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Sample records for murici byrsonima crassifolia

  1. Studies on the volatile fraction composition of three native Amazonian-Brazilian fruits: Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae), bacuri (Platonia insignis M., Clusiaceae), and sapodilla (Manilkara sapota L., Sapotaceae).

    PubMed

    Uekane, Thais M; Nicolotti, Luca; Griglione, Alessandra; Bizzo, Humberto R; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena M; Rezende, Claudia M

    2017-03-15

    The volatile fraction of murici, bacuri and sapodilla are here studied because of their increasing interest for consumers, abundance of production in Brazil, and the general demand for new flavors and aromas. Their volatile profiles were studied by two High Concentration Capacity Headspace techniques (HCC-HS), Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) and Headspace Sorptive Extraction (HSSE), in combination with GC-MS. Murici volatile fraction mainly contains esters (38%), carboxylic acids (19%), aldehydes (11%), alcohols (14%), others (13%) and sulfur compounds; bacuri is characterized by terpenes (41%), non-terpenic alcohols (24%), esters (15%), aldehydes (6%), and others (12%); sapodilla consists of esters (33%), alcohols (27%), terpenes (18%) and others (21%). The GC-MS component co-elution was overcome by GC×GC-qMS. The adoption of modern analysis technologies afforded to achieve a better knowledge of the volatile fraction composition of these fruit pulps by increasing substantially the number of compounds identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hexane extract of the seeds of Byrsonima crassifolia accelerates wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez Gutiérrez, Rosa Martha; Muñiz Ramirez, Alethia

    2013-11-16

    To study the effect of seeds of Byrsonima crassifolia in diabetic wound healing. Wound healing potential of hexane extract in the form of simple ointment for the treatment of dermal wounds was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats on excision wound, incision wound and dead space wound. Various parameters such as epithelization period, scar area, tensile strength, hydroxyproline, total protein, DNA, hexosamine, uronic acid, antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT) were used to evaluate the effect of B. crassifolia on wound healing. Hexane extract in form topical accelerates the wound healing process by decreasing the surface area of the wound with a significant increase in the rate of wound contraction and tensile strength; increase granulation tissue dry weight, hydroxyproline, total protein, DNA and SOD and CAT when compared with diabetic control. B. crassifolia was effective in promoting diabetic wound healing in rats through the processes of tissue regeneration.

  3. Genetic variability analysis of Byrsonima crassifolia germplasm collected in Pará State using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S M; Moura, E F; Ramos, G K S; Oliveira, M S P

    2016-10-17

    Native of the Amazon, the nanche (Byrsonima crassifolia) is a fruit cultivated by family farmers and used in cooking; as such, it represents an opportunity for regional agribusiness. The Embrapa Eastern Amazon set up an active germplasm bank (BAG) consisting of 22 accessions sampled in 11 municipalities of Pará State. Due to its economic potential, there is an interest to advance the genetic breeding program of this species. The aim of this study was to characterize the BAG nanche collection using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Accessions were genotyped using 23 pre-selected ISSR primers resulting in 109 amplified polymorphic and 51 monomorphic bands. With eight polymorphic bands each, the most polymorphic primers were UBC 809 and UBC 848. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average cluster analysis based on Jaccard's coefficient indicated that the individuals clustered into two distinct groups. Accessions Igarapé Açu-2 and Augusto Corrêa-Pl 1 were most similar. The genetic dissimilarity values ranged from 0.10 to 0.59. We conclude that the ISSR markers were efficient in detecting polymorphisms in the nanche accessions, and that it is possible to infer the genetic variability among accessions of the collection. This demonstrate the importance of using molecular markers in poorly studied species and the advantages that this information can bring to the genetic improvement of such species.

  4. Phenolic compounds from Byrsonima crassifolia L. bark: phytochemical investigation and quantitative analysis by LC-ESI MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Montoro, Paola; Pizza, Cosimo

    2011-08-25

    Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of Byrsonima crassifolia's bark led to the isolation of 8 known phenolic compounds 5-O-galloylquinic acid, 3-O-galloylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylquinic acid, (+)-epicatechin-3-gallate along with (+)-catechin and (+)-epicatechin. Due to their biological value, in the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, working in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, has been developed to quantify these compounds. B. crassifolia bark resulted in a rich source of phenolic compounds and particularly of galloyl derivates. The proposed analytical method is promising to be applied to other galloyl derivatives to quantify these bioactive compounds in raw material and final products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Peripheral and central antinociceptive effects of the butanolic fraction of Byrsonima verbascifolia leaves on nociception-induced models in mice.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, A A; Siqueira, J M; Castro, A H F; Matos, N A; Klein, A; Silva, D B; Carollo, C A; Soares, A C

