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Sample records for muon identification algorithm

  1. Muon Reconstruction and Identification in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, A.

    2010-02-10

    We present the design strategies and status of the CMS muon reconstruction and identification identification software. Muon reconstruction and identification is accomplished through a variety of complementary algorithms. The CMS muon reconstruction software is based on a Kalman filter technique and reconstructs muons in the standalone muon system, using information from all three types of muon detectors, and links the resulting muon tracks with tracks reconstructed in the silicon tracker. In addition, a muon identification algorithm has been developed which tries to identify muons with high efficiency while maintaining a low probability of misidentification. The muon identification algorithm is complementary by design to the muon reconstruction algorithm that starts track reconstruction in the muon detectors. The identification algorithm accepts reconstructed tracks from the inner tracker and attempts to quantify the muon compatibility for each track using associated calorimeter and muon detector hit information. The performance status is based on detailed detector simulations as well as initial studies using cosmic muon data.

  2. Muon identification with Muon Telescope Detector at the STAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T. C.; Ma, R.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Ruan, L.; Todoroki, T.; Xu, Z.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Zha, W.

    2016-10-01

    The Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) is a newly installed detector in the STAR experiment. It provides an excellent opportunity to study heavy quarkonium physics using the dimuon channel in heavy ion collisions. In this paper, we report the muon identification performance for the MTD using proton-proton collisions at √{ s }=500 GeV with various methods. The result using the Likelihood Ratio method shows that the muon identification efficiency can reach up to ∼90% for muons with transverse momenta greater than 3 GeV/c and the significance of the J / ψ signal is improved by a factor of 2 compared to using the basic selection.

  3. Performance of the Muon Identification at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archilli, F.; Baldini, W.; Bencivenni, G.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Cadeddu, S.; Campana, P.; Cardini, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Deplano, C.; De Simone, P.; Falabella, A.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gandelman, M.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Graziani, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lopes, J. H.; Maev, O.; Manca, G.; Martellotti, G.; Massafferri, A.; Milanes, D.; Oldeman, R.; Palutan, M.; Passaleva, G.; Pinci, D.; Polycarpo, E.; Santacesaria, R.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satta, A.; Schmidt, B.; Sciascia, B.; Soomro, F.; Sciubba, A.; Vecchi, S.

    2013-10-01

    The performance of the muon identification in LHCb is extracted from data using muons and hadrons produced in J/ψ → μ+μ-, Λ0 → pπ- and Dstar+→π+D0(K-π+) decays. The muon identification procedure is based on the pattern of hits in the muon chambers. A momentum dependent binary requirement is used to reduce the probability of hadrons to be misidentified as muons to the level of 1%, keeping the muon efficiency in the range of 95-98%. As further refinement, a likelihood is built for the muon and non-muon hypotheses. Adding a requirement on this likelihood that provides a total muon efficiency at the level of 93%, the hadron misidentification probabilities are below 0.6%.

  4. Muon tomography imaging algorithms for nuclear threat detection inside large volume containers with the Muon Portal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggi, S.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Bandieramonte, M.; Becciani, U.; Costa, A.; La Rocca, P.; Massimino, P.; Petta, C.; Pistagna, C.; Riggi, F.; Sciacca, E.; Vitello, F.

    2013-11-01

    Muon tomographic visualization techniques try to reconstruct a 3D image as close as possible to the real localization of the objects being probed. Statistical algorithms under test for the reconstruction of muon tomographic images in the Muon Portal Project are discussed here. Autocorrelation analysis and clustering algorithms have been employed within the context of methods based on the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA) reconstruction tool. An iterative method based on the log-likelihood approach was also implemented. Relative merits of all such methods are discussed, with reference to full GEANT4 simulations of different scenarios, incorporating medium and high-Z objects inside a container.

  5. Improvements to the LC Muon tracking and identification software

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Fisk, G.; Para, A.

    2005-03-01

    This note summarizes the evolution of the Muon-ID package originally written by R. Markeloff at NIU. The original method used a helical swimmer to extrapolate the tracks from the interaction point and to collect hits in all sub-detectors: the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and muon detector. The package was modified to replace the swimmer by a stepper which does account for both the effects of the magnetic field and for the losses by ionization in the material encountered by the particle. The modified package shows a substantial improvement in the efficiency of muon identification. Further improvement should be reached by accounting for stochastic processes via the utilization of a Kalman filter.

  6. MLSD-OSEM reconstruction algorithm for cosmic ray muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ziran; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yuxiang

    2008-03-01

    Cosmic ray muon radiography which has a good penetrability and sensitivity to high-Z materials is an effective way for detecting shielded nuclear materials. Reconstruction algorithm is the key point of this technique. Currently, there are two main algorithms about this technique. One is the Point of Closest Approach (POCA) reconstruction algorithm which uses the track information to reconstruct; the other is the Maximum Likelihood estimation, such as the Maximum Likelihood Scattering (MLS) and the Maximum Likelihood Scattering and Displacement (MLSD) reconstruction algorithms which are proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The performance of MLSD is better than MLS. Since MLSD reconstruction algorithm includes scattering and displacement information while MLS reconstruction algorithm only includes scattering information. In order to get this Maximum Likelihood estimation, in this paper, we propose to use EM method to get the estimation (MLS-EM and MLSD-EM). Then, in order to saving reconstruction time we use the OS technique to accelerate MLS and MLSD reconstruction algorithm with the initial value set to be the result of the POCA reconstruction algorithm. That is, the Maximum Likelihood Scattering-OSEM (MLS-OSEM) and the Maximum Likelihood Scattering and Displacement-OSEM (MLSD-OSEM). Numerical simulations show that the MLSD-OSEM is an effective algorithm and the performance of MLSD-OSEM is better than MLS-OSEM.

  7. Improved autonomous star identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Li-Yan; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Jing-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The log-polar transform (LPT) is introduced into the star identification because of its rotation invariance. An improved autonomous star identification algorithm is proposed in this paper to avoid the circular shift of the feature vector and to reduce the time consumed in the star identification algorithm using LPT. In the proposed algorithm, the star pattern of the same navigation star remains unchanged when the stellar image is rotated, which makes it able to reduce the star identification time. The logarithmic values of the plane distances between the navigation and its neighbor stars are adopted to structure the feature vector of the navigation star, which enhances the robustness of star identification. In addition, some efforts are made to make it able to find the identification result with fewer comparisons, instead of searching the whole feature database. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition rate and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the LPT algorithm and the modified grid algorithm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014_CXJJ-DH_12), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. JB141303 and 201413B), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), and the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant. No CXY1350(4)).

  8. Trigger algorithms and electronics for the ATLAS muon new small wheel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, L.

    2016-01-01

    The New Small Wheel Upgrade for the ATLAS experiment will replace the innermost station of the Muon Spectrometer in the forward region in order to maintain its current performance during high luminosity data-taking after the LHC Phase-I upgrade. The New Small Wheel, comprising Micromegas and small Thin Gap Chambers, will reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from backgrounds in the forward region and significantly improve the Level-1 muon trigger selectivity by providing precise on-line segment measurements with ~ 1 mrad angular resolution. Such demanding precision, together with the short time (~ 1 μs) to prepare trigger data and perform on-line reconstruction, implies very stringent requirements on the design of trigger system and trigger electronics. This paper presents an overview of the design of the New Small Wheel trigger system, trigger algorithms and processor hardware.

  9. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  10. Muon ID - taking care of lower momenta muons

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Fisk, G.; Para, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    In the Muon package under study, the tracks are extrapolated using an algorithm which accounts for the magnetic field and the ionization (dE/dx). We improved the calculation of the field dependent term to increase the muon detection efficiency at lower momenta using a Runge-Kutta method. The muon identification and hadron separation in b-bbar jets is reported with the improved software. In the same framework, the utilization of the Kalman filter is introduced. The principle of the Kalman filter is described in some detail with the propagation matrix, with the Runge-Kutta term included, and the effect on low momenta for low momenta single muons particles is described.

  11. A New Pivot Algorithm for Star Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nah, Jakyoung; Yi, Yu; Kim, Yong Ha

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a star identification algorithm which utilizes pivot patterns instead of apparent magnitude information was developed. The new star identification algorithm consists of two steps of recognition process. In the first step, the brightest star in a sensor image is identified using the orientation of brightness between two stars as recognition information. In the second step, cell indexes are used as new recognition information to identify dimmer stars, which are derived from the brightest star already identified. If we use the cell index information, we can search over limited portion of the star catalogue database, which enables the faster identification of dimmer stars. The new pivot algorithm does not require calibrations on the apparent magnitude of a star but it shows robust characteristics on the errors of apparent magnitude compared to conventional pivot algorithms which require the apparent magnitude information.

  12. Algorithm and implementation of muon trigger and data transmission system for barrel-endcap overlap region of the CMS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotny, W. M.; Byszuk, A.

    2016-03-01

    The CMS experiment Level-1 trigger system is undergoing an upgrade. In the barrel-endcap transition region, it is necessary to merge data from 3 types of muon detectors—RPC, DT and CSC. The Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF) uses the novel approach to concentrate and process those data in a uniform manner to identify muons and their transversal momentum. The paper presents the algorithm and FPGA firmware implementation of the OMTF and its data transmission system in CMS. It is foreseen that the OMTF will be subject to significant changes resulting from optimization which will be done with the aid of physics simulations. Therefore, a special, high-level, parameterized HDL implementation is necessary.

  13. Dynamic hierarchical algorithm for accelerated microfossil identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Cindy M.; Joseph, Dileepan

    2015-02-01

    Marine microfossils provide a useful record of the Earth's resources and prehistory via biostratigraphy. To study Hydrocarbon reservoirs and prehistoric climate, geoscientists visually identify the species of microfossils found in core samples. Because microfossil identification is labour intensive, automation has been investigated since the 1980s. With the initial rule-based systems, users still had to examine each specimen under a microscope. While artificial neural network systems showed more promise for reducing expert labour, they also did not displace manual identification for a variety of reasons, which we aim to overcome. In our human-based computation approach, the most difficult step, namely taxon identification is outsourced via a frontend website to human volunteers. A backend algorithm, called dynamic hierarchical identification, uses unsupervised, supervised, and dynamic learning to accelerate microfossil identification. Unsupervised learning clusters specimens so that volunteers need not identify every specimen during supervised learning. Dynamic learning means interim computation outputs prioritize subsequent human inputs. Using a dataset of microfossils identified by an expert, we evaluated correct and incorrect genus and species rates versus simulated time, where each specimen identification defines a moment. The proposed algorithm accelerated microfossil identification effectively, especially compared to benchmark results obtained using a k-nearest neighbour method.

  14. Applications of an MPI Enhanced Simulated Annealing Algorithm on nuSTORM and 6D Muon Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, A.

    2015-06-01

    The nuSTORM decay ring is a compact racetrack storage ring with a circumference ~480 m using large aperture ($\\phi$ = 60 cm) magnets. The design goal of the ring is to achieve a momentum acceptance of 3.8 $\\pm$10% GeV/c and a phase space acceptance of 2000 $\\mu$m·rad. The design has many challenges because the acceptance will be affected by many nonlinearity terms with large particle emittance and/or large momentum offset. In this paper, we present the application of a meta-heuristic optimization algorithm to the sextupole correction in the ring. The algorithm is capable of finding a balanced compromise among corrections of the nonlinearity terms, and finding the largest acceptance. This technique can be applied to the design of similar storage rings that store beams with wide transverse phase space and momentum spectra. We also present the recent study on the application of this algorithm to a part of the 6D muon cooling channel. The technique and the cooling concept will be applied to design a cooling channel for the extracted muon beam at nuSTORM in the future study.

  15. Muon ID at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Fisk, G.; Para, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes a new way to reconstruct and identify muons with high efficiency and high pion rejection. Since muons at the ILC are often produced with or in jets, for many of the physics channels of interest [1], an efficient algorithm to deal with the identification and separation of particles within jets is important. The algorithm at the core of the method accounts for the effects of the magnetic field and for the loss of energy by charged particles due to ionization in the detector. We have chosen to develop the analysis within the setup of one of the Linear Collider Concept Detectors adopted by the US. Within b-pair production jets, particles cover a wide range in momenta; however {approx}80% of the particles have a momentum below 30 GeV[2]. Our study, focused on bbar-b jets, is preceded by a careful analysis of single energy particles between 2 and 50 GeV. As medium energy particles are a substantial component of the jets, many of the particles lose part of their energy in the calorimeters and the solenoid coil before reaching the muon detector where they may have energy below 2 GeV. To deal with this problem we have implemented a Runge-Kutta correction of the calculated trajectory to better handle these lower energy particles. The multiple scattering and other stochastic processes, more important at lower energy, is addressed by a Kalman-filter integrated into the reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm provides a unique and powerful separation of muons from pions. The 5 Tesla magnetic field from a solenoid surrounds the hadron calorimeter and allows the reconstruction and precision.

  16. Performance characterization of a combined material identification and screening algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Robert L.; Hargreaves, Michael D.; Gardner, Craig M.

    2013-05-01

    Portable analytical devices based on a gamut of technologies (Infrared, Raman, X-Ray Fluorescence, Mass Spectrometry, etc.) are now widely available. These tools have seen increasing adoption for field-based assessment by diverse users including military, emergency response, and law enforcement. Frequently, end-users of portable devices are non-scientists who rely on embedded software and the associated algorithms to convert collected data into actionable information. Two classes of problems commonly encountered in field applications are identification and screening. Identification algorithms are designed to scour a library of known materials and determine whether the unknown measurement is consistent with a stored response (or combination of stored responses). Such algorithms can be used to identify a material from many thousands of possible candidates. Screening algorithms evaluate whether at least a subset of features in an unknown measurement correspond to one or more specific substances of interest and are typically configured to detect from a small list potential target analytes. Thus, screening algorithms are much less broadly applicable than identification algorithms; however, they typically provide higher detection rates which makes them attractive for specific applications such as chemical warfare agent or narcotics detection. This paper will present an overview and performance characterization of a combined identification/screening algorithm that has recently been developed. It will be shown that the combined algorithm provides enhanced detection capability more typical of screening algorithms while maintaining a broad identification capability. Additionally, we will highlight how this approach can enable users to incorporate situational awareness during a response.

  17. Validation of a Bayesian-based isotope identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, C. J.; Stinnett, J.

    2015-06-01

    Handheld radio-isotope identifiers (RIIDs) are widely used in Homeland Security and other nuclear safety applications. However, most commercially available devices have serious problems in their ability to correctly identify isotopes. It has been reported that this flaw is largely due to the overly simplistic identification algorithms on-board the RIIDs. This paper reports on the experimental validation of a new isotope identification algorithm using a Bayesian statistics approach to identify the source while allowing for calibration drift and unknown shielding. We present here results on further testing of this algorithm and a study on the observed variation in the gamma peak energies and areas from a wavelet-based peak identification algorithm.

  18. Analyzing Potential Tracking Algorithms for the Upgrade to the Silicon Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, John; McDermott, Kevin

    2011-10-01

    The research performed revolves around creating tracking algorithms for the proposed ten-year upgrade to the tracker for CMS, one of two main detectors for the LHC at CERN. The proposed upgrade to the tracker for CMS will use fast hardware to trace particle trajectories so that they can be used immediately in a trigger system. The additional information will be combined with other sub-detectors in CMS, enabling mostly the non-background events to be read-out by the detector. The algorithms would be implemented directly into the Level-1 trigger, the first trigger in a 2 trigger system, to be used in real time. Specifically, by analyzing computer generated stable particles over various ranges of transverse momentum and the tracks they produce, we created and tested various simulated trigger algorithms that might be used in hardware. As one algorithm has proved very effective, the next step is to test this algorithm against simulated events with an environment equivalent to SLHC luminosities.

  19. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, H.

    2015-08-17

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  20. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, H.

    2015-08-01

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  1. Parameter identification using a creeping-random-search algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    A creeping-random-search algorithm is applied to different types of problems in the field of parameter identification. The studies are intended to demonstrate that a random-search algorithm can be applied successfully to these various problems, which often cannot be handled by conventional deterministic methods, and, also, to introduce methods that speed convergence to an extremal of the problem under investigation. Six two-parameter identification problems with analytic solutions are solved, and two application problems are discussed in some detail. Results of the study show that a modified version of the basic creeping-random-search algorithm chosen does speed convergence in comparison with the unmodified version. The results also show that the algorithm can successfully solve problems that contain limits on state or control variables, inequality constraints (both independent and dependent, and linear and nonlinear), or stochastic models.

  2. Polygon star identification based on ant colony algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Baolin; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Hongbo

    2014-11-01

    In order to enhance the rate of star identification under different view fields and reduce memory storage, this paper presents a polygon star identification based on ACO algorithm .First, fast cluster analysis. Second, calculate argument for each guide star, using the advantages of ACO in fast path optimization to complete building feature polygon. Third, comparing optimization results and optimization data of guide database to realize match and identifying. Through the simulation shows that the above method can simplify searching process and structure of storage. It can promise the completeness of characteristic patterns of star image. The robustness and reliability are better than traditional triangle identification.

  3. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Track reconstruction in the BESIII muon counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu-Tie; Liu, Kun; You, Zheng-Yun; Mao, Ya-Jun; Li, Wei-Dong; Bian, Jian-Ming; Cao, Guo-Fu; Cao, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Shen-Jian; Deng, Zi-Yan; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Gao, Yuan-Ning; Han, Lei; Han, Shao-Qing; He, Kang-Lin; He, Miao; Hu, Ji-Feng; Hu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Bin; Huang, Xing-Tao; Jia, Lu-Kui; Ji, Xiao-Bin; Li, Hai-Bo; Liu, Bei-Jiang; Liu, Chun-Xiu; Liu, Huai-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yong; Luo, Tao; Lu, Qi-Wen; Ma, Qiu-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Mao, Ze-Pu; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Ning, Fei-Peng; Ping, Rong-Gang; Qiu, Jin-Fa; Song, Wen-Bo; Sun, Sheng-Sen; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Yong-Zhao; Tian, Hao-Lai; Wang, Ji-Ke; Wang, Liang-Liang; Wen, Shuo-Pin; Wu, Ling-Hui; Wu, Zhi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Xu, Min; Yan, Jie; Yan, Liang; Yao, Jian; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Yang-Heng; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Zou, Jia-Heng

    2009-08-01

    The reconstruction algorithm for BESIII Muon Counter, MucRecAlg, is developed with the object-oriented language C++ in BESIII offline software environment. MucRecAlg consists of the following functions: to find track seeds either from extrapolation of tracks in the main drift chamber or from the fired strips in muon counter, to select fired strips associated to the candidate tracks, to fit the candidate tracks with a linear or quadratic function and to calculate other parameters of the tracks for muon identification. Monte Carlo samples are generated to check the performance of the reconstruction package, such as reconstruction efficiency, muon remaining rate and pion rejection rate, etc. The preliminary results show that the pion rejection rate is around 3%-4% while the muon remaining rate is better than 90% in 0.4-1.6 GeV/c momentum region, which meets the requirement as shown in the design report.

  4. A clinical algorithm for wound biofilm identification.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, D G; Bowler, P G; Hurlow, J

    2014-03-01

    Recognition of the existence of biofilm in chronic wounds is increasing among wound care practitioners, and a growing body of evidence indicates that biofilm contributes significantly to wound recalcitrance. While clinical guidelines regarding the involvement of biofilm in human bacterial infections have been proposed, there remains uncertainty and lack of guidance towards biofilm presence in wounds. The intention of this report is to collate knowledge and evidence of the visual and indirect clinical indicators of wound biofilm, and propose an algorithm designed to facilitate clinical recognition of biofilm and subsequent wound management practices.

  5. A clinical algorithm for wound biofilm identification.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, D G; Bowler, P G; Hurlow, J

    2016-03-01

    Recognition of the existence of biofilm in chronic wounds is increasing among wound care practitioners, and a growing body of evidence indicates that biofilm contributes significantly to wound recalcitrance. While clinical guidelines regarding the involvement of biofilm in human bacterial infections have been proposed, there remains uncertainty and lack of guidance towards biofilm presence in wounds. The intention of this report is to collate knowledge and evidence of the visual and indirect clinical indicators of wound biofilm, and propose an algorithm designed to facilitate clinical recognition of biofilm and subsequent wound management practices.

  6. Closed Loop System Identification with Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    High performance control design for a flexible space structure is challenging since high fidelity plant models are di.cult to obtain a priori. Uncertainty in the control design models typically require a very robust, low performance control design which must be tuned on-orbit to achieve the required performance. Closed loop system identi.cation is often required to obtain a multivariable open loop plant model based on closed-loop response data. In order to provide an accurate initial plant model to guarantee convergence for standard local optimization methods, this paper presents a global parameter optimization method using genetic algorithms. A minimal representation of the state space dynamics is employed to mitigate the non-uniqueness and over-parameterization of general state space realizations. This control-relevant system identi.cation procedure stresses the joint nature of the system identi.cation and control design problem by seeking to obtain a model that minimizes the di.erence between the predicted and actual closed-loop performance.

  7. A Novel Binarization Algorithm for Ballistics Firearm Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongguang

    The identification of ballistics specimens from imaging systems is of paramount importance in criminal investigation. Binarization plays a key role in preprocess of recognizing cartridges in the ballistic imaging systems. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to get the satisfactory binary image using existing binary algorithms. In this paper, we utilize the global and local thresholds to enhance the image binarization. Importantly, we present a novel criterion for effectively detecting edges in the images. Comprehensive experiments have been conducted over sample ballistic images. The empirical results demonstrate the proposed method can provide a better solution than existing binary algorithms.

  8. Muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity {micro}{sup +}{micro}{sup {minus}}colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed.

  9. A Frequency-Domain Substructure System Identification Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blades, Eric L.; Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A new frequency-domain system identification algorithm is presented for system identification of substructures, such as payloads to be flown aboard the Space Shuttle. In the vibration test, all interface degrees of freedom where the substructure is connected to the carrier structure are either subjected to active excitation or are supported by a test stand with the reaction forces measured. The measured frequency-response data is used to obtain a linear, viscous-damped model with all interface-degree of freedom entries included. This model can then be used to validate analytical substructure models. This procedure makes it possible to obtain not only the fixed-interface modal data associated with a Craig-Bampton substructure model, but also the data associated with constraint modes. With this proposed algorithm, multiple-boundary-condition tests are not required, and test-stand dynamics is accounted for without requiring a separate modal test or finite element modeling of the test stand. Numerical simulations are used in examining the algorithm's ability to estimate valid reduced-order structural models. The algorithm's performance when frequency-response data covering narrow and broad frequency bandwidths is used as input is explored. Its performance when noise is added to the frequency-response data and the use of different least squares solution techniques are also examined. The identified reduced-order models are also compared for accuracy with other test-analysis models and a formulation for a Craig-Bampton test-analysis model is also presented.

  10. ELECTRON–MUON IDENTIFICATION BY ATMOSPHERIC SHOWER AND ELECTRON BEAM IN A NEW EAS DETECTOR CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect

    Iori, M.; Denizli, H.; Yilmaz, A.; Ferrarotto, F.; Russ, J.

    2015-03-10

    We present results demonstrating the time resolution and μ/e separation capabilities of a new concept  for an EAS detector capable of measuring cosmic rays arriving with large zenith angles. This kind of detector has been designed to be part of a large area (several square kilometer) surface array designed to measure ultra high energy (10–200 PeV) τ neutrinos using the Earth-skimming technique. A criterion to identify electron-gammas is also shown and the particle identification capability is tested by measurements in coincidence with the KASKADE-GRANDE experiment in Karlsruhe, Germany.

  11. Metrics for the comparative evaluation of chemical plume identification algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truslow, E.; Golowich, S.; Manolakis, D.; Ingle, V. K.

    2015-05-01

    The detection of chemical agents with hyperspectral longwave infrared sensors is a difficult problem with many civilian and military applications. System performance can be evaluated by comparing the detected gases in each pixel with the ground truth for each pixel using a confusion matrix. In the presence of chemical mixtures the confusion matrix becomes extremely large and difficult to interpret due to its size. We propose summarizing the confusion matrix using simple scalar metrics tailored for specific applications. Ideally, an identifier should determine exactly which chemicals are in each pixel, but in many applications it is acceptable for the output to contain additional chemicals or lack some constituent chemicals. A performance metric for identification problems should give partially correct results a lower weight than completely correct results. The metric we propose using, the Dice metric, weighs each output by its similarity with the truth for each pixel, thereby giving less importance to partially correct outputs, while still giving full scores only to exactly correct results. Using the Dice metric we evaluated the performance of two identification algorithms: an adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) detector bank approach, and Bayesian model averaging (BMA). Both algorithms were tested individually on real background data with synthetically embedded plumes; performance was evaluated using standard detection performance metrics, and then using the proposed identification metric. We show that ACE performed well as a detector but poorly as an identifier; however, BMA performed poorly as a detector but well as an identifier. Cascading the two algorithms should lead to a system with a substantially lower false alarm rate than using BMA alone, and much better identification performance than the ACE detector bank alone.

  12. Analysis of star identification algorithms due to uncompensated spatial distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratt, Steven P.

    With the evolution of spacecraft systems, we see the growing need for smaller, more affordable, and robust spacecrafts that can be jettisoned with ease and sent to sites to perform a myriad of operations that a larger craft would prohibit, or that can be quickly manipulated from performing one task into another. The developing requirements have led to the creation of Nano-Satellites, or CubeSats. The question then remains, how to navigate the expanse of space with such a minute spacecraft? A solution to this is using the stars themselves as a means of navigation. This can be accomplished by measuring the distance between stars in a camera image and determining the stars' identities. Once identified, the spacecraft can obtain its position and facing. A series of star identification algorithms called Lost in Space Algorithms (LISAs) are used to recognize the stars in an image and assess the accuracy and error associated with each algorithm. This is done by creating various images from a simulated camera, using a program called MATLAB, along with images of actual stars with uncompensated errors. It is shown how suitable these algorithms are for use in space navigation, what constraints and impediments each have, and if low quality cameras using these algorithms can solve the Lost in Space problem.

  13. Electron-muon ranger: performance in the MICE muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bene, P.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Cadoux, F.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Debieux, S.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J. S.; Greis, J.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Husi, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Masciocchi, F.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nicola, L.; Noah Messomo, E.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rothenfusser, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Sandström, R.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Wisting, H.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100-280 MeV/c.

  14. Electron-Muon Ranger: Performance in the MICE muon beam

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, D.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. Lastly, the EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta inmore » the range 100–280 MeV/c.« less

  15. Electron-Muon Ranger: Performance in the MICE muon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. Lastly, the EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100–280 MeV/c.

  16. Eigensystem realization algorithm modal identification experiences with mini-mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Schenk, Axel; Noll, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes work performed under a collaborative research effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt). The objective is to develop and demonstrate system identification technology for future large space structures. Recent experiences using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), for modal identification of Mini-Mast, are reported. Mini-Mast is a 20 m long deployable space truss used for structural dynamics and active vibration-control research at the Langley Research Center. A comprehensive analysis of 306 frequency response functions (3 excitation forces and 102 displacement responses) was performed. Emphasis is placed on two topics of current research: (1) gaining an improved understanding of ERA performance characteristics (theory vs. practice); and (2) developing reliable techniques to improve identification results for complex experimental data. Because of nonlinearities and numerous local modes, modal identification of Mini-Mast proved to be surprisingly difficult. Methods were available, ERA, for obtaining detailed, high-confidence results.

  17. Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.

    2009-10-19

    Parameters are given of muon colliders with center of mass energies of 1.5 and 3 TeV. Pion production is from protons on a mercury target. Capture, decay, and phase rotation yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Six dimensional cooling reduces the emittances until the trains are merged into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in 6 dimensions is then applied, followed by final transverse cooling in 50 T solenoids. After acceleration the muons enter the collider ring. Ongoing R&D is discussed.

  18. Muon muon collider: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-18

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice--the authors believe--to allow them to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring which has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design.

  19. An algorithm for automated identification of fault zone trapped waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Z. E.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-08-01

    We develop an algorithm for automatic identification of fault zone trapped waves in data recorded by seismic fault zone arrays. Automatic S picks are used to identify time windows in the seismograms for subsequent search for trapped waves. The algorithm calculates five features in each seismogram recorded by each station: predominant period, 1 s duration energy (representative of trapped waves), relative peak strength, arrival delay and 6 s duration energy (representative of the entire seismogram). These features are used collectively to identify stations in the array with seismograms that are statistical outliers. Applying the algorithm to large data sets allows for distinguishing genuine trapped waves from occasional localized site amplification in seismograms of other stations. The method is verified on a test data set recorded across the rupture zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake, for which trapped waves were previously identified manually, and is then applied to a larger data set with several thousand events recorded across the San Jacinto fault zone. The developed technique provides an important tool for systematic objective processing of large seismic waveform data sets recorded near fault zones.

  20. Developing a cosmic ray muon sampling capability for muon tomography and monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Chrysikopoulou, S.; Tsoukalas, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a cosmic ray muon sampling capability using a phenomenological model that captures the main characteristics of the experimentally measured spectrum coupled with a set of statistical algorithms is developed. The "muon generator" produces muons with zenith angles in the range 0-90° and energies in the range 1-100 GeV and is suitable for Monte Carlo simulations with emphasis on muon tomographic and monitoring applications. The muon energy distribution is described by the Smith and Duller (1959) [35] phenomenological model. Statistical algorithms are then employed for generating random samples. The inverse transform provides a means to generate samples from the muon angular distribution, whereas the Acceptance-Rejection and Metropolis-Hastings algorithms are employed to provide the energy component. The predictions for muon energies 1-60 GeV and zenith angles 0-90° are validated with a series of actual spectrum measurements and with estimates from the software library CRY. The results confirm the validity of the phenomenological model and the applicability of the statistical algorithms to generate polyenergetic-polydirectional muons. The response of the algorithms and the impact of critical parameters on computation time and computed results were investigated. Final output from the proposed "muon generator" is a look-up table that contains the sampled muon angles and energies and can be easily integrated into Monte Carlo particle simulation codes such as Geant4 and MCNP.

  1. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Brashaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drews, M.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Greis, J. R.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Winter, M.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2016-03-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ~1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is fπ < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  2. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Sessler, A.M.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring wich has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design. Muons because of their large mass compared to an electron, do not produce significant synchrotron radiation. As a result there is negligible beamstrahlung and high energy collisions are not limited by this phenomena. In addition, muons can be accelerated in circular devices which will be considerably smaller than two full-energy linacs as required in an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider. A hadron collider would require a CM energy 5 to 10 times higher than 4 TeV to have an equivalent energy reach. Since the accelerator size is limited by the strength of bending magnets, the hadron collider for the same physics reach would have to be much larger than the muon collider. In addition, muon collisions should be cleaner than hadron collisions. There are many detailed particle

  3. An algorithm for efficient identification of branched metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Heath, Allison P; Bennett, George N; Kavraki, Lydia E

    2011-11-01

    This article presents a new graph-based algorithm for identifying branched metabolic pathways in multi-genome scale metabolic data. The term branched is used to refer to metabolic pathways between compounds that consist of multiple pathways that interact biochemically. A branched pathway may produce a target compound through a combination of linear pathways that split compounds into smaller ones, work in parallel with many compounds, and join compounds into larger ones. While branched metabolic pathways predominate in metabolic networks, most previous work has focused on identifying linear metabolic pathways. The ability to automatically identify branched pathways is important in applications that require a deeper understanding of metabolism, such as metabolic engineering and drug target identification. The algorithm presented in this article utilizes explicit atom tracking to identify linear metabolic pathways and then merges them together into branched metabolic pathways. We provide results on several well-characterized metabolic pathways that demonstrate that the new merging approach can efficiently find biologically relevant branched metabolic pathways.

  4. TADtool: visual parameter identification for TAD-calling algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Kai; Hug, Clemens B.; Hernández-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Vaquerizas, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Eukaryotic genomes are hierarchically organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). The computational identification of these domains and their associated properties critically depends on the choice of suitable parameters of TAD-calling algorithms. To reduce the element of trial-and-error in parameter selection, we have developed TADtool: an interactive plot to find robust TAD-calling parameters with immediate visual feedback. TADtool allows the direct export of TADs called with a chosen set of parameters for two of the most common TAD calling algorithms: directionality and insulation index. It can be used as an intuitive, standalone application or as a Python package for maximum flexibility. Availability and implementation: TADtool is available as a Python package from GitHub (https://github.com/vaquerizaslab/tadtool) or can be installed directly via PyPI, the Python package index (tadtool). Contact: kai.kruse@mpi-muenster.mpg.de, jmv@mpi-muenster.mpg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27318199

  5. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Asaki, T. J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N. W.; Hogan, G. E.; Morris, C. L.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L. J.; Sottile, M. J.; Vixie, K. R.; Wohlberg, B. E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  6. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua

    2015-07-07

    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms.

  7. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms. PMID:26198233

  8. Research on Palmprint Identification Method Based on Quantum Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhanzhan

    2014-01-01

    Quantum image recognition is a technology by using quantum algorithm to process the image information. It can obtain better effect than classical algorithm. In this paper, four different quantum algorithms are used in the three stages of palmprint recognition. First, quantum adaptive median filtering algorithm is presented in palmprint filtering processing. Quantum filtering algorithm can get a better filtering result than classical algorithm through the comparison. Next, quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is used to extract pattern features by only one operation due to quantum parallelism. The proposed algorithm exhibits an exponential speed-up compared with discrete Fourier transform in the feature extraction. Finally, quantum set operations and Grover algorithm are used in palmprint matching. According to the experimental results, quantum algorithm only needs to apply square of N operations to find out the target palmprint, but the traditional method needs N times of calculation. At the same time, the matching accuracy of quantum algorithm is almost 100%. PMID:25105165

  9. Bouc-Wen hysteresis model identification using Modified Firefly Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Mohammad Asif; Sikder, Urmita

    2015-12-01

    The parameters of Bouc-Wen hysteresis model are identified using a Modified Firefly Algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses dynamic process control parameters to improve its performance. The algorithm is used to find the model parameter values that results in the least amount of error between a set of given data points and points obtained from the Bouc-Wen model. The performance of the algorithm is compared with the performance of conventional Firefly Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Differential Evolution algorithm in terms of convergence rate and accuracy. Compared to the other three optimization algorithms, the proposed algorithm is found to have good convergence rate with high degree of accuracy in identifying Bouc-Wen model parameters. Finally, the proposed method is used to find the Bouc-Wen model parameters from experimental data. The obtained model is found to be in good agreement with measured data.

  10. One-time collision arbitration algorithm in radio-frequency identification based on the Manchester code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Chan, Yin-Tsung

    2011-02-01

    In radio-requency identification (RFID) systems, when multiple tags transmit data to a reader simultaneously, these data may collide and create unsuccessful identifications; hence, anticollision algorithms are needed to reduce collisions (collision cycles) to improve the tag identification speed. We propose a one-time collision arbitration algorithm to reduce both the number of collisions and the time consumption for tags' identification in RFID. The proposed algorithm uses Manchester coding to detect the locations of collided bits, uses the divide-and-conquer strategy to find the structure of colliding bits to generate 96-bit query strings as the 96-bit candidate query strings (96BCQSs), and uses query-tree anticollision schemes with 96BCQSs to identify tags. The performance analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has three advantages: (i) reducing the number of collisions to only one, so that the time complexity of tag identification is the simplest O(1), (ii) storing identified identification numbers (IDs) and the 96BCQSs in a register to save the used memory, and (iii) resulting in the number of bits transmitted by both the reader and tags being evidently less than the other algorithms in one-tag identification or in all tags identification.

  11. Biofilms and Wounds: An Identification Algorithm and Potential Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Percival, Steven L.; Vuotto, Claudia; Donelli, Gianfranco; Lipsky, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: The presence of a “pathogenic” or “highly virulent” biofilm is a fundamental risk factor that prevents a chronic wound from healing and increases the risk of the wound becoming clinically infected. There is presently no unequivocal gold standard method available for clinicians to confirm the presence of biofilms in a wound. Thus, to help support clinician practice, we devised an algorithm intended to demonstrate evidence of the presence of a biofilm in a wound to assist with wound management. Recent Advances: A variety of histological and microscopic methods applied to tissue biopsies are currently the most informative techniques available for demonstrating the presence of generic (not classified as pathogenic or commensal) biofilms and the effect they are having in promoting inflammation and downregulating cellular functions. Critical Issues: Even as we rely on microscopic techniques to visualize biofilms, they are entities which are patchy and dispersed rather than confluent, particularly on biotic surfaces. Consequently, detection of biofilms by microscopic techniques alone can lead to frequent false-negative results. Furthermore, visual identification using the naked eye of a pathogenic biofilm on a macroscopic level on the wound will not be possible, unlike with biofilms on abiotic surfaces. Future Direction: Lacking specific biomarkers to demonstrate microscopic, nonconfluent, virulent biofilms in wounds, the present focus on biofilm research should be placed on changing clinical practice. This is best done by utilizing an anti-biofilm toolbox approach, rather than speculating on unscientific approaches to identifying biofilms, with or without staining, in wounds with the naked eye. The approach to controlling biofilm should include initial wound cleansing, periodic debridement, followed by the application of appropriate antimicrobial wound dressings. This approach appears to be effective in removing pathogenic biofilms. PMID:26155381

  12. Development of an automatic identification algorithm for antibiogram analysis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luan F R; da Silva, Eduardo S; Noronha, Victor T; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Andrade, Marcelino M de

    2015-12-01

    Routinely, diagnostic and microbiology laboratories perform antibiogram analysis which can present some difficulties leading to misreadings and intra and inter-reader deviations. An Automatic Identification Algorithm (AIA) has been proposed as a solution to overcome some issues associated with the disc diffusion method, which is the main goal of this work. AIA allows automatic scanning of inhibition zones obtained by antibiograms. More than 60 environmental isolates were tested using susceptibility tests which were performed for 12 different antibiotics for a total of 756 readings. Plate images were acquired and classified as standard or oddity. The inhibition zones were measured using the AIA and results were compared with reference method (human reading), using weighted kappa index and statistical analysis to evaluate, respectively, inter-reader agreement and correlation between AIA-based and human-based reading. Agreements were observed in 88% cases and 89% of the tests showed no difference or a <4mm difference between AIA and human analysis, exhibiting a correlation index of 0.85 for all images, 0.90 for standards and 0.80 for oddities with no significant difference between automatic and manual method. AIA resolved some reading problems such as overlapping inhibition zones, imperfect microorganism seeding, non-homogeneity of the circumference, partial action of the antimicrobial, and formation of a second halo of inhibition. Furthermore, AIA proved to overcome some of the limitations observed in other automatic methods. Therefore, AIA may be a practical tool for automated reading of antibiograms in diagnostic and microbiology laboratories. PMID:26513468

  13. Modular detector for deep underwater registration of muons and muon groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demianov, A. I.; Sarycheva, L. I.; Sinyov, N. B.; Varadanyan, I. N.; Yershov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Registration and identification of muons and muon groups penetrating into the ocean depth, can be performed using a modular multilayer detector with high resolution bidimensional readout - deep underwater calorimeter (project NADIR). Laboratory testing of a prototype sensor cell with liquid scintillator in light-tight casing, testifies to the practicability of the full-scale experiment within reasonable expences.

  14. Comparison of Five System Identification Algorithms for Rotorcraft Higher Harmonic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an analysis and performance comparison of five system identification algorithms. The methods are presented in the context of identifying a frequency-domain transfer matrix for the higher harmonic control (HHC) of helicopter vibration. The five system identification algorithms include three previously proposed methods: (1) the weighted-least- squares-error approach (in moving-block format), (2) the Kalman filter method, and (3) the least-mean-squares (LMS) filter method. In addition there are two new ones: (4) a generalized Kalman filter method and (5) a generalized LMS filter method. The generalized Kalman filter method and the generalized LMS filter method were derived as extensions of the classic methods to permit identification by using more than one measurement per identification cycle. Simulation results are presented for conditions ranging from the ideal case of a stationary transfer matrix and no measurement noise to the more complex cases involving both measurement noise and transfer-matrix variation. Both open-loop identification and closed- loop identification were simulated. Closed-loop mode identification was more challenging than open-loop identification because of the decreasing signal-to-noise ratio as the vibration became reduced. The closed-loop simulation considered both local-model identification, with measured vibration feedback and global-model identification with feedback of the identified uncontrolled vibration. The algorithms were evaluated in terms of their accuracy, stability, convergence properties, computation speeds, and relative ease of implementation.

  15. The MICE Muon Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, Marco

    2011-10-01

    In the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at RAL, muons are produced and transported in a dedicated beam line connecting the production point (target) to the cooling channel. We discuss the main features of the beamline, meant to provide muons with momenta between 140 MeV/c and 240 MeV/c and emittances up to 10 mm rad, which is accomplished by means of a diffuser. Matching procedures to the MICE cooling channel are also described. In summer 2010 we performed an intense data taking campaign to finalize the calibration of the MICE Particle Identification (PID) detectors and the understanding of the beam line, which completes the STEPI phase of MICE. We highlight the main results from these data.

  16. An algorithm for the identification of genetically modified animals.

    PubMed

    Forabosco, Flavio; Sundström, Fredrik L; Rydhmer, Lotta

    2013-05-01

    The diffusion of genetically modified (GM) animals has generated a demand for accurate and unique identification to assure compliance with relevant national and international legislation. Individual identification of GM animals is essential to improve safety and traceability, as well as to fulfill the present and future expectations of producers, consumers, and authorities.

  17. Muons in gamma showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.; Vankov, C. P.; Halzen, F.

    1985-01-01

    Muon production in gamma-induced air showers, accounting for all major processes. For muon energies in the GeV region the photoproduction is by far the most important process, while the contribution of micron + micron pair creation is not negligible for TeV muons. The total rate of muons in gamma showers is, however, very low.

  18. Current algorithmic solutions for peptide-based proteomics data generation and identification.

    PubMed

    Hoopmann, Michael R; Moritz, Robert L

    2013-02-01

    Peptide-based proteomic data sets are ever increasing in size and complexity. These data sets provide computational challenges when attempting to quickly analyze spectra and obtain correct protein identifications. Database search and de novo algorithms must consider high-resolution MS/MS spectra and alternative fragmentation methods. Protein inference is a tricky problem when analyzing large data sets of degenerate peptide identifications. Combining multiple algorithms for improved peptide identification puts significant strain on computational systems when investigating large data sets. This review highlights some of the recent developments in peptide and protein identification algorithms for analyzing shotgun mass spectrometry data when encountering the aforementioned hurdles. Also explored are the roles that analytical pipelines, public spectral libraries, and cloud computing play in the evolution of peptide-based proteomics.

  19. Modeling the performance of evolutionary algorithms on the root identification problem: a case study with PBIL and CHC algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yeguas, Enrique; Joan-Arinyo, Robert; Victoria Luz N, Mar A

    2011-01-01

    The availability of a model to measure the performance of evolutionary algorithms is very important, especially when these algorithms are applied to solve problems with high computational requirements. That model would compute an index of the quality of the solution reached by the algorithm as a function of run-time. Conversely, if we fix an index of quality for the solution, the model would give the number of iterations to be expected. In this work, we develop a statistical model to describe the performance of PBIL and CHC evolutionary algorithms applied to solve the root identification problem. This problem is basic in constraint-based, geometric parametric modeling, as an instance of general constraint-satisfaction problems. The performance model is empirically validated over a benchmark with very large search spaces.

  20. Augmenting real data with synthetic data: an application in assessing radio-isotope identification algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L; Hamada, Michael; Graves, Todd; Myers, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The performance of Radio-Isotope Identification (RIID) algorithms using gamma spectroscopy is increasingly important. For example, sensors at locations that screen for illicit nuclear material rely on isotope identification to resolve innocent nuisance alarms arising from naturally occurring radioactive material. Recent data collections for RIID testing consist of repeat measurements for each of several scenarios to test RIID algorithms. Efficient allocation of measurement resources requires an appropriate number of repeats for each scenario. To help allocate measurement resources in such data collections for RIID algorithm testing, we consider using only a few real repeats per scenario. In order to reduce uncertainty in the estimated RIID algorithm performance for each scenario, the potential merit of augmenting these real repeats with realistic synthetic repeats is also considered. Our results suggest that for the scenarios and algorithms considered, approximately 10 real repeats augmented with simulated repeats will result in an estimate having comparable uncertainty to the estimate based on using 60 real repeats.

  1. Wavelet Algorithm for Feature Identification and Image Analysis

    2005-10-01

    WVL are a set of python scripts based on the algorithm described in "A novel 3D wavelet-based filter for visualizing features in noisy biological data, " W. C. Moss et al., J. Microsc. 219, 43-49 (2005)

  2. Common Pharmacophore Identification Using Frequent Clique Detection Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Podolyan, Yevgeniy; Karypis, George

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of a pharmacophore, or the 3D arrangement of features in the biologically active molecule that is responsible for its pharmacological activity, can help in the search and design of a new or better drug acting upon the same or related target. In this paper we describe two new algorithms based on the frequent clique detection in the molecular graphs. The first algorithm mines all frequent cliques that are present in at least one of the conformers of each (or a portion of all) molecules. The second algorithm exploits the similarities among the different conformers of the same molecule and achieves an order of magnitude performance speedup compared to the first algorithm. Both algorithms are guaranteed to find all common pharmacophores in the dataset, which is confirmed by the validation on the set of molecules for which pharmacophores have been determined experimentally. In addition, these algorithms are able to scale to datasets with arbitrarily large number of conformers per molecule and identify multiple ligand binding modes or multiple binding sites of the target. PMID:19072298

  3. Optimization of a Spectral Contrast Enhancement Algorithm for Cochlear Implants Based on a Vowel Identification Model.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Waldo; Rode, Thilo; Büchner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Speech intelligibility achieved with cochlear implants (CIs) shows large variability across different users. One reason that can explain this variability is the CI user's individual electrode nerve interface which can impact the spectral resolution they can achieve. Spectral resolution has been reported to be related to vowel and consonant recognition in CI listeners. One measure of spectral resolution is the spectral modulation threshold (SMT), which is defined as the smallest detectable spectral contrast in a stimulus. In this study we hypothesize that an algorithm that improves SMT may improve vowel identification, and consequently produce an improvement in speech understanding for CIs. With this purpose we implemented an algorithm, termed spectral contrast enhancement (SCE) that emphasizes peaks with respect to valleys in the audio spectrum. This algorithm can be configured with a single parameter: the amount of spectral contrast enhancement entitled "SCE factor". We would like to investigate whether the "SCE factor" can be individualized to each CI user. With this purpose we used a vowel identification model to predict the performance produced by the SCE algorithm with different "SCE factors" in a vowel identification task.In five CI users the new algorithm has been evaluated using a SMT task and a vowel identification task. The tasks were performed for SCE factors of 0 (no enhancement), 2 and 4. In general it seems that increasing the SCE factor produces a decrease in performance in both the SMT threshold and vowel identification.

  4. Investigation of scene identification algorithms for radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diekmann, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    The computation of Earth radiation budget from satellite measurements requires the identification of the scene in order to select spectral factors and bidirectional models. A scene identification procedure is developed for AVHRR SW and LW data by using two radiative transfer models. These AVHRR GAC pixels are then attached to corresponding ERBE pixels and the results are sorted into scene identification probability matrices. These scene intercomparisons show that there generally is a higher tendency for underestimation of cloudiness over ocean at high cloud amounts, e.g., mostly cloudy instead of overcast, partly cloudy instead of mostly cloudy, for the ERBE relative to the AVHRR results. Reasons for this are explained. Preliminary estimates of the errors of exitances due to scene misidentification demonstrates the high dependency on the probability matrices. While the longwave error can generally be neglected the shortwave deviations have reached maximum values of more than 12% of the respective exitances.

  5. An algorithm for image clusters detection and identification based on color for an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Uy, D.L.

    1996-02-01

    An algorithm for detection and identification of image clusters or {open_quotes}blobs{close_quotes} based on color information for an autonomous mobile robot is developed. The input image data are first processed using a crisp color fuszzyfier, a binary smoothing filter, and a median filter. The processed image data is then inputed to the image clusters detection and identification program. The program employed the concept of {open_quotes}elastic rectangle{close_quotes}that stretches in such a way that the whole blob is finally enclosed in a rectangle. A C-program is develop to test the algorithm. The algorithm is tested only on image data of 8x8 sizes with different number of blobs in them. The algorithm works very in detecting and identifying image clusters.

  6. Model Structures and Algorithms for Identification of Aerodynamic Models for Flight Dynamics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasanth, Ravi K.; Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.; Mehra, Raman K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes model structures and parameter estimation algorithms suitable for the identification of unsteady aerodynamic models from input-output data. The model structures presented are state space models and include linear time-invariant (LTI) models and linear parameter-varying (LPV) models. They cover a wide range of local and parameter dependent identification problems arising in unsteady aerodynamics and nonlinear flight dynamics. We present a residue algorithm for estimating model parameters from data. The algorithm can incorporate apriori information and is described in detail. The algorithms are evaluated on the F-16XL wind-tunnel test data from NAS Langley Research Center. Results of numerical evaluation are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion major issues and directions for future work.

  7. Performance study of LMS based adaptive algorithms for unknown system identification

    SciTech Connect

    Javed, Shazia; Ahmad, Noor Atinah

    2014-07-10

    Adaptive filtering techniques have gained much popularity in the modeling of unknown system identification problem. These techniques can be classified as either iterative or direct. Iterative techniques include stochastic descent method and its improved versions in affine space. In this paper we present a comparative study of the least mean square (LMS) algorithm and some improved versions of LMS, more precisely the normalized LMS (NLMS), LMS-Newton, transform domain LMS (TDLMS) and affine projection algorithm (APA). The performance evaluation of these algorithms is carried out using adaptive system identification (ASI) model with random input signals, in which the unknown (measured) signal is assumed to be contaminated by output noise. Simulation results are recorded to compare the performance in terms of convergence speed, robustness, misalignment, and their sensitivity to the spectral properties of input signals. Main objective of this comparative study is to observe the effects of fast convergence rate of improved versions of LMS algorithms on their robustness and misalignment.

