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Sample records for murici byrsonima crassifolia

  1. Phenolic compounds from Byrsonima crassifolia L. bark: phytochemical investigation and quantitative analysis by LC-ESI MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Montoro, Paola; Pizza, Cosimo

    2011-08-25

    Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of Byrsonima crassifolia's bark led to the isolation of 8 known phenolic compounds 5-O-galloylquinic acid, 3-O-galloylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylquinic acid, (+)-epicatechin-3-gallate along with (+)-catechin and (+)-epicatechin. Due to their biological value, in the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, working in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, has been developed to quantify these compounds. B. crassifolia bark resulted in a rich source of phenolic compounds and particularly of galloyl derivates. The proposed analytical method is promising to be applied to other galloyl derivatives to quantify these bioactive compounds in raw material and final products.

  2. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Byrsonima species.

    PubMed

    Pereira, V V; Borel, C R; Silva, R R

    2015-01-01

    The species of the Byrsonima genus (Malpighiaceae) have been used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders, asthma and skin infections. In this study, the total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening were carried out in polar extracts of Byrsonima coccolobifolia, Byrsonima verbascifolia and Byrsonima intermedia. The presence of tannins and flavonoids in the samples and high phenols content was observed. B. coccolobifolia and B. intermedia species showed the best results of antioxidant action. It was analysed the correlation between the methods, and there was a great correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant assay, showing that the phenolic substances contribute to the antioxidant activities of these plants.

  3. Structure of floral galls of Byrsonima sericea (Malpighiaceae) induced by Bruggmanniella byrsonimae (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) and their effects on host plants.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A L A; Cruz, S M S; Vieira, A C M

    2014-03-01

    Galls are anomalies in plant development from parasitic origin, and affect cellular differentiation or growth of plants. This parasite-plant interaction occurs in many environments and typically in vegetative organs of plants. The existence of galls in reproductive organs and their effects on the host plant are seldom described in the literature. In this paper, we present a novel study of galls in plants of the neotropical region. Galls of Bruggmmaniella byrsonimae develop in the flower buds of Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae) and affect development of the reproductive organs and the reproductive effort of these plants. The sepals and petals show hypertrophy of parenchyma tissues after differentiation, and the stamens exhibit degeneration of the sporogenic tissue. The gynoecium is not entirely developed; ovary and ovules are often absent. Changes in vascular tissues are also frequent, which may indicate high demand for nutrient resources by the new tissues initiated by the larva. We compared the amount of inflorescences, galls and fruits to evaluate possible effects on host reproduction. The results suggest that the Cecidomyiidae galls in flower organs affect fruit set and the reproductive success of B. sericea.

  4. Warming-Induced Decline of Picea crassifolia Growth in the Qilian Mountains in Recent Decades.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Huang, Lei; Shao, Xuemei; Xiao, Fengjing; Wilmking, Martin; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Warming-induced drought has widely affected forest dynamics in most places of the northern hemisphere. In this study, we assessed how climate warming has affected Picea crassifolia (Qinghai spruce) forests using tree growth-climate relationships and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) along the Qilian Mountains, northeastern Tibet Plateau (the main range of Picea crassifolia). Based on the analysis on trees radial growth data from the upper tree line and the regional NDVI data, we identified a pervasive growth decline in recent decades, most likely caused by warming-induced droughts. The drought stress on Picea crassifolia radial growth were expanding from northeast to southwest and the favorable moisture conditions for tree growth were retreating along the identical direction in the study area over the last half century. Compared to the historical drought stress on tree radial growth in the 1920s, recent warming-induced droughts display a longer-lasting stress with a broader spatial distribution on regional forest growth. If the recent warming continues without the effective moisture increasing, then a notable challenge is developed for Picea crassifolia in the Qilian Mountains. Elaborate forest management is necessary to counteract the future risk of climate change effects in this region. PMID:26121479

  5. Warming-Induced Decline of Picea crassifolia Growth in the Qilian Mountains in Recent Decades.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Huang, Lei; Shao, Xuemei; Xiao, Fengjing; Wilmking, Martin; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Warming-induced drought has widely affected forest dynamics in most places of the northern hemisphere. In this study, we assessed how climate warming has affected Picea crassifolia (Qinghai spruce) forests using tree growth-climate relationships and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) along the Qilian Mountains, northeastern Tibet Plateau (the main range of Picea crassifolia). Based on the analysis on trees radial growth data from the upper tree line and the regional NDVI data, we identified a pervasive growth decline in recent decades, most likely caused by warming-induced droughts. The drought stress on Picea crassifolia radial growth were expanding from northeast to southwest and the favorable moisture conditions for tree growth were retreating along the identical direction in the study area over the last half century. Compared to the historical drought stress on tree radial growth in the 1920s, recent warming-induced droughts display a longer-lasting stress with a broader spatial distribution on regional forest growth. If the recent warming continues without the effective moisture increasing, then a notable challenge is developed for Picea crassifolia in the Qilian Mountains. Elaborate forest management is necessary to counteract the future risk of climate change effects in this region.

  6. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Aline Aparecida; do Carmo, Lucas Fernandes; do Nascimento, Sara Batista; de Matos, Natália Alves; de Carvalho Veloso, Clarice; Castro, Ana Hortência Fonsêca; De Vos, Ric C H; Klein, André; de Siqueira, João Máximo; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; do Nascimento, Thalita Vieira; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina; Soares, Adriana Cristina

    2016-10-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey indicates that the genus Byrsonima has some medicinal species that are commonly found in the Brazilian Cerrado and has been used as an anti-inflammatory and for gastroduodenal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity along with qualitative chemical characterization of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia (BvME) obtained by exhaustive percolation. The data from the chemical analyses by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry led to tentative identification of 42 compounds belonging to proanthocyanidins, galloyl quinic acid derivatives, flavonoids, and triterpene glycoside derivatives. BvME contain flavonoids and show an antioxidative activity. The methanolic extract administered intraperitoneally at doses of 50, 100, or 300 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in paw edema and modulated the neutrophil influx in a mouse model. Furthermore, the anti-edematogenic activity of the extract provided in smaller doses (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) was also demonstrated in a mouse paw edema model. The extract inhibited NO production by macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide. We presume that the anti-inflammatory effects of BvME are due to a combination of compounds present in B. verbascifolia, including catechins (procyanidins), flavonoids, and triterpene glycosides and that these anti-inflammatory actions should be mediated, at least partly, through the inhibition of NO production. This study supports and validates the ethnopharmacological uses of B. verbascifolia as an anti-inflammatory.

  7. Isolation of arginase inhibitors from the bioactivity-guided fractionation of Byrsonima coccolobifolia leaves and stems.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Lorena Ramos Freitas; Ramalho, Suelem Demuner; Burger, Marcela Carmen de Melo; Nebo, Liliane; Fernandes, João Batista; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Iemma, Mônica Rosas da Costa; Corrêa, Caroindes Julia; de Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira; Lima, Maria Inês Salgueiro; Vieira, Paulo Cezar

    2014-02-28

    Byrsonima coccolobifolia leaf and stem extracts were studied in the search for possible leishmanicidal compounds using arginase (ARG) from Leishmania amazonensis as a molecular target. Flavonoids 1b, 1e-1g, 2a, 2b, and 2d-2f showed significant inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 4.8 μM. The kinetics of the most active compounds were determined. Flavonoids 1e, 1f, 2a, 2b, and 2e were characterized as noncompetitive inhibitors of ARG with dissociation constants (Ki) ranging from 0.24 to 3.8 μM, demonstrating strong affinity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed some similarities in the structural features of flavonoids related to ARG activity.

  8. Isolation of arginase inhibitors from the bioactivity-guided fractionation of Byrsonima coccolobifolia leaves and stems.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Lorena Ramos Freitas; Ramalho, Suelem Demuner; Burger, Marcela Carmen de Melo; Nebo, Liliane; Fernandes, João Batista; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Iemma, Mônica Rosas da Costa; Corrêa, Caroindes Julia; de Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira; Lima, Maria Inês Salgueiro; Vieira, Paulo Cezar

    2014-02-28

    Byrsonima coccolobifolia leaf and stem extracts were studied in the search for possible leishmanicidal compounds using arginase (ARG) from Leishmania amazonensis as a molecular target. Flavonoids 1b, 1e-1g, 2a, 2b, and 2d-2f showed significant inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 4.8 μM. The kinetics of the most active compounds were determined. Flavonoids 1e, 1f, 2a, 2b, and 2e were characterized as noncompetitive inhibitors of ARG with dissociation constants (Ki) ranging from 0.24 to 3.8 μM, demonstrating strong affinity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed some similarities in the structural features of flavonoids related to ARG activity. PMID:24521209

  9. Antimalarial potency of the methanol leaf extract of Maerua crassifolia Forssk (Capparaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Akuodor Godwin; Akanimo, Essiet Grace; Ahunna, Ajoku Gloria; Nwakaego, Ezeunala Mercy; Chimsorom, Chilaka Kingsley

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vivo antiplasmodial effect of methanol leaf extract of Maerua crassifolia in mice infected with chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei. Methods The extract was evaluated for activity against early infection, curative effect against established infection at dose levels of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. Chloroquine at 10 mg/kg was used as standard drug. Results A dose dependent chemo-suppression of the parasites was obtained at different dose levels of the extract tested with a considerable mean survival time. Conclusions The results support continued investigation of components of traditional medicines as potential new antimalarial agents.

  10. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and immunostimulatory effect of extracts from Byrsonima crassa Nied. (Malpighiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Bonacorsi, Cibele; Raddi, Maria Stella G; Carlos, Iracilda Z; Sannomiya, Miriam; Vilegas, Wagner

    2009-01-01

    Background Several in vitro studies have looked at the effect of medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Regardless of the popular use of Byrsonima crassa (B. crassa) as antiemetic, diuretic, febrifuge, to treat diarrhea, gastritis and ulcers, there is no data on its effects against H. pylori. In this study, we evaluated the anti-H. pylori of B. crassa leaves extracts and its effects on reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates induction by murine peritoneal macrophages. Methods The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by broth microdilution method and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) by the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and Griess reaction, respectively. Results The methanolic (MeOH) and chloroformic (CHCl3) extracts inhibit, in vitro, the growth of H. pylori with MIC value of 1024 μg/ml. The MeOH extract induced the production H2O2 and NO, but CHCl3 extract only NO. Conclusion Based in our results, B. crassa can be considered a source of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity, but its use should be done with caution in treatment of the gastritis and peptic ulcers, since the reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal injury induced by ulcerogenic agents and H. pylori infections. PMID:19149866

  11. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties of Nepeta crassifolia Boiss & Buhse and Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Nadjafi, Farsad; Menichini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    This article reports phytochemical and biological studies on Nepeta binaludensis and Nepeta crassifolia. Both species were investigated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties through three in vitro models [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay]. Aerial parts were extracted with methanol and partitioned between water and subsequently n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. N. binaludensis methanol extract exerted significantly higher reducing power (1.9 μM Fe(II)/g) than did the positive control butylhydroxytoluene (63.2 μM Fe(II)/g) in FRAP assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was found for N. crassifolia, with IC50 values of 9.6 and 12.1 µg/mL for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, respectively. n-Butanol fraction of both species showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 59.3 and 81.7 µg/mL for N. binaludensis and N. crassifolia, respectively. Phytochemical investigations resulted in the isolation of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, apigenin, luteolin and ixoroside. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 8-hydroxycirsimaritin and cirsimaritin were furthermore identified in N. crassifolia ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. Nepetanudoside B was isolated from the n-butanol fraction of N. binaludensis.

