector operators relevant to muon decay arise from one-loop operator mixing. The bounds we obtain on their contributions to the Michel parameters are 2 orders of magnitude stronger than bounds previously obtained in the literature. In addition, we analyze the implications of one-loop matching considerations and find that the expectations for the size of various scalar and tensor contributions to the Michel parameters are considerably smaller than derived from previous estimates of two-loop operator mixing. We also show, however, that there exist gauge-invariant operators that generate scalar and tensor contributions to muon decay but whose flavor structure allows them to evade neutrino-mass naturalness bounds. We discuss the implications of our analysis for the interpretation of muon-decay experiments.

  1. Analysis of Near Horizontal Muons at HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Ahron; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov) gamma ray observatory observes muons with nearly horizontal trajectories. HAWC is located at an altitude of 4100 meters a.s.l. on Sierra Negra in Mexico. The Gamma and Cosmic Ray detector is composed of 300 water tanks, 7.3 m in diameter and 4.5 m tall, spread over a physical area of 22,000 m2. Due to its thickness of 4.5 m, HAWC acts as a hodoscope capable of observing muons with trajectories at zenith angles greater than 75 degrees to just over 90 degrees. These muon trajectories have a unique signal in that they are linear and travel at nearly the speed of light. CORSIKA simulations indicate that these muons originate from high zenith angle cosmic ray events, where the air shower core is located at great distance from HAWC. I will present the angular distribution and rate at which HAWC observes these muon events. High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory.

  2. Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Guidman, K.K.; Strait, J.B.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Optimization of pion and muon production/collection for neutrino factories and muon colliders is described along with recent developments of the MARS15 code event generators and effects influencing the choice of the optimal beam energy.

  3. Toward a QCD analysis of jet rates in deep-inelastic Muon-Proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic Muon-Proton scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates defined by the JADE clustering algorithm are compared to perturbative Quantum chromodynamics (PQCD) and different Monte Carlo model predictions. The applicability of the jet-parton duality hypothesis is studied. We obtain hadronic jet rates which are approximately a factor of two higher than PQCD predictions at the parton level. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  4. Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnlein, David j.; Leveling, A.F.; Mokhov, N.V.; Vaziri, K.; Iwamoto, Y.; Kasugai, Y.; Matsuda, N.; Nakashima, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Iwase, Hiroshi; /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., KURRI /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Shimizu, Tokyo /Tohoku U.

    2009-12-01

    The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  5. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    BIGI,I.; BOLTON,T.; FORMAGGIO,J.; HARRIS,D.; MORFIN,J.; SPENTZOURIS,P.; YU,J.; KAYSER,B.; KING,B.J.; MCFARLAND,K.; PETROV,A.; SCHELLMAN,H.; VELASCO,M.; SHROCK,R.

    2000-05-11

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters.

  6. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, J. A.; Tibbitts, A.; Schotik, G.; Borozdin, K.; Bacon, J.; Midera, H.; Milner, C.; Morris, C.; Perry, J.; Barrett, S.; Perry, K.; Scott, A.; Wright, C.; Aberle, D.

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  7. Muon (g-2) Technical Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, J.

    2015-01-27

    The Muon (g-2) Experiment, E989 at Fermilab, will measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment a factor-of-four more precisely than was done in E821 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. The E821 result appears to be greater than the Standard-Model prediction by more than three standard deviations. When combined with expected improvement in the Standard-Model hadronic contributions, E989 should be able to determine definitively whether or not the E821 result is evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. After a review of the physics motivation and the basic technique, which will use the muon storage ring built at BNL and now relocated to Fermilab, the design of the new experiment is presented. This document was created in partial fulfillment of the requirements necessary to obtain DOE CD-2/3 approval.

  8. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  9. Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-08-10

    This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  10. Higgs boson and Z physics at the first muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.; Han, T.

    1998-01-01

    The potential for the Higgs boson and Z-pole physics at the first muon collider is summarized, based on the discussions at the ``Workshop on the Physics at the First Muon Collider and at the Front End of a Muon Collider``.

  11. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; et al.,

    2013-10-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.5--2.3 \\pi mm-rad horizontally and 0.6--1.0 \\pi mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90--190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  12. Muon neutrino CCQE at MINERvA

    SciTech Connect

    Betancourt, M.

    2016-12-13

    A precise understanding of quasi-elastic interactions is crucial to measure neutrino oscillations. The MINERvA experiment is currently working on different analyses of muon neutrino charged current quasi-elastic interactions. Here, we present updates to the previous quasi-elastic measurement, using a new flux, and we present the status of several analyses in progress; including double differential cross sections, a study of final state interactions using a sample with muon and a proton and the status of the CCQE analysis in the medium energy neutrino beam.

  13. Muon production in extended air shower simulations.

    PubMed

    Pierog, T; Werner, K

    2008-10-24

    Whereas air shower simulations are very valuable tools for interpreting cosmic ray data, there is a long-standing problem: it is difficult to accommodate at the same time the longitudinal development of air showers and the number of muons measured on the ground. Using a new hadronic interaction model (EPOS) in air shower simulations produces much more muons, in agreement with results from the HiRes-MIA experiment. We find that this is mainly due to a better description of (anti) baryon production in hadronic interactions. This is an aspect of air shower physics which has been neglected so far.

  14. Muon Neutrino Disappearance Measurement at MINOS+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Thomas; Minos+ Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MINOS experiment ran from 2003 until 2012 and produced some of the best precision measurements of the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters Δm322 and θ23 using muon neutrino disappearance of beam and atmospheric neutrinos and electron neutrino appearance of beam neutrinos. The MINOS+ experiment succeeded MINOS in September 2013. For almost three years MINOS+ collected data from the Medium Energy NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. Results of the muon neutrino disappearance analysis from the first two years of MINOS+ data will be presented. These results will be compared to and combined with the MINOS measurement.

  15. A COMPLETE SCHEME FOR A MUON COLLIDER.

    SciTech Connect

    PALMER,R.B.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; KIRK, H.G.; ALEXAHIN, Y.; NEUFFER, D.; KAHN, S.A.; SUMMERS, D.

    2007-09-01

    A complete scheme for production, cooling, acceleration, and ring for a 1.5 TeV center of mass muon collider is presented, together with parameters for two higher energy machines. The schemes starts with the front end of a proposed neutrino factory that yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Six dimensional cooling in long-period helical lattices reduces the longitudinal emittance until it becomes possible to merge the trains into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in all dimensions is applied to the single bunches in further helical lattices. Final transverse cooling to the required parameters is achieved in 50 T solenoids.

  16. Searches for violation of muon number conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Redwine, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The question of violation of muon number conservation is one which has occupied considerable attention and resources in recent years. The first generation of experiments at the medium energy accelerators has now been completed and the next generation of experiments is ready to begin. The history of muon number conservation is reviewed, including the reasons for the present belief that the conservation law may not be exact. The experiments that have been completed in the last few years are discussed. The new experiments that are being mounted and planned at several laboratories are discussed, and the relationship of these types of experiments to other studies, such as searches for neutrino oscillations, are considered.

  17. Muon Neutrino CCQE at MINERvA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, M.

    A precise understanding of quasi-elastic interactions is crucial to measure neutrino oscillations. The MINERvA experiment is currently working on different analyses of muon neutrino charged current quasi-elastic interactions. We present updates to the previous quasi-elastic measurement, using a new flux, and we present the status of several analyses in progress; including double differential cross sections, a study of final state interactions using a sample with muon and a proton and the status of the CCQE analysis in the medium energy neutrino beam.

  18. PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2004-10-01

    To a particle physicist a muon is a member of the lepton family, a heavy electron possessing a mass of about 1/9 that of a proton and a spin of 1/2, which interacts with surrounding atoms and molecules electromagnetically. Since its discovery in 1937, the muon has been put to many uses, from tests of special relativity to deep inelastic scattering, from studies of nuclei to tests of weak interactions and quantum electrodynamics, and most recently, as a radiographic tool to see inside heavy objects and volcanoes. In 1957 Richard Garwin and collaborators, while conducting experiments at the Columbia University cyclotron to search for parity violation, discovered that spin-polarized muons injected into materials might be useful to probe internal magnetic fields. This eventually gave birth to the modern field of muSR, which stands for muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance, and is the subject of this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Muons are produced in accelerators when high energy protons (generally >500 MeV) strike a target like graphite, producing pions which subsequently decay into muons. Most experiments carried out today use relatively low-energy (~4 MeV), positively-charged muons coming from pions decaying at rest in the skin of the production target. These muons have 100% spin polarization, a range in typical materials of about 180 mg cm-2, and are ideal for experiments in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Negatively-charged muons are also occasionally used to study such things as muonic atoms and muon-catalysed fusion. The muSR technique provides a local probe of internal magnetic fields and is highly complementary to inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance, for example. There are four primary muSR facilities in the world today: ISIS (Didcot, UK), KEK (Tsukuba, Japan), PSI (Villigen, Switzerland) and TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada), serving about 500 researchers world-wide. A new facility, JPARC (Tokai, Japan

  19. Cosmogenic Chlorine-36 Production in Calcite by Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, J. O. H.; Evans, J. M.; Fifield, L. K.; Allan, G. L.; Cresswell, R. G.

    1998-02-01

    At depths below a few metres, 36Cl production in calcite is initiated almost entirely by cosmic ray muons. The principal reactions are (1) direct negative muon capture by Ca; 40Ca(μ -,α) 36Cl, and (2) capture by 35Cl of secondary neutrons produced in muon capture and muon-induced photodisintegration reactions. We have determined rates for 36Cl and neutron production due to muon capture in calcite from a 20 m (5360 g cm -2) depth profile in limestone. The 36Cl yield from muon capture by Ca in pure calcite is 0.012 ± 0.002 atom per stopped negative muon. The surface production rate of 36Cl by muon capture on Ca in calcite is, therefore, 2.1 ± 0.4 atom g -1a -1 at sea level and high latitude, approximately 11% of the production rate by Ca spallation. If it is assumed that 34% of the negative muons are captured by the Ca atom in calcite, the α-yield from 40Ca following muon capture is 0.043 ± 0.008, somewhat lower than the result of a recent muon irradiation experiment (0.062 ± 0.020), but well within the extremes of existing theoretical predictions (0.0033-0.15). The average neutron yield following muon capture in pure calcite is 0.44 ± 0.15 secondary neutrons per stopped negative muon, in good agreement with existing theoretical predictions. Cosmogenic isotope production by muons must be taken into account when dating young geomorphic surfaces, especially those created by excavation of only a few metres of overlying rock. Attention to isotope production by muons is also crucial to determining surface erosion rates accurately. Due to the deep penetration of muons compared to cosmic ray hadrons, the accumulation of muon-produced 36Cl is less sensitive to erosion than that of spallogenic 36Cl. Although production by muons at the surface is only a small fraction of production by spallation, the fraction of muon-produced 36Cl in rapidly eroding limestone surfaces can approach 50%. In such cases, erosion rates estimated using conventional models which attribute

  20. Sensitivity of EAS measurements to the energy spectrum of muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espadanal, J.; Cazon, L.; Conceição, R.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied how the energy spectrum of muons at production affects some of the most common measurements related to muons in extensive air shower studies, namely, the number of muons at the ground, the slope of the lateral distribution of muons, the apparent muon production depth, and the arrival time delay of muons at ground. We found that by changing the energy spectrum by an amount consistent with the difference between current models (namely EPOS-LHC and QGSJET-II.04), the muon surface density at ground increases 5% at 20° zenith angle and 17% at 60° zenith angle. This effect introduces a zenith angle dependence on the reconstructed number of muons which might be experimentally observed. The maximum of the muon production depth distribution at 40° increases ∼ 10 g/cm2 and ∼ 0 g/cm2 at 60°, which, from pure geometrical considerations, increases the arrival time delay of muons. There is an extra contribution to the delay due to the subluminal velocities of muons of the order of ∼ 3 ns at all zenith angles. Finally, changes introduced in the logarithmic slope of the lateral density function are less than 2%.

  1. Muon Collider Machine-Detector Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, Nikolai V.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    In order to realize the high physics potential of a Muon Collider (MC) a high luminosity of {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}-collisions at the Interaction Point (IP) in the TeV range must be achieved ({approx}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}). To reach this goal, a number of demanding requirements on the collider optics and the IR hardware - arising from the short muon lifetime and from relatively large values of the transverse emittance and momentum spread in muon beams that can realistically be obtained with ionization cooling should be satisfied. These requirements are aggravated by limitations on the quadrupole gradients as well as by the necessity to protect superconducting magnets and collider detectors from muon decay products. The overall detector performance in this domain is strongly dependent on the background particle rates in various sub-detectors. The deleterious effects of the background and radiation environment produced by the beam in the ring are very important issues in the Interaction Region (IR), detector and Machine-Detector Interface (MDI) designs. This report is based on studies presented very recently.

  2. Precision measurements of fundamental muon properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec, P. T.

    2003-02-01

    The g-factor of the muon differs from two due to the excitation of virtual field quanta and particles. The deviation from two, the g-factor anomaly, can be calculated with high precision in the Standard Model of particle physics. The g-factor anomaly can be measured with high precision by determining the rate at which the spin direction of high-energy muons circulating in a storage ring precesses. The Brookhaven National Laboratory g-2 experiment (BNL g-2 collaboration) has measured g-2 to 1.3 ppm. The result is essentially in agreement with the Standard Model. The result puts interesting constraints on Standard Model extensions. Data under analysis will reduce the uncertainty to the order of 0.5 ppm. The precision timing techniques used in the g-2 experiment are a central element of a new experiment to measure the lifetime of the positive muon. The goal of this experiment is to determine the lifetime to 1 ppm, and the Fermi coupling constant to 0.5 ppm. The high statistics demand of this measurement is satisfied by one of the surface muon beams of the Paul Scherrer Institute. An artificial time structure is imposed on the continuous beam by an electrostatic kicker. The decay positrons are detected in a 180 element quasi-spherical detector. The effective counting rate is of the order of 1 MHz. The experiment is designed to control systematic errors to a level below 1 ppm.