    2017-02-01

    Byrsonima verbascifolia (Malpighiaceae), commonly known as 'murici', is used in folk medicine, for example, in the treatment of inflammation. The anti-inflammatory activity of the butanolic fraction of B. verbascifolia leaves (BvBF) was previously reported by our group, and the present study was designed to evaluate their antinociceptive effects. BvBF (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) inhibited acetic acid induced abdominal writhing. In the formalin test, BvBF (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) caused a reduction in licking time in both the neurogenic and inflammatory phases. Moreover, we demonstrated that BvBF (30 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) caused an increase in the latency to response in the hot-plate test. These results demonstrate that BvBF possesses marked peripheral and central antinociceptive activities. Pre-treatment with the non-selective receptor antagonist naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.) abolished the antinociceptive effects of BvBF (100 mg/kg, i.p.) in the neurogenic phase of the formalin and hot-plate tests. The anti-inflammatory activity of BvBF (previously reported) as well as the participation of the opioidergic system seems to be responsible, at least in part, for these antinociceptive effects. Finally, BvBF at the doses investigated (25, 50 and 100 mg/Kg) did not cause any toxicity signals, showing that the antinociceptive activity is devoid of sedative and hypomotility effects.

  6. Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch--pharmacology and phytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarova, Marina N; Makarov, Valery G; Wagner, Hildebert

    2014-10-15

    Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch, a species in the Bergenia genus belongs to the family Saxifragaceae, is valuated for its medicinal application. The review focuses on the medicinal uses, phytochemistry, and the biological activities of B. crassifolia to explore its benefits and potential uses. In this review, we summarized data, published in Russia and in other countries related to B. crassifolia. Rhizomes and leaves of this plant are in use as traditional remedies for the treatment of different disorders in the folk medicine systems of Russia and Asia. The plant is a potential source of tannins, benzanoids, flavonoids, polysaccharides and other active compounds. Due to the presence of a multitude of bioactives, a wide array of pharmacological activities have been ascribed to different parts of this herb and individual compounds, which include adaptogenic, antiinflammatory, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiobesity, antitussive, cerebro-protective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulating, and diuretic. The review highlights the potential of B. crassifolia for further development of herbal medicines on its base. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Byrsonima fagifolia Niedenzu Apolar Compounds with Antitubercular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, C. T.; Sannomiya, M.; Pavan, F. R.; Leite, S. R. A.; Sato, D. N.; Franzblau, S. G.; Sacramento, L. V. S.; Vilegas, W.; Leite, C. Q. F.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of Byrsonima fagifolia leaves led to the isolation of active antitubercular compounds alkane dotriacontane (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC, 62.5 μg mL−1), triterpenoids as bassic acid (MIC = 2.5 μg mL−1), α-amyrin acetate (MIC = 62.5 μg mL−1), a mixture of lupeol, α- and β-amyrin (MIC = 31.5 μg mL−1) and a mixture of lupeol, and acetates of α- and β-amyrin (MIC = 31.5 μg mL−1). The antimycobacterial activity was determined by the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) and the structures of promising compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. This investigation constitutes the first report of a chemical and antitubercular study of apolar compounds from B. fagifolia Niedenzu (IK). PMID:19091782

  8. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Four Amazonian Byrsonima Species.

    PubMed

    Guilhon-Simplicio, Fernanda; Machado, Tallita Marques; do Nascimento, Leandro Flores; Souza, Rayanne da Silva; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; da Silva, Felipe Moura Araújo; Acho, Leonard Domingo Rosales; Dos Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Cos, Paul; Pereira, Maria de Meneses; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2017-08-25

    Species of the Byrsonima genus are widely used in Brazil, especially for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, species from the Amazonian region are still poorly studied. Thus, we studied the antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities of for Amazonian species, Byrsonima crispa, Byrsonima duckeana, Byrsonima garcibarrigae, and Byrsonima incarnata. Phenolic composition was determined by chemical and chromatographic methods. The aqueous extracts were evaluated in DPPH(•) , ABTS(+•) , and superoxide (O2(•-) ) tests, LPS-activated macrophage assay, and formalin test. All species contained a high phenolic and flavonoid content. We identified 15 phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, and catechins. The extracts showed high antioxidant activity and were more active than quercetin at inhibiting nitric oxide release in the LPS-activated macrophage assay. B. duckeana and B. garcibarrigae showed higher in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. B. garcibarrigae presented significant effect on the early phase of the formalin test, pointing to an antinociceptive mechanism distinct from traditional anti-inflammatory medicines. In conclusion, the pharmacological potential of these species is closely related to their flavonoid-rich chemical composition, which seems to act through antioxidant mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Nutraceutical potential of Byrsonima cydoniifolia fruits based on chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperalgesic activities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vanessa Samúdio Dos; Nascimento, Thalita Vieira; Felipe, Josyelen Lousada; Boaretto, Amanda Galdi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves; Silva, Denise Brentan; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre

    2017-12-15

    In recent years, the fruits of native Brazilian plant species with anti-inflammatory property have gained prominence due to their properties comparable to traditional medicines. This study aimed to chemically characterize and evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic activity of Byrsonima cydoniifolia fruit, which is widely used to manufacture ice cream and jellies. Our results revealed that the fruit exhibits flavonoid derivatives and stilbenes, as trans-piceatannol and resveratrol, as main secondary metabolites. In mice, the hydroethanolic extract of fruit reduced the edema, migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into the peritoneal cavity, as well as abdominal writhings. The results demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of stilbenoids in the Byrsonima genus and the anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic effect of Byrsonima cydoniifolia fruits, supporting its potential as a nutraceutical food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The response of Picea crassifolia forest to climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhibin; Du, Jun; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Longfei; Zhu, Xi

    2014-05-01

    Picea crassifolia forest, an endemic genus mainly distributing in the Qilian Mountain of Northwest China, is very sensitive to climate warming. In the present study, the response of treeline, phenological period, and sap flow of P. crassifolia forest to climate warming were analyzed though a set of observations and experiments. The result showed: (1) During the past 50 years, the temperature had raised at a mean rate of 0.29° C per decade in this region, especially since 1980s (had increased by a total of more than 1.25° C), obviously higher than increment degree IPCC reported. This resulted in the increase of tree recruitment which was significantly positively correlated with the mean growing season temperature and with the mean minimum temperature in June and in winter. Treeline elevation shifted upward by 5.7 to 13.6 m from 1907 to 1957 and by 6.1 to 10.4 m after 1957. (2) By quantifying the canopy phenology events based on satellite-derived datasets (MODIS-NDVI) from 2001 to 2011, and investigating the correlation with climate factors, a conclusion had been drawn which revealed a 3.7 days/decade advance in the length of growing season. Our results suggested that temperature controlled treeline dynamics and phenological period more strongly than precipitation in the Qilian Mountains. (3) In the case of experimental warming (mean daily temperature was increased 0.83° C, mean daily maximum temperature was increased 4.7° C), the trend for the mass growth of P. crassifolia sapling presented a notable increase under conditions of warming, especially for tree height. The data of sap flow showed that warming facilitated the sap flow of sapling in the end of growing season, which indicated the temperature was a major restriction to sap flow rate, especially in the condition of lower temperature.

  11. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Salacia crassifolia (mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. evaluated by Ames test.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, C C; Véras, J Holanda; Góes, B R Lima; Pérez, C N; Chen-Chen, L

    2017-09-21

    Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. is a bush which belongs to Celastraceae family and occurs specially in Brazilian Cerrado. Its leaves, stem, seeds and fruits are popularly used for several medicinal purposes, such as antitumoral, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. In this study, the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic) were evaluated by the Ames mutagenicity assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. By the obtained results, all S. crassifolia fractions did not significantly increase the number of prototrophic revertants for histidine (His+) in both S. typhimurium strains tested (p > 0.05), suggesting absence of mutagenicity. Regarding antimutagenicity, the fractions ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants colonies induced by positive control for strain TA98 (p < 0.05), demonstrating protection against mutagenicity induced by 4-nitroquinolile1-oxide, whereas the hexane fraction did not show antimutagenic effect in this strain. In the TA100 strain, all fractions of S. crassifolia protected DNA against the harmful action of sodium azide, and the hexane fraction exhibited the greatest protection in this work. Thus, it's possible conclude that the fractions of S. crassifolia tested in this study could be used in chemoprevention.

  12. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities of Byrsonima duckeana W. R. Anderson (Malpighiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Verdam, Maria Christina dos Santos; de Andrade, Kleyton Cardoso; Fernandes, Karina Lorena Meira; Machado, Tallita Marques; de Souza, Mayane Pereira; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Miyazaki, Cristina Mayumi Sasaki; Kalegari, Milena; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Stuelp-Campelo, Patricia Maria; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Background. Byrsonima is a promising neotropical genus, rich in flavonoids and triterpenes, with several proven pharmacological properties. Nevertheless, Byrsonima duckeana W. R. Anderson is an Amazonian species almost not studied. Objective. To assess the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of Byrsonima duckeana leaves. Materials and Methods. We analyzed an ethanol extract and its fractions for polyphenol content and UHPLC-MS/MS, phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, TBARS antioxidant tests, formalin-induced pain, carrageenan-induced peritonitis, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhings, and hot plate assays. Results. All the samples showed high polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in the phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, and TBARS tests. We identified ethyl gallate, quinic acid, gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, quercetrin, and quercetin in the samples. B. duckeana was able to reduce leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced peritonitis by 43% and the licking time in the formalin test by 57%. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the chloroform (FCL) and ethyl acetate (FEA) fractions were the most active samples. FEA was selected for the hot plate test, where all the dosages tested (5, 50, and 200 mg·kg−1) showed significant analgesic activity. Conclusion. B. duckeana has interesting analgesic and antioxidant activities, due to its high phenolic content, especially phenolic acids. PMID:28367492