  8. Performance study of LMS based adaptive algorithms for unknown system identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, Shazia; Ahmad, Noor Atinah

    2014-07-01

    Adaptive filtering techniques have gained much popularity in the modeling of unknown system identification problem. These techniques can be classified as either iterative or direct. Iterative techniques include stochastic descent method and its improved versions in affine space. In this paper we present a comparative study of the least mean square (LMS) algorithm and some improved versions of LMS, more precisely the normalized LMS (NLMS), LMS-Newton, transform domain LMS (TDLMS) and affine projection algorithm (APA). The performance evaluation of these algorithms is carried out using adaptive system identification (ASI) model with random input signals, in which the unknown (measured) signal is assumed to be contaminated by output noise. Simulation results are recorded to compare the performance in terms of convergence speed, robustness, misalignment, and their sensitivity to the spectral properties of input signals. Main objective of this comparative study is to observe the effects of fast convergence rate of improved versions of LMS algorithms on their robustness and misalignment.

  9. Star-field identification algorithm. [for implementation on CCD-based imaging camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    A description of a new star-field identification algorithm that is suitable for implementation on CCD-based imaging cameras is presented. The minimum identifiable star pattern element consists of an oriented star triplet defined by three stars, their celestial coordinates, and their visual magnitudes. The algorithm incorporates tolerance to faulty input data, errors in the reference catalog, and instrument-induced systematic errors.

  10. Damage identification of a TLP floating wind turbine by meta-heuristic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettefagh, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Damage identification of the offshore floating wind turbine by vibration/dynamic signals is one of the important and new research fields in the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). In this paper a new damage identification method is proposed based on meta-heuristic algorithms using the dynamic response of the TLP (Tension-Leg Platform) floating wind turbine structure. The Genetic Algorithms (GA), Artificial Immune System (AIS), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) are chosen for minimizing the object function, defined properly for damage identification purpose. In addition to studying the capability of mentioned algorithms in correctly identifying the damage, the effect of the response type on the results of identification is studied. Also, the results of proposed damage identification are investigated with considering possible uncertainties of the structure. Finally, for evaluating the proposed method in real condition, a 1/100 scaled experimental setup of TLP Floating Wind Turbine (TLPFWT) is provided in a laboratory scale and the proposed damage identification method is applied to the scaled turbine.

  11. Constraint identification and algorithm stabilization for degenerate nonlinear programs.

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2003-01-01

    In the vicinity of a solution of a nonlinear programming problem at which both strict complementarity and linear independence of the active constraints may fail to hold, we describe a technique for distinguishing weakly active from strongly active constraints. We show that this information can be used to modify the sequential quadratic programming algorithm so that it exhibits superlinear convergence to the solution under assumptions weaker than those made in previous analyses.

  12. Jet production in muon scattering at Fermilab E665

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Nucleon and Muon-Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Nucleon deep-inelastic scattering are compared to Monte Carlo model predictions. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a higher suppression of two-forward jets as compared to one-forward jet production.

  13. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; et al

    2016-03-01

    Here, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less thanmore » $$\\sim$$1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $$f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$$ at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.« less

  14. An almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm for groundwater pollution source identification.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Simin; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Pei; Zheng, Maohui

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal characterization of unknown sources of groundwater pollution is frequently encountered in environmental problems. This study adopts a simulation-optimization approach that combines a contaminant transport simulation model with a heuristic harmony search algorithm to identify unknown pollution sources. In the proposed methodology, an almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm is developed. The performance of this methodology is evaluated on an illustrative groundwater pollution source identification problem, and the identified results indicate that the proposed almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm-based optimization model can give satisfactory estimations, even when the irregular geometry, erroneous monitoring data, and prior information shortage of potential locations are considered.

  15. Gene Identification Algorithms Using Exploratory Statistical Analysis of Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shashi Bajaj; Sen, Pradip Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Studying periodic pattern is expected as a standard line of attack for recognizing DNA sequence in identification of gene and similar problems. But peculiarly very little significant work is done in this direction. This paper studies statistical properties of DNA sequences of complete genome using a new technique. A DNA sequence is converted to a numeric sequence using various types of mappings and standard Fourier technique is applied to study the periodicity. Distinct statistical behaviour of periodicity parameters is found in coding and non-coding sequences, which can be used to distinguish between these parts. Here DNA sequences of Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed with significant accuracy.

  16. Automated mineral identification algorithm using optical properties of crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aligholi, Saeed; Khajavi, Reza; Razmara, Morteza

    2015-12-01

    A method has been developed to automatically characterize the type of mineral phases by means of digital image analysis using optical properties of crystals. The method relies on microscope automation, digital image acquisition, image processing and analysis. Two hundred series of digital images were taken from 45 standard thin sections using a digital camera mounted on a conventional microscope and then transmitted to a computer. CIELab color space is selected for the processing, in order to effectively employ its well-defined color difference metric for introducing appropriate color-based feature. Seven basic optical properties of minerals (A. color; B. pleochroism; C. interference color; D. birefringence; E. opacity; F. isotropy; G. extinction angle) are redefined. The Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator and modeling texture is integrated in the Mineral Identification (MI) scheme to identify homogeneous regions in microscopic images of minerals. The accuracy of mineral identification using the method was %99, %98, %96 and %95 for biotite, hornblende, quartz and calcite minerals, respectively. The method is applicable to other minerals and phases for which individual optical properties of crystals do not provide enough discrimination between the relevant phases. On the basis of this research, it can be concluded that if the CIELab color space and the local binary pattern (LBP) are applied, it is possible to recognize the mineral samples with the accuracy of more than 98%.

  17. Identification of Clathrate Hydrates, Hexagonal Ice, Cubic Ice, and Liquid Water in Simulations: the CHILL+ Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2015-07-23

    Clathrate hydrates and ice I are the most abundant crystals of water. The study of their nucleation, growth, and decomposition using molecular simulations requires an accurate and efficient algorithm that distinguishes water molecules that belong to each of these crystals and the liquid phase. Existing algorithms identify ice or clathrates, but not both. This poses a challenge for cases in which ice and hydrate coexist, such as in the synthesis of clathrates from ice and the formation of ice from clathrates during self-preservation of methane hydrates. Here we present an efficient algorithm for the identification of clathrate hydrates, hexagonal ice, cubic ice, and liquid water in molecular simulations. CHILL+ uses the number of staggered and eclipsed water-water bonds to identify water molecules in cubic ice, hexagonal ice, and clathrate hydrate. CHILL+ is an extension of CHILL (Moore et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2010, 12, 4124-4134), which identifies hexagonal and cubic ice but not clathrates. In addition to the identification of hydrates, CHILL+ significantly improves the detection of hexagonal ice up to its melting point. We validate the use of CHILL+ for the identification of stacking faults in ice and the nucleation and growth of clathrate hydrates. To our knowledge, this is the first algorithm that allows for the simultaneous identification of ice and clathrate hydrates, and it does so in a way that is competitive with respect to existing methods used to identify any of these crystals. PMID:25389702

  18. A modified Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) Clustering algorithm and its application on carbonate fluid identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lifeng; Sun, Sam Zandong; Yu, Hongyu; Yue, Xingtong; Zhang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Considering the fact that the fluid distribution in carbonate reservoir is very complicated and the existing fluid prediction methods are not able to produce ideal predicted results, this paper proposes a new fluid identification method in carbonate reservoir based on the modified Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) Clustering algorithm. Both initialization and globally optimum cluster center are produced by Chaotic Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (CQPSO) algorithm, which can effectively avoid the disadvantage of sensitivity to initial values and easily falling into local convergence in the traditional FCM Clustering algorithm. Then, the modified algorithm is applied to fluid identification in the carbonate X area in Tarim Basin of China, and a mapping relation between fluid properties and pre-stack elastic parameters will be built in multi-dimensional space. It has been proven that this modified algorithm has a good ability of fuzzy cluster and its total coincidence rate of fluid prediction reaches 97.10%. Besides, the membership of different fluids can be accumulated to obtain respective probability, which can evaluate the uncertainty in fluid identification result.

  19. A novel algorithm for real-time adaptive signal detection and identification

    SciTech Connect

    Sleefe, G.E.; Ladd, M.D.; Gallegos, D.E.; Sicking, C.W.; Erteza, I.A.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a novel digital signal processing algorithm for adaptively detecting and identifying signals buried in noise. The algorithm continually computes and updates the long-term statistics and spectral characteristics of the background noise. Using this noise model, a set of adaptive thresholds and matched digital filters are implemented to enhance and detect signals that are buried in the noise. The algorithm furthermore automatically suppresses coherent noise sources and adapts to time-varying signal conditions. Signal detection is performed in both the time-domain and the frequency-domain, thereby permitting the detection of both broad-band transients and narrow-band signals. The detection algorithm also provides for the computation of important signal features such as amplitude, timing, and phase information. Signal identification is achieved through a combination of frequency-domain template matching and spectral peak picking. The algorithm described herein is well suited for real-time implementation on digital signal processing hardware. This paper presents the theory of the adaptive algorithm, provides an algorithmic block diagram, and demonstrate its implementation and performance with real-world data. The computational efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated through benchmarks on specific DSP hardware. The applications for this algorithm, which range from vibration analysis to real-time image processing, are also discussed.

  20. Cloud identification using genetic algorithms and massively parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckles, Bill P.; Petry, Frederick E.

    1996-01-01

    As a Guest Computational Investigator under the NASA administered component of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program, we implemented a massively parallel genetic algorithm on the MasPar SIMD computer. Experiments were conducted using Earth Science data in the domains of meteorology and oceanography. Results obtained in these domains are competitive with, and in most cases better than, similar problems solved using other methods. In the meteorological domain, we chose to identify clouds using AVHRR spectral data. Four cloud speciations were used although most researchers settle for three. Results were remarkedly consistent across all tests (91% accuracy). Refinements of this method may lead to more timely and complete information for Global Circulation Models (GCMS) that are prevalent in weather forecasting and global environment studies. In the oceanographic domain, we chose to identify ocean currents from a spectrometer having similar characteristics to AVHRR. Here the results were mixed (60% to 80% accuracy). Given that one is willing to run the experiment several times (say 10), then it is acceptable to claim the higher accuracy rating. This problem has never been successfully automated. Therefore, these results are encouraging even though less impressive than the cloud experiment. Successful conclusion of an automated ocean current detection system would impact coastal fishing, naval tactics, and the study of micro-climates. Finally we contributed to the basic knowledge of GA (genetic algorithm) behavior in parallel environments. We developed better knowledge of the use of subpopulations in the context of shared breeding pools and the migration of individuals. Rigorous experiments were conducted based on quantifiable performance criteria. While much of the work confirmed current wisdom, for the first time we were able to submit conclusive evidence. The software developed under this grant was placed in the public domain. An extensive user

  1. Jet production in muon-proton and muon-nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Proton Muon- Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Proton deep-inelastic scattering are compared to perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (PQCD) and Monte Carlo model predictions. We observe hadronic (2+1)-jet rates which are a factor of two higher than PQCD predictions at the partonic level. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a suppression of the jet rates as compared to deuterium. The two- forward jet sample present higher suppression as compared to the one-forward jet sample.

  2. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  3. An identification algorithm of model kinetic parameters of the interfacial layer growth in fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubov, V.; Lurie, S.; Solyaev, Y.

    2016-04-01

    This paper considers the identification algorithm of parameters included in a parabolic law that is often used to predict the time dependence of the thickness of the interfacial layers in the structure of composite materials based on a metal matrix. The incubation period of the process and the speed of reaction and pressure are taken into account. The proposed algorithm of identification is based on the introduction of a minimized objective function of a special kind. The problem of identification of unknown parameters in the parabolic law is formulated in a variational form. The authors of the paper have determined the desired parameters, under which the objective function has a minimum value. It is shown that on the basis of four known experimental values of the interfacial layer thickness, corresponding to different values of temperature, pressure and the time of the interfacial layer growth, it is possible to identified four model parameters. They are the activation energy, a pre-exponential parameter, the delay time of the start of the interfacial layer formation, and the parameter determining the pressure effect on the rate of interfacial layer growth. The stability of the proposed identification algorithm is also studied.

  4. Parameters Identification of Fluxgate Magnetic Core Adopting the Biogeography-Based Optimization Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenjuan; Shi, Yunbo; Zhao, Wenjie; Wang, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The main part of the magnetic fluxgate sensor is the magnetic core, the hysteresis characteristic of which affects the performance of the sensor. When the fluxgate sensors are modelled for design purposes, an accurate model of hysteresis characteristic of the cores is necessary to achieve good agreement between modelled and experimental data. The Jiles-Atherton model is simple and can reflect the hysteresis properties of the magnetic material precisely, which makes it widely used in hysteresis modelling and simulation of ferromagnetic materials. However, in practice, it is difficult to determine the parameters accurately owing to the sensitivity of the parameters. In this paper, the Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm is applied to identify the Jiles-Atherton model parameters. To enhance the performances of the BBO algorithm such as global search capability, search accuracy and convergence rate, an improved Biogeography-Based Optimization (IBBO) algorithm is put forward by using Arnold map and mutation strategy of Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. Simulation results show that IBBO algorithm is superior to Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, Differential Evolution algorithm and BBO algorithm in identification accuracy and convergence rate. The IBBO algorithm is applied to identify Jiles-Atherton model parameters of selected permalloy. The simulation hysteresis loop is in high agreement with experimental data. Using permalloy as core of fluxgate probe, the simulation output is consistent with experimental output. The IBBO algorithm can identify the parameters of Jiles-Atherton model accurately, which provides a basis for the precise analysis and design of instruments and equipment with magnetic core. PMID:27347974

  5. Parameters Identification of Fluxgate Magnetic Core Adopting the Biogeography-Based Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenjuan; Shi, Yunbo; Zhao, Wenjie; Wang, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The main part of the magnetic fluxgate sensor is the magnetic core, the hysteresis characteristic of which affects the performance of the sensor. When the fluxgate sensors are modelled for design purposes, an accurate model of hysteresis characteristic of the cores is necessary to achieve good agreement between modelled and experimental data. The Jiles-Atherton model is simple and can reflect the hysteresis properties of the magnetic material precisely, which makes it widely used in hysteresis modelling and simulation of ferromagnetic materials. However, in practice, it is difficult to determine the parameters accurately owing to the sensitivity of the parameters. In this paper, the Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm is applied to identify the Jiles-Atherton model parameters. To enhance the performances of the BBO algorithm such as global search capability, search accuracy and convergence rate, an improved Biogeography-Based Optimization (IBBO) algorithm is put forward by using Arnold map and mutation strategy of Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. Simulation results show that IBBO algorithm is superior to Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, Differential Evolution algorithm and BBO algorithm in identification accuracy and convergence rate. The IBBO algorithm is applied to identify Jiles-Atherton model parameters of selected permalloy. The simulation hysteresis loop is in high agreement with experimental data. Using permalloy as core of fluxgate probe, the simulation output is consistent with experimental output. The IBBO algorithm can identify the parameters of Jiles-Atherton model accurately, which provides a basis for the precise analysis and design of instruments and equipment with magnetic core. PMID:27347974

  6. A Brightness-Referenced Star Identification Algorithm for APS Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4∼5 times that of the pyramid method and 35∼37 times that of the geometric method. PMID:25299950

  7. Time-varying modal parameters identification of a spacecraft with rotating flexible appendage by recursive algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Zhiyu; Mu, Ruinan; Xun, Guangbin; Wu, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The rotation of spacecraft flexible appendage may cause changes in modal parameters. For this time-varying system, the computation cost of the frequently-used singular value decomposition (SVD) identification method is high. Some control problems, such as the self-adaptive control, need the latest modal parameters to update the controller parameters in time. In this paper, the projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST) recursive algorithm is applied as an alternative method to identify the time-varying modal parameters. This method avoids the SVD by signal subspace projection and improves the computational efficiency. To verify the ability of this recursive algorithm in spacecraft modal parameters identification, a spacecraft model with rapid rotational appendage, Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) satellite, is established, and the time-varying modal parameters of the satellite are identified recursively by designing the input and output signals. The results illustrate that this recursive algorithm can obtain the modal parameters in the high signal noise ratio (SNR) and it has better computational efficiency than the SVD method. Moreover, to improve the identification precision of this recursive algorithm in the low SNR, the wavelet de-noising technology is used to decrease the effect of noises.

  8. A brightness-referenced star identification algorithm for APS star trackers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-10-08

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4~5 times that of the pyramid method and 35~37 times that of the geometric method.

  9. Identification of pulmonary fissures using a piecewise plane fitting algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gu, Suicheng; Wilson, David; Wang, Zhimin; Bigbee, William L; Siegfried, Jill; Gur, David; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-10-01

    We describe an automated computerized scheme to identify pulmonary fissures depicted in chest computed tomography (CT) examinations from a novel perspective. Whereas CT images can be regarded as a cloud of points, the underlying idea is to search for surface-like structures in the three-dimensional (3D) Euclidean space by using an efficient plane fitting algorithm. The proposed plane fitting operation is performed in a number of small spherical lung sub-volumes to detect small planar patches. Using a simple clustering criterion based on their spatial coherence and surface area, the identified planar patches, assumed to represent fissures, are classified into different types of fissures, namely left oblique, right oblique and right horizontal fissures. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed by comparing with a manually created "reference standard" and the results obtained by a previously developed approach on a dataset of 30 lung CT examinations. The experiments show that the average discrepancy is around 1.0mm in comparison with the reference standard, while the corresponding maximum discrepancy is 20.5mm. In addition, 94% of the fissure voxels identified by the computerized scheme are within 3mm of the fissures in the reference standard. As compared to a previously developed approach, we also found that the newly developed scheme had a smaller discrepancy with the standard reference. In efficiency, it takes approximately 8 min to identify the fissures in a chest CT examination on a typical PC. The developed scheme demonstrates a reasonable performance in terms of accuracy, robustness, and computational efficiency.

  10. A NEW ALGORITHM FOR RADIOISOTOPE IDENTIFICATION OF SHIELDED AND MASKED SNM/RDD MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffcoat, R.

    2012-06-05

    Detection and identification of shielded and masked nuclear materials is crucial to national security, but vast borders and high volumes of traffic impose stringent requirements for practical detection systems. Such tools must be be mobile, and hence low power, provide a low false alarm rate, and be sufficiently robust to be operable by non-technical personnel. Currently fielded systems have not achieved all of these requirements simultaneously. Transport modeling such as that done in GADRAS is able to predict observed spectra to a high degree of fidelity; our research is focusing on a radionuclide identification algorithm that inverts this modeling within the constraints imposed by a handheld device. Key components of this work include incorporation of uncertainty as a function of both the background radiation estimate and the hypothesized sources, dimensionality reduction, and nonnegative matrix factorization. We have partially evaluated performance of our algorithm on a third-party data collection made with two different sodium iodide detection devices. Initial results indicate, with caveats, that our algorithm performs as good as or better than the on-board identification algorithms. The system developed was based on a probabilistic approach with an improved approach to variance modeling relative to past work. This system was chosen based on technical innovation and system performance over algorithms developed at two competing research institutions. One key outcome of this probabilistic approach was the development of an intuitive measure of confidence which was indeed useful enough that a classification algorithm was developed based around alarming on high confidence targets. This paper will present and discuss results of this novel approach to accurately identifying shielded or masked radioisotopes with radiation detection systems.

  11. Crater Identification Algorithm for the Lost in Low Lunar Orbit Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanak, Chad; Crain, TImothy

    2010-01-01

    Recent emphasis by NASA on returning astronauts to the Moon has placed attention on the subject of lunar surface feature tracking. Although many algorithms have been proposed for lunar surface feature tracking navigation, much less attention has been paid to the issue of navigational state initialization from lunar craters in a lost in low lunar orbit (LLO) scenario. That is, a scenario in which lunar surface feature tracking must begin, but current navigation state knowledge is either unavailable or too poor to initiate a tracking algorithm. The situation is analogous to the lost in space scenario for star trackers. A new crater identification algorithm is developed herein that allows for navigation state initialization from as few as one image of the lunar surface with no a priori state knowledge. The algorithm takes as inputs the locations and diameters of craters that have been detected in an image, and uses the information to match the craters to entries in the USGS lunar crater catalog via non-dimensional crater triangle parameters. Due to the large number of uncataloged craters that exist on the lunar surface, a probability-based check was developed to reject false identifications. The algorithm was tested on craters detected in four revolutions of Apollo 16 LLO images, and shown to perform well.

  12. A novel impact identification algorithm based on a linear approximation with maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, N.; Meruane, V.; Ortiz-Bernardin, A.

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a novel impact identification algorithm that uses a linear approximation handled by a statistical inference model based on the maximum-entropy principle, termed linear approximation with maximum entropy (LME). Unlike other regression algorithms as artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines, the proposed algorithm requires only parameter to be selected and the impact is identified after solving a convex optimization problem that has a unique solution. In addition, with LME data is processed in a period of time that is comparable to the one of other algorithms. The performance of the proposed methodology is validated by considering an experimental aluminum plate. Time varying strain data is measured using four piezoceramic sensors bonded to the plate. To demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach over existing ones, results obtained via LME are compared with those of ANN and least square support vector machines. The results demonstrate that with a low number of sensors it is possible to accurately locate and quantify impacts on a structure and that LME outperforms other impact identification algorithms.

  13. Algorithms for network-based identification of differential regulators from transcriptome data: a systematic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Mitra, Ramkrishna; Yang, Jing; Li, YuanYuan; Zhao, ZhongMing

    2014-11-01

    Identification of differential regulators is critical to understand the dynamics of cellular systems and molecular mechanisms of diseases. Several computational algorithms have recently been developed for this purpose by using transcriptome and network data. However, it remains largely unclear which algorithm performs better under a specific condition. Such knowledge is important for both appropriate application and future enhancement of these algorithms. Here, we systematically evaluated seven main algorithms (TED, TDD, TFactS, RIF1, RIF2, dCSA_t2t, and dCSA_r2t), using both simulated and real datasets. In our simulation evaluation, we artificially inactivated either a single regulator or multiple regulators and examined how well each algorithm detected known gold standard regulators. We found that all these algorithms could effectively discern signals arising from regulatory network differences, indicating the validity of our simulation schema. Among the seven tested algorithms, TED and TFactS were placed first and second when both discrimination accuracy and robustness against data variation were considered. When applied to two independent lung cancer datasets, both TED and TFactS replicated a substantial fraction of their respective differential regulators. Since TED and TFactS rely on two distinct features of transcriptome data, namely differential co-expression and differential expression, both may be applied as mutual references during practical application.

  14. A class of least-squares filtering and identification algorithms with systolic array architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalson, Seth Z.; Yao, Kung

    1991-01-01

    A unified approach is presented for deriving a large class of new and previously known time- and order-recursive least-squares algorithms with systolic array architectures, suitable for high-throughput-rate and VLSI implementations of space-time filtering and system identification problems. The geometrical derivation given is unique in that no assumption is made concerning the rank of the sample data correlation matrix. This method utilizes and extends the concept of oblique projections, as used previously in the derivations of the least-squares lattice algorithms. Exponentially weighted least-squares criteria are considered for both sliding and growing memory.

  15. Identification of continuous-time dynamical systems: Neural network based algorithms and parallel implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, R.M.; Lapedes, A.S.; Rico-Martinez, R.; Kevrekidis, I.G.

    1993-12-31

    Time-delay mappings constructed using neural networks have proven successful in performing nonlinear system identification; however, because of their discrete nature, their use in bifurcation analysis of continuous-time systems is limited. This shortcoming can be avoided by embedding the neural networks in a training algorithm that mimics a numerical integrator. Both explicit and implicit integrators can be used. The former case is based on repeated evaluations of the network in a feedforward implementation; the latter relies on a recurrent network implementation. Here the algorithms and their implementation on parallel machines (SIMD and MIMD architectures) are discussed.

  16. Identification of continuous-time dynamical systems: Neural network based algorithms and parallel implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, R.M.; Lapedes, A.S. ); Rico-Martinez, R.; Kevrekidis, I.G. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Time-delay mappings constructed using neural networks have proven successful performing nonlinear system identification; however, because of their discrete nature, their use in bifurcation analysis of continuous-tune systems is limited. This shortcoming can be avoided by embedding the neural networks in a training algorithm that mimics a numerical integrator. Both explicit and implicit integrators can be used. The former case is based on repeated evaluations of the network in a feedforward implementation; the latter relies on a recurrent network implementation. Here the algorithms and their implementation on parallel machines (SIMD and MIMD architectures) are discussed.

  17. Identification of continuous-time dynamical systems: Neural network based algorithms and parallel implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, R.M.; Lapedes, A.S.; Rico-Martinez, R.; Kevrekidis, I.G.

    1993-06-01

    Time-delay mappings constructed using neural networks have proven successful performing nonlinear system identification; however, because of their discrete nature, their use in bifurcation analysis of continuous-tune systems is limited. This shortcoming can be avoided by embedding the neural networks in a training algorithm that mimics a numerical integrator. Both explicit and implicit integrators can be used. The former case is based on repeated evaluations of the network in a feedforward implementation; the latter relies on a recurrent network implementation. Here the algorithms and their implementation on parallel machines (SIMD and MIMD architectures) are discussed.

  18. Airway and tissue loading in postinterrupter response of the respiratory system - an identification algorithm construction.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Ireneusz; Mroczka, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    The paper offers an enhancement of the classical interrupter technique algorithm dedicated to respiratory mechanics measurements. Idea consists in exploitation of information contained in postocclusional transient states during indirect measurement of parameter characteristics by model identification. It needs the adequacy of an inverse analogue to general behavior of the real system and a reliable algorithm of parameter estimation. The second one was a subject of reported works, which finally showed the potential of the approach to separation of airway and tissue response in a case of short-term excitation by interrupter valve operation. Investigations were conducted in a regime of forward-inverse computer experiment.

  19. Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-01

    A 10  MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2  μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}.

  20. Muon Cooling: Longitudinal Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M.; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-01

    A 10 MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2 μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 107. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 104.

  1. Bayesian image reconstruction for improving detection performance of muon tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guobao; Schultz, Larry J; Qi, Jinyi

    2009-05-01

    Muon tomography is a novel technology that is being developed for detecting high-Z materials in vehicles or cargo containers. Maximum likelihood methods have been developed for reconstructing the scattering density image from muon measurements. However, the instability of maximum likelihood estimation often results in noisy images and low detectability of high-Z targets. In this paper, we propose using regularization to improve the image quality of muon tomography. We formulate the muon reconstruction problem in a Bayesian framework by introducing a prior distribution on scattering density images. An iterative shrinkage algorithm is derived to maximize the log posterior distribution. At each iteration, the algorithm obtains the maximum a posteriori update by shrinking an unregularized maximum likelihood update. Inverse quadratic shrinkage functions are derived for generalized Laplacian priors and inverse cubic shrinkage functions are derived for generalized Gaussian priors. Receiver operating characteristic studies using simulated data demonstrate that the Bayesian reconstruction can greatly improve the detection performance of muon tomography.

  2. Application of decision tree algorithm for identification of rock forming minerals using energy dispersive spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaş, Efe; Çubukçu, H. Evren; Artuner, Harun

    2014-05-01

    C5.0 Decision Tree algorithm. The predictions of the decision tree classifier, namely the matching of the test data with the appropriate mineral group, yield an overall accuracy of >90%. Besides, the algorithm successfully discriminated some mineral (groups) despite their similar elemental composition such as orthopyroxene ((Mg,Fe)2[SiO6]) and olivine ((Mg,Fe)2[SiO4]). Furthermore, the effects of various operating conditions have been insignificant for the classifier. These results demonstrate that decision tree algorithm stands as an accurate, rapid and automated method for mineral classification/identification. Hence, decision tree algorithm would be a promising component of an expert system focused on real-time, automated mineral identification using energy dispersive spectrometers without being affected from the operating conditions. Keywords: mineral identification, energy dispersive spectrometry, decision tree algorithm.

  3. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  4. Online identification algorithms for integrated dielectric electroactive polymer sensors and self-sensing concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffstadt, Thorben; Griese, Martin; Maas, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Transducers based on dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP) use electrostatic pressure to convert electric energy into strain energy or vice versa. Besides this, they are also designed for sensor applications in monitoring the actual stretch state on the basis of the deformation dependent capacitive-resistive behavior of the DEAP. In order to enable an efficient and proper closed loop control operation of these transducers, e.g. in positioning or energy harvesting applications, on the one hand, sensors based on DEAP material can be integrated into the transducers and evaluated externally, and on the other hand, the transducer itself can be used as a sensor, also in terms of self-sensing. For this purpose the characteristic electrical behavior of the transducer has to be evaluated in order to determine the mechanical state. Also, adequate online identification algorithms with sufficient accuracy and dynamics are required, independent from the sensor concept utilized, in order to determine the electrical DEAP parameters in real time. Therefore, in this contribution, algorithms are developed in the frequency domain for identifications of the capacitance as well as the electrode and polymer resistance of a DEAP, which are validated by measurements. These algorithms are designed for self-sensing applications, especially if the power electronics utilized is operated at a constant switching frequency, and parasitic harmonic oscillations are induced besides the desired DC value. These oscillations can be used for the online identification, so an additional superimposed excitation is no longer necessary. For this purpose a dual active bridge (DAB) is introduced to drive the DEAP transducer. The capabilities of the real-time identification algorithm in combination with the DAB are presented in detail and discussed, finally.

  5. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  6. Estimation and Identification of Time-Varying Long-Term Fading Channels via the Particle Filter and the EM Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiao; Olama, Mohammed M; Djouadi, Seddik M; Charalambous, Prof. Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the estimation and identification of time-varying wireless long-term fading channels. The dynamics of the fading channels are captured using a mean-reverting linear stochastic differential equation driven by a Brownian motion. Recursive estimation and identification algorithms solely from received signal strength data are developed. These algorithms are based on combining the particle filter (PF) with the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm that estimate and identify the power path-loss of the channel and its parameters, respectively. Numerical results are provided to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed algorithms.

  7. An Improved Algorithm of Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method for Firearm Evidence Identifications

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for firearm evidence identifications. The CMC method divides the measured image of a surface area, such as a breech face impression from a fired cartridge case, into small correlation cells and uses four identification parameters to identify correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The CMC method was validated by identification tests using both 3D topography images and optical images captured from breech face impressions of 40 cartridge cases fired from a pistol with 10 consecutively manufactured slides. In this paper, we discuss the processing of the cell correlations and propose an improved algorithm of the CMC method which takes advantage of the cell correlations at a common initial phase angle and combines the forward and backward correlations to improve the identification capability. The improved algorithm is tested by 780 pairwise correlations using the same optical images and 3D topography images as the initial validation. PMID:26958441

  8. An Improved Algorithm of Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method for Firearm Evidence Identifications.

    PubMed

    Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for firearm evidence identifications. The CMC method divides the measured image of a surface area, such as a breech face impression from a fired cartridge case, into small correlation cells and uses four identification parameters to identify correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The CMC method was validated by identification tests using both 3D topography images and optical images captured from breech face impressions of 40 cartridge cases fired from a pistol with 10 consecutively manufactured slides. In this paper, we discuss the processing of the cell correlations and propose an improved algorithm of the CMC method which takes advantage of the cell correlations at a common initial phase angle and combines the forward and backward correlations to improve the identification capability. The improved algorithm is tested by 780 pairwise correlations using the same optical images and 3D topography images as the initial validation. PMID:26958441

  9. Final Progress Report: Isotope Identification Algorithm for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Radioisotopes Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Bounds, John Alan; Brumby, Steven P.; Prasad, Lakshman; Sullivan, John P.

    2012-04-30

    This is the final report of the project titled, 'Isotope Identification Algorithm for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Radioisotopes,' PMIS project number LA10-HUMANID-PD03. The goal of the work was to demonstrate principles of emulating a human analysis approach towards the data collected using radiation isotope identification devices (RIIDs). It summarizes work performed over the FY10 time period. The goal of the work was to demonstrate principles of emulating a human analysis approach towards the data collected using radiation isotope identification devices (RIIDs). Human analysts begin analyzing a spectrum based on features in the spectrum - lines and shapes that are present in a given spectrum. The proposed work was to carry out a feasibility study that will pick out all gamma ray peaks and other features such as Compton edges, bremsstrahlung, presence/absence of shielding and presence of neutrons and escape peaks. Ultimately success of this feasibility study will allow us to collectively explain identified features and form a realistic scenario that produced a given spectrum in the future. We wanted to develop and demonstrate machine learning algorithms that will qualitatively enhance the automated identification capabilities of portable radiological sensors that are currently being used in the field.

  10. Optimal sensor placement for time-domain identification using a wavelet-based genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Hossein; Razak, Hashim Abdul

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a wavelet-based genetic algorithm strategy for optimal sensor placement (OSP) effective for time-domain structural identification. Initially, the GA-based fitness evaluation is significantly improved by using adaptive wavelet functions. Later, a multi-species decimal GA coding system is modified to be suitable for an efficient search around the local optima. In this regard, a local operation of mutation is introduced in addition with regeneration and reintroduction operators. It is concluded that different characteristics of applied force influence the features of structural responses, and therefore the accuracy of time-domain structural identification is directly affected. Thus, the reliable OSP strategy prior to the time-domain identification will be achieved by those methods dealing with minimizing the distance of simulated responses for the entire system and condensed system considering the force effects. The numerical and experimental verification on the effectiveness of the proposed strategy demonstrates the considerably high computational performance of the proposed OSP strategy, in terms of computational cost and the accuracy of identification. It is deduced that the robustness of the proposed OSP algorithm lies in the precise and fast fitness evaluation at larger sampling rates which result in the optimum evaluation of the GA-based exploration and exploitation phases towards the global optimum solution.

  11. MS Amanda, a Universal Identification Algorithm Optimized for High Accuracy Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Today’s highly accurate spectra provided by modern tandem mass spectrometers offer considerable advantages for the analysis of proteomic samples of increased complexity. Among other factors, the quantity of reliably identified peptides is considerably influenced by the peptide identification algorithm. While most widely used search engines were developed when high-resolution mass spectrometry data were not readily available for fragment ion masses, we have designed a scoring algorithm particularly suitable for high mass accuracy. Our algorithm, MS Amanda, is generally applicable to HCD, ETD, and CID fragmentation type data. The algorithm confidently explains more spectra at the same false discovery rate than Mascot or SEQUEST on examined high mass accuracy data sets, with excellent overlap and identical peptide sequence identification for most spectra also explained by Mascot or SEQUEST. MS Amanda, available at http://ms.imp.ac.at/?goto=msamanda, is provided free of charge both as standalone version for integration into custom workflows and as a plugin for the Proteome Discoverer platform. PMID:24909410

  12. Parameters identification for photovoltaic module based on an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Wang, Hong-Hua; Chen, Ling

    2014-01-01

    A precise mathematical model plays a pivotal role in the simulation, evaluation, and optimization of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Different from the traditional linear model, the model of PV module has the features of nonlinearity and multiparameters. Since conventional methods are incapable of identifying the parameters of PV module, an excellent optimization algorithm is required. Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA), originally inspired by the simulation of collective behavior of real fish swarms, is proposed to fast and accurately extract the parameters of PV module. In addition to the regular operation, a mutation operator (MO) is designed to enhance the searching performance of the algorithm. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by various parameters of PV module under different environmental conditions, and the testing results are compared with other studied methods in terms of final solutions and computational time. The simulation results show that the proposed method is capable of obtaining higher parameters identification precision. PMID:25243233

  13. Parameters identification for photovoltaic module based on an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Wang, Hong-Hua; Chen, Ling

    2014-01-01

    A precise mathematical model plays a pivotal role in the simulation, evaluation, and optimization of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Different from the traditional linear model, the model of PV module has the features of nonlinearity and multiparameters. Since conventional methods are incapable of identifying the parameters of PV module, an excellent optimization algorithm is required. Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA), originally inspired by the simulation of collective behavior of real fish swarms, is proposed to fast and accurately extract the parameters of PV module. In addition to the regular operation, a mutation operator (MO) is designed to enhance the searching performance of the algorithm. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by various parameters of PV module under different environmental conditions, and the testing results are compared with other studied methods in terms of final solutions and computational time. The simulation results show that the proposed method is capable of obtaining higher parameters identification precision.

  14. Parameters Identification for Photovoltaic Module Based on an Improved Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A precise mathematical model plays a pivotal role in the simulation, evaluation, and optimization of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Different from the traditional linear model, the model of PV module has the features of nonlinearity and multiparameters. Since conventional methods are incapable of identifying the parameters of PV module, an excellent optimization algorithm is required. Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA), originally inspired by the simulation of collective behavior of real fish swarms, is proposed to fast and accurately extract the parameters of PV module. In addition to the regular operation, a mutation operator (MO) is designed to enhance the searching performance of the algorithm. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by various parameters of PV module under different environmental conditions, and the testing results are compared with other studied methods in terms of final solutions and computational time. The simulation results show that the proposed method is capable of obtaining higher parameters identification precision. PMID:25243233

  15. Algorithm for the identification of malfunctioning sensors in the control systems of segmented mirror telescopes.

    PubMed

    Chanan, Gary; Nelson, Jerry

    2009-11-10

    The active control systems of segmented mirror telescopes are vulnerable to a malfunction of a few (or even one) of their segment edge sensors, the effects of which can propagate through the entire system and seriously compromise the overall telescope image quality. Since there are thousands of such sensors in the extremely large telescopes now under development, it is essential to develop fast and efficient algorithms that can identify bad sensors so that they can be removed from the control loop. Such algorithms are nontrivial; for example, a simple residual-to-the-fit test will often fail to identify a bad sensor. We propose an algorithm that can reliably identify a single bad sensor and we extend it to the more difficult case of multiple bad sensors. Somewhat surprisingly, the identification of a fixed number of bad sensors does not necessarily become more difficult as the telescope becomes larger and the number of sensors in the control system increases.

  16. A comprehensive performance evaluation on the prediction results of existing cooperative transcription factors identification algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic transcriptional regulation is known to be highly connected through the networks of cooperative transcription factors (TFs). Measuring the cooperativity of TFs is helpful for understanding the biological relevance of these TFs in regulating genes. The recent advances in computational techniques led to various predictions of cooperative TF pairs in yeast. As each algorithm integrated different data resources and was developed based on different rationales, it possessed its own merit and claimed outperforming others. However, the claim was prone to subjectivity because each algorithm compared with only a few other algorithms and only used a small set of performance indices for comparison. This motivated us to propose a series of indices to objectively evaluate the prediction performance of existing algorithms. And based on the proposed performance indices, we conducted a comprehensive performance evaluation. Results We collected 14 sets of predicted cooperative TF pairs (PCTFPs) in yeast from 14 existing algorithms in the literature. Using the eight performance indices we adopted/proposed, the cooperativity of each PCTFP was measured and a ranking score according to the mean cooperativity of the set was given to each set of PCTFPs under evaluation for each performance index. It was seen that the ranking scores of a set of PCTFPs vary with different performance indices, implying that an algorithm used in predicting cooperative TF pairs is of strength somewhere but may be of weakness elsewhere. We finally made a comprehensive ranking for these 14 sets. The results showed that Wang J's study obtained the best performance evaluation on the prediction of cooperative TF pairs in yeast. Conclusions In this study, we adopted/proposed eight performance indices to make a comprehensive performance evaluation on the prediction results of 14 existing cooperative TFs identification algorithms. Most importantly, these proposed indices can be easily applied to

  17. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  18. Telecommunication using muon beams

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  19. Identification and detection of gaseous effluents from hyperspectral imagery using invariant algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Erin M.; Messinger, David W.; Salvaggio, Carl; Schott, John R.

    2004-08-01

    The ability to detect and identify effluent gases is, and will continue to be, of great importance. This would not only aid in the regulation of pollutants but also in treaty enforcement and monitoring the production of weapons. Considering these applications, finding a way to remotely investigate a gaseous emission is highly desirable. This research utilizes hyperspectral imagery in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum to evaluate an invariant method of detecting and identifying gases within a scene. The image is evaluated on a pixel-by-pixel basis and is studied at the subpixel level. A library of target gas spectra is generated using a simple slab radiance model. This results in a more robust description of gas spectra which are representative of real-world observations. This library is the subspace utilized by the detection and identification algorithms. The subspace will be evaluated for the set of basis vectors that best span the subspace. The Lee algorithm will be used to determine the set of basis vectors, which implements the Maximum Distance Method (MaxD). A Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) determines whether or not the pixel contains the target. The target can be either a single species or a combination of gases. Synthetically generated scenes will be used for this research. This work evaluates whether the Lee invariant algorithm will be effective in the gas detection and identification problem.

  20. An affine point-set and line invariant algorithm for photo-identification of gray whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandan, Chandan; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Hillman, Gilbert; Wursig, Bernd

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents an affine point-set and line invariant algorithm within a statistical framework, and its application to photo-identification of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). White patches (blotches) appearing on a gray whale's left and right flukes (the flattened broad paddle-like tail) constitute unique identifying features and have been used here for individual identification. The fluke area is extracted from a fluke image via the live-wire edge detection algorithm, followed by optimal thresholding of the fluke area to obtain the blotches. Affine point-set and line invariants of the blotch points are extracted based on three reference points, namely the left and right tips and the middle notch-like point on the fluke. A set of statistics is derived from the invariant values and used as the feature vector representing a database image. The database images are then ranked depending on the degree of similarity between a query and database feature vectors. The results show that the use of this algorithm leads to a reduction in the amount of manual search that is normally done by marine biologists.

  1. Underwater measurements of muon intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorov, V. M.; Pustovetov, V. P.; Trubkin, Y. A.; Kirilenkov, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements of cosmic ray muon intensity deep underwater aimed at determining a muon absorption curve are of considerable interest, as they allow to reproduce independently the muon energy spectrum at sea level. The comparison of the muon absorption curve in sea water with that in rock makes it possible to determine muon energy losses caused by nuclear interactions. The data available on muon absorption in water and that in rock are not equivalent. Underground measurements are numerous and have been carried out down to the depth of approx. 15km w.e., whereas underwater muon intensity have been measured twice and only down to approx. 3km deep.

  2. An eigensystem realization algorithm using data correlations (ERA/DC) for modal parameter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Cooper, J. E.; Wright, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A modification to the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) for modal parameter identification is presented in this paper. The ERA minimum order realization approach using singular value decomposition is combined with the philosophy of the Correlation Fit method in state space form such that response data correlations rather than actual response values are used for modal parameter identification. This new method, the ERA using data correlations (ERA/DC), reduces bias errors due to noise corruption significantly without the need for model overspecification. This method is tested using simulated five-degree-of-freedom system responses corrupted by measurement noise. It is found for this case that, when model overspecification is permitted and a minimum order solution obtained via singular value truncation, the results from the two methods are of similar quality.

  3. High effective algorithm of the detection and identification of substance using the noisy reflected THz pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Tikhomirov, Vasily V.

    2015-08-01

    Principal limitations of the standard THz-TDS method for the detection and identification are demonstrated under real conditions (at long distance of about 3.5 m and at a high relative humidity more than 50%) using neutral substances thick paper bag, paper napkins and chocolate. We show also that the THz-TDS method detects spectral features of dangerous substances even if the THz signals were measured in laboratory conditions (at distance 30-40 cm from the receiver and at a low relative humidity less than 2%); silicon-based semiconductors were used as the samples. However, the integral correlation criteria, based on SDA method, allows us to detect the absence of dangerous substances in the neutral substances. The discussed algorithm shows high probability of the substance identification and a reliability of realization in practice, especially for security applications and non-destructive testing.

  4. An algorithm for identification of substances using a finite set of secondary-emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, N. S.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    A problem of identification of chemical composition in the absence of sampling procedures is considered. A method that allows identification using spectra of a desired substance is proposed. The measure of the difference between spectral sets is determined. The method is employed in the experiments using a visible and near-UV Fourier spectrometer. The secondary emission of samples is excited by UV sources with maximum intensities at wavelengths of 280 and 310 nm. Anthracene, POPOP, PPO, stilbene, and tryptophan are used in experiments. The ROC curves are constructed and compared to specify the parameters that are used in the algorithm for searching for substances in the database of reference spectra. The results will make it possible to improve the reliability and applicability of express analyzers of chemical substances.

  5. Estimating index of refraction for material identification in comparison to existing temperature emissivity separation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jacob A.; Gross, Kevin C.

    2016-05-01

    As off-nadir viewing platforms become increasingly prevalent in remote sensing, material identification techniques must be robust to changing viewing geometries. Current identification strategies generally rely on estimating reflectivity or emissivity, both of which vary with viewing angle. Presented here is a technique, leveraging polarimetric and hyperspectral imaging (P-HSI), to estimate index of refraction which is invariant to viewing geometry. Results from a quartz window show that index of refraction can be retrieved to within 0.08 rms error from 875-1250 cm-1 for an amorphous material. Results from a silicon carbide (SiC) wafer, which has much sharper features than quartz glass, show the index of refraction can be retrieved to within 0.07 rms error. The results from each of these datasets show an improvement when compared with a maximum smoothness TES algorithm.

  6. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettoni, M.; Bettella, G.; Bonomi, G.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Cortelazzo, G.; Cossutta, L.; Donzella, A.; Furlan, M.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Rigoni Garola, A.; Ronchese, P.; Squarcia, S.; Subieta, M.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zanuttigh, P.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2013-12-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented.

  7. Identification of alternative splice variants in Aspergillus flavus through comparison of multiple tandem MS search algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Database searching is the most frequently used approach for automated peptide assignment and protein inference of tandem mass spectra. The results, however, depend on the sequences in target databases and on search algorithms. Recently by using an alternative splicing database, we identified more proteins than with the annotated proteins in Aspergillus flavus. In this study, we aimed at finding a greater number of eligible splice variants based on newly available transcript sequences and the latest genome annotation. The improved database was then used to compare four search algorithms: Mascot, OMSSA, X! Tandem, and InsPecT. Results The updated alternative splicing database predicted 15833 putative protein variants, 61% more than the previous results. There was transcript evidence for 50% of the updated genes compared to the previous 35% coverage. Database searches were conducted using the same set of spectral data, search parameters, and protein database but with different algorithms. The false discovery rates of the peptide-spectrum matches were estimated < 2%. The numbers of the total identified proteins varied from 765 to 867 between algorithms. Whereas 42% (1651/3891) of peptide assignments were unanimous, the comparison showed that 51% (568/1114) of the RefSeq proteins and 15% (11/72) of the putative splice variants were inferred by all algorithms. 12 plausible isoforms were discovered by focusing on the consensus peptides which were detected by at least three different algorithms. The analysis found different conserved domains in two putative isoforms of UDP-galactose 4-epimerase. Conclusions We were able to detect dozens of new peptides using the improved alternative splicing database with the recently updated annotation of the A. flavus genome. Unlike the identifications of the peptides and the RefSeq proteins, large variations existed between the putative splice variants identified by different algorithms. 12 candidates of putative isoforms

  8. Muon Collider Progress: Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-09-10

    A muon collider would be a powerful tool for exploring the energy-frontier with leptons, and would complement the studies now under way at the LHC. Such a device would offer several important benefits. Muons, like electrons, are point particles so the full center-of-mass energy is available for particle production. Moreover, on account of their higher mass, muons give rise to very little synchrotron radiation and produce very little beamstrahlung. The first feature permits the use of a circular collider that can make efficient use of the expensive rf system and whose footprint is compatible with an existing laboratory site. The second feature leads to a relatively narrow energy spread at the collision point. Designing an accelerator complex for a muon collider is a challenging task. Firstly, the muons are produced as a tertiary beam, so a high-power proton beam and a target that can withstand it are needed to provide the required luminosity of ~1 × 10{sup 34} cm{sup –2}s{sup –1}. Secondly, the beam is initially produced with a large 6D phase space, which necessitates a scheme for reducing the muon beam emittance (“cooling”). Finally, the muon has a short lifetime so all beam manipulations must be done very rapidly. The Muon Accelerator Program, led by Fermilab and including a number of U.S. national laboratories and universities, has undertaken design and R&D activities aimed toward the eventual construction of a muon collider. Design features of such a facility and the supporting R&D program are described.

  9. Algorithmic identification of limnological features in vertical profiles from the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietsma, T.; Collingsworth, P.; Minsker, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    High volume collection of environmental data in digital format presents a range of challenges for the researcher, from quality control and data management to efficient interpretation of the signal and the development of requisite information technology skills. These challenges have been termed the "data deluge". To aid in efficient data interpretation, we describe several algorithmic approaches for feature identification in signal streams, including gradient estimation, spectral analysis, and the hidden Markov model. These approaches are calibrated and evaluated over vertical temperature profiles from the Great Lakes obtained through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. To demonstrate the value of this data science approach, we describe how the algorithms can be integrated with the historical sampling record to yield an expert system that assists field technicians with adaptive sampling.

  10. A Clinical Algorithm for Early Identification and Intervention of Cervical Muscular Torticollis.

    PubMed

    Nichter, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a common newborn pediatric muscular deformity of the neck. The purpose of this article is to suggest a clinical algorithm for pediatric clinicians to promote prompt identification and intervention for infants with CMT. Early intervention for a child with CMT at less than 1 month of age yields a 98% success rate by 2.5 months of age, with the infant achieving near normal range of motion. Intervention initiated at 6 months of age or later can require 9 to 10 months of therapy with less success in achieving full range of motion of the cervical musculature. The clinical algorithm proposed here incorporates the American Physical Therapy Association guideline for CMT to optimize outcomes for the child and reduce health care expenditures. Current evidence and guidelines demonstrate that primary care providers are the primary diagnostic clinicians, while physical therapists are the preferred provider for the treatment of CMT.

  11. Identification of IPMC nonlinear model via single and multi-objective optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Caponetto, Riccardo; Graziani, Salvatore; Pappalardo, Fulvio; Sapuppo, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs) are electro-active polymers transforming mechanical forces into electric signals and vice versa. This paper proposes an improved electro-mechanical grey-box model for IPMC membrane working as actuator. In particular the IPMC nonlinearity has been characterized through experimentation and included within the electric model. Moreover identification of the model parameters has been performed via optimization algorithms using both single- and multi-objective formulation. Minimization was attained via the Nelder-Mead simplex and the Genetic Algorithms considering as cost functions the error between the experimental and modeled absorbed current and the error between experimental and modeled displacement. The obtained results for the different formulations have been then compared.