  3. Neutrino masses, Majorons, and muon decay

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaria, A.; Bernabeu, J.; Pich, A.

    1987-09-01

    The contributions to the parameters xi, delta, rho, and eta in muon decay coming from double Majoron emission, Majorana neutrino masses, and effects of charged scalars are evaluated in the scalar-triplet model. The relevance of these effects for planned experiments is discussed.

  4. ICOOL: A TOOL FOR MUON COLLIDER SIMULATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    FERNOW,R.C.

    2001-09-28

    Current ideas for designing neutrino factories [ 1,2] and muon colliders [3] require unique configurations of fields and materials to prepare the muon beam for acceleration. This so-called front end system must accomplish the goals of phase rotation, bunching and cooling. We have continued the development of a 3-D tracking code, ICOOL [4], for examining possible muon collider front end configurations. A system is described in terms of a series of longitudinal regions with associated material and field properties. The tracking takes place in a coordinate system that follows a reference orbit through the system. The code takes into account decays and interactions of {approx}50-500 MeV/c muons in matter. Material geometry regions include cylinders and wedges. A number of analytic models are provided for describing the field configurations. Simple diagnostics are built into the code, including calculation of emittances and correlations, longitudinal traces, histograms and scatter plots. A number of auxiliary codes can be used for pre-processing, post-processing and optimization.

  5. Muon Acceleration Concepts for Future Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex

    2016-05-01

    Here, we summarize current state of concept for muon acceleration aimed at future Neutrino Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance through exploring interplay between complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival of the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to initially low RF frequency, e.g. 325 MHz, and then increased to 650 MHz, as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. Here, we considered two cost effective schemes for accelerating muon beams for a stagable Neutrino Factory: Exploration of the so-called 'dual-use' linac concept, where the same linac structure is used for acceleration of both H- and muons and alternatively, the SRF efficient design based on multi-pass (4.5) 'dogbone' RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  6. Measurements of Beam Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohayai, Tanaz; Snopok, Pavel; Rogers, Chris; Neuffer, David; Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Cooled muon beams are essential for production of high-flux neutrino beams at the Neutrino Factory and high luminosity muon beams at the Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, MICE aims to demonstrate muon beam cooling through ionization energy loss of muons in material. The standard figure of merit for cooling in MICE is the transverse RMS emittance reduction and to measure this, the individual muon positions and momenta are reconstructed using scintillating-fiber tracking detectors, before and after a low-Z absorbing material. In this study, in addition to a preview on the standard measurement technique, an alternative technique is described, which is the measurement of phase-space density using the novel Kernel Density Estimation method. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE - AC05 - 06OR23100.

  7. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source.

    PubMed

    Lord, J S; McKenzie, I; Baker, P J; Blundell, S J; Cottrell, S P; Giblin, S R; Good, J; Hillier, A D; Holsman, B H; King, P J C; Lancaster, T; Mitchell, R; Nightingale, J B; Owczarkowski, M; Poli, S; Pratt, F L; Rhodes, N J; Scheuermann, R; Salman, Z

    2011-07-01

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument.

  8. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J. S.; McKenzie, I.; Baker, P. J.; Cottrell, S. P.; Giblin, S. R.; Hillier, A. D.; Holsman, B. H.; King, P. J. C.; Nightingale, J. B.; Pratt, F. L.; Rhodes, N. J.; Blundell, S. J.; Lancaster, T.; Good, J.; Mitchell, R.; Owczarkowski, M.; Poli, S.; Scheuermann, R.; Salman, Z.

    2011-07-15

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument.

  9. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger in Run I and Upgrades for Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Dai

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has taken data at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV during Run I (2009-2013). The LHC delivered an integrated luminosity of about 20 fb-1 in 2012, which required dedicated strategies to ensure the highest possible physics output while effectively reducing the event rate. The Muon High Level Trigger has successfully adapted to the changing environment from low instantaneous luminosity (1032 cm-2 s-1) in 2010 to the peak high instantaneous luminosity (1034 cm-2 s-1). The selection strategy has been optimized for the various physics analyses involving muons in the final state. We will present the excellent performance achieved during Run I. In preparation for the next data taking period (Run II) several hardware and software upgrades to the ATLAS Muon Trigger have been performed to deal with the increased trigger rate expected at higher centre-of-mass energy and increased instantaneous luminosity. We will highlight the development of novel algorithms that have been developed to maintain a highly efficient event selection while reducing the processing time by a factor of three. In addition, the two stages of the high level trigger that was deployed in Run I will be merged for Run II. We will discuss novel approaches that are being developed to further improve the trigger algorithms for Run II and beyond.

  10. Maximum Likelihood Expectation-Maximization Algorithms Applied to Localization and Identification of Radioactive Sources with Recent Coded Mask Gamma Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, H.; Barat, E.; Carrel, F.; Dautremer, T.; Dubos, S.; Limousin, O.; Montagu, T.; Normand, S.; Schoepff, V.; Amgarou, K.; Menaa, N.; Angelique, J.-C.; Patoz, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we tested Maximum likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) algorithms optimized for gamma imaging applications on two recent coded mask gamma cameras. We respectively took advantage of the characteristics of the GAMPIX and Caliste HD-based gamma cameras: noise reduction thanks to mask/anti-mask procedure but limited energy resolution for GAMPIX, high energy resolution for Caliste HD. One of our short-term perspectives is the test of MAPEM algorithms integrating specific prior values for the data to reconstruct adapted to the gamma imaging topic. (authors)

  11. A Proposal for the Upgrade of the Muon Drift Tubes Trigger for the CMS Experiment at the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Nicola; Zotto, Pierluigi; Montecassiano, Fabio

    2016-11-01

    A major upgrade of the readout and trigger electronics of the CMS Drift Tubes muon detector is foreseen in order to allow its efficient operation at the High Luminosity LHC. A proposal for a new L1 Trigger Primitives Generator for this detector is presented, featuring an algorithm operating on the time of charge collection measurements provided by the asynchronous readout of the new TDC system being developed. The algorithm is being designed around the implementation in state-of-the-art FPGA devices of the original development of a Compact Hough Transform (CHT) algorithm combined with a Majority Mean-Timer, to identify both the parent bunch crossing and the muon track parameters. The current state of the design is presented along with the performance requirements, focusing on the future developments.

  12. MAGIC: an automated N-linked glycoprotein identification tool using a Y1-ion pattern matching algorithm and in silico MS² approach.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Ke-Shiuan; Chen, Chen-Chun; Lih, T Mamie; Cheng, Cheng-Wei; Su, Wan-Chih; Chang, Chun-Hao; Cheng, Chia-Ying; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Chen, Yu-Ju; Sung, Ting-Yi

    2015-02-17

    Glycosylation is a highly complex modification influencing the functions and activities of proteins. Interpretation of intact glycopeptide spectra is crucial but challenging. In this paper, we present a mass spectrometry-based automated glycopeptide identification platform (MAGIC) to identify peptide sequences and glycan compositions directly from intact N-linked glycopeptide collision-induced-dissociation spectra. The identification of the Y1 (peptideY0 + GlcNAc) ion is critical for the correct analysis of unknown glycoproteins, especially without prior knowledge of the proteins and glycans present in the sample. To ensure accurate Y1-ion assignment, we propose a novel algorithm called Trident that detects a triplet pattern corresponding to [Y0, Y1, Y2] or [Y0-NH3, Y0, Y1] from the fragmentation of the common trimannosyl core of N-linked glycopeptides. To facilitate the subsequent peptide sequence identification by common database search engines, MAGIC generates in silico spectra by overwriting the original precursor with the naked peptide m/z and removing all of the glycan-related ions. Finally, MAGIC computes the glycan compositions and ranks them. For the model glycoprotein horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a 5-glycoprotein mixture, a 2- to 31-fold increase in the relative intensities of the peptide fragments was achieved, which led to the identification of 7 tryptic glycopeptides from HRP and 16 glycopeptides from the mixture via Mascot. In the HeLa cell proteome data set, MAGIC processed over a thousand MS(2) spectra in 3 min on a PC and reported 36 glycopeptides from 26 glycoproteins. Finally, a remarkable false discovery rate of 0 was achieved on the N-glycosylation-free Escherichia coli data set. MAGIC is available at http://ms.iis.sinica.edu.tw/COmics/Software_MAGIC.html .

  13. The hybrid experimental simplex algorithm--an alternative method for 'sweet spot' identification in early bioprocess development: case studies in ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Spyridon; Chhatre, Sunil; Velayudhan, Ajoy; Heldin, Eva; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel

    2012-09-19

    The capacity to locate efficiently a subset of experimental conditions necessary for the identification of an operating envelope is a key objective in many studies. We have shown previously how this can be performed by using the simplex algorithm and this paper now extends the approach by augmenting the established simplex method to form a novel hybrid experimental simplex algorithm (HESA) for identifying 'sweet spots' during scouting development studies. The paper describes the new algorithm and illustrates its use in two bioprocessing case studies conducted in a 96-well filter plate format. The first investigates the effect of pH and salt concentration on the binding of green fluorescent protein, isolated from Escherichia coli homogenate, to a weak anion exchange resin and the second examines the impact of salt concentration, pH and initial feed concentration upon the binding capacities of a FAb', isolated from E. coli lysate, to a strong cation exchange resin. Compared with the established algorithm, HESA was better at delivering valuable information regarding the size, shape and location of operating 'sweet spots' that could then be further investigated and optimized with follow up studies. To test how favorably these features of HESA compared with conventional DoE (design of experiments) methods, HESA results were also compared with approaches including response surface modeling experimental designs. The results show that HESA can return 'sweet spots' that are equivalently or better defined than those obtained from DoE approaches. At the same time the deployment of HESA to identify bioprocess-relevant operating boundaries was accompanied by comparable experimental costs to those of DoE methods. HESA is therefore a viable and valuable alternative route for identifying 'sweet spots' during scouting studies in bioprocess development.

  14. Spectral identification of minerals using imaging spectrometry data: Evaluating the effects of signal to noise and spectral resolution using the tricorder algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swayze, Gregg A.; Clark, Roger N.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid development of sophisticated imaging spectrometers and resulting flood of imaging spectrometry data has prompted a rapid parallel development of spectral-information extraction technology. Even though these extraction techniques have evolved along different lines (band-shape fitting, endmember unmixing, near-infrared analysis, neural-network fitting, and expert systems to name a few), all are limited by the spectrometer's signal to noise (S/N) and spectral resolution in producing useful information. This study grew from a need to quantitatively determine what effects these parameters have on our ability to differentiate between mineral absorption features using a band-shape fitting algorithm. We chose to evaluate the AVIRIS, HYDICE, MIVIS, GERIS, VIMS, NIMS, and ASTER instruments because they collect data over wide S/N and spectral-resolution ranges. The study evaluates the performance of the Tricorder algorithm, in differentiating between mineral spectra in the 0.4-2.5 micrometer spectral region. The strength of the Tricorder algorithm is in its ability to produce an easily understood comparison of band shape that can concentrate on small relevant portions of the spectra, giving it an advantage over most unmixing schemes, and in that it need not spend large amounts of time reoptimizing each time a new mineral component is added to its reference library, as is the case with neural-network schemes. We believe the flexibility of the Tricorder algorithm is unparalleled among spectral-extraction techniques and that the results from this study, although dealing with minerals, will have direct applications to spectral identification in other disciplines.

  15. Comment on ``Identification of low order manifolds: Validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope'' [Chaos 9, 108-123 (1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flockerzi, Dietrich; Heineken, Wolfram

    2006-12-01

    It is claimed by Rhodes, Morari, and Wiggins [Chaos 9, 108-123 (1999)] that the projection algorithm of Maas and Pope [Combust. Flame 88, 239-264 (1992)] identifies the slow invariant manifold of a system of ordinary differential equations with time-scale separation. A transformation to Fenichel normal form serves as a tool to prove this statement. Furthermore, Rhodes, Morari, and Wiggins [Chaos 9, 108-123 (1999)] conjectured that away from a slow manifold, the criterion of Maas and Pope will never be fulfilled. We present two examples that refute the assertions of Rhodes, Morari, and Wiggins. In the first example, the algorithm of Maas and Pope leads to a manifold that is not invariant but close to a slow invariant manifold. The claim of Rhodes, Morari, and Wiggins that the Maas and Pope projection algorithm is invariant under a coordinate transformation to Fenichel normal form is shown to be not correct in this case. In the second example, the projection algorithm of Maas and Pope leads to a manifold that lies in a region where no slow manifold exists at all. This rejects the conjecture of Rhodes, Morari, and Wiggins mentioned above.

  16. The cosmic ray muon tomography facility based on large scale MRPC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuewu; Zeng, Ming; Zeng, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Ziran; Yue, Xiaoguang; Luo, Zhifei; Yi, Hengguan; Yu, Baihui; Cheng, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    Cosmic ray muon tomography is a novel technology to detect high-Z material. A prototype of TUMUTY with 73.6 cm×73.6 cm large scale position sensitive MRPC detectors has been developed and is introduced in this paper. Three test kits have been tested and image is reconstructed using MAP algorithm. The reconstruction results show that the prototype is working well and the objects with complex structure and small size (20 mm) can be imaged on it, while the high-Z material is distinguishable from the low-Z one. This prototype provides a good platform for our further studies of the physical characteristics and the performances of cosmic ray muon tomography.

  17. The search for single top quark production in the muon plus jets channel at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Christofek, L.; /Kansas U.

    2005-01-01

    The authors have performed a search for the electroweak production of single top quarks in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at a center of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The search was performed in the muon plus jets decay channel requiring at least one b-tagged jet. The data were collected using the D0 detector between August 2002 and September 2003 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 158 pb{sup -1}. The resulting 95% C.L. upper limits on the production cross sections are 27 pb in the s-channel, 41 pb in the t-channel, and 36 pb in the combined s + t channel using the secondary vertex tagger (SVT) algorithm. They also present results from the combined electron and muon channel search using the D0 detector.