  13. Immunostimulating activity of pectic polysaccharide from Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch.

    PubMed

    Popov, S V; Popova, G Yu; Nikolaeva, S Yu; Golovchenko, V V; Ovodova, R G

    2005-12-01

    The pectic polysaccharide named bergenan BC was obtained using extraction of the green leaves of Siberian tea Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch. by an aqueous ammonium oxalate. The polysaccharide obtained was proved to comprise mainly d-galacturonic acid, galactose, rhamnose, arabinose and glucose residues and appeared to be pectin. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to aggregated ovalbumin (agOVA) was found to increase in mice that received bergenan solution (2 mg/mL) for 3 weeks. Bergenan BC was observed to enhance the uptake capacity of human neutrophils at a concentration 100 microg/mL and to stimulate the generation of oxygen radicals by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Bergenan BC was found to increase the spontaneous adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes and failed to influence adhesion stimulated by PMA or adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes incubated in the presence of 5 mm EDTA. Bergenan failed to show cytotoxic action. The viability of peritoneal leukocytes was estimated to be equal to 91% +/- 8% and 90% +/- 7%% in the control and in the pectin solution at a concentration of 1 mg/mL.Thus, bergenan was shown to possess immunostimulating activity in relation to DTH response in vivo and phagocytic activity in vitro. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Structural study of bergenan, a pectin from Bergenia crassifolia].

    PubMed

    Golovchenko, V V; Bushneva, O A; Ovodova, R G; Shashkov, A S; Chizhov, A S; Ovodov, Iu S

    2007-01-01

    A pectin polysaccharide named bergenan was isolated from the freshly collected leaves of the leather bergenia Bergenia crassifolia by extraction with an aqueous solution of ammonium oxalate. The main component of its carbohydrate chain was shown to be the residues of D-galacturonic acid (about 80%). In addition, the polysaccharide contains residues of galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose; their total content is less than 15%. It was shown that the bergenan samples from bergenia leaves collected at different vegetation periods (from July to September) do not substantially differ either in monosaccharide composition or in the viscosity of aqueous solutions they form. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis by alpha-1,4-galacturonase (pectinase), partial acidic hydrolysis, NMR spectroscopy, and methylation with subsequent analysis of the results by GC-MS indicate that the bergenan macromolecule contains the regions of a linear alpha--1,4-D-galactopyranosyluronan and rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-1). Galacturonan responds for a greater part of the macromolecule. A considerable amount of its constituent galacturonic acid residues are present as methyl esters. The side chains in RG-I are attached to the rhamnopyranose residues of the main carbohydrate chain by 1,4-link and are composed of the residues of terminal arabinofuranose and galactopyranose, 1,5-linked (-arabinofuranose, and 1,4-and 1,6-linked beta-galactopyranose. The branching points of the side chains of the RG-I molecule are 3,4- and 3,6-di-O-substituted galactose residues.

  15. Lectins from indigenous Australian wildflowers--detection of lectins from Bauhinia carronii, Hardenbergia comptoniana, Ptilotis obovatus and Rhadogia crassifolia.

    PubMed

    Flower, R L; Wilcox, G E; Chugg, V; Neal, J R

    1984-12-01

    Extracts from 21 indigenous Australian plant species, representing eight genera, were tested for haemagglutinating activity to human and animal erythrocytes. Extracts from Bauhinia carronii, Hardenbergia comptoniana, Ptilotis obovatus and Rhadogia crassifolia agglutinated at least one of the erythrocyte types tested. The extracts from B. carronii and R. crassifolia contained mitogens for human lymphocytes. Both the haemagglutinating and mitogenic activity of the B. carronii extract were inhibited by lactose. Both the haemagglutinating and mitogenic activity of R. crassifolia were inhibited by maltose and alpha-methyl-glucoside. The haemagglutinating activity of H. comptoniana was inhibited by raffinose and the haemagglutinating activity of P. obovatus by maltose and alpha-methylglucoside.