  12. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties of Nepeta crassifolia Boiss & Buhse and Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Nadjafi, Farsad; Menichini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    This article reports phytochemical and biological studies on Nepeta binaludensis and Nepeta crassifolia. Both species were investigated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties through three in vitro models [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay]. Aerial parts were extracted with methanol and partitioned between water and subsequently n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. N. binaludensis methanol extract exerted significantly higher reducing power (1.9 μM Fe(II)/g) than did the positive control butylhydroxytoluene (63.2 μM Fe(II)/g) in FRAP assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was found for N. crassifolia, with IC50 values of 9.6 and 12.1 µg/mL for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, respectively. n-Butanol fraction of both species showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 59.3 and 81.7 µg/mL for N. binaludensis and N. crassifolia, respectively. Phytochemical investigations resulted in the isolation of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, apigenin, luteolin and ixoroside. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 8-hydroxycirsimaritin and cirsimaritin were furthermore identified in N. crassifolia ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. Nepetanudoside B was isolated from the n-butanol fraction of N. binaludensis. PMID:22693035

  13. [Water storage capacity of qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forest canopy in Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Peng, Huan-hua; Zhao, Chuan-yan; Xu, Zhong-lin; Peng, Shou-zhang; Wang, Yao

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of direct measurement and regression analysis, this paper estimated the water storage capacity of Picea crassifolia forest canopy in Guantan in Qilianshan Mountains, based on the observed throughfall and the laboratory experimental data about the water storage capacity of various canopy components in 2008. Due to the impacts of various factors, differences existed in the canopy water storage capacity estimated by the two methods. The regression analysis was mainly impacted by the measurement approaches of the throughfall, the maximum water storage capacity estimated being 0.69 mm, whereas the direct measurement was mainly impacted by tree height, diameter at breast height, plant density, and leaf area index, with the estimated maximum water storage capacity being 0.77 mm. The direct measurement showed that the maximum water storage capacity per unit area of the canopy components of the forest was in the order of barks (0.31 mm) > branches (0.28 mm) > leaves (0.08 mm).

  14. Oil collecting bees and Byrsonima cydoniifolia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae) interactions: the prevalence of long-distance cross pollination driving reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Sazan, Morgana S; Bezerra, Antonio Diego M; Freitas, Breno M

    2014-03-01

    Oil-collecting bees are the natural pollinators of oil-flower plants, but little is known about the pollination process and the effectiveness of their pollination service to the reproductive success of their host plants. In species of Byrsonima the reproductive system have been described as auto-compatible or self-incompatible. We studied the reproductive system of Byrsonima cydoniifolia, the fructification by means of short, medium and long-distance cross pollinations, the morphology and floral biology and the pollination interactions with species of oil-collecting bees. By means of controlled pollinations we found self-incompatibility caused by abortion of most self-pollinated flowers and demonstrated that the prevailing cross pollination ensuring the reproductive success of B. cydoniifolia is the long-distance cross pollination and Centridini bees; Epicharis nigrita, particularly, are the pollinators promoting the gene flow between genetically distinct populations.

  15. Structure and development of 'witches' broom' galls in reproductive organs of Byrsonima sericea (Malpighiaceae) and their effects on host plants.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A L A; Neufeld, P M; Santiago-Fernandes, L D R; Vieira, A C M

    2015-03-01

    Galls are anomalies in plant development of parasitic origin that affect the cellular differentiation or growth and represent a remarkable plant-parasite interaction. Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae) is a super host of several different types of gall in both vegetative and reproductive organs. The existence of galls in reproductive organs and their effects on the host plant are seldom described in the literature. In this paper, we present a novel study of galls in plants of the Neotropical region: the 'witches' broom' galls developed in floral structures of B. sericea. The unaffected inflorescences are characterised by a single indeterminate main axis with spirally arranged flower buds. The flower buds developed five unaffected brownish hairy sepals and five pairs of elliptical yellow elaiophores, five yellow fringed petals, 10 stamens and a pistil with superior tricarpellar and trilocular ovary. The affected inflorescences showed changes in architecture, with branches arising from the main axis and flower buds. The flower buds exhibited several morphological and anatomical changes. The sepals, petals and carpels converted into leaf-like structures after differentiation. Stamens exhibited degeneration of the sporogenous tissue and structures containing hyphae and spores. The gynoecium did not develop, forming a central meristematic region, from which emerges the new inflorescence. In this work, we discuss the several changes in development of reproductive structures caused by witches' broom galls and their effects on reproductive success of the host plants.

  16. Structure and development of 'witches' broom' galls in reproductive organs of Byrsonima sericea (Malpighiaceae) and their effects on host plants.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A L A; Neufeld, P M; Santiago-Fernandes, L D R; Vieira, A C M

    2015-03-01

    Galls are anomalies in plant development of parasitic origin that affect the cellular differentiation or growth and represent a remarkable plant-parasite interaction. Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae) is a super host of several different types of gall in both vegetative and reproductive organs. The existence of galls in reproductive organs and their effects on the host plant are seldom described in the literature. In this paper, we present a novel study of galls in plants of the Neotropical region: the 'witches' broom' galls developed in floral structures of B. sericea. The unaffected inflorescences are characterised by a single indeterminate main axis with spirally arranged flower buds. The flower buds developed five unaffected brownish hairy sepals and five pairs of elliptical yellow elaiophores, five yellow fringed petals, 10 stamens and a pistil with superior tricarpellar and trilocular ovary. The affected inflorescences showed changes in architecture, with branches arising from the main axis and flower buds. The flower buds exhibited several morphological and anatomical changes. The sepals, petals and carpels converted into leaf-like structures after differentiation. Stamens exhibited degeneration of the sporogenous tissue and structures containing hyphae and spores. The gynoecium did not develop, forming a central meristematic region, from which emerges the new inflorescence. In this work, we discuss the several changes in development of reproductive structures caused by witches' broom galls and their effects on reproductive success of the host plants. PMID:25124715

  17. [Spatial distribution characteristics of the biomass and carbon storage of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forests in Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Peng, Shou-zhang; Zhao, Chuan-yan; Zheng, Xiang-lin; Xu, Zhong-lin; He, Lei

    2011-07-01

    This paper estimated the biomass and carbon storage and their spatial distributions of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forests in Qilian Mountains, based on the field investigation, forest map, and meteorological data, and with the help of GIS technology. In 2008, the biomass of the forests was averagely 209.24 t x hm(-2), with a total biomass of 3.4 x 10(7) t. Due to the difference of water and thermal condition, there existed great differences in the biomass of Qinghai spruce within the Mountains. The biomass increased by 3.12 t x hm(-2) with increasing 1 degrees longitude and decreased by 3.8 t x hm(-2) with increasing 1 degrees latitude, and decreased by 0.05 t x hm(-2) with the elevation increasing 100 m. The carbon density of the forests ranged from 70.4 to 131.1 t x hm(-2), averagely 109.8 t x hm(-2), and the average carbon density was 83.8 t x hm(-2) for the young forest, 109.6 t x hm(-2) for the middle age forest, 122 t x hm(-2) for the near-mature forest, 124.2 t x hm(-2) for the mature forest, and 117.1 t x hm(-2) for the over-mature forest. The total carbon storage of Qinghai spruce forests in the study area was 1.8 x 10(7) t.

  18. Late Pleistocene climate change promoted divergence between Picea asperata and P. crassifolia on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau through recent bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hao; Yue, Wei; Wang, Xi; Zou, Jiabin; Li, Lili; Liu, Jianquan; Sun, Yongshuai

    2016-07-01

    Divergence during the early stage of speciation can be driven by a population bottleneck via reduced gene flow and enhanced lineage sorting. In this study, we aimed to examine whether such bottlenecks occurred during the initial speciation of two closely related spruce species Picea asperata and P. crassifolia occurring on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). We analyzed sequences of three chloroplast, two mitochondrial DNA fragments and a further 13 nuclear loci from 216 individuals of the two species. Both species showed a low level of genetic diversity in contrast to other congeners occurring in the QTP and adjacent regions. The estimated population sizes of P. asperata and P. crassifolia are less than the ancestral population size before splitting. These results together with multiple statistical tests (Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F*) suggest that these two species underwent recent bottlenecks. Based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), we also determined that the period of the population shrinkage was consistent with the interspecific divergence during the late Pleistocene. The reduced population sizes and the divergent selection may together have triggered the initial divergence under high gene flow between these two species. Our results therefore highlight the importance of climatic oscillations during the late Pleistocene in promoting speciation through changing demographic sizes of the ancestral species on the QTP and in adjacent regions. PMID:27386086

  19. Shoot-tip cryopreservation by droplet vitrification of Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss.: a woody tropical and medicinal plant species from Brazilian cerrado.

    PubMed

    Silva, L C; Paiva, R; Swennen, R; Andre, E; Panis, B

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of plant species is poorly investigated in Brazil. The aim of this study was to cryopreserve Byrsonima intermedia shoot apical meristems through droplet vitrification. A culture medium for shoot-tips growth was established using the Woody Plant Medium supplemented with 2.22 uM 6-benzylaminopurine. Excised shoot-tips were subjected to pre-culture and/or post-culture treatments on Murashige and Skoog medium with 0.3 M sucrose for 24 h prior dehydration on PVS2 at 0°C for 15, 30 or 45 minutes prior to plunging in liquid nitrogen. The effect of 15 days of shoot pre-growth on a high osmotic medium (0.3 M sucrose or 0.21 M sorbitol + 0.09 M sucrose) prior to meristem excision and cryopreservation was also investigated. Pre-culturing shoot-tips on 0.3 M sucrose for 24 h prior to cryopreservation increased the regrowth level after thawing to 90%. Shoot-tips excised from shoots pre-grown on MS + 0.21 M sorbitol + 0.09 M sucrose for 15 days presented a satisfactory regrowth level (67%).