  18. JTAG test system for RPC muon trigger in the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Rutkowski, Piotr Z.; Kudla, Ignacy M.; Pietrusinski, Michal

    2003-10-01

    Theoretical and practical realization of the JTAG testing system for the RPC Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN laboratory (Geneva) is presented. The paper covers issues related to tests of connections of the printed circuit boards (PCB) of the RPC Trigger. Functionality test of devices and modules were performed. Special test were designed for large PLD FPGA. Testing environment for the JTAG model is discussed. The model is based on some existing and some newly developed testing algorithms. Practical system realization is presented. The system consists of the hardware interface and the software layer. Software was built using C++ object oriented language and databases. Exemplary test of the RPC Muon Trigger electronics was performed and the results were given.

  19. Imaging a vertical shaft from a tunnel using muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Dorsey, D. J.; Schwellenbach, D.; Green, A.; Smalley, D.

    2015-12-01

    We use muon technology to image a vertical shaft from a tunnel. The density of the materials through which cosmic ray muons pass influences the flux of muons because muons are more attenuated by higher density material. Additionally, muons can travel several kilometers allowing measurements through deep rock. Density maps are generated from muon flux measurements to locate subsurface features like tunnel structures and ore bodies. Additionally, muon data can be jointly inverted with other data such as gravity and seismic to produce higher quality earth models than produced from a single method. We collected several weeks of data in a tunnel to image a vertical shaft. The minimum length of rock between the vertical shaft and the detector is 120 meters and the diameter of the vertical shaft is 4.6 meters. The rock the muons traveled through consists of Tertiary age volcanic tuff and steeply dipping, small-displacement faults. Results will be presented for muon flux in the tunnel and Monte-Carlo simulations of this experiment. Simulations from both GEANT4 (Geometry And Tracking version 4) and MCNP6 (Monte-Carlo N-Particle version 6) models will be compared. The tunnel overburden from muon measurements is also estimated and compared with actual the overburden. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Identification and Discrimination of Brands of Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Neural Networks Algorithm in Forensic Research

    PubMed Central

    Ugena, L.; Moncayo, S.; Manzoor, S.; Rosales, D.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of adulteration of fuels and its use in criminal scenes like arson has a high interest in forensic investigations. In this work, a method based on gas chromatography (GC) and neural networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the identification and discrimination of brands of fuels such as gasoline and diesel without the necessity to determine the composition of the samples. The study included five main brands of fuels from Spain, collected from fifteen different local petrol stations. The methodology allowed the identification of the gasoline and diesel brands with a high accuracy close to 100%, without any false positives or false negatives. A success rate of three blind samples was obtained as 73.3%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of this methodology to help in resolving criminal situations. PMID:27375919

  1. Independent component analysis-based algorithm for automatic identification of Raman spectra applied to artistic pigments and pigment mixtures.

    PubMed

    González-Vidal, Juan José; Pérez-Pueyo, Rosanna; Soneira, María José; Ruiz-Moreno, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    A new method has been developed to automatically identify Raman spectra, whether they correspond to single- or multicomponent spectra. The method requires no user input or judgment. There are thus no parameters to be tweaked. Furthermore, it provides a reliability factor on the resulting identification, with the aim of becoming a useful support tool for the analyst in the decision-making process. The method relies on the multivariate techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA), and on some metrics. It has been developed for the application of automated spectral analysis, where the analyzed spectrum is provided by a spectrometer that has no previous knowledge of the analyzed sample, meaning that the number of components in the sample is unknown. We describe the details of this method and demonstrate its efficiency by identifying both simulated spectra and real spectra. The method has been applied to artistic pigment identification. The reliable and consistent results that were obtained make the methodology a helpful tool suitable for the identification of pigments in artwork or in paint in general.

  2. Antibiotic treatment algorithm development based on a microarray nucleic acid assay for rapid bacterial identification and resistance determination from positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Jürgen; Karrasch, Matthias; Edel, Birgit; Stoll, Sylvia; Bohnert, Jürgen; Löffler, Bettina; Saupe, Angela; Pfister, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Rapid diagnosis of bloodstream infections remains a challenge for the early targeting of an antibiotic therapy in sepsis patients. In recent studies, the reliability of the Nanosphere Verigene Gram-positive and Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GP and BC-GN) assays for the rapid identification of bacteria and resistance genes directly from positive BCs has been demonstrated. In this work, we have developed a model to define treatment recommendations by combining Verigene test results with knowledge on local antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens. The data of 275 positive BCs were analyzed. Two hundred sixty-three isolates (95.6%) were included in the Verigene assay panels, and 257 isolates (93.5%) were correctly identified. The agreement of the detection of resistance genes with subsequent phenotypic susceptibility testing was 100%. The hospital antibiogram was used to develop a treatment algorithm on the basis of Verigene results that may contribute to a faster patient management.

  3. Identification of Some Zeolite Group Minerals by Application of Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree Algorithm Based on SEM-EDS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaş, Efe; Evren Çubukçu, H.; Akin, Lutfiye; Erkut, Volkan; Yurdakul, Yasin; Karayigit, Ali Ihsan

    2016-04-01

    Identification of zeolite group minerals is complicated due to their similar chemical formulas and habits. Although the morphologies of various zeolite crystals can be recognized under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), it is relatively more challenging and problematic process to identify zeolites using their mineral chemical data. SEMs integrated with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) provide fast and reliable chemical data of minerals. However, considering elemental similarities of characteristic chemical formulae of zeolite species (e.g. Clinoptilolite ((Na,K,Ca)2 -3Al3(Al,Si)2Si13O3612H2O) and Erionite ((Na2,K2,Ca)2Al4Si14O36ṡ15H2O)) EDS data alone does not seem to be sufficient for correct identification. Furthermore, the physical properties of the specimen (e.g. roughness, electrical conductivity) and the applied analytical conditions (e.g. accelerating voltage, beam current, spot size) of the SEM-EDS should be uniform in order to obtain reliable elemental results of minerals having high alkali (Na, K) and H2O (approx. %14-18) contents. This study which was funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK Project No: 113Y439), aims to construct a database as large as possible for various zeolite minerals and to develop a general prediction model for the identification of zeolite minerals using SEM-EDS data. For this purpose, an artificial neural network and rule based decision tree algorithm were employed. Throughout the analyses, a total of 1850 chemical data were collected from four distinct zeolite species, (Clinoptilolite-Heulandite, Erionite, Analcime and Mordenite) observed in various rocks (e.g. coals, pyroclastics). In order to obtain a representative training data set for each minerals, a selection procedure for reference mineral analyses was applied. During the selection procedure, SEM based crystal morphology data, XRD spectra and re-calculated cationic distribution, obtained by EDS have been used for the

  4. Trigger electronics upgrade of PHENIX muon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, S.; Akiyama, T.; Aoki, K.; Asano, H.; Ebesu, S.; Fukao, Y.; Haki, Y.; Hata, M.; Ichikawa, Y.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawamura, H.; Kim, E.; Kurita, K.; Mibe, T.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakanishi, R.; Ninomiya, K.; Nitta, M.; Ogawa, N.; Onishi, J.; Park, S.; Sada, Y.; Saito, N.; Sameshima, R.; Sasaki, O.; Sato, A.; Seitaibashi, E.; Senzaka, K.; Shoji, K.; Taketani, A.; Tanida, K.; Toyoda, T.; Watanabe, K.

    2013-03-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) offers the unique capability to collide polarized protons at high energies. One of the highlights of the polarized proton program performed at √{s}=500 GeV is that it affords the direct measurement of sea quark contribution to the proton spin via W-boson production through the measurement of the parity violating single spin asymmetry. A new trigger electronics system for forward muons, which is especially capable of W-boson detection, was developed for the PHENIX experiment. The trigger was installed as an additional electronic circuit, and it was connected in parallel with the existing cathode readout electronics of the muon tracking chamber.

  5. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiments at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, A.J.; Anderson, A.N.; Van Siclen, C.D.W.; Watts, K.D.; Bradbury, J.N.; Gram, P.A.M.; Leon, M.; Maltrud, H.R.; Paciotti, M.A.; Jones, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Our collaboration has conducted a series of muon-catalysis experiments over broad temperature and density ranges at the LAMPF accelerator in Los Alamos. We have discovered surprising effects on the normalized muon-catalysis cycling rate, lambda/sub c/, and the apparent alpha-particle sticking coefficient, ..omega../sub s/, that depend on the d-t mixture density. This paper reviews our experimental approach, analysis methods, and results for tests with targets varying in density from 0.12 to 1.30, normalized to liquid hydrogen density, and in temperature from 15K to 800K. In particular, results will be presented on the cycling rate, sticking coefficient, and /sup 3/He scavenging rate, as functions of temperature, mixture density, or tritium concentration.

  6. PHENIX Muon Tracking Detector Gas System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Pisani, R. P.; Tretiakov, G.; Trofimov, V.

    2007-07-01

    The Muon Tracking Detector Gas System was designed and fabricated to supply Ar+30% CO 2+20% CF 4 mixture to the PHENIX [K. Adcox, S.S. Adler, M. Aizam, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 499 (2003) 669.] [1]. Muon Tracking (MuTr) chambers located at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven Nation Lab (BNL). The gas system purpose is to provide gas at the requested mixture at a constant controlled pressure and at various flow rates. The system can do this while monitoring the mixture's temperature, pressure, flow rate, and CO 2, oxygen, and moisture content. A custom computer data acquisition system collects and logs the gas system operating parameters. This system can also be alarmed to provide automatic responses to undesired system conditions.

  7. Muon acceleration in cosmic-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.; Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Becker Tjus, Julia

    2013-12-20

    Many models of ultra-high energy cosmic-ray production involve acceleration in linear accelerators located in gamma-ray bursts, magnetars, or other sources. These transient sources have short lifetimes, which necessitate very high accelerating gradients, up to 10{sup 13} keV cm{sup –1}. At gradients above 1.6 keV cm{sup –1}, muons produced by hadronic interactions undergo significant acceleration before they decay. This muon acceleration hardens the neutrino energy spectrum and greatly increases the high-energy neutrino flux. Using the IceCube high-energy diffuse neutrino flux limits, we set two-dimensional limits on the source opacity and matter density, as a function of accelerating gradient. These limits put strong constraints on different models of particle acceleration, particularly those based on plasma wake-field acceleration, and limit models for sources like gamma-ray bursts and magnetars.

  8. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) at PSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Michael; MUSE Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The proton is not an elementary particle but has a substructure governed by the interaction of quarks and gluons. The size of the proton is manifest in the spatial distributions of the electric charge and magnetization, which determine the response to electromagnetic interaction. Recently, contradictory measurements of the proton charge radius between muonic hydrogen and electronic probes have constituted the proton radius puzzle, which has been challenging our basic understanding of the proton. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) in preparation at the Paul-Scherrer Institute (PSI) has the potential to resolve the puzzle by measuring the proton charge radius with electron and muon scattering simultaneously and with high precision, including any possible difference between the two, and with both beam charges. The status of the MUSE experiment will be reported. Supported by NSF and DOE.

  9. Helical Muon Beam Cooling Channel Engineering Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, M.L.; Romanov, G.V.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, F.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), a novel technique for six-dimensional (6D) ionization cooling of muon beams, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. However, the implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires new techniques for the integration of hydrogen-pressurized, high-power RF cavities into the low-temperature superconducting magnets of the HCC. We present the progress toward a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn based HCC test section. We include discussions on the pressure and thermal barriers needed within the cryostat to maintain operation of the magnet at 4.2 K while operating the RF and energy absorber at a higher temperature. Additionally, we include progress on the Nb{sub 3}Sn helical solenoid design.

  10. Monte Carlo Study of the Measurement of the top - anti-top Production Cross-Section in the Muon + Jets Channel with the D0-Detector at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Jorg Manfred; /Bonn U.

    2004-03-01

    A measurement of the t{bar t} production cross section at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV with the D0 detector using simulated events is performed. The final state containing a muon and jets is examined including all methods of measuring signal efficiencies and the estimation of the background contributions. Especially, the identification efficiency and properties of muons are studied.

  11. Novel Diagnostic Algorithm for Identification of Mycobacteria Using Genus-Specific Amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA Gene Spacer and Restriction Endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Andreas; Reischl, Udo; Streubel, Anna; Naumann, Ludmila; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M.; Habicht, Marion; Fischer, Marga; Mauch, Harald

    2000-01-01

    A novel genus-specific PCR for mycobacteria with simple identification to the species level by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was established using the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) spacer as a target. Panspecificity of primers was demonstrated on the genus level by testing 811 bacterial strains (122 species in 37 genera from 286 reference strains and 525 clinical isolates). All mycobacterial isolates (678 strains among 48 defined species and 5 indeterminate taxons) were amplified by the new primers. Among nonmycobacterial isolates, only Gordonia terrae was amplified. The RFLP scheme devised involves estimation of variable PCR product sizes together with HaeIII and CfoI restriction analysis. It yielded 58 HaeIII patterns, of which 49 (84%) were unique on the species level. Hence, HaeIII digestion together with CfoI results was sufficient for correct identification of 39 of 54 mycobacterial taxons and one of three or four of seven RFLP genotypes found in Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium kansasii, respectively. Following a clearly laid out diagnostic algorithm, the remaining unidentified organisms fell into five clusters of closely related species (i.e., the Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus) that were successfully separated using additional enzymes (TaqI, MspI, DdeI, or AvaII). Thus, next to slowly growing mycobacteria, all rapidly growing species studied, including M. abscessus, M. chelonae, Mycobacterium farcinogenes, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium peregrinum, and Mycobacterium senegalense (with a very high 16S rDNA sequence similarity) were correctly identified. A high intraspecies sequence stability and the good discriminative power of patterns indicate that this method is very suitable for rapid and cost-effective identification of a wide variety of mycobacterial species without the need for sequencing. Phylogenetically, spacer sequence data stand in good agreement with 16S r

  12. Recent results from COMPASS muon scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozza, Luigi; Compass Collaboration

    2012-10-01

    A sample of recent results in muon scattering measurements from the COMPASS experiment at CERN will be reviewed. These include high energy processes with longitudinally polarised proton and deuteron targets. High energy polarised measurements provide important constraints for studying the nucleon spin structure and thus permit to test the applicability of the theoretical framework of factorisation theorems and perturbative QCD. Specifically, latest results on longitudinal quark polarisation, quark helicity densities and gluon polarisation will be reviewed.