  16. Warming-Induced Decline of Picea crassifolia Growth in the Qilian Mountains in Recent Decades.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Huang, Lei; Shao, Xuemei; Xiao, Fengjing; Wilmking, Martin; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Warming-induced drought has widely affected forest dynamics in most places of the northern hemisphere. In this study, we assessed how climate warming has affected Picea crassifolia (Qinghai spruce) forests using tree growth-climate relationships and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) along the Qilian Mountains, northeastern Tibet Plateau (the main range of Picea crassifolia). Based on the analysis on trees radial growth data from the upper tree line and the regional NDVI data, we identified a pervasive growth decline in recent decades, most likely caused by warming-induced droughts. The drought stress on Picea crassifolia radial growth were expanding from northeast to southwest and the favorable moisture conditions for tree growth were retreating along the identical direction in the study area over the last half century. Compared to the historical drought stress on tree radial growth in the 1920s, recent warming-induced droughts display a longer-lasting stress with a broader spatial distribution on regional forest growth. If the recent warming continues without the effective moisture increasing, then a notable challenge is developed for Picea crassifolia in the Qilian Mountains. Elaborate forest management is necessary to counteract the future risk of climate change effects in this region.

  17. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Bergenia crassifolia, B. x ornata and B. ciliata.

    PubMed

    Hendrychová, Helena; Vildová, Anna; Kocevar-Glavac, Nina; Tůmová, Lenka; Kanybekovna, Elnura Abdykerimova; Tůma, Jirí

    2014-04-01

    This study focused on a phytochemical analysis of Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch., B. ciliata (Haw.) Sternb., and B. x ornata Stein. and evaluation of their free radical scavenging properties. Arbutin and total tannin contents of the leaves of the Bergenia species were determined during different seasons. The present study also aimed at analyzing, for the first time, environmental influence on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in Bergenia leaves. The highest total tannin content was found in the leaves of B. crassifolia (24.9-48.7 mg x g(-1) DW) and B. x ornata (36.9 mg.g(-1) DW). The highest amount of arbutin was in the leaves of B. x ornata (35.8-51.0 mg.g(-1) DW) and B. crassifolia (24.6-41.7 mg x g(-1) DW). Autumn was better than spring for the collection of Bergenia leaves for the highest amount of arbutin (B. x ornata: 51.0 mg x g(-1) DW). Free radical scavenging potential, in DPPH and ABTS assays, of the water leaf extracts revealed that extracts of B. crassifolia and B. x ornata are the most active radical scavengers. Antioxidant activity correlated well with the content of total tannin, especially in the ABTS assay, which suggests an important role for these compounds in antioxidant activity. It was shown that phenolic concentrations in Bergenia leaves are affected by seasonal factors. A significant correlation was found between arbutin and tannin contents and the average humidity.

  18. Gestational exposure to Byrsonima verbascifolia: teratogenicity, mutagenicity and immunomodulation evaluation in female Swiss mice.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Caroline Amélia; Siqueira, João Máximo; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Mauro, Mariana de Oliveira; de Davi, Natan; Cunha-Laura, Andréa Luiza; Monreal, Antônio Carlos Duenhas; Castro, Ana Hortencia; Fernandes, Lucas; Chagas, Rafael Russo; Auharek, Sarah Alves; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano

    2013-12-12

    Byrsonima verbascifolia is used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea, intestinal infections, chronic wounds, Chagas disease, inflammation and as a diuretic. However there is no investigation regarding the Byrsonima verbascifolia hydrometanolic extract (BVHME) used during gestation. The pregnant females were randomly divided into 5 groups. Control group received saline plus DMSO (1%) in a volume of 0.1 mL/10 g (b.w.), via gavage, for at least 15 days prior to mating and throughout the gestational period. The Pre-treatment group received the BVHME, via gavage, at a dose of 50 mg/kg (b.w.) for at least 15 days prior to mating and up to the appearance of the vaginal plug. The Organogenesis group received the BVHME at a dose of 50 mg/kg (b.w.), via gavage, on the 5-15th gestational day. The Gestational group received the BVHME at a dose of 50 mg/kg (b.w.), via gavage, throughout the gestational period (from the 1st to the 18th day of pregnancy). The Pre+Gestational group received the BVHME at a dose of 50mg/kg (b.w.), via gavage, for at least 15 days prior to mating and up to throughout the gestational period. The clinical signals of maternal and fetuses toxicity were evaluated, as the mutagenicity and immunomodulation tests were performed. The present investigation shows, for the first time, that the use of Byrsonima verbascifolia extract in pregnant Swiss mice, did not alter the female reproductive function, mutagenicity or immunostimulation as well as not interfere with embryofetal development at least in our experimental conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Aline Aparecida; do Carmo, Lucas Fernandes; do Nascimento, Sara Batista; de Matos, Natália Alves; de Carvalho Veloso, Clarice; Castro, Ana Hortência Fonsêca; De Vos, Ric C H; Klein, André; de Siqueira, João Máximo; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; do Nascimento, Thalita Vieira; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina; Soares, Adriana Cristina