  12. MIDAS: a database-searching algorithm for metabolite identification in metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingfeng; Kora, Guruprasad; Bowen, Benjamin P; Pan, Chongle

    2014-10-01

    A database searching approach can be used for metabolite identification in metabolomics by matching measured tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) against the predicted fragments of metabolites in a database. Here, we present the open-source MIDAS algorithm (Metabolite Identification via Database Searching). To evaluate a metabolite-spectrum match (MSM), MIDAS first enumerates possible fragments from a metabolite by systematic bond dissociation, then calculates the plausibility of the fragments based on their fragmentation pathways, and finally scores the MSM to assess how well the experimental MS/MS spectrum from collision-induced dissociation (CID) is explained by the metabolite's predicted CID MS/MS spectrum. MIDAS was designed to search high-resolution tandem mass spectra acquired on time-of-flight or Orbitrap mass spectrometer against a metabolite database in an automated and high-throughput manner. The accuracy of metabolite identification by MIDAS was benchmarked using four sets of standard tandem mass spectra from MassBank. On average, for 77% of original spectra and 84% of composite spectra, MIDAS correctly ranked the true compounds as the first MSMs out of all MetaCyc metabolites as decoys. MIDAS correctly identified 46% more original spectra and 59% more composite spectra at the first MSMs than an existing database-searching algorithm, MetFrag. MIDAS was showcased by searching a published real-world measurement of a metabolome from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 against the MetaCyc metabolite database. MIDAS identified many metabolites missed in the previous study. MIDAS identifications should be considered only as candidate metabolites, which need to be confirmed using standard compounds. To facilitate manual validation, MIDAS provides annotated spectra for MSMs and labels observed mass spectral peaks with predicted fragments. The database searching and manual validation can be performed online at http://midas.omicsbio.org.

  13. Simulation study into the identification of nuclear materials in cargo containers using cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, T. B.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Muon tomography represents a new type of imaging technique that can be used in detecting high-Z materials. Monte Carlo simulations for muon scattering in different types of target materials are presented. The dependence of the detector capability to identify high-Z targets on spatial resolution has been studied. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a basic point of closest approach (PoCA) algorithm. In this article we report the development of a secondary analysis algorithm that is applied to the reconstructed PoCA points. This algorithm efficiently ascertains clusters of voxels with high average scattering angles to identify `areas of interest' within the inspected volume. Using this approach the effect of other parameters, such as the distance between detectors and the number of detectors per set, on material identification is also presented. Finally, false positive and false negative rates for detecting shielded HEU in realistic scenarios with low-Z clutter are presented.

  14. Probabilistic streamflow forecasting for hydroelectricity production: A comparison of two non-parametric system identification algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Saket; Sharma, Ashish

    2014-05-01

    This study is motivated by the need to robustly specify, identify, and forecast runoff generation processes for hydroelectricity production. It atleast requires the identification of significant predictors of runoff generation and the influence of each such significant predictor on runoff response. To this end, we compare two non-parametric algorithms of predictor subset selection. One is based on information theory that assesses predictor significance (and hence selection) based on Partial Information (PI) rationale of Sharma and Mehrotra (2014). The other algorithm is based on a frequentist approach that uses bounds on probability of error concept of Pande (2005), assesses all possible predictor subsets on-the-go and converges to a predictor subset in an computationally efficient manner. Both the algorithms approximate the underlying system by locally constant functions and select predictor subsets corresponding to these functions. The performance of the two algorithms is compared on a set of synthetic case studies as well as a real world case study of inflow forecasting. References: Sharma, A., and R. Mehrotra (2014), An information theoretic alternative to model a natural system using observational information alone, Water Resources Research, 49, doi:10.1002/2013WR013845. Pande, S. (2005), Generalized local learning in water resource management, PhD dissertation, Utah State University, UT-USA, 148p.

  15. The Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2010-05-17

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R&D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R&D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  16. The Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-01-05

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R&D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R&D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  17. Muons and neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first generation of large and precise detectors, some initially dedicated to search for nucleon decay has accumulated significant statistics on neutrinos and high-energy muons. A second generation of even better and bigger detectors are already in operation or in advanced construction stage. The present set of experimental data on muon groups and neutrinos is qualitatively better than several years ago and the expectations for the following years are high. Composition studies with underground muon groups, neutrino detection, and expected extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes are discussed.

  18. Prototype Performance of Novel Muon Telescope Detector at STAR.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan,L.

    2008-04-05

    Research on a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) has been carried out for RHIC and for next generation detectors at future QCD Lab. We utilize state-of-the-art multi-gap resistive plate chambers with large modules and long readout strips in detector design. The results from cosmic ray and beam test will be presented to address intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a Long-MRPC. The prototype performance of a novel muon telescope detector at STAR will be reported, including muon identification capability, timing and spatial resolution.

  19. Prototype performance of novel muon telescope detector at STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan,L.; Ames, V.

    2008-02-04

    Research on a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector has been carried out for RHIC and for next generation detectors at future QCD Lab. We utilize state-of-the-art multi-gap resistive plate chambers with large modules and long readout strips in detector design [l]. The results from cosmic ray and beam test will be presented to address intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a Long-MRF'C. The prototype performance of a novel muon telescope detector at STAR will be reported, including muon identification capability, timing and spatial resolution.

  20. Evaluation of sensor placement algorithms for on-orbit identification of space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassburn, Robin S.; Smith, Suzanne Weaver

    1994-01-01

    Anticipating the construction of the international space station, on-orbit modal identification of space platforms through optimally placed accelerometers is an area of recent activity. Unwanted vibrations in the platform could affect the results of experiments which are planned. Therefore, it is important that sensors (accelerometers) be strategically placed to identify the amount and extent of these unwanted vibrations, and to validate the mathematical models used to predict the loads and dynamic response. Due to cost, installation, and data management issues, only a limited number of sensors will be available for placement. This work evaluates and compares four representative sensor placement algorithms for modal identification. Most of the sensor placement work to date has employed only numerical simulations for comparison. This work uses experimental data from a fully-instrumented truss structure which was one of a series of structures designed for research in dynamic scale model ground testing of large space structures at NASA Langley Research Center. Results from this comparison show that for this cantilevered structure, the algorithm based on Guyan reduction is rated slightly better than that based on Effective Independence.

  1. Correcting encoder interpolation error on the Green Bank Telescope using an iterative model based identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Timothy; Weadon, Tim; Ford, John; Garcia-Sanz, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Various forms of measurement errors limit telescope tracking performance in practice. A new method for identifying the correcting coefficients for encoder interpolation error is developed. The algorithm corrects the encoder measurement by identifying a harmonic model of the system and using that model to compute the necessary correction parameters. The approach improves upon others by explicitly modeling the unknown dynamics of the structure and controller and by not requiring a separate system identification to be performed. Experience gained from pin-pointing the source of encoder error on the Green Bank Radio Telescope (GBT) is presented. Several tell-tale indicators of encoder error are discussed. Experimental data from the telescope, tested with two different encoders, are presented. Demonstration of the identification methodology on the GBT as well as details of its implementation are discussed. A root mean square tracking error reduction from 0.68 arc seconds to 0.21 arc sec was achieved by changing encoders and was further reduced to 0.10 arc sec with the calibration algorithm. In particular, the ubiquity of this error source is shown and how, by careful correction, it is possible to go beyond the advertised accuracy of an encoder.

  2. Agricultural produce grading and sorting system using color CCD and new color identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongsheng; Zou, Jizuo; Yang, Yunping; Dong, Jianhua; Zhang, Yuanxiang

    1996-10-01

    A high-speed automatic agricultural produce grading and sorting system using color CCD and new color identification algorithm has been developed. In a typical application, the system can sort almonds into tow output grades according to their color. Almonds ar rich in 18 kinds of amino acids and 13 kinds of micro minerals and vitamins and can be made into almond drink. In order to ensure the drink quality, almonds must be sorted carefully before being made into a drink. Using this system, almonds can be sorted into two grades: up to grade and below grade almonds or foreign materials. A color CCD inspects the almonds passing on a conveyor of rotating rollers, a color identification algorithm grades almonds and distinguishes foreign materials from almonds. Employing an elaborately designed mechanism, the below grade almonds and foreign materials can be removed effectively from the raw almonds. This system can be easily adapted for inspecting and sorting other kinds of agricultural produce such as peanuts, beans tomatoes and so on.

  3. Identification of moisture content in tobacco plant leaves using outlier sample eliminating algorithms and hyperspectral data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Zhou, Xin; Wu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Qinglin

    2016-02-26

    Fast identification of moisture content in tobacco plant leaves plays a key role in the tobacco cultivation industry and benefits the management of tobacco plant in the farm. In order to identify moisture content of tobacco plant leaves in a fast and nondestructive way, a method involving Mahalanobis distance coupled with Monte Carlo cross validation(MD-MCCV) was proposed to eliminate outlier sample in this study. The hyperspectral data of 200 tobacco plant leaf samples of 20 moisture gradients were obtained using FieldSpc(®) 3 spectrometer. Savitzky-Golay smoothing(SG), roughness penalty smoothing(RPS), kernel smoothing(KS) and median smoothing(MS) were used to preprocess the raw spectra. In addition, Mahalanobis distance(MD), Monte Carlo cross validation(MCCV) and Mahalanobis distance coupled to Monte Carlo cross validation(MD-MCCV) were applied to select the outlier sample of the raw spectrum and four smoothing preprocessing spectra. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to extract the most influential wavelengths. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied to build the prediction models based on preprocessed spectra feature in characteristic wavelengths. The results showed that the preferably four prediction model were MD-MCCV-SG (Rp(2) = 0.8401 and RMSEP = 0.1355), MD-MCCV-RPS (Rp(2) = 0.8030 and RMSEP = 0.1274), MD-MCCV-KS (Rp(2) = 0.8117 and RMSEP = 0.1433), MD-MCCV-MS (Rp(2) = 0.9132 and RMSEP = 0.1162). MD-MCCV algorithm performed best among MD algorithm, MCCV algorithm and the method without sample pretreatment algorithm in the eliminating outlier sample from 20 different moisture gradients of tobacco plant leaves and MD-MCCV can be used to eliminate outlier sample in the spectral preprocessing. PMID:26809097

  4. Identification of moisture content in tobacco plant leaves using outlier sample eliminating algorithms and hyperspectral data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Zhou, Xin; Wu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Qinglin

    2016-02-26

    Fast identification of moisture content in tobacco plant leaves plays a key role in the tobacco cultivation industry and benefits the management of tobacco plant in the farm. In order to identify moisture content of tobacco plant leaves in a fast and nondestructive way, a method involving Mahalanobis distance coupled with Monte Carlo cross validation(MD-MCCV) was proposed to eliminate outlier sample in this study. The hyperspectral data of 200 tobacco plant leaf samples of 20 moisture gradients were obtained using FieldSpc(®) 3 spectrometer. Savitzky-Golay smoothing(SG), roughness penalty smoothing(RPS), kernel smoothing(KS) and median smoothing(MS) were used to preprocess the raw spectra. In addition, Mahalanobis distance(MD), Monte Carlo cross validation(MCCV) and Mahalanobis distance coupled to Monte Carlo cross validation(MD-MCCV) were applied to select the outlier sample of the raw spectrum and four smoothing preprocessing spectra. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to extract the most influential wavelengths. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied to build the prediction models based on preprocessed spectra feature in characteristic wavelengths. The results showed that the preferably four prediction model were MD-MCCV-SG (Rp(2) = 0.8401 and RMSEP = 0.1355), MD-MCCV-RPS (Rp(2) = 0.8030 and RMSEP = 0.1274), MD-MCCV-KS (Rp(2) = 0.8117 and RMSEP = 0.1433), MD-MCCV-MS (Rp(2) = 0.9132 and RMSEP = 0.1162). MD-MCCV algorithm performed best among MD algorithm, MCCV algorithm and the method without sample pretreatment algorithm in the eliminating outlier sample from 20 different moisture gradients of tobacco plant leaves and MD-MCCV can be used to eliminate outlier sample in the spectral preprocessing.

  5. The MICE Particle Identification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomilov, M.; MICE Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at the ISIS accelerator located at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, will be the first experiment to study muon cooling at high precision. Demonstration of muon ionization cooling is a major technological step towards the construction of a neutrino factory or a muon collider. A muon beam is produced via pion decay in the MICE beam line within a range of emittances and momenta. Muon purity is assured by a system of detectors for particle identification (PID). We describe briefly the PID system here.

  6. Rotorcraft Blade Mode Damping Identification from Random Responses Using a Recursive Maximum Likelihood Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molusis, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    An on line technique is presented for the identification of rotor blade modal damping and frequency from rotorcraft random response test data. The identification technique is based upon a recursive maximum likelihood (RML) algorithm, which is demonstrated to have excellent convergence characteristics in the presence of random measurement noise and random excitation. The RML technique requires virtually no user interaction, provides accurate confidence bands on the parameter estimates, and can be used for continuous monitoring of modal damping during wind tunnel or flight testing. Results are presented from simulation random response data which quantify the identified parameter convergence behavior for various levels of random excitation. The data length required for acceptable parameter accuracy is shown to depend upon the amplitude of random response and the modal damping level. Random response amplitudes of 1.25 degrees to .05 degrees are investigated. The RML technique is applied to hingeless rotor test data. The inplane lag regressing mode is identified at different rotor speeds. The identification from the test data is compared with the simulation results and with other available estimates of frequency and damping.

  7. Rigid body mode identification of the PAH-2 helicopter using the eigensystem realization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Axel; Pappa, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The rigid body modes of the PAH-2 'Tiger' helicopter were identified using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA). This work complements ground vibration tests performed using DLR's traditional phase resonance technique and the ISSPA (Identification of Structural System Parameters) method. Rigid body modal parameters are important for ground resonance prediction. Time-domain data for ERA were obtained by inverse Fourier transformation of frequency response functions measured with stepped-sine excitation. Mode purity (based on the Phase Resonance Criterion) was generally equal to or greater than corresponding results obtained in the ground vibration tests. All identified natural frequencies and mode shapes correlate well with corresponding ground vibration test results. The modal identification approach discussed in this report has become increasingly attractive in recent years due to the steadily declining cost and increased performance of scientific computers. As illustrated in this application, modern time-domain methods can be successfully applied to data acquired using DLR's existing test equipment. Some suggestions are made for future applications of time domain modal identification in this manner.

  8. An automated algorithm for online detection of fragmented QRS and identification of its various morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Sidharth; Acharyya, Amit; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Mazomenos, Evangelos B.; Leekha, Gourav; Maharatna, Koushik; Schiariti, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Fragmented QRS (f-QRS) has been proven to be an efficient biomarker for several diseases, including remote and acute myocardial infarction, cardiac sarcoidosis, non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy, etc. It has also been shown to have higher sensitivity and/or specificity values than the conventional markers (e.g. Q-wave, ST-elevation, etc.) which may even regress or disappear with time. Patients with such diseases have to undergo expensive and sometimes invasive tests for diagnosis. Automated detection of f-QRS followed by identification of its various morphologies in addition to the conventional ECG feature (e.g. P, QRS, T amplitude and duration, etc.) extraction will lead to a more reliable diagnosis, therapy and disease prognosis than the state-of-the-art approaches and thereby will be of significant clinical importance for both hospital-based and emerging remote health monitoring environments as well as for implanted ICD devices. An automated algorithm for detection of f-QRS from the ECG and identification of its various morphologies is proposed in this work which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first work of its kind. Using our recently proposed time–domain morphology and gradient-based ECG feature extraction algorithm, the QRS complex is extracted and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) with one level of decomposition, using the ‘Haar’ wavelet, is applied on it to detect the presence of fragmentation. Detailed DWT coefficients were observed to hypothesize the postulates of detection of all types of morphologies as reported in the literature. To model and verify the algorithm, PhysioNet's PTB database was used. Forty patients were randomly selected from the database and their ECG were examined by two experienced cardiologists and the results were compared with those obtained from the algorithm. Out of 40 patients, 31 were considered appropriate for comparison by two cardiologists, and it is shown that 334 out of 372 (89.8%) leads from the chosen 31 patients

  9. A Novel Algorithm for Validating Peptide Identification from a Shotgun Proteomics Search Engine

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Ling; Niu, Xinnan; Xia, Zhonghang; Samir, Parimal; Sumanasekera, Chiranthani; Zheng, Mu; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Hoek, Kristen L.; Allos, Tara; Howard., Leigh M.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Weil, P. Anthony; Link, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry has revolutionized the proteomics analysis of complexes, cells, and tissues. In a typical proteomic analysis, the tandem mass spectra from a LC/MS/MS experiment are assigned to a peptide by a search engine that compares the experimental MS/MS peptide data to theoretical peptide sequences in a protein database. The peptide spectra matches are then used to infer a list of identified proteins in the original sample. However, the search engines often fail to distinguish between correct and incorrect peptides assignments. In this study, we designed and implemented a novel algorithm called De-Noise to reduce the number of incorrect peptide matches and maximize the number of correct peptides at a fixed false discovery rate using a minimal number of scoring outputs from the SEQUEST search engine. The novel algorithm uses a three step process: data cleaning, data refining through a SVM-based decision function, and a final data refining step based on proteolytic peptide patterns. Using proteomics data generated on different types of mass spectrometers, we optimized the De-Noise algorithm based on the resolution and mass accuracy of the mass spectrometer employed in the LC/MS/MS experiment. Our results demonstrate De-Noise improves peptide identification compared to other methods used to process the peptide sequence matches assigned by SEQUEST. Because De-Noise uses a limited number of scoring attributes, it can be easily implemented with other search engines. PMID:23402659

  10. A novel algorithm for validating peptide identification from a shotgun proteomics search engine.

    PubMed

    Jian, Ling; Niu, Xinnan; Xia, Zhonghang; Samir, Parimal; Sumanasekera, Chiranthani; Mu, Zheng; Jennings, Jennifer L; Hoek, Kristen L; Allos, Tara; Howard, Leigh M; Edwards, Kathryn M; Weil, P Anthony; Link, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has revolutionized the proteomics analysis of complexes, cells, and tissues. In a typical proteomic analysis, the tandem mass spectra from a LC-MS/MS experiment are assigned to a peptide by a search engine that compares the experimental MS/MS peptide data to theoretical peptide sequences in a protein database. The peptide spectra matches are then used to infer a list of identified proteins in the original sample. However, the search engines often fail to distinguish between correct and incorrect peptides assignments. In this study, we designed and implemented a novel algorithm called De-Noise to reduce the number of incorrect peptide matches and maximize the number of correct peptides at a fixed false discovery rate using a minimal number of scoring outputs from the SEQUEST search engine. The novel algorithm uses a three-step process: data cleaning, data refining through a SVM-based decision function, and a final data refining step based on proteolytic peptide patterns. Using proteomics data generated on different types of mass spectrometers, we optimized the De-Noise algorithm on the basis of the resolution and mass accuracy of the mass spectrometer employed in the LC-MS/MS experiment. Our results demonstrate De-Noise improves peptide identification compared to other methods used to process the peptide sequence matches assigned by SEQUEST. Because De-Noise uses a limited number of scoring attributes, it can be easily implemented with other search engines.

  11. A novel algorithm for validating peptide identification from a shotgun proteomics search engine.

    PubMed

    Jian, Ling; Niu, Xinnan; Xia, Zhonghang; Samir, Parimal; Sumanasekera, Chiranthani; Mu, Zheng; Jennings, Jennifer L; Hoek, Kristen L; Allos, Tara; Howard, Leigh M; Edwards, Kathryn M; Weil, P Anthony; Link, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has revolutionized the proteomics analysis of complexes, cells, and tissues. In a typical proteomic analysis, the tandem mass spectra from a LC-MS/MS experiment are assigned to a peptide by a search engine that compares the experimental MS/MS peptide data to theoretical peptide sequences in a protein database. The peptide spectra matches are then used to infer a list of identified proteins in the original sample. However, the search engines often fail to distinguish between correct and incorrect peptides assignments. In this study, we designed and implemented a novel algorithm called De-Noise to reduce the number of incorrect peptide matches and maximize the number of correct peptides at a fixed false discovery rate using a minimal number of scoring outputs from the SEQUEST search engine. The novel algorithm uses a three-step process: data cleaning, data refining through a SVM-based decision function, and a final data refining step based on proteolytic peptide patterns. Using proteomics data generated on different types of mass spectrometers, we optimized the De-Noise algorithm on the basis of the resolution and mass accuracy of the mass spectrometer employed in the LC-MS/MS experiment. Our results demonstrate De-Noise improves peptide identification compared to other methods used to process the peptide sequence matches assigned by SEQUEST. Because De-Noise uses a limited number of scoring attributes, it can be easily implemented with other search engines. PMID:23402659

  12. The Effect of Peptide Identification Search Algorithms on MS2-Based Label-Free Protein Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Degroeve, Sven; Staes, An; De Bock, Pieter-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Several approaches exist for the quantification of proteins in complex samples processed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by fragmentation analysis (MS2). One of these approaches is label-free MS2-based quantification, which takes advantage of the information computed from MS2 spectrum observations to estimate the abundance of a protein in a sample. As a first step in this approach, fragmentation spectra are typically matched to the peptides that generated them by a search algorithm. Because different search algorithms identify overlapping but non-identical sets of peptides, here we investigate whether these differences in peptide identification have an impact on the quantification of the proteins in the sample. We therefore evaluated the effect of using different search algorithms by examining the reproducibility of protein quantification in technical repeat measurements of the same sample. From our results, it is clear that a search engine effect does exist for MS2-based label-free protein quantification methods. As a general conclusion, it is recommended to address the overall possibility of search engine-induced bias in the protein quantification results of label-free MS2-based methods by performing the analysis with two or more distinct search engines. PMID:22804230

  13. SuperB Muon Detector Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    The test objective is to optimize the muon identification in an experiment at a Super B Factory. To accomplish this, experimenters will study the muon identification capability of a detector with different iron configurations at different beam energies. The detector is a full scale prototype, composed of a stack of iron tiles. The segmentation of the iron allows the study of different configurations. Between the tiles, one or two extruded scintillator slabs can be inserted to test two different readout options; a Binary Readout and a Time Readout. In the Binary Readout option the two coordinates are given by the two orthogonal scintillator bars, and the spatial resolution is driven by the bar width. In the Time Readout option one coordinate is determined by the scintillator position and the other by the arrival time of the signal read with a TDC.

  14. Design of a muon tomography system with a plastic scintillator and wavelength-shifting fiber arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyun-Il; An, Su Jung; Lee, Chae Young; Baek, Cheol-Ha; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Recently, monitoring nuclear materials to avoid nuclear terrorism has become an important area of national security. It can be difficult to detect gamma rays from nuclear material because they are easily shielded by shielding material. Muon tomography using multiple -Coulomb scattering derived from muons can be utilized to detect special nuclear materials (SNMs) such as uranium-235 and plutonium-239. We designed a muon tomography system composed of four detector modules. The incident and scattered muon tracks can be calculated by two top and two bottom detectors, respectively. 3D tomographic images are obtained by extracting the crossing points of muon tracks with a point-of-closest-approach algorithm. The purpose of this study was to optimize the muon tomography system using Monte Carlo simulation code. The effects of the geometric parameters of the muon tomography system on material Z-discrimination capability were simulated and evaluated.

  15. SNSMIL, a real-time single molecule identification and localization algorithm for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yunqing; Dai, Luru; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Junbai; Hendriks, Johnny; Fan, Xiaoming; Gruteser, Nadine; Meisenberg, Annika; Baumann, Arnd; Katranidis, Alexandros; Gensch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule localization based super-resolution fluorescence microscopy offers significantly higher spatial resolution than predicted by Abbe’s resolution limit for far field optical microscopy. Such super-resolution images are reconstructed from wide-field or total internal reflection single molecule fluorescence recordings. Discrimination between emission of single fluorescent molecules and background noise fluctuations remains a great challenge in current data analysis. Here we present a real-time, and robust single molecule identification and localization algorithm, SNSMIL (Shot Noise based Single Molecule Identification and Localization). This algorithm is based on the intrinsic nature of noise, i.e., its Poisson or shot noise characteristics and a new identification criterion, QSNSMIL, is defined. SNSMIL improves the identification accuracy of single fluorescent molecules in experimental or simulated datasets with high and inhomogeneous background. The implementation of SNSMIL relies on a graphics processing unit (GPU), making real-time analysis feasible as shown for real experimental and simulated datasets. PMID:26098742

  16. Fukushima Daiichi Muon Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    Japanese government announced cold-shutdown condition of the reactors at Fukushima Daiichi by the end of 2011, and mid- and long-term roadmap towards decommissioning has been drawn. However, little is known for the conditions of the cores because access to the reactors has been limited by the high radiation environment. The debris removal from the Unit 1 - 3 is planned to start as early as 2020, but the dismantlement is not easy without any realistic information of the damage to the cores, and the locations and amounts of the fuel debris. Soon after the disaster of Fukushima Daiichi, several teams in the US and Japan proposed to apply muon transmission or scattering imagings to provide information of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors without accessing inside the reactor building. GEANT4 modeling studies of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 and 2 showed clear superiority of the muon scattering method over conventional transmission method. The scattering method was demonstrated with a research reactor, Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA), where a fuel assembly was imaged with 3-cm resolution. The muon scattering imaging of Fukushima Daiichi was approved as a national project and is aiming at installing muon trackers to Unit 2. A proposed plan includes installation of muon trackers on the 2nd floor (operation floor) of turbine building, and in front of the reactor building. Two 7mx7m detectors were assembled at Toshiba and tested.

  17. Solving inverse problems of groundwater-pollution-source identification using a differential evolution algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurarslan, Gurhan; Karahan, Halil

    2015-09-01

    In this study, an accurate model was developed for solving problems of groundwater-pollution-source identification. In the developed model, the numerical simulations of flow and pollutant transport in groundwater were carried out using MODFLOW and MT3DMS software. The optimization processes were carried out using a differential evolution algorithm. The performance of the developed model was tested on two hypothetical aquifer models using real and noisy observation data. In the first model, the release histories of the pollution sources were determined assuming that the numbers, locations and active stress periods of the sources are known. In the second model, the release histories of the pollution sources were determined assuming that there is no information on the sources. The results obtained by the developed model were found to be better than those reported in literature.

  18. Identification of novel thyroid cancer-related genes and chemicals using shortest path algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Peiwei; Li, Li-Peng; He, Yi-Chun; Gao, Ru-jian; Gao, Yu-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a typical endocrine malignancy. In the past three decades, the continued growth of its incidence has made it urgent to design effective treatments to treat this disease. To this end, it is necessary to uncover the mechanism underlying this disease. Identification of thyroid cancer-related genes and chemicals is helpful to understand the mechanism of thyroid cancer. In this study, we generalized some previous methods to discover both disease genes and chemicals. The method was based on shortest path algorithm and applied to discover novel thyroid cancer-related genes and chemicals. The analysis of the final obtained genes and chemicals suggests that some of them are crucial to the formation and development of thyroid cancer. It is indicated that the proposed method is effective for the discovery of novel disease genes and chemicals.

  19. Variance and bias confidence criteria for ERA modal parameter identification. [Eigensystem Realization Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longman, Richard W.; Bergmann, Martin; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1988-01-01

    For the ERA system identification algorithm, perturbation methods are used to develop expressions for variance and bias of the identified modal parameters. Based on the statistics of the measurement noise, the variance results serve as confidence criteria by indicating how likely the true parameters are to lie within any chosen interval about their identified values. This replaces the use of expensive and time-consuming Monte Carlo computer runs to obtain similar information. The bias estimates help guide the ERA user in his choice of which data points to use and how much data to use in order to obtain the best results, performing the trade-off between the bias and scatter. Also, when the uncertainty in the bias is sufficiently small, the bias information can be used to correct the ERA results. In addition, expressions for the variance and bias of the singular values serve as tools to help the ERA user decide the proper modal order.

  20. Modelling molecular interaction pathways using a two-stage identification algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Padhraig; Li, Kang; Irwin, George W

    2007-08-01

    In systems biology, molecular interactions are typically modelled using white-box methods, usually based on mass action kinetics. Unfortunately, problems with dimensionality can arise when the number of molecular species in the system is very large, which makes the system modelling and behavior simulation extremely difficult or computationally too expensive. As an alternative, this paper investigates the identification of two molecular interaction pathways using a black-box approach. This type of method creates a simple linear-in-the-parameters model using regression of data, where the output of the model at any time is a function of previous system states of interest. One of the main objectives in building black-box models is to produce an optimal sparse nonlinear one to effectively represent the system behavior. In this paper, it is achieved by applying an efficient iterative approach, where the terms in the regression model are selected and refined using a forward and backward subset selection algorithm. The method is applied to model identification for the MAPK signal transduction pathway and the Brusselator using noisy data of different sizes. Simulation results confirm the efficacy of the black-box modelling method which offers an alternative to the computationally expensive conventional approach. PMID:19003449

  1. A constraint-based search algorithm for parameter identification of environmental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharari, S.; Shafiei, M.; Hrachowitz, M.; Kumar, R.; Fenicia, F.; Gupta, H. V.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2014-12-01

    Many environmental systems models, such as conceptual rainfall-runoff models, rely on model calibration for parameter identification. For this, an observed output time series (such as runoff) is needed, but frequently not available (e.g., when making predictions in ungauged basins). In this study, we provide an alternative approach for parameter identification using constraints based on two types of restrictions derived from prior (or expert) knowledge. The first, called parameter constraints, restricts the solution space based on realistic relationships that must hold between the different model parameters while the second, called process constraints requires that additional realism relationships between the fluxes and state variables must be satisfied. Specifically, we propose a search algorithm for finding parameter sets that simultaneously satisfy such constraints, based on stepwise sampling of the parameter space. Such parameter sets have the desirable property of being consistent with the modeler's intuition of how the catchment functions, and can (if necessary) serve as prior information for further investigations by reducing the prior uncertainties associated with both calibration and prediction.

  2. Universal algorithm for identification of fractional Brownian motion. A case of telomere subdiffusion.

    PubMed

    Burnecki, Krzysztof; Kepten, Eldad; Janczura, Joanna; Bronshtein, Irena; Garini, Yuval; Weron, Aleksander

    2012-11-01

    We present a systematic statistical analysis of the recently measured individual trajectories of fluorescently labeled telomeres in the nucleus of living human cells. The experiments were performed in the U2OS cancer cell line. We propose an algorithm for identification of the telomere motion. By expanding the previously published data set, we are able to explore the dynamics in six time orders, a task not possible earlier. As a result, we establish a rigorous mathematical characterization of the stochastic process and identify the basic mathematical mechanisms behind the telomere motion. We find that the increments of the motion are stationary, Gaussian, ergodic, and even more chaotic--mixing. Moreover, the obtained memory parameter estimates, as well as the ensemble average mean square displacement reveal subdiffusive behavior at all time spans. All these findings statistically prove a fractional Brownian motion for the telomere trajectories, which is confirmed by a generalized p-variation test. Taking into account the biophysical nature of telomeres as monomers in the chromatin chain, we suggest polymer dynamics as a sufficient framework for their motion with no influence of other models. In addition, these results shed light on other studies of telomere motion and the alternative telomere lengthening mechanism. We hope that identification of these mechanisms will allow the development of a proper physical and biological model for telomere subdynamics. This array of tests can be easily implemented to other data sets to enable quick and accurate analysis of their statistical characteristics.

  3. Modelling molecular interaction pathways using a two-stage identification algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Irwin, George W.

    2008-01-01

    In systems biology, molecular interactions are typically modelled using white-box methods, usually based on mass action kinetics. Unfortunately, problems with dimensionality can arise when the number of molecular species in the system is very large, which makes the system modelling and behavior simulation extremely difficult or computationally too expensive. As an alternative, this paper investigates the identification of two molecular interaction pathways using a black-box approach. This type of method creates a simple linear-in-the-parameters model using regression of data, where the output of the model at any time is a function of previous system states of interest. One of the main objectives in building black-box models is to produce an optimal sparse nonlinear one to effectively represent the system behavior. In this paper, it is achieved by applying an efficient iterative approach, where the terms in the regression model are selected and refined using a forward and backward subset selection algorithm. The method is applied to model identification for the MAPK signal transduction pathway and the Brusselator using noisy data of different sizes. Simulation results confirm the efficacy of the black-box modelling method which offers an alternative to the computationally expensive conventional approach. PMID:19003449

  4. Identification of Prestress Forces using Genetic Algorithms and Generic Element Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, William; Cruz, Alejandro; Thomson, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Prestressing is a technology that enhances the capabilities of concrete through application of counteracting forces. The strength of prestressed beams depends on the tension of the steel tendons, which experiences short-term and long-term losses due to elastic deformations, anchorage friction, creep of concrete and tendon relaxation. This paper presents a method for the identification of axial prestress forces in simply supported beams. Numerical results are presented which show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The strategy uses a genetic algorithm to minimize the difference between the measured and the predicted dynamic response at a single point; the former is obtained from an accelerometer that records the acceleration induced by an external dynamic force, and the latter is calculated from a finite element model of the beam. The uncertainty of model parameters is handled through the inclusion of generic element matrices in the model so that the axial prestress force and the generic parameters are updated simultaneously throughout the iterative process, thus avoiding the assumption of a particular set of fixed beam parameters. The simulations show the suitability of the method for its application in the identification of axial prestress forces in real beams and provide insight on numerical and experimental issues to be considered in a future experimental phase.

  5. Identification of Prestress Forces Using Genetic Algorithms and Generic Element Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, William; Cruz, Alejandro; Thomson, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Prestressing is a technology that enhances the capabilities of concrete through application of counteracting forces. The strength of prestressed beams depends on the tension of the steel tendons, which experiences short-term and long-term losses due to elastic deformations, anchorage friction, creep of concrete and tendon relaxation. This paper presents a method for the identification of axial prestress forces in simply supported beams. Numerical results are presented which show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The strategy uses a genetic algorithm to minimize the difference between the measured and the predicted dynamic response at a single point; the former is obtained from an accelerometer that records the acceleration induced by an external dynamic force, and the latter is calculated from a finite element model of the beam. The uncertainty of model parameters is handled through the inclusion of generic element matrices in the model so that the axial prestress force and the generic parameters are updated simultaneously throughout the iterative process, thus avoiding the assumption of a particular set of fixed beam parameters. The simulations show the suitability of the method for its application in the identification of axial prestress forces in real beams and provide insight on numerical and experimental issues to be considered in a future experimental phase.

  6. Lagrangian coherent structure identification using a Voronoi tessellation-based networking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosi, Giuseppe A.; Walker, Andrew M.; Rival, David E.

    2015-10-01

    The quantification of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) has been investigated using an algorithm based on the tesselation of unstructured data points. The applicability of the algorithm in resolving an LCS was tested using a synthetically generated unsteady double-gyre flow and experimentally in a nominally two-dimensional free shear flow. The effects of two parameters on LCS identification were studied: the threshold track length used to quantify the LCS and resulting effective seeding density upon applying the threshold. At lower threshold track lengths, increases in the threshold track length resulted in finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field convergence towards the expected LCS ridge of the double-gyre flow field at several effective seeding densities. However, at higher track lengths, further increases to the threshold track length failed to improve convergence at low effective seeding densities. The FTLE of the experimental data set was well-resolved using moderate threshold track lengths that achieved field convergence but maintained a sufficiently high seeding density. In contrast, the use of lower or higher track lengths produced an FTLE field characterized by an incoherent LCS ridge. From the analytical and experimental results, recommendations are made for future experiments for identifying LCS directly from unstructured data.

  7. [Research on the Source Identification of Mine Water Inrush Based on LIF Technology and SIMCA Algorithm].

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng-cheng; Zhou, Meng-ran; Liu, Qi-meng; Zhang, Kai-yuan; He, Chen-yang

    2016-01-01

    Rapid source identification of mine water inrush is of great significance for early warning and prevention in mine water hazard. According to the problem that traditional chemical methods to identify source takes a long time, put forward a method for rapid source identification of mine water inrush with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technology and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) algorithm. Laser induced fluorescence technology has the characteristics of fast analysis, high sensitivity and so on. With the laser assisted, fluorescence spectrums can be collected real-time by the fluorescence spectrometer. According to the fluorescence spectrums, the type of water samples can be identified. If the database is completed, it takes a few seconds for coal mine water source identification, so it is of great significance for early warning and post-disaster relief in coal mine water disaster. The experiment uses 405 nm laser emission laser into the 5 kinds of water inrush samples and get 100 groups of fluorescence spectrum, and then put all fluorescence spectrums into preprocessing. Use 15 group spectrums of each water inrush samples, a total of 75 group spectrums, as the prediction set, the rest of 25 groups spectrums as the test set. Using principal component analysis (PCA) to modeling the 5 kinds of water samples respectively, and then classify the water samples with SIMCA on the basis of the PCA model. It was found that the fluorescence spectrum are obvious different of different water inrush samples. The fluorescence spectrums after preprocessing of Gaussian-Filter, under the condition of the principal component number is 2 and the significant level α = 5%, the accuracy of prediction set and testing set are all 100% with the SIMCA to classify the water inrush samples. PMID:27228775

  8. Binomial probability distribution model-based protein identification algorithm for tandem mass spectrometry utilizing peak intensity information.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chuan-Le; Chen, Xiao-Zhou; Du, Yang-Li; Sun, Xuesong; Zhang, Gong; He, Qing-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become one of the most important technologies in proteomic analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a major tool for the analysis of peptide mixtures from protein samples. The key step of MS data processing is the identification of peptides from experimental spectra by searching public sequence databases. Although a number of algorithms to identify peptides from MS/MS data have been already proposed, e.g. Sequest, OMSSA, X!Tandem, Mascot, etc., they are mainly based on statistical models considering only peak-matches between experimental and theoretical spectra, but not peak intensity information. Moreover, different algorithms gave different results from the same MS data, implying their probable incompleteness and questionable reproducibility. We developed a novel peptide identification algorithm, ProVerB, based on a binomial probability distribution model of protein tandem mass spectrometry combined with a new scoring function, making full use of peak intensity information and, thus, enhancing the ability of identification. Compared with Mascot, Sequest, and SQID, ProVerB identified significantly more peptides from LC-MS/MS data sets than the current algorithms at 1% False Discovery Rate (FDR) and provided more confident peptide identifications. ProVerB is also compatible with various platforms and experimental data sets, showing its robustness and versatility. The open-source program ProVerB is available at http://bioinformatics.jnu.edu.cn/software/proverb/ .

  9. Development of a Near-Real Time Hail Damage Swath Identification Algorithm for Vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Schultz, Lori A.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Burks, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The Midwest is home to one of the world's largest agricultural growing regions. Between the time period of late May through early September, and with irrigation and seasonal rainfall these crops are able to reach their full maturity. Using moderate to high resolution remote sensors, the monitoring of the vegetation can be achieved using the red and near-infrared wavelengths. These wavelengths allow for the calculation of vegetation indices, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The vegetation growth and greenness, in this region, grows and evolves uniformly as the growing season progresses. However one of the biggest threats to Midwest vegetation during the time period is thunderstorms that bring large hail and damaging winds. Hail and wind damage to crops can be very expensive to crop growers and, damage can be spread over long swaths associated with the tracks of the damaging storms. Damage to the vegetation can be apparent in remotely sensed imagery and is visible from space after storms slightly damage the crops, allowing for changes to occur slowly over time as the crops wilt or more readily apparent if the storms strip material from the crops or destroy them completely. Previous work on identifying these hail damage swaths used manual interpretation by the way of moderate and higher resolution satellite imagery. With the development of an automated and near-real time hail swath damage identification algorithm, detection can be improved, and more damage indicators be created in a faster and more efficient way. The automated detection of hail damage swaths will examine short-term, large changes in the vegetation by differencing near-real time eight day NDVI composites and comparing them to post storm imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Terra and Aqua and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi NPP. In addition land surface temperatures from these instruments will be examined as

  10. Reconstruction and identification of $$\\tau$$ lepton decays to hadrons and $$\

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-01-29

    This paper describes the algorithms used by the CMS experiment to reconstruct and identify τ→ hadrons + vt decays during Run 1 of the LHC. The performance of the algorithms is studied in proton-proton collisions recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The algorithms achieve an identification efficiency of 50–60%, with misidentification rates for quark and gluon jets, electrons, and muons between per mille and per cent levels.

  11. An ECG-based Algorithm for the Automatic Identification of Autonomic Activations Associated with Cortical Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Griefahn, Barbara; Müller, Uwe; Plath, Gernot; Samel, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    supplement visual EEG arousal scoring by this automatic, objective, reproducible, cheap, and time-saving method. Citation: Basner M; Griefahn B; Müller U; Plath G; Samel A. An ECG-based Algorithm for the automatic identification of autonomic activations associated with cortical arousal. SLEEP 2007;30(10):1349-1361. PMID:17969469

  12. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  13. The development of a near-real time hail damage swath identification algorithm for vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Jordan R.

    The central United States is primarily covered in agricultural lands with a growing season that peaks during the same time as the region's climatological maximum for severe weather. These severe thunderstorms can bring large hail that can cause extensive areas of crop damage, which can be difficult to survey from the ground. Satellite remote sensing can help with the identification of these damaged areas. This study examined three techniques for identifying damage using satellite imagery that could be used in the development of a near-real time algorithm formulated for the detection of damage to agriculture caused by hail. The three techniques: a short term Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) change product, a modified Vegetation Health Index (mVHI) that incorporates both NDVI and land surface temperature (LST), and a feature detection technique based on NDVI and LST anomalies were tested on a single training case and five case studies. Skill scores were computed for each of the techniques during the training case and each case study. Among the best-performing case studies, the probability of detection (POD) for the techniques ranged from 0.527 - 0.742. Greater skill was noted for environments that occurred later in the growing season over areas where the land cover was consistently one or two types of uniform vegetation. The techniques struggled in environments where the land cover was not able to provide uniform vegetation, resulting in POD of 0.067 - 0.223. The feature detection technique was selected to be used for the near-real-time algorithm, based on the consistent performance throughout the entire growing season.

  14. Identification of a novel Plasmopara halstedii elicitor protein combining de novo peptide sequencing algorithms and RACE-PCR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Often high-quality MS/MS spectra of tryptic peptides do not match to any database entry because of only partially sequenced genomes and therefore, protein identification requires de novo peptide sequencing. To achieve protein identification of the economically important but still unsequenced plant pathogenic oomycete Plasmopara halstedii, we first evaluated the performance of three different de novo peptide sequencing algorithms applied to a protein digests of standard proteins using a quadrupole TOF (QStar Pulsar i). Results The performance order of the algorithms was PEAKS online > PepNovo > CompNovo. In summary, PEAKS online correctly predicted 45% of measured peptides for a protein test data set. All three de novo peptide sequencing algorithms were used to identify MS/MS spectra of tryptic peptides of an unknown 57 kDa protein of P. halstedii. We found ten de novo sequenced peptides that showed homology to a Phytophthora infestans protein, a closely related organism of P. halstedii. Employing a second complementary approach, verification of peptide prediction and protein identification was performed by creation of degenerate primers for RACE-PCR and led to an ORF of 1,589 bp for a hypothetical phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that identification of proteins within minute amounts of sample material improved significantly by combining sensitive LC-MS methods with different de novo peptide sequencing algorithms. In addition, this is the first study that verified protein prediction from MS data by also employing a second complementary approach, in which RACE-PCR led to identification of a novel elicitor protein in P. halstedii. PMID:20459704

  15. On muon energy spectrum in muon groups underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, M. V.; Stenkin, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described which was used to measure muon energy spectrum characteristics in muon groups underground using mu-e decays recording. The Baksan Telescope's experimental data on mu-e decays intensity in muon groups of various multiplicities are analyzed. The experimental data indicating very flat spectrum does not however represent the total spectrum in muon groups. Obviously the muon energy spectrum depends strongly on a distance from the group axis. The core attraction effect makes a significant distortion, making the spectrum flatter. After taking this into account and making corrections for this effect the integral total spectrum index in groups has a very small depencence on muon multiplicity and agrees well with expected one: beta=beta (sub expected) = 1.75.

  16. A simple iterative independent component analysis algorithm for vibration source signal identification of complex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Sup; Cho, Dae-Seung; Kim, Kookhyun; Jeon, Jae-Jin; Jung, Woo-Jin; Kang, Myeng-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Independent Component Analysis (ICA), one of the blind source separation methods, can be applied for extracting unknown source signals only from received signals. This is accomplished by finding statistical independence of signal mixtures and has been successfully applied to myriad fields such as medical science, image processing, and numerous others. Nevertheless, there are inherent problems that have been reported when using this technique: instability and invalid ordering of separated signals, particularly when using a conventional ICA technique in vibratory source signal identification of complex structures. In this study, a simple iterative algorithm of the conventional ICA has been proposed to mitigate these problems. The proposed method to extract more stable source signals having valid order includes an iterative and reordering process of extracted mixing matrix to reconstruct finally converged source signals, referring to the magnitudes of correlation coefficients between the intermediately separated signals and the signals measured on or nearby sources. In order to review the problems of the conventional ICA technique and to validate the proposed method, numerical analyses have been carried out for a virtual response model and a 30 m class submarine model. Moreover, in order to investigate applicability of the proposed method to real problem of complex structure, an experiment has been carried out for a scaled submarine mockup. The results show that the proposed method could resolve the inherent problems of a conventional ICA technique.

  17. Computational identification of human long intergenic non-coding RNAs using a GA-SVM algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanqiu; Li, Yang; Wang, Qi; Lv, Yingli; Wang, Shiyuan; Chen, Xi; Yu, Xuexin; Jiang, Wei; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a new type of non-coding RNAs and are closely related with the occurrence and development of diseases. In previous studies, most lincRNAs have been identified through next-generation sequencing. Because lincRNAs exhibit tissue-specific expression, the reproducibility of lincRNA discovery in different studies is very poor. In this study, not including lincRNA expression, we used the sequence, structural and protein-coding potential features as potential features to construct a classifier that can be used to distinguish lincRNAs from non-lincRNAs. The GA-SVM algorithm was performed to extract the optimized feature subset. Compared with several feature subsets, the five-fold cross validation results showed that this optimized feature subset exhibited the best performance for the identification of human lincRNAs. Moreover, the LincRNA Classifier based on Selected Features (linc-SF) was constructed by support vector machine (SVM) based on the optimized feature subset. The performance of this classifier was further evaluated by predicting lincRNAs from two independent lincRNA sets. Because the recognition rates for the two lincRNA sets were 100% and 99.8%, the linc-SF was found to be effective for the prediction of human lincRNAs.

  18. LateBiclustering: Efficient Heuristic Algorithm for Time-Lagged Bicluster Identification.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Joana P; Madeira, Sara C

    2014-01-01

    Identifying patterns in temporal data is key to uncover meaningful relationships in diverse domains, from stock trading to social interactions. Also of great interest are clinical and biological applications, namely monitoring patient response to treatment or characterizing activity at the molecular level. In biology, researchers seek to gain insight into gene functions and dynamics of biological processes, as well as potential perturbations of these leading to disease, through the study of patterns emerging from gene expression time series. Clustering can group genes exhibiting similar expression profiles, but focuses on global patterns denoting rather broad, unspecific responses. Biclustering reveals local patterns, which more naturally capture the intricate collaboration between biological players, particularly under a temporal setting. Despite the general biclustering formulation being NP-hard, considering specific properties of time series has led to efficient solutions for the discovery of temporally aligned patterns. Notably, the identification of biclusters with time-lagged patterns, suggestive of transcriptional cascades, remains a challenge due to the combinatorial explosion of delayed occurrences. Herein, we propose LateBiclustering, a sensible heuristic algorithm enabling a polynomial rather than exponential time solution for the problem. We show that it identifies meaningful time-lagged biclusters relevant to the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heat stress. PMID:26356854

  19. Muon capture for the front end of a muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Yoshikawa, C.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the design of the muon capture front end for a {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup -} Collider. In the front end, a proton bunch on a target creates secondary pions that drift into a capture transport channel, decaying into muons. A sequence of rf cavities forms the resulting muon beams into strings of bunches of differing energies, aligns the bunches to (nearly) equal central energies, and initiates ionization cooling. The muons are then cooled and accelerated to high energy into a storage ring for high-energy high luminosity collisions. Our initial design is based on the somewhat similar front end of the International Design Study (IDS) neutrino factory.

  20. Muon spin rotation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The bulk of the muon spin rotation research work centered around the development of the muon spin rotation facility at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The collimation system was both designed and fabricated at Virginia State University. This improved collimation system, plus improvements in detectors and electronics enabled the acquisition of spectra free of background out to 15 microseconds. There were two runs at Brookhaven in 1984, one run was devoted primarily to beam development and the other run allowed several successful experiments to be performed. The effect of uniaxial strain on an Fe(Si) crystal at elevated temperature (360K) was measured and the results are incorporated herein. A complete analysis of Fe pulling data taken earlier is included.

  1. Muon Collider design status

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Muon Collider (MC) - proposed by G.I. Budker and A.N. Skrinsky a few decades ago - is now considered as the most exciting option for the energy frontier machine in the post-LHC era. A national Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) is being formed in the USA with the ultimate goal of building a MC at the Fermilab site with c.o.m. energy in the range 1.5-3 TeV and luminosity of {approx} 1.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. As the first step on the way to MC it envisages construction of a Neutrino Factory (NF) for high-precision neutrino experiments. The baseline scheme of the NF-MC complex is presented and possible options for its main components are discussed.

  2. NK Muon Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, G.

    1988-09-28

    The NK Muon Beam will be a modified version of the existing NT beam line. The decision to employ a modified version of the NT beam line was made based on considerations of cost and availability of the beam line. Preliminary studies considered use of other beam lines, e.g., the NW beam line, and even of moving the bubble chamber with its superconducting coils but were rejected for reasons such as cost, personnel limitations, and potential conflicts with other users.

  3. The OPERA muon spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfagnini, A.; Bergnoli, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Cazes, A.; Cecchetti, A.; Di Troia, C.; Dulach, B.; Felici, G.; Mengucci, A.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Terranova, F.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Candela, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.

    2007-03-01

    The OPERA experiment will study νμ to ντ oscillations through τ appearance on the 732 km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 48 planes of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) operated in streamer mode. Each plane covers about 70 m2. A general introduction to the system installation and commissioning will be given. Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behavior of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality test performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20 Hz/m2. Single and multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with the expectations. Finally, a description of the readout electronics and of the slow control system is given.