  13. Seasonal modulations of the underground cosmic-ray muon energy

    SciTech Connect

    Malgin, A. S.

    2015-08-15

    The parameters of the seasonal modulations in the intensity of muons and cosmogenic neutrons generated by them at a mean muon energy of 280 GeV have been determined in the LVD (Large Volume Detector) experiment. The modulations of muons and neutrons are caused by a temperature effect, the seasonal temperature and density variations of the upper atmospheric layers. The analysis performed here leads to the conclusion that the variations in the mean energy of the muon flux are the main source of underground cosmogenic neutron variations, because the energy of muons is more sensitive to the temperature effect than their intensity. The parameters of the seasonal modulations in the mean energy of muons and the flux of cosmogenic neutrons at the LVD depth have been determined from the data obtained over seven years of LVD operation.

  14. SSC detector muon sub-system beam tests

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, R.; Errede, S.; Gauthier, A.; Haney, M.; Karliner, I.; Liss, T.; O`Halloran, T.; Sheldon, P.; Simiatis, V.; Thaler, J.; Wiss, J.; Green, D.; Martin, P.; Morfin, J.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Okusawa, T.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Asano, Y.; Mann, T.; Davisson, R.; Liang, G.; Lubatti, H.; Wilkes, R.; Zhao, T.; Carlsmith, D.

    1993-08-01

    We propose to start a test-beam experiment at Fermilab studying the problems associated with tracking extremely high energy muons through absorbers. We anticipate that in this energy range the observation of the muons will be complicated by associated electromagnetic radiation Monte Carlo simulations of this background need to be tuned by direct observations. These beam tests are essential to determine important design parameters of a SSC muon detector, such as the choice of the tracking, geometry, hardware triggering schemes, the number of measuring stations, the amount of iron between measuring stations, etc. We intend to begin the first phase of this program in November of 1990 utilizing the Tevatron muon beam. We plan to measure the multiplicity, direction, and separation of secondary particles associated with the primary muon track as it emerges from an absorber. The second phase of beam test in 1992 or later will be a full scale test for the final design chosen in our muon subsystem proposal.

  15. Analytical calculation of muon intensities under deep sea-water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inazawa, H.; Kobayakawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the energy loss of high energy muons through different materials, such as rock and sea-water can cast light on characteristics of lepton interactions. There are less ambiguities for the values of atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) in sea-water than in rock. Muon intensities should be measured as fundamental data and as background data for searching the fluxes of neutrino. The average range energy relation in sea-water is derived. The correction factors due to the range fluctuation is also computed. By applying these results, the intensities deep under sea are converted from a given muon energy spectra at sea-level. The spectra of conventional muons from eta, K decays have sec theta enhancement. The spectrum of prompt muons from charmed particles is almost isotropic. The effect of prompt muons is examined.

  16. Muon Beam Helical Cooling Channel Design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Flanagan, G; Kazakevich, G M; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Michael; Roberts, T; Yoshikawa, C; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kashikhin, V S; Lopes, Mattlock; Tollestrup, A; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zloblin, A

    2013-06-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet.

  17. Recent Innovations in Muon Beam Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland P.; Alsharo'a, Mohammad; Hanlet, Pierrick M.; Hartline, Robert; Kuchnir, Moyses; Paul, Kevin; Roberts, Thomas J.; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Barzi, Emanuela; Del Frate, Licia; Gonin, Ivan; Moretti, Alfred; Neuffer, David; Popovic, Milorad; Romanov, Gennady; Turrioni, Daniele; Yarba, Victor; Beard, Kevin; Bogacz, S. Alex; Derbenev, Yaroslav

    2006-03-20

    Eight new ideas are being developed under SBIR/STTR grants to cool muon beams for colliders, neutrino factories, and muon experiments. Analytical and simulation studies have confirmed that a six-dimensional (6D) cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas can provide effective beam cooling. This helical cooling channel (HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, helical quadrupole, and helical sextupole magnetic fields to generate emittance exchange and achieve 6D emittance reduction of over 3 orders of magnitude in a 100 m segment. Four such sequential HCC segments, where the RF frequencies are increased and transverse physical dimensions reduced as the beams become cooler, implies a 6D emittance reduction of almost five orders of magnitude. Two new cooling ideas, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling and Reverse Emittance Exchange, then can be employed to reduce transverse emittances to a few mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. We describe these new ideas as well as a new precooling idea based on a HCC with z dependent fields that can be used as MANX, an exceptional 6D cooling demonstration experiment.

  18. Muon g-2 Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Frederick

    2015-10-01

    A new experiment at Fermilab will measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with a precision of 140 parts per billion (ppb). This measurement is motivated by the results of the Brookhaven E821 experiment that were first released more than a decade ago, which reached a precision of 540 ppb. As the corresponding Standard Model predictions have been refined, the experimental and theoretical values have persistently differed by about 3 standard deviations. If the Brookhaven result is confirmed at Fermilab with this improved precision, it will constitute definitive evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. The experiment observes the muon spin precession frequency in flight in a well-calibrated magnetic field; the improvement in precision will require both 20 times as many recorded muon decay events as in E821 and a reduction by a factor of 3 in the systematic uncertainties. This paper describes the current experimental status as well as the plans for the upgraded magnet, detector and storage ring systems that are being prepared for the start of beam data collection in 2017.

  19. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  20. Next Generation Muon g-2 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzog, David W.

    2015-12-02

    I report on the progress of two new muon anomalous magnetic moment experiments, which are in advanced design and construction phases. The goal of Fermilab E989 is to reduce the experimental uncertainty of $a_\\mu$ from Brookhaven E821 by a factor of 4; that is, $\\delta a_\\mu \\sim 16 \\times 10^{-11}$, a relative uncertainty of 140~ppb. The method follows the same magic-momentum storage ring concept used at BNL, and pioneered previously at CERN, but muon beam preparation, storage ring internal hardware, field measuring equipment, and detector and electronics systems are all new or upgraded significantly. In contrast, J-PARC E34 will employ a novel approach based on injection of an ultra-cold, low-energy, muon beam injected into a small, but highly uniform magnet. Only a small magnetic focusing field is needed to maintain storage, which distinguishes it from CERN, BNL and Fermilab. E34 aims to roughly match the previous BNL precision in their Phase~1 installation.

  1. Recent Innovations in Muon Beam Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Rolland P. Johnson; Mohammad Alsharo'a; Charles Ankenbrandt; Emanuela Barzi; Kevin Beard; S. Alex Bogacz; Yaroslav Derbenev; Licia Del Frate; Ivan Gonin; Pierrick M. Hanlet; Robert Hartline; Daniel M. Kaplan; Moyses Kuchnir; Alfred Moretti; David Neuffer; Kevin Paul; Milorad Popovic; Thomas J. Roberts; Gennady Romanov; Daniele Turrioni; Victor Yarba; and Katsuya Yonehara

    2006-03-01

    Eight new ideas are being developed under SBIR/STTR grants to cool muon beams for colliders, neutrino factories, and muon experiments. Analytical and simulation studies have confirmed that a six-dimensional (6D) cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas can provide effective beam cooling. This helical cooling channel (HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, helical quadrupole, and helical sextupole magnetic fields to generate emittance exchange and achieve 6D emittance reduction of over 3 orders of magnitude in a 100 m segment. Four such sequential HCC segments, where the RF frequencies are increased and transverse physical dimensions reduced as the beams become cooler, implies a 6D emittance reduction of almost five orders of magnitude. Two new cooling ideas, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling and Reverse Emittance Exchange, then can be employed to reduce transverse emittances to a few mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. We describe these new ideas as well as a new precooling idea based on a HCC with z dependent fields that can be used as MANX, an exceptional 6D cooling demonstration experiment.

  2. Optimal Inputs for System Identification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    The derivation of the power spectral density of the optimal input for system identification is addressed in this research. Optimality is defined in...identification potential of general System Identification algorithms, a new and efficient System Identification algorithm that employs Iterated Weighted Least

  3. Inverse problem studies of biochemical systems with structure identification of S-systems by embedding training functions in a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Ketan Dinkar; Kumar, V Ravi; Kulkarni, B D

    2016-05-01

    An efficient inverse problem approach for parameter estimation, state and structure identification from dynamic data by embedding training functions in a genetic algorithm methodology (ETFGA) is proposed for nonlinear dynamical biosystems using S-system canonical models. Use of multiple shooting and decomposition approach as training functions has been shown for handling of noisy datasets and computational efficiency in studying the inverse problem. The advantages of the methodology are brought out systematically by studying it for three biochemical model systems of interest. By studying a small-scale gene regulatory system described by a S-system model, the first example demonstrates the use of ETFGA for the multifold aims of the inverse problem. The estimation of a large number of parameters with simultaneous state and network identification is shown by training a generalized S-system canonical model with noisy datasets. The results of this study bring out the superior performance of ETFGA on comparison with other metaheuristic approaches. The second example studies the regulation of cAMP oscillations in Dictyostelium cells now assuming limited availability of noisy data. Here, flexibility of the approach to incorporate partial system information in the identification process is shown and its effect on accuracy and predictive ability of the estimated model are studied. The third example studies the phenomenological toy model of the regulation of circadian oscillations in Drosophila that follows rate laws different from S-system power-law. For the limited noisy data, using a priori information about properties of the system, we could estimate an alternate S-system model that showed robust oscillatory behavior with predictive abilities.

  4. 4D-QSAR investigation and pharmacophore identification of pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines using electron conformational-genetic algorithm method.

    PubMed

    Özalp, A; Yavuz, S Ç; Sabancı, N; Çopur, F; Kökbudak, Z; Sarıpınar, E

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present the results of pharmacophore identification and bioactivity prediction for pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine derivatives using the electron conformational-genetic algorithm (EC-GA) method as 4D-QSAR analysis. Using the data obtained from quantum chemical calculations at PM3/HF level, the electron conformational matrices of congruity (ECMC) were constructed by EMRE software. The ECMC of the lowest energy conformer of the compound with the highest activity was chosen as the template and compared with the ECMCs of the lowest energy conformer of the other compounds within given tolerances to reveal the electron conformational submatrix of activity (ECSA, i.e. pharmacophore) by ECSP software. A descriptor pool was generated taking into account the obtained pharmacophore. To predict the theoretical activity and select the best subset of variables affecting bioactivities, the nonlinear least square regression method and genetic algorithm were performed. For four types of activity including the GI50, TGI, LC50 and IC50 of the pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4] benzodiazepine series, the r(2)train, r(2)test and q(2) values were 0.858, 0.810, 0.771; 0.853, 0.848, 0.787; 0.703, 0.787, 0.600; and 0.776, 0.722, 0.687, respectively.

  5. How to detect Edgar Allan Poe's 'purloined letter,' or cross-correlation algorithms in digitized video images for object identification, movement evaluation, and deformation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dost, Michael; Vogel, Dietmar; Winkler, Thomas; Vogel, Juergen; Erb, Rolf; Kieselstein, Eva; Michel, Bernd

    2003-07-01

    Cross correlation analysis of digitised grey scale patterns is based on - at least - two images which are compared one to each other. Comparison is performed by means of a two-dimensional cross correlation algorithm applied to a set of local intensity submatrices taken from the pattern matrices of the reference and the comparison images in the surrounding of predefined points of interest. Established as an outstanding NDE tool for 2D and 3D deformation field analysis with a focus on micro- and nanoscale applications (microDAC and nanoDAC), the method exhibits an additional potential for far wider applications, that could be used for advancing homeland security. Cause the cross correlation algorithm in some kind seems to imitate some of the "smart" properties of human vision, this "field-of-surface-related" method can provide alternative solutions to some object and process recognition problems that are difficult to solve with more classic "object-related" image processing methods. Detecting differences between two or more images using cross correlation techniques can open new and unusual applications in identification and detection of hidden objects or objects with unknown origin, in movement or displacement field analysis and in some aspects of biometric analysis, that could be of special interest for homeland security.

  6. A paired ions scoring algorithm based on Morpheus for simultaneous identification and quantification of proteome samples prepared by isobaric peptide termini labeling strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shen; Wu, Qi; Shan, Yichu; Sui, Zhigang; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-06-01

    The isobaric peptide termini labeling (IPTL) method is a promising strategy in quantitative proteomics for its high accuracy, while the increased complexity of MS2 spectra originated from the paired b, y ions has adverse effect on the identification and the coverage of quantification. Here, a paired ions scoring algorithm (PISA) based on Morpheus, a database searching algorithm specifically designed for high-resolution MS2 spectra, was proposed to address this issue. PISA was first tested on two 1:1 mixed IPTL datasets, and increases in peptide to spectrum matchings, distinct peptides and protein groups compared to Morpheus itself and MASCOT were shown. Furthermore, the quantification is simultaneously performed and 100% quantification coverage is achieved by PISA since each of the identified peptide to spectrum matchings has several pairs of fragment ions which could be used for quantification. Then the PISA was applied to the relative quantification of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines with high and low metastatic potentials prepared by an IPTL strategy.

  7. Muon Cooling R&D Progress in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Derun

    2008-02-01

    Muon ionization cooling R&D is important for a neutrino factory and future muon collider. In addition to theoretical studies, much progress has been made in muon cooling channel hardware R&D since NuFact-2006. This paper reports the progress on hardware R&D that includes experimental RF test programs using 805-MHz RF cavity, superconducting (SC) solenoids (coupling coils), 201-MHz RF cavity, liquid hydrogen absorber and MUCOOL Test Area (MTA) experiment preparation for beam tests.

  8. Aligning the CMS muon chambers with the muon alignment system during an extended cosmic ray run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CMS Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The alignment system for the muon spectrometer of the CMS detector comprises three independent subsystems of optical and analog position sensors. It aligns muon chambers with respect to each other and to the central silicon tracker. System commissioning at full magnetic field began in 2008 during an extended cosmic ray run. The system succeeded in tracking muon detector movements of up to 18 mm and rotations of several milliradians under magnetic forces. Depending on coordinate and subsystem, the system achieved chamber alignment precisions of 140-350 μm and 30-200 μrad, close to the precision requirements of the experiment. Systematic errors on absolute positions are estimated to be 340-590 μm based on comparisons with independent photogrammetry measurements.