    2016-10-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey indicates that the genus Byrsonima has some medicinal species that are commonly found in the Brazilian Cerrado and has been used as an anti-inflammatory and for gastroduodenal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity along with qualitative chemical characterization of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia (BvME) obtained by exhaustive percolation. The data from the chemical analyses by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry led to tentative identification of 42 compounds belonging to proanthocyanidins, galloyl quinic acid derivatives, flavonoids, and triterpene glycoside derivatives. BvME contain flavonoids and show an antioxidative activity. The methanolic extract administered intraperitoneally at doses of 50, 100, or 300 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in paw edema and modulated the neutrophil influx in a mouse model. Furthermore, the anti-edematogenic activity of the extract provided in smaller doses (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) was also demonstrated in a mouse paw edema model. The extract inhibited NO production by macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide. We presume that the anti-inflammatory effects of BvME are due to a combination of compounds present in B. verbascifolia, including catechins (procyanidins), flavonoids, and triterpene glycosides and that these anti-inflammatory actions should be mediated, at least partly, through the inhibition of NO production. This study supports and validates the ethnopharmacological uses of B. verbascifolia as an anti-inflammatory.

  20. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of six Brazilian Byrsonima species assessed by the Ames test

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In various regions of Brazil, several species of the genus Byrsonima (Malpighiaceae) are widely used to treat gastrointestinal complications. This genus has about 150 species of shrubs and trees distributed over the entire Neotropical region. Various biological activities have been identified in these plants, especially antioxidant, antimicrobial and topical and systemic anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of six species of Byrsonima: B. verbascifolia, B. correifolia, B. coccolobifolia, B. ligustrifolia, B. fagifolia and B. intermedia by the Salmonella microsome assay (Ames test). Methods Mutagenic and antimutagenic activity was assessed by the Ames test, with the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA100, TA98, TA97a and TA102, with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolization, by the preincubation method. Results Only B. coccolobifolia and B. ligustrifolia showed mutagenic activity. However, the extracts of B. verbascifolia, B. correifolia, B. fagifolia and B. intermedia were found to be strongly antimutagenic against at least one of the mutagens tested. Conclusions These results contribute to valuable data on the safe use of medicinal plants and their potential chemopreventive effects. Considering the excellent antimutagenic activities extracted from B. verbascifolia, B. correifolia, B. fagifolia and B. intermedia, these extracts are good candidate sources of chemopreventive agents. However, B. coccolobifolia and B. ligustrifolia showed mutagenic activity, suggesting caution in their use. PMID:24898326

  1. [Effect of Bergenia crassifolia extract on specific immune response parameters under extremal conditions].

    PubMed

    Churin, A A; Masnaia, N V; Sherstoboev, E Yu; Suslov, N I

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a dry extract from Bergenia crassifolia (Fritsch) on the specific immune response parameters was studied under extremal conditions of model immunodepressive states induced by immobilization stress or cyclophosphamide injections. The drug produced normalizing effect on the content of antibody-forming cells in the spleen of experimental mice under the conditions of humoral response stimulation by antigen and in both immunodepression models. The bergenia extract decreases expression of inflammatory processes under delayed hypersensitivity reaction conditions, by preventing the accumulation of T-lymphocytes in the inflammation focus and reducing the ability of cells to produce anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Association of ectomycorrhizal fungi with Picea crassifolia (Pinaceae, Piceoidae) from high-altitude stands in Mount Helan Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y J; Grebenc, T; Wei, J; Zhao, Y L; Yan, W; Wang, L B

    2016-09-02

    We investigated the diversity of ectomycorrhiza associated with the endemic Picea crassifolia in Mount Helan National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia, China. Toward this objective, we conducted morphological and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae in soil cubes taken from pure P. crassifolia stands. Eleven types of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) organisms were separated, briefly described, and identified. Nine morphotypes belonged to the phylum Basidiomycotina [Amphinema byssoides, Cortinarius sp (cf. limonius), Cortinarius vernus, Inocybe cf. nitidiscula, Inocybe sp 1, Sebacina incrustans, Sebacina sp, Suillus luteus, and Piceirhiza tuberculata x Picea crassifolia (comb. Nov.)], and two morphotypes to the phylum Ascomycotina (Cenococcum geophilum and Helvella sp). The diversity of ECM organisms in P. crassifolia was lower than that reported by other studies on spruce or pine forests, or on sporocarp diversity in the high-mountain forests of China. Most of the fungi in the rhizosphere did not correspond to species previously recorded as sporocarps above ground. Here, several new ectomycorrhiza morphotypes are proposed and described. We also confirmed the ectomycorrhizal status of the genus Sebacina (order Sebacinales).