  20. Rapid profiling of phenolic compounds of green and fermented Bergenia crassifolia L. leaves by UPLC-DAD-QqQ-MS and HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Shikov, Alexander N; Karonen, Maarit; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Kim, Jorma; Makarov, Valery G; Hiltunen, Raimo; Galambosi, Bertalan

    2014-01-01

    Bergenia crassifolia L., Saxifragaceae, is an evergreen perennial plant known in traditional medicine of Russia, Mongolia and China. Polyphenols are responsible for the number of pharmacological effects of Bergenia. UPLC-DAD-QqQ-MS and LC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS were used for the rapid profiling of phenolic compounds, mainly hydrolysable tannins. Green leaves consisted of 55% ellagitannins, 29% gallic acid derivatives and 11% flavonoids, with the remaining gallic acid, arbutin, bergenin and caffeoyl quinic acid. In fermented leaves, 31% of gallic acid was found, followed with 28% ellagitannins, 18% gallic acid derivatives and 18% flavonoids, with the remaining caffeoyl quinic acid, bergenin and arbutin. Tellimagrandin I, pedunculagin, caffeoyl quinic acid, monogalloyl quinic acid, 1-O-galloylglucose and 1,2,6-tri-O-galloylglucose were identified for the very first time.

  1. [Variations of Picea crassifolia tree-ring cell structure and their implications to past climate in eastern margin of Qaidam Basin, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liang, Er-Yuan; Shao, Xue-mei

    2008-03-01

    Tree-ring samples of Picea crassifolia were collected from the upper tree-line in the eastern mountainous area of Qaidam Basin in Qinghai Province. The tree-ring width and the cell number and size of the tree-ring were measured, and the standard chronologies for the early-wood cell number, late-wood cell number, total cell number of tree-rings, maximum cell size, and minimum cell size were constructed. By using correlation analysis and the response functions between cell characteristic indices and 1970-2000 climate factors at Chaka meteorological station which was close to the sampling site, the relationships between P. crassifolia growth at cell scale and climate factors were discussed. The results showed that the early-wood cell number was positively correlated to the wintertime temperature from previous October to current March, while the late-wood cell number was positively correlated to the minimum temperature in previous November and December and to the mean temperature in current July and August. Both the early-wood and the late-wood cell numbers were negatively correlated to the precipitation in July, and the early-wood cell number was positively correlated to the precipitation in May. The chronology of maximum cell size of early-wood was positively related to the precipitation in February, while that of minimum cell size of late-wood was positivelyrelated to the precipitation in August. It was concluded that the cell number and cell size could not only reveal the information of temperature change, which was recorded by tree ring width as well, but also provide additional information of precipitation. Since different types of tree-ring indices contained different climate information, multiple aspects of climate change information could be extracted from different tree-ring indices of the same species at the same site, and the cell level tree ring characteristics had great potential to supply the information regarding past climate. PMID:18533520

  2. A Picea crassifolia Tree-Ring Width-Based Temperature Reconstruction for the Mt. Dongda Region, Northwest China, and Its Relationship to Large-Scale Climate Forcing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Sun, Changfeng; Li, Qiang; Cai, Qiufang

    2016-01-01

    The historical May–October mean temperature since 1831 was reconstructed based on tree-ring width of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) collected on Mt. Dongda, North of the Hexi Corridor in Northwest China. The regression model explained 46.6% of the variance of the instrumentally observed temperature. The cold periods in the reconstruction were 1831–1889, 1894–1901, 1908–1934 and 1950–1952, and the warm periods were 1890–1893, 1902–1907, 1935–1949 and 1953–2011. During the instrumental period (1951–2011), an obvious warming trend appeared in the last twenty years. The reconstruction displayed similar patterns to a temperature reconstruction from the east-central Tibetan Plateau at the inter-decadal timescale, indicating that the temperature reconstruction in this study was a reliable proxy for Northwest China. It was also found that the reconstruction series had good consistency with the Northern Hemisphere temperature at a decadal timescale. Multi-taper method spectral analysis detected some low- and high-frequency cycles (2.3–2.4-year, 2.8-year, 3.4–3.6-year, 5.0-year, 9.9-year and 27.0-year). Combining these cycles, the relationship of the low-frequency change with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Southern Oscillation (SO) suggested that the reconstructed temperature variations may be related to large-scale atmospheric-oceanic variations. Major volcanic eruptions were partly reflected in the reconstructed temperatures after high-pass filtering; these events promoted anomalous cooling in this region. The results of this study not only provide new information for assessing the long-term temperature changes in the Hexi Corridor of Northwest China, but also further demonstrate the effects of large-scale atmospheric-oceanic circulation on climate change in Northwest China. PMID:27509206

  3. A Picea crassifolia Tree-Ring Width-Based Temperature Reconstruction for the Mt. Dongda Region, Northwest China, and Its Relationship to Large-Scale Climate Forcing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Sun, Changfeng; Li, Qiang; Cai, Qiufang

    2016-01-01

    The historical May-October mean temperature since 1831 was reconstructed based on tree-ring width of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) collected on Mt. Dongda, North of the Hexi Corridor in Northwest China. The regression model explained 46.6% of the variance of the instrumentally observed temperature. The cold periods in the reconstruction were 1831-1889, 1894-1901, 1908-1934 and 1950-1952, and the warm periods were 1890-1893, 1902-1907, 1935-1949 and 1953-2011. During the instrumental period (1951-2011), an obvious warming trend appeared in the last twenty years. The reconstruction displayed similar patterns to a temperature reconstruction from the east-central Tibetan Plateau at the inter-decadal timescale, indicating that the temperature reconstruction in this study was a reliable proxy for Northwest China. It was also found that the reconstruction series had good consistency with the Northern Hemisphere temperature at a decadal timescale. Multi-taper method spectral analysis detected some low- and high-frequency cycles (2.3-2.4-year, 2.8-year, 3.4-3.6-year, 5.0-year, 9.9-year and 27.0-year). Combining these cycles, the relationship of the low-frequency change with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Southern Oscillation (SO) suggested that the reconstructed temperature variations may be related to large-scale atmospheric-oceanic variations. Major volcanic eruptions were partly reflected in the reconstructed temperatures after high-pass filtering; these events promoted anomalous cooling in this region. The results of this study not only provide new information for assessing the long-term temperature changes in the Hexi Corridor of Northwest China, but also further demonstrate the effects of large-scale atmospheric-oceanic circulation on climate change in Northwest China. PMID:27509206

  4. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  5. Neuropharmacological profile of ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales Cifuentes, C; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar del Fresno, A M; Morales, C; Paredes, M E; Cáceres, A

    2001-08-01

    We carried out the Irwin's test with some different extracts of the aerial parts of Thidax procumbens L., the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp., and root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At dosage of 1.25 g dried plant/kg weight aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. demonstrated the most activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis, catalepsy and strong hypothermia. These extracts of both plants were assayed for effects on CNS and they caused very significant reductions in spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and rectal temperature and they increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time.

  6. [Phytogeography of dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas Ulate, G

    2001-03-01

    The dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, northwest Costa Rica is mapped. Plant community distribution is intimately related to the type of relief, soils and humidity. In the upper parts of the meseta, characterised by soils which are stony, sandy, and acidic, herbacious vegetation such as savanna and edaphic steppe is dominant. By contrast, woodland is found on the deep and organically rich soils of the valley floors. Within the herbaceous formations dwarf varieties of Byrsonima crassifolia (nance), Curatella americana (raspa guacal) and Quercus oleoides (encino) are found because of the acid and infertile soils. PMID:11795151

  7. [Phytogeography of dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas Ulate, G

    2001-03-01

    The dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, northwest Costa Rica is mapped. Plant community distribution is intimately related to the type of relief, soils and humidity. In the upper parts of the meseta, characterised by soils which are stony, sandy, and acidic, herbacious vegetation such as savanna and edaphic steppe is dominant. By contrast, woodland is found on the deep and organically rich soils of the valley floors. Within the herbaceous formations dwarf varieties of Byrsonima crassifolia (nance), Curatella americana (raspa guacal) and Quercus oleoides (encino) are found because of the acid and infertile soils.

  8. Two-step cleanup procedure for the identification of carotenoid esters by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniele Bobrowski; Mariutti, Lilian Regina Barros; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti

    2016-07-29

    Carotenoids are naturally found in both free form and esterified with fatty acids in most fruits; however, up to now the great majority of studies only evaluated their composition after saponification. This fact is easily explained by the difficult to analyze carotenoid esters. Preliminary studies showed that cleanup procedures in the extract are necessary for further analysis by LC-MS/MS since triacylglycerols (TAGs) impair the MS detection. Considering these facts, we developed a new cleanup procedure to remove TAGs and other lipids from carotenoid fruit extracts. This procedure is based on physical removal of solid lipids at low temperature followed by open column chromatography on MgO and diatomaceous earth. Before cleanup, four carotenoid diesters and two free xanthophylls were identified in murici (Byrsonyma crassifolia), corresponding to about 65% of the total chromatogram area. After carrying out the two-step cleanup procedure, 35 carotenoids were identified, being 14 monoesters, six free carotenoids and 15 carotenoid diesters. We can conclude that this two-step procedure was successfully applied to murici, an Amazonian fruit, which contains high amounts of lipids. PMID:27371019

  9. Yeasts from native Brazilian Cerrado plants: Occurrence, diversity and use in the biocontrol of citrus green mould.

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Eugenio Miranda; do Vale, Helson Mario Martins; Moreira, Geisianny Augusta Monteiro

    2015-11-01

    Yeasts are some of the most important postharvest biocontrol agents. Postharvest oranges frequently deteriorate due to green mould (Penicillium digitatum), which causes significant losses. The aims of this study were to determine the composition and diversity of yeasts on plants of the Brazilian Cerrado and to explore their potential for inhibiting citrus green mould. Leaves and fruit of Byrsonima crassifolia and Eugenia dysenterica were collected from Cerrado conservation areas, and thirty-five yeasts were isolated and identified by sequencing the D1-D2 domain of the rDNA large subunit (26S). The isolates represented the Aureobasidium, Meyerozyma, Candida, and Pichia genera. Three isolates identified as Aureobasidium pullulans exhibited potential for the control of P. digitatum in both in vitro and in vivo tests; these isolates reduced the incidence of disease and increased the storage time of fruit. Aureobasidium. pullulans has immense potential for the biological control of filamentous fungi.

  10. Yeasts from native Brazilian Cerrado plants: Occurrence, diversity and use in the biocontrol of citrus green mould.

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Eugenio Miranda; do Vale, Helson Mario Martins; Moreira, Geisianny Augusta Monteiro

    2015-11-01

    Yeasts are some of the most important postharvest biocontrol agents. Postharvest oranges frequently deteriorate due to green mould (Penicillium digitatum), which causes significant losses. The aims of this study were to determine the composition and diversity of yeasts on plants of the Brazilian Cerrado and to explore their potential for inhibiting citrus green mould. Leaves and fruit of Byrsonima crassifolia and Eugenia dysenterica were collected from Cerrado conservation areas, and thirty-five yeasts were isolated and identified by sequencing the D1-D2 domain of the rDNA large subunit (26S). The isolates represented the Aureobasidium, Meyerozyma, Candida, and Pichia genera. Three isolates identified as Aureobasidium pullulans exhibited potential for the control of P. digitatum in both in vitro and in vivo tests; these isolates reduced the incidence of disease and increased the storage time of fruit. Aureobasidium. pullulans has immense potential for the biological control of filamentous fungi. PMID:26466874

  11. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity.