  9. Clustering and Differential Alignment Algorithm: Identification of Early Stage Regulators in the Arabidopsis thaliana Iron Deficiency Response

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Durreshahwar; Foret, Jessica; Brady, Siobhan M.; Ducoste, Joel J.; Tuck, James; Long, Terri A.; Williams, Cranos

    2015-01-01

    Time course transcriptome datasets are commonly used to predict key gene regulators associated with stress responses and to explore gene functionality. Techniques developed to extract causal relationships between genes from high throughput time course expression data are limited by low signal levels coupled with noise and sparseness in time points. We deal with these limitations by proposing the Cluster and Differential Alignment Algorithm (CDAA). This algorithm was designed to process transcriptome data by first grouping genes based on stages of activity and then using similarities in gene expression to predict influential connections between individual genes. Regulatory relationships are assigned based on pairwise alignment scores generated using the expression patterns of two genes and some inferred delay between the regulator and the observed activity of the target. We applied the CDAA to an iron deficiency time course microarray dataset to identify regulators that influence 7 target transcription factors known to participate in the Arabidopsis thaliana iron deficiency response. The algorithm predicted that 7 regulators previously unlinked to iron homeostasis influence the expression of these known transcription factors. We validated over half of predicted influential relationships using qRT-PCR expression analysis in mutant backgrounds. One predicted regulator-target relationship was shown to be a direct binding interaction according to yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) analysis. These results serve as a proof of concept emphasizing the utility of the CDAA for identifying unknown or missing nodes in regulatory cascades, providing the fundamental knowledge needed for constructing predictive gene regulatory networks. We propose that this tool can be used successfully for similar time course datasets to extract additional information and infer reliable regulatory connections for individual genes. PMID:26317202

  10. Muon SR Newsletter, No. 29, April 5, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, K.M.; Portis, A.M.; Yamazaki, T.

    1984-04-05

    Muon SR stands for Muon Spin Relaxation, Rotation, Resonance, Research, or what have you. The intention of the mnemonic acronym is to draw attention to the analogy with NMR and ESR, the range of whose applications is well known. Any study of the interactions of the muon spin by virtue of the asymmetric decay is considered ..mu..SR, but this definition is not intended to exclude any peripherally related phenomena, especially if relevant to the use of the muon's mganetic moment as a delicate probe of matter. Abstracts of individual items from this issue were prepared separately for the data base.

  11. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

  12. Muons probe strong hydrogen interactions with defective graphene.

    PubMed

    Riccò, Mauro; Pontiroli, Daniele; Mazzani, Marcello; Choucair, Mohammad; Stride, John A; Yazyev, Oleg V

    2011-11-09

    Here, we present the first muon spectroscopy investigation of graphene, focused on chemically produced, gram-scale samples, appropriate to the large muon penetration depth. We have observed an evident muon spin precession, usually the fingerprint of magnetic order, but here demonstrated to originate from muon-hydrogen nuclear dipolar interactions. This is attributed to the formation of CHMu (analogous to CH(2)) groups, stable up to 1250 K where the signal still persists. The relatively large signal amplitude demonstrates an extraordinary hydrogen capture cross section of CH units. These results also rule out the formation of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic order in chemically synthesized graphene samples.

  13. Investigation into the feasibility of a soft muon experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tincknell, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    Issues relevant in a soft ({lt} 5 GeV) muon pair experiment at the AGS or the RHIC central region are investigated. Observation of direct muon pairs is difficult because the muon pair to pion ratio is {omicron} (10{sup {minus}4}). Absorber penetration is the only means available to identify high energy muons among a large number of hadrons. Three important sources of background are sail-through hadrons that fail to interact in the absorber, the decays of pions and kaons to muons in the absorber, and leakage of hadronic shower products through the absorber. An absorber thick enough to limit the ratio of combinatorical background pairs to pions to {omicron} (10{sup {minus}4}) imposes a significant muon kinetic energy threshold due to muon range in the absorber. Absorbers with low atomic number Z are preferred to keep this threshold low, and to avoid loss of invariant mass resolution due to energy loss straggling and multiple coulomb scattering. Long-lived meson to muon decays can be directly suppressed only by picking an absorber with short interaction length, which implies a high density, high Z material. With sufficiently high statistics, a subtraction of the spectra of like-sign pairs from the spectrum of opposite-sign pairs should recover the direct muon pair spectrum. 9 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The Muon system of the run II D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Tata Inst. /Dubna, JINR /Moscow, ITEP /Moscow State U. /Serpukhov, IHEP /St. Petersburg, INP /Arizona U. /Florida State U. /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Boston U. /Northeastern U. /Brookhaven /Washington U., Seattle /Minsk, Inst. Nucl. Problems

    2005-03-01

    The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  15. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  16. Imaging a nuclear reactor using cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, John; Azzouz, Mara; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Chen, Elliott; Fabritius, Joseph II; Milner, Edward; Miyadera, Haruo; Morris, Christopher; Roybal, Jonathan; Wang, Zhehui; Busch, Bob; Carpenter, Ken; Hecht, Adam A.; Masuda, Koji; Spore, Candace; Toleman, Nathan; Aberle, Derek; Lukic, Zarija

    2013-05-14

    The passage of muons through matter is dominated by the Coulomb interaction with electrons and nuclei. The muon interaction with electrons leads to continuous energy loss and stopping of the muons. The muon interaction with nuclei leads to angular diffusion. We present experimental images of a nuclear reactor, the AGN-201M reactor at the University of New Mexico, using data measured with a particle tracker built from a set of sealed drift tubes. The data are compared with a geant4 model. In both the data and simulation, we identify specific regions corresponding to elements of the reactor structure, including its core, moderator, and shield.

  17. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  18. Muons probe magnetism and hydrogen interaction in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccò, M.; Aramini, M.; Mazzani, M.; Pontiroli, D.; Gaboardi, M.; Yazyev, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    Muon spin resonance (μSR) is a powerful technique for investigating the local magnetic fields in materials through implanted muons. Here we report a μSR study of chemically produced thermally exfoliated graphene. Our results provide an experimental answer to the many theoretical investigations of magnetic properties of graphene. The observed muon spin precession is attributed to a localized muon-hydrogen nuclear dipolar interaction rather than to a hyperfine interaction with magnetic electrons. This proves the absence of magnetism in chemically produced thermally exfoliated graphene.

  19. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons and muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyth, S. C.; Chan, Y. L.; Chen, X. C.; Chu, M. C.; Cui, K. X.; Hahn, R. L.; Ho, T. H.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lau, Y. P.; Leung, J. K. C.; Leung, K. Y.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, Y. C.; Luk, K. B.; Luk, W. H.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngan, S. Y.; Pun, C. S. J.; Shih, K.; Tam, Y. H.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Wang, C. H.; Wong, C. M.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, K. K.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, B. J.; Aberdeen Tunnel Experiment Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the muon flux and production rate of muon-induced neutrons at a depth of 611 m water equivalent. Our apparatus comprises three layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes for tracking the incident cosmic-ray muons and 760 L of a gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator for producing and detecting neutrons. The vertical muon intensity was measured to be Iμ=(5.7 ±0.6 )×10-6 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 . The yield of muon-induced neutrons in the liquid scintillator was determined to be Yn=(1.19 ±0.08 (stat)±0.21 (syst))×10-4 neutrons /(μ .g .cm-2 ) . A fit to the recently measured neutron yields at different depths gave a mean muon energy dependence of ⟨Eμ⟩ 0.76 ±0.03 for liquid-scintillator targets.

  20. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons and muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel Underground Laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Yeh, M.; Chan, Y. L.; Chen, X. C.; ...

    2016-04-07

    In this study, we have measured the muon flux and production rate of muon-induced neutrons at a depth of 611 m water equivalent. Our apparatus comprises three layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes for tracking the incident cosmic-ray muons and 760 L of a gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator for producing and detecting neutrons. The vertical muon intensity was measured to be Iμ = (5.7±0.6)×10–6 cm–2 s–1 sr–1. The yield of muon-induced neutrons in the liquid scintillator was determined to be Yn = (1.19 ± 0.08(stat) ± 0.21(syst)) × 10–4 neutrons/(μ•g•cm–2). A fit to the recently measured neutron yields at different depthsmore » gave a mean muon energy dependence of < Eμ >0.76±0.03 for liquid-scintillator targets.« less

  1. Data and software tools for gamma radiation spectral threat detection and nuclide identification algorithm development and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoy, David; Fisher, Brian; Phifer, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The detection of radiological and nuclear threats is extremely important to national security. The federal government is spending significant resources developing new detection systems and attempting to increase the performance of existing ones. The detection of illicit radionuclides that may pose a radiological or nuclear threat is a challenging problem complicated by benign radiation sources (e.g., cat litter and medical treatments), shielding, and large variations in background radiation. Although there is a growing acceptance within the community that concentrating efforts on algorithm development (independent of the specifics of fully assembled systems) has the potential for significant overall system performance gains, there are two major hindrances to advancements in gamma spectral analysis algorithms under the current paradigm: access to data and common performance metrics along with baseline performance measures. Because many of the signatures collected during performance measurement campaigns are classified, dissemination to algorithm developers is extremely limited. This leaves developers no choice but to collect their own data if they are lucky enough to have access to material and sensors. This is often combined with their own definition of metrics for measuring performance. These two conditions make it all but impossible for developers and external reviewers to make meaningful comparisons between algorithms. Without meaningful comparisons, performance advancements become very hard to achieve and (more importantly) recognize. The objective of this work is to overcome these obstacles by developing and freely distributing real and synthetically generated gamma-spectra data sets as well as software tools for performance evaluation with associated performance baselines to national labs, academic institutions, government agencies, and industry. At present, datasets for two tracks, or application domains, have been developed: one that includes temporal

  2. Studies on Muon Induction Acceleration and an Objective Lens Design for Transmission Muon Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artikova, Sayyora; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Naito, Fujio

    Muon acceleration will be accomplished by a set of induction cells, where each increases the energy of the muon beam by an increment of up to 30 kV. The cells are arranged in a linear way resulting in total accelerating voltage of 300 kV. Acceleration time in the linac is about hundred nanoseconds. Induction field calculation is based on an electrostatic approximation. Beam dynamics in the induction accelerator is investigated and final beam focusing on specimen is realized by designing a pole piece lens.

  3. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland

    2015-08-07

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet. The first phase of this project saw the development of a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb3Sn-based HS test section. Two very novel ideas are required to realize the design. The first idea is the use of dielectric inserts in the RF cavities to make them smaller for a given frequency so that the cavities and associated plumbing easily fit inside the magnet cryostat. Calculations indicate that heat loads will be tolerable, while RF breakdown of the dielectric inserts will be suppressed by the pressurized hydrogen gas. The second new idea is the use of a multi-layer Nb3Sn helical solenoid. The technology demonstrations for the two aforementioned key components of a 10T, 805 MHz HCC were begun in this project. The work load in the Fermilab Technical Division made it difficult to test a multi-layer Nb3Sn solenoid as originally planned. Instead, a complementary

  4. Identification of PV solar cells and modules parameters using the genetic algorithms: Application to maximum power extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrouba, M.; Sellami, A.; Bouaicha, M.; Ksouri, M.

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we propose to perform a numerical technique based on genetic algorithms (GAs) to identify the electrical parameters (I{sub s}, I{sub ph}, R{sub s}, R{sub sh}, and n) of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and modules. These parameters were used to determine the corresponding maximum power point (MPP) from the illuminated current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. The one diode type approach is used to model the AM1.5 I-V characteristic of the solar cell. To extract electrical parameters, the approach is formulated as a non convex optimization problem. The GAs approach was used as a numerical technique in order to overcome problems involved in the local minima in the case of non convex optimization criteria. Compared to other methods, we find that the GAs is a very efficient technique to estimate the electrical parameters of PV solar cells and modules. Indeed, the race of the algorithm stopped after five generations in the case of PV solar cells and seven generations in the case of PV modules. The identified parameters are then used to extract the maximum power working points for both cell and module. (author)

  5. Stream-reach Identification for New Run-of-River Hydropower Development through a Merit Matrix Based Geospatial Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Hadjerioua, Boualem; Wei, Yaxing; Smith, Brennan T

    2014-01-01

    Even after a century of development, the total hydropower potential from undeveloped rivers is still considered to be abundant in the United States. However, unlike evaluating hydropower potential at existing hydropower plants or non-powered dams, locating a feasible new hydropower plant involves many unknowns, and hence the total undeveloped potential is harder to quantify. In light of the rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets for topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics, a merit matrix based geospatial algorithm is proposed to help identify possible hydropower stream-reaches for future development. These hydropower stream-reaches sections of natural streams with suitable head, flow, and slope for possible future development are identified and compared using three different scenarios. A case study was conducted in the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) hydrologic subregions. It was found that a merit matrix based algorithm, which is based on the product of hydraulic head, annual mean flow, and average channel slope, can help effectively identify stream-reaches with high power density and small surface inundation. The identified stream-reaches can then be efficiently evaluated for their potential environmental impact, land development cost, and other competing water usage in detailed feasibility studies . Given that the selected datasets are available nationally (at least within the conterminous US), the proposed methodology will have wide applicability across the country.