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties of Nepeta crassifolia Boiss & Buhse and Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Nadjafi, Farsad; Menichini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    This article reports phytochemical and biological studies on Nepeta binaludensis and Nepeta crassifolia. Both species were investigated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties through three in vitro models [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay]. Aerial parts were extracted with methanol and partitioned between water and subsequently n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. N. binaludensis methanol extract exerted significantly higher reducing power (1.9 μM Fe(II)/g) than did the positive control butylhydroxytoluene (63.2 μM Fe(II)/g) in FRAP assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was found for N. crassifolia, with IC50 values of 9.6 and 12.1 µg/mL for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, respectively. n-Butanol fraction of both species showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 59.3 and 81.7 µg/mL for N. binaludensis and N. crassifolia, respectively. Phytochemical investigations resulted in the isolation of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, apigenin, luteolin and ixoroside. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 8-hydroxycirsimaritin and cirsimaritin were furthermore identified in N. crassifolia ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. Nepetanudoside B was isolated from the n-butanol fraction of N. binaludensis.

  4. Pollination of Byrsonima coccolobifolia: short-distance isolation and possible causes for low fruit production.

    PubMed

    Amorim, M E; De Marco, P

    2011-08-01

    Byrsonima coccolobifolia is a tropical plant from the Malpighiaceae family, distributed in the neotropical savanna fields and pollinated by bees known as "collecting-oil bees". In this study, conducted in a Cerrado area located on a farm in the city of Silvânia, GO, the following hypothesis was tested: the greater the isolation degree of a plant, the lower its fruit production due to access difficulties for pollinators. Using a linear regression analysis, it was possible to relate the fruiting rate with the degree of isolation of each B. coccolobifolia individual and consequently it was found that the isolation had no influence on the pollination rate, an unexpected event that can be explained by the distance amongst individuals not being large enough to limit the movement of pollinators, or because cross-pollination was not the predominant form of reproduction, since the rate of cross-pollination was similar to self-pollination. It was also found that the proportion of fruits produced was lower than expected, a factor which may also have influenced the results.

  5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) peel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Cai; Xu, Pei-Yu; Lan, Ya-Jia; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main constituents of the essential oil isolated from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel by hydro-distillation, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil on antimicrobial activity. Twenty-five components, representing 92.36% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, L. bulgaricus, and B. laterosporus) bacteria, together with a remarkable antifungal activity against C. albicans. In a food model of beef extract, the essential oil was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the essential oil showed strongly detrimental effects on the growth and morphological structure of the tested bacteria. It was suggested that the essential oil from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel might be used as a natural food preservative against bacteria or fungus in the food industry.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) Peel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Wei; Zeng, Wei-Cai; Xu, Pei-Yu; Lan, Ya-Jia; Zhu, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main constituents of the essential oil isolated from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel by hydro-distillation, and to test the efficacy of the essential oil on antimicrobial activity. Twenty-five components, representing 92.36% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhimurium) and Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, L. bulgaricus, and B. laterosporus) bacteria, together with a remarkable antifungal activity against C. albicans. In a food model of beef extract, the essential oil was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Furthermore, the essential oil showed strongly detrimental effects on the growth and morphological structure of the tested bacteria. It was suggested that the essential oil from Fortunella crassifolia Swingle peel might be used as a natural food preservative against bacteria or fungus in the food industry. PMID:22489157

  7. Dereplication by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and Screening for Biological Activities of Byrsonima Species (Malpighiaceae).

    PubMed

    Fraige, Karina; Dametto, Alessandra Cristina; Zeraik, Maria Luiza; de Freitas, Larissa; Saraiva, Amanda Correia; Medeiros, Alexandra Ivo; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto José; Silva, Dulce Helena S; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Bolzani, Vanderlan S

    2017-10-09

    Byrsonima species have been used in the treatment of gastrointestinal and gynecological inflammations, skin infections and snakebites. Based on their biological activities, it is important to study other organisms from this genus and to identify their metabolites. To determine the metabolic fingerprinting of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of four Byrsonima species (B. intermedia, B. coccolobifolia, B. verbascifolia and B. sericea) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and evaluate their in vitro antioxidant, anti-glycation, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH˙, ABTS˙(+) and ROO˙ scavenging assays. Anti-glycation activity was evaluated by the ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264-7) in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitrite (NO2(-) ) production were measured by ELISA and the Griess reaction, respectively. The compounds present in the extracts were tentatively identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The evaluation of the biological activities showed the potential of the extracts. The activities were assigned to the presence of glycoside flavonoids mainly derived from quercetin, quinic acid derivatives, gallic acid derivatives, galloylquinic acids and proanthocyanidins. Two isomers of sinapic acid-O-hexoside were described for the first time in a Byrsonima species. This research contributes to the study of the genus, it is the first report of the chemical composition of B. sericea and demonstrates the importance of the dereplication process, allowing the identification of known compounds without time-consuming procedures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. [Water storage capacity of qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forest canopy in Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Peng, Huan-hua; Zhao, Chuan-yan; Xu, Zhong-lin; Peng, Shou-zhang; Wang, Yao