  12. Ethnopharmacology of the Popoluca, Mexico: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Leonti, M; Vibrans, H; Sticher, O; Heinrich, M

    2001-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an essential part of indigenous pharmaceutical systems. We studied the medicinal plants used by the Popoluca of the Sierra Santa Marta (Eastern Mexico). This study is part of a series on the ethnopharmacology of various Macro-Mayan groups. During 16 months of ethnobotanical fieldwork, 614 taxa used medicinally and 4488 individual use-reports were documented. The data are analysed using the concept of the "healers' consensus" in order to identify culturally important medicinal plants. The medicinal uses of the plants were grouped into 13 illness categories. The responses for each species were summarized for each of the categories and were ordered by frequency of mention. The most frequently recorded medicinal plants of the Popoluca are Hamelia patens, used to stop bleeding from wounds, and Byrsonima crassifolia, used against diarrhoea. The high-ranked medicinal species were assessed pharmacognostically using published phytochemical and pharmacological data. Popoluca medicinal uses were fairly consistent with published data on active ingredients for those plants for which such data exist. However, data is still lacking for many other species. Toxicological studies are particularly scarce. This study will be used as a basis for subsequent studies on the pharmacology and phytochemistry of medicinal plant species.

  13. [Microbiological quality of street sold fruits in San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Monge, R; Arias, M L; Antillón, F; Utzinger, D

    1995-06-01

    The sanitary quality of street sold fruits was analyzed during the period from march 1990 thru march 1993 in San Jose, Costa Rica. It looked for the presence of Salmonella spp. Shigella spp., Escherichia coli as well as fecal coliforms in natural refreshments, fruit salads and the fruits most frecuently expended on streets, either in slices as the pineapple (Ananas comosus), papaya (Carica papaya), non-ripe mangoe (Mangifera indica) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) and those that can be eaten without peeling, like nances (Byrsonima crassifolia) and jocotes (Spondias purpurea). 25 samples of each fruit, 50 natural refreshments and 50 fruit salads were processed according to rinse solution method, and the bacteriological determination was based in the methodology described by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. In the same way, it was used the Most Probable Number for 5 tubes described in the Standar Methods of Water and Wastewater in orden to analyze 15 samples of ready to use water by the fruit hawker. The nutritional value was studied according to the food composition tables for Costa Rica, Latin America and USA. The results show that more than 30% of fruit samples, 70% of natural refreshments and 96% of fruit salad presented fecal coliforms. Same time, all of them present important contamination indexes with E. coli. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were not isolated. The water analysis revelead that 53% contained fecal coliforms, probably due to the lack of hygiene in the utensils used to collect water. The nutritional evaluation shows that fruit portions (except watermelon) satisfy more than 100% of the diary recommendation of vitamin C (60 mg) and 4-7% of the recommended ingestion of dietetic fiber (30g).

  14. Ethnobotany and natural products: the search for new molecules, new treatments of old diseases or a better understanding of indigenous cultures?

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Results of various projects on Mexican Indian ethnobotany and some of the subsequent pharmacological and phytochemical studies are summarised focusing both on chemical-pharmacological as well as anthropological (ethnopharmacological) aspects of our research. We have identified taste and smell properties of medicinal (vs. non-medicinal) plants as important indigenous selection criteria. There exist well-defined criteria specific for each culture, which lead to the selection of a plant as a medicine. This field research has also formed a basis for studies on bioactive natural products from selected species. The bark of Guazuma ulmifolia showed antisecretory activity (cholera toxin-induced chloride secretion in rabbit distal colon in an USSING chamber). Active constituents are procyanidins with a polymerisation degree of eight or higher. Byrsonima crassifolia yielded proanthocyanidins with (+) epicatechin units and Baccharis conferta showed a dose-dependent antispasmodic effect with the effect being particularly strong in flavonoid-rich fractions. Our ethnopharmacological research led to the identification of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) like parthenolide as potent and relatively specific inhibitors of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, an important mediator of the inflammatory process. The inhibitory effect of SLs is very strongly enhanced by the presence of such groups as the isoprenoid ring system, a lactone ring containing a conjugated exomethylene group (alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone) and an alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclopentenone or a conjugated ester moieties. Our work also elucidated the NF-kappaB inhibiting activity of the photosensitiser phaeophorbide A from Solanum diflorum (Solanaceae) in PMA induced HeLa cells. Hyptis verticillata yielded a series of lignans as well as sideritoflavone, rosmarinic acid and (R)-5-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one and is rich in essential oil (rich in alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and thymol). Other species investigated include Begonia

  15. Is the "Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco" a biodiversity hotspot for orchid bees?

    PubMed

    Nemésio, A; Santos Junior, J E

    2014-08-01

    The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina) of the three largest forest remnants in the "Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco", northeastern Brazil, namely Estação Ecológica de Murici (ESEC Murici), RPPN Frei Caneca, and a forest preserve belonging to Usina Serra Grande, in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco, were surveyed using seventeen different scents as baits to attract orchid-bee males. Eight sites were established in the three preserves, where samplings were carried out using two protocols: insect netting and bait trapping. We collected 3,479 orchid-bee males belonging to 29 species during 160 hours in early October, 2012. Seven species were collected in the "Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco" for the first time. Richness proved to be one of the highest of the entire Atlantic Forest domain, and diversity in some sites, especially at ESEC Murici, revealed to be one of the highest in the Neotropics. Eulaema felipei Nemésio, 2010, a species previously recorded only at ESEC Murici, was found in no other preserve in the region and its conservation status is discussed.

  16. [Fine root biomass of four main vegetation types in Daluo Mountain of Ningxia, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Su, Ji-Shuai; Cheng, Ji-Min; Gao, Yang; Qiu, Zhi-Hu; Cao, Huai-qing

    2013-03-01

    By the method of soil core sampling, this paper studied the fine root biomass, soil water content, and soil bulk density in 0-40 cm soil layer of four main vegetation types (Picea crassifolia forest, Pinus tabulaeformis forest, deciduous shrubs, and desert grassland) in Daluo Mountain of Ningxia, and the fine root biomass in the 0-40 cm soil layer of P. crassifolia forests with the ages of 50-, 70-, and 100 a. The fine root biomass of the four vegetation types was mainly distributed in 0-20 cm soil layer, with the rank of P. tabulaeformis forest > P. crassifolia forest > deciduous shrubs > desert grassland, and the fine root biomass of P. tabulaeformis forest was significantly higher than that of the other three vegetation types. The fine root biomass of the P. crassifolia forests with different ages was 70 a > 100 a > 50 a, and there were no significant differences in the live fine root biomass ratio and dead fine root biomass ratio among the three P. crassifolia forests. The soil water content in the 0-40 cm soil layer of the four vegetation types was P. crassifolia forest > P. tabulaeformis forest > deciduous shrubs > desert grassland, while the soil bulk density followed an opposite pattern, and was significantly negatively correlated with the fine root biomass.

  17. A new species of Centris ( Centris) (Fabricius) from northeastern Brazil, with taxonomic notes on C. ( C.) pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mahlmann, Thiago; de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of the bee genus Centris, Centris (Centris) byrsonimae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n., whose name has appeared as a nomen nudum in the literature since 1985. Further, a new species group of Centris s.str. is proposed, the pulchra group, based on morphological characters, which comprises the species Centris pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana, 2003 and Centris byrsonimae sp. n..Based on information from specimen labels studied and data from the literature, a list of plant species visited by the pulchra group is presented. The male genitalia and hidden metasomal sterna 7 and 8 of Centris pulchra are described for the first time. Typographic errors pertaining to the paratype labels reported in the original description of Centris pulchra are corrected. One female paratype of Centris pulchra is designated herein as a paratype of Centris byrsonimae sp. n. An updated list of species of Centris s.str. from northeastern Brazil is provided including references about geographic distributions as well as an identification key to the pulchra species group. PMID:23459508

  18. Post-harvest nutraceutical behaviour during ripening and senescence of 8 highly perishable fruit species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Neves, Leandro Camargo; Tosin, Jéssica Milanez; Benedette, Ronaldo Moreno; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The post-harvest nutraceutical characteristics of highly perishable native fruits species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region were studied during 12 day at 15 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 3% RH. Uxi and caja fruit showed climacteric behaviour while caju, açai de terra firme, camu-camu, inajá, murici and araçá-boi were non-climacteric. Soluble solids and sugars increased for climacteric fruit while total acidity remained constant for all fruits. In general, all fruit species had high levels of total phenolics (121-9889 mg GAE 100 g(-1) dry weight pulp), vitamin C (31-1532 mg AA 100 mL(-1) juice) and antioxidant activity (AOX) (75-288 1 μmol Trolox Eq 100 g(-1) dry weight, ORAC value), however, camu-camu, acai and murici were among the highest. All fruits showed an increase in phenolic content (15-82%), a simultaneous decrease in ascorbic acid in both peel (88-98%) and pulp (89-97%), while AOX increased or decreased depending on the fruit species, very likely due to the specific phenolic profile being synthesized. We propose a hypothetical model where ripening/senescence induced a redox homeostasis imbalance which in turn triggered the responses.

  19. Chemical Composition of the Fruit Oils of Five Fortunella Species Grown in the Same Pedoclimatic Conditions in Corsica (France).

    PubMed

    Sutour, Sylvain; Lurob, François; Bradesi, Pascale; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2016-02-01

    Fruit oil from five species of kumquat (Fortunella japonica, F. margarita, F. crassifolia, F. obovata, and F. hindsii) grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions have been analyzed by a combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The compositions of the five fruit oils were strongly dominated by limonene (84.2-96.3%). Other components present with appreciable contents were myrcene (1.3-12.9%) and germacrene D (0.3-2.4%). PMID:27032215

  20. Chemical Composition of the Fruit Oils of Five Fortunella Species Grown in the Same Pedoclimatic Conditions in Corsica (France).

    PubMed

    Sutour, Sylvain; Lurob, François; Bradesi, Pascale; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2016-02-01

    Fruit oil from five species of kumquat (Fortunella japonica, F. margarita, F. crassifolia, F. obovata, and F. hindsii) grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions have been analyzed by a combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The compositions of the five fruit oils were strongly dominated by limonene (84.2-96.3%). Other components present with appreciable contents were myrcene (1.3-12.9%) and germacrene D (0.3-2.4%).

  1. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    PubMed

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST.