  6. Direct Detection and Identification of Bacterial Pathogens from Urine with Optimized Specimen Processing and Enhanced Testing Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Weizheng; Liao, Kang; Zhang, Shihong; Zhang, Zhiquan; Ma, Xingyan; Chen, Jialong; Zhang, Xiuhong; Qu, Pinghua; Wu, Shangwei; Chen, Cha; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Rapid and accurate detection and identification of microbial pathogens causing urinary tract infections allows prompt and specific treatment. We optimized the specimen processing to maximize the limit of detection (LOD) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and evaluated the capacity of combination of MALDI-TOF MS and urine analysis (UA) for direct detection and identification of bacterial pathogens from urine samples. The optimal volumes of processed urine, formic acid/acetonitrile and supernatant spotted onto the target plate were 15 mL, 3 μL and 3 μL, respectively, yielding a LOD of 1.0×10(5) colony-forming units/mL. Among the total of 1,167 urine specimens collected from three hospital centers, 612 (52.4%) and 351 (30.1%) were respectively positive by UA and urine culture. Compared with a reference method comprised of urine culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of MALDI-TOF MS alone and MALDI-TOF MS coupled with UA were 86.6% vs 93.4% (χ(2)=8.93, P<0.01), 91.5% vs 96.3% (χ(2)=7.06, P<0.01), 81.5% vs 96.4% (χ(2)=37.32, P<0.01) and 94.1% vs 93.1% (χ(2)=0.40, P>0.05), respectively. No significant performance differences were revealed among the three sites while the specificity and NPV of MALDI-TOF MS for males were significantly higher than for females (specificity: 94.3% vs 77.3%, χ(2)=44.90, P<0.01; NPV: 95.5% vs 86.1%, χ(2)=18.85, P<0.01). Our results indicated that optimization of specimen processing significantly enhanced analytical sensitivity, and the combination of UA and MALDI-TOF MS provided an accurate and rapid detection and identification of bacterial pathogens directly from urine.

  7. Study on the algorithm of vibration source identification based on the optical fiber vibration pre-warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Hongquan; Ren, Xuecong; Li, Guoxiang; Li, Yonghong; Zhang, Changnian

    2015-06-01

    One of the key technologies for optical fiber vibration pre-warning system (OFVWS) refers to identifying the vibration source accurately from the detected vibration signals. Because of many kinds of vibration sources and complex geological structures, the implement of identifying vibration sources presents some interesting challenges which need to be overcome in order to achieve acceptable performance. This paper mainly conducts on the time domain and frequency domain analysis of the vibration signals detected by the OFVWS and establishes attribute feature models including an energy information entropy model to identify raindrop vibration source and a fundamental frequency model to distinguish the construction machine and train or car passing by. Test results show that the design and selection of the feature model are reasonable, and the rate of identification is good.

  8. An algorithm for automatic crystal identification in pixelated scintillation detectors using thin plate splines and Gaussian mixture models.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Graham; Stortz, Greg; Goertzen, Andrew L

    2016-02-07

    A typical positron emission tomography detector is comprised of a scintillator crystal array coupled to a photodetector array or other position sensitive detector. Such detectors using light sharing to read out crystal elements require the creation of a crystal lookup table (CLUT) that maps the detector response to the crystal of interaction based on the x-y position of the event calculated through Anger-type logic. It is vital for system performance that these CLUTs be accurate so that the location of events can be accurately identified and so that crystal-specific corrections, such as energy windowing or time alignment, can be applied. While using manual segmentation of the flood image to create the CLUT is a simple and reliable approach, it is both tedious and time consuming for systems with large numbers of crystal elements. In this work we describe the development of an automated algorithm for CLUT generation that uses a Gaussian mixture model paired with thin plate splines (TPS) to iteratively fit a crystal layout template that includes the crystal numbering pattern. Starting from a region of stability, Gaussians are individually fit to data corresponding to crystal locations while simultaneously updating a TPS for predicting future Gaussian locations at the edge of a region of interest that grows as individual Gaussians converge to crystal locations. The algorithm was tested with flood image data collected from 16 detector modules, each consisting of a 409 crystal dual-layer offset LYSO crystal array readout by a 32 pixel SiPM array. For these detector flood images, depending on user defined input parameters, the algorithm runtime ranged between 17.5-82.5 s per detector on a single core of an Intel i7 processor. The method maintained an accuracy above 99.8% across all tests, with the majority of errors being localized to error prone corner regions. This method can be easily extended for use with other detector types through adjustment of the initial

  9. An algorithm for automatic crystal identification in pixelated scintillation detectors using thin plate splines and Gaussian mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellenberg, Graham; Stortz, Greg; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2016-02-01

    A typical positron emission tomography detector is comprised of a scintillator crystal array coupled to a photodetector array or other position sensitive detector. Such detectors using light sharing to read out crystal elements require the creation of a crystal lookup table (CLUT) that maps the detector response to the crystal of interaction based on the x-y position of the event calculated through Anger-type logic. It is vital for system performance that these CLUTs be accurate so that the location of events can be accurately identified and so that crystal-specific corrections, such as energy windowing or time alignment, can be applied. While using manual segmentation of the flood image to create the CLUT is a simple and reliable approach, it is both tedious and time consuming for systems with large numbers of crystal elements. In this work we describe the development of an automated algorithm for CLUT generation that uses a Gaussian mixture model paired with thin plate splines (TPS) to iteratively fit a crystal layout template that includes the crystal numbering pattern. Starting from a region of stability, Gaussians are individually fit to data corresponding to crystal locations while simultaneously updating a TPS for predicting future Gaussian locations at the edge of a region of interest that grows as individual Gaussians converge to crystal locations. The algorithm was tested with flood image data collected from 16 detector modules, each consisting of a 409 crystal dual-layer offset LYSO crystal array readout by a 32 pixel SiPM array. For these detector flood images, depending on user defined input parameters, the algorithm runtime ranged between 17.5-82.5 s per detector on a single core of an Intel i7 processor. The method maintained an accuracy above 99.8% across all tests, with the majority of errors being localized to error prone corner regions. This method can be easily extended for use with other detector types through adjustment of the initial

  10. Algorithmization in Learning and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, L. N.

    An introduction to the theory of algorithms reviews the theoretical issues of teaching algorithms, the logical and psychological problems of devising algorithms of identification, and the selection of efficient algorithms; and then relates all of these to the classroom teaching process. It also descirbes some major research on the effectiveness of…

  11. Algorithms and Algorithmic Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselov, V. M.; Koprov, V. M.

    This paper is intended as an introduction to a number of problems connected with the description of algorithms and algorithmic languages, particularly the syntaxes and semantics of algorithmic languages. The terms "letter, word, alphabet" are defined and described. The concept of the algorithm is defined and the relation between the algorithm and…

  12. Muon to electron conversion: how to find an electron in a muon haystack

    SciTech Connect

    Kurup, A.

    2010-07-05

    The standard model (SM) of particle physics describes how the Universe works at a fundamental level. Even though this theory has proven to be very successful over the past 50 years, we know it is incomplete. Many theories that go beyond the SM predict the occurrence of certain processes that are forbidden by the SM, such as muon to electron conversion. This paper will briefly review the history of muon to electron conversion and focus on the high-precision experiments currently being proposed, COMET (Coherent Muon to Electron Transition) and Mu2e, and a next-generation experiment, PRISM. The PRISM experiment intends to use a novel type of accelerator called a fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerator. There has recently been renewed interest in FFAGs for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider, and because they have applications in many areas outside of particle physics, such as energy production and cancer therapy. The synergies between these particle physics experiments and other applications will also be discussed.

  13. The Muon Portal Project: Design and construction of a scanning portal based on muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonuccio, V.; Bandieramonte, M.; Becciani, U.; Bonanno, D. L.; Bonanno, G.; Bongiovanni, D.; Fallica, P. G.; Garozzo, S.; Grillo, A.; La Rocca, P.; Leonora, E.; Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Marano, D.; Parasole, O.; Pugliatti, C.; Randazzo, N.; Riggi, F.; Riggi, S.; Romeo, G.; Romeo, M.; Russo, G. V.; Santagati, G.; Timpanaro, M. C.; Valvo, G.

    2017-02-01

    Cosmic ray tomography is a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of highly penetrating cosmic ray-produced muons to perform non-destructive inspection of high-Z materials without the use of artificial radiation. A muon tomography detection system can be used as a portal monitor at border crossing points for detecting illegal targeted objects. The Muon Portal Project is a joint initiative between Italian research and industrial partners, aimed at the construction of a real size detector prototype (6×3×7 m3) for the inspection of cargo containers by the muon scattering technique. The detector consists of four XY tracking planes, two placed above and two below the container to be inspected. After a research and development phase, which led to the choice and test of the individual components, the construction and installation of the detection modules is almost completed. In this paper the present status of the Project is reported, focusing on the design and construction phase, as well as on the preliminary results obtained with the first detection planes.

  14. Muon to electron conversion: how to find an electron in a muon haystack.

    PubMed

    Kurup, A

    2010-08-13

    The standard model (SM) of particle physics describes how the Universe works at a fundamental level. Even though this theory has proven to be very successful over the past 50 years, we know it is incomplete. Many theories that go beyond the SM predict the occurrence of certain processes that are forbidden by the SM, such as muon to electron conversion. This paper will briefly review the history of muon to electron conversion and focus on the high-precision experiments currently being proposed, COMET (Coherent Muon to Electron Transition) and Mu2e, and a next-generation experiment, PRISM. The PRISM experiment intends to use a novel type of accelerator called a fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerator. There has recently been renewed interest in FFAGs for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider, and because they have applications in many areas outside of particle physics, such as energy production and cancer therapy. The synergies between these particle physics experiments and other applications will also be discussed.

  15. Jet production in deep-inelastic muon scattering at 490 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Melanson, H.L.

    1993-06-01

    Measurements of jet rates in deep-inelastic muon scattering are presented. The JADE algorithm is used to define jets in the kinematic region 9 < W < 33 GeV. Data taken on a proton target are analyzed within the QCD framework, with the goal of extracting [alpha][sub s]. Results on the Q[sup 2] dependence of the average transverse momentum of jets are used to demonstrate the running of the strong coupling constant [alpha][sub s]. In addition, first measurements of the production of jets from heavy nuclei in the region x[sub B[sub j

  16. Analysis of the multigroup model for muon tomography based threat detection

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, J. O.; Bacon, J. D.; Borozdin, K. N.; Fabritius, J. M.; Morris, C. L.

    2014-02-14

    We compare different algorithms for detecting a 5 cm tungsten cube using cosmic ray muon technology. In each case, a simple tomographic technique was used for position reconstruction, but the scattering angles were used differently to obtain a density signal. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare images made using average angle squared, median angle squared, average of the squared angle, and a multi-energy group fit of the angular distributions for scenes with and without a 5 cm tungsten cube. The receiver operating characteristic curves show that the multi-energy group treatment of the scattering angle distributions is the superior method for image reconstruction.

  17. Chromaticity correction for a muon collider optics

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kapin, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Muon Collider (MC) is a promising candidate for the next energy frontier machine. However, in order to obtain peak luminosity in the 10{sup 34} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} range the collider lattice designmust satisfy a number of stringent requirements. In particular the expected large momentum spread of the muon beam and the very small {beta}* call for a careful correction of the chromatic effects. Here we present a particular solution for the interaction region (IR) optics whose distinctive feature is a three-sextupole local chromatic correction scheme. The scheme may be applied to other future machines where chromatic effects are expected to be large. The expected large muon energy spread requires the optics to be stable over a wide range of momenta whereas the required luminosity calls for {beta}* in the mm range. To avoid luminosity degradation due to hour-glass effect, the bunch length must be comparatively small. To keep the needed RF voltage within feasible limits the momentum compaction factor must be small over the wide range of momenta. A low {beta}* means high sensitivity to alignment and field errors of the Interaction Region (IR) quadrupoles and large chromatic effects which limit the momentum range of optics stability and require strong correction sextupoles, which eventually limit the Dynamic Aperture (DA). Finally, the ring circumference should be as small as possible, luminosity being inversely proportional to the collider length. A promising solution for a 1.5 TeV center of mass energy MC with {beta}* = 1 m in both planes has been proposed. This {beta}* value has been chosen as a compromise between luminosity and feasibility based on the magnet design and energy deposition considerations. The proposed solution for the IR optics together with a new flexible momentum compaction arc cell design allows to satisfy all requirements and is relatively insensitive to the beam-beam effect.

  18. Densitometric tomography using the measurement of muon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hivert, F.; Busto, J.; Brunner, J.; Salin, P.; Gaffet, S.

    2013-12-01

    The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g. seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The present work develops a recent method to investigate the in situ density of rocks using atmospheric the muon flux measurement , its attenuation depending on the rock density and thickness. This new geophysical technique have been mainly applied in volcanology (Lesparre N., 2011) using scintillator detectors. The present project (T2DM2) aims to realize underground muons flux measurements in order to characterizing the rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measure with a new Muon telescope instrumentation using Micromegas detectors in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) configuration. The first step of the work presented considers the muon flux simulation using the Gaisser model, for the interactions between muons and atmospheric particles, and the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the muons/rock interactions. The results show that the muon flux attenuation caused by density variations are enough significant to be observed until around 500 m depth and for period of time in the order of one month. Such a duration scale and depth of investigation is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes involved within the Karst unsaturated zone where LSBB is located. Our work now concentrates on the optimization of the spatial distribution of detectors that will be deployed in future.

  19. Silicon meets cyclotron: muon spin resonance of organosilicon radicals.

    PubMed

    West, Robert; Samedov, Kerim; Percival, Paul W

    2014-07-21

    Muons, generated at a high-powered cyclotron, can capture electrons to form muonium atoms. Muon spin resonance spectra can be recorded for organosilyl radicals obtained by addition of muonium atoms to silylenes and silenes. We present a brief summary of progress in this new area since the first such experiments were reported in 2008.

  20. Radiative muon capture in hydrogen and nucleon excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Beder, D. S.; Fearing, H. W.

    1989-06-01

    We extend our previous calculations of radiative muon capture on a nucleonand present detailed calculations of the role of the ..delta..(1232) using animproved ..delta..-nucleon-..gamma.. vertex and for a variety of values of theinduced pseudoscalar coupling /ital g//sub /ital P//. We also present calculations ofthe photon-muon spin asymmetry and examine effects of the ..delta..(1232)there.

  1. Participation in Muon Collider/Neutrino Factory Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Torun, Yagmur

    2013-03-20

    Muon accelerators hold great promise for the future of high energy physics and their construction can be staged to support a broad physics program. Great progress was made over the past decade toward developing the technology for muon beam cooling which is one of the main challenges for building such facilities.