  4. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate O(1021) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  5. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  6. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  7. Multi-color space threshold segmentation and self-learning k-NN algorithm for surge test EUT status identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Liu, Gui-xiong

    2016-09-01

    The identification of targets varies in different surge tests. A multi-color space threshold segmentation and self-learning k-nearest neighbor algorithm ( k-NN) for equipment under test status identification was proposed after using feature matching to identify equipment status had to train new patterns every time before testing. First, color space (L*a*b*, hue saturation lightness (HSL), hue saturation value (HSV)) to segment was selected according to the high luminance points ratio and white luminance points ratio of the image. Second, the unknown class sample S r was classified by the k-NN algorithm with training set T z according to the feature vector, which was formed from number of pixels, eccentricity ratio, compactness ratio, and Euler's numbers. Last, while the classification confidence coefficient equaled k, made S r as one sample of pre-training set T z '. The training set T z increased to T z+1 by T z ' if T z ' was saturated. In nine series of illuminant, indicator light, screen, and disturbances samples (a total of 21600 frames), the algorithm had a 98.65%identification accuracy, also selected five groups of samples to enlarge the training set from T 0 to T 5 by itself.

  8. From Neutrino Factory to Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Both Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories require a muon source capable of producing and capturing {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This paper reviews the similarities and differences between Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider accelerator complexes, the ongoing R&D needed for a Muon Collider that goes beyond Neutrino Factory R&D, and some thoughts about how a Neutrino Factory on the CERN site might eventually be upgraded to a Muon Collider.

  9. Numerical Study of Collective Effects for Muon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Dazhang; Kaplan, Daniel M.; Roberts, Thomas J.; Ng, King Y.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The study of Muon beam optics is crucial for future Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider facilities. At present, the GEANT4-based simulation tools for Muon beam tracking such as G4beamline and G4MICE only do single particle tracking without collective effects taken into account. However, it is known that collective interaction such as space charge and wakefields for muons (in matter or vacuum) are not ignorable. As the first step, space charge computation is implemented into muon tracking. The basic algorithm is particle-to-particle interaction through retarded electro-magnetic field. The momentum impulse due to collective effects is applied to every particle at each collective step, and the G4beamline main code is used for tracking. Comparisons to LANL Parmela are illustrated and analyzed. Optimizations of the algorithm are also underway to gain less computing time and more accuracy. Moreover, the idea of enhancing ionization cooling efficiency by utilizing the collective effect due to the polarized charges in matter appears to be possible, and preliminary estimates have been made.

  10. A component-level failure detection and identification algorithm based on open-loop and closed-loop state estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Seung-Han; Cho, Young Man; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a component-level failure detection and identification (FDI) algorithm for a cascade mechanical system subsuming a plant driven by an actuator unit. The novelty of the FDI algorithm presented in this study is that it is able to discriminate failure occurring in the actuator unit, the sensor measuring the output of the actuator unit, and the plant driven by the actuator unit. The proposed FDI algorithm exploits the measurement of the actuator unit output together with its estimates generated by open-loop (OL) and closed-loop (CL) estimators to enable FDI at the component's level. In this study, the OL estimator is designed based on the system identification of the actuator unit. The CL estimator, which is guaranteed to be stable against variations in the plant, is synthesized based on the dynamics of the entire cascade system. The viability of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS), which shows that it can detect and identify target failures reliably in the presence of plant uncertainties.

  11. Processor core for real time background identification of HD video based on OpenCV Gaussian mixture model algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore

    2013-05-01

    The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the OpenCV version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the OpenCV GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.

  12. Physical applications of muon catalysis: Muon capture in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filchenkov, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental research on capture of negative muons in hydrogen are reported with an emphasis on the accompanying phenomenon of muon catalysis in hydrogen and subtleties of the experimental method. A conclusion is drawn that precise determination of the capture rate is important for refining the standard model.

  13. DiME: A Scalable Disease Module Identification Algorithm with Application to Glioma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunpeng; Tennant, Daniel A.; Zhu, Zexuan; Heath, John K.; Yao, Xin; He, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Disease module is a group of molecular components that interact intensively in the disease specific biological network. Since the connectivity and activity of disease modules may shed light on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and disease progression, their identification becomes one of the most important challenges in network medicine, an emerging paradigm to study complex human disease. This paper proposes a novel algorithm, DiME (Disease Module Extraction), to identify putative disease modules from biological networks. We have developed novel heuristics to optimise Community Extraction, a module criterion originally proposed for social network analysis, to extract topological core modules from biological networks as putative disease modules. In addition, we have incorporated a statistical significance measure, B-score, to evaluate the quality of extracted modules. As an application to complex diseases, we have employed DiME to investigate the molecular mechanisms that underpin the progression of glioma, the most common type of brain tumour. We have built low (grade II) - and high (GBM) - grade glioma co-expression networks from three independent datasets and then applied DiME to extract potential disease modules from both networks for comparison. Examination of the interconnectivity of the identified modules have revealed changes in topology and module activity (expression) between low- and high- grade tumours, which are characteristic of the major shifts in the constitution and physiology of tumour cells during glioma progression. Our results suggest that transcription factors E2F4, AR and ETS1 are potential key regulators in tumour progression. Our DiME compiled software, R/C++ source code, sample data and a tutorial are available at http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~szh/DiME. PMID:24523864

  14. Muon Spin Rotation Spectroscopy - Utilizing Muons in Solid State Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, Andreas

    2012-10-17

    Over the past decades muon spin rotation techniques (mSR) have established themselves as an invaluable tool to study a variety of static and dynamic phenomena in bulk solid state physics and chemistry. Common to all these approaches is that the muon is utilized as a spin microprobe and/or hydrogen-like probe, implanted in the material under investigation. Recent developments extend the range of application to near surface phenomena, thin film and super-lattice studies. After briefly summarizing the production of so called surface muons used for bulk studies, and discussing the principle differences between pulsed and continuous muon beams, the production of keV-energy muon sources will be discussed. A few topical examples from different active research fields will be presented to demonstrate the power of these techniques.

  15. Ionization Cooling for Muon Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Neuffer, D.; Prebys, E.

    2014-09-18

    Possible application for muon experiments such as mu2e is discussed of the initial part of the ionization cooling channel originally developed for muon collider. It is shown that with the FNAL Booster as the proton driver the mu2e sensitivity can be increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the presently considered experiment.

  16. High luminosity muon collider design

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.; Gallardo, J.

    1996-10-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV high luminosity {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} collider, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders.

  17. Muon collider design

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-03-01

    The possibility of muon colliders was introduced by Skrinsky et al., Neuffer, and others. More recently, several workshops and collaboration meetings have greatly increased the level of discussion. In this paper we present scenarios for 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV colliders based on an optimally designed proton source, and for a lower luminosity 0.5 TeV demonstration based on an upgraded version of the AGS. It is assumed that a demonstration version based on upgrades of the FERMILAB machines would also be possible. 53 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. ISPTM: an iterative search algorithm for systematic identification of post-translational modifications from complex proteome mixtures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Huang, Lin; Peng, Hong; Guru, Ashu; Xue, Weihua; Hong, Sang Yong; Liu, Miao; Sharma, Seema; Fu, Kai; Caprez, Adam P; Swanson, David R; Zhang, Zhixin; Ding, Shi-Jian

    2013-09-01

    Identifying protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) from tandem mass spectrometry data of complex proteome mixtures is a highly challenging task. Here we present a new strategy, named iterative search for identifying PTMs (ISPTM), for tackling this challenge. The ISPTM approach consists of a basic search with no variable modification, followed by iterative searches of many PTMs using a small number of them (usually two) in each search. The performance of the ISPTM approach was evaluated on mixtures of 70 synthetic peptides with known modifications, on an 18-protein standard mixture with unknown modifications and on real, complex biological samples of mouse nuclear matrix proteins with unknown modifications. ISPTM revealed that many chemical PTMs were introduced by urea and iodoacetamide during sample preparation and many biological PTMs, including dimethylation of arginine and lysine, were significantly activated by Adriamycin treatment in nuclear matrix associated proteins. ISPTM increased the MS/MS spectral identification rate substantially, displayed significantly better sensitivity for systematic PTM identification compared with that of the conventional all-in-one search approach, and offered PTM identification results that were complementary to InsPecT and MODa, both of which are established PTM identification algorithms. In summary, ISPTM is a new and powerful tool for unbiased identification of many different PTMs with high confidence from complex proteome mixtures.

  19. ISPTM: an Iterative Search Algorithm for Systematic Identification of Post-translational Modifications from Complex Proteome Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin; Huang, Lin; Peng, Hong; Guru, Ashu; Xue, Weihua; Hong, Sang Yong; Liu, Miao; Sharma, Seema; Fu, Kai; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David; Zhang, Zhixin; Ding, Shi-Jian

    2013-01-01

    Identifying protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) from tandem mass spectrometry data of complex proteome mixtures is a highly challenging task. Here we present a new strategy, named iterative search for identifying PTMs (ISPTM), for tackling this challenge. The ISPTM approach consists of a basic search with no variable modification, followed by iterative searches of many PTMs using a small number of them (usually two) in each search. The performance of the ISPTM approach was evaluated on mixtures of 70 synthetic peptides with known modifications, on an 18-protein standard mixture with unknown modifications and on real, complex biological samples of mouse nuclear matrix proteins with unknown modifications. ISPTM revealed that many chemical PTMs were introduced by urea and iodoacetamide during sample preparation and many biological PTMs, including dimethylation of arginine and lysine, were significantly activated by Adriamycin treatment in NM associated proteins. ISPTM increased the MS/MS spectral identification rate substantially, displayed significantly better sensitivity for systematic PTM identification than the conventional all-in-one search approach and offered PTM identification results that were complementary to InsPecT and MODa, both of which are established PTM identification algorithms. In summary, ISPTM is a new and powerful tool for unbiased identification of many different PTMs with high confidence from complex proteome mixtures. PMID:23919725

  20. MUON STORAGE RINGS - NEUTRINO FACTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-05-30

    The concept of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Source (Neutrino Factory) has sparked considerable interest in the High Energy Physics community. Besides providing a first phase of a muon collider facility, it would generate more intense and well collimated neutrino beams than currently available. The BNL-AGS or some other proton driver would provide an intense proton beam that hits a target, produces pions that decay into muons. The muons must be cooled, accelerated and injected into a storage ring with a long straight section where they decay. The decays occurring in the straight sections of the ring would generate neutrino beams that could be directed to detectors located thousands of kilometers away, allowing studies of neutrino oscillations with precisions not currently accessible. For example, with the neutrino source at BNL, detectors at Soudan, Minnesota (1,715 km), and Gran Sasso, Italy (6,527 km) become very interesting possibilities. The feasibility of constructing and operating such a muon-storage-ring based Neutrino-Factory, including geotechnical questions related to building non-planar storage rings (e.g. at 8{degree} angle for BNL-Soudan, and 3{degree} angle for BNL-Gran Sasso) along with the design of the muon capture, cooling, acceleration, and storage ring for such a facility is being explored by the growing Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC). The authors present overview of Neutrino Factory concept based on a muon storage ring, its components, physics opportunities, possible upgrade to a full muon collider, latest simulations of front-end, and a new bowtie-muon storage ring design.

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PARAMETERIZED SCATTER REMOVAL ALGORITHM FOR NUCLEAR MATERIALS IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Brandon R

    2010-05-01

    This report presents a novel method for removing scattering effects from Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging. The NMIS uses fast neutron radiography to generate images of the internal structure of objects nonintrusively. If the correct attenuation through the object is measured, the positions and macroscopic cross sections of features inside the object can be determined. The cross sections can then be used to identify the materials, and a 3D map of the interior of the object can be reconstructed. Unfortunately, the measured attenuation values are always too low because scattered neutrons contribute to the unattenuated neutron signal. Previous efforts to remove the scatter from NMIS imaging have focused on minimizing the fraction of scattered neutrons that are misidentified as directly transmitted by electronically collimating and time tagging the source neutrons. The parameterized scatter removal algorithm (PSRA) approaches the problem from an entirely new direction by using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the point scatter functions (PScFs) produced by neutrons scattering in the object. PScFs have been used to remove scattering successfully in other applications, but only with simple 2D detector models. This work represents the first time PScFs have ever been applied to an imaging detector geometry as complicated as the NMIS. By fitting the PScFs using a Gaussian function, they can be parameterized, and the proper scatter for a given problem can be removed without the need for rerunning the simulations each time. In order to model the PScFs, an entirely new method for simulating NMIS measurements was developed for this work. The development of the new models and the codes required to simulate them are presented in detail. The PSRA was used on several simulated and experimental measurements, and chi-squared goodness of fit tests were used to compare the corrected values to the ideal values that would be expected with no scattering. Using the

  2. The Development of a Parameterized Scatter Removal Algorithm for Nuclear Materials Identification System Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Brandon Robert

    2010-03-01

    This dissertation presents a novel method for removing scattering effects from Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging. The NMIS uses fast neutron radiography to generate images of the internal structure of objects non-intrusively. If the correct attenuation through the object is measured, the positions and macroscopic cross-sections of features inside the object can be determined. The cross sections can then be used to identify the materials and a 3D map of the interior of the object can be reconstructed. Unfortunately, the measured attenuation values are always too low because scattered neutrons contribute to the unattenuated neutron signal. Previous efforts to remove the scatter from NMIS imaging have focused on minimizing the fraction of scattered neutrons which are misidentified as directly transmitted by electronically collimating and time tagging the source neutrons. The parameterized scatter removal algorithm (PSRA) approaches the problem from an entirely new direction by using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the point scatter functions (PScFs) produced by neutrons scattering in the object. PScFs have been used to remove scattering successfully in other applications, but only with simple 2D detector models. This work represents the first time PScFs have ever been applied to an imaging detector geometry as complicated as the NMIS. By fitting the PScFs using a Gaussian function, they can be parameterized and the proper scatter for a given problem can be removed without the need for rerunning the simulations each time. In order to model the PScFs, an entirely new method for simulating NMIS measurements was developed for this work. The development of the new models and the codes required to simulate them are presented in detail. The PSRA was used on several simulated and experimental measurements and chi-squared goodness of fit tests were used to compare the corrected values to the ideal values that would be expected with no scattering. Using

  3. Development of a Near Real-Time Hail Damage Swath Identification Algorithm for Vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Schultz, Kori A.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Burks, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    Every year in the Midwest and Great Plains, widespread greenness forms in conjunction with the latter part of the spring-summer growing season. This prevalent greenness forms as a result of the high concentration of agricultural areas having their crops reach their maturity before the fall harvest. This time of year also coincides with an enhanced hail frequency for the Great Plains (Cintineo et al. 2012). These severe thunderstorms can bring damaging winds and large hail that can result in damage to the surface vegetation. The spatial extent of the damage can relatively small concentrated area or be a vast swath of damage that is visible from space. These large areas of damage have been well documented over the years. In the late 1960s aerial photography was used to evaluate crop damage caused by hail. As satellite remote sensing technology has evolved, the identification of these hail damage streaks has increased. Satellites have made it possible to view these streaks in additional spectrums. Parker et al. (2005) documented two streaks using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that occurred in South Dakota. He noted the potential impact that these streaks had on the surface temperature and associated surface fluxes that are impacted by a change in temperature. Gallo et al. (2012) examined at the correlation between radar signatures and ground observations from storms that produced a hail damage swath in Central Iowa also using MODIS. Finally, Molthan et al. (2013) identified hail damage streaks through MODIS, Landsat-7, and SPOT observations of different resolutions for the development of a potential near-real time applications. The manual analysis of hail damage streaks in satellite imagery is both tedious and time consuming, and may be inconsistent from event to event. This study focuses on development of an objective and automatic algorithm to detect these areas of damage in a more efficient and timely manner. This study utilizes the

  4. The Reconstruction Software for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, A.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Adey, D.; Hanlet, P.; Heidt, C.

    2014-06-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling, for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. In order to measure the change in emittance, MICE is equipped with a pair of high precision scintillating fibre trackers. The trackers are required to measure a 10% change in emittance to 1% accuracy (giving an overall precision of 0.1%). This paper describes the tracker reconstruction software, as a part of the overall MICE software framework, MAUS. Channel clustering is described, proceeding to the formation of space-points, which are then associated with particle tracks using pattern recognition algorithms. Finally a full custom Kalman track fit is performed, to account for energy loss and multiple scattering. Exemplar results are shown for Monte Carlo data.

  5. The Reconstruction Software for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, A.; Long, K.; Santos, E.; Adey, D.; Hanlet, P.; Heidt, C.

    2014-01-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling, for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. In order to measure the change in emittance, MICE is equipped with a pair of high precision scintillating fibre trackers. The trackers are required to measure a 10% change in emittance to 1% accuracy (giving an overall precision of 0.1%). This paper describes the tracker reconstruction software, as a part of the overall MICE software framework, MAUS. Channel clustering is described, proceeding to the formation of space-points, which are then associated with particle tracks using pattern recognition algorithms. Finally a full custom Kalman track fit is performed, to account for energy loss and multiple scattering. Exemplar results are shown for Monte Carlo data.

  6. Research and Development of Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

  7. A drift chamber tracking system for muon scattering tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Stapleton, M.; Steer, C.; Snow, S.

    2015-10-01

    Muon scattering tomography (MST) allows the identification of shielded high atomic number (high-Z) materials by measuring the scattering angle of cosmic ray muons passing through an inspection region. Cosmic ray muons scatter to a greater degree due to multiple Coulomb scattering in high-Z materials than low-Z materials, which can be measured as the angular difference between the incoming and outgoing trajectories of each muon. Measurements of trajectory are achieved by placing position sensitive particle tracking detectors above and below the inspection volume. By localising scattering information, the point at which a series of muons scatter can be used to reconstruct an image, differentiating high, medium and low density objects. MST is particularly useful for differentiating between materials of varying density in volumes that are difficult to inspect visually or by other means. This paper will outline the experimental work undertaken to develop a prototype MST system based on drift chamber technology. The planar drift chambers used in this prototype measure the longitudinal interaction position of an ionising particle from the time taken for elections, liberated in the argon (92.5%), carbon dioxide (5%), methane (2.5%) gas mixture, to reach a central anode wire. Such a system could be used to enhance the detection of shielded radiological material hidden within regular shipping cargo.

  8. Probing beyond the Standard Model with Muons

    SciTech Connect

    Hisano, Junji

    2008-02-21

    Muon's Properties are the most precisely studied among unstable particles. After discovery of muons in 40's, the studies of muons contributed to construction and establishment of the standard model in the particle physics. Now we are going to LHC era, however, precision frontier is still important in the particle physics. In this article, we review roles of muon physics in the particle physics. Muon g-2, lepton flavor violation (LFV) in muon decay, and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muon are mainly discussed.

  9. Quasi-isochronous Muon Collection Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, C.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Neuffer, D.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Intense muon beams have many potential applications, including neutrino factories and muon colliders. However, muons are produced as tertiary beams, resulting in diffuse phase space distributions. To make useful beams, the muons must be rapidly cooled before they decay. An idea conceived recently for the collection and cooling of muon beams, namely, the use of a Quasi-Isochronous Helical Channel (QIHC) to facilitate capture of muons into RF buckets, has been developed further. The resulting distribution could be cooled quickly and coalesced into a single bunch to optimize the luminosity of a muon collider. After a brief elaboration of the QIHC concept, recent developments are described.

  10. The Gran Sasso muon puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Mahbubani, Rakhi E-mail: rakhi@cern.ch

    2012-07-01

    We carry out a time-series analysis of the combined data from three experiments measuring the cosmic muon flux at the Gran Sasso laboratory, at a depth of 3800 m.w.e. These data, taken by the MACRO, LVD and Borexino experiments, span a period of over 20 years, and correspond to muons with a threshold energy, at sea level, of around 1.3 TeV. We compare the best-fit period and phase of the full muon data set with the combined DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA data, which spans the same time period, as a test of the hypothesis that the cosmic ray muon flux is responsible for the annual modulation detected by DAMA. We find in the muon data a large-amplitude fluctuation with a period of around one year, and a phase that is incompatible with that of the DAMA modulation at 5.2σ. Aside from this annual variation, the muon data also contains a further significant modulation with a period between 10 and 11 years and a power well above the 99.9% C.L threshold for noise, whose phase corresponds well with the solar cycle: a surprising observation for such high energy muons. We do not see this same period in the stratospheric temperature data.

  11. Muon Simulation at the Daya Bay SIte

    SciTech Connect

    Mengyun, Guan; Jun, Cao; Changgen, Yang; Yaxuan, Sun; Luk, Kam-Biu

    2006-05-23

    With a pretty good-resolution mountain profile, we simulated the underground muon background at the Daya Bay site. To get the sea-level muon flux parameterization, a modification to the standard Gaisser's formula was introduced according to the world muon data. MUSIC code was used to transport muon through the mountain rock. To deploy the simulation, first we generate a statistic sample of sea-level muon events according to the sea-level muon flux distribution formula; then calculate the slant depth of muon passing through the mountain using an interpolation method based on the digitized data of the mountain; finally transport muons through rock to get underground muon sample, from which we can get results of muon flux, mean energy, energy distribution and angular distribution.

  12. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  13. Identification of Transport Parameters and Pollution Sources for a Physically Based Groundwater Contaminant Transport Model: A Comparison of Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y.; Sykes, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    Transport parameter estimation and contaminant source identification are critical steps in the development of a physically based groundwater contaminant transport model. For most transient field scale problems, the high computational burden required by parameter identification algorithms combined with sparse data sets often limits calibration. However, when data are available, a high performance computing system and parallel computing may make the calibration process feasible. The selection of the optimization algorithm is also critical. In this paper, the contaminant transport and source parameters were estimated and compared using optimization with two heuristic search algorithms (a dynamically dimensioned search and a parallelized micro genetic algorithm) and a gradient based multi-start PEST algorithm which were implemented on the Shared Hierarchical Academic Research Computing Network (Sharcnet). The case study is located in New Jersey where improper waste disposal resulted in the contamination of down gradient public water supply wells. Using FRAC3DVS, a physically based transient three-dimensional groundwater flow model with spatially and temporally varying recharge was developed and calibrated using both approximately 9 years of head data from continuous well records and data over a period of approximately 30 years from traditional monitoring wells. For the contaminant system, the parameters that were estimated include source leaching rate, source concentration, dispersivities, and retardation coefficient. The groundwater domain was discretized using 214,520 elements. With highly changing pump rates at the 7 municipal wells, time increments over the approximately 30 year simulation period varied dynamically between several days and 3 months. On Sharcnet, one forward simulation on a single processor of both transient flow and contaminant transport takes approximately 3 to 4 hours. The contaminant transport model calibration results indicate that overall

  14. Radar target identification by natural resonances: Evaluation of signal processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarakos, Gregory A.

    1991-09-01

    When a radar pulse impinges upon a target, the resultant scattering process can be solved as a linear time-invariant (LTI) system problem. The system has a transfer function with poles and zeros. Previous work has shown that the poles are independent on the target's structure and geometry. This thesis evaluates the resonance estimation performance of two signal processing techniques: the Kumaresan-Tufts algorithm and the Cadzow-Solomon algorithm. Improvements are made to the Cadzow-Solomon algorithm. Both algorithms are programmed using MATLAB. Test data used to evaluate these algorithms includes synthetic and integral equation generated signals, with and without additive noise, in addition to new experimental scattering data from a thin wire, aluminum spheres, and scale model aircraft.

  15. Laser-Assisted Muon Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Aihua; Li Shumin; Berakdar, Jamal

    2007-06-22

    We show theoretically that the muon lifetime can be changed dramatically by embedding the decaying muon in a strong linearly polarized laser field. Evaluating the S-matrix elements taking all electronic multiphoton processes into account we find that a CO{sub 2} laser with an electric field amplitude of 10{sup 6} V cm{sup -1} results in an order of magnitude shorter lifetime of the muon. We also analyze the dependencies of the decay rate on the laser frequency and intensity.

  16. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel M.

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  17. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. T.; Stratakis, D.; Prior, G.; Gilardoni, S.; Neuffer, D.; Snopok, P.; Alekou, A.; Pasternak, J.

    2013-04-01

    In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  18. Measurement of muon intensity by Cerenkov method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Li, G. J.; Bai, G. Z.; Liu, J. G.; Geng, Q. X.; Ling, J.

    1985-01-01

    Optical detection is an important technique in studies and observations of air showers, muons and relevant phenomena. The muon intensity is measured in a proper energy range and to study some problems about Cerenkov radiation of cosmic rays are studied, by a muon-telescope operated with Cerenkov detector. It is found that the measured muon intensity agrees with the integral energy spectrum of cosmic ray muons.

  19. The design and performance of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-05-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons are increasingly being exploited for the non-destructive assay of shielded containers in a wide range of applications. One such application is the characterisation of legacy nuclear waste materials stored within industrial containers. The design, assembly and performance of a prototype muon tomography system developed for this purpose are detailed in this work. This muon tracker comprises four detection modules, each containing orthogonal layers of Saint-Gobain BCF-10 2 mm-pitch plastic scintillating fibres. Identification of the two struck fibres per module allows the reconstruction of a space point, and subsequently, the incoming and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. These allow the container content, with respect to the atomic number Z of the scattering material, to be determined through reconstruction of the scattering location and magnitude. On each detection layer, the light emitted by the fibre is detected by a single Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMT with two fibres coupled to each pixel via dedicated pairing schemes developed to ensure the identification of the struck fibre. The PMT signals are read out to standard charge-to-digital converters and interpreted via custom data acquisition and analysis software. The design and assembly of the detector system are detailed and presented alongside results from performance studies with data collected after construction. These results reveal high stability during extended collection periods with detection efficiencies in the region of 80% per layer. Minor misalignments of millimetre order have been identified and corrected in software. A first image reconstructed from a test configuration of materials has been obtained using software based on the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation algorithm. The results highlight the high spatial resolution provided by the detector system. Clear discrimination between the low, medium and high

  20. Applicability of data mining algorithms in the identification of beach features/patterns on high-resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    The available beach classification algorithms and sediment budget models are mainly based on in situ parameters, usually unavailable for several coastal areas. A morphological analysis using remotely sensed data is a valid alternative. This study focuses on the application of data mining techniques, particularly decision trees (DTs) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) to an IKONOS-2 image in order to identify beach features/patterns in a stretch of the northwest coast of Portugal. Based on knowledge of the coastal features, five classes were defined. In the identification of beach features/patterns, the ANN algorithm presented an overall accuracy of 98.6% and a kappa coefficient of 0.97. The best DTs algorithm (with pruning) presents an overall accuracy of 98.2% and a kappa coefficient of 0.97. The results obtained through the ANN and DTs were in agreement. However, the ANN presented a classification more sensitive to rip currents. The use of ANNs and DTs for beach classification from remotely sensed data resulted in an increased classification accuracy when compared with traditional classification methods. The association of remotely sensed high-spatial resolution data and data mining algorithms is an effective methodology with which to identify beach features/patterns.

  1. Goals and Status of MICE, the International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snopok, Pavel; Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    Muon ionization cooling provides the only practical solution to preparing the low-emittance muon beams suitable for a neutrino factory or a muon collider. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) thus represents a strategic R&D project for neutrino physics. MICE is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). It comprises a dedicated muon beam line able to generate a range of input emittance and momentum values, with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to ensure a pure muon beam. A first measurement of emittance will be performed in the upstream magnetic spectrometer with a scintillating-fiber tracker. A cooling cell will then follow, alternating energy loss in liquid-hydrogen absorbers and RF acceleration. A second spectrometer, identical to the first, and a second muon identification system provide a measurement of the outgoing emittance. In the 2010 run, completed in August, the beam and most detectors were fully commissioned. Results from this run will be presented. The plan for measurements of emittance and emittance reduction (cooling) that will follow in 2011 and beyond will also be reported. On behalf of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment collaboration.

  2. Effects of spectrometer band pass, sampling, and signal-to-noise ratio on spectral identification using the Tetracorder algorithm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Chrien, T.H.; Gorelick, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of spectrometer band pass, sampling interval, and signal-to-noise ratio required for identification of pure minerals and plants were derived using reflectance spectra convolved to AVIRIS, HYDICE, MIVIS, VIMS, and other imaging spectrometers. For each spectral simulation, various levels of random noise were added to the reflectance spectra after convolution, and then each was analyzed with the Tetracorder spectra identification algorithm [Clark et al., 2003]. The outcome of each identification attempt was tabulated to provide an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio at which a given percentage of the noisy spectra were identified correctly. Results show that spectral identification is most sensitive to the signal-to-noise ratio at narrow sampling interval values but is more sensitive to the sampling interval itself at broad sampling interval values because of spectral aliasing, a condition when absorption features of different materials can resemble one another. The band pass is less critical to spectral identification than the sampling interval or signal-to-noise ratio because broadening the band pass does not induce spectral aliasing. These conclusions are empirically corroborated by analysis of mineral maps of AVIRIS data collected at Cuprite, Nevada, between 1990 and 1995, a period during which the sensor signal-to-noise ratio increased up to sixfold. There are values of spectrometer sampling and band pass beyond which spectral identification of materials will require an abrupt increase in sensor signal-to-noise ratio due to the effects of spectral aliasing. Factors that control this threshold are the uniqueness of a material's diagnostic absorptions in terms of shape and wavelength isolation, and the spectral diversity of the materials found in nature and in the spectral library used for comparison. Array spectrometers provide the best data for identification when they critically sample spectra. The sampling interval should not be broadened to

  3. LINACS FOR FUTURE MUON FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Slawomir Bogacz, Rolland Johnson

    2008-10-01

    Future Muon Colliders (MC) and Neutrino Factories (NF) based on muon storage rings will require innovative linacs to: produce the muons, cool them, compress longi-tudinally and ‘shape’ them into a beam and finally to rap-idly accelerate them to multi-GeV (NF) and TeV (MC) energies. Each of these four linac applications has new requirements and opportunities that follow from the na-ture of the muon in that it has a short lifetime (τ = 2.2 μsec) in its own rest frame, it is produced in a tertiary process into a large emittance, and its electron, photon, and neutrino decay products can be more than an annoy-ance. As an example, for optimum performance, the linac repetition rates should scale inversely with the laboratory lifetime of the muon in its storage ring, something as high as 1 kHz for a 40 GeV Neutrino Factory or as low as 20 Hz for a 5 TeV Muon Collider. A superconducting 8 GeV Linac capable of CW operation is being studied as a ver-satile option for muon production [1] for colliders, facto-ries, and muon beams for diverse purposes. A linac filled with high pressure hydrogen gas and imbedded in strong magnetic fields has been proposed to rapidly cool muon beams [2]. Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) are possible because muons do not generate significant syn-chrotron radiation even at extremely high energy and in strong magnetic fields. We will describe the present status of linacs for muon applications; in particular the longitu-dinal bunch compression in a single pass linac and multi-pass acceleration in the RLA, especially the optics and technical requirements for RLA designs, using supercon-ducting RF cavities capable of simultaneous acceleration of both μ+ and μ- species, with pulsed linac quadrupoles to allow the maximum number of passes. The design will include the optics for the multi-pass linac and droplet-shaped return arcs.

  4. Muon spin rotation in solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    The muon spin rotation (MuSR) technique is used to probe the microscopic electron density in materials. High temperature MuSR and magnetization measurements in nickel are in progress to allow an unambiguous determination of the muon impurity interaction and the impurity induced change in local spin density. The first results on uniaxial stress induced frequency shifts in an Fe single crystal are also reported.

  5. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    ScienceCinema

    Tourun, Yagmur [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2016-07-12

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be "at least 20 years away" for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  6. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Tourun, Yagmur

    2009-07-29

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be 'at least 20 years away' for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  7. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Tourun, Yagmur

    2009-07-29

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be "at least 20 years away" for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  8. A new method for imaging nuclear threats using cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Rose, Evan; Watson, Scott; White, Tim; Aberle, Derek J.; Green, Jesse Andrew; McDuff, George G.; Lukic, Zarija; Milner, Edward C.

    2013-08-29

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to generate three-dimensional images of volumes using information contained in the Coulomb scattering of the muons. Advantages of this technique are the ability of cosmic rays to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose delivered to subjects under study beyond the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the relatively long exposure times and poor position resolution and complex algorithms needed for reconstruction. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new method for obtaining improved position resolution and statistical precision for objects with spherical symmetry.

  9. A Fast Robot Identification and Mapping Algorithm Based on Kinect Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Shen, Peiyi; Zhu, Guangming; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is driving innovation in an ever-growing set of application domains such as intelligent processing for autonomous robots. For an autonomous robot, one grand challenge is how to sense its surrounding environment effectively. The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with RGB-D Kinect camera sensor on robot, called RGB-D SLAM, has been developed for this purpose but some technical challenges must be addressed. Firstly, the efficiency of the algorithm cannot satisfy real-time requirements; secondly, the accuracy of the algorithm is unacceptable. In order to address these challenges, this paper proposes a set of novel improvement methods as follows. Firstly, the ORiented Brief (ORB) method is used in feature detection and descriptor extraction. Secondly, a bidirectional Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN) k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm is applied to feature match. Then, the improved RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) estimation method is adopted in the motion transformation. In the meantime, high precision General Iterative Closest Points (GICP) is utilized to register a point cloud in the motion transformation optimization. To improve the accuracy of SLAM, the reduced dynamic covariance scaling (DCS) algorithm is formulated as a global optimization problem under the G2O framework. The effectiveness of the improved algorithm has been verified by testing on standard data and comparing with the ground truth obtained on Freiburg University's datasets. The Dr Robot X80 equipped with a Kinect camera is also applied in a building corridor to verify the correctness of the improved RGB-D SLAM algorithm. With the above experiments, it can be seen that the proposed algorithm achieves higher processing speed and better accuracy. PMID:26287198

  10. A Fast Robot Identification and Mapping Algorithm Based on Kinect Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Shen, Peiyi; Zhu, Guangming; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is driving innovation in an ever-growing set of application domains such as intelligent processing for autonomous robots. For an autonomous robot, one grand challenge is how to sense its surrounding environment effectively. The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with RGB-D Kinect camera sensor on robot, called RGB-D SLAM, has been developed for this purpose but some technical challenges must be addressed. Firstly, the efficiency of the algorithm cannot satisfy real-time requirements; secondly, the accuracy of the algorithm is unacceptable. In order to address these challenges, this paper proposes a set of novel improvement methods as follows. Firstly, the ORiented Brief (ORB) method is used in feature detection and descriptor extraction. Secondly, a bidirectional Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN) k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm is applied to feature match. Then, the improved RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) estimation method is adopted in the motion transformation. In the meantime, high precision General Iterative Closest Points (GICP) is utilized to register a point cloud in the motion transformation optimization. To improve the accuracy of SLAM, the reduced dynamic covariance scaling (DCS) algorithm is formulated as a global optimization problem under the G2O framework. The effectiveness of the improved algorithm has been verified by testing on standard data and comparing with the ground truth obtained on Freiburg University’s datasets. The Dr Robot X80 equipped with a Kinect camera is also applied in a building corridor to verify the correctness of the improved RGB-D SLAM algorithm. With the above experiments, it can be seen that the proposed algorithm achieves higher processing speed and better accuracy. PMID:26287198

  11. A Fast Robot Identification and Mapping Algorithm Based on Kinect Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Shen, Peiyi; Zhu, Guangming; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-08-14

    Internet of Things (IoT) is driving innovation in an ever-growing set of application domains such as intelligent processing for autonomous robots. For an autonomous robot, one grand challenge is how to sense its surrounding environment effectively. The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with RGB-D Kinect camera sensor on robot, called RGB-D SLAM, has been developed for this purpose but some technical challenges must be addressed. Firstly, the efficiency of the algorithm cannot satisfy real-time requirements; secondly, the accuracy of the algorithm is unacceptable. In order to address these challenges, this paper proposes a set of novel improvement methods as follows. Firstly, the ORiented Brief (ORB) method is used in feature detection and descriptor extraction. Secondly, a bidirectional Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN) k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm is applied to feature match. Then, the improved RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) estimation method is adopted in the motion transformation. In the meantime, high precision General Iterative Closest Points (GICP) is utilized to register a point cloud in the motion transformation optimization. To improve the accuracy of SLAM, the reduced dynamic covariance scaling (DCS) algorithm is formulated as a global optimization problem under the G2O framework. The effectiveness of the improved algorithm has been verified by testing on standard data and comparing with the ground truth obtained on Freiburg University's datasets. The Dr Robot X80 equipped with a Kinect camera is also applied in a building corridor to verify the correctness of the improved RGB-D SLAM algorithm. With the above experiments, it can be seen that the proposed algorithm achieves higher processing speed and better accuracy.

  12. Multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W. )

    1992-02-01

    Measurements of forward multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490 GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. Jets were defined using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The measured rates are presented as function of W, the hadronic center-of-mass energy and the jet resolution parameter, [ital y][sub [ital cut

  13. Quasi-isochronous muon collection channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Neuffer, David; Johnson, Rolland P.

    2015-04-26

    Intense muon beams have many potential commercial and scientific applications, ranging from low-energy investigations of the basic properties of matter using spin resonance to large energy-frontier muon colliders. However, muons originate from a tertiary process that produces a diffuse swarm. To make useful beams, the swarm must be rapidly captured and cooled before the muons decay. In this STTR project a promising new concept for the collection and cooling of muon beams to increase their intensity and reduce their emittances was investigated, namely, the use of a nearly isochronous helical cooling channel (HCC) to facilitate capture of the muons into RF bunches. The muon beam can then be cooled quickly and coalesced efficiently to optimize the luminosity of a muon collider, or could provide compressed muon beams for other applications. Optimal ways to integrate such a subsystem into the rest of a muon collection and cooling system, for collider and other applications, were developed by analysis and simulation. The application of quasi-isochronous helical cooling channels (QIHCC) for RF capture of muon beams was developed. Innovative design concepts for a channel incorporating straight solenoids, a matching section, and an HCC, including RF and absorber, were developed, and its subsystems were simulated. Additionally, a procedure that uses an HCC to combine bunches for a muon collider was invented and simulated. Difficult design aspects such as matching sections between subsystems and intensity-dependent effects were addressed. The bunch recombination procedure was developed into a complete design with 3-D simulations. Bright muon beams are needed for many commercial and scientific reasons. Potential commercial applications include low-dose radiography, muon catalyzed fusion, and the use of muon beams to screen cargo containers for homeland security. Scientific uses include low energy beams for rare process searches, muon spin resonance applications, muon beams for

  14. A novel method based on physicochemical properties of amino acids and one class classification algorithm for disease gene identification.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Abdulaziz; Charkari, Nasrollah Moghadam

    2015-08-01

    Identifying the genes that cause disease is one of the most challenging issues to establish the diagnosis and treatment quickly. Several interesting methods have been introduced for disease gene identification for a decade. In general, the main differences between these methods are the type of data used as a prior-knowledge, as well as machine learning (ML) methods used for identification. The disease gene identification task has been commonly viewed by ML methods as a binary classification problem (whether any gene is disease or not). However, the nature of the data (since there is no negative data available for training or leaners) creates a major problem which affect the results. In this paper, sequence-based, one class classification method is introduced to assign genes to disease class (yes, no). First, to generate feature vector, the sequences of proteins (genes) are initially transformed to numerical vector using physicochemical properties of amino acid. Second, as there is no definite approach to define non-disease genes (negative data); we have attempted to model solely disease genes (positive data) to make a prediction by employing Support Vector Data Description algorithm. The experimental results confirm the efficiency of the method with precision, recall and F-measure of 79.3%, 82.6% and 80.9%, respectively. PMID:26146156

  15. Streaming algorithms for identification of pathogens and antibiotic resistance potential from real-time MinION(TM) sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Minh Duc; Ganesamoorthy, Devika; Elliott, Alysha G; Zhang, Huihui; Cooper, Matthew A; Coin, Lachlan J M

    2016-07-26

    The recently introduced Oxford Nanopore MinION platform generates DNA sequence data in real-time. This has great potential to shorten the sample-to-results time and is likely to have benefits such as rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection and identification of drug resistance. However, there are few tools available for streaming analysis of real-time sequencing data. Here, we present a framework for streaming analysis of MinION real-time sequence data, together with probabilistic streaming algorithms for species typing, strain typing and antibiotic resistance profile identification. Using four culture isolate samples, as well as a mixed-species sample, we demonstrate that bacterial species and strain information can be obtained within 30 min of sequencing and using about 500 reads, initial drug-resistance profiles within two hours, and complete resistance profiles within 10 h. While strain identification with multi-locus sequence typing required more than 15x coverage to generate confident assignments, our novel gene-presence typing could detect the presence of a known strain with 0.5x coverage. We also show that our pipeline can process over 100 times more data than the current throughput of the MinION on a desktop computer.

  16. Unsupervised algorithms for intrusion detection and identification in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2009-05-01

    In previous work by the author, parameters across network protocol layers were selected as features in supervised algorithms that detect and identify certain intrusion attacks on wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WSNs) carrying multisensor data. The algorithms improved the residual performance of the intrusion prevention measures provided by any dynamic key-management schemes and trust models implemented among network nodes. The approach of this paper does not train algorithms on the signature of known attack traffic, but, instead, the approach is based on unsupervised anomaly detection techniques that learn the signature of normal network traffic. Unsupervised learning does not require the data to be labeled or to be purely of one type, i.e., normal or attack traffic. The approach can be augmented to add any security attributes and quantified trust levels, established during data exchanges among nodes, to the set of cross-layer features from the WSN protocols. A two-stage framework is introduced for the security algorithms to overcome the problems of input size and resource constraints. The first stage is an unsupervised clustering algorithm which reduces the payload of network data packets to a tractable size. The second stage is a traditional anomaly detection algorithm based on a variation of support vector machines (SVMs), whose efficiency is improved by the availability of data in the packet payload. In the first stage, selected algorithms are adapted to WSN platforms to meet system requirements for simple parallel distributed computation, distributed storage and data robustness. A set of mobile software agents, acting like an ant colony in securing the WSN, are distributed at the nodes to implement the algorithms. The agents move among the layers involved in the network response to the intrusions at each active node and trustworthy neighborhood, collecting parametric values and executing assigned decision tasks. This minimizes the need to move large amounts

  17. Application of Gauss algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation to the identification of aquifer parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durbin, Timothy J.

    1983-01-01

    The Gauss optimization technique can be used to identify the parameters of a model of a groundwater system for which the parameter identification problem is formulated as a least squares comparison between the response of the prototype and the response of the model. Unavoidable uncertainty in the true stress on the prototype and in the true response of the prototype to that stress will introduce errors into the parameter identification problem. A method for evaluating errors in the predictions of future water levels due to errors in recharge estimates was demonstrated. The method involves a Monte Carlo simulation of the parameter identification problem and of the prediction problem. The steps in the method are: (1) to prescribe the distribution of the recharge estimates; (2) to use this distribution to generate random sets of recharge estimates; (3) to use the Gauss optimization technique to identify the corresponding set of parameter estimates for each set of recharge estimates; (4) to make the corresponding set of hydraulic head predictions for each set of parameter estimates; and (5) to examine the distribution of hydraulic head predictions and to draw appropriate conclusions. Similarly, the method can be used independently or simultaneously to estimate the effect on hydraulic head predictions of errors in the measured water levels that are used in the parameter identification problem. The fit of the model to the data that are used to identify parameters is not a good indicator of these errors. A Monte Carlo simulation of the parameter identification problem can be used, however, to evaluate the effects on water level predictions of errors in the recharge (and pumpage) data used in the parameter identification problem. (Lantz-PTT)

  18. An algorithmic approach to automated high-throughput identification of disulfide connectivity in proteins using tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Timothy; Singh, Rahul; Yen, Ten-Yang; Macher, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the pattern of disulfide linkages in a protein leads to a better understanding of its tertiary structure and biological function. At the state-of-the-art, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) can produce spectra of the peptides in a protein that are putatively joined by a disulfide bond. In this setting, efficient algorithms are required for matching the theoretical mass spaces of all possible bonded peptide fragments to the experimentally derived spectra to determine the number and location of the disulfide bonds. The algorithmic solution must also account for issues associated with interpreting experimental data from mass spectrometry, such as noise, isotopic variation, neutral loss, and charge state uncertainty. In this paper, we propose a algorithmic approach to high-throughput disulfide bond identification using data from mass spectrometry, that addresses all the aforementioned issues in a unified framework. The complexity of the proposed solution is of the order of the input spectra. The efficacy and efficiency of the method was validated using experimental data derived from proteins with with diverse disulfide linkage patterns.

  19. EAMCD: an efficient algorithm based on minimum coupling distance for community identification in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, GuoDong; Wu, Yan; Ren, YuanFang; Zhu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Community structure is an important feature in many real-world networks, which can help us understand structure and function in complex networks better. In recent years, there have been many algorithms proposed to detect community structure in complex networks. In this paper, we try to detect potential community beams whose link strengths are greater than surrounding links and propose the minimum coupling distance (MCD) between community beams. Based on MCD, we put forward an optimization heuristic algorithm (EAMCD) for modularity density function to welded these community beams into community frames which are seen as a core part of community. Using the principle of random walk, we regard the remaining nodes into the community frame to form a community. At last, we merge several small community frame fragments using local greedy strategy for the modularity density general function. Real-world and synthetic networks are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in detecting communities in complex networks.

  20. Solar collector parameter identification from unsteady data by a discrete-gradient optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Burmeister, L. C.; Bishop, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    A discrete-gradient optimization algorithm is used to identify the parameters in a one-node and a two-node capacitance model of a flat-plate collector. Collector parameters are first obtained by a linear-least-squares fit to steady state data. These parameters, together with the collector heat capacitances, are then determined from unsteady data by use of the discrete-gradient optimization algorithm with less than 10 percent deviation from the steady state determination. All data were obtained in the indoor solar simulator at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  1. Peptide identification via constrained multi-objective optimization: Pareto-based genetic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Malard, Joel M.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cannon, William R.; Mooney, Ryan W.; Baxter, Douglas J.

    2005-12-10

    Automatic data-base independent peptide identification from collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data is made difficult by large plateaus in the fitness landscapes of scoring functions and the fuzzy nature of the constraints that is due to noise in the data. Two different scoring functions are combined into a parallel multi-objective optimization framework.

  2. Identification of robust adaptation gene regulatory network parameters using an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Huang, X N; Ren, H P

    2016-01-01

    Robust adaptation is a critical ability of gene regulatory network (GRN) to survive in a fluctuating environment, which represents the system responding to an input stimulus rapidly and then returning to its pre-stimulus steady state timely. In this paper, the GRN is modeled using the Michaelis-Menten rate equations, which are highly nonlinear differential equations containing 12 undetermined parameters. The robust adaption is quantitatively described by two conflicting indices. To identify the parameter sets in order to confer the GRNs with robust adaptation is a multi-variable, multi-objective, and multi-peak optimization problem, which is difficult to acquire satisfactory solutions especially high-quality solutions. A new best-neighbor particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed to implement this task. The proposed algorithm employs a Latin hypercube sampling method to generate the initial population. The particle crossover operation and elitist preservation strategy are also used in the proposed algorithm. The simulation results revealed that the proposed algorithm could identify multiple solutions in one time running. Moreover, it demonstrated a superior performance as compared to the previous methods in the sense of detecting more high-quality solutions within an acceptable time. The proposed methodology, owing to its universality and simplicity, is useful for providing the guidance to design GRN with superior robust adaptation. PMID:27323043

  3. Design and performance of the upgrade of the CMS L1 muon trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortignon, P.

    2016-07-01

    After the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) LHC will run at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV, providing CMS with proton collisions at an expected luminosity which is almost double the LHC design value of 1034cm-2s-1, and almost three times the peak luminosity reached during Run1 of 7.7 ·1033cm-2s-1. The higher luminosity and center of mass energy of the LHC will raise the Level 1 (L1) muon trigger rate by almost a factor six for a given muon transverse momentum pT threshold. It is therefore necessary to increase the muon (pT) threshold to keep the trigger rate below 100 kHz, the maximum sustainable rate for the CMS detectors. An increase of the L1 trigger thresholds implies a lowering of the efficiency in detecting signals from new physics. The CMS muon trigger is upgraded using custom designed AMC boards, with more powerful FPGAs and larger memories. The upgraded CMS muon trigger system implements pattern recognition and MVA (Boosted Decision Tree) regression techniques in the trigger boards for muon pT assignment, drastically reducing the trigger rate and improving the trigger efficiency. The upgraded system design exploits the redundancy of the CMS muon detectors at a very early stage merging different muon detector information already at L1. The pileup subtracted information from the upgraded calorimeter trigger allows to require isolated muons already in the L1 algorithms. The upgrade trigger is also designed to include inputs from GEM, the phase 2 muon detector upgrade in the very high pseudorapidity region.

  4. Muon-muon and other high energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The first section looks at the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron, of lepton and photon-photon colliders for comparison. The second section discusses the physics considerations for the muon collider. The third section covers muon collider components. The fourth section is about the intersection region and detectors. In the fifth section, the authors discuss modifications to enhance the muon polarization`s operating parameters with very small momentum spreads, operations at energies other than the maximum for which the machine is designed, and designs of machines for different maximum energies. The final section discusses a Research and Development plan aimed at the operation of a 0.5 TeV demonstration machine by the year 2010, and of the 4 TeV machine by the year 2020.

  5. Muon motion in titanium hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempton, J. R.; Petzinger, K. G.; Kossler, W. J.; Schone, H. E.; Hitti, B. S.; Stronach, C. E.; Adu, N.; Lankford, W. F.; Reilly, J. J.; Seymour, E. F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Motional narrowing of the transverse-field muon spin rotation signal was observed in gamma-TiH(x) for x = 1.83, 1.97, and 1.99. An analysis of the data for TiH1.99 near room temperature indicates that the mechanism responsible for the motion of the muon out of the octahedral site is thermally activated diffusion with an attempt frequency comparable to the optical vibrations of the lattice. Monte Carlo calculations to simulate the effect of muon and proton motion upon the muon field-correlation time were used to interpret the motional narrowing in TiH1.97 near 500 K. The interpretation is dependent upon whether the Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound (BPP) theory or an independent spin-pair relaxation model is used to obtain the vacancy jump rate from proton NMR T1 measurements. Use of BPP theory shows that the field-correction time can be obtained if the rate of motion of the muon with respect to the rate of the motion for the protons is decreased. An independent spin-pair relaxation model indicates that the field-correlation time can be obtained if the rate of motion for the nearest-neighbor protons is decreased.