  2. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    PubMed

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST. PMID:17331673

  3. A new species of Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) Burton, 1934 (Porifera: Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida) from deeper waters off the Atlantic coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Thaynã; Santos, George Garcia; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-11-18

    The members of Lissodendoryx Topsent, 1892a are recognized by a spicule combination of ectosomal tylotes or strongyles, isodictyal reticulate architecture, arcuate isochelae and sigmas (Hofman & Van Soest 1995; Van Soest 2002). Five subgenera of Lissodendoryx, are recognized (Van Soest 2002): Lissodendoryx (Acanthodoryx) Lévi, 1961, L. (Anomodoryx) Burton, 1934, L. (Ectyodoryx) Lundbeck, 1909, L. (Lissodendoryx) Topsent, 1892a, and L. (Waldoschmittia) de Laubenfels, 1936. Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) is defined by the presence of a single megasclere type (Van Soest 2002). Currently has six recognized species (Van Soest et al. 2014) including two from Brazil (Muricy et al. 2011): L. (A.) recife (Boury-Esnault, 1973) and L. (A.) tylota (Boury-Esnault, 1973). In this paper, a new species of L. (Anomodoryx) is described from the mesophotic zone off Bacia Potiguar (Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil). The specimen was preserved in ethanol 80% and deposited in the Porifera Collection of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPEPOR).

  4. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  5. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  6. Chemical Profiling Using Uplc Q-Tof/Ms and Antioxidant Activities of Fortunella Fruits.

    PubMed

    Tan, Si; Zhao, Xijuan; Yang, Ying; Ke, Zunli; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-07-01

    The fruits of Fortunella Swingle are widely consumed as fresh fruits and traditional medicine in China. China is the origin center and has the largest cultivated area of the genus Fortunella. In this study, the chemical compositions of ethanol extracts of the major Fortunella cultivated types including Fortunella japonica Swingle, Fortunella margarita Swingle, Fortunella crassifolia Swingle 1 (Lanshang) and Fortunella crassifolia Swingle 2 (Liuyang) were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS) method, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated. 12 compounds were identified and 5 compounds were tentatively characterized. The results showed that the chemical compositions of the ethanol extracts of 4 Fortunella cultivated types were largely the same. 3', 5'-di-C-glucopyranosylphloretin was the predominant flavonoid in Fortunella fruits, and Fortunella margarita Swingle had higher contents of flavonoids than other species. In addition, the data demonstrated high antioxidant activities of Fortunella fruits. The developed method could be available to rapidly analyze the chemical compounds in Fortunella fruits and its products. This study will provide information for further quality assessment and utilization of Fortunella resources. PMID:27243926

  7. [Vertical distribution patterns of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen and related affecting factors along northern slope of Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Nian-lai

    2009-03-01

    With the shady and sunny northern slopes of Qilian Mountains along an altitude gradient from 2600 m to 3600 m as test objectives, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of surface soil (0-20 cm) organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and their relations to the altitude, landform, and vegetation. The results indicated that SOC and TN contents were significantly higher on shady than on sunny slope, and all increased with increasing altitude. The SOC and TN contents under different vegetation types were in the order of alpine bush > Picea crassifolia forest > alpine meadow > Sabina przewalskii forest, and alpine bush > alpine meadow > P. crassifolia forest > S. przewalskii forest, respectively. SOC had significant positive correlations with altitude, annual precipitation, soil moisture, and soil TN, and significant negative correlations with soil pH and annual temperature. Soil C/N ratio along the gradient was within the range of 6.7-23.3, being favorable to the nutrient release during organic matter decomposition. Among the factors affecting SOC, the annual temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture content constituted the first principal component, and soil C/N ratio constituted the second principal component. These two principal components accounted for 71% of the variance of SOC content, suggesting that climate factors controlled the vertical distribution patterns of SOC and TN along the altitude gradient.

  8. Structural Analysis and Anti-Complement Activity of Polysaccharides from Kjellmaniella crsaaifolia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Delin; Zhao, Luyu; Wang, Jing; Duan, Delin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    Two polysaccharides, named KCA and KCW, were extracted from Kjellmaniella crassifolia using dilute hydrochloric acid and water, respectively. Composition analysis showed that these polysaccharides predominantly consisted of fucose, with galactose, mannose and glucuronic acid as minor components. After degradation and partial desulfation, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was performed, which showed that the polysaccharides consisted of sulfated fucooligosaccharides, sulfated galactofucooligosaccharides and methyl glycosides of mono-sulfated/multi-sulfated fucooligosaccharides. The structures of the oligomeric fragments were further characterized by electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS2 and ESI-CID-MS3). Moreover, the activity of KCA and KCW against the hemolytic activity of both the classical and alternative complement pathways was determined. The activity of KCA was found to be similar to KCW, suggesting that the method of extraction did not influence the activity. In addition, the degraded polysaccharides (DKCA and DKCW) displayed lower activity levels than the crude polysaccharides (KCA and KCW), indicating that molecular weight had an effect on activity. Moreover, the desulfated fractions (ds-DKCA and ds-DKCW) showed less or no activity, which confirmed that sulfate was important for activity. In conclusion, polysaccharides from K. crassifolia may be good candidates for the treatment of diseases involving the complement pathway. PMID:25786064

  9. Plants as Bio-monitor Agents: Foliar Deposition of Be-7, Pb-210, K-40 and Cs-137

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, Antonio Carlos de; Brito, Lavinia C.; Tanizaki, Kenny F.; Lima, Rafaela; Paschoa, Anselmo S.; Franco, Marcia

    2008-08-07

    Leaves of Eremanthus crotonoides, Allagoptera arenaria, Byrsonima sericea, Tibouchina sp, Tocoyena bullata and Clusia hilariana were collected under the same climatic in an area of restinga in the Northeast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activity concentrations of selected radionuclides in the leaves samples were determined. The results obtained have shown a high concentration of {sup 7}Be and {sup 40}K in E. crotonoides, {sup 210}Pb in T. bullata and {sup 137}Cs in Tibouchina sp. The high activity concentration of {sup 7}Be in E. crotonoides can be explained by the presence of trichomes in the leaves. E. crotonoides and T. bullata reveal high foliar deposition of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, respectively, thus these species can be used as bio-monitors to evaluate the concentration and dispersion of radionuclides in environmental studies.

  10. Minerals, phytic acid and tannin contents of 18 fruits from the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Marin, Alinne M F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the nutritious potential of 18 fruits, all native of the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Mineral contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission; phytic acid and tannin contents by a colorimetric and titrimetric method, respectively; and the potential mineral bioavailability by the molar ratio of phytic acid/mineral. Baru nut showed the highest zinc, copper, iron, phosphorus and magnesium content, and, together with macaúba, showed also the highest calcium content and caloric value. Macaúba, pitomba, ingá and murici fruits were classified as a source of iron. The jatoba and baru nut had the highest concentration of phytic acid and tannins. The [phytic acid]/[iron] and [phytic acid]/[zinc] molar ratios were higher than the critical values (14 and 10, respectively) only in the baru nuts, which suggests that iron and zinc bioavailability is low in this nut. The [phytic acid]/[calcium] molar ratios were lower than the critical value (1.56) in all analyzed fruits, which suggests that calcium is bioavailable in the fruits.

  11. [Effect of natural nootropic and adaptogen preparations on the cortex bioelectrical activity in rats].

    PubMed

    Suslov, N I; Churin, A A; Skurikhin, E G; Provalova, N V; Stal'bovskiĭ, A O; Litvinenko, V I; Dygaĭ, A M

    2002-01-01

    The influence of new nootrope and adaptogen preparations representing dry extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis (Georgi), Bergenia crassifolia (Fritsch), and velvet antlers of Siberian deer (Cervus elaphus sibiricus) on the bioelectric activity (cortex Fourier spectral EEG power) under conflict situation and conditioned reflex development was studied in rats. In both tests, the drugs produced similar changes in the EEG activity: (i) increase in the partial contribution of delta-activity and general spectral power, (ii) depression in the alpha and beta 1-rhythm power, (iii) depression of theta-activity in some cases. The EEG activity changes depended on the initial state and were closely connected with the behavior of the test animals. The drug administration led to normalization of the alpha and beta 1 activity correlated with the improved behavioral characteristics. At the same time, the delta activity was virtually not affected and lost the correlation with behavior.

  12. Tuareg ethnoveterinary treatments of camel diseases in Agadez area (Niger).

    PubMed

    Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Faye, B; Vias, G F

    2007-02-01

    For generations, nomadic herders have been learning to manage herd health, particularly in dromedaries because of their great value. Owing to the unavailability of veterinary services, camel herders in remote areas have been developing their own pharmacopoeia and veterinary techniques. The bleeding of sick animals is a common treatment, as Tuareg herders believe that 'tainted blood' (izni) is the cause of many conditions. Several surgical techniques are also used, such as excision of calcified sublingual cord. The remedies mentioned in this survey are derived from Maerua crassifolia, Boscia senegalensis, Acacia raddiana, Cucumis prophetarum, Calotropis procera, Ricinus communis, Citrullus colocynthis, green tea, millet, tobacco and onions. Artificial elements are also used for treatment of animals: Powders collected from batteries, various haircare or skincare creams, crushed glass, insecticides or motor oil belong to their pharmacopoeia. This broadmindedness allows the introduction of modern veterinary medicine. Factors such as the lack of real production objectives constitute limits to this progress, however. PMID:18318345

  13. [Bergenia genus - content matters and biological activity].

    PubMed

    Hendrychová, Helena; Tůmová, Lenka

    2012-10-01

    Bergenia, a genus included in the family Saxifragaceae, is a valuable source of healing matters. About 30 Bergenia species are known all over the world. Scientific research is focused on five species mainly distributed in the mountains of Central and East Asia: Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb., Bergenia stracheyi Engl., Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch, Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl. and Bergenia himalaica Boriss. These taxons belong to the widely used medicinal herbs in the traditional Chinese, Nepalese and Indian medicine, for therapy of cough and pulmonary diseases, to stop bleeding, to increase immunity and to dissolve kidney or bladder stones. Bergenia consists of many different active compounds including bergenin, norbergenin, catechin, gallic acid, arbutin and other polyphenols. In the Czech Republic this species is commonly grown but it is not used for medical therapy. Individual parts of this plant demonstrate an interesting biological activity, and antibacterial, antiviral, cytoprotective and antioxidant effects. PMID:23256653

  14. [Inhibition of neutrophil adhesion by pectic galacturonans].