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of direct measurement and regression analysis, this paper estimated the water storage capacity of Picea crassifolia forest canopy in Guantan in Qilianshan Mountains, based on the observed throughfall and the laboratory experimental data about the water storage capacity of various canopy components in 2008. Due to the impacts of various factors, differences existed in the canopy water storage capacity estimated by the two methods. The regression analysis was mainly impacted by the measurement approaches of the throughfall, the maximum water storage capacity estimated being 0.69 mm, whereas the direct measurement was mainly impacted by tree height, diameter at breast height, plant density, and leaf area index, with the estimated maximum water storage capacity being 0.77 mm. The direct measurement showed that the maximum water storage capacity per unit area of the canopy components of the forest was in the order of barks (0.31 mm) > branches (0.28 mm) > leaves (0.08 mm).

  9. Tree Water Status and Soil Moisture Dynamics in Picea crassifolia Forest, Qilian Mountains, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Zhao, W.

    2011-12-01

    Landscapes of the mountainous regions in northwest China usually present an unique spatial pattern of vegetation, consisting of grassland matrices and shrub-forest mosaics. Forests often self-organized themselves into ordered structures and concentrated as blocks on north-facing slopes or as stripes along northwest-facing slopes. Picea crassifolia is the most representative and dominant tree species in building the forests of this region. First results of the 30-min-interval measurements of tree sap flow during the growing season of 2008 in Qilian Mountains are presented here and potential functional relations between the tree transpiration and environmental factors are evaluated. Soil moisture is identified as the most influential factor (explain 40% of the variance in sap flow), followed by net solar radiation and air temperature, which can explain 43% and 14% of the variance in sap flow, respectively. We argue that the trade-off between reduced ET by the limited energy, and increased sustainability of soil moisture, may create a stressed but tolerable environment, and, in turn, an ecological niche relatively constant and favorable to Picea crassifolia growth. It should be noticed that the moisture made available by soil frost thawing may be an important source for tree transpiration, especially at the beginning stages of the growing season. We also estimate the water relationship between soil water losses and moisture level for the forest site. Using the built relationship, a stochastic model of soil moisture dynamics is tested against data recorded. It is found that the model well reproduces measured soil moisture content despite all the simplifying assumptions, as a result, can be used in a further application in studies and modeling of vegetation patterning processes.

  10. Oil collecting bees and Byrsonima cydoniifolia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae) interactions: the prevalence of long-distance cross pollination driving reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Sazan, Morgana S; Bezerra, Antonio Diego M; Freitas, Breno M

    2014-03-01

    Oil-collecting bees are the natural pollinators of oil-flower plants, but little is known about the pollination process and the effectiveness of their pollination service to the reproductive success of their host plants. In species of Byrsonima the reproductive system have been described as auto-compatible or self-incompatible. We studied the reproductive system of Byrsonima cydoniifolia, the fructification by means of short, medium and long-distance cross pollinations, the morphology and floral biology and the pollination interactions with species of oil-collecting bees. By means of controlled pollinations we found self-incompatibility caused by abortion of most self-pollinated flowers and demonstrated that the prevailing cross pollination ensuring the reproductive success of B. cydoniifolia is the long-distance cross pollination and Centridini bees; Epicharis nigrita, particularly, are the pollinators promoting the gene flow between genetically distinct populations.

  11. Separation and evaluation of free radical-scavenging activity of phenol components of green, brown, and black leaves of Bergenia crassifolia by using HPTLC-DPPH* method.

    PubMed

    Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Ivanova, Svetlana A; Shikov, Alexander N; Makarov, Valery G; Galambosi, Bertalan

    2007-10-01

    A new procedure has been developed to separate and quantify the free radical-scavenging activity of individual compounds from green, brown, and black leaves of Bergenia crassifolia based on the combination of high performance TLC (HPTLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) and postchromatographic 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) derivatization. Free gallic and ellagic acids, arbutin, hydroquinone, and bergenin in the B. crassifolia leaves' extracts were separated by HPTLC and identified. All compounds of the extract excluding bergenin were capable of scavenging DPPH * radicals. From the estimated ID(50) values, it can be