  6. Radio Frequency Identification Sensor Chips with Anticollision Algorithm for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple DNA Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazawa, Yoshiaki; Oonishi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kazuki; Nemoto, Ryo; Shiratori, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    A newly developed DNA measurement method for multiple single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing using a radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor chip was demonstrated. The RFID sensor chip monolithically integrates a sensor, amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and a passive wireless communication interface for receiving commands and transmitting data on a 2.5×2.5 mm2 silicon chip. For the simultaneous multitarget measurement, anticollision control and peak-power suppression are essential. To assign a unique identification number (UID) for the identification of multiple sensor chips, a reproducible random number generator circuit (RRG) was designed and installed on the chip. Peak-power consumption was reduced to 1018 µW by a clock gating of functional circuit blocks. Multiple SNP typing was carried out by simultaneously operating five RFID sensor chips (four with photosensors and one with a temperature sensor). The target DNA was captured on the sensor chips, and SNPs were detected by observing bioluminescence. Finally, the observed data were wirelessly transmitted to the reader.

  7. Muon-pair production by atmospheric muons in CosmoALEPH.

    PubMed

    Maciuc, F; Grupen, C; Hashim, N-O; Luitz, S; Mailov, A; Müller, A-S; Putzer, A; Sander, H-G; Schmeling, S; Schmelling, M; Tcaciuc, R; Wachsmuth, H; Ziegler, Th; Zuber, K

    2006-01-20

    Data from a dedicated cosmic ray run of the ALEPH detector were used in a study of muon trident production, i.e., muon pairs produced by muons. Here the overburden and the calorimeters are the target materials while the ALEPH time projection chamber provides the momentum measurements. A theoretical estimate of the muon trident cross section is obtained by developing a Monte Carlo simulation for muon propagation in the overburden and the detector. Two muon trident candidates were found to match the expected theoretical pattern. The observed production rate implies that the nuclear form factor cannot be neglected for muon tridents.

  8. A tracking rangefinder for muons from kaon decay

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.; Hart, G.W.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lee, D.M.; McKee, R.J.; Milner, E.C.; Sanders G.H.; Ziock, H.J.; Chapman, M.; Eckhouse, M.

    1988-01-01

    A muon rangefinder with tracking capabilities has been constructed as part of a search for the rare decay K/degree//sub L/ ..-->.. ..mu..e in experiment 791 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The rangefinder consisted of two identical arms, symmetric about the beamline, and was the final detector element in a spectrometer system. Each side of the rangefinder was comprised of 75 slabs of marble and 25 slabs of aluminum, each 7.62 cm thick, covering an acceptance area 225 cm wide by 301 cm high, with a total mass of 160 tons (145,454 kg). There were 13 pairs of x- and y-measuring proportional tube planes providing a nominal +-10% accuracy measurement of muon momentum. Altogether, there were 11,648 sense wires, operating at 2650 V, with equal parts argon (49.2%) and ethane (49.2%) gas, and a small amount (1.6% of the total gas) of ethyl alcohol flowing in the proportional tubes. During 850 hours of data collection, efficiency averaged 94% with 160-ns drift time at 1.5 ..mu..A threshold. For well-identified muon tracks, rangefinder muon identification was 99% efficient when penetration to at least 60% of the depth expected from spectrometer-derived momentum was required. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Blob identification algorithms applied to laser speckle to characterize optical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauble, Galen D.; Wayne, David T.

    2015-09-01

    Laser beam speckle resulting from atmospheric turbulence contains information about the propagation channel. The number and size of the speckle cells can be used to infer the spatial coherence and thus the Cn2 along a path. The challenge with this technique is the rapidly evolving speckle pattern and non-uniformity of the speckle cells. In this paper we investigate modern blob counting techniques used in biology, microscopy, and medical imaging. These methods are then applied to turbulent speckle images to estimate the number and size of the speckle cells. Speckle theory is reviewed for different beam types and different regimes of turbulence. Algorithms are generated to calculate path Cn2 from speckle information and path geometry. The algorithms are tested on speckle images from experimental data collected over a turbulent 1km path and compared to Cn2 measurements collected in parallel.

  10. Algorithm Summary and Evaluation: Automatic Implementation of Ringdown Analysis for Electromechanical Mode Identification from Phasor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuffner, Francis K.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Lin, Jenglung; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2010-02-28

    Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability. Prony analysis has been successfully applied on ringdown data to monitor electromechanical modes of a power system using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. To facilitate an on-line application of mode estimation, this paper develops a recursive algorithm for implementing Prony analysis and proposed an oscillation detection method to detect ringdown data in real time. By automatically detecting ringdown data, the proposed method helps guarantee that Prony analysis is applied properly and timely on the ringdown data. Thus, the mode estimation results can be performed reliably and timely. The proposed method is tested using Monte Carlo simulations based on a 17-machine model and is shown to be able to properly identify the oscillation data for on-line application of Prony analysis. In addition, the proposed method is applied to field measurement data from WECC to show the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Mapping the distribution of materials in hyperspectral data using the USGS Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; King, T.V.V.; Hoefen, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying materials by measuring and analyzing their reflectance spectra has been an important method in analytical chemistry for decades. Airborne and space-based imaging spectrometers allow scientists to detect materials and map their distributions across the landscape. With new satellite-borne hyperspectral sensors planned for the future, for example, HYSPIRI (HYPerspectral InfraRed Imager), robust methods are needed to fully exploit the information content of hyperspectral remote sensing data. A method of identifying and mapping materials using spectral-feature based analysis of reflectance data in an expert-system framework called MICA (Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm) is described in this paper. The core concepts and calculations of MICA are presented. A MICA command file has been developed and applied to map minerals in the full-country coverage of the 2007 Afghanistan HyMap hyperspectral data. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  12. Identification of viruses and viroids by next-generation sequencing and homology-dependent and homology-independent algorithms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingfa; Ding, Shou-Wei; Zhang, Yongjiang; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-01-01

    A fast, accurate, and full indexing of viruses and viroids in a sample for the inspection and quarantine services and disease management is desirable but was unrealistic until recently. This article reviews the rapid and exciting recent progress in the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies for the identification of viruses and viroids in plants. A total of four viroids/viroid-like RNAs and 49 new plant RNA and DNA viruses from 18 known or unassigned virus families have been identified from plants since 2009. A comparison of enrichment strategies reveals that full indexing of RNA and DNA viruses as well as viroids in a plant sample at single-nucleotide resolution is made possible by one NGS run of total small RNAs, followed by data mining with homology-dependent and homology-independent computational algorithms. Major challenges in the application of NGS technologies to pathogen discovery are discussed. PMID:26047558

  13. Muon-fluorine entanglement in fluoropolymers.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, T; Pratt, F L; Blundell, S J; McKenzie, I; Assender, H E

    2009-08-26

    We present the results of muon spin relaxation measurements on the fluoropolymers polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(vinyl fluoride) (PVF). Entanglement between the muon spin and the spins of the fluorine nuclei in the polymers allows us to identify the different muon stopping states that occur in each of these materials and provides a method of probing the local environment of the muon and the dynamics of the polymer chains.

  14. Law of Conservation of Muons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  15. Ionization cooling and muon dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Muon colliders potential to provide a probe for fundamental particle physics is very interesting. To obtain the needed collider luminosity, the phase space volume must be greatly reduced within the muon life time. The Ionization cooling is the preferred method used to compress the phase space and reduce the emittance to obtain high luminosity muon beams. The authors note that, the ionization losses results not only in damping, but also heating. They discuss methods used including moments methods, Focker Plank Equation, and Multi Particle Codes. In addition they show how a simple analysis permits us to estimate the most part of the optimal system parameters, such as optimal damping rates, length of the system and energy.

  16. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N. H.; Hashim, I. H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-08-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 108 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  17. An Astronomical Pattern-Matching Algorithm for Automated Identification of Whale Sharks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Holmberg, J.; Norman, B.

    2005-01-01

    The largest shark species alive today, whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) are rare and poorly studied. Directed fisheries, high value in international trade, a highly migratory nature, and generally low abundance make this species vulnerable to exploitation. Mark- and-recapture studies have provided our current understanding of whale shark demographics and life history, but conventional tagging has met with limited success. To aid in conservation and management efforts, and to further our knowledge of whale shark biology, an identification technology that maximizes the scientific value of individual sighting is needed.

  18. Identification and removal of non-meteorological echoes in dual-polarization radar data based on a fuzzy logic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo-Young; Lee, GyuWon; Park, Hong-Mok

    2015-09-01

    A major issue in radar quantitative precipitation estimation is the contamination of radar echoes by non-meteorological targets such as ground clutter, chaff, clear air echoes etc. In this study, a fuzzy logic algorithm for the identification of non-meteorological echoes is developed using optimized membership functions and weights for the dual-polarization radar located at Mount Sobaek. For selected precipitation and non-meteorological events, the characteristics of the precipitation and non-meteorological echo are derived by the probability density functions of five fuzzy parameters as functions of reflectivity values. The membership functions and weights are then determined by these density functions. Finally, the nonmeteorological echoes are identified by combining the membership functions and weights. The performance is qualitatively evaluated by long-term rain accumulation. The detection accuracy of the fuzzy logic algorithm is calculated using the probability of detection (POD), false alarm rate (FAR), and clutter-signal ratio (CSR). In addition, the issues in using filtered dual-polarization data are alleviated.

  19. A totally active scintillator calorimeter for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). Design and construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfandiyarov, Ruslan

    2013-12-01

    The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a totally active scintillator detector to be installed in the muon beam of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) [1] - the main R&D project for the future neutrino factory. It is aimed at measuring the properties of the low energy beam composed of muons, electrons and pions, performing the identification particle by particle. The EMR is made of 48 stacked layers alternately measuring the X- and the Y-coordinate. Each layer consists of 59 triangular scintillator bars. It is shown that the granularity of the detector permits to identify tracks and to measure particle ranges and shower shapes. The read-out is based on FPGA custom made electronics and commercially available modules. Currently it is being built at the University of Geneva.

  20. Superconducting magnet system for muon beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N.; Johnson, R.P.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Novitski, I.; Yonehara, K.; Zlobin, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    A helical cooling channel has been proposed to quickly reduce the six-dimensional phase space of muon beams for muon colliders, neutrino factories, and intense muon sources. A novel superconducting magnet system for a muon beam cooling experiment is being designed at Fermilab. The inner volume of the cooling channel is filled with liquid helium where passing muon beam can be decelerated and cooled in a process of ionization energy loss. The magnet parameters are optimized to match the momentum of the beam as it slows down. The results of 3D magnetic analysis for two designs of magnet system, mechanical and quench protection considerations are discussed.

  1. A comparative analysis of computational approaches and algorithms for protein subcomplex identification.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Nazar; Mora, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput AP-MS methods have allowed the identification of many protein complexes. However, most post-processing methods of this type of data have been focused on detection of protein complexes and not its subcomplexes. Here, we review the results of some existing methods that may allow subcomplex detection and propose alternative methods in order to detect subcomplexes from AP-MS data. We assessed and drew comparisons between the use of overlapping clustering methods, methods based in the core-attachment model and our own prediction strategy (TRIBAL). The hypothesis behind TRIBAL is that subcomplex-building information may be concealed in the multiple edges generated by an interaction repeated in different contexts in raw data. The CACHET method offered the best results when the evaluation of the predicted subcomplexes was carried out using both the hypergeometric and geometric scores. TRIBAL offered the best performance when using a strict meet-min score.

  2. Geostationary Communications Satellites as Sensors for the Space Weather Environment: Telemetry Event Identification Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlton, A.; Cahoy, K.

    2015-12-01

    Reliability of geostationary communication satellites (GEO ComSats) is critical to many industries worldwide. The space radiation environment poses a significant threat and manufacturers and operators expend considerable effort to maintain reliability for users. Knowledge of the space radiation environment at the orbital location of a satellite is of critical importance for diagnosing and resolving issues resulting from space weather, for optimizing cost and reliability, and for space situational awareness. For decades, operators and manufacturers have collected large amounts of telemetry from geostationary (GEO) communications satellites to monitor system health and performance, yet this data is rarely mined for scientific purposes. The goal of this work is to acquire and analyze archived data from commercial operators using new algorithms that can detect when a space weather (or non-space weather) event of interest has occurred or is in progress. We have developed algorithms, collectively called SEER (System Event Evaluation Routine), to statistically analyze power amplifier current and temperature telemetry by identifying deviations from nominal operations or other events and trends of interest. This paper focuses on our work in progress, which currently includes methods for detection of jumps ("spikes", outliers) and step changes (changes in the local mean) in the telemetry. We then examine available space weather data from the NOAA GOES and the NOAA-computed Kp index and sunspot numbers to see what role, if any, it might have played. By combining the results of the algorithm for many components, the spacecraft can be used as a "sensor" for the space radiation environment. Similar events occurring at one time across many component telemetry streams may be indicative of a space radiation event or system-wide health and safety concern. Using SEER on representative datasets of telemetry from Inmarsat and Intelsat, we find events that occur across all or many of

  3. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R. D.; Berg, J. S.; Kirk, H. G.; Palmer, R. B.; Stratkis, D.; Alexahin, Y.; Bross, A.; Gollwitzer, K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, M. A.; Yonehara, K.; Snopok, P.; Bogacz, A.; Roberts, T. J.; Delahaye, J. -P.

    2015-05-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  4. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Fellow

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gail G.; Snopak, Pavel; Bao, Yu

    2015-03-20

    Muons are fundamental particles like electrons but much more massive. Muon accelerators can provide physics opportunities similar to those of electron accelerators, but because of the larger mass muons lose less energy to radiation, allowing more compact facilities with lower operating costs. The way muon beams are produced makes them too large to fit into the vacuum chamber of a cost-effective accelerator, and the short muon lifetime means that the beams must be reduced in size rather quickly, without losing too many of the muons. This reduction in size is called "cooling." Ionization cooling is a new technique that can accomplish such cooling. Intense muon beams can then be accelerated and injected into a storage ring, where they can be used to produce neutrino beams through their decays or collided with muons of the opposite charge to produce a muon collider, similar to an electron-positron collider. We report on the research carried out at the University of California, Riverside, towards producing such muon accelerators, as part of the Muon Accelerator Program based at Fermilab. Since this research was carried out in a university environment, we were able to involve both undergraduate and graduate students.

  5. Muon g-2 Experiment Shimming

    ScienceCinema

    Kiburg, Brendan

    2016-07-12

    The Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab will use as its primary instrument a 52-foot-wide electromagnet that creates a precise magnetic field. In this video, Fermilab's Brendan Kiburg explains the lengthy process of finely "shimming" that magnetic field into shape.

  6. Cosmic muons, as messengers from the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Brancus, I. M.; Rebel, H.

    2015-02-24

    Penetrating from the outer space into the Earth atmosphere, primary cosmic rays are producing secondary radiation by the collisions with the air target subsequently decaying in hadrons, pions, muons, electrons and photons, phenomenon called Extensive air Shower (EAS). The muons, considered as the “penetrating” component, survive the propagation to the Earth and even they are no direct messenger of the Universe, they reflect the features of the primary particles. The talk gives a description of the development of the extensive air showers generating the secondary particles, especially the muon component. Results of the muon flux and of the muon charge ratio, (the ratio between the positive and the negative muons), obtained in different laboratories and in WILLI experiment, are shown. At the end, the contribution of the muons measured in EAS to the investigation of the nature of the primary cosmic rays is emphasized in KASCADE and WILLI-EAS experiments.

  7. CIRI: an efficient and unbiased algorithm for de novo circular RNA identification.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of abundant, stable and ubiquitous noncoding RNA molecules in animals. Comprehensive detection of circRNAs from high-throughput transcriptome data is an initial and crucial step to study their biogenesis and function. Here, we present a novel chiastic clipping signal-based algorithm, CIRI, to unbiasedly and accurately detect circRNAs from transcriptome data by employing multiple filtration strategies. By applying CIRI to ENCODE RNA-seq data, we for the first time identify and experimentally validate the prevalence of intronic/intergenic circRNAs as well as fragments specific to them in the human transcriptome. PMID:25583365

  8. NEUTRINO FACTORY BASED ON MUON-STORAGE-RINGS TO MUON COLLIDERS: PHYSICS AND FACILITIES.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-06-18

    Intense muon sources for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams ({nu} factory) represents very interesting possibilities. If successful, such efforts would significantly advance the state of muon technology and provides intermediate steps in technologies required for a future high energy muon collider complex. High intensity muon: production, capture, cooling, acceleration and multi-turn muon storage rings are some of the key technology issues that needs more studies and developments, and will briefly be discussed here. A muon collider requires basically the same number of muons as for the muon storage ring neutrino factory, but would require more cooling, and simultaneous capture of both {+-} {mu}. We present some physics possibilities, muon storage ring based neutrino facility concept, site specific examples including collaboration feasibility studies, and upgrades to a full collider.

  9. Research of online automatism identification algorithm based on image character sequence look-up table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yueping; Han, Yan; Li, Ruihong

    2008-02-01

    This paper proposes an effective approach for online inspecting and recognizing the assembly structure inside three-dimensional objects using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography system. During the offline study process, the paper obtains a gray image sequence of a standard sample in multiple circumferential orientations. Utilizing the idea of classifying identification, the paper locates and extracts different characters of different parts in each image of the sequence and establishes corresponding character sequence libraries. In online detection stage, the program finds the optimum solutions to all different target parts in the library with bisearch method and carries out exactness image matching with correlation coefficient weighted of multi-character via Bayes decision. Aiming at the issue of some objects may be occluded by others in a scene, the paper puts forward to rotate the product some certain angles and re-match. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the relationships of misjudgment ratio with product assembling tolerance, the size of target part and identifying velocity. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray automatism detection system has been developed and it is successfully applied in online detecting some axis symmetric products which assembly structures inside are complex.

  10. Multi-alphabet consensus algorithm for identification of low specificity protein-DNA interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Ulyanov, A V; Stormo, G D

    1995-01-01

    A method for the identification and characterization of protein-DNA interactions is presented. We have developed an approach for finding unknown multiple patterns that occur imperfectly in a set of several sequences. The pattern may contain letters from the nucleotide alphabet (A, C, G and T) including ambiguous characters (A/C, A/G, A/T; A/C/G, etc.). This method reveals weak DNA signals on an unaligned set of DNA fragments known to be functionally related and assumes no prior information on the sequences' alignment. It determines the locations of the signals from only the information intrinsic to the sequences themselves. We have applied this method to analyze the binding sites of cAMP receptor protein (CRP). The consensus based on these data are discussed and a comparison of the consensus with the crystal structure of CAP-DNA complex is presented. We further show that in a mixture of DNA sequences, containing binding sites for two different proteins, both classes of binding sites can be discovered simultaneously by this method. The DNA sequences of nucleosome cores from chicken erythrocyte and a set of the other known nucleosomal sequences show existence of symmetrical features in nucleosome-binding DNA sequences. We also show multi-alphabet patterns that can play a role in the phasing signal on the nucleosome DNA molecule and have compared the results with existing models of nucleosome positioning. PMID:7753637

  11. Algorithms for Identification of Nearly-Coincident Events in Calorimetric Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, B.; Ferri, E.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Maino, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Puiu, A.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.

    2016-07-01

    For experiments with high arrival rates, reliable identification of nearly-coincident events can be crucial. For calorimetric measurements to directly measure the neutrino mass such as HOLMES, unidentified pulse pile-ups are expected to be a leading source of experimental error. Although Wiener filtering can be used to recognize pile-up, it suffers from errors due to pulse shape variation from detector nonlinearity, readout dependence on subsample arrival times, and stability issues from the ill-posed deconvolution problem of recovering Dirac delta-functions from smooth data. Due to these factors, we have developed a processing method that exploits singular value decomposition to (1) separate single-pulse records from piled-up records in training data and (2) construct a model of single-pulse records that accounts for varying pulse shape with amplitude, arrival time, and baseline level, suitable for detecting nearly-coincident events. We show that the resulting processing advances can reduce the required performance specifications of the detectors and readout system or, equivalently, enable larger sensor arrays and better constraints on the neutrino mass.

  12. Discussion - Next Step for Fukushima Daiichi Muon Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Haruo

    2012-08-13

    Specification of Fukushima Daiichi Muon Tomography (FMT): (1) 18-feet (5.5-m) drift tube, 2-inch (5-cm) diameter; (2) 108 tubes per layer; (3) Unit layer = 2 layer (detection efficiency: 0.96 x 0.96 = 92%); (4) 12 or 16 layer per module; (5) 16 layers allows momentum analysis at 30% level; (6) 2 module per super module (5.5 x 11 m{sup 2}); and (7) FMT = 2 super module. By deploying MMT next to a research reactor, we will be able to measure the impact of low level radiation fields on muon tomography and reconstruction processes. Radiation level during reactor operation is {approx}50 {micro}Sv/h which provides similar radiation environment of inside the FMT radiation shield at Fukushima Daiichi. We will implement coincidence algorithm on the FPGA board.

  13. Models for identification of erroneous atom-to-atom mapping of reactions performed by automated algorithms.

    PubMed

    Muller, Christophe; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Aires-de-Sousa, João; Varnek, Alexandre

    2012-12-21

    Machine learning (SVM and JRip rule learner) methods have been used in conjunction with the Condensed Graph of Reaction (CGR) approach to identify errors in the atom-to-atom mapping of chemical reactions produced by an automated mapping tool by ChemAxon. The modeling has been performed on the three first enzymatic classes of metabolic reactions from the KEGG database. Each reaction has been converted into a CGR representing a pseudomolecule with conventional (single, double, aromatic, etc.) bonds and dynamic bonds characterizing chemical transformations. The ChemAxon tool was used to automatically detect the matching atom pairs in reagents and products. These automated mappings were analyzed by the human expert and classified as "correct" or "wrong". ISIDA fragment descriptors generated for CGRs for both correct and wrong mappings were used as attributes in machine learning. The learned models have been validated in n-fold cross-validation on the training set followed by a challenge to detect correct and wrong mappings within an external test set of reactions, never used for learning. Results show that both SVM and JRip models detect most of the wrongly mapped reactions. We believe that this approach could be used to identify erroneous atom-to-atom mapping performed by any automated algorithm.

  14. A real-time structural parametric identification system based on fiber optic sensing and neural network algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhishen; Xu, Bin

    2003-07-01

    A structural parametric identification strategy based on neural networks algorithms using dynamic macro-strain measurements in time domain from a long-gage strain sensor by fiber optic sensing technique such as Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor is developed. An array of long-gage sensors is bounded on the structure to measure reliably and accurately macro-strains. By the proposed methodology, the structural parameter of stiffness can be identified. A beam model with known mass distribution is considered as an object structure. Without any eigenvalue analysis or optimization computation, the structural parameter of stiffness can be identified. First an emulator neural network is presented to identify the beam structure in current state. Free vibration macro-strain responses of the beam structure are used to train the emulator neural network. The trained emulator neural network can be used to forecast the free vibration macro-strain response of the beam structure with enough precision and decide the difference between the free vibration macro-strain responses of other assumed structure with different structural parameters and those of the original beam structure. The root mean square (RMS) error vector is presented to evaluate the difference. Subsequently, corresponding to each assumed structure with different structural parameters, the RMS error vector can be calculated. By using the training data set composed of the structural parameters and RMS error vector, a parametric evaluation neural network is trained. A beam structure is considered as an existing structure, based on the trained parametric evaluation neural network, the stiffness of the beam structure can be forecast. It is shown that the parametric identification strategy using macro-strain measurement from long-gage sensors has the potential of being a practical tool for a health monitoring methodology applied to civil engineering structures.

  15. GEANT4 simulation of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-05-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly penetrative charged particles that are observed at the sea level with a flux of approximately one per square centimetre per minute. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering, which is exploited in the field of muon tomography to image shielded objects in a wide range of applications. In this paper, simulation studies are presented that assess the feasibility of a scintillating-fibre tracker system for use in the identification and characterisation of nuclear materials stored within industrial legacy waste containers. A system consisting of a pair of tracking modules above and a pair below the volume to be assayed is simulated within the GEANT4 framework using a range of potential fibre pitches and module separations. Each module comprises two orthogonal planes of fibres that allow the reconstruction of the initial and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. A likelihood-based image reconstruction algorithm has been developed that allows the container content to be determined with respect to the scattering density λ, a parameter which is related to the atomic number Z of the scattering material. Images reconstructed from this simulation are presented for a range of anticipated scenarios that highlight the expected image resolution and the potential of this system for the identification of high-Z materials within a shielded, concrete-filled container. First results from a constructed prototype system are presented in comparison with those from a detailed simulation. Excellent agreement between experimental data and simulation is observed showing clear discrimination between the different materials assayed throughout.

  16. Progress on muon{sup +}muon{sup {minus}} colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1997-05-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of muon colliders are discussed. Recent results of calculations of the radiation hazard from muon decay neutrinos are presented. This is a significant problem for machines with center of mass energy of 4 TeV, but of no consequence for lower energies. Plans are outlined for future theoretical and experimental studies. Besides continued work on the parameters of a 4 TeV collider, studies are now starting on a machine near 100 GeV that could be a factory for the s-channel production of Higgs particles. Proposals are also presented for a demonstration of ionization cooling and of the required targeting, pion capture, and phase rotation rf.

  17. Identification of spectrally similar materials using the USGS Tetracorder algorithm: The calcite-epidote-chlorite problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, J.B.; Bove, D.J.; Mladinich, C.S.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    A scheme to discriminate and identify materials having overlapping spectral absorption features has been developed and tested based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Tetracorder system. The scheme has been applied to remotely sensed imaging spectroscopy data acquired by the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument. This approach was used to identify the minerals calcite, epidote, and chlorite in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado. The study was motivated by the need to characterize the distribution of calcite in the watershed and assess its acid-neutralizing potential with regard to acidic mine drainage. Identification of these three minerals is difficult because their diagnostic spectral features are all centered at 2.3 ??m, and have similar shapes and widths. Previous studies overestimated calcite abundance as a result of these spectral overlaps. The use of a reference library containing synthetic mixtures of the three minerals in varying proportions was found to simplify the task of identifying these minerals when used in conjunction with a rule-based expert system. Some inaccuracies in the mineral distribution maps remain, however, due to the influence of a fourth spectral component, sericite, which exhibits spectral absorption features at 2.2 and 2.4 ??m that overlap the 2.3-??m absorption features of the other three minerals. Whereas the endmember minerals calcite, epidote, chlorite, and sericite can be identified by the method presented here, discrepancies occur in areas where all four occur together as intimate mixtures. It is expected that future work will be able to reduce these discrepancies by including reference mixtures containing sericite. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulation of large acceptance LINAC for muons

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, H; Kurennoy, S; Jason, A J

    2010-01-01

    There has been a recent need for muon accelerators not only for future Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders but also for other applications in industry and medical use. We carried out simulations on a large-acceptance muon linac with a new concept 'mixed buncher/acceleration'. The linac can accept pions/muons from a production target with large acceptance and accelerate muon without any beam cooling which makes the initial section of muon-linac system very compact. The linac has a high impact on Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider (NF/MC) scenario since the 300-m injector section can be replaced by the muon linac of only 10-m length. The current design of the linac consists of the following components: independent 805-MHz cavity structure with 6- or 8-cm-radius aperture window; injection of a broad range of pion/muon energies, 10-100 MeV, and acceleration to 150 - 200 MeV. Further acceleration of the muon beam are relatively easy since the beam is already bunched.

  19. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Dunn, Michael J.; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F.; Briggs, Dirk R.; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge’s accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems. PMID:25894763

  20. Cascaded evolutionary algorithm for nonlinear system identification based on correlation functions and radial basis functions neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Helon Vicente Hultmann; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos

    2016-02-01

    The present work introduces a procedure for input selection and parameter estimation for system identification based on Radial Basis Functions Neural Networks (RBFNNs) models with an improved objective function based on the residuals and its correlation function coefficients. We show the results when the proposed methodology is applied to model a magnetorheological damper, with real acquired data, and other two well-known benchmarks. The canonical genetic and differential evolution algorithms are used in cascade to decompose the problem of defining the lags taken as the inputs of the model and its related parameters based on the simultaneous minimization of the residuals and higher orders correlation functions. The inner layer of the cascaded approach is composed of a population which represents the lags on the inputs and outputs of the system and an outer layer represents the corresponding parameters of the RBFNN. The approach is able to define both the inputs of the model and its parameters. This is interesting as it frees the designer of manual procedures, which are time consuming and prone to error, usually done to define the model inputs. We compare the proposed methodology with other works found in the literature, showing overall better results for the cascaded approach.

  1. Analysis and Identification of Aptamer-Compound Interactions with a Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy and Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShaoPeng; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Jing; Cui, Weiren; Hu, Jerry; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The development of biochemistry and molecular biology has revealed an increasingly important role of compounds in several biological processes. Like the aptamer-protein interaction, aptamer-compound interaction attracts increasing attention. However, it is time-consuming to select proper aptamers against compounds using traditional methods, such as exponential enrichment. Thus, there is an urgent need to design effective computational methods for searching effective aptamers against compounds. This study attempted to extract important features for aptamer-compound interactions using feature selection methods, such as Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy, as well as incremental feature selection. Each aptamer-compound pair was represented by properties derived from the aptamer and compound, including frequencies of single nucleotides and dinucleotides for the aptamer, as well as the constitutional, electrostatic, quantum-chemical, and space conformational descriptors of the compounds. As a result, some important features were obtained. To confirm the importance of the obtained features, we further discussed the associations between them and aptamer-compound interactions. Simultaneously, an optimal prediction model based on the nearest neighbor algorithm was built to identify aptamer-compound interactions, which has the potential to be a useful tool for the identification of novel aptamer-compound interactions. The program is available upon the request. PMID:26955638

  2. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins.

    PubMed

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Dunn, Michael J; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F; Briggs, Dirk R; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge's accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems.

  3. The first muon beam from a new highly-intense DC muon source, MuSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nam Hoai; MuSIC Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    A new DC muon source, MuSIC, is now under construction at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Japan. The MuSIC adopts a new pion/muon collection system and a curved transport solenoid. These techniques are important in realization of future muon programs such as the muon to electron conversion experiments (COMET/Mu2e), neutrino factories, and muon colliders. The pion capture magnet and a part of the transport solenoid have been built and beam tests were carried out to assess the MuSIC's performance. Muon lifetime measurements and muonic X-ray measurements have been used for estimation of muon yield of the MuSIC. The result indicates that the MuSIC would be one of the most intense DC muon beams in the world.

  4. Photon scattering in muon collisions.

    SciTech Connect

    Klasen, M.

    1997-12-18

    The authors estimate the benefit of muon colliders for photon physics. They calculate the rate at which photons are emitted from muon beams in different production mechanisms. Bremsstrahlung is reduced, beamstrahlung disappears, and laser backscattering suffers from a bad conversion of the incoming to the outgoing photon beam in addition to requiring very short wavelengths. As a consequence, the cross sections for jet photoproduction in {mu}p and {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collisions are reduced by factors of 2.2 and 5 compared to ep and e{sup +} e{sup {minus}} machines. However, the cross sections remain sizable and measurable giving access to the photon and proton parton densities down to x values of 10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}4}.

  5. Introduction to Mini Muon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.

    2012-08-13

    Using a mini muon tracker developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory we performed experiments of simple landscapes of various materials, including TNT, 9501, lead, tungsten, aluminium, and water. Most common scenes are four two inches thick step wedges of different dimensions: 12-inch x 12-inch, 12-inch x 9-inch, 12-inch x 6-inch, and 12-inch x 3-inch; and a one three inches thick hemisphere of lead with spherical hollow, and a similar full lead sphere.

  6. A muon beam for cooling experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Andreas; Balbekov, V.I.; Broemmelsiek, Daniel Robert; Hu, M.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Within the framework of the Fermilab Muon Collider Task Force, the possibility of developing a dedicated muon test beam for cooling experiments has been investigated. Cooling experiments can be performed in a very low intensity muon beam by tracking single particles through the cooling device. With sufficient muon intensity and large enough cooling decrement, a cooling demonstration experiment may also be performed without resolving single particle trajectories, but rather by measuring the average size and position of the beam. This allows simpler, and thus cheaper, detectors and readout electronics to be used. This paper discusses muon production using 400MeV protons from the Linac, decay channel and beamline design, as well as the instrumentation required for such an experiment, in particular as applied to testing the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) proposed by Muons Inc.

  7. Status of the MANX muon cooling experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Hu, M.; Jansson, A.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Lopes, M.; Shiltsev, V.; Yarba, V.; Yu, M.; /Fermilab /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2008-06-01

    A demonstration experiment of six-dimensional (6D) phase space muon beam cooling is a key milestone on the roadmap toward to a real muon collider. In order to achieve this goal, they have designed the Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory Experiment (MANX) channel, which consists of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC). They discuss the status of the simulation study of the MANX in this document.

  8. Muon cooling in a quadrupole magnet channel

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David; Poklonskiy, A.; /Michigan State U.

    2007-10-01

    As discussed before,[1] a cooling channel using quadrupole magnets in a FODO transport channel can be used for initial cooling of muons. In the present note we discuss this possibility of a FODO focusing channel for cooling, and we present ICOOL simulations of muon cooling within a FODO channel. We explore a 1.5m cell-length cooling channel that could be used for the initial transverse cooling stage of a muon collider or neutrino factory.

  9. Materials science with muon spin rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    During this reporting period, the focus of activity in the Materials Science with Muon Spin Rotation (MSMSR) program was muon spin rotation studies of superconducting materials, in particular the high critical temperature and heavy-fermion materials. Apart from these studies, work was continued on the analysis of muon motion in metal hydrides. Results of these experiments are described in six papers included as appendices.

  10. The US Muon Accelerator Program (MAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan D.; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of High Energy Physics has recently approved a Muon Accelerator Program (MAP). The primary goal of this effort is to deliver a Design Feasibility Study for a Muon Collider after a 7 year R&D program. This paper presents a brief physics motivation for, and the description of, a Muon Collider facility and then gives an overview of the program. I will then describe in some detail the primary components of the effort.

  11. CMS muon detector and trigger performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung Keun; CMS Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    The CMS muon system has been in full operation since its commissioning with several million events of cosmic ray data. The muon system of the CMS experiment consists of three independent detectors: Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) both in the barrel and the endcap, Drift Tubes (DTs) in the barrel, and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) in the endcap region. In this report, the performance of each of these muon detectors and their trigger response are presented.

  12. Non-Invasive Imaging of Reactor Cores Using Cosmic Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Cosmic ray muons penetrate deeply in material, with some passing completely through very thick objects. This penetrating quality is the basis of two distinct, but related imaging techniques. The first measures the number of cosmic ray muons transmitted through parts of an object. Relatively fewer muons are absorbed along paths in which they encounter less material, compared to higher density paths, so the relative density of material is measured. This technique is called muon transmission imaging, and has been used to infer the density and structure of a variety of large masses, including mine overburden, volcanoes, pyramids, and buildings. In a second, more recently developed technique, the angular deflection of muons is measured by trajectory-tracking detectors placed on two opposing sides of an object. Muons are deflected more strongly by heavy nuclei, since multiple Coulomb scattering angle is approximately proportional to the nuclear charge. Therefore, a map showing regions of large deflection will identify the location of uranium in contrast to lighter nuclei. This technique is termed muon scattering tomography (MST) and has been developed to screen shipping containers for the presence of concealed nuclear material. Both techniques are a good way of non-invasively inspecting objects. A previously unexplored topic was applying MST to imaging large objects. Here we demonstrate extending the MST technique to the task of identifying relatively thick objects inside very thick shielding. We measured cosmic ray muons passing through a physical arrangement of material similar to a nuclear reactor, with thick concrete shielding and a heavy metal core. Newly developed algorithms were used to reconstruct an image of the ``mock reactor core,'' with resolution of approximately 30 cm.

  13. Status of MICE, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, Alan D.; MICE Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate transverse muon ionization cooling and is thus a strategic R&D project for future muon facilities. It is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the United Kingdom.

  14. Registration of the high energy muon bundles by the muon detector of the Ani gamma installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. A.; Eganov, V. S.; Nikolskaya, N. M.; Romakhin, V. A.

    The paper presents analyses of muon component of EAS measured with "GAMMA" installation at Mt. Aragats. It shows a strong dependence of muon lateral distribution shape and of total muon number from the age parameter of EAS electron-photon component. Obtained Nµ/Ne dependence demonstrates abrupt change in the knee region.

  15. Evaluation of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper for Identification of Gram-Positive Rods: Development of a Diagnostic Algorithm for the Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Bloemberg, Guido V.; Zbinden, Reinhard; Böttger, Erik C.; Hombach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Reported matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification rates of Gram-positive rods (GPR) are low compared to identification rates of Gram-positive cocci. In this study, three sample preparation methods were compared for MALDI-TOF MS identification of 190 well-characterized GPR strains: direct transfer, direct transfer-formic acid preparation, and ethanol-formic acid extraction. Using the interpretation criteria recommended by the manufacturer, identification rates were significantly higher for direct transfer-formic acid preparation and ethanol-formic acid extraction than for direct transfer. Reducing the species cutoff from 2.0 to 1.7 significantly increased species identification rates. In a subsequent prospective study, 215 clinical GPR isolates were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, and the results were compared to those for identification using conventional methods, with discrepancies being resolved by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene analysis. Using the direct transfer-formic acid preparation and a species cutoff of 1.7, congruencies on the genus and species levels of 87.4% and 79.1%, respectively, were achieved. In addition, the rate of nonidentified isolates dropped from 12.1% to 5.6% when using an extended database, i.e., the Bruker database amended by reference spectra of the 190 GPR of the retrospective study. Our data demonstrate three ways to improve GPR identification by the Bruker MALDI Biotyper, (i) optimize sample preparation using formic acid, (ii) reduce cutoff scores for species identification, and (iii) expand the database. Based on our results, we suggest an identification algorithm for the clinical laboratory combining MALDI-TOF MS with nucleic acid sequencing. PMID:24452159

  16. The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J.; Yoneharab, K.

    2010-03-01

    The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

  17. Magnets for Muon 6D Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland; Flanagan, Gene

    2014-09-10

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), an innovative technique for six-dimensional (6D) cooling of muon beams using a continuous absorber inside superconducting magnets, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. The implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires high field superconducting magnets that provide superimposed solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole fields. Novel magnet design concepts are required to provide HCC magnet systems with the desired fields for 6D muon beam cooling. New designs feature simple coil configurations that produce these complex fields with the required characteristics, where new high field conductor materials are particularly advantageous. The object of the program was to develop designs and construction methods for HCC magnets and design a magnet system for a 6D muon beam cooling channel. If successful the program would develop the magnet technologies needed to create bright muon beams for many applications ranging from scientific accelerators and storage rings to beams to study material properties and new sources of energy. Examples of these applications include energy frontier muon colliders, Higgs and neutrino factories, stopping muon beams for studies of rare fundamental interactions and muon catalyzed fusion, and muon sources for cargo screening for homeland security.

  18. Classification algorithm for subspecies identification within the Mycobacterium abscessus species, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fangous, Marie-Sarah; Mougari, Faiza; Gouriou, Stéphanie; Calvez, Elodie; Raskine, Laurent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Payan, Christopher; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève

    2014-09-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, as a species, has been increasingly implicated in respiratory infections, notably in cystic fibrosis patients. The species comprises 3 subspecies, which can be difficult to identify. Since they differ in antibiotic susceptibility and clinical relevance, developing a routine diagnostic tool discriminating Mycobacterium abscessus at the subspecies level is a real challenge. Forty-three Mycobacterium abscessus species isolates, previously identified by multilocus sequence typing, were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A subspecies identification algorithm, based on five discriminating peaks, was drawn up and validated by blind identification of a further 49 strains, 94% of which (n = 46) were correctly identified. Two M. abscessus subsp. massiliense strains were misidentified as M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, and for 1 other strain identification failed. Inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility tests were conclusive. This study presents, for the first time, a classification algorithm for MALDI-TOF MS identification of the 3 M. abscessus subspecies. MALDI-TOF MS proved effective in discriminating within the M. abscessus species and might be easily integrated into the workflow of microbiology labs. PMID:25009048

  19. Classification Algorithm for Subspecies Identification within the Mycobacterium abscessus Species, Based on Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fangous, Marie-Sarah; Mougari, Faiza; Gouriou, Stéphanie; Calvez, Elodie; Raskine, Laurent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Payan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, as a species, has been increasingly implicated in respiratory infections, notably in cystic fibrosis patients. The species comprises 3 subspecies, which can be difficult to identify. Since they differ in antibiotic susceptibility and clinical relevance, developing a routine diagnostic tool discriminating Mycobacterium abscessus at the subspecies level is a real challenge. Forty-three Mycobacterium abscessus species isolates, previously identified by multilocus sequence typing, were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A subspecies identification algorithm, based on five discriminating peaks, was drawn up and validated by blind identification of a further 49 strains, 94% of which (n = 46) were correctly identified. Two M. abscessus subsp. massiliense strains were misidentified as M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, and for 1 other strain identification failed. Inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility tests were conclusive. This study presents, for the first time, a classification algorithm for MALDI-TOF MS identification of the 3 M. abscessus subspecies. MALDI-TOF MS proved effective in discriminating within the M. abscessus species and might be easily integrated into the workflow of microbiology labs. PMID:25009048

  20. Imaging the Subsurface with Upgoing Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We assess the feasibility of imaging the subsurface using upgoing muons. Traditional muon imaging focuses on more-prevalent downgoing muons. Muons are subatomic particles capable of penetrating the earth's crust several kilometers. Downgoing muons have been used to image the Pyramid of Khafre of Giza, various volcanoes, and smaller targets like cargo. Unfortunately, utilizing downgoing muons requires below-target detectors. For aboveground objects like a volcano, the detector is placed at the volcano's base and the top portion of the volcano is imaged. For underground targets like tunnels, the detector would have to be placed below the tunnel in a deeper tunnel or adjacent borehole, which can be costly and impractical for some locations. Additionally, detecting and characterizing subsurface features like voids from tunnels can be difficult. Typical characterization methods like sonar, seismic, and ground penetrating radar have shown mixed success. Voids have a marked density contrast with surrounding materials, so using methods sensitive to density variations would be ideal. High-energy cosmic ray muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity. Their absorption rate depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, tomography using downgoing muons can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. We present results of exploratory work, which demonstrates that upgoing muon fluxes appear sufficient to achieve target detection within a few months. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Perspectives of a mid-rapidity dimuon program at the RHIC: a novel and compact muon telescope detector

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Collaboration; Ruan, L.; Lin, G.; Xu, Z.; Asselta, K.; Chen, H.F.; Christie, W.; Crawford, H.k.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Hallman, T.J.; Li, C.; Liu, J.; Llope, W.J.; Majka, R.; Nussbaum, T.; Scheblein, J.; Shao, M.; Soja, R.; Sun, Y.; Tang, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.

    2009-07-17

    We propose a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at mid-rapidity for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) and for the next generation of detectors at a possible electron-ion collider. We utilize large Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers with long readout strips (long-MRPC) in the detector design. The results from cosmic ray and beam tests show the intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a long-MRPC are 60-70 ps and {approx} 1 cm, respectively. The performance of the prototype muon telescope detector at STAR indicates that muon identification at a transverse momentum of a few GeV/c can be achieved by combining information from track matching with the MTD, ionization energy loss in the Time Projection Chamber, and time-of-flight measurements. A primary muon over secondary muon ratio of better than 1/3 can be achieved. This provides a promising device for future quarkonium programs and primordial dilepton measurements at RHIC. Simulations of the muon efficiency, the signal-to-background ratio of J/{psi}, the separation of {Upsilon} 1S from 2S+3S states, and the electron-muon correlation from charm pair production in the RHIC environment are presented.

  2. Track based software package for measurement of the energy deposited by muons in the calorimeters of the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachas, K.; Hassani, S.

    2008-07-01

    The measurement of the muon energy deposition in the calorimeters is an integral part of muon identification, track isolation and correction for catastrophic muon energy losses, which are the prerequisites to the ultimate goal of refitting the muon track using calorimeter information as well. To this end, an accurate energy loss measurement method in the calorimeters is developed which uses only Event Data Model tools and is used by the muon isolation tool in the official ATLAS software, in order to provide isolation related variables at the Event Summary Data level. The strategy of the energy deposition measurement by the track in the calorimeters is described. Inner Detector, or Muon Spectrometer tracks are extrapolated to each calorimeter compartment using existing tools, which take into account multiple scattering and bending due to the magnetic field. The energy deposited in each compartment is measured by summing-up cells, corrected for noise, inside a cone of desired size around the track. The results of the measured energy loss in the calorimeters with this method are validated with Monte Carlo single muon samples.

  3. Michel parameters in radiative muon decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzov, A. B.; Kopylova, T. V.

    2016-09-01

    Radiative muon and tau lepton decays are described within the model-independent approach with the help of generalized Michel parameters. The exact dependence on charged lepton masses is taken into account. The results are relevant for modern and future experiments on muon and tau lepton decays.

  4. CMS muon detector and trigger performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, Davide; CMS Collaboration

    2011-02-01

    In the CMS experiment at the LHC proton-proton collider, a key role will be played by the muon system that is embedded inside the iron yoke used to close the magnetic flux of the CMS solenoid. The muon system of the CMS experiment performs three main tasks: triggering of muons, identifying muons, and assisting the central tracker in order to measure the momentum and charge of high-pt muons in the pseudorapidity region |η|≤2.4. The system is composed by a central barrel and two closing endcaps. Three independent technologies are used to reconstruct and trigger muons: Drift Tubes (DT) in the barrel, Cathode Strips Chambers (CSC) in the endcaps and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in both barrel and endcap regions. All the detectors will contribute to the tracking and triggering of muons. Towards the end of 2008 and in 2009 the CMS experiment was commissioned with many millions of cosmic rays. These data have been fundamental to check the performance of the three sub-detectors and of the trigger response. In this paper the results in terms of the detection and trigger performance at the level of each sub-detector and at the level of the full muon system will be reported.

  5. Polarization Effects at a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-11-01

    For Muon Colliders, Polarization will be a useful tool if high polarization is achievable with little luminosity loss. Formulation and effects of beam polarization and luminosity including polarization effects in Higgs resonance studies are discussed for improving precision measurements and Higgs resonance ''discovery'' capability e.g. at the First Muon Collider (FMC).

  6. Neutron Production by Muon Spallation I: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Luu, T; Hagmann, C

    2006-11-13

    We describe the physics and codes developed in the Muon Physics Package. This package is a self-contained Fortran90 module that is intended to be used with the Monte Carlo package MCNPX. We calculate simulated energy spectra, multiplicities, and angular distributions of direct neutrons and pions from muon spallation.

  7. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-04-07

    In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.

  8. Reverse Emittance Exchange for Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    V. Ivanov, A. Afanasev, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, G.M. Wang, S.A. Bogacz, Y.S. Derbenev

    2009-05-01

    Muon collider luminosity depends on the number of muons in the storage ring and on the transverse size of the beams in collision. Ionization cooling as it is currently envisioned will not cool the beam sizes sufficiently well to provide adequate luminosity without large muon intensities. Six-dimensional cooling schemes will reduce the longitudinal emittance of a muon beam so that smaller high frequency RF cavities can be used for later stages of cooling and for acceleration. However, the bunch length at collision energy is then shorter than needed to match the interaction region beta function. New ideas to shrink transverse beam dimensions by lengthening each bunch will help achieve high luminosity in muon colliders. Analytic expressions for the reverse emittance exchange mechanism were derived, including a new resonant method of beam focusing.

  9. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1990-10-01

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed.

  10. Optimized data analysis algorithm for on-site chemical identification using a hand-held attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ron, Izhar; Zaltsman, Amalia; Kendler, Shai

    2013-12-01

    On-site identification of organic compounds in the presence of interfering materials using a field-portable attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectrometer is presented. Identification is based on an algorithm that compares the analyte's infrared absorption spectrum with the reference spectra. The comparison is performed at several predetermined frequencies, and a similarity value (distance) between the measured and the reference spectra is calculated either at each frequency individually, or, alternatively, the average distance for all frequencies is calculated. The examined frequencies are selected to give the best contrast between the target materials of interest. In this study, the algorithm was optimized to identify three common chemical warfare agents (CWAs): O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (VX), sarin (GB), and sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) (HD), in the presence of field-related interfering materials (fuels, water, and dust). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed in order to determine the probabilities for detection (PD) and for false alerts (PF). Challenging the algorithm with a set of data that contains mixtures of CWAs and interfering materials resulted in PD of 90% and PF of 0%, 0%, and 1% for VX, GB, and HD, respectively, using the average distance approach, which was found to be much more effective than analyzing each frequency individually. This finding was validated for all possible combinations of 2-7 peaks per material. It is suggested that this algorithm provides a reliable mean for the identification of a predetermined set of target analytes and interfering materials.

  11. Optimized data analysis algorithm for on-site chemical identification using a hand-held attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ron, Izhar; Zaltsman, Amalia; Kendler, Shai

    2013-12-01

    On-site identification of organic compounds in the presence of interfering materials using a field-portable attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectrometer is presented. Identification is based on an algorithm that compares the analyte's infrared absorption spectrum with the reference spectra. The comparison is performed at several predetermined frequencies, and a similarity value (distance) between the measured and the reference spectra is calculated either at each frequency individually, or, alternatively, the average distance for all frequencies is calculated. The examined frequencies are selected to give the best contrast between the target materials of interest. In this study, the algorithm was optimized to identify three common chemical warfare agents (CWAs): O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (VX), sarin (GB), and sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) (HD), in the presence of field-related interfering materials (fuels, water, and dust). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed in order to determine the probabilities for detection (PD) and for false alerts (PF). Challenging the algorithm with a set of data that contains mixtures of CWAs and interfering materials resulted in PD of 90% and PF of 0%, 0%, and 1% for VX, GB, and HD, respectively, using the average distance approach, which was found to be much more effective than analyzing each frequency individually. This finding was validated for all possible combinations of 2-7 peaks per material. It is suggested that this algorithm provides a reliable mean for the identification of a predetermined set of target analytes and interfering materials. PMID:24359653

  12. Method to rapidly tune the halo spoilers of the tevatron muon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, Y.; Scott, B.; Malensek, A.; Morfin, J.G.