    PubMed

    Popov, S V; Ovodova, R G; Popova, G Iu; Nikitina, I R; Ovodov, Iu S

    2007-01-01

    The inhibition of the adhesion of neutrophils to fibronectin by the fragments of the main galacturonan chain of the following pectins was demonstrated: comaruman from the marsh cinquefoil Comarum polustre, bergenan from the Siberian tea Bergenia crassifolia, lemnan from the duckweed Lemna minor, zosteran from the seagrass Zostera marina, and citrus pectin. The parent pectins, except for comaruman, did not affect the cell adhesion. Galacturonans prepared from the starting pectins by acidic hydrolysis were shown to reduce the neutrophil adhesion stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (1.625 microM) and dithiothreitol (0.5 mM) at a concentration of 50-200 microg/ml. The presence of carbohydrate chains with molecular masses higher than 300, from 100 to 300, and from 50 to 100 kDa in the galacturonan fractions was proved by membrane ultrafiltration. PMID:17375675

  15. Influence of host species on ectomycorrhizal communities associated with two co-occurring oaks (Quercus spp.) in a tropical cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa H; Pérez-Pérez, Miguel A; Smith, Matthew E; Bledsoe, Caroline S

    2009-08-01

    Interactions between host tree species and ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in structuring ectomycorrhizal communities, but there are only a few studies on host influence of congeneric trees. We investigated ectomycorrhizal community assemblages on roots of deciduous Quercus crassifolia and evergreen Quercus laurina in a tropical montane cloud forest, one of the most endangered tropical forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing internal transcribed spacer and partial 28S rRNA gene. We sampled 80 soil cores and documented high ectomycorrhizal diversity with a total of 154 taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that oak host was significant in explaining some of the variation in ectomycorrhizal communities, despite the fact that the two Quercus species belong to the same red oak lineage (section Lobatae). A Tuber species, found in 23% of the soil cores, was the most frequent taxon. Similar to oak-dominated ectomycorrhizal communities in temperate forests, Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae and Sebacinales were diverse and dominant.

  16. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K+/Na+ ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na+, Cl−, K+ and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However—except for P. crassifolia—proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its ‘osmoprotectant’ functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  17. Holocene Amazon rainforest-savanna dynamics and climatic implications: high-resolution pollen record from Laguna Loma Linda in eastern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behling, Hermann; Hooghiemstra, Henry

    2000-10-01

    We present a high-resolution pollen record of a 695-cm-long sediment core from Laguna Loma Linda, located at an altitude of 310 m in the transitional zone between the savannas of the Llanos Orientales and the Amazonian rainforest, about 100 km from the Eastern Cordillera. Based on eight AMS 14C ages, the record represents the last 8700 14C yr BP. During the period from 8700 to 6000 14C yr BP the vegetation was dominated by grass savanna with only a few woody taxa, such as Curatella and Byrsonima, present in low abundance. Gallery forest along the drainage system apparently was poorly developed. Compared with today, precipitation must have been significantly lower and seasonality stronger. During the period from 6000 to 3600 14C yr BP, rainforest taxa increased markedly, reflecting an increase in precipitation. Rainforest and gallery forest taxa such as Moraceae/Urticaceae, Melastomataceae, Alchornea, Cecropia and Acalypha, were abundant, whereas Poaceae were reduced in frequency. From 3600 to 2300 14C yr BP rainforest taxa continued to increase; Moraceae/Urticaceae became very frequent, and Myrtaceae and Myrsine became common. Savanna vegetation decreased continuously. We infer that precipitation was still increasing, and that the length of the annual dry period possibly shortened. From 2300 14C yr BP onwards, grass savanna (mainly represented by Poaceae) expanded and Mauritia palms became frequent. This reflects increased human impact on the vegetation.

  18. Millenial-scale climatic and vegetation changes in a northern Cerrado (Northeast, Brazil) since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Ceccantini, Gregorio; Gouveia, Susy E. M.; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Pessenda, Luiz C. R.; Ribeiro, Adauto S.

    2006-05-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, lacustrine sediments started to be deposited with the beginning of the deglaciation at ca 19,000 cal yr BP. At this time the region of Lake Caço was dominated by sparse and shrubby vegetation with dominance of steppic grasses in a poor sandy soil. The landscape did not present any ecological characteristics of a modern Cerrado. However single pollen grains of two Cerrado indicators, Byrsonima and Mimosa, suggest that some Cerrado species were able to survive under the prevailing arid climate, probably as small shrubs. After 15,500 cal yr BP, a sudden increase in the moisture rates is evidenced with the progressive expansion of rainforest showing successive dominance of various associations of taxa. The development of the forest stopped abruptly at the end of the Pleistocene between 12,800 and 11,000 cal yr BP, as attested by strong fires and the expansion of Poaceae. In the early Holocene an open landscape with a relatively high level of water in the lake preceded the progressive expansion of Cerrado species towards a denser forested landscape; fires are recorded from then on, resulting in the physiognomy of the Cerrado we know today. Late Pleistocene paleoenvironmental records from northern Brazil reflect the interplay between insolation forcing of two hemispheres with the local components represented by the interannual shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone and the influence of seasonal equatorwards polar air incursions.

  19. A comparative study of aluminium and nutrient concentrations in mistletoes on aluminium-accumulating and non-accumulating hosts.

    PubMed

    Scalon, M C; Haridasan, M; Franco, A C

    2013-09-01

    Mistletoes offer a unique model to study interactions among Al and nutrients in vascular plants, because they grow and reproduce on hosts with distinct Al uptake strategies. We investigated Al distribution and nutrient relations of mistletoes on Al-accumulating and non-accumulating hosts. We hypothesised that mistletoes would exhibit similar leaf nutrient and Al concentrations as their host plants, but a strong compartmentalisation of Al when growing on Al-accumulators. We measured concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn in leaves and Al in leaves, seeds and branches of Phthirusa ovata and Psittacanthus robustus infecting Miconia albicans, an Al-accumulator, and Ph. ovata infecting Byrsonima verbascifolia, a non-Al-accumulator. High leaf concentrations of Al in Ph. ovata only occurred while parasitizing the Al-accumulating host; there was no accumulation in branches or seeds. In P. robustus, large concentrations of Al were found in leaves, branches and seeds. Mistletoe seed viability and leaf nutrient concentrations were not affected by Al accumulation. Passive uptake of Al, Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu in mistletoes was evidenced by significant correlations between mistletoes and host leaf concentrations, but not of N, P and K. Al was retranslocated to different plant organs in P. robustus, whereas it was mostly restricted to leaves in Ph. ovata. We suggest that Al might have some specific function in P. robustus, which only parasitizes Al-accumulator hosts, while the host generalist Ph. ovata can be considered a facultative Al-accumulator.

  20. Naming Potentially Endangered Parasites: Foliicolous Mycobiota of Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Highly Threatened Brazilian Tree Species.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Meiriele; Pinho, Danilo B; Pereira, Olinto L; Fernandes, Fernando M; Barreto, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    A survey of foliicolous fungi associated with Dimorphandra wilsonii and Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae) was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Dimorphandra wilsonii is a tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado that is listed as critically endangered. Fungi strictly depending on this plant species may be on the verge of co-extinction. Here, results of the pioneering description of this mycobiota are provided to contribute to the neglected field of microfungi conservation. The mycobiota of D. mollis, which is a common species with a broad geographical distribution that co-occurs with D. wilsonii, was examined simultaneously to exclude fungal species occurring on both species from further consideration for conservation because microfungi associated with D. wilsonii should not be regarded as under threat of co-extinction. Fourteen ascomycete fungal species were collected, identified, described and illustrated namely: Byssogene wilsoniae sp. nov., Geastrumia polystigmatis, Janetia dimorphandra-mollis sp. nov., Janetia wilsoniae sp. nov., Johansonia chapadiensis, Microcalliopsis dipterygis, Phillipsiella atra, Piricauda paraguayensis, Pseudocercospora dimorphandrae sp. nov., Pseudocercosporella dimorphandrae sp. nov., Ramichloridiopsis wilsoniae sp. and gen. nov., Stomiopeltis suttoniae, Trichomatomyces byrsonimae and Vesiculohyphomyces cerradensis. Three fungi were exclusively found on D. wilsonii and were regarded as potentially threatened of extinction: B. wilsoniae, J. wilsoniae and R. wilsoniae.

  1. Naming Potentially Endangered Parasites: Foliicolous Mycobiota of Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Highly Threatened Brazilian Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Meiriele; Pinho, Danilo B.; Pereira, Olinto L.; Fernandes, Fernando M.; Barreto, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    A survey of foliicolous fungi associated with Dimorphandra wilsonii and Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae) was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Dimorphandra wilsonii is a tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado that is listed as critically endangered. Fungi strictly depending on this plant species may be on the verge of co-extinction. Here, results of the pioneering description of this mycobiota are provided to contribute to the neglected field of microfungi conservation. The mycobiota of D. mollis, which is a common species with a broad geographical distribution that co-occurs with D. wilsonii, was examined simultaneously to exclude fungal species occurring on both species from further consideration for conservation because microfungi associated with D. wilsonii should not be regarded as under threat of co-extinction. Fourteen ascomycete fungal species were collected, identified, described and illustrated namely: Byssogene wilsoniae sp. nov., Geastrumia polystigmatis, Janetia dimorphandra-mollis sp. nov., Janetia wilsoniae sp. nov., Johansonia chapadiensis, Microcalliopsis dipterygis, Phillipsiella atra, Piricauda paraguayensis, Pseudocercospora dimorphandrae sp. nov., Pseudocercosporella dimorphandrae sp. nov., Ramichloridiopsis wilsoniae sp. and gen. nov., Stomiopeltis suttoniae, Trichomatomyces byrsonimae and Vesiculohyphomyces cerradensis. Three fungi were exclusively found on D. wilsonii and were regarded as potentially threatened of extinction: B. wilsoniae, J. wilsoniae and R. wilsoniae. PMID:26910334

  2. Anti-hemorrhagic activity of four Brazilian vegetable species against Bothrops jararaca venom.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Catarine Massucato Nishijima; Rodrigues, Clenilson Martins; Silva, Marcelo Aparecido; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko

    2009-03-09

    Around 20,000 snakebites are reported annually in Brazil and 90% of them are inflicted by species of the genus Bothrops. Intravenous administration of antibothropic antivenom neutralizes the systemic actions, but it is of little effect on the reversal of local symptoms and often induces adverse reactions, a context that drives the search for complementary treatments for snakebite accidents. Vegetable extracts with a range of antiophidian activities constitute an excellent alternative. In this study, we investigated the anti-hemorrhagic effects of Mouriri pusa Gardn. (Melastomataceae), Byrsonima crassa Niedenzu (Malpighiaceae), Davilla elliptica St. Hill. (Dilleniaceae) and Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. (Loganiaceae) against Bothrops jararaca venom. The methanolic extracts from M. pusa (leaves), B. crassa (leaves) and D. elliptica (leaves) showed total neutralization capacity against local hemorrhages. The amenthoflavone and quercetin fractions from B. crassa and the flavonoids fractions (quercetin and myricetin) from M. pusa and D. elliptica also showed total neutralization capacity. We conclude that flavonoids derived from myricetin, quercetin and amenthoflavone play an important role in the anti-hemorrhagic potential of these Brazilian vegetables species against B. jararaca venom.