  2. Helical Channel Design and Technology for Cooling of Muon Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonehara, K.; Derbenev, Y. S.; Johnson, R. P.

    2010-11-01

    Novel magnetic helical channel designs for capture and cooling of bright muon beams are being developed using numerical simulations based on new inventions such as helical solenoid (HS) magnets and hydrogen-pressurized RF (HPRF) cavities. We are close to the factor of a million six-dimensional phase space (6D) reduction needed for muon colliders. Recent experimental and simulation results are presented.

  3. Muon tomography of rock density using Micromegas-TPC telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hivert, Fanny; Busto, José; Gaffet, Stéphane; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Brunner, Jurgen; Salin, Pierre; Decitre, Jean-Baptiste; Lázaro Roche, Ignacio; Martin, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g., seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The current work is based on a recently developed method to investigate in situ the density of rocks using a measurement of the muon flux, whose attenuation depends on the quantity of matter the particles travel through and hence on the rock density and thickness. The present project (T2DM2) aims at performing underground muon flux measurements in order to characterize spatial and temporal rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measured with a new muon telescope device using Micromegas-Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detectors. The first step of the work presented covers the muon flux simulation based on the Gaisser model (Gaisser T., 1990), for the muon flux at the ground level, and on the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the propagation of muons through the rock. The results show that the muon flux distortion caused by density variations is enough significant to be observed at 500 m depth for measurement times of about one month. This time-scale is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes within the unsaturated Karst zone where LSBB is located. The work now focuses on the optimization of the detector layout along the LSBB galleries in order to achieve the best sensitivity.

  4. Characteristics of neutrons produced by muons in a standard rock

    SciTech Connect

    Malgin, A. S.

    2015-10-15

    Characteristics of cosmogenic neutrons, such as the yield, production rate, and flux, were determined for a standard rock. The dependences of these quantities on the standard-rock depth and on the average muon energy were obtained. These properties and dependences make it possible to estimate easy the muon-induced neutron background in underground laboratories for various chemical compositions of rock.

  5. Identification of non-coding RNAs with a new composite feature in the Hybrid Random Forest Ensemble algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lertampaiporn, Supatcha; Thammarongtham, Chinae; Nukoolkit, Chakarida; Kaewkamnerdpong, Boonserm; Ruengjitchatchawalya, Marasri

    2014-01-01

    To identify non-coding RNA (ncRNA) signals within genomic regions, a classification tool was developed based on a hybrid random forest (RF) with a logistic regression model to efficiently discriminate short ncRNA sequences as well as long complex ncRNA sequences. This RF-based classifier was trained on a well-balanced dataset with a discriminative set of features and achieved an accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 92.11%, 90.7% and 93.5%, respectively. The selected feature set includes a new proposed feature, SCORE. This feature is generated based on a logistic regression function that combines five significant features—structure, sequence, modularity, structural robustness and coding potential—to enable improved characterization of long ncRNA (lncRNA) elements. The use of SCORE improved the performance of the RF-based classifier in the identification of Rfam lncRNA families. A genome-wide ncRNA classification framework was applied to a wide variety of organisms, with an emphasis on those of economic, social, public health, environmental and agricultural significance, such as various bacteria genomes, the Arthrospira (Spirulina) genome, and rice and human genomic regions. Our framework was able to identify known ncRNAs with sensitivities of greater than 90% and 77.7% for prokaryotic and eukaryotic sequences, respectively. Our classifier is available at http://ncrna-pred.com/HLRF.htm. PMID:24771344

  6. Muon-induced spallation backgrounds in DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guanying; Li, Shirley; Beacom, John

    2017-01-01

    Galactic supernovae are rare, just a few per century, so it is important to be prepared. If we are, then the long-baseline detector DUNE could detect thousands of events, compared to the tens from SN 1987A. An important question is backgrounds from muon-induced spallation reactions. We simulate particle energy-loss processes in liquid argon, and compare relevant isotope yields with those in the water-Cherenkov detector SuperK. Our approach will help optimize the design of DUNE and further benefit the study of supernova neutrinos. GZ, SWL, and JFB are supported by NSF Grant PHY-1404311.

  7. Atmospheric effects on the underground muon intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.; Humble, J. E.; Hyland, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    It has previously been reported that the barometric pressure coefficient observed for muons at Poatina (vertical absorber depth 357 hg/sq cm) appears to be appreciably higher than would be expected from atmospheric absorption alone. There is a possibility that the effect is due to an upper atmospheric temperature effect arising from an inverse correlation of surface pressure with stratospheric temperature. A new proportional telescope is discussed which has been operating at Poatina since about the beginning of 83 and which has a long term stability suitable for studying variations of atmospheric origin.

  8. The Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelain, Antoine

    2017-03-01

    The upcoming Fermilab E989 experiment will measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment aμ. This measurement is motivated by the previous measurement performed in 2001 by the BNL E821 experiment that reported a 3-4 standard deviation discrepancy between the measured value and the Standard Model prediction. The new measurement at Fermilab aims to improve the precision by a factor of four reducing the total uncertainty from 540 parts per billion (BNL E821) to 140 parts per billion (Fermilab E989). This paper gives the status of the experiment.

  9. (Studies of high energy phenomena using muons)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract FG02-91ER40641 during the period from March 1991 to December 1991. Our group has three main efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789. Finally, we are also members of the SDC collaboration at the SSC.

  10. Stochastic processes in muon ionization cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errede, D.; Makino, K.; Berz, M.; Johnstone, C. J.; Van Ginneken, A.

    2004-02-01

    A muon ionization cooling channel consists of three major components: the magnet optics, an acceleration cavity, and an energy absorber. The absorber of liquid hydrogen contained by thin aluminum windows is the only component which introduces stochastic processes into the otherwise deterministic acceleration system. The scattering dynamics of the transverse coordinates is described by Gaussian distributions. The asymmetric energy loss function is represented by the Vavilov distribution characterized by the minimum number of collisions necessary for a particle undergoing loss of the energy distribution average resulting from the Bethe-Bloch formula. Examples of the interplay between stochastic processes and deterministic beam dynamics are given.

  11. Leptomeson contribution to the muon g -2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuridov, Dmitry

    2016-02-01

    Many models on the market allow for particles carrying both lepton number and color, e.g., leptoquarks and leptogluons. Some of the models with this feature can also accommodate color-singlet leptohadrons. We have found that the long-standing discrepancy between the experimental result and the Standard Model prediction for the muon anomalous magnetic moment can be explained by the effect of leptomesons with masses of a few hundred GeV and couplings to the leptons and mesons either of O (1 0-2) (vector-meson case) or of O (1 ) (scalar case). These new particles are testable at the current run of the LHC.

  12. Can galileons solve the muon problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamm, Henry

    2015-09-01

    The leptonic bound states positronium and muonium are used to constrain Galileon contributions to the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen. Through the application of a variety of bounds on lepton compositeness, it is shown that either the assumption of equating the charge radius of a particle with its Galileon scale radius is incompatible with experiments, or the scale of Galileons must be M >1.33 GeV , too large to solve the muon problem. The possibility of stronger constraints in the future from true muonium is discussed.

  13. A least-squares identification algorithm for estimating squat exercise mechanics using a single inertial measurement unit.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Vincent; Mazzà, Claudia; Fraisse, Philippe; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2012-05-11

    This study investigated the possibility of estimating lower-limb joint kinematics during a squat exercise performed in the sagittal plane based on data collected from a single inertial measurement unit located on the lower trunk. The human body was modeled as a three-degrees-of-freedom planar chain and the relevant joint angles (ankle, knee, and hip) are represented by Fourier series. A least-squares approach based on the minimization of the difference between the measured and estimated linear accelerations and the angular velocity of the lower trunk was used to solve the related analytical problem. The approach was validated on ten healthy young volunteers (ten trials each) using a force plate and a stereophotogrammetric system to collect reference data. The root mean square differences between the estimated joint angles and those reconstructed with the stereophotogrammetric system were lower than 4° with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The ankle joint resultant vertical force component was estimated with an accuracy of about 3% and a high correlation coefficient of r=0.95, whereas much lower percentage accuracies were found for the horizontal force and couple components. The latter accuracies were similar to those affecting these force and couple components as estimated through inverse dynamics and the stereophotogrammetric data in conjunction with the same mechanical model, which suggests that only minor errors were introduced by the proposed algorithm and measurement tools.

  14. Quantitative bioactivity prediction and pharmacophore identification for benzotriazine derivatives using the electron conformational-genetic algorithm in QSAR.

    PubMed

    Sahin, K; Sarıpınar, E; Yanmaz, E; Geçen, N

    2011-06-01

    The electron conformational-genetic algorithm (EC-GA), a sophisticated hybrid approach combining the GA and EC methods, has been employed for a 4D-QSAR procedure to identify the pharmacophore for benzotriazines as sarcoma inhibitors and for quantitative prediction of activity. The calculated geometry and electronic structure parameters of every atom and bond of each molecule are arranged in a matrix described as the electron-conformational matrix of contiguity (ECMC). By comparing the ECMC of one of the most active compounds with other ECMCs we were able to obtain the features of the pharmacophore responsible for the activity, as submatrices of the template known as electron conformational submatrices of activity. The GA was used to select the most important descriptors and to predict the theoretical activity of training and test sets. The predictivity of the model was internally validated. The best QSAR model was selected, having r² = 0.9008, standard error = 0.0510 and cross-validated squared correlation coefficient, q² = 0.8192.

  15. Identification of linear features at geothermal field based on Segment Tracing Algorithm (STA) of the ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeruddin; Saepuloh, A.; Heriawan, M. N.; Kubo, T.

    2016-09-01

    Indonesia has about 40% of geothermal energy resources in the world. An area with the potential geothermal energy in Indonesia is Wayang Windu located at West Java Province. The comprehensive understanding about the geothermal system in this area is indispensable for continuing the development. A geothermal system generally associated with joints or fractures and served as the paths for the geothermal fluid migrating to the surface. The fluid paths are identified by the existence of surface manifestations such as fumaroles, solfatara and the presence of alteration minerals. Therefore the analyses of the liner features to geological structures are crucial for identifying geothermal potential. Fractures or joints in the form of geological structures are associated with the linear features in the satellite images. The Segment Tracing Algorithm (STA) was used for the basis to determine the linear features. In this study, we used satellite images of ALOS PALSAR in Ascending and Descending orbit modes. The linear features obtained by satellite images could be validated by field observations. Based on the application of STA to the ALOS PALSAR data, the general direction of extracted linear features were detected in WNW-ESE, NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE. The directions are consistent with the general direction of faults system in the field. The linear features extracted from ALOS PALSAR data based on STA were very useful to identify the fractured zones at geothermal field.

  16. Identification of novel adhesins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv using integrated approach of multiple computational algorithms and experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria interacting with eukaryotic host express adhesins on their surface. These adhesins aid in bacterial attachment to the host cell receptors during colonization. A few adhesins such as Heparin binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA), Apa, Malate Synthase of M. tuberculosis have been identified using specific experimental interaction models based on the biological knowledge of the pathogen. In the present work, we carried out computational screening for adhesins of M. tuberculosis. We used an integrated computational approach using SPAAN for predicting adhesins, PSORTb, SubLoc and LocTree for extracellular localization, and BLAST for verifying non-similarity to human proteins. These steps are among the first of reverse vaccinology. Multiple claims and attacks from different algorithms were processed through argumentative approach. Additional filtration criteria included selection for proteins with low molecular weights and absence of literature reports. We examined binding potential of the selected proteins using an image based ELISA. The protein Rv2599 (membrane protein) binds to human fibronectin, laminin and collagen. Rv3717 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) and Rv0309 (L,D-transpeptidase) bind to fibronectin and laminin. We report Rv2599 (membrane protein), Rv0309 and Rv3717 as novel adhesins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our results expand the number of known adhesins of M. tuberculosis and suggest their regulated expression in different stages.

  17. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Veselinović, N. Dragić, A. Maletić, D. Joković, D. Savić, M. Banjanac, R. Udovičić, V. Aničin, I.

    2015-02-24

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations.

  18. The metabolic evaluation of the child with an intellectual developmental disorder: diagnostic algorithm for identification of treatable causes and new digital resource.

    PubMed

    van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Shevell, Michael; Zschocke, Johannes; Moeschler, John B; Stockler, Sylvia

    2014-04-01

    Intellectual developmental disorders (IDD), characterized by significant impairment of cognitive functions, with limitations of learning, adaptive behavior and skills, are frequent (2.5% of the population affected) and present with significant co-morbidity. The burden of IDD, in terms of emotional suffering and associated health care costs, is significant; prevention and treatment therefore are important. A systematic literature review, updated in 2013, identified 89 inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), which present with IDD as prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. Therapeutic effects include improvement and/or stabilization of psychomotor/cognitive development, behavior/psychiatric disturbances, seizures, neurologic and systemic manifestations. The levels of available evidence for the various treatments range from Level 1b, c (n=5); Level 2a, b, c (n=14); Level 4 (n=53), and Levels 4-5 (n=27). For a target audience comprising clinical and biochemical geneticists, child neurologists and developmental pediatricians, five experts translated....this data into a 2-tiered diagnostic algorithm: The first tier comprises metabolic "screening" tests in urine and blood, which are relatively accessible, affordable, less invasive, and have the potential to identify 60% of all treatable IEMs. The second tier investigations for the remaining disorders are ordered based on individual clinical signs and symptoms. This algorithm is supported by an App www.treatable-id.org, which comprises up-to-date information on all 89 IEMs, relevant diagnostic tests, therapies and a search function based on signs and symptoms. These recommendations support the clinician in early identification of treatable IEMs in the child with IDD, allowing for timely initiation of therapy with the potential to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. The need for future studies to determine yield and usefulness of these recommendations, with subsequent updates and improvements to developments in

  19. Development of the drug-exposed infant identification algorithm (DEIIA) and its application to measuring part C early intervention referral and eligibility in Massachusetts, 1998-2005.