    1986-09-01

    An active shield has been constructed which forms a sharp magnetic edge around the central core of useful muons and sweeps the envelope of halo muons (those that enter the aperture of an experiment without having passed through the momentum tagging system) radially away from beam center. Two types of halo scrapers have been employed in this shield: conventional toroidal magnets and a newly developed magnetic element called ''mupipe''. The mupipes have eight degrees of motion, so attempting to tune the mupipe system by systematic measurements over the full range of each coordinate would be impractical. An algorithm was formulated to take a small set of measured values and from them predict the required positions of the two sections of mupipe to obtain maximum beam and minimum halo. The algorithm measures the muon and halo yields at a representative subset of coordinated, employs a fitting program to find a functional form for the yields in terms of the coorinated, and maximizes that function in terms of the coordinates. The algorithm was tested by applying a Monte Carlo program to predict the halo and muon yield for a given orientation of the two movable sections of mupipe. (LEW)

  13. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, D.; Mufson, S.; Howard, B.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a composite model. Both models find τT = 1.52 μs for the decay time constant of the Ar2* triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the ``early'' light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE ≈ 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS ≈ 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value ~0.3 found by dark matter and double β-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation for background study of geophysical inspection with cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Taketa, Akimichi; Miyamoto, Seigo; Kasahara, Katsuaki

    2016-08-01

    Several attempts have been made to obtain a radiographic image inside volcanoes using cosmic-ray muons (muography). Muography is expected to resolve highly heterogeneous density profiles near the surface of volcanoes. However, several prior works have failed to make clear observations due to contamination by background noise. The background contamination leads to an overestimation of the muon flux and consequently a significant underestimation of the density in the target mountains. To investigate the origin of the background noise, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation. The main components of the background noise in muography are found to be low-energy protons, electrons and muons in case of detectors without particle identification and with energy thresholds below 1 GeV. This result was confirmed by comparisons with actual observations of nuclear emulsions. This result will be useful for detector design in future works, and in addition some previous works of muography should be reviewed from the view point of background contamination.

  15. Muon spin rotation research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Data from cyclotron experiments and room temperature studies of dilute iron alloys and iron crystals under strain were analyzed. The Fe(Mo) data indicate that the effect upon the contact hyperfine field in Fe due to the introduction of Mo is considerably less than that expected from pure dilution, and the muon (+) are attracted to the Mo impurity sites. There is a significant change in the interstitial magnetic field with Nb concentration. The Fe(Ti) data, for which precession could clearly be observed early only at 468K and above, show that the Ti impurities are attractive to muon (+), and the magnitude of B(hf) is reduced far beyond the amount expected from pure dilution. Changes in the intersitital magnetic field with the introduction of Cr, W, Ge, and Si are also discussed. When strained to the elastic limit, the interstitial magnetic field in Fe crystals is reduced by 33 gauss, and the relaxation rate of the precession signal increases by 47%.

  16. Muon implantation of metallocenes: ferrocene.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, Upali A; Grinter, Roger; Hubbard, Penny L; Aston, Georgina M; Stride, John A; Hopkins, Gareth A; Camus, Laure; Reid, Ivan D; Cottrell, Stephen P; Cox, Stephen F J

    2007-01-01

    Muon Spin Relaxation and Avoided Level Crossing (ALC) measurements of ferrocene are reported. The main features observed are five high field resonances in the ALC spectrum at about 3.26, 2.44, 2.04, 1.19 and 1.17 T, for the low-temperature phase at 18 K. The high-temperature phase at 295 K shows that only the last feature shifted down to about 0.49 T and a muon spin relaxation peak at about 0.106 T which approaches zero field when reaching the phase transition temperature of 164 K. A model involving three muoniated radicals, two with muonium addition to the cyclopentadienyl ring and the other to the metal atom, is postulated to rationalise these observations. A theoretical treatment involving spin-orbit coupling is found to be required to understand the Fe-Mu adduct, where an interesting interplay between the ferrocene ring dynamics and the spin-orbit coupling of the unpaired electron is shown to be important. The limiting temperature above which the full effect of spin-orbit interaction is observable in the muSR spectra of ferrocene was estimated to be 584 K. Correlation time for the ring rotation dynamics of the Fe-Mu radical at this temperature is 3.2 ps. Estimated electron g values and the changes in zero-field splittings for this temperature range are also reported.

  17. Higher-Order Systematic Effects in the Muon Beam-Spin Dynamics for Muon g-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnkovic, Jason; Brown, Hugh; Krouppa, Brandon; Metodiev, Eric; Morse, William; Semertzidis, Yannis; Tishchenko, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    The BNL Muon g-2 Experiment (E821) produced a precision measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment, where as the Fermilab Muon g-2 Experiment (E989) is an upgraded version of E821 that has a goal of producing a measurement with approximately 4 times more precision. Improving the precision requires a more detailed understanding of the experimental systematic effects, and so three higher-order systematic effects in the muon beam-spin dynamics have recently been found and estimated for E821. The beamline systematic effect originates from muon production in beamline spectrometers, as well as from muons traversing beamline bending magnets. The kicker systematic effect comes from a combination of the variation in time spent inside the muon storage ring across a muon bunch and the temporal structure of the storage ring kicker waveform. Finally, the detector systematic effect arises from a combination of the energy dependent muon equilibrium orbit in the storage ring, muon decay electron drift time, and decay electron detector acceptance effects. Brookhaven Natl Lab.

  18. The program in muon and neutrino physics: Superbeams, cold muon beams, neutrino factory and the muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raja et al.

    2001-08-08

    The concept of a Muon Collider was first proposed by Budker [10] and by Skrinsky [11] in the 60s and early 70s. However, there was little substance to the concept until the idea of ionization cooling was developed by Skrinsky and Parkhomchuk [12]. The ionization cooling approach was expanded by Neufer [13] and then by Palmer [14], whose work led to the formation of the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) [3] in 1995. The concept of a neutrino source based on a pion storage ring was originally considered by Koshkarev [18]. However, the intensity of the muons created within the ring from pion decay was too low to provide a useful neutrino source. The Muon Collider concept provided a way to produce a very intense muon source. The physics potential of neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings was investigated by Geer in 1997 at a Fermilab workshop [19, 20] where it became evident that the neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings needed for the muon collider were exciting on their own merit. The neutrino factory concept quickly captured the imagination of the particle physics community, driven in large part by the exciting atmospheric neutrino deficit results from the SuperKamiokande experiment. As a result, the MC realized that a Neutrino Factory could be an important first step toward a Muon Collider and the physics that could be addressed by a Neutrino Factory was interesting in its own right. With this in mind, the MC has shifted its primary emphasis toward the issues relevant to a Neutrino Factory. There is also considerable international activity on Neutrino Factories, with international conferences held at Lyon in 1999, Monterey in 2000 [21], Tsukuba in 2001 [22], and another planned for London in 2002.

  19. Muon simulation codes MUSIC and MUSUN for underground physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes two Monte Carlo codes dedicated to muon simulations: MUSIC (MUon SImulation Code) and MUSUN (MUon Simulations UNderground). MUSIC is a package for muon transport through matter. It is particularly useful for propagating muons through large thickness of rock or water, for instance from the surface down to underground/underwater laboratory. MUSUN is designed to use the results of muon transport through rock/water to generate muons in or around underground laboratory taking into account their energy spectrum and angular distribution.

  20. SNM detection by active muon interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, Andrew J; Miyadera, Haruo; Turchi, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Muons are charged particles with mass between the electron and proton and can be produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged-particle beam with a target. There are several distinct features of the muon interaction with matter attractive as a probe for detection of SNM at moderate ranges. These include muon penetration of virtually any amount of material without significant nuclear interaction until stopped by ionization loss in a short distance. When stopped, high-energy penetrating x-rays (in the range of 6 MeV for uranium,) unique to isotopic composition are emitted in the capture process. The subsequent interaction with the nucleus produces additional radiation useful in assessing SNM presence. A focused muon beam can be transported through the atmosphere, at a range limited mainly by beam-size growth through scattering. A muonbeam intensity of > 10{sup 9} /second is required for efficient interrogation and, as in any other technique, dose limits are to be respected. To produce sufficient muons a high-energy (threshold {approx}140 MeV) high-intensity (<1 mA) proton or electron beam is needed implying the use of a linear accelerator to bombard a refractory target. The muon yield is fractionally small, with large angle and energy dispersion, so that efficient collection is necessary in all dimensions of phase space. To accomplish this Los Alamos has proposed a magnetic collection system followed by a unique linear accelerator that provides the requisite phase-space bunching and allows an energy sweep to successively stop muons throughout a large structure such as a sea-going vessel. A possible maritime application would entail fitting the high-gradient accelerators on a large ship with a helicopter-borne detection system. We will describe our experimental results for muon effects and particle collection along with our current design and program for a muon detection system.

  1. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Haruo; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Greene, Steve J.; Milner, Edward C.; Morris, Christopher L.; Lukic, Zarija; Masuda, Koji; Perry, John O.

    2013-05-15

    A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  2. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, Haruo; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Greene, Steve J.; Lukić, Zarija; Masuda, Koji; Milner, Edward C.; Morris, Christopher L.; Perry, John O.

    2013-05-01

    A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  3. Systematic muon capture rates in PQRPA

    SciTech Connect

    Samana, A. R.; Sande, D.; Krmpotić, F.

    2015-05-15

    In this work we performed a systematic study of the inclusive muon capture rates for several nuclei with A < 60 using the Projected Random Quasi-particle Phase Approximation (PQRPA) as nuclear model, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are more robust for such a purpose.

  4. Upgrade of the CSC Endcap Muon Port Card at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, M.; Padley, P.

    2010-11-01

    The Muon Port Card (MPC) provides optical transmission of Level 1 Trigger primitives from 60 Endcap peripheral crates to the Track Finder (TF) crate within the CMS Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) sub-detector at the CMS experiment at CERN. The system has been in operation since 2008 and comprises 180 1.6 Gbps optical links. The proposed Super-LHC (SLHC) upgrade implies higher data volumes to be transmitted through the trigger chain and more sophisticated trigger algorithms. We expect to upgrade the MPC boards within the next few years to accommodate these requirements. The paper presents the first results of simulation and prototyping with the goal of improving the sorting algorithms and using parallel 12-channel optical links and a more powerful Virtex-5 FPGA.

  5. Muon-induced visual sensations.

    PubMed

    McNulty, P J; Pease, V P; Bond, V P

    1976-01-01

    The visual phenomena induced by the passage of a pulse of extremely relativistic muons through the vitreous humor have been studied at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The visual phenomena include flashes that range from small crescents of light in the peripheral field of view to large clouds of light that fill the entire field of view as well as bright flashes with dark centers. Three subjects have been exposed to date. Arguments are given to show that the physical mechanism behind these flashes is Cerenkov radiation. Standard psychophysical techniques are used to determine the threshold for muoninduced visual sensations for one subject. Comparison is made with his pion treshold measured under the same condition.

  6. Atmospheric muons and neutrinos, and the neutrino-induced muon flux underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion equation for neutrino-induced cosmic ray muons underground was solved. The neutrino-induced muon flux and charge ratio underground have been calculated. The calculated horizontal neutrino-induced muon flux in the energy range 0.1 - 10000 GeV is in agreement with the measured horizontal flux. The calculated vertical flux above 2 GeV is in agreement with the measured vertical flux. The average charge ratio of neutrino-induced muons underground was found to be mu+/mu- = 0.40.

  7. A COMPUTATIONALLY BASED IDENTIFICATION ALGORITHM FOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR LIGANDS: PART 2. EVALUATION OF A HERA BINDING AFFINITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The common reactivity pattern (CORE{A) approach is a 3-dimensional, quantitative structure activity relationship (3-D QSAR) technique that permits identification and quantification of specific global and local stereoelectronic characteristics associated with a chemical's biologic...

  8. MUON ACCELERATION WITH THE RACETRACK FFAG

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; EBERHARD, K.; SESSLER, A.

    2007-06-25

    Muon acceleration for muon collider or neutrino factory is still in a stage where further improvements are likely as a result of further study. This report presents a design of the racetrack non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (NS-FFAG) accelerator to allow fast muon acceleration in small number of turns. The racetrack design is made of four arcs: two arcs at opposite sides have a smaller radius and are made of closely packed combined function magnets, while two additional arcs, with a very large radii, are used for muon extraction, injection, and RF accelerating cavities. The ends of the large radii arcs are geometrically matched at the connections to the arcs with smaller radii. The dispersion and both horizontal and vertical amplitude fictions are matched at the central energy.

  9. Development of a Portable Muon Witness System

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Since understanding and quantifying cosmic ray induced radioactive backgrounds in copper and germanium are important to the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, methods are needed for monitoring the levels of such backgrounds produced in materials being transported and processed for the experiment. This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop a muon witness system as a one way of monitoring induced activities. The operational goal of this apparatus is to characterize cosmic ray exposure of materials. The cosmic ray flux at the Earth’s surface is composed of several types of particles, including neutrons, muons, gamma rays and protons. These particles induce nuclear reactions, generating isotopes that contribute to the radiological background. Underground, the main mechanism of activation is by muon produced spallation neutrons since the hadron component of cosmic rays is removed at depths greater than a few tens of meters. This is a sub-dominant contributor above ground, but muons become predominant in underground experiments. For low-background experiments cosmogenic production of certain isotopes, such as 68Ge and 60Co, must be accounted for in the background budgets. Muons act as minimum ionizing particles, depositing a fixed amount of energy per unit length in a material, and have a very high penetrating power. Using muon flux measurements as a “witness” for the hadron flux, the cosmogenic induced activity can be quantified by correlating the measured muon flux and known hadronic production rates. A publicly available coincident muon cosmic ray detector design, the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector (BLCRD), assembled by Juniata College, is evaluated in this work. The performance of the prototype is characterized by assessing its muon flux measurements. This evaluation is done by comparing data taken in identical scenarios with other cosmic ray telescopes. The prototype is made of two plastic scintillator paddles with

  10. Muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Dupays, Arnaud

    2005-11-15

    Exact three-dimensional quantum calculations of muon exchange between muonic hydrogen and carbon for collision energies in the range 10{sup -3}-100 eV, are presented. Muon transfer rates at thermal and epithermal energies are calculated including partial waves up to J=7. The relative populations of the final states are also given. The results show that above 1 eV, the relative population of ({mu}C){sub n=5}{sup 5+} can reach up to 30%.

  11. Preparations for Muon Experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.; Popovic, M.; Prebys, E.; Ankenbrandt, C.; /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2009-05-01

    The use of existing Fermilab facilities to provide beams for two muon experiments--the Muon to Electron Conversion Experiment (Mu2e) and the New g-2 Experiment--is under consideration. Plans are being pursued to perform these experiments following the completion of the Tevatron Collider Run II, utilizing the beam lines and storage rings used today for antiproton accumulation without considerable reconfiguration.

  12. Experimental study on active vibration control using genetic algorithm-based system identification and optimized positive position feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orszulik, Ryan R.; Shan, Jinjun

    2012-12-01

    A genetic algorithm is implemented to identify the transfer function of an experimental system consisting of a flexible manipulator with a collocated piezoelectric sensor/actuator pair. A multi-mode positive position feedback controller is then designed based upon the identified transfer function. To this end, the same iteratively implemented genetic algorithm is used to optimize all controller parameters by minimization of the closed loop H∞-norm. The designed controller is then applied for vibration suppression on the experimental system.

  13. Muon Emittance Exchange with a Potato Slicer

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Hart, T. L.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Oliveros, S. J.; Perera, L. P.; Neuffer, D. V.

    2015-04-15

    We propose a novel scheme for final muon ionization cooling with quadrupole doublets followed by emittance exchange in vacuum to achieve the small beam sizes needed by a muon collider. A flat muon beam with a series of quadrupole doublet half cells appears to provide the strong focusing required for final cooling. Each quadrupole doublet has a low beta region occupied by a dense, low Z absorber. After final cooling, normalized transverse, longitudinal, and angular momentum emittances of 0.100, 2.5, and 0.200 mm-rad are exchanged into 0.025, 70, and 0.0 mm-rad. A skew quadrupole triplet transforms a round muon bunch with modest angular momentum into a flat bunch with no angular momentum. Thin electrostatic septa efficiently slice the flat bunch into 17 parts. The 17 bunches are interleaved into a 3.7 meter long train with RF deflector cavities. Snap bunch coalescence combines the muon bunch train longitudinally in a 21 GeV ring in 55 µs, one quarter of a synchrotron oscillation period. A linear long wavelength RF bucket gives each bunch a different energy causing the bunches to drift in the ring until they merge into one bunch and can be captured in a short wavelength RF bucket with a 13% muon decay loss and a packing fraction as high as 87 %.

  14. High intensity muon beam source for neutrino beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal Sayed, Hisham

    2015-09-01

    High intensity muon beams are essential for Muon accelerators like Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders. In this study we report on a global optimization of the muon beam production and capture based on end-to-end simulations of the Muon Front End. The study includes the pion beam production target geometry, capture field profile, and forming muon beam into microbunches for further acceleration. The interplay between the transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics during the capture and transport of muon beam is evaluated and discussed. The goal of the optimization is to provide a set of design parameters that delivers high intensity muon beam that could be fit within the acceptance of a muon beam accelerator.

  15. The Muon Science Facility at the JKJ Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Y.; Nishiyama, K.; Sakamoto, S.; Shimomura, K.; Kadono, R.; Higemoto, W.; Fukuchi, K.; Makimura, S.; Beveridge, J. L.; Ishida, K.; Matsuzaki, T.; Watanabe, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Kawamura, N.; Nagamine, K.

    2001-12-01

    The muon science facility is one of the experimental arenas of the JKJ project, which was recently approved for construction in a period from 2001 to 2006, as well as neutron science, particle and nuclear physics, neutrino physics and nuclear transmutation science. The muon science experimental area is planned to be located in the integrated building of the facility for the materials and life science study. One muon target will be installed upstream of the neutron target in a period of phase 1. The beam line and facility are designed to allow the later installation of a 2nd muon target in a more upstream location. The detailed design for electricity, cooling water, primary proton beam line, one muon target and secondary beam lines (a superconducting solenoid decay muon channel, a dedicated surface muon channel, and an ultra slow muon channel) is underway. In the symposium, a latest status of the muon science facility at JKJ project will be reported.

  16. Investigation of the relative abundance of heavy versus light nuclei in primary cosmic rays using underground muon bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaralingam, N.

    1993-06-08

    We study multiple muon events (muon bundles) recorded underground at a depth of 2090 mwe. To penetrate to this depth, the muons must have energies above 0.8 TeV at the Earth`s surface; the primary cosmic ray nuclei which give rise to the observed muon bundles have energies at incidence upon the upper atmosphere of 10 to 10{sup 5}TeV. The events are detected using the Soudan 2 experiment`s fine grained tracking calorimeter which is surrounded by a 14 m {times}10 m {times} 31 m proportional tube array (the ``active shield``). Muon bundles which have at least one muon traversing the calorimeter, are reconstructed using tracks in the calorimeter together with hit patterns in the proportional tube shield. All ionization pulses are required to be coincident within 3 microseconds. A goal of this study is to investigate the relative nuclear abundances in the primary cosmic radiation around the ``knee`` region (10{sup 3} {minus} 10{sup 4} TeV) of the incident energy spectrum. Four models for the nuclear composition of cosmic rays are considered: The Linsley model, the Constant Mass Composition model (CMC), the Maryland model and the Proton-poor model. A Monte Carlo which incorporates one model at a time is used to simulate events which are then reconstructed using the same computer algorithms that are used for the data. Identical cuts and selections are applied to the data and to the simulated events.

  17. Phase Rotation of Muon Beams for Producing Intense Low-Energy Muon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Bao, Y.; Hansen, G.

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy muon beams are useful for rare decay searches, which provide access to new physics that cannot be addressed at high-energy colliders. However, muons are produced within a broad energy spread unmatched to the low-energy required. In this paper we outline a phase rotation method to significantly increase the intensity of low-energy muons. The muons are produced from a short pulsed proton driver, and develop a time-momentum correlation in a drift space following production. A series of rf cavities is used to bunch the muons and phase-energy rotate the bunches to a momentum of around 100 MeV/c. Then another group of rf cavities is used to decelerate the muon bunches to low-energy. This obtains ~0.1 muon per 8 GeV proton, which is significantly higher than currently planned Mu2e experiments, and would enable a next generation of rare decay searches, and other intense muon beam applications.

  18. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Low Energy Muon Science: LEMS`93

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, M.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains papers on research with low energy muons. Topics cover fundamental electroweak physics; muonic atoms and molecules, and muon catalyzed fusion; muon spin research; and muon facilities. These papers have been indexed and cataloged separately.

  19. Muon-fluorine entangled states in molecular magnets.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, T; Blundell, S J; Baker, P J; Brooks, M L; Hayes, W; Pratt, F L; Manson, J L; Conner, M M; Schlueter, J A

    2007-12-31

    The information accessible from a muon-spin relaxation experiment can be limited due to a lack of knowledge of the precise muon stopping site. We demonstrate here the possibility of localizing a spin polarized muon in a known stopping state in a molecular material containing fluorine. The muon-spin precession that results from the entangled nature of the muon spin and surrounding nuclear spins is sensitive to the nature of the stopping site. We use this property to identify three classes of sites that occur in molecular magnets and describe the extent to which the muon distorts its surroundings.

  20. R&D Toward a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2011-03-20

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in R&D towards a neutrino factory and muon collider. The U.S. Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) has been formed recently to expedite the R&D efforts. This paper will review the U.S. MAP R&D programs for a neutrino factory and muon collider. Muon ionization cooling research is the key element of the program. The first muon ionization cooling demonstration experiment, MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment), is under construction now at RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) in the UK. The current status of MICE will be described.

  1. Study of muon-induced neutron production using accelerator muon beam at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Y.; Lin, C. J.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Draeger, E.; White, C. G.; Luk, K. B.; Steiner, H.

    2015-08-17

    Cosmogenic muon-induced neutrons are one of the most problematic backgrounds for various underground experiments for rare event searches. In order to accurately understand such backgrounds, experimental data with high-statistics and well-controlled systematics is essential. We performed a test experiment to measure muon-induced neutron production yield and energy spectrum using a high-energy accelerator muon beam at CERN. We successfully observed neutrons from 160 GeV/c muon interaction on lead, and measured kinetic energy distributions for various production angles. Works towards evaluation of absolute neutron production yield is underway. This work also demonstrates that the setup is feasible for a future large-scale experiment for more comprehensive study of muon-induced neutron production.

  2. Negative muon chemistry: the quantum muon effect and the finite nuclear mass effect.

    PubMed

    Posada, Edwin; Moncada, Félix; Reyes, Andrés

    2014-10-01

    The any-particle molecular orbital method at the full configuration interaction level has been employed to study atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. In this approach electrons and muons are described as quantum waves. A scheme has been proposed to discriminate nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on chemical properties of muonic and regular atoms. This study reveals that the differences in the ionization potentials of isoelectronic muonic atoms and regular atoms are of the order of millielectronvolts. For the valence ionizations of muonic helium and muonic lithium the nuclear mass effects are more important. On the other hand, for 1s ionizations of muonic atoms heavier than beryllium, the quantum muon effects are more important. In addition, this study presents an assessment of the nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on the barrier of Heμ + H2 reaction.

  3. Interaction of cosmic ray muons with spent nuclear fuel dry casks and determination of lower detection limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Choi, C. K.; Tsoukalas, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    The potential non-proliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel sealed in dry casks interacting continuously with the naturally generated cosmic ray muons is investigated. Treatments on the muon RMS scattering angle by Moliere, Rossi-Greisen, Highland and, Lynch-Dahl were analyzed and compared with simplified Monte Carlo simulations. The Lynch-Dahl expression has the lowest error and appears to be appropriate when performing conceptual calculations for high-Z, thick targets such as dry casks. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate dry casks with various fuel loadings and scattering variance estimates for each case were obtained. The scattering variance estimation was shown to be unbiased and using Chebyshev's inequality, it was found that 106 muons will provide estimates of the scattering variances that are within 1% of the true value at a 99% confidence level. These estimates were used as reference values to calculate scattering distributions and evaluate the asymptotic behavior for small variations on fuel loading. It is shown that the scattering distributions between a fully loaded dry cask and one with a fuel assembly missing initially overlap significantly but their distance eventually increases with increasing number of muons. One missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the distributions which is the case of 100,000 muons. This indicates that the removal of a standard fuel assembly can be identified using muons providing that enough muons are collected. A Bayesian algorithm was developed to classify dry casks and provide a decision rule that minimizes the risk of making an incorrect decision. The algorithm performance was evaluated and the lower detection limit was determined.

  4. Muon Acceleration - RLA and FFAG

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Alex

    2011-10-01

    Various acceleration schemes for muons are presented. The overall goal of the acceleration systems: large acceptance acceleration to 25 GeV and 'beam shaping' can be accomplished by various fixed field accelerators at different stages. They involve three superconducting linacs: a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair of multi-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) and finally a non-scaling FFAG ring. The present baseline acceleration scenario has been optimized to take maximum advantage of appropriate acceleration scheme at a given stage. The solenoid based Pre-accelerator offers very large acceptance and facilitates correction of energy gain across the bunch and significant longitudinal compression trough induced synchrotron motion. However, far off-crest acceleration reduces the effective acceleration gradient and adds complexity through the requirement of individual RF phase control for each cavity. The RLAs offer very efficient usage of high gradient superconducting RF and ability to adjust path-length after each linac pass through individual return arcs with uniformly periodic FODO optics suitable for chromatic compensation of emittance dilution with sextupoles. However, they require spreaders/recombiners switchyards at both linac ends and significant total length of the arcs. The non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) ring combines compactness with very large chromatic acceptance (twice the injection energy) and it allows for large number of passes through the RF (at least eight, possibly as high as 15).

  5. Jet rates from deep inelastic muon scattering in the W range of 15 to 35 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.

    1991-08-01

    Production rates of forward jets in deep inelastic muon scattering are studied using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The evolution of di-jet rates with W is compared to QCD first order predictions in the W range of 15 to 25 GeV. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  6. MAGIC: an automated N-linked glycoprotein identification tool using a Y1-ion pattern matching algorithm and in silico MS² approach.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Ke-Shiuan; Chen, Chen-Chun; Lih, T Mamie; Cheng, Cheng-Wei; Su, Wan-Chih; Chang, Chun-Hao; Cheng, Chia-Ying; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Chen, Yu-Ju; Sung, Ting-Yi

    2015-02-17

    Glycosylation is a highly complex modification influencing the functions and activities of proteins. Interpretation of intact glycopeptide spectra is crucial but challenging. In this paper, we present a mass spectrometry-based automated glycopeptide identification platform (MAGIC) to identify peptide sequences and glycan compositions directly from intact N-linked glycopeptide collision-induced-dissociation spectra. The identification of the Y1 (peptideY0 + GlcNAc) ion is critical for the correct analysis of unknown glycoproteins, especially without prior knowledge of the proteins and glycans present in the sample. To ensure accurate Y1-ion assignment, we propose a novel algorithm called Trident that detects a triplet pattern corresponding to [Y0, Y1, Y2] or [Y0-NH3, Y0, Y1] from the fragmentation of the common trimannosyl core of N-linked glycopeptides. To facilitate the subsequent peptide sequence identification by common database search engines, MAGIC generates in silico spectra by overwriting the original precursor with the naked peptide m/z and removing all of the glycan-related ions. Finally, MAGIC computes the glycan compositions and ranks them. For the model glycoprotein horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a 5-glycoprotein mixture, a 2- to 31-fold increase in the relative intensities of the peptide fragments was achieved, which led to the identification of 7 tryptic glycopeptides from HRP and 16 glycopeptides from the mixture via Mascot. In the HeLa cell proteome data set, MAGIC processed over a thousand MS(2) spectra in 3 min on a PC and reported 36 glycopeptides from 26 glycoproteins. Finally, a remarkable false discovery rate of 0 was achieved on the N-glycosylation-free Escherichia coli data set. MAGIC is available at http://ms.iis.sinica.edu.tw/COmics/Software_MAGIC.html .

  7. Toward a QCD analysis of jet rates in deep-inelastic Muon-Proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic Muon-Proton scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates defined by the JADE clustering algorithm are compared to perturbative Quantum chromodynamics (PQCD) and different Monte Carlo model predictions. The applicability of the jet-parton duality hypothesis is studied. We obtain hadronic jet rates which are approximately a factor of two higher than PQCD predictions at the parton level. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  8. Spectral identification of minerals using imaging spectrometry data: Evaluating the effects of signal to noise and spectral resolution using the tricorder algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swayze, Gregg A.; Clark, Roger N.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid development of sophisticated imaging spectrometers and resulting flood of imaging spectrometry data has prompted a rapid parallel development of spectral-information extraction technology. Even though these extraction techniques have evolved along different lines (band-shape fitting, endmember unmixing, near-infrared analysis, neural-network fitting, and expert systems to name a few), all are limited by the spectrometer's signal to noise (S/N) and spectral resolution in producing useful information. This study grew from a need to quantitatively determine what effects these parameters have on our ability to differentiate between mineral absorption features using a band-shape fitting algorithm. We chose to evaluate the AVIRIS, HYDICE, MIVIS, GERIS, VIMS, NIMS, and ASTER instruments because they collect data over wide S/N and spectral-resolution ranges. The study evaluates the performance of the Tricorder algorithm, in differentiating between mineral spectra in the 0.4-2.5 micrometer spectral region. The strength of the Tricorder algorithm is in its ability to produce an easily understood comparison of band shape that can concentrate on small relevant portions of the spectra, giving it an advantage over most unmixing schemes, and in that it need not spend large amounts of time reoptimizing each time a new mineral component is added to its reference library, as is the case with neural-network schemes. We believe the flexibility of the Tricorder algorithm is unparalleled among spectral-extraction techniques and that the results from this study, although dealing with minerals, will have direct applications to spectral identification in other disciplines.

  9. New concept for muon catalyzed fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T.; Eliezer, S.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1988-12-27

    A new concept for a muon catalyzed pure fusion reactor is considered. To our best knowledge this constitutes a first plausible configuration to make energy gain without resorting to fissile matter breeding by fusion neutrons, although a number of crucial physical and engineering questions as well as details have yet to be resolved. A bundle of DT ice ribbons (with a filling factor f) is immersed in the magnetic field. The overall magnetic field in the mirror configuration confines pions created by the injected high energy deuterium (or tritium) beam. The DT materials is long enough to be inertially confined along the axis of mirror. The muon catalyzed mesomolecule formation and nuclear fusion take place in the DT target, leaving ..cap alpha../sup + +/ and occasionally (..cap alpha mu..)/sup +/ (muon sticking). The stuck muons are stripped fast enough in the target, while they are accelerated by ion cyclotron resonance heating when they circulate in the vaccum (or dilute plasma). The ribbon is (eventually) surrounded and pressure-confined by this coronal plasma, whereas the corona is magnetically confined. The overall bundle of ribbons (a pellet) is inertially confined. This configuration may also be of use for stripping stuck muons via the plasma mechanism of Menshikov and Ponomarev.

  10. Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Guidman, K.K.; Strait, J.B.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Optimization of pion and muon production/collection for neutrino factories and muon colliders is described along with recent developments of the MARS15 code event generators and effects influencing the choice of the optimal beam energy.

  11. Showering cosmogenic muons in a large liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Marco; Evslin, Jarah; Ciuffoli, Emilio; Zhang, Xinmin

    2014-09-01

    We present the results of FLUKA simulations of the propagation of cosmogenic muons in a 20 kton spherical liquid scintillator detector underneath 700 to 900 meters of rock. A showering muon is one which deposits at least 3 GeV in the detector in addition to ionization energy. We find that 20 percent of muons are showering and a further 11 percent of muon events are muon bundles, of which more than one muon enters the detector. In this range the showering and bundle fractions are robust against changes in the depth and topography, thus the total shower and bundle rate for a given experiment can be obtained by combining our results with an estimate for the total muon flux. One consequence is that a straightforward adaptation of the full detector showering muon cuts used by KamLAND to JUNO or RENO 50 would yield a nearly vanishing detector efficiency.

  12. Identification and Discrimination of Brands of Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Neural Networks Algorithm in Forensic Research

    PubMed Central

    Ugena, L.; Moncayo, S.; Manzoor, S.; Rosales, D.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of adulteration of fuels and its use in criminal scenes like arson has a high interest in forensic investigations. In this work, a method based on gas chromatography (GC) and neural networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the identification and discrimination of brands of fuels such as gasoline and diesel without the necessity to determine the composition of the samples. The study included five main brands of fuels from Spain, collected from fifteen different local petrol stations. The methodology allowed the identification of the gasoline and diesel brands with a high accuracy close to 100%, without any false positives or false negatives. A success rate of three blind samples was obtained as 73.3%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of this methodology to help in resolving criminal situations. PMID:27375919

  13. Identification and Discrimination of Brands of Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Neural Networks Algorithm in Forensic Research.

    PubMed

    Ugena, L; Moncayo, S; Manzoor, S; Rosales, D; Cáceres, J O

    2016-01-01

    The detection of adulteration of fuels and its use in criminal scenes like arson has a high interest in forensic investigations. In this work, a method based on gas chromatography (GC) and neural networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the identification and discrimination of brands of fuels such as gasoline and diesel without the necessity to determine the composition of the samples. The study included five main brands of fuels from Spain, collected from fifteen different local petrol stations. The methodology allowed the identification of the gasoline and diesel brands with a high accuracy close to 100%, without any false positives or false negatives. A success rate of three blind samples was obtained as 73.3%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of this methodology to help in resolving criminal situations. PMID:27375919

  14. Tests of the MICE Electron Muon Ranger frontend electronics with a small scale prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognini, D.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Debieux, S.; Giannini, G.; Graulich, J. S.; Lietti, D.; Masciocchi, F.; Prest, M.; Rothenfusser, K.; Vallazza, E.; Wisting, H.

    2011-08-01

    The MICE experiment is being commissioned at RAL to demonstrate the feasibility of the muon ionization cooling technique for future applications such as the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. The cooling will be evaluated by measuring the emittance before and after the cooling channel with two 4 T spectrometers; to distinguish muons from the background, a multi-detector particle identification system is foreseen: three Time of Flight stations, two Cherenkov counters and a calorimetric system consisting of a pre-shower layer and a fully active scintillator detector (EMR) are used to discriminate muons from pions and electrons. EMR consists of 48 planes of triangular scintillating bars coupled to WLS fibers readout by single PMTs on one side and MAPMTs on the other; each plane sensible area is 1 m 2. This article deals with a small scale prototype of the EMR detector which has been used to test the MAPMT frontend electronics based on the MAROC ASIC; the tests with cosmic rays using both an analog mode and a digital readout mode are presented. A very preliminary study on the cross talk problem is also shown.

  15. Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnlein, David j.; Leveling, A.F.; Mokhov, N.V.; Vaziri, K.; Iwamoto, Y.; Kasugai, Y.; Matsuda, N.; Nakashima, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Iwase, Hiroshi; /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., KURRI /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Shimizu, Tokyo /Tohoku U.

    2009-12-01

    The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  16. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    BIGI,I.; BOLTON,T.; FORMAGGIO,J.; HARRIS,D.; MORFIN,J.; SPENTZOURIS,P.; YU,J.; KAYSER,B.; KING,B.J.; MCFARLAND,K.; PETROV,A.; SCHELLMAN,H.; VELASCO,M.; SHROCK,R.

    2000-05-11

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters.

  17. First Look at a Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm - Cloud Lifecycle during MC3E. A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borque, P.; Kollias, P.; Giangrande, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tracking algorithms have been developed for decades, most devoted to following the evolution of severe weather systems and nowcasting storm future position for warning applications. In this work, we center our analysis on observations of non-precipitating clouds. Documenting cloud evolution as they transit through different stages of their lifetime can provide unparalleled potential for meaningful advances in our understanding of cloud dynamics and microphysics. This can result in a unique opportunity for model evaluation and subsequent improvements in model parameterizations. Tracking the evolution of short-lived clouds requires synergistic, complementary, overlapping multi-radar platforms. For this, our study capitalizes on the ARM multi-frequency heterogeneous radar network facility deployed during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over central United States. Here, the evolution of cloud proprieties, as well as a detail description and a sensitivity analysis of the tracking algorithm developed, will be presented.

  18. Antibiotic treatment algorithm development based on a microarray nucleic acid assay for rapid bacterial identification and resistance determination from positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Jürgen; Karrasch, Matthias; Edel, Birgit; Stoll, Sylvia; Bohnert, Jürgen; Löffler, Bettina; Saupe, Angela; Pfister, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Rapid diagnosis of bloodstream infections remains a challenge for the early targeting of an antibiotic therapy in sepsis patients. In recent studies, the reliability of the Nanosphere Verigene Gram-positive and Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GP and BC-GN) assays for the rapid identification of bacteria and resistance genes directly from positive BCs has been demonstrated. In this work, we have developed a model to define treatment recommendations by combining Verigene test results with knowledge on local antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens. The data of 275 positive BCs were analyzed. Two hundred sixty-three isolates (95.6%) were included in the Verigene assay panels, and 257 isolates (93.5%) were correctly identified. The agreement of the detection of resistance genes with subsequent phenotypic susceptibility testing was 100%. The hospital antibiogram was used to develop a treatment algorithm on the basis of Verigene results that may contribute to a faster patient management. PMID:26712265

  19. MICE, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Ionization Cooling is the only practical solution to preparing high brilliance muon beams for a neutrino factory or muon collider. MICE is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). It is characterized by exquisite emittance determination by 6D measurement of individual particles, a cooling section comprising 23 MV of acceleration at 200 MHz and 3 liquid hydrogen absorbers totaling 1m of liquid hydrogen on the path of 140-240 MeV/c muons. Thebeam has already been commissioned successfully and first measurements of beam emittance performed. We are setting up for the final high precision emittance determination and the measurements of cooling in Li Hydrogen. The design offers opportunities to observe cooling with various absorbers and several optics configurations. Results will be compared with detailed simulations of cooling channel performance to ensure full understanding of the cooling process. Progress towards the full cooling experiment with RF re-acceleration will also be reported.

  20. Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-08-10

    This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  1. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, J. A.; Tibbitts, A.; Schotik, G.; Borozdin, K.; Bacon, J.; Midera, H.; Milner, C.; Morris, C.; Perry, J.; Barrett, S.; Perry, K.; Scott, A.; Wright, C.; Aberle, D.

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  2. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  3. Muon (g-2) Technical Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, J.

    2015-01-27

    The Muon (g-2) Experiment, E989 at Fermilab, will measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment a factor-of-four more precisely than was done in E821 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. The E821 result appears to be greater than the Standard-Model prediction by more than three standard deviations. When combined with expected improvement in the Standard-Model hadronic contributions, E989 should be able to determine definitively whether or not the E821 result is evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. After a review of the physics motivation and the basic technique, which will use the muon storage ring built at BNL and now relocated to Fermilab, the design of the new experiment is presented. This document was created in partial fulfillment of the requirements necessary to obtain DOE CD-2/3 approval.

  4. Identification of Some Zeolite Group Minerals by Application of Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree Algorithm Based on SEM-EDS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaş, Efe; Evren Çubukçu, H.; Akin, Lutfiye; Erkut, Volkan; Yurdakul, Yasin; Karayigit, Ali Ihsan

    2016-04-01

    Identification of zeolite group minerals is complicated due to their similar chemical formulas and habits. Although the morphologies of various zeolite crystals can be recognized under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), it is relatively more challenging and problematic process to identify zeolites using their mineral chemical data. SEMs integrated with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) provide fast and reliable chemical data of minerals. However, considering elemental similarities of characteristic chemical formulae of zeolite species (e.g. Clinoptilolite ((Na,K,Ca)2 ‑3Al3(Al,Si)2Si13O3612H2O) and Erionite ((Na2,K2,Ca)2Al4Si14O36ṡ15H2O)) EDS data alone does not seem to be sufficient for correct identification. Furthermore, the physical properties of the specimen (e.g. roughness, electrical conductivity) and the applied analytical conditions (e.g. accelerating voltage, beam current, spot size) of the SEM-EDS should be uniform in order to obtain reliable elemental results of minerals having high alkali (Na, K) and H2O (approx. %14-18) contents. This study which was funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK Project No: 113Y439), aims to construct a database as large as possible for various zeolite minerals and to develop a general prediction model for the identification of zeolite minerals using SEM-EDS data. For this purpose, an artificial neural network and rule based decision tree algorithm were employed. Throughout the analyses, a total of 1850 chemical data were collected from four distinct zeolite species, (Clinoptilolite-Heulandite, Erionite, Analcime and Mordenite) observed in various rocks (e.g. coals, pyroclastics). In order to obtain a representative training data set for each minerals, a selection procedure for reference mineral analyses was applied. During the selection procedure, SEM based crystal morphology data, XRD spectra and re-calculated cationic distribution, obtained by EDS have been used for

  5. Identification of Some Zeolite Group Minerals by Application of Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree Algorithm Based on SEM-EDS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaş, Efe; Evren Çubukçu, H.; Akin, Lutfiye; Erkut, Volkan; Yurdakul, Yasin; Karayigit, Ali Ihsan

    2016-04-01

    Identification of zeolite group minerals is complicated due to their similar chemical formulas and habits. Although the morphologies of various zeolite crystals can be recognized under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), it is relatively more challenging and problematic process to identify zeolites using their mineral chemical data. SEMs integrated with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) provide fast and reliable chemical data of minerals. However, considering elemental similarities of characteristic chemical formulae of zeolite species (e.g. Clinoptilolite ((Na,K,Ca)2 -3Al3(Al,Si)2Si13O3612H2O) and Erionite ((Na2,K2,Ca)2Al4Si14O36ṡ15H2O)) EDS data alone does not seem to be sufficient for correct identification. Furthermore, the physical properties of the specimen (e.g. roughness, electrical conductivity) and the applied analytical conditions (e.g. accelerating voltage, beam current, spot size) of the SEM-EDS should be uniform in order to obtain reliable elemental results of minerals having high alkali (Na, K) and H2O (approx. %14-18) contents. This study which was funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK Project No: 113Y439), aims to construct a database as large as possible for various zeolite minerals and to develop a general prediction model for the identification of zeolite minerals using SEM-EDS data. For this purpose, an artificial neural network and rule based decision tree algorithm were employed. Throughout the analyses, a total of 1850 chemical data were collected from four distinct zeolite species, (Clinoptilolite-Heulandite, Erionite, Analcime and Mordenite) observed in various rocks (e.g. coals, pyroclastics). In order to obtain a representative training data set for each minerals, a selection procedure for reference mineral analyses was applied. During the selection procedure, SEM based crystal morphology data, XRD spectra and re-calculated cationic distribution, obtained by EDS have been used for the

  6. PROTON BEAM REQUIREMENTS FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY AND MUON COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-12-11

    Both a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider place stringent demands on the proton beam used to generate the desired beam of muons. Here we discuss the advantages and challenges of muon accelerators and the rationale behind the requirements on proton beam energy, intensity, bunch length, and repetition rate. Example proton driver configurations that have been considered in recent years are also briefly indicated.

  7. Noninvasive Reactor Imaging Using Cosmic-Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, H.; Fujita, K.; Karino, Y.; Kume, N.; Nakayama, K.; Sano, Y.; Sugita, T.; Yoshioka, K.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J. D.; Borozdin, K. N.; Perry, J. O.; Mizokami, S.; Otsuka, Y.; Yamada, D.

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic-ray-muon imaging is proposed to assess the damages to the Fukushima Daiichi reactors. Simulation studies showed capability of muon imaging to reveal the core conditions.The muon-imaging technique was demonstrated at Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly, where the uranium-dioxide fuel assembly was imaged with 3-cm spatial resolution after 1 month of measurement.

  8. Muon fluence measurements at the site boundary for 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Elwyn, A.J.

    1986-03-01

    Muon fluence (muons cm/sup -2/) was measured downstream of the experimental area beamlines, just beyond the Fermilab site boundary at Route 38. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain an estimate of the yearly off-site radiation exposure to the general population due to accelerator-produced muons during the 1985 800 GeV run.

  9. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Adey, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, G.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, D.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A. J.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Filthaut, F.; Fish, A.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fletcher, R.; Forrest, D.; Francis, V.; Freemire, B.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J. S.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Harrison, P.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kolev, D.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lau, W.; Leaver, J.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Lucchini, G.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R. B.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Rusinov, I.; Sakamoto, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Stanley, T.; Summers, D. J.; Takahashi, M.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Vankova, G.; Verguilov, V.; Virostek, S. P.; Vretenar, M.; Walaron, K.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Wisting, H.; Zisman, M. S.

    2013-10-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/ c, have emittances of approximately 1.2-2.3 π mm-rad horizontally and 0.6-1.0 π mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90-190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/ c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  10. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; et al.,

    2013-10-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.5--2.3 \\pi mm-rad horizontally and 0.6--1.0 \\pi mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90--190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  11. Large muon electric dipole moment from flavor?

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, Gudrun; Huitu, Katri; Rueppell, Timo; Laamanen, Jari

    2010-11-01

    We study the prospects and opportunities of a large muon electric dipole moment (EDM) of the order (10{sup -24}-10{sup -22}) ecm. We investigate how natural such a value is within the general minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model with CP violation from lepton flavor violation in view of the experimental constraints. In models with hybrid gauge-gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking, a large muon EDM is indicative for the structure of flavor breaking at the Planck scale, and points towards a high messenger scale.

  12. Measurement of Muon Capture on the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Steven M.

    2006-11-17

    The goal of the {mu}Cap experiment is a 1% precision measurement of the muon capture rate on the free proton, which will determine the weak pseudoscalar form factor gP to 7%. At the end of 2004, the {mu}Cap detector was completed and commissioned and first physics data were taken. The analysis of these data is in an advanced stage. The muon capture rate will be determined to 3%, translating to a measurement of gP to 20%. Improvements to the detector, implemented to reach the design goal, were made for the 2005 and 2006 data runs.

  13. FFAG Designs for Muon Collider Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J. Scott

    2014-01-13

    I estimate FFAG parameters for a muon collider with a 70mm longitudinal emittance. I do not discuss the lower emittance beam for a Higgs factory. I produce some example designs, giving only parameters relevant to estimating cost and performance. The designs would not track well, but the parameters of a good design will be close to those described. I compare these cost estimates to those for a fast-ramping synchrotron and a recirculating linear accelerator. I conclude that FFAGs do not appear to be cost-effective for the large longitudinal emittance in a high-energy muon collider.

  14. Rare kaon, muon, and pion decay

    SciTech Connect

    Littenberg, L.

    1998-12-01

    The author discusses the status of and prospects for the study of rare decays of kaons, muons, and pions. Studies of rare kaon decays are entering an interesting new phase wherein they can deliver important short-distance information. It should be possible to construct an alternative unitarity triangle to that determined in the B sector, and thus perform a critical check of the Standard Model by comparing the two. Rare muon decays are beginning to constrain supersymmetric models in a significant way, and future experiments should reach sensitivities which this kind of model must show effects, or become far less appealing.

  15. How to detect Edgar Allan Poe's 'purloined letter,' or cross-correlation algorithms in digitized video images for object identification, movement evaluation, and deformation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dost, Michael; Vogel, Dietmar; Winkler, Thomas; Vogel, Juergen; Erb, Rolf; Kieselstein, Eva; Michel, Bernd

    2003-07-01

    Cross correlation analysis of digitised grey scale patterns is based on - at least - two images which are compared one to each other. Comparison is performed by means of a two-dimensional cross correlation algorithm applied to a set of local intensity submatrices taken from the pattern matrices of the reference and the comparison images in the surrounding of predefined points of interest. Established as an outstanding NDE tool for 2D and 3D deformation field analysis with a focus on micro- and nanoscale applications (microDAC and nanoDAC), the method exhibits an additional potential for far wider applications, that could be used for advancing homeland security. Cause the cross correlation algorithm in some kind seems to imitate some of the "smart" properties of human vision, this "field-of-surface-related" method can provide alternative solutions to some object and process recognition problems that are difficult to solve with more classic "object-related" image processing methods. Detecting differences between two or more images using cross correlation techniques can open new and unusual applications in identification and detection of hidden objects or objects with unknown origin, in movement or displacement field analysis and in some aspects of biometric analysis, that could be of special interest for homeland security.

  16. 4D-QSAR investigation and pharmacophore identification of pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines using electron conformational-genetic algorithm method.

    PubMed

    Özalp, A; Yavuz, S Ç; Sabancı, N; Çopur, F; Kökbudak, Z; Sarıpınar, E

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present the results of pharmacophore identification and bioactivity prediction for pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine derivatives using the electron conformational-genetic algorithm (EC-GA) method as 4D-QSAR analysis. Using the data obtained from quantum chemical calculations at PM3/HF level, the electron conformational matrices of congruity (ECMC) were constructed by EMRE software. The ECMC of the lowest energy conformer of the compound with the highest activity was chosen as the template and compared with the ECMCs of the lowest energy conformer of the other compounds within given tolerances to reveal the electron conformational submatrix of activity (ECSA, i.e. pharmacophore) by ECSP software. A descriptor pool was generated taking into account the obtained pharmacophore. To predict the theoretical activity and select the best subset of variables affecting bioactivities, the nonlinear least square regression method and genetic algorithm were performed. For four types of activity including the GI50, TGI, LC50 and IC50 of the pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4] benzodiazepine series, the r(2)train, r(2)test and q(2) values were 0.858, 0.810, 0.771; 0.853, 0.848, 0.787; 0.703, 0.787, 0.600; and 0.776, 0.722, 0.687, respectively. PMID:27121415

  17. Inverse problem studies of biochemical systems with structure identification of S-systems by embedding training functions in a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Ketan Dinkar; Kumar, V Ravi; Kulkarni, B D

    2016-05-01

    An efficient inverse problem approach for parameter estimation, state and structure identification from dynamic data by embedding training functions in a genetic algorithm methodology (ETFGA) is proposed for nonlinear dynamical biosystems using S-system canonical models. Use of multiple shooting and decomposition approach as training functions has been shown for handling of noisy datasets and computational efficiency in studying the inverse problem. The advantages of the methodology are brought out systematically by studying it for three biochemical model systems of interest. By studying a small-scale gene regulatory system described by a S-system model, the first example demonstrates the use of ETFGA for the multifold aims of the inverse problem. The estimation of a large number of parameters with simultaneous state and network identification is shown by training a generalized S-system canonical model with noisy datasets. The results of this study bring out the superior performance of ETFGA on comparison with other metaheuristic approaches. The second example studies the regulation of cAMP oscillations in Dictyostelium cells now assuming limited availability of noisy data. Here, flexibility of the approach to incorporate partial system information in the identification process is shown and its effect on accuracy and predictive ability of the estimated model are studied. The third example studies the phenomenological toy model of the regulation of circadian oscillations in Drosophila that follows rate laws different from S-system power-law. For the limited noisy data, using a priori information about properties of the system, we could estimate an alternate S-system model that showed robust oscillatory behavior with predictive abilities. PMID:26968929

  18. Clustering and Differential Alignment Algorithm: Identification of Early Stage Regulators in the Arabidopsis thaliana Iron Deficiency Response

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Durreshahwar; Foret, Jessica; Brady, Siobhan M.; Ducoste, Joel J.; Tuck, James; Long, Terri A.; Williams, Cranos

    2015-01-01

    Time course transcriptome datasets are commonly used to predict key gene regulators associated with stress responses and to explore gene functionality. Techniques developed to extract causal relationships between genes from high throughput time course expression data are limited by low signal levels coupled with noise and sparseness in time points. We deal with these limitations by proposing the Cluster and Differential Alignment Algorithm (CDAA). This algorithm was designed to process transcriptome data by first grouping genes based on stages of activity and then using similarities in gene expression to predict influential connections between individual genes. Regulatory relationships are assigned based on pairwise alignment scores generated using the expression patterns of two genes and some inferred delay between the regulator and the observed activity of the target. We applied the CDAA to an iron deficiency time course microarray dataset to identify regulators that influence 7 target transcription factors known to participate in the Arabidopsis thaliana iron deficiency response. The algorithm predicted that 7 regulators previously unlinked to iron homeostasis influence the expression of these known transcription factors. We validated over half of predicted influential relationships using qRT-PCR expression analysis in mutant backgrounds. One predicted regulator-target relationship was shown to be a direct binding interaction according to yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) analysis. These results serve as a proof of concept emphasizing the utility of the CDAA for identifying unknown or missing nodes in regulatory cascades, providing the fundamental knowledge needed for constructing predictive gene regulatory networks. We propose that this tool can be used successfully for similar time course datasets to extract additional information and infer reliable regulatory connections for individual genes. PMID:26317202

  19. Data and software tools for gamma radiation spectral threat detection and nuclide identification algorithm development and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoy, David; Fisher, Brian; Phifer, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The detection of radiological and nuclear threats is extremely important to national security. The federal government is spending significant resources developing new detection systems and attempting to increase the performance of existing ones. The detection of illicit radionuclides that may pose a radiological or nuclear threat is a challenging problem complicated by benign radiation sources (e.g., cat litter and medical treatments), shielding, and large variations in background radiation. Although there is a growing acceptance within the community that concentrating efforts on algorithm development (independent of the specifics of fully assembled systems) has the potential for significant overall system performance gains, there are two major hindrances to advancements in gamma spectral analysis algorithms under the current paradigm: access to data and common performance metrics along with baseline performance measures. Because many of the signatures collected during performance measurement campaigns are classified, dissemination to algorithm developers is extremely limited. This leaves developers no choice but to collect their own data if they are lucky enough to have access to material and sensors. This is often combined with their own definition of metrics for measuring performance. These two conditions make it all but impossible for developers and external reviewers to make meaningful comparisons between algorithms. Without meaningful comparisons, performance advancements become very hard to achieve and (more importantly) recognize. The objective of this work is to overcome these obstacles by developing and freely distributing real and synthetically generated gamma-spectra data sets as well as software tools for performance evaluation with associated performance baselines to national labs, academic institutions, government agencies, and industry. At present, datasets for two tracks, or application domains, have been developed: one that includes temporal

  20. PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2004-10-01

    To a particle physicist a muon is a member of the lepton family, a heavy electron possessing a mass of about 1/9 that of a proton and a spin of 1/2, which interacts with surrounding atoms and molecules electromagnetically. Since its discovery in 1937, the muon has been put to many uses, from tests of special relativity to deep inelastic scattering, from studies of nuclei to tests of weak interactions and quantum electrodynamics, and most recently, as a radiographic tool to see inside heavy objects and volcanoes. In 1957 Richard Garwin and collaborators, while conducting experiments at the Columbia University cyclotron to search for parity violation, discovered that spin-polarized muons injected into materials might be useful to probe internal magnetic fields. This eventually gave birth to the modern field of muSR, which stands for muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance, and is the subject of this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Muons are produced in accelerators when high energy protons (generally >500 MeV) strike a target like graphite, producing pions which subsequently decay into muons. Most experiments carried out today use relatively low-energy (~4 MeV), positively-charged muons coming from pions decaying at rest in the skin of the production target. These muons have 100% spin polarization, a range in typical materials of about 180 mg cm-2, and are ideal for experiments in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Negatively-charged muons are also occasionally used to study such things as muonic atoms and muon-catalysed fusion. The muSR technique provides a local probe of internal magnetic fields and is highly complementary to inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance, for example. There are four primary muSR facilities in the world today: ISIS (Didcot, UK), KEK (Tsukuba, Japan), PSI (Villigen, Switzerland) and TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada), serving about 500 researchers world-wide. A new facility, JPARC (Tokai, Japan

  1. First Observation of Accelerator Muon Antineutrinos in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, Istvan

    2009-10-01

    We report the first direct observation of muon antineutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector in the current muon-neutrino dominated beam. The magnetic field of the detector is utilized to separate muon neutrinos and antineutrinos event-by-event by identifying the charge sign of the muon created in charged-current interactions. We present preliminary results on the {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillation parameters as well as limit on the fraction of neutrinos that disappear and reappear as antineutrinos. We also discuss the prospect of the measurement when the polarity of the magnetic focusing horns will be reversed to create a dedicated muon antineutrino beam.

  2. The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: MICE and Neutrino Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freemire, Ben

    2010-03-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an accelerator and particle physics experiment aimed at demonstrating the technique of ionization cooling on a beam of muons. Ionization cooling is the process by which muons are sent through an absorbing material, thereby losing energy and decreasing their normalized emittance. The muons are then reaccelerated in the appropriate direction with radio frequency (RF) cavities. This produces an overall reduction in transverse emittance of the muon beam. Ionization cooling could be a key technique in the design of a high intensity Neutrino Factory.

  3. Identification of PV solar cells and modules parameters using the genetic algorithms: Application to maximum power extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrouba, M.; Sellami, A.; Bouaicha, M.; Ksouri, M.

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we propose to perform a numerical technique based on genetic algorithms (GAs) to identify the electrical parameters (I{sub s}, I{sub ph}, R{sub s}, R{sub sh}, and n) of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and modules. These parameters were used to determine the corresponding maximum power point (MPP) from the illuminated current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. The one diode type approach is used to model the AM1.5 I-V characteristic of the solar cell. To extract electrical parameters, the approach is formulated as a non convex optimization problem. The GAs approach was used as a numerical technique in order to overcome problems involved in the local minima in the case of non convex optimization criteria. Compared to other methods, we find that the GAs is a very efficient technique to estimate the electrical parameters of PV solar cells and modules. Indeed, the race of the algorithm stopped after five generations in the case of PV solar cells and seven generations in the case of PV modules. The identified parameters are then used to extract the maximum power working points for both cell and module. (author)

  4. Stream-reach Identification for New Run-of-River Hydropower Development through a Merit Matrix Based Geospatial Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Hadjerioua, Boualem; Wei, Yaxing; Smith, Brennan T

    2014-01-01

    Even after a century of development, the total hydropower potential from undeveloped rivers is still considered to be abundant in the United States. However, unlike evaluating hydropower potential at existing hydropower plants or non-powered dams, locating a feasible new hydropower plant involves many unknowns, and hence the total undeveloped potential is harder to quantify. In light of the rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets for topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics, a merit matrix based geospatial algorithm is proposed to help identify possible hydropower stream-reaches for future development. These hydropower stream-reaches sections of natural streams with suitable head, flow, and slope for possible future development are identified and compared using three different scenarios. A case study was conducted in the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) hydrologic subregions. It was found that a merit matrix based algorithm, which is based on the product of hydraulic head, annual mean flow, and average channel slope, can help effectively identify stream-reaches with high power density and small surface inundation. The identified stream-reaches can then be efficiently evaluated for their potential environmental impact, land development cost, and other competing water usage in detailed feasibility studies . Given that the selected datasets are available nationally (at least within the conterminous US), the proposed methodology will have wide applicability across the country.

  5. Algorithms and Algorithmic Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselov, V. M.; Koprov, V. M.

    This paper is intended as an introduction to a number of problems connected with the description of algorithms and algorithmic languages, particularly the syntaxes and semantics of algorithmic languages. The terms "letter, word, alphabet" are defined and described. The concept of the algorithm is defined and the relation between the algorithm and…

  6. ICOOL: A TOOL FOR MUON COLLIDER SIMULATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    FERNOW,R.C.

    2001-09-28

    Current ideas for designing neutrino factories [ 1,2] and muon colliders [3] require unique configurations of fields and materials to prepare the muon beam for acceleration. This so-called front end system must accomplish the goals of phase rotation, bunching and cooling. We have continued the development of a 3-D tracking code, ICOOL [4], for examining possible muon collider front end configurations. A system is described in terms of a series of longitudinal regions with associated material and field properties. The tracking takes place in a coordinate system that follows a reference orbit through the system. The code takes into account decays and interactions of {approx}50-500 MeV/c muons in matter. Material geometry regions include cylinders and wedges. A number of analytic models are provided for describing the field configurations. Simple diagnostics are built into the code, including calculation of emittances and correlations, longitudinal traces, histograms and scatter plots. A number of auxiliary codes can be used for pre-processing, post-processing and optimization.

  7. Muon Collider Machine-Detector Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, Nikolai V.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    In order to realize the high physics potential of a Muon Collider (MC) a high luminosity of {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}-collisions at the Interaction Point (IP) in the TeV range must be achieved ({approx}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}). To reach this goal, a number of demanding requirements on the collider optics and the IR hardware - arising from the short muon lifetime and from relatively large values of the transverse emittance and momentum spread in muon beams that can realistically be obtained with ionization cooling should be satisfied. These requirements are aggravated by limitations on the quadrupole gradients as well as by the necessity to protect superconducting magnets and collider detectors from muon decay products. The overall detector performance in this domain is strongly dependent on the background particle rates in various sub-detectors. The deleterious effects of the background and radiation environment produced by the beam in the ring are very important issues in the Interaction Region (IR), detector and Machine-Detector Interface (MDI) designs. This report is based on studies presented very recently.

  8. Target studies for surface muon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, F.; Desorgher, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hajdas, W.; Hodge, Z.; Kettle, P.-R.; Knecht, A.; Lüscher, R.; Papa, A.; Rutar, G.; Wohlmuther, M.

    2016-02-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  9. Neutrino masses, Majorons, and muon decay

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaria, A.; Bernabeu, J.; Pich, A.

    1987-09-01

    The contributions to the parameters xi, delta, rho, and eta in muon decay coming from double Majoron emission, Majorana neutrino masses, and effects of charged scalars are evaluated in the scalar-triplet model. The relevance of these effects for planned experiments is discussed.

  10. Multi-muon events at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Ptochos, F.; /Cyprus U.

    2009-07-01

    We report a study of multi-muon events produced at the Fermilab Tevatron collider and recorded by the CDF II detector. In a data set acquired with a dedicated dimuon trigger and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2100 pb{sup -1}, we isolate a significant sample of events in which at least one of the identified muons has large impact parameter and is produced outside the beam pipe of radius 1.5 cm. We are unable to fully account for the number and properties of the events through standard model processes in conjunction with our current understanding of the CDF II detector, trigger and event reconstruction. Several topological and kinematic properties of these events are also presented. In contrast, the production cross section and kinematics of events in which both muon candidates are produced inside the beam pipe are successfully modeled by known QCD processes which include heavy flavor production. The presence of these anomalous multi-muon events offers a plausible resolution to long-standing inconsistencies related to b{bar b} production and decay.

  11. Gamma rays from muons from WIMPs: Implementation of radiative muon decays for dark matter analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffidi, Andre; Freese, Katherine; Li, Jinmian; Savage, Christopher; White, Martin; Williams, Anthony G.

    2016-06-01

    Dark matter searches in gamma ray final states often make use of the fact that photons can be produced from final state muons. Modern Monte Carlo generators and dark matter codes include the effects of final state radiation from muons produced in the dark matter annihilation process itself, but neglect the O (1 %) radiative correction that arises from the subsequent muon decay. After implementing this correction we demonstrate the effect that it can have on dark matter phenomenology by considering the case of dark matter annihilation to four muons via scalar mediator production. We first show that the AMS-02 positron excess can no longer easily be made consistent with this final state once the Fermi-LAT dwarf limits are calculated with the inclusion of radiative muon decays, and we next show that the Fermi-LAT galactic center gamma excess can be improved with this final state after inclusion of the same effect. We provide code and tables for the implementation of this effect in the popular dark matter code micrOMEGAs, providing a solution for any model producing final state muons.

  12. Corrections for temperature effect for ground-based muon hodoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, A. N.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Timashkov, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Influence of atmospheric temperature on muon flux at sea level is considered. Results of calculations of muon spectrum for normal atmospheric conditions, differential temperature coefficients (DTC) for muons at different zenith angles and threshold energies are presented. In calculations, a six-layer stationary spherical model of atmosphere is used, contributions of both pions and kaons as well as dependence of muon energy loss on muon energy are taken into account. Comparison of muon spectrum calculations and experimental data in a wide range of zenith angles and momentums shows a good agreement. Comparison of results of DTC calculations with results of earlier works exhibits only qualitative agreement; possible sources of differences are analyzed. Some practical questions of the use of DTC for muon hodoscope data analysis are discussed.

  13. Image processing algorithm for the identification of Martian dust devil tracks in MOC and HiRISE images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statella, Thiago; Pina, Pedro; da Silva, Erivaldo Antônio

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic identification of dust devils tracks in MOC NA and HiRISE images of Mars. The method is based on Mathematical Morphology and is able to successfully process those images despite their difference in spatial resolution or size of the scene. A dataset of 200 images from the surface of Mars representative of the diversity of those track features was considered for developing, testing and evaluating our method, confronting the outputs with reference images made manually. Analysis showed a mean accuracy of about 92%. We also give some examples on how to use the results to get information about dust devils, namelly mean width, main direction of movement and coverage per scene.

  14. An algorithm for automatic crystal identification in pixelated scintillation detectors using thin plate splines and Gaussian mixture models.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Graham; Stortz, Greg; Goertzen, Andrew L

    2016-02-01

    A typical positron emission tomography detector is comprised of a scintillator crystal array coupled to a photodetector array or other position sensitive detector. Such detectors using light sharing to read out crystal elements require the creation of a crystal lookup table (CLUT) that maps the detector response to the crystal of interaction based on the x-y position of the event calculated through Anger-type logic. It is vital for system performance that these CLUTs be accurate so that the location of events can be accurately identified and so that crystal-specific corrections, such as energy windowing or time alignment, can be applied. While using manual segmentation of the flood image to create the CLUT is a simple and reliable approach, it is both tedious and time consuming for systems with large numbers of crystal elements. In this work we describe the development of an automated algorithm for CLUT generation that uses a Gaussian mixture model paired with thin plate splines (TPS) to iteratively fit a crystal layout template that includes the crystal numbering pattern. Starting from a region of stability, Gaussians are individually fit to data corresponding to crystal locations while simultaneously updating a TPS for predicting future Gaussian locations at the edge of a region of interest that grows as individual Gaussians converge to crystal locations. The algorithm was tested with flood image data collected from 16 detector modules, each consisting of a 409 crystal dual-layer offset LYSO crystal array readout by a 32 pixel SiPM array. For these detector flood images, depending on user defined input parameters, the algorithm runtime ranged between 17.5-82.5 s per detector on a single core of an Intel i7 processor. The method maintained an accuracy above 99.8% across all tests, with the majority of errors being localized to error prone corner regions. This method can be easily extended for use with other detector types through adjustment of the initial

  15. An algorithm for automatic crystal identification in pixelated scintillation detectors using thin plate splines and Gaussian mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellenberg, Graham; Stortz, Greg; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2016-02-01

    A typical positron emission tomography detector is comprised of a scintillator crystal array coupled to a photodetector array or other position sensitive detector. Such detectors using light sharing to read out crystal elements require the creation of a crystal lookup table (CLUT) that maps the detector response to the crystal of interaction based on the x-y position of the event calculated through Anger-type logic. It is vital for system performance that these CLUTs be accurate so that the location of events can be accurately identified and so that crystal-specific corrections, such as energy windowing or time alignment, can be applied. While using manual segmentation of the flood image to create the CLUT is a simple and reliable approach, it is both tedious and time consuming for systems with large numbers of crystal elements. In this work we describe the development of an automated algorithm for CLUT generation that uses a Gaussian mixture model paired with thin plate splines (TPS) to iteratively fit a crystal layout template that includes the crystal numbering pattern. Starting from a region of stability, Gaussians are individually fit to data corresponding to crystal locations while simultaneously updating a TPS for predicting future Gaussian locations at the edge of a region of interest that grows as individual Gaussians converge to crystal locations. The algorithm was tested with flood image data collected from 16 detector modules, each consisting of a 409 crystal dual-layer offset LYSO crystal array readout by a 32 pixel SiPM array. For these detector flood images, depending on user defined input parameters, the algorithm runtime ranged between 17.5-82.5 s per detector on a single core of an Intel i7 processor. The method maintained an accuracy above 99.8% across all tests, with the majority of errors being localized to error prone corner regions. This method can be easily extended for use with other detector types through adjustment of the initial

  16. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source.

    PubMed

    Lord, J S; McKenzie, I; Baker, P J; Blundell, S J; Cottrell, S P; Giblin, S R; Good, J; Hillier, A D; Holsman, B H; King, P J C; Lancaster, T; Mitchell, R; Nightingale, J B; Owczarkowski, M; Poli, S; Pratt, F L; Rhodes, N J; Scheuermann, R; Salman, Z

    2011-07-01

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument.

  17. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J. S.; McKenzie, I.; Baker, P. J.; Cottrell, S. P.; Giblin, S. R.; Hillier, A. D.; Holsman, B. H.; King, P. J. C.; Nightingale, J. B.; Pratt, F. L.; Rhodes, N. J.; Blundell, S. J.; Lancaster, T.; Good, J.; Mitchell, R.; Owczarkowski, M.; Poli, S.; Scheuermann, R.; Salman, Z.

    2011-07-15

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument.

  18. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, O.; Del Santo, M.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M. C.; Pareschi, G.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  19. The cosmic ray muon tomography facility based on large scale MRPC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuewu; Zeng, Ming; Zeng, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Ziran; Yue, Xiaoguang; Luo, Zhifei; Yi, Hengguan; Yu, Baihui; Cheng, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    Cosmic ray muon tomography is a novel technology to detect high-Z material. A prototype of TUMUTY with 73.6 cm×73.6 cm large scale position sensitive MRPC detectors has been developed and is introduced in this paper. Three test kits have been tested and image is reconstructed using MAP algorithm. The reconstruction results show that the prototype is working well and the objects with complex structure and small size (20 mm) can be imaged on it, while the high-Z material is distinguishable from the low-Z one. This prototype provides a good platform for our further studies of the physical characteristics and the performances of cosmic ray muon tomography.

  20. The search for single top quark production in the muon plus jets channel at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Christofek, L.; /Kansas U.

    2005-01-01

    The authors have performed a search for the electroweak production of single top quarks in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at a center of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The search was performed in the muon plus jets decay channel requiring at least one b-tagged jet. The data were collected using the D0 detector between August 2002 and September 2003 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 158 pb{sup -1}. The resulting 95% C.L. upper limits on the production cross sections are 27 pb in the s-channel, 41 pb in the t-channel, and 36 pb in the combined s + t channel using the secondary vertex tagger (SVT) algorithm. They also present results from the combined electron and muon channel search using the D0 detector.

  1. PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2004-10-01

    To a particle physicist a muon is a member of the lepton family, a heavy electron possessing a mass of about 1/9 that of a proton and a spin of 1/2, which interacts with surrounding atoms and molecules electromagnetically. Since its discovery in 1937, the muon has been put to many uses, from tests of special relativity to deep inelastic scattering, from studies of nuclei to tests of weak interactions and quantum electrodynamics, and most recently, as a radiographic tool to see inside heavy objects and volcanoes. In 1957 Richard Garwin and collaborators, while conducting experiments at the Columbia University cyclotron to search for parity violation, discovered that spin-polarized muons injected into materials might be useful to probe internal magnetic fields. This eventually gave birth to the modern field of muSR, which stands for muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance, and is the subject of this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Muons are produced in accelerators when high energy protons (generally >500 MeV) strike a target like graphite, producing pions which subsequently decay into muons. Most experiments carried out today use relatively low-energy (~4 MeV), positively-charged muons coming from pions decaying at rest in the skin of the production target. These muons have 100% spin polarization, a range in typical materials of about 180 mg cm-2, and are ideal for experiments in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Negatively-charged muons are also occasionally used to study such things as muonic atoms and muon-catalysed fusion. The muSR technique provides a local probe of internal magnetic fields and is highly complementary to inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance, for example. There are four primary muSR facilities in the world today: ISIS (Didcot, UK), KEK (Tsukuba, Japan), PSI (Villigen, Switzerland) and TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada), serving about 500 researchers world-wide. A new facility, JPARC (Tokai, Japan

  2. Identification of novel adhesins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv using integrated approach of multiple computational algorithms and experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria interacting with eukaryotic host express adhesins on their surface. These adhesins aid in bacterial attachment to the host cell receptors during colonization. A few adhesins such as Heparin binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA), Apa, Malate Synthase of M. tuberculosis have been identified using specific experimental interaction models based on the biological knowledge of the pathogen. In the present work, we carried out computational screening for adhesins of M. tuberculosis. We used an integrated computational approach using SPAAN for predicting adhesins, PSORTb, SubLoc and LocTree for extracellular localization, and BLAST for verifying non-similarity to human proteins. These steps are among the first of reverse vaccinology. Multiple claims and attacks from different algorithms were processed through argumentative approach. Additional filtration criteria included selection for proteins with low molecular weights and absence of literature reports. We examined binding potential of the selected proteins using an image based ELISA. The protein Rv2599 (membrane protein) binds to human fibronectin, laminin and collagen. Rv3717 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) and Rv0309 (L,D-transpeptidase) bind to fibronectin and laminin. We report Rv2599 (membrane protein), Rv0309 and Rv3717 as novel adhesins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our results expand the number of known adhesins of M. tuberculosis and suggest their regulated expression in different stages.

  3. CONREAL: conserved regulatory elements anchored alignment algorithm for identification of transcription factor binding sites by phylogenetic footprinting.

    PubMed

    Berezikov, Eugene; Guryev, Victor; Plasterk, Ronald H A; Cuppen, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of transcription-factor target sites in promoters remains difficult due to the short length and degeneracy of the target sequences. Although the use of orthologous sequences and phylogenetic footprinting approaches may help in the recognition of conserved and potentially functional sequences, correct alignment of the short transcription-factor binding sites can be problematic for established algorithms, especially when aligning more divergent species. Here, we report a novel phylogenetic footprinting approach, CONREAL, that uses biologically relevant information, that is, potential transcription-factor binding sites as represented by positional weight matrices, to establish anchors between orthologous sequences and to guide promoter sequence alignment. Comparison of the performance of CONREAL with the global alignment programs LAGAN and AVID using a reference data set, shows that CONREAL performs equally well for closely related species like rodents and human, and has a clear added value for aligning promoter elements of more divergent species like human and fish, as it identifies conserved transcription-factor binding sites that are not found by other methods. CONREAL is accessible via a Web interface at http://conreal.niob.knaw.nl/.

  4. Expectation-Maximization Algorithm Based System Identification of Multiscale Stochastic Models for Scale Recursive Estimation of Precipitation: Application to Model Validation and Multisensor Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R.; Venugopal, V.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2003-12-01

    Owing to the tremendous scale dependent variability of precipitation and discrepancies in scale or resolution among different types/sources of observations, comparing or merging observations at different scales, or validating Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) with observations is not trivial. Traditional methods of QPF (e.g., point to area) have been found deficient, and to alleviate some of the concerns, a new methodology called scale-recursive estimation (SRE) was introduced recently. This method, which has its root in Kalman filtering, can (i) handle disparate (in scale) measurement sources; (ii) account for observational uncertainty associated with each sensor; and (iii) incorporate a multiscale model (theoretical or empirical) which captures the observed scale-to-scale variability in precipitation. The result is an optimal (unbiased and minimum error variance) estimate at any desired scale along with its error statistics. Our preliminary studies have indicated that lognormal and bounded lognormal multiplicative cascades are the most successful candidates as state-propagation models for precipitation across a range of scales. However, the parameters of these models were found to be highly sensitive to the observed intermittency of precipitation fields. To address this problem, we have chosen to take a "system identification" approach instead of prescribing a priori the type of multiscale model. The first part of this work focuses on the use of Maximum Likelihood (ML) identification for estimating the parameters of a multiscale stochastic state space model directly from the given data. Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to iteratively solve for ML estimates. The "expectation" step makes use of a Kalman smoother to estimate the state, while the "maximization" step re-estimates the parameters using these uncertain state estimates. Using high resolution forecast precipitation fields from ARPS (Advanced Regional Prediction System), concurrent

  5. Scene identification and clear-sky compositing algorithms for generating North America coverage at 250m spatial resolution from MODIS land channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi; Trishchenko, Alexander P.; Khlopenkov, Konstantin V.; Park, William M.

    2007-09-01

    A new technology has been developed at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) for generating North America continental scale clear-sky composites at 250 m spatial resolution of all seven MODIS land spectral bands (B1-B7). The MODIS Level 1B (MOD02) swath level data were used as input to circumvent the problems with image distortion in the mid-latitude and polar regions inherent to the sinusoidal (SIN) projection utilized for the standard MODIS data products. The new data products are stored in the Lambert Conformal Conical (LCC) projection for Canada and the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area (LAEA) projection for North America. The MODIS 500m data (B3-B7) were downscaled to 250m resolution using an adaptive regression algorithm. The clear-sky composites are generated using scene identification information produced at 250m resolution and multi-criteria selection which depends on pixel identification. Cloud shadows were also identified and removed from output product. It is demonstrated that new approach provides better results than any scheme based on a single compositing criterion, such as maximum NDVI, minimum visible reflectance, or combination of them. To account for surface bi-directional properties, two clear-sky composites for same time period are produced for the relative azimuth angles within 90°-270° and outside of this interval. Comparison with Landsat imagery and MODIS standard composite products demonstrated advantages of new technique for screening cloud and cloud shadow and providing the high spatial resolution. The final composites were produced for every 10-day intervals since March 2000. The composite products have been used for mapping albedo and vegetation properties as well as for land cover and change detections applications at 250m scale.

  6. Performance of b-jet identification in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The identification of jets containing b hadrons is important for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Several algorithms to identify jets containing b hadrons are described, ranging from those based on the reconstruction of an inclusive secondary vertex or the presence of tracks with large impact parameters to combined tagging algorithms making use of multi-variate discriminants. An independent b-tagging algorithm based on the reconstruction of muons inside jets as well as the b-tagging algorithm used in the online trigger are also presented. The b-jet tagging efficiency, the c-jet tagging efficiency and the mistag rate for light flavour jets in data have been measured with a number of complementary methods. The calibration results are presented as scale factors defined as the ratio of the efficiency (or mistag rate) in data to that in simulation. In the case of b jets, where more than one calibration method exists, the results from the various analyses have been combined taking into account the statistical correlation as well as the correlation of the sources of systematic uncertainty.

  7. Imaging a vertical shaft from a tunnel using muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Dorsey, D. J.; Schwellenbach, D.; Green, A.; Smalley, D.

    2015-12-01

    We use muon technology to image a vertical shaft from a tunnel. The density of the materials through which cosmic ray muons pass influences the flux of muons because muons are more attenuated by higher density material. Additionally, muons can travel several kilometers allowing measurements through deep rock. Density maps are generated from muon flux measurements to locate subsurface features like tunnel structures and ore bodies. Additionally, muon data can be jointly inverted with other data such as gravity and seismic to produce higher quality earth models than produced from a single method. We collected several weeks of data in a tunnel to image a vertical shaft. The minimum length of rock between the vertical shaft and the detector is 120 meters and the diameter of the vertical shaft is 4.6 meters. The rock the muons traveled through consists of Tertiary age volcanic tuff and steeply dipping, small-displacement faults. Results will be presented for muon flux in the tunnel and Monte-Carlo simulations of this experiment. Simulations from both GEANT4 (Geometry And Tracking version 4) and MCNP6 (Monte-Carlo N-Particle version 6) models will be compared. The tunnel overburden from muon measurements is also estimated and compared with actual the overburden. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. The metabolic evaluation of the child with an intellectual developmental disorder: diagnostic algorithm for identification of treatable causes and new digital resource.

    PubMed

    van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Shevell, Michael; Zschocke, Johannes; Moeschler, John B; Stockler, Sylvia

    2014-04-01

    Intellectual developmental disorders (IDD), characterized by significant impairment of cognitive functions, with limitations of learning, adaptive behavior and skills, are frequent (2.5% of the population affected) and present with significant co-morbidity. The burden of IDD, in terms of emotional suffering and associated health care costs, is significant; prevention and treatment therefore are important. A systematic literature review, updated in 2013, identified 89 inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), which present with IDD as prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. Therapeutic effects include improvement and/or stabilization of psychomotor/cognitive development, behavior/psychiatric disturbances, seizures, neurologic and systemic manifestations. The levels of available evidence for the various treatments range from Level 1b, c (n=5); Level 2a, b, c (n=14); Level 4 (n=53), and Levels 4-5 (n=27). For a target audience comprising clinical and biochemical geneticists, child neurologists and developmental pediatricians, five experts translated....this data into a 2-tiered diagnostic algorithm: The first tier comprises metabolic "screening" tests in urine and blood, which are relatively accessible, affordable, less invasive, and have the potential to identify 60% of all treatable IEMs. The second tier investigations for the remaining disorders are ordered based on individual clinical signs and symptoms. This algorithm is supported by an App www.treatable-id.org, which comprises up-to-date information on all 89 IEMs, relevant diagnostic tests, therapies and a search function based on signs and symptoms. These recommendations support the clinician in early identification of treatable IEMs in the child with IDD, allowing for timely initiation of therapy with the potential to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. The need for future studies to determine yield and usefulness of these recommendations, with subsequent updates and improvements to developments in

  9. Monte Carlo Study of the Measurement of the top - anti-top Production Cross-Section in the Muon + Jets Channel with the D0-Detector at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Jorg Manfred; /Bonn U.

    2004-03-01

    A measurement of the t{bar t} production cross section at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV with the D0 detector using simulated events is performed. The final state containing a muon and jets is examined including all methods of measuring signal efficiencies and the estimation of the background contributions. Especially, the identification efficiency and properties of muons are studied.

  10. Muon RLA - design status and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, K. B.; Bogacz, S. A.; Morozov, V. S.; Roblin, Y. R.

    2013-02-01

    The Neutrino Factory baseline design involves a complex chain of accelerators beginning with a linac. This first pre-linac follows the capture and bunching section and accelerates the muons from about 244 to 900 MeV and must accept a high emittance beam about 30 cm wide with a 10% energy spread. It uses counterwound, shielded superconducting solenoids and 201 MHz superconducting cavities, and currently consists of 24 3 m and 24 5 m long cryomodules. The next stage is a 1st dogbone-shaped RLA that takes the total energy from 900 MeV to 3.6 GeV in 4.5 passes, followed by a 2nd RLA that takes the energy from 3.6 to 12.6 GeV in 4.5 passes. Simulations are in progress to optimize the optics and determine the radiation loads from beam loss and muon decay.

  11. The Brookhaven muon storage ring magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danby, G. T.; Addessi, L.; Armoza, Z.; Benante, J.; Brown, H. N.; Bunce, G.; Cottingham, J. C.; Cullen, J.; Geller, J.; Hseuh, H.; Jackson, J. W.; Jia, L.; Kochis, S.; Koniczny, D.; Larsen, R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mapes, M.; Meier, R. E.; Meng, W.; Morse, W. M.; O'Toole, M.; Pai, C.; Polk, I.; Prigl, R.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Shutt, R.; Snydstrup, L.; Soukas, A.; Tallerico, T.; Toldo, F.; Von Lintig, D.; Woodle, K.; Carey, R. M.; Earle, W.; Hazen, E. S.; Krienen, F.; Miller, J. P.; Ouyang, J.; Roberts, B. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Worstell, W. A.; Orlov, Y.; Winn, D.; Grossmann, A.; Jungmann, K.; zu Putlitz, G.; von Walter, P.; Debevec, P. T.; Deninger, W. J.; Hertzog, D. W.; Sedykh, S.; Urner, D.; Green, M. A.; Haeberlen, U.; Cushman, P.; Giron, S.; Kindem, J.; Miller, D.; Timmermans, C.; Zimmerman, D.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Grigorev, D. N.; Khazin, B. I.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Serednyakov, S.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Solodov, E.; Endo, K.; Hirabayashi, H.; Mizumachi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Dhawan, S. K.; Disco, A.; Farley, F. J. M.; Fei, X.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Hughes, V. W.; Kawall, D.; Redin, S. I.

    2001-01-01

    The muon g-2 experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory has the goal of determining the muon anomalous g-value a μ (=(g-2)/2) to the very high precision of 0.35 parts per million and thus requires a storage ring magnet with great stability and homogeniety. A superferric storage ring with a radius of 7.11 m and a magnetic field of 1.45 T has been constructed in which the field quality is largely determined by the iron, and the excitation is provided by superconducting coils operating at a current of 5200 A. The storage ring has been constructed with maximum attention to azimuthal symmetry and to tight mechanical tolerances and with many features to allow obtaining a homogenous magnetic field. The fabrication of the storage ring, its cryogenics and quench protection systems, and its initial testing and operation are described.

  12. Helical Muon Beam Cooling Channel Engineering Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, M.L.; Romanov, G.V.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, F.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), a novel technique for six-dimensional (6D) ionization cooling of muon beams, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. However, the implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires new techniques for the integration of hydrogen-pressurized, high-power RF cavities into the low-temperature superconducting magnets of the HCC. We present the progress toward a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn based HCC test section. We include discussions on the pressure and thermal barriers needed within the cryostat to maintain operation of the magnet at 4.2 K while operating the RF and energy absorber at a higher temperature. Additionally, we include progress on the Nb{sub 3}Sn helical solenoid design.

  13. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiments at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, A.J.; Anderson, A.N.; Van Siclen, C.D.W.; Watts, K.D.; Bradbury, J.N.; Gram, P.A.M.; Leon, M.; Maltrud, H.R.; Paciotti, M.A.; Jones, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Our collaboration has conducted a series of muon-catalysis experiments over broad temperature and density ranges at the LAMPF accelerator in Los Alamos. We have discovered surprising effects on the normalized muon-catalysis cycling rate, lambda/sub c/, and the apparent alpha-particle sticking coefficient, ..omega../sub s/, that depend on the d-t mixture density. This paper reviews our experimental approach, analysis methods, and results for tests with targets varying in density from 0.12 to 1.30, normalized to liquid hydrogen density, and in temperature from 15K to 800K. In particular, results will be presented on the cycling rate, sticking coefficient, and /sup 3/He scavenging rate, as functions of temperature, mixture density, or tritium concentration.

  14. Muon acceleration in cosmic-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.; Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Becker Tjus, Julia

    2013-12-20

    Many models of ultra-high energy cosmic-ray production involve acceleration in linear accelerators located in gamma-ray bursts, magnetars, or other sources. These transient sources have short lifetimes, which necessitate very high accelerating gradients, up to 10{sup 13} keV cm{sup –1}. At gradients above 1.6 keV cm{sup –1}, muons produced by hadronic interactions undergo significant acceleration before they decay. This muon acceleration hardens the neutrino energy spectrum and greatly increases the high-energy neutrino flux. Using the IceCube high-energy diffuse neutrino flux limits, we set two-dimensional limits on the source opacity and matter density, as a function of accelerating gradient. These limits put strong constraints on different models of particle acceleration, particularly those based on plasma wake-field acceleration, and limit models for sources like gamma-ray bursts and magnetars.

  15. The background rate of false positives: Combining simulations of gravitational wave events with an unsupervised algorithm for transient identification in crowded image-subtracted data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen; Klimenko, Sergey; LIGO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We are now entering the era of multimessenger gravitational wave (GW) astronomy with the completion of the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. Multiwavelength electromagnetic (EM) emission is expected to accompany gravitational radiation from compact object binary mergers, such as those between neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes, where Advanced LIGO is most sensitive to their detection. Attempting to perform EM follow-up over the 10-100s deg2 error regions will be faced with many challenges, including the identification and removal of O (105) false positive transients that appear as a commotion of background events and as image artifacts in crowded image-subtracted fields. We present an update to our automated unsupervised algorithm including how our pipeline uses the existing coherent WaveBurst pipeline in an attempt to develop optimized EM follow-up schema. Our end-to-end pipeline combines simulated GW events with actual observational data from a number of ground-based optical observatories, including PTF, ROTSE, and DECam. Our performance is reported both in terms of the number of coincident false positives as well as the efficiency of recovery.

  16. Identification of new candidate drugs for lung cancer using chemical-chemical interactions, chemical-protein interactions and a K-means clustering algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Chen, Lei; Yin, Jun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Yi; Kong, Xiangyin; Zheng, Mingyue; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer, characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in the lung tissue, is the leading cause of global cancer deaths. Until now, effective treatment of this disease is limited. Many synthetic compounds have emerged with the advancement of combinatorial chemistry. Identification of effective lung cancer candidate drug compounds among them is a great challenge. Thus, it is necessary to build effective computational methods that can assist us in selecting for potential lung cancer drug compounds. In this study, a computational method was proposed to tackle this problem. The chemical-chemical interactions and chemical-protein interactions were utilized to select candidate drug compounds that have close associations with approved lung cancer drugs and lung cancer-related genes. A permutation test and K-means clustering algorithm were employed to exclude candidate drugs with low possibilities to treat lung cancer. The final analysis suggests that the remaining drug compounds have potential anti-lung cancer activities and most of them have structural dissimilarity with approved drugs for lung cancer.

  17. Recent results from COMPASS muon scattering measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Capozza, Luigi [Irfu Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2012-10-23

    A sample of recent results in muon scattering measurements from the COMPASS experiment at CERN will be reviewed. These include high energy processes with longitudinally polarised proton and deuteron targets. High energy polarised measurements provide important constraints for studying the nucleon spin structure and thus permit to test the applicability of the theoretical framework of factorisation theorems and perturbative QCD. Specifically, latest results on longitudinal quark polarisation, quark helicity densities and gluon polarisation will be reviewed.

  18. Seasonal modulations of the underground cosmic-ray muon energy

    SciTech Connect

    Malgin, A. S.

    2015-08-15

    The parameters of the seasonal modulations in the intensity of muons and cosmogenic neutrons generated by them at a mean muon energy of 280 GeV have been determined in the LVD (Large Volume Detector) experiment. The modulations of muons and neutrons are caused by a temperature effect, the seasonal temperature and density variations of the upper atmospheric layers. The analysis performed here leads to the conclusion that the variations in the mean energy of the muon flux are the main source of underground cosmogenic neutron variations, because the energy of muons is more sensitive to the temperature effect than their intensity. The parameters of the seasonal modulations in the mean energy of muons and the flux of cosmogenic neutrons at the LVD depth have been determined from the data obtained over seven years of LVD operation.

  19. Analytical calculation of muon intensities under deep sea-water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inazawa, H.; Kobayakawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the energy loss of high energy muons through different materials, such as rock and sea-water can cast light on characteristics of lepton interactions. There are less ambiguities for the values of atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) in sea-water than in rock. Muon intensities should be measured as fundamental data and as background data for searching the fluxes of neutrino. The average range energy relation in sea-water is derived. The correction factors due to the range fluctuation is also computed. By applying these results, the intensities deep under sea are converted from a given muon energy spectra at sea-level. The spectra of conventional muons from eta, K decays have sec theta enhancement. The spectrum of prompt muons from charmed particles is almost isotropic. The effect of prompt muons is examined.

  20. Next Generation Muon g - 2 Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzog, David W.

    2016-04-01

    I report on the progress of two new muon anomalous magnetic moment experiments, which are in advanced design and construction phases. The goal of Fermilab E989 is to reduce the experimental uncertainty of aμ from Brookhaven E821 by a factor of 4; that is, δaμ ˜ 16 × 10-11, a relative uncertainty of 140 ppb. The method follows the same magic-momentum storage ring concept used at BNL, and pioneered previously at CERN, but muon beam preparation, storage ring internal hardware, field measuring equipment, and detector and electronics systems are all new or upgraded significantly. In contrast, J-PARC E34 will employ a novel approach based on injection of an ultra-cold, low-energy, muon beam injected into a small, but highly uniform magnet. Only a small magnetic focusing field is needed to maintain storage, which distinguishes it from CERN, BNL and Fermilab. E34 aims to roughly match the previous BNL precision in their Phase 1 installation.

  1. Muon g-2 Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Frederick

    2015-10-01

    A new experiment at Fermilab will measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with a precision of 140 parts per billion (ppb). This measurement is motivated by the results of the Brookhaven E821 experiment that were first released more than a decade ago, which reached a precision of 540 ppb. As the corresponding Standard Model predictions have been refined, the experimental and theoretical values have persistently differed by about 3 standard deviations. If the Brookhaven result is confirmed at Fermilab with this improved precision, it will constitute definitive evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. The experiment observes the muon spin precession frequency in flight in a well-calibrated magnetic fi eld; the improvement in precision will require both 20 times as many recorded muon decay events as in E821 and a reduction by a factor of 3 in the systematic uncertainties. This paper describes the current experimental status as well as the plans for the upgraded magnet, detector and storage ring systems that are being prepared for the start of beam data collection in 2017.

  2. Next Generation Muon g-2 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzog, David W.

    2015-12-02

    I report on the progress of two new muon anomalous magnetic moment experiments, which are in advanced design and construction phases. The goal of Fermilab E989 is to reduce the experimental uncertainty of $a_\\mu$ from Brookhaven E821 by a factor of 4; that is, $\\delta a_\\mu \\sim 16 \\times 10^{-11}$, a relative uncertainty of 140~ppb. The method follows the same magic-momentum storage ring concept used at BNL, and pioneered previously at CERN, but muon beam preparation, storage ring internal hardware, field measuring equipment, and detector and electronics systems are all new or upgraded significantly. In contrast, J-PARC E34 will employ a novel approach based on injection of an ultra-cold, low-energy, muon beam injected into a small, but highly uniform magnet. Only a small magnetic focusing field is needed to maintain storage, which distinguishes it from CERN, BNL and Fermilab. E34 aims to roughly match the previous BNL precision in their Phase~1 installation.

  3. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  4. Muon Beam Helical Cooling Channel Design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Flanagan, G; Kazakevich, G M; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Michael; Roberts, T; Yoshikawa, C; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kashikhin, V S; Lopes, Mattlock; Tollestrup, A; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zloblin, A

    2013-06-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet.

  5. High intensity muon storage rings for neutrino production: Lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C>

    1998-05-01

    Five energies, 250, 100, 50, 20, and 10 GeV, have been explored in the design of a muon storage ring for neutrino-beam production. The ring design incorporates exceptionally long straight sections with large beta functions in order to produce an intense, parallel neutrino beam via muon decay. To emphasize compactness and reduce the number of muon decays in the arcs, high-field superconducting dipoles are used in the arc design.

  6. Muons in Air Showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, M.

    We present measurements of muons in air showers at ultra-high energies with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of muons at the ground in air showers detected at large zenith angles is determined as a function of energy and the results are compared to air shower simulations. Furthermore, using data collected at zenith angles smaller than 60°, rescaling factors are derived that quantify the deficit of muon production in air shower simulations.

  7. Muon Bunching and Phase-Energy Rotation for a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuffer, David; Yoshikawa, Cary

    2008-04-01

    We have developed scenarios for capture, bunching and phase-energy rotation of muons from a proton source, using high-frequency rf systems. The method captures a maximal number of muons into a string of rf bunches with initial application in the neutrino factory design studies. For a muon collider, these bunches must be recombined for maximal luminosity, and our initial design produced a relatively long bunch train. In this paper we present more compact scenarios that obtain a smaller number of bunches, and, after some optimization, obtain cases that are better for both neutrino-factory and collider scenarios. We also consider further modification by incorporating hydrogen gas-filled rf cavities for bunching and cooling. We describe these examples and consider variations toward an optimal factory + collider scenario.

  8. The performance of the MICE muon beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Mark Alastair

    2011-10-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment is one lattice cell of a cooling channel suitable for conditioning the muon beam at the front end of a Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The beam line designed to transport muons into MICE has been installed, and data was collected in 2010. In this paper the method of reconstructing longitudinal momentum and transverse trace space using two timing detectors is discussed, and a preliminary simulation of the performance of a measured beam in the cooling channel is presented.

  9. Muon SR Newsletter, No. 29, April 5, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, K.M.; Portis, A.M.; Yamazaki, T.

    1984-04-05

    Muon SR stands for Muon Spin Relaxation, Rotation, Resonance, Research, or what have you. The intention of the mnemonic acronym is to draw attention to the analogy with NMR and ESR, the range of whose applications is well known. Any study of the interactions of the muon spin by virtue of the asymmetric decay is considered ..mu..SR, but this definition is not intended to exclude any peripherally related phenomena, especially if relevant to the use of the muon's mganetic moment as a delicate probe of matter. Abstracts of individual items from this issue were prepared separately for the data base.

  10. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  11. Multiple muons of conventional and exotic origin in DUMAND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieder, K. F.

    1985-01-01

    A first summary of results from a theoretical analysis, based on hadron - muon cascade calculations, that yield relative intensities of very high energy multiple muons originating from ultra high energy interactions initiated by primary protons and iron nuclei in the atmosphere, under consideration of normal as well as direct and exotic production channels is presented. Lateral density distributions and target diagrams will be presented which show that only very large detectors, such as DUMAND, will be able to record multiple muons of conventional origin reliably. This, however, is a prerequisite for any primary mass determination based on multiple muon data.

  12. The muon system of the Run II DØ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Acharya, B. S.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V. A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J. F.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J. M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S. R.; Dvornikov, O. V.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fortner, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Gershtein, Y.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Yu. A.; Green, D. R.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Haggerty, H.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hazen, E.; Hedin, D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Ito, A. S.; Jayanti, R.; Johns, K.; Jouravlev, N.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalmani, S. D.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirsch, N.; Komissarov, E. V.; Korablev, V. M.; Kostritsky, A.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, M.; Kravchuk, N. P.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Kuchinsky, N. A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kupco, A.; Larwill, M.; Leitner, R.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lubatti, H. J.; Machado, E.; Maity, M.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Marcus, M.; Marshall, T.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCroskey, R.; Merekov, Y. P.; Mikhailov, V. A.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Nagaraj, P.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nozdrin, A. A.; Oshinowo, B.; Parashar, N.; Parua, N.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Polozov, P.; Porokhovoi, S. Y.; Prokhorov, I. K.; Rao, M. V. S.; Raskowski, J.; Reddy, L. V.; Regan, T.; Rotolo, C.; Russakovich, N. A.; Sabirov, B. M.; Satyanarayana, B.; Scheglov, Y.; Schukin, A. A.; Shankar, H. C.; Shishkin, A. A.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Smith, G.; Smolek, K.; Soustruznik, K.; Stefanik, A.; Steinberg, J.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Stutte, L.; Temple, J.; Terentyev, N.; Teterin, V. V.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tompkins, D.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Vorobyov, A.; Vysotsky, V. B.; Willutzki, H.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Yoffe, F.; Zanabria, M.; Zhao, T.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zvyagintsev, S. A.

    2005-11-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of the upgraded DØ muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the DØ muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  13. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  14. Muons probe strong hydrogen interactions with defective graphene.

    PubMed

    Riccò, Mauro; Pontiroli, Daniele; Mazzani, Marcello; Choucair, Mohammad; Stride, John A; Yazyev, Oleg V

    2011-11-01

    Here, we present the first muon spectroscopy investigation of graphene, focused on chemically produced, gram-scale samples, appropriate to the large muon penetration depth. We have observed an evident muon spin precession, usually the fingerprint of magnetic order, but here demonstrated to originate from muon-hydrogen nuclear dipolar interactions. This is attributed to the formation of CHMu (analogous to CH(2)) groups, stable up to 1250 K where the signal still persists. The relatively large signal amplitude demonstrates an extraordinary hydrogen capture cross section of CH units. These results also rule out the formation of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic order in chemically synthesized graphene samples.

  15. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

  16. The Muon system of the run II D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Tata Inst. /Dubna, JINR /Moscow, ITEP /Moscow State U. /Serpukhov, IHEP /St. Petersburg, INP /Arizona U. /Florida State U. /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Boston U. /Northeastern U. /Brookhaven /Washington U., Seattle /Minsk, Inst. Nucl. Problems

    2005-03-01

    The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  17. Muon beam polarization at the LAMPF Biochemical Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Paciotti, M.A.; Bradbury, J.N.; Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; Rink, D.; Rivera, O.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent modifications to the LAMPF Biomedical Channel have improved versatility for stopping pion and muon physics experiments. High muon polarization was achieved by favorable kinematic selection of the decay muons. This polarization has been measured and found to be close to the design expectation of about 85%. The Hanle method was employed to measure the polarization by observing left-right decay asymmetry at right angles to the beam with small precession fields (0-50 gauss). This technique is particularly suitable for high-intensity muon beams. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons and muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyth, S. C.; Chan, Y. L.; Chen, X. C.; Chu, M. C.; Cui, K. X.; Hahn, R. L.; Ho, T. H.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lau, Y. P.; Leung, J. K. C.; Leung, K. Y.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, Y. C.; Luk, K. B.; Luk, W. H.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngan, S. Y.; Pun, C. S. J.; Shih, K.; Tam, Y. H.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Wang, C. H.; Wong, C. M.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, K. K.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, B. J.; Aberdeen Tunnel Experiment Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the muon flux and production rate of muon-induced neutrons at a depth of 611 m water equivalent. Our apparatus comprises three layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes for tracking the incident cosmic-ray muons and 760 L of a gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator for producing and detecting neutrons. The vertical muon intensity was measured to be Iμ=(5.7 ±0.6 )×10-6 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 . The yield of muon-induced neutrons in the liquid scintillator was determined to be Yn=(1.19 ±0.08 (stat)±0.21 (syst))×10-4 neutrons /(μ .g .cm-2 ) . A fit to the recently measured neutron yields at different depths gave a mean muon energy dependence of ⟨Eμ⟩ 0.76 ±0.03 for liquid-scintillator targets.