  3. An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Naming Potentially Endangered Parasites: Foliicolous Mycobiota of Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Highly Threatened Brazilian Tree Species.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Meiriele; Pinho, Danilo B; Pereira, Olinto L; Fernandes, Fernando M; Barreto, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    A survey of foliicolous fungi associated with Dimorphandra wilsonii and Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae) was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Dimorphandra wilsonii is a tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado that is listed as critically endangered. Fungi strictly depending on this plant species may be on the verge of co-extinction. Here, results of the pioneering description of this mycobiota are provided to contribute to the neglected field of microfungi conservation. The mycobiota of D. mollis, which is a common species with a broad geographical distribution that co-occurs with D. wilsonii, was examined simultaneously to exclude fungal species occurring on both species from further consideration for conservation because microfungi associated with D. wilsonii should not be regarded as under threat of co-extinction. Fourteen ascomycete fungal species were collected, identified, described and illustrated namely: Byssogene wilsoniae sp. nov., Geastrumia polystigmatis, Janetia dimorphandra-mollis sp. nov., Janetia wilsoniae sp. nov., Johansonia chapadiensis, Microcalliopsis dipterygis, Phillipsiella atra, Piricauda paraguayensis, Pseudocercospora dimorphandrae sp. nov., Pseudocercosporella dimorphandrae sp. nov., Ramichloridiopsis wilsoniae sp. and gen. nov., Stomiopeltis suttoniae, Trichomatomyces byrsonimae and Vesiculohyphomyces cerradensis. Three fungi were exclusively found on D. wilsonii and were regarded as potentially threatened of extinction: B. wilsoniae, J. wilsoniae and R. wilsoniae. PMID:26910334

  5. Byrsonic acid--the clue to floral mimicry involving oil-producing flowers and oil-collecting bees.

    PubMed

    Reis, Mariza G; de Faria, D Aparecida; dos Santos, Isabel Alves; Amaral, Maria do Carmo E; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2007-07-01

    Tetrapedia diversipes and other Apidae (Anthophoridae) may be deceived by floral similarities between Malpighiaceae and Orchidaceae of the Oncidiinae subtribe. The latter do not usually exudate floral oils. Thus, visitors may pollinate the flowers in a deceit/food/pollination syndrome. We studied the chemical compositions of Byrsonima intermedia (Malpighiaceae) floral oil and T. diversipes (Anthophoridae) cell provisions. From B. intermedia floral oil, we isolated a novel fatty acid (3R, 7R)-3,7-diacetoxy-docosanoic acid, here named byrsonic acid, and from T diversipes cell provisions we isolated two novel fatty acid derivatives 3,7-dihydroxy-eicosanoic acid and 3,7-dihydroxy-docosanoic acid, here named tetrapedic acids A and B, respectively. The three fatty acid derivatives have common features: possess long chains (20 or 22 carbon atoms) with no double bond and either hydroxy or acetoxy groups at carbons 3 and 7. This characteristic was also encountered in the fatty acid moiety of oncidinol (2S, 3'R, 7'R)-l-acetyl-2-[3', 7'-diacetoxyeicosanyl)-glycerol, a major floral oil constituent of several Oncidiinae species (Orchidaceae). Thus, both tetrapedic A (C20) and B (C22) could be the biotransformation products of oncidinol and byrsonic acid by T. diversipes hydrolases. These are the chemical clues for bee visitation and oil collecting from both plant species. The results indicate that the deceit/pollination syndrome should not be applied to all Oncidiinae flowers.

  6. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of beta-rhizobia isolated from sub-tropical legumes of a Brazilian Araucaria Forest.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Daniel R; Cruz, Leonardo M; Carrer, Helaine; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2013-12-01

    While the occurrence of Betaproteobacteria occupying the nodules of tropical legumes has been shown, little is known about subtropical areas. Araucaria Forest is a subtropical endangered ecosystem, and a better understanding of the legume-rhizobial symbionts may allow their use in land reclamation. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria isolated from nine leguminous species was sequenced and their nodulation tested in Mimosa scabrella and Phaseolus vulgaris. 196 isolates were identified as eight genotypes: Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium sp1-2, Rhizobium, and Burkholderia sp1-3. The majority of the isolates from native plants (87 %) were taxonomically related to β-rhizobia, namely Burkholderia, however the legumes Galactia crassifolia and Collea speciosa were nodulated by both α and β-rhizobia, and Acacia dealbata, an exotic plant, only by α-rhizobia. The nifH genes of some isolates were sequenced and N-fixing potential shown by the acetylene reduction test. Most of the isolates nodulated the test plants, some were effective in M. scabrella, but all presented low efficiency in the exotic promiscuous legume P. vulgaris. Pantoea and Pseudomonas did not nodulate and probably are endophytic bacteria. The presented data shows diversity of α, β and γ-Proteobacteria in nodules of subtropical legumes, and suggests host specificity with β-rhizobia. Potential isolates were found for M. scabrella, indicating that a high N-fixing strain may be further inoculated in plants for use in reforestation. PMID:23861038

  7. Vegetation analysis of Wadi Al-Jufair, a hyper-arid region in Najd, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alatar, Abdulrahman; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.; Thomas, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Wadi Al-Jufair, a tributary of Wadi Nisah, is one of the important wadis of Najd region (Saudi Arabia) sheltering a rich diversity of higher plants. The study area is extended into approximately 15 km2 encompassing the commonest geomorphological features encountered in desert wadis. The wadi supports several rare plants, including Maerua crassifolia Forssk., a regionally endangered tree, and Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf., a rare shrub with restricted distribution. The present study aims to analyze the vegetation of wadi Al-Jufair and propose its designation as an important plant reserve. The vegetation type is fundamentally of chamaephytic nature with some phanerophytes, and distinguished into associations where the dominant perennial species give the permanent character of plant cover in each habitat. Four vegetation groups were identified with the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs and named after the characteristic species as follows: Lycium shawii; A. oerfota; Acacia raddiana–Rhazya stricta and Artemisia monosperma. These plant associations demonstrate significant variation in soil texture, moisture, organic matter, pH, EC, and minerals of Wadi Al-Jufair. PMID:23961197

  8. The Influences of Canopy Species and Topographic Variables on Understory Species Diversity and Composition in Coniferous Forests

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Hong; Feng, Qi; Su, Yong-hong

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the distribution of understory vegetation is important for biological conservation and forest management. We compared understory species composition by multi-response permutation procedure and indicator species analysis between plots dominated by Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) and Qilian juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) in coniferous forests of the Qilian Mountains, northwestern China. Understory species composition differed markedly between the forest types. Many heliophilous species were significantly associated with juniper forest, while only one species was indicative of spruce forest. Using constrained ordination and the variation partitioning model, we quantitatively assessed the relative effects of two sets of explanatory variables on understory species composition. The results showed that topographic variables had higher explanatory power than did site conditions for understory plant distributions. However, a large amount of the variation in understory species composition remained unexplained. Forward selection revealed that understory species distributions were primarily affected by elevation and aspect. Juniper forest had higher species richness and α-diversity and lower β-diversity in the herb layer of the understory plant community than spruce forest, suggesting that the former may be more important in maintaining understory biodiversity and community stability in alpine coniferous forest ecosystems. PMID:25097871

  9. Estimating forest crown area removed by selection cutting: a linked regression-GIS approach based on stump diameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.C.; Kupfer, J.A.; Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a model that could be used to provide a spatial representation of uneven-aged silvicultural treatments on forest crown area. We began by developing species-specific linear regression equations relating tree DBH to crown area for eight bottomland tree species at White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas, USA. The relationships were highly significant for all species, with coefficients of determination (r(2)) ranging from 0.37 for Ulmus crassifolia to nearly 0.80 for Quercus nuttalliii and Taxodium distichum. We next located and measured the diameters of more than 4000 stumps from a single tree-group selection timber harvest. Stump locations were recorded with respect to an established gl id point system and entered into a Geographic Information System (ARC/INFO). The area occupied by the crown of each logged individual was then estimated by using the stump dimensions (adjusted to DBHs) and the regression equations relating tree DBH to crown area. Our model projected that the selection cuts removed roughly 300 m(2) of basal area from the logged sites resulting in the loss of approximate to 55 000 m(2) of crown area. The model developed in this research represents a tool that can be used in conjunction with remote sensing applications to assist in forest inventory and management, as well as to estimate the impacts of selective timber harvest on wildlife.

  10. Isolation and characterization of a fucoidan-degrading marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takeshi; Ishizuka, Kumiko; Kato, Ikunoshin

    2003-01-01

    Fucoidan, a mixture of sulfated fucose-containing polysaccharides, was prepared from the algal bodies of Cladosiphon okamuranus (class Phaeophyceae, order Chordariales, family Chordariaceae) with a yield of 2.0% of the wet weight of the alga. To obtain enzymes that digest the fucoidan, we screened bacteria in the guy contents of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus for their ability to decrease the fucoidan in their culture media, and successfully isolated one bacterial strain that could decrease it. The bacterial strain was gram-negative and possessed menaquinone 7 as the predominant respiratory quinone, and the GC content of its genomic DNA was 52%. The results of the phylogenetic analysis of its 16S ribosomal DNA sequence indicated that the bacterial strain was a member of the division "Verrucomicrobia." However, as the bacterial strain is phylogenetically and phenotypically distinct from verrucomicrobial species described previously, the strain was assumed to be a new member of the division "Verrucomicrobia." When the bacterial strain was cultivated in an algal fucoidan-containing medium, the strain decreased fucoidan from C. okamuranus (44%), Nemacystus decipiens (19%), Laminaria japonica (31%), Kjellmaniella crassifolia (23%), sporophyl of Undaria pinnatifida (22%), Fucus vesiculosus (42%), and Ascophyllum nodosum (61%).