    PubMed

    Derrington, Taletha Mae

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop an algorithm using government-collected administrative data to identify prenatally drug-exposed infants (DEI) and determine the percent who were referred to and eligible for Part C Early Intervention (EI) in Massachusetts. Data from the population-based Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal (PELL) Data System were used to develop the Drug-Exposed Infant Identification Algorithm (DEIIA). The DEIIA uses positive toxicology screens on the birth certificate and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes in hospital records of the mother (prenatal and birth) and infant (birth and postnatal) to identify infants affected by substance abuse/dependence, withdrawal, and/or prenatal exposure to non-medical use of controlled substances. PELL-EI data linkages were used to determine the percent referred, evaluated, and eligible. The DEIIA identified 7,348 drug-exposed infants born in Massachusetts from 1998 to 2005 to resident mothers (1.2 % of all births). Most DEI (82.6 %) were identified from maternal/infant birth hospital records. Sixty-one percent of all DEI were referred to EI; 87.2 % of those referred were evaluated, and 89.4 % of those evaluated were found eligible. EI data contained information on drug exposure for 59.9 % of referred DEI. Only 2.8 % of MA resident births who were referred to EI but not identified by the DEIIA had drug indicators in EI data. DEI referrals to EI are federally mandated, but many are not referred. The DEIIA uses data available in most states and could be used as a public health screening tool to improve access to developmental services for DEI.

  20. Source identification of underground fuel spills by solid-phase microextraction/high-resolution gas chromatography/genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Lavine, B K; Ritter, J; Moores, A J; Wilson, M; Faruque, A; Mayfield, H T

    2000-01-15

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), capillary column gas chromatography, and pattern recognition methods were used to develop a potential method for typing jet fuels so a spill sample in the environment can be traced to its source. The test data consisted of gas chromatograms from 180 neat jet fuel samples representing common aviation turbine fuels found in the United States (JP-4, Jet-A, JP-7, JPTS, JP-5, JP-8). SPME sampling of the fuel's headspace afforded well-resolved reproducible profiles, which were standardized using special peak-matching software. The peak-matching procedure yielded 84 standardized retention time windows, though not all peaks were present in all gas chromatograms. A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to identify features (in the standardized chromatograms of the neat jet fuels) suitable for pattern recognition analysis. The GA selected peaks, whose two largest principal components showed clustering of the chromatograms on the basis of fuel type. The principal component analysis routine in the fitness function of the GA acted as an information filter, significantly reducing the size of the search space, since it restricted the search to feature subsets whose variance is primarily about differences between the various fuel types in the training set. In addition, the GA focused on those classes and/or samples that were difficult to classify as it trained using a form of boosting. Samples that consistently classify correctly were not as heavily weighted as samples that were difficult to classify. Over time, the GA learned its optimal parameters in a manner similar to a perceptron. The pattern recognition GA integrated aspects of strong and weak learning to yield a "smart" one-pass procedure for feature selection.

  1. Real breakthrough in detection of radioactive sources by portal monitors with plastic detectors and New Advanced Source Identification Algorithm (ASIA-New)

    SciTech Connect

    Stavrov, Andrei; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2015-07-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM) with plastic detectors represent the main instruments used for primary border (customs) radiation control. RPM are widely used because they are simple, reliable, relatively inexpensive and have a high sensitivity. However, experience using the RPM in various countries has revealed the systems have some grave shortcomings. There is a dramatic decrease of the probability of detection of radioactive sources under high suppression of the natural gamma background (radiation control of heavy cargoes, containers and, especially, trains). NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) existing in objects under control trigger the so-called 'nuisance alarms', requiring a secondary inspection for source verification. At a number of sites, the rate of such alarms is so high it significantly complicates the work of customs and border officers. This paper presents a brief description of new variant of algorithm ASIA-New (New Advanced Source Identification Algorithm), which was developed by the Rapiscan company. It also demonstrates results of different tests and the capability of a new system to overcome the shortcomings stated above. New electronics and ASIA-New enables RPM to detect radioactive sources under a high background suppression (tested at 15-30%) and to verify the detected NORM (KCl) and the artificial isotopes (Co- 57, Ba-133 and other). New variant of ASIA is based on physical principles, a phenomenological approach and analysis of some important parameter changes during the vehicle passage through the monitor control area. Thanks to this capability main advantage of new system is that this system can be easily installed into any RPM with plastic detectors. Taking into account that more than 4000 RPM has been installed worldwide their upgrading by ASIA-New may significantly increase probability of detection and verification of radioactive sources even masked by NORM. This algorithm was tested for 1,395 passages of different

  2. Frontiers of muon spectroscopy—25 years of muon science at ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    The ISIS muon source developed with support from the European Community (EC) and groups at Grenoble, Parma, Uppsala and Munich in the late 1980s, with a single instrument providing many scientists with their first opportunity to explore the unique capabilities of muon spectroscopy. The timing was opportune, as the muon technique was making an important contribution to the study of the then recently discovered cuprate high T c superconductors. The ISIS user community developed rapidly over subsequent years, with the technique finding a broad range of applications in condensed matter physics, materials science and chemistry. The single instrument was hugely oversubscribed, and the importance of the technique was recognized in 1993 with a further grant from the EC to develop the triple beamline facility that is currently available at ISIS. During 2009 the suite of spectrometers available at the facility received a major upgrade, with the Science and Technology Facilities Council funding the development of a 5 T high field instrument that has enabled entirely new applications of muon spectroscopy to be explored. The facility continues to flourish, with a strong user community exploiting the technique to support research across an increasingly broad range of subject areas. Condensed matter science continues to be a major area of interest, with applications including semiconductors and dielectrics, superconductors, magnetism, interstitial diffusion and charge transport. Recently, however, molecular science and radical chemistry have become prominent in the ISIS programme, applications where the availability of high magnetic fields is frequently vital to the success of the experiments. For ISIS, 23 March 2012 marked a significant milestone, it being 25 years since muons were first produced at the facility for research in condensed matter and molecular science. To celebrate, the ISIS muon group organized a science symposium with the theme 'Frontiers of Muon Spectroscopy

  3. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, R.; de Donato, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Guzmán, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Paic, G.; Patiño Salazar, E.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Sánchez, F. A.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vargas Treviño, A. D.; Vergara Limón, S.; Villaseñor, L. M.; Auger Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm2. Each layer is 4m2 and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cm×2m, oriented at a 90∘ angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4×4cm2. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2μs data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  4. Identification of new candidate drugs for lung cancer using chemical-chemical interactions, chemical-protein interactions and a K-means clustering algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Chen, Lei; Yin, Jun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Yi; Kong, Xiangyin; Zheng, Mingyue; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer, characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in the lung tissue, is the leading cause of global cancer deaths. Until now, effective treatment of this disease is limited. Many synthetic compounds have emerged with the advancement of combinatorial chemistry. Identification of effective lung cancer candidate drug compounds among them is a great challenge. Thus, it is necessary to build effective computational methods that can assist us in selecting for potential lung cancer drug compounds. In this study, a computational method was proposed to tackle this problem. The chemical-chemical interactions and chemical-protein interactions were utilized to select candidate drug compounds that have close associations with approved lung cancer drugs and lung cancer-related genes. A permutation test and K-means clustering algorithm were employed to exclude candidate drugs with low possibilities to treat lung cancer. The final analysis suggests that the remaining drug compounds have potential anti-lung cancer activities and most of them have structural dissimilarity with approved drugs for lung cancer.

  5. The background rate of false positives: Combining simulations of gravitational wave events with an unsupervised algorithm for transient identification in crowded image-subtracted data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen; Klimenko, Sergey; LIGO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We are now entering the era of multimessenger gravitational wave (GW) astronomy with the completion of the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. Multiwavelength electromagnetic (EM) emission is expected to accompany gravitational radiation from compact object binary mergers, such as those between neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes, where Advanced LIGO is most sensitive to their detection. Attempting to perform EM follow-up over the 10-100s deg2 error regions will be faced with many challenges, including the identification and removal of O (105) false positive transients that appear as a commotion of background events and as image artifacts in crowded image-subtracted fields. We present an update to our automated unsupervised algorithm including how our pipeline uses the existing coherent WaveBurst pipeline in an attempt to develop optimized EM follow-up schema. Our end-to-end pipeline combines simulated GW events with actual observational data from a number of ground-based optical observatories, including PTF, ROTSE, and DECam. Our performance is reported both in terms of the number of coincident false positives as well as the efficiency of recovery.

  6. Identification of Genes Associated with Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone on a Protein-Protein Interaction Network with a Shortest Path Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Chen, Lei; Huang, Tao

    2017-02-03

    Tumor metastasis is defined as the spread of tumor cells from one organ or part to another that is not directly connected to it, which significantly contributes to the progression and aggravation of tumorigenesis. Because it always involves multiple organs, the metastatic process is difficult to study in its entirety. Complete identification of the genes related to this process is an alternative way to study metastasis. In this study, we developed a computational method to identify such genes. To test our method, we selected breast cancer bone metastasis. A large network was constructed using human protein-protein interactions. On the basis of the validated genes related to breast and bone cancer, a shortest path algorithm was applied to the network to search for novel genes that may mediate breast cancer metastasis to bone. In addition, further rules constructed using the permutation FDR, the betweenness ratio, and the max-min interaction score were also employed in the method to make the inferred genes more reliable. Eighteen putative genes were identified by the method and were extensively analyzed. The confirmation results indicate that these genes participate in metastasis.

  7. Muon reconstruction performance of the ATLAS detector in proton–proton collision data at √s=13 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2016-05-23

    This article documents the performance of the ATLAS muon identification and reconstruction using the LHC dataset recorded at √s=13 TeV in 2015. Using a large sample of J/ψ → μμ and Z → μμ decays from 3.2 fb-1 of pp collision data, measurements of the reconstruction efficiency, as well as of the momentum scale and resolution, are presented and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, the reconstruction efficiency is measured to be close to 99% over most of the covered phase space (|η| < 2.5 and 52.2 , the pT resolution for muons from Z → μμ decays is 2.9%more » while the precision of the momentum scale for low-pT muons from J/ψ → μμ decays is about 0.2% .« less

  8. Muon reconstruction performance of the ATLAS detector in proton–proton collision data at √s=13 TeV

    SciTech Connect

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S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. 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P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. 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W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Dell’Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fawcett, W. J.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Forcolin, G. T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Foster, A. G.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, L. G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghneimat, M.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuli, F.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; Gongadze, A.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goudet, C. R.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Grefe, C.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. 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L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M. -A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Puddu, D.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Raine, J. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Ratti, M. G.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reisin, H.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Rizzi, C.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodina, Y.; Rodriguez Perez, A.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Roe, S.; Rogan, C. S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Rzehorz, G. F.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-05-23

    This article documents the performance of the ATLAS muon identification and reconstruction using the LHC dataset recorded at √s=13 TeV in 2015. Using a large sample of J/ψ → μμ and Z → μμ decays from 3.2 fb-1 of pp collision data, measurements of the reconstruction efficiency, as well as of the momentum scale and resolution, are presented and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, the reconstruction efficiency is measured to be close to 99% over most of the covered phase space (|η| < 2.5 and 52.2 , the pT resolution for muons from Z → μμ decays is 2.9% while the precision of the momentum scale for low-pT muons from J/ψ → μμ decays is about 0.2% .

  9. High energy muon induced radioactive nuclides in nickel plate and its use for 2-D muon-beam image profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurebayashi, Y.; Sakurai, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Doshita, N.; Kikuchi, S.; Tokanai, F.; Horiuchi, K.; Tajima, Y.; Oe, T.; Sato, T.; Gunji, S.; Inui, E.; Kondo, K.; Iwata, N.; Sasaki, N.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kunieda, S.

    2015-11-01

    Target materials were exposed to a muon beam with an energy of 160 GeV/c at the COMPASS experiment line in CERN-SPS to measure the production cross-sections for muon-induced radionuclides. A muon imager containing four nickel plates, each measuring 100 mm×100 mm, exposed to the IP plate successfully detected the muon beam image during an irradiation period of 33 days. The contrasting density rate of the nickel plate was (5.2±0.7)×10-9 PSL/muon per one-day exposure to IP. The image measured 122 mm and 174 mm in horizontal and vertical lengths, respectively, in relation to the surface of the base, indicating that 50±6% of the muon beam flux is confined to an area of 18% of the whole muon beam. The number of muons estimated from the PSL value in the total beam image area (0.81±0.1)×1013 was comparable to the total muon counts of the ion-chamber at the M2 beam line in the CERN-SPS. The production cross-sections of Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, and Co-58 in nickel were 0.19±0.08, 0.34±0.06, 0.5±0.05, 3.44±0.07, 0.4±0.03 in the unit of mb, respectively, reducing muon associated particles effects. They are approximately 10 times smaller than that a proceeding study by Heisinger et al.

  10. Control Oriented System Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    The research goals for this grant were to obtain algorithms for control oriented system identification is to construct dynamical models of systems...and measured information. Algorithms for this type of nonlinear system identification have been given that produce models suitable for gain scheduled

  11. Muon simulations for Super-Kamiokande, KamLAND, and CHOOZ

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Alfred; Horton-Smith, Glenn; Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; Tonazzo, Alessandra

    2006-09-01

    Muon backgrounds at Super-Kamiokande, KamLAND, and CHOOZ are calculated using MUSIC. A modified version of the Gaisser sea-level muon distribution and a well-tested Monte Carlo integration method are introduced. Average muon energy, flux, and rate are tabulated. Plots of average energy and angular distributions are given. Implications for muon tracker design in future experiments are discussed.

  12. A method for detection of muon induced electromagnetic showers with the ANTARES detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J. P.; Schüssler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-05-01

    The primary aim of ANTARES is neutrino astronomy with upward going muons created in charged current muon neutrino interactions in the detector and its surroundings. Downward going muons are background for neutrino searches. These muons are the decay products of cosmic-ray collisions in the Earth's atmosphere far above the detector. This paper presents a method to identify and count electromagnetic showers induced along atmospheric muon tracks with the ANTARES detector. The method is applied to both cosmic muon data and simulations and its applicability to the reconstruction of muon event energies is demonstrated.

  13. Muon reconstruction performance of the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collision data at [Formula: see text]=13 TeV.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alstaty, M; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; 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