  19. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons and muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel Underground Laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Yeh, M.; Chan, Y. L.; Chen, X. C.; Chu, M. C.; Cui, K. X.; Hahn, R. L.; Ho, T. H.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Kwan, K. K.; et al

    2016-04-07

    In this study, we have measured the muon flux and production rate of muon-induced neutrons at a depth of 611 m water equivalent. Our apparatus comprises three layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes for tracking the incident cosmic-ray muons and 760 L of a gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator for producing and detecting neutrons. The vertical muon intensity was measured to be Iμ = (5.7±0.6)×10–6 cm–2 s–1 sr–1. The yield of muon-induced neutrons in the liquid scintillator was determined to be Yn = (1.19 ± 0.08(stat) ± 0.21(syst)) × 10–4 neutrons/(μ•g•cm–2). A fit to the recently measured neutron yields at different depthsmore » gave a mean muon energy dependence of < Eμ >0.76±0.03 for liquid-scintillator targets.« less

  20. Local anisotropy of muon flux - The basis of the method of muon diagnostics of extra-terrestrial space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astapov, I. I.; Barbashina, N. S.; Dmitrieva, A. N.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yakovleva, E. I.; Yashin, I. I.

    2015-12-01

    A new method for the analysis of spatial and angular characteristics of the cosmic ray muon flux registered in the hodoscopic mode using a single setup - the muon hodoscope - is presented. Various parameters of the muon flux anisotropy and methods of calculation of these parameters are discussed. It is shown that the horizontal projection of the muon flux relative anisotropy vector which characterizes lateral (horizontal) displacement of the muon flux angular distribution is the sensitive parameter to a variety of nonstationary processes in the heliosphere. The experimental data on the variation of the muon flux anisotropy during the passage of various irregularities in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field in the Earth's vicinity are presented.

  1. Studies on Muon Induction Acceleration and an Objective Lens Design for Transmission Muon Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artikova, Sayyora; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Naito, Fujio

    Muon acceleration will be accomplished by a set of induction cells, where each increases the energy of the muon beam by an increment of up to 30 kV. The cells are arranged in a linear way resulting in total accelerating voltage of 300 kV. Acceleration time in the linac is about hundred nanoseconds. Induction field calculation is based on an electrostatic approximation. Beam dynamics in the induction accelerator is investigated and final beam focusing on specimen is realized by designing a pole piece lens.

  2. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland

    2015-08-07

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet. The first phase of this project saw the development of a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb3Sn-based HS test section. Two very novel ideas are required to realize the design. The first idea is the use of dielectric inserts in the RF cavities to make them smaller for a given frequency so that the cavities and associated plumbing easily fit inside the magnet cryostat. Calculations indicate that heat loads will be tolerable, while RF breakdown of the dielectric inserts will be suppressed by the pressurized hydrogen gas. The second new idea is the use of a multi-layer Nb3Sn helical solenoid. The technology demonstrations for the two aforementioned key components of a 10T, 805 MHz HCC were begun in this project. The work load in the Fermilab Technical Division made it difficult to test a multi-layer Nb3Sn solenoid as originally planned. Instead, a complementary

  3. L'utilisation des algorithmes génétiques pour l'identification de profils hydriques de sol à partir de courbes réflectométriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoroff, Pierre; Lorion, Richard; Lan Sun Luk, Jean-Daniel

    1998-11-01

    We developed a unidimensional microwave propagation model in a stratified medium. It calculates, from a given soil water content profile, the reflected signal trace one would measure by timedomain reflectometry along a transmission line inserted in the soil. We identify the soil water content profile corresponding to a measured reflected signal trace using an identification technique based on optimisation of the model parameters by a genetic algorithm.

  4. Jet production in deep-inelastic muon scattering at 490 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Melanson, H.L.

    1993-06-01

    Measurements of jet rates in deep-inelastic muon scattering are presented. The JADE algorithm is used to define jets in the kinematic region 9 < W < 33 GeV. Data taken on a proton target are analyzed within the QCD framework, with the goal of extracting [alpha][sub s]. Results on the Q[sup 2] dependence of the average transverse momentum of jets are used to demonstrate the running of the strong coupling constant [alpha][sub s]. In addition, first measurements of the production of jets from heavy nuclei in the region x[sub B[sub j

  5. A unified framework for penalized statistical muon tomography reconstruction with edge preservation priors of lp norm type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Baihui; Zhao, Ziran; Wang, Xuewu; Wu, Dufan; Zeng, Zhi; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The Tsinghua University MUon Tomography facilitY (TUMUTY) has been built up and it is utilized to reconstruct the special objects with complex structure. Since fine image is required, the conventional Maximum likelihood Scattering and Displacement (MLSD) algorithm is employed. However, due to the statistical characteristics of muon tomography and the data incompleteness, the reconstruction is always instable and accompanied with severe noise. In this paper, we proposed a Maximum a Posterior (MAP) algorithm for muon tomography regularization, where an edge-preserving prior on the scattering density image is introduced to the object function. The prior takes the lp norm (p>0) of the image gradient magnitude, where p=1 and p=2 are the well-known total-variation (TV) and Gaussian prior respectively. The optimization transfer principle is utilized to minimize the object function in a unified framework. At each iteration the problem is transferred to solving a cubic equation through paraboloidal surrogating. To validate the method, the French Test Object (FTO) is imaged by both numerical simulation and TUMUTY. The proposed algorithm is used for the reconstruction where different norms are detailedly studied, including l2, l1, l0.5, and an l2-0.5 mixture norm. Compared with MLSD method, MAP achieves better image quality in both structure preservation and noise reduction. Furthermore, compared with the previous work where one dimensional image was acquired, we achieve the relatively clear three dimensional images of FTO, where the inner air hole and the tungsten shell is visible.

  6. Muon to electron conversion: how to find an electron in a muon haystack.

    PubMed

    Kurup, A

    2010-08-13

    The standard model (SM) of particle physics describes how the Universe works at a fundamental level. Even though this theory has proven to be very successful over the past 50 years, we know it is incomplete. Many theories that go beyond the SM predict the occurrence of certain processes that are forbidden by the SM, such as muon to electron conversion. This paper will briefly review the history of muon to electron conversion and focus on the high-precision experiments currently being proposed, COMET (Coherent Muon to Electron Transition) and Mu2e, and a next-generation experiment, PRISM. The PRISM experiment intends to use a novel type of accelerator called a fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerator. There has recently been renewed interest in FFAGs for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider, and because they have applications in many areas outside of particle physics, such as energy production and cancer therapy. The synergies between these particle physics experiments and other applications will also be discussed.

  7. The g - 2 muon anomaly in di-muon production with the torsion in LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syromyatnikov, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    It was considered within the framework of the conformal gauge gravitational theory CGTG coupling of the standard model fermions to the axial torsion and preliminary discusses the impact of extra dimensions, in particular, in a five-dimensional space-time with Randall-Sundrum metric, where the fifth dimension is compactified on an S1/Z 2 orbifold, which as it turns out is conformally to the fifth dimension flat Euclidean space with permanent trace of torsion, with a compactification radius R in terms of the radius of a CGTG gravitational screening, through torsion in a process Z → μ+μ- and LHC data. In general, have come to the correct set of the conformal calibration curvature the Faddeev-Popov diagram technique type, that follows directly from dynamics. This leads to the effect of restrictions on neutral spin currents of gauge fields by helicity and the Regge’s form theory. The diagrams reveals the fact of opening of the fine spacetime structure in a process pp → γ/Z/T → μ+μ- with a center-of-mass energy of 14TeV, indicated by dotted lines and texture columns, as a result of p-p collision on 1.3 ṡ 10-18cm scales from geometric shell gauge bosons of the SM continued by the heavy axial torsion resonance, and even by emerging from the inside into the outside of the ultra-light (freely-frozen in muon’s spin) axial torsion. We then evaluate the contribution of the torsion to the muon anomaly to derive new constraints on the torsion parameters. It was obtained that on the πN scattering through the exchange of axial torsion accounting, the nucleon anomalous magnetic moment in the eikonal phase leads to additive additives which is responsible for the spin-flip in the scattering process, the scattering amplitude is classical and characterized by a strong the torsion coupling ηT≅1. So the scattering of particles, occurs as on the Coulomb center with the charge fT This is the base model which is the g-2 muon anomaly. The muon anomaly contribution due to

  8. Chromaticity correction for a muon collider optics

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kapin, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Muon Collider (MC) is a promising candidate for the next energy frontier machine. However, in order to obtain peak luminosity in the 10{sup 34} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} range the collider lattice designmust satisfy a number of stringent requirements. In particular the expected large momentum spread of the muon beam and the very small {beta}* call for a careful correction of the chromatic effects. Here we present a particular solution for the interaction region (IR) optics whose distinctive feature is a three-sextupole local chromatic correction scheme. The scheme may be applied to other future machines where chromatic effects are expected to be large. The expected large muon energy spread requires the optics to be stable over a wide range of momenta whereas the required luminosity calls for {beta}* in the mm range. To avoid luminosity degradation due to hour-glass effect, the bunch length must be comparatively small. To keep the needed RF voltage within feasible limits the momentum compaction factor must be small over the wide range of momenta. A low {beta}* means high sensitivity to alignment and field errors of the Interaction Region (IR) quadrupoles and large chromatic effects which limit the momentum range of optics stability and require strong correction sextupoles, which eventually limit the Dynamic Aperture (DA). Finally, the ring circumference should be as small as possible, luminosity being inversely proportional to the collider length. A promising solution for a 1.5 TeV center of mass energy MC with {beta}* = 1 m in both planes has been proposed. This {beta}* value has been chosen as a compromise between luminosity and feasibility based on the magnet design and energy deposition considerations. The proposed solution for the IR optics together with a new flexible momentum compaction arc cell design allows to satisfy all requirements and is relatively insensitive to the beam-beam effect.

  9. Densitometric tomography using the measurement of muon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hivert, F.; Busto, J.; Brunner, J.; Salin, P.; Gaffet, S.

    2013-12-01

    The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g. seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The present work develops a recent method to investigate the in situ density of rocks using atmospheric the muon flux measurement , its attenuation depending on the rock density and thickness. This new geophysical technique have been mainly applied in volcanology (Lesparre N., 2011) using scintillator detectors. The present project (T2DM2) aims to realize underground muons flux measurements in order to characterizing the rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measure with a new Muon telescope instrumentation using Micromegas detectors in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) configuration. The first step of the work presented considers the muon flux simulation using the Gaisser model, for the interactions between muons and atmospheric particles, and the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the muons/rock interactions. The results show that the muon flux attenuation caused by density variations are enough significant to be observed until around 500 m depth and for period of time in the order of one month. Such a duration scale and depth of investigation is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes involved within the Karst unsaturated zone where LSBB is located. Our work now concentrates on the optimization of the spatial distribution of detectors that will be deployed in future.

  10. Muon tomography of rock density using Micromegas-TPC telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hivert, Fanny; Busto, José; Gaffet, Stéphane; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Brunner, Jurgen; Salin, Pierre; Decitre, Jean-Baptiste; Lázaro Roche, Ignacio; Martin, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g., seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The current work is based on a recently developed method to investigate in situ the density of rocks using a measurement of the muon flux, whose attenuation depends on the quantity of matter the particles travel through and hence on the rock density and thickness. The present project (T2DM2) aims at performing underground muon flux measurements in order to characterize spatial and temporal rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measured with a new muon telescope device using Micromegas-Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detectors. The first step of the work presented covers the muon flux simulation based on the Gaisser model (Gaisser T., 1990), for the muon flux at the ground level, and on the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the propagation of muons through the rock. The results show that the muon flux distortion caused by density variations is enough significant to be observed at 500 m depth for measurement times of about one month. This time-scale is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes within the unsaturated Karst zone where LSBB is located. The work now focuses on the optimization of the detector layout along the LSBB galleries in order to achieve the best sensitivity.

  11. Preliminary Design of the Gas Cherenkov Muon Monitors for LBNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcher, Craig

    2011-10-01

    I am performing preliminary research for a future neutrino experiment at Fermilab called the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). More specifically, I am determining the best geometry for the gas Cherenkov muon monitors. The purpose of the monitors is to measure, at least indirectly, the energy spectrum of the muons in the beam. I use computer software to simulate a realistic muon beam going through the monitors. Muons in the particle beam that go through the monitors emit Cherenkov radiation, and this light is detected by PMTs. I then plot the number of photons detected as a function of the muon's energy that emitted the detected photons. My goal is to have a very narrow peak on this plot. This peak shifts depending on the simulated index of refraction. The best design for the monitors is an L-shaped pipe filled with Freon gas of adjustable density. It is the simplest and cheapest to build of all the designs I tried, and it can accurately recover the muon energy spectrum based solely on the total number of photons detected in each pulse: using simulation data from 5 indices of refraction, I can recover the muon energy spectrum (within the uncertainties) of a beam that has 5 discrete muon energies.

  12. Characteristics of neutrons produced by muons in a standard rock

    SciTech Connect

    Malgin, A. S.

    2015-10-15

    Characteristics of cosmogenic neutrons, such as the yield, production rate, and flux, were determined for a standard rock. The dependences of these quantities on the standard-rock depth and on the average muon energy were obtained. These properties and dependences make it possible to estimate easy the muon-induced neutron background in underground laboratories for various chemical compositions of rock.

  13. Silicon meets cyclotron: muon spin resonance of organosilicon radicals.

    PubMed

    West, Robert; Samedov, Kerim; Percival, Paul W

    2014-07-21

    Muons, generated at a high-powered cyclotron, can capture electrons to form muonium atoms. Muon spin resonance spectra can be recorded for organosilyl radicals obtained by addition of muonium atoms to silylenes and silenes. We present a brief summary of progress in this new area since the first such experiments were reported in 2008.

  14. Participation in Muon Collider/Neutrino Factory Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Torun, Yagmur

    2013-03-20

    Muon accelerators hold great promise for the future of high energy physics and their construction can be staged to support a broad physics program. Great progress was made over the past decade toward developing the technology for muon beam cooling which is one of the main challenges for building such facilities.

  15. Helical channel design and technology for cooling of muon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K; Derbenev, Y.S.; Johnson, R.P.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2010-08-01

    Novel magnetic helical channel designs for capture and cooling of bright muon beams are being developed using numerical simulations based on new inventions such as helical solenoid (HS) magnets and hydrogen-pressurized RF (HPRF) cavities. We are close to the factor of a million six-dimensional phase space (6D) reduction needed for muon colliders. Recent experimental and simulation results are presented.

  16. Detectors for Neutrino Physics at the First Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.A.; McFarland, K.S.

    1998-04-01

    We consider possible detector designs for short-baseline neutrino experiments using neutrino beams produced at the First Muon Collider complex. The high fluxes available at the muon collider make possible high statistics deep-inelastic scattering neutrino experiments with a low-mass target. A design of a low-energy neutrino oscillation experiment on the ``tabletop`` scale is also discussed.

  17. Ultra Slow Muon Project at J-PARC, MUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Y.; Nakahara, K.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Koda, A.; Makimura, S.; Fujimori, H.; Nishiyama, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Bakule, P.; Adachi, T.; Ogitsu, T.

    2009-03-17

    The muon science facility (MUSE), along with the neutron, hadron, and neutrino facilities, is one of the experimental areas of the J-PARC project, which was approved for construction at the Tokai JAEA site. The MUSE facility is located in the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF), which is a building integrated to include both neutron and muon science programs. Construction of the MLF building was started in the beginning of 2004, and first muon beam is expected in the autumn of 2008.As a next step, we are planning to install, a Super Omega muon channel with a large acceptance of 400 msr, to extract the world strongest pulsed surface muon beam. Its goal is to extract 4x10{sup 8} surface muons/s for the generation of the intense ultra slow muons, utilizing laser resonant ionization of Mu by applying an intense pulsed VUV laser system. As maximum 1x10{sup 6} ultra slow muons/s will be expected, which will allow for the extension of {mu}SR into the field of thin film and surface science.

  18. Measurements of cosmic ray muons with multi-wire proportional chambers with a prototype setup for KASCADE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathes, Hermann-Josef

    1993-03-01

    The cosmic ray experiment KASCADE (German acronym for Karlsruhe Shower Core and Array Detector) designed for measuring simultaneously the electromagnetic, muonic, and hadronic components of extensive air showers to determine the primary cosmic ray mass composition in the energy range 300 Tev to 100 Btu is described. Beneath the central hadron calorimeter of this experiment, measurements of muons with an energy threshold of 2 GeV are planned. Four large position sensitive multi-wire proportional chambers were brought into operation after the required supply units were installed. This test setup was extended with a trigger system for cosmic ray muons. The trigger allows muon detection efficiencies and the spatial resolution of the chambers to be measured. To enhance the content of multiple track events in the data a trigger system for air showers was required. A small detector array was installed with the possibility to determine roughly the arrival direction of the shower. For that configuration of chambers an algorithm for track reconstruction was developed. It led to satisfying results for single and double track events. It is demonstrated that the determination of hits with only one chamber is influenced by the ambiguities resulting from the chamber layout. In addition this effect is shown to be enhanced by electronic noise and electromagnetic background. An extension with a time measuring system of an accuracy better than 2 ns allowed the arrival times of the muons to be measured for some events. The resulting arrival time distribution could be qualitatively understood.

  19. Atmospheric effects on the underground muon intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.; Humble, J. E.; Hyland, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    It has previously been reported that the barometric pressure coefficient observed for muons at Poatina (vertical absorber depth 357 hg/sq cm) appears to be appreciably higher than would be expected from atmospheric absorption alone. There is a possibility that the effect is due to an upper atmospheric temperature effect arising from an inverse correlation of surface pressure with stratospheric temperature. A new proportional telescope is discussed which has been operating at Poatina since about the beginning of 83 and which has a long term stability suitable for studying variations of atmospheric origin.

  20. Leptomeson contribution to the muon g -2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuridov, Dmitry

    2016-02-01

    Many models on the market allow for particles carrying both lepton number and color, e.g., leptoquarks and leptogluons. Some of the models with this feature can also accommodate color-singlet leptohadrons. We have found that the long-standing discrepancy between the experimental result and the Standard Model prediction for the muon anomalous magnetic moment can be explained by the effect of leptomesons with masses of a few hundred GeV and couplings to the leptons and mesons either of O (1 0-2) (vector-meson case) or of O (1 ) (scalar case). These new particles are testable at the current run of the LHC.

  1. Improved limit on the muon electric dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G. W.; Brown, H. N.; Bunce, G.; Danby, G. T.; Larsen, R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Meng, W.; Mi, J.; Morse, W. M.; Nikas, D.; Prigl, R.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Warburton, D.; Bousquet, B.; Cushman, P.; Duong, L.; Giron, S.; Kindem, J.; Kronkvist, I.; Qian, T.

    2009-09-01

    Three independent searches for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the positive and negative muons have been performed, using spin precession data from the muon g-2 storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Details on the experimental apparatus and the three analyses are presented. Since the individual results on the positive and negative muons, as well as the combined result, d{sub {mu}}=(0.0{+-}0.9)x10{sup -19}e cm, are all consistent with zero, we set a new muon EDM limit, |d{sub {mu}}|<1.8x10{sup -19}e cm (95% C.L.). This represents a factor of 5 improvement over the previous best limit on the muon EDM.

  2. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Veselinović, N. Dragić, A. Maletić, D. Joković, D. Savić, M. Banjanac, R. Udovičić, V. Aničin, I.

    2015-02-24

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations.

  3. Gravitational effects on measurements of the muon dipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobach, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    If the technology for muon storage rings one day permits sensitivity to precession at the order of 10-8 Hz, the local gravitational field of Earth can be a dominant contribution to the precession of the muon, which, if ignored, can fake the signal for a nonzero muon electric dipole moment (EDM). Specifically, the effects of Earth's gravity on the motion of a muon's spin is indistinguishable from it having a nonzero EDM of magnitude dμ ∼10-29 ecm in a storage ring with vertical magnetic field of ∼ 1 T, which is significantly larger than the expected upper limit in the Standard Model, dμ ≲10-36 ecm. As a corollary, measurements of Earth's local gravitational field using stored muons would be a unique test to distinguish classical gravity from general relativity with a bonafide quantum mechanical entity, i.e., an elementary particle's spin.

  4. Production of muons for fusion catalysis using a migma configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapline, George F.; Moir, Ralph W.

    1988-08-01

    Muon-catalyzed fusion requires a very efficient means of producing muons. We describe a muon-producing magnetic-mirror scheme with triton migma that may be more energy efficient than any heretofore proposed. If one could catalyze 200 fusions per muon and employ a uranium blanket that would multiply the neutron energy by a factor of 10, one might produce electricity with an overall plant efficiency (ratio of electric energy produced to nuclear energy released) approaching 30%. The self-colliding arrangement of triton orbits will result in many π-'s being produced near the axis of the magnetic mirror. The pions quickly decay into muons, which are transported into a small (few cm diameter) reactor chamber producing approximately 1 MW/m2 neutron flux on the chamber walls.

  5. Muon reconstruction performance of the ATLAS detector in proton–proton collision data at √s=13 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; et al

    2016-05-23

    This article documents the performance of the ATLAS muon identification and reconstruction using the LHC dataset recorded at √s=13 TeV in 2015. Using a large sample of J/ψ → μμ and Z → μμ decays from 3.2 fb-1 of pp collision data, measurements of the reconstruction efficiency, as well as of the momentum scale and resolution, are presented and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, the reconstruction efficiency is measured to be close to 99% over most of the covered phase space (|η| < 2.5 and 52.2 , the pT resolution for muons from Z → μμ decays is 2.9%more » while the precision of the momentum scale for low-pT muons from J/ψ → μμ decays is about 0.2% .« less

  6. Frontiers of muon spectroscopy—25 years of muon science at ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    The ISIS muon source developed with support from the European Community (EC) and groups at Grenoble, Parma, Uppsala and Munich in the late 1980s, with a single instrument providing many scientists with their first opportunity to explore the unique capabilities of muon spectroscopy. The timing was opportune, as the muon technique was making an important contribution to the study of the then recently discovered cuprate high T c superconductors. The ISIS user community developed rapidly over subsequent years, with the technique finding a broad range of applications in condensed matter physics, materials science and chemistry. The single instrument was hugely oversubscribed, and the importance of the technique was recognized in 1993 with a further grant from the EC to develop the triple beamline facility that is currently available at ISIS. During 2009 the suite of spectrometers available at the facility received a major upgrade, with the Science and Technology Facilities Council funding the development of a 5 T high field instrument that has enabled entirely new applications of muon spectroscopy to be explored. The facility continues to flourish, with a strong user community exploiting the technique to support research across an increasingly broad range of subject areas. Condensed matter science continues to be a major area of interest, with applications including semiconductors and dielectrics, superconductors, magnetism, interstitial diffusion and charge transport. Recently, however, molecular science and radical chemistry have become prominent in the ISIS programme, applications where the availability of high magnetic fields is frequently vital to the success of the experiments. For ISIS, 23 March 2012 marked a significant milestone, it being 25 years since muons were first produced at the facility for research in condensed matter and molecular science. To celebrate, the ISIS muon group organized a science symposium with the theme 'Frontiers of Muon Spectroscopy

  7. High energy muon induced radioactive nuclides in nickel plate and its use for 2-D muon-beam image profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurebayashi, Y.; Sakurai, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Doshita, N.; Kikuchi, S.; Tokanai, F.; Horiuchi, K.; Tajima, Y.; Oe, T.; Sato, T.; Gunji, S.; Inui, E.; Kondo, K.; Iwata, N.; Sasaki, N.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kunieda, S.

    2015-11-01

    Target materials were exposed to a muon beam with an energy of 160 GeV/c at the COMPASS experiment line in CERN-SPS to measure the production cross-sections for muon-induced radionuclides. A muon imager containing four nickel plates, each measuring 100 mm×100 mm, exposed to the IP plate successfully detected the muon beam image during an irradiation period of 33 days. The contrasting density rate of the nickel plate was (5.2±0.7)×10-9 PSL/muon per one-day exposure to IP. The image measured 122 mm and 174 mm in horizontal and vertical lengths, respectively, in relation to the surface of the base, indicating that 50±6% of the muon beam flux is confined to an area of 18% of the whole muon beam. The number of muons estimated from the PSL value in the total beam image area (0.81±0.1)×1013 was comparable to the total muon counts of the ion-chamber at the M2 beam line in the CERN-SPS. The production cross-sections of Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, and Co-58 in nickel were 0.19±0.08, 0.34±0.06, 0.5±0.05, 3.44±0.07, 0.4±0.03 in the unit of mb, respectively, reducing muon associated particles effects. They are approximately 10 times smaller than that a proceeding study by Heisinger et al.

  8. Muon simulations for Super-Kamiokande, KamLAND, and CHOOZ

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Alfred; Horton-Smith, Glenn; Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; Tonazzo, Alessandra

    2006-09-01

    Muon backgrounds at Super-Kamiokande, KamLAND, and CHOOZ are calculated using MUSIC. A modified version of the Gaisser sea-level muon distribution and a well-tested Monte Carlo integration method are introduced. Average muon energy, flux, and rate are tabulated. Plots of average energy and angular distributions are given. Implications for muon tracker design in future experiments are discussed.

  9. Muon reconstruction performance of the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collision data at √{s}=13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. 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B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. 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A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-05-01

    This article documents the performance of the ATLAS muon identification and reconstruction using the LHC dataset recorded at √{s} = 13 TeV in 2015. Using a large sample of J/ψ → μ μ and Z→ μ μ decays from 3.2 fb^{-1} of pp collision data, measurements of the reconstruction efficiency, as well as of the momentum scale and resolution, are presented and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The reconstruction efficiency is measured to be close to 99 % over most of the covered phase space (|η |<2.5 and 5 < pT < 100 GeV). The isolation efficiency varies between 93 and 100 % depending on the selection applied and on the momentum of the muon. Both efficiencies are well reproduced in simulation. In the central region of the detector, the momentum resolution is measured to be 1.7 % (2.3 %) for muons from J/ψ → μ μ (Z→ μ μ ) decays, and the momentum scale is known with an uncertainty of 0.05 %. In the region |η |>2.2, the pT resolution for muons from Z→ μ μ decays is 2.9 % while the precision of the momentum scale for low-pT muons from J/ψ → μ μ decays is about 0.2 %.

  10. Automatic readout for nuclear emulsions in muon radiography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Montesi, C.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.

    2012-04-01

    already started to increase the scanning speed, to exceed 100 cm2/h and approach the order of magnitude of 1000 cm2/h. Muon radiography also demands high signal/background ratio to probe high absorption regions in volcanoes. A new camera, a new image acquisition device, an improved motion control board and extensive use of GPU-based processing are the keys to make a new leap in speed while even improving data quality. With most of the new hardware already finalised, software development is quickly progressing, and a stable, user-friendly and cheap prototype is expected to be ready to take data already this summer. The amount of raw data collected is typically of the order of 10 TB/m2. The operation of automatic microscopes is thus complemented with an automatic data management and processing system based on a distributed computing model. The processing power can be scaled up linearly by just increasing the number of available computers. An evolution is underway on this side too, and algorithms designed for GPU-based processing will soon help increase the available power while decreasing the overall cost of typical installations.

  11. A method for detection of muon induced electromagnetic showers with the ANTARES detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J. P.; Schüssler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-05-01

    The primary aim of ANTARES is neutrino astronomy with upward going muons created in charged current muon neutrino interactions in the detector and its surroundings. Downward going muons are background for neutrino searches. These muons are the decay products of cosmic-ray collisions in the Earth's atmosphere far above the detector. This paper presents a method to identify and count electromagnetic showers induced along atmospheric muon tracks with the ANTARES detector. The method is applied to both cosmic muon data and simulations and its applicability to the reconstruction of muon event energies is demonstrated.

  12. Towards a compensatable Muon Collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    Muon Collider detectors pose very challenging problems in detector technology due to extremely large backgrounds present in the detector volume as a result of muon decays. Current designs of a 750 GeV/c per beam Muon Collider envisage 4.28 x 10{sup 5} muon decays per meter in the beam pipe close to the interaction region. The decay electrons after intense shielding still manage to produce large backgrounds in the detector volume of low energy photons, neutrons and higher energy Bethe Heitler muons. There are 170/184/6.8/177 TeVs energy entering the detector volume per crossing due to EM particles/Muons/Mesons/Baryons respectively. We investigate the capabilities of an iron calorimeter with pixelated readout where each pixel gives a yes/no answer as to whether a charged particle passed through it or not, to solve this problem. Each pixel is individually triggered by a 'travelling gate trigger' with a gate of 2 ns where the beginning of the gate is the time of arrival of a light signal from the interaction region to the pixel. We show that such a calorimeter is compensatable and propose two schemes to compensate the digital output in software to improve the resolution of the calorimeter. We show that such a calorimeter is capable of digitizing physics signals from the interaction region and as a result, the backgrounds from the muon decays are much reduced and under control.

  13. Muon spin spectroscopy of ferrocene: characterization of muoniated ferrocenyl radicals.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Iain

    2014-06-14

    Radicals formed by the reaction of muonium (Mu), a light isotope of hydrogen, with ferrocene and ferrocene-d10 have been studied with the avoided level crossing muon spin resonance (ALC-μSR) and longitudinal field muon spin relaxation (LF-μSR) techniques between 10 and 100 K. A single type of radical was observed in each compound and the muon hyperfine coupling constants (hfcc) and the muon spin relaxation rates were measured as a function of temperature. A previous report concerning the observation of Mu adducts of ferrocene (U. A. Jayasooriya et al. Chem. - Eur. J., 2007, 13, 2266-2276) appears to be incorrect. DFT calculations were performed to aid in the assignment of the ALC-μSR spectra. A tentative assignment is that the observed radicals were formed by Mu addition to the exterior of the cyclopentadienyl rings and that the structures are distorted due to interactions with neighbouring molecules. The temperature dependence of the muon hfcc can be explained assuming the population of two levels with different muon hfccs separated by 1.4 ± 0.1 kJ mol(-1). The temperature dependence of the width and amplitude of the Δ1 resonance and the muon spin relaxation rate suggests that the electron spin relaxation rate increase with temperature, but the relaxation mechanism is unknown.

  14. High field - low energy muon ionization cooling channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal Sayed, Hisham; Palmer, Robert B.; Neuffer, David

    2015-09-01

    Muon beams are generated with large transverse and longitudinal emittances. In order to achieve the low emittances required by a muon collider, within the short lifetime of the muons, ionization cooling is required. Cooling schemes have been developed to reduce the muon beam 6D emittances to ≈300 μ m -rad in transverse and ≈1 - 1.5 mm in longitudinal dimensions. The transverse emittance has to be further reduced to ≈50 - 25 μ m -rad with an upper limit on the longitudinal emittance of ≈76 mm in order to meet the high-energy muon collider luminosity requirements. Earlier studies of the transverse cooling of low energy muon beams in high field magnets showed a promising performance, but did not include transverse or longitudinal matching between the stages. In this study we present the first complete design of the high field-low energy ionization cooling channel with transverse and longitudinal matching. The channel design was based on strong focusing solenoids with fields of 25-30 T and low momentum muon beam starting at 135 MeV /c and gradually decreasing. The cooling channel design presented here is the first to reach ≈50 micron scale emittance beam. We present the channel's optimized design parameters including the focusing solenoid fields, absorber parameters and the transverse and longitudinal matching.

  15. Where to place the positive muon in the Periodic Table?

    PubMed

    Goli, Mohammad; Shahbazian, Shant

    2015-03-14

    In a recent study it was suggested that the positively charged muon is capable of forming its own "atoms in molecules" (AIM) in the muonic hydrogen-like molecules, composed of two electrons, a muon and one of the hydrogen's isotopes, thus deserves to be placed in the Periodic Table [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 6602]. In the present report, the capacity of the positively charged muon in forming its own AIM is considered in a large set of molecules replacing muons with all protons in the hydrides of the second and third rows of the Periodic Table. Accordingly, in a comparative study the wavefunctions of both sets of hydrides and their muonic congeners are first derived beyond the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) paradigm, assuming protons and muons as quantum waves instead of clamped particles. Then, the non-BO wavefunctions are used to derive the AIM structures of both hydrides and muonic congeners within the context of the multi-component quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The results of the analysis demonstrate that muons are generally capable of forming their own atomic basins and the properties of these basins are not fundamentally different from those AIM containing protons. Particularly, the bonding modes in the muonic species seem to be qualitatively similar to their congener hydrides and no new bonding model is required to describe the bonding of muons to a diverse set of neighboring atoms. All in all, the positively charged muon is similar to a proton from the structural and bonding viewpoint and deserves to be placed in the same box of hydrogen in the Periodic Table. This conclusion is in line with a large body of studies on the chemical kinetics of the muonic molecules portraying the positively charged muon as a lighter isotope of hydrogen.

  16. Where to place the positive muon in the Periodic Table?

    PubMed

    Goli, Mohammad; Shahbazian, Shant

    2015-03-14

    In a recent study it was suggested that the positively charged muon is capable of forming its own "atoms in molecules" (AIM) in the muonic hydrogen-like molecules, composed of two electrons, a muon and one of the hydrogen's isotopes, thus deserves to be placed in the Periodic Table [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 6602]. In the present report, the capacity of the positively charged muon in forming its own AIM is considered in a large set of molecules replacing muons with all protons in the hydrides of the second and third rows of the Periodic Table. Accordingly, in a comparative study the wavefunctions of both sets of hydrides and their muonic congeners are first derived beyond the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) paradigm, assuming protons and muons as quantum waves instead of clamped particles. Then, the non-BO wavefunctions are used to derive the AIM structures of both hydrides and muonic congeners within the context of the multi-component quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The results of the analysis demonstrate that muons are generally capable of forming their own atomic basins and the properties of these basins are not fundamentally different from those AIM containing protons. Particularly, the bonding modes in the muonic species seem to be qualitatively similar to their congener hydrides and no new bonding model is required to describe the bonding of muons to a diverse set of neighboring atoms. All in all, the positively charged muon is similar to a proton from the structural and bonding viewpoint and deserves to be placed in the same box of hydrogen in the Periodic Table. This conclusion is in line with a large body of studies on the chemical kinetics of the muonic molecules portraying the positively charged muon as a lighter isotope of hydrogen. PMID:25684734

  17. A highly selective first-level muon trigger with MDT chamber data for ATLAS at HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, S.; Kroha, H.

    2016-07-01

    Highly selective triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at HL-LHC where the instantaneous luminosity will be about an order of magnitude larger than the LHC instantaneous luminosity in Run 1. The first level muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum muons below the nominal trigger threshold due to the moderate momentum resolution of the Resistive Plate and Thin Gap trigger chambers. The resulting high trigger rates at HL-LHC can be sufficiently reduced by using the data of the precision Muon Drift Tube chambers for the trigger decision. This requires the implementation of a fast MDT read-out chain and of a fast MDT track reconstruction algorithm with a latency of at most 6 μs. A hardware demonstrator of the fast read-out chain has been successfully tested at the HL-LHC operating conditions at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility. The fast track reconstruction algorithm has been implemented on a fast trigger processor.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of DBSCAN, K-Means, and Quadratic Variation Algorithms for Automatic Identification of Swallows from Swallowing Accelerometry Signals

    PubMed Central

    Dudik, Joshua M.; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical auscultation with high resolution sensors is currently under consideration as a method of automatically screening for specific swallowing abnormalities. To be clinically useful without human involvement, any devices based on cervical auscultation should be able to detect specified swallowing events in an automatic manner. Methods In this paper, we comparatively analyze the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise algorithm (DBSCAN), a k-means based algorithm, and an algorithm based on quadratic variation as methods of differentiating periods of swallowing activity from periods of time without swallows. These algorithms utilized swallowing vibration data exclusively and compared the results to a gold standard measure of swallowing duration. Data was collected from 23 subjects that were actively suffering from swallowing difficulties. Results Comparing the performance of the DBSCAN algorithm with a proven segmentation algorithm that utilizes k-means clustering demonstrated that the DBSCAN algorithm had a higher sensitivity and correctly segmented more swallows. Comparing its performance with a threshold-based algorithm that utilized the quadratic variation of the signal showed that the DBSCAN algorithm offered no direct increase in performance. However, it offered several other benefits including a faster run time and more consistent performance between patients. All algorithms showed noticeable differen-tiation from the endpoints provided by a videofluoroscopy examination as well as reduced sensitivity. Conclusions In summary, we showed that the DBSCAN algorithm is a viable method for detecting the occurrence of a swallowing event using cervical auscultation signals, but significant work must be done to improve its performance before it can be implemented in an unsupervised manner. PMID:25658505

  19. MUON EDM EXPERIMENT USING STAGE II OF THE NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    FERNOW,R.C.; GALLARDO,J.C.; MORSE,W.M.; SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.

    2002-07-01

    During the second stage of a future neutrino factory unprecedented numbers of bunched muons will become available. The cooled medium-energy muon beam could be used for a high sensitivity search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the muon with a sensitivity better than 10{sup -24}e {center_dot} cm. This will make the sensitivity of the EDM experiment to non-standard physics competitive and in many models more sensitive than the present limits on edms of the electron and nucleons. The experimental design exploits the strong motional electric field sensed by relativistic particles in a magnetic storage ring.

  20. Composite (pseudo) scalar contributions to muon g - 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Deog Ki; Kim, Du Hwan

    2016-07-01

    We have calculated the composite (pseudo) scalar contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of muons in models of walking technicolor. By the axial or scale anomaly the light scalars such as techni-dilaton, techni-pions or techni-eta have anomalous couplings to two-photons, which make them natural candidates for the recent 750 GeV resonance excess, observed at LHC. Due to the anomalous couplings, their contributions to muon (g - 2) are less suppressed and might explain the current deviation in muon (g - 2) measurements from theory.

  1. First Results from the Brookhaven Muon g-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semertzidis, Yannis

    1998-04-01

    The Brookhaven muon g-2 experiment had its first run with pion injection during the months of May, June, and July of 1997. The major components of the experiment, the superferric storage ring, superconducting inflector magnet, pion/muon beam line, pulsed electrostatic quadrupoles, magnetic field measuring system, detector calorimeters, data acquisition system, and the traceback system were commissioned. The expected relative accuracy in the (g - 2)_μ of the 1997 data is of the order of the CERN experiment running with positive muons of ± 10ppm. The analysis is in progress and the first results will be presented.

  2. Range fluctuations of high energy muons passing through matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minorikawa, Y.; Mitsui, K.

    1985-01-01

    The information about energy spectrum of sea level muons at high energies beyond magnetic spectrographs can be obtained from the underground intensity measurements if the fluctuations problems are solved. The correction factor R for the range fluctuations of high energy muons were calculated by analytical method of Zatsepin, where most probable energy loss parameter are used. It is shown that by using the R at great depth together with the slope, lambda, of the vertical depth-intensity (D-I) curve in the form of exp(-t/lambda), the spectral index, gamma, in the power law energy spectrum of muons at sea level can be obtained.

  3. The muon content of gamma-ray showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a calculation of the expected number of muons in gamma ray initiated and cosmic ray initiated air showers using a realistic model of hadronic collisions in an effort to understand the available experimental results and to assess the feasibility of using the muon content of showers as a veto to reject cosmic ray initiated showers in ultra-high energy gamma ray astronomy are reported. The possibility of observing very-high energy gamma-ray sources by detecting narrow angle anisotropies in the high energy muon background radiation are considered.

  4. Measuring the Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos with the MINOS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Radovic, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It measures the flux from the predominately muon neutrino NuMI beam first 1 km from beam start and then again 735 km later using a pair of steel scintillator tracking calorimeters. The comparison of measured neutrino energy spectra at our Far Detector with the prediction based on our Near Detector measurement allows for a measurement of the parameters which define neutrino oscillations. This thesis will describe the most recent measurement of muon neutrino disappearance in the NuMI muon neutrino beam using the MINOS experiment.

  5. Novel Muon Beam Facilities for Project X at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.V.; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Abrams, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    Innovative muon beam concepts for intensity-frontier experiments such as muon-to-electron conversion are described. Elaborating upon a previous single-beam idea, we have developed a design concept for a system to generate four high quality, low-energy muon beams (two of each sign) from a single beam of protons. As a first step, the production of pions by 1 and 3 GeV protons from the proposed Project X linac at Fermilab is being simulated and compared with the 8-GeV results from the previous study.

  6. Front End and HFOFO Snake for a Muon Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Alexahin, Y.

    2015-09-01

    A neutrino factory or muon collider requires the capture and cooling of a large number of muons. Scenarios for capture, bunching, phase-energy rotation and initial cooling of μ’s produced from a proton source target have been developed, for neutrino factory and muon collider scenarios. They require a drift section from the target, a bunching section and a $\\phi-\\delta E$ rotation section leading into the cooling channel. The currently preferred cooling channel design is an “HFOFO Snake” configuration that cools both $\\mu^+$ and $\\mu^-$ transversely and longitudinally. The status of the design is presented and variations are discussed.

  7. Toward the Computational Prediction of Muon Sites and Interaction Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfà, Pietro; De Renzi, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The rapid developments of computational quantum chemistry methods and supercomputing facilities motivate the renewed interest in the analysis of the muon/electron interactions in μSR experiments with ab initio approaches. Modern simulation methods seem to be able to provide the answers to the frequently asked questions of many μSR experiments: where is the muon? Is it a passive probe? What are the interaction parameters governing the muon-sample interaction? In this review we describe some of the approaches used to provide quantitative estimations of the aforementioned quantities and we provide the reader with a short discussion on the current developments in this field.

  8. Spin and Beam Dynamics in the Muon (g - 2) Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semertzidis, Yannis K.

    2016-09-01

    A number of recent advances in the Physics of the Muon (g - 2) experiments are described outlining the expectations of future improvements of the statistical and systematic errors of the technique. A comparison between the spin and beam dynamics of the two muon (g - 2) experiments under preparation at FNAL and at J-PARC shows that they are both well under control. It may be possible to use magnetic focusing for the FNAL experiment, especially if a decision is made to run with negative muons. Finally, a polarized proton beam could be used to measure the B-field in case of magnetic focusing.

  9. Overview of the Fermilab Muon g-2 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, SeungCheon

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of muon provides a precision test of the Standard Model. The Brookhaven muon g-2 experiment (E821) measured the muon magnetic moment anomaly with 0.54 ppm precision, a more than 3 deviation from the Standard Model predictions, spurring speculation about the possibility of new physics. The new g-2 experiment at Fermilab (E989) will reduce the combined statistical and systematic error of the BNL experiment by a factor of 4. An overview of the new experiment is described in this article.

  10. The Muon System of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    An, F. P.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Brown, R. E.; Chasman, C.; Dale, E.; Diwan, M. V.; Gill, R.; Hans, S.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; et al

    2014-10-05

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. Design, construction, operation, and performance of these muon detectors are described. (auth)

  11. Helical FOFO Snake for 6D Ionization Cooling of Muons

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.

    2010-03-30

    A channel for 6D ionization cooling of muons is described which consists of periodically inclined solenoids of alternating polarity, liquid hydrogen absorbers placed inside the solenoids and RF cavities between them. An important feature of such a channel (called Helical FOFO snake) is that it can cool simultaneously muons of both signs. Theoretical considerations as well as results of simulations with G4beamline are presented which show that a 200 MHz HFOFO snake has sufficient acceptance to be used for initial 6D cooling in muon colliders and neutrino factories.

  12. The muon system of the Daya Bay Reactor antineutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Brown, R. E.; Butorov, I.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Carr, R.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L.; Chang, Y.; Chasman, C.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, X. C.; Chen, X. H.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. X.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; Dale, E.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Draeger, E.; Du, X. F.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Fu, J. Y.; Ge, L. Q.; Gill, R.; Goett, J.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Han, G. H.; Hans, S.; He, M.; He, Q.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Hinrichs, P.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. L.; Ji, X. P.; Jiang, H. J.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Kang, L.; Kebwaro, J. M.; Kettell, S. H.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lai, W. C.; Lai, W. H.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, A.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, S. S.; Liu, Y. B.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. Q.; McDonald, K. T.; McFarlane, M. C.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Mohapatra, D.; Morgan, J. E.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Nemchenok, I.; Newsom, C.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngai, W. K.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevski, A.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Pearson, C. E.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Shao, B. B.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tam, Y. H.; Tang, X.; Themann, H.; Tsang, K. V.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viren, B.; Virostek, S.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, L. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wei, Y. D.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xia, X.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, G. H.; Xu, J.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, J. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zang, S. L.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. Design, construction, operation, and performance of these muon detectors are described.

  13. Muonic alchemy: Transmuting elements with the inclusion of negative muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, Félix; Cruz, Daniel; Reyes, Andrés

    2012-06-01

    In this Letter we present a theoretical study of atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. We have treated these muonic systems with the Any Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) method. A comparison between the electronic and muonic radial distributions revealed that muons are much more localized than electrons. Therefore, the muonic cloud is screening effectively one positive charge of the nucleus. Our results have revealed that by replacing an electron in an atom by a muon there is a transmutation of the electronic properties of that atom to those of the element with atomic number Z - 1.

  14. Helical FOFO snake for 6D ionization cooling of muons

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    A channel for 6D ionization cooling of muons is described which consists of periodically inclined solenoids of alternating polarity, liquid hydrogen absorbers placed inside solenoids and RF cavities between them. Important feature of such channel (called Helical FOFO snake) is that it can cool simultaneously muons of both signs. Theoretical considerations as well as results of simulations with G4Beamline are presented which show that 200MHz HFOFO snake has sufficient acceptance to be used for initial 6D cooling in muon colliders and neutrino factories.

  15. Muon multiplicities measured using an underground cosmic-ray array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusiniemi, P.; Enqvist, T.; Bezrukov, L.; Fynbo, H.; Inzhechik, L.; Joutsenvaara, J.; Loo, K.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Petkov, V.; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Virkajärvi, A.

    2016-05-01

    EMMA (Experiment with Multi-Muon Array) is an underground detector array designed for cosmic-ray composition studies around the knee energy (or ~ 1 — 10 PeV). It operates at the shallow depth in the Pyhasalmi mine, Finland. The array consists of eleven independent detector stations ~ 15 m2 each. Currently seven stations are connected to the DAQ and the rest will be connected within the next few months. EMMA will determine the multiplicity, the lateral density distribution and the arrival direction of high-energy muons event by event. The preliminary estimates concerning its performance together with an example of measured muon multiplicities are presented.

  16. The MICE Muon Beam on ISIS and the beam-line instrumentation of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; et al.

    2012-05-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), will demonstrate the principle of ionization cooling as a technique for the reduction of the phase-space volume occupied by a muon beam. Ionization cooling channels are required for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. MICE will evaluate in detail the performance of a single lattice cell of the Feasibility Study 2 cooling channel. The MICE Muon Beam has been constructed at the ISIS synchrotron at RAL, and in MICE Step I, it has been characterized using the MICE beam-instrumentation system. In this paper, the MICE Muon Beam and beam-line instrumentation are described. The muon rate is presented as a function of the beam loss generated by the MICE target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. For a 1 V signal from the ISIS beam-loss monitors downstream of our target we obtain a 30 KHz instantaneous muon rate, with a neglible pion contamination in the beam.

  17. Muon tracking system with Silicon Photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Dahal, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; Pazos Clemens, L.; Candela, A.; D`Incecco, M.; Sablone, D.; Franchi, G.

    2015-11-01

    We report the characterisation and performance of a low cost muon tracking system consisting of plastic scintillator bars and Silicon Photomultipliers equipped with a customised front-end electronics based on a fast preamplifier network. This system can be used as a detector test bench for astroparticle physics and for educational and outreach purposes. We investigated the device behaviour in self-trigger and coincidence mode, without using LED and pulse generators, showing that with a relatively simple set up a complete characterisation work can be carried out. A high definition oscilloscope, which can easily be found in many university physics or engineering departments, has been used for triggering and data acquisition. Its capabilities have been exploited to discriminate real particles from the background.

  18. IDR Muon Capture Front End and Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuffer, D.; Prior, G.; Rogers, C.; Snopok, P.; Yoshikawa, C.

    2011-10-01

    The (International Design Report) IDR neutrino factory scenario for capture, bunching, phase-energy rotation and initial cooling of μ's produced from a proton source target is explored. It requires a drift section from the target, a bunching section and a φ-δE rotation section leading into the cooling channel. The rf frequency changes along the bunching and rotation transport in order to form the 's into a train of equal-energy bunches suitable for cooling and acceleration. Optimization and variations are discussed. An important concern is rf limitations within the focusing magnetic fields; mitigation procedures are described. The method can be extended to provide muons for a μ+-μ- Collider; variations toward optimizing that extension are discussed.

  19. IDR muon capture front end and variations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David; Prior, Gersende; Rogers, Christopher; Snopok, Pavel; Yoshikawa, Cary; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2010-12-01

    The (International Design Report) IDR neutrino factory scenario for capture, bunching, phase-energy rotation and initial cooling of {mu}'s produced from a proton source target is explored. It requires a drift section from the target, a bunching section and a {phi}-{delta}E rotation section leading into the cooling channel. The rf frequency changes along the bunching and rotation transport in order to form the {mu}'s into a train of equal-energy bunches suitable for cooling and acceleration. Optimization and variations are discussed. An important concern is rf limitations within the focusing magnetic fields; mitigation procedures are described. The method can be extended to provide muons for a {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup -} Collider; variations toward optimizing that extension are discussed.

  20. D-Zero muon readout electronics design

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, B.; Hansen, S.; Los, S.; Matveev, M.; Vaniev, V.

    1996-11-01

    The readout electronics designed for the D{null} Muon Upgrade are described. These electronics serve three detector subsystems and one trigger system. The front-ends and readout hardware are synchronized by means of timing signals broadcast from the D{null} Trigger Framework. The front-end electronics have continuously running digitizers and two levels of buffering resulting in nearly deadtimeless operation. The raw data is corrected and formatted by 16- bit fixed point DSP processors. These processors also perform control of the data buffering. The data transfer from the front-end electronics located on the detector platform is performed by serial links running at 160 Mbit/s. The design and test results of the subsystem readout electronics and system interface are discussed.