  11. Different Transcriptional Response to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri between Kumquat and Sweet Orange with Contrasting Canker Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Gong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Yue-Xin; Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO) annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA) of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future. PMID:22848606

  12. Leaf morphophysiology of a Neotropical mistletoe is shaped by seasonal patterns of host leaf phenology.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Marina Corrêa; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Domingos, Fabricius Maia Chaves Bicalho; Franco, Augusto Cesar

    2016-04-01

    Several mistletoe species are able to grow and reproduce on both deciduous and evergreen hosts, suggesting a degree of plasticity in their ability to cope with differences in intrinsic host functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of host phenology on mistletoe water relations and leaf gas exchange. Mistletoe Passovia ovata parasitizing evergreen (Miconia albicans) hosts and P. ovata parasitizing deciduous (Byrsonima verbascifolia) hosts were sampled in a Neotropical savanna. Photosynthetic parameters, diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance, pre-dawn and midday leaf water potential, and stomatal anatomical traits were measured during the peak of the dry and wet seasons, respectively. P. ovata showed distinct water-use strategies that were dependent on host phenology. For P. ovata parasitizing the deciduous host, water use efficiency (WUE; ratio of photosynthetic rate to transpirational water loss) was 2-fold lower in the dry season than in the wet season; in contrast, WUE was maintained at the same level during the wet and dry seasons in P. ovata parasitizing the evergreen host. Generally, mistletoe and host diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance were linked, although there were clear differences in leaf water potential, with mistletoe showing anisohydric behaviour and the host showing isohydric behaviour. Compared to mistletoes attached to evergreen hosts, those parasitizing deciduous hosts had a 1.4-fold lower stomatal density and 1.2-fold wider stomata on both leaf surfaces, suggesting that the latter suffered less intense drought stress. This is the first study to show morphophysiological differences in the same mistletoe species parasitizing hosts of different phenological groups. Our results provide evidence that phenotypical plasticity (anatomical and physiological) might be essential to favour the use of a greater range of hosts. PMID:26686200

  13. Effects of Salt Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Plantago Species

    PubMed Central

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Pacurar, Andrea; López-Gresa, María P.; Donat-Torres, María P.; Llinares, Josep V.; Boscaiu, Monica; Vicente, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the responses to salt stress of taxonomically related taxa should help to elucidate relevant mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants. We have applied this strategy to three Plantago species adapted to different natural habitats, P. crassifolia and P. coronopus–both halophytes–and P. major, considered as salt-sensitive since it is never found in natural saline habitats. Growth inhibition measurements in controlled salt treatments indicated, however, that P. major is quite resistant to salt stress, although less than its halophytic congeners. The contents of monovalent ions and specific osmolytes were determined in plant leaves after four-week salt treatments. Salt-treated plants of the three taxa accumulated Na+ and Cl- in response to increasing external NaCl concentrations, to a lesser extent in P. major than in the halophytes; the latter species also showed higher ion contents in the non-stressed plants. In the halophytes, K+ concentration decreased at moderate salinity levels, to increase again under high salt conditions, whereas in P. major K+ contents were reduced only above 400 mM NaCl. Sorbitol contents augmented in all plants, roughly in parallel with increasing salinity, but the relative increments and the absolute values reached did not differ much in the three taxa. On the contrary, a strong (relative) accumulation of proline in response to high salt concentrations (600–800 mM NaCl) was observed in the halophytes, but not in P. major. These results indicate that the responses to salt stress triggered specifically in the halophytes, and therefore the most relevant for tolerance in the genus Plantago are: a higher efficiency in the transport of toxic ions to the leaves, the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica, even under low salinity conditions, and the activation, in response to very high salt concentrations, of proline accumulation and K+ transport to the leaves of the plants. PMID:27490924

  14. Pooled versus separate tree-ring δD measurements, and implications for reconstruction of the Arctic Oscillation in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohong; An, Wenling; Treydte, Kerstin; Wang, Wenzhi; Xu, Guobao; Zeng, Xiaomin; Wu, Guoju; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Xuanwen

    2015-04-01

    Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) in tree rings are an attractive but still rarely explored terrestrial archive of past climatic information. Because the preparation of the cellulose nitrate for δD measurements requires more wood and a longer preparation time than preparation techniques for other isotopes in cellulose (δ18O or δ13C), it is challenging to obtain high-resolution records, especially for slow-growing trees at high elevations and in boreal regions. Here, we tested whether annually pooled samples of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) trees from northwestern China provided results similar to those derived as the mean of individual measurements of the same trees and whether the resulting chronologies recorded useful climate information. Inter-tree variability of δD was higher than that of measured ring width for the same trees. We found higher and significant coherence between pooled and mean isotope chronologies than that among the individual series. It showed a logarithmic relationship between ring mass and δD; however, accounting for the influence of ring mass on δD values only slightly improved the strength of climatic signals in the pooled records. Tree-ring δD was significantly positively correlated with the mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures during the previous winter and with maximum temperature during the current August, and significantly negatively correlated with precipitation in the previous November to January and the current July. The winter climate signal seems to dominate tree-ring δD through the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, i.e. the Arctic Oscillation. These results will facilitate reconstruction of winter atmospheric circulation patterns over northwestern China based on a regional tree-ring δD networks.

  15. Effects of Salt Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Plantago Species.

    PubMed

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Pacurar, Andrea; López-Gresa, María P; Donat-Torres, María P; Llinares, Josep V; Boscaiu, Monica; Vicente, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the responses to salt stress of taxonomically related taxa should help to elucidate relevant mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants. We have applied this strategy to three Plantago species adapted to different natural habitats, P. crassifolia and P. coronopus-both halophytes-and P. major, considered as salt-sensitive since it is never found in natural saline habitats. Growth inhibition measurements in controlled salt treatments indicated, however, that P. major is quite resistant to salt stress, although less than its halophytic congeners. The contents of monovalent ions and specific osmolytes were determined in plant leaves after four-week salt treatments. Salt-treated plants of the three taxa accumulated Na+ and Cl- in response to increasing external NaCl concentrations, to a lesser extent in P. major than in the halophytes; the latter species also showed higher ion contents in the non-stressed plants. In the halophytes, K+ concentration decreased at moderate salinity levels, to increase again under high salt conditions, whereas in P. major K+ contents were reduced only above 400 mM NaCl. Sorbitol contents augmented in all plants, roughly in parallel with increasing salinity, but the relative increments and the absolute values reached did not differ much in the three taxa. On the contrary, a strong (relative) accumulation of proline in response to high salt concentrations (600-800 mM NaCl) was observed in the halophytes, but not in P. major. These results indicate that the responses to salt stress triggered specifically in the halophytes, and therefore the most relevant for tolerance in the genus Plantago are: a higher efficiency in the transport of toxic ions to the leaves, the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica, even under low salinity conditions, and the activation, in response to very high salt concentrations, of proline accumulation and K+ transport to the leaves of the plants.

  16. Pooled versus separate tree-ring δD measurements, and implications for reconstruction of the Arctic Oscillation in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohong; An, Wenling; Treydte, Kerstin; Wang, Wenzhi; Xu, Guobao; Zeng, Xiaomin; Wu, Guoju; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Xuanwen

    2015-04-01

    Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) in tree rings are an attractive but still rarely explored terrestrial archive of past climatic information. Because the preparation of the cellulose nitrate for δD measurements requires more wood and a longer preparation time than preparation techniques for other isotopes in cellulose (δ18O or δ13C), it is challenging to obtain high-resolution records, especially for slow-growing trees at high elevations and in boreal regions. Here, we tested whether annually pooled samples of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) trees from northwestern China provided results similar to those derived as the mean of individual measurements of the same trees and whether the resulting chronologies recorded useful climate information. Inter-tree variability of δD was higher than that of measured ring width for the same trees. We found higher and significant coherence between pooled and mean isotope chronologies than that among the individual series. It showed a logarithmic relationship between ring mass and δD; however, accounting for the influence of ring mass on δD values only slightly improved the strength of climatic signals in the pooled records. Tree-ring δD was significantly positively correlated with the mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures during the previous winter and with maximum temperature during the current August, and significantly negatively correlated with precipitation in the previous November to January and the current July. The winter climate signal seems to dominate tree-ring δD through the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, i.e. the Arctic Oscillation. These results will facilitate reconstruction of winter atmospheric circulation patterns over northwestern China based on a regional tree-ring δD networks. PMID:25590539

  17. Effects of Salt Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Plantago Species.

    PubMed

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Pacurar, Andrea; López-Gresa, María P; Donat-Torres, María P; Llinares, Josep V; Boscaiu, Monica; Vicente, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the responses to salt stress of taxonomically related taxa should help to elucidate relevant mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants. We have applied this strategy to three Plantago species adapted to different natural habitats, P. crassifolia and P. coronopus-both halophytes-and P. major, considered as salt-sensitive since it is never found in natural saline habitats. Growth inhibition measurements in controlled salt treatments indicated, however, that P. major is quite resistant to salt stress, although less than its halophytic congeners. The contents of monovalent ions and specific osmolytes were determined in plant leaves after four-week salt treatments. Salt-treated plants of the three taxa accumulated Na+ and Cl- in response to increasing external NaCl concentrations, to a lesser extent in P. major than in the halophytes; the latter species also showed higher ion contents in the non-stressed plants. In the halophytes, K+ concentration decreased at moderate salinity levels, to increase again under high salt conditions, whereas in P. major K+ contents were reduced only above 400 mM NaCl. Sorbitol contents augmented in all plants, roughly in parallel with increasing salinity, but the relative increments and the absolute values reached did not differ much in the three taxa. On the contrary, a strong (relative) accumulation of proline in response to high salt concentrations (600-800 mM NaCl) was observed in the halophytes, but not in P. major. These results indicate that the responses to salt stress triggered specifically in the halophytes, and therefore the most relevant for tolerance in the genus Plantago are: a higher efficiency in the transport of toxic ions to the leaves, the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica, even under low salinity conditions, and the activation, in response to very high salt concentrations, of proline accumulation and K+ transport to the leaves of the plants. PMID:27490924

  18. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area

  19. Developing a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction and Demolition Rubble for Use in Quarry Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on Lebanon and on the management of its solid waste. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. This research aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. Excavation and construction debris were ground to several sizes and mixed with compost and soil at different ratios. Replicates of these mixes and a set of control (regular soil) were used. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots). The plant species used are Mathiolla crassifolia and Zea mays (Corn). Results have shown successful growth of both corn and Mathiolla seedlings in the mixes with higher amounts of construction rubble and compost i.e. Rubble: Soil: Compost Ratio of 2:1:1 and 1:0:1. However treatments with no compost and with less quantities of rubble demonstrated the inability of the soil used to sustain plant growth alone (1:1:1 and 1:1:0). Last but not least, the control consisting of soil only ended up being the weakest mix with yellow corn leaves and small Mathiolla seedlings fifty days after planting and fertilizing. Additionally, soil analysis, rubble and compost analysis were conducted. The samples were tested for heavy metals, nutrient availability and values of pH and EC. No contamination has been reported and an abundance of macronutrients and micronutrients was documented for the soil and compost. High alkalinity is due to the presence of concrete and the high percentage of Calcium Carbonate in Lebanese soils. Accordingly, the most adequate mixes for planting are treatments A (2:1:1) and B (1:0:1) and they should be pursued for a pilot scale study to test their potential use in quarry rehabilitation and

  20. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area

  1. Mixing Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste and Solid Waste Compost for the Derivation of a Planting Medium for Use in the Rehabilitation of Quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, Eleni

    2015-04-01

    Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which are locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been interrupted by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. Excavation and construction debris were ground to several sizes and mixed with compost and soil at different ratios. Replicates of these mixes and a set of control (regular soil) were used. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Mathiolla crassifolia, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays (Corn), which is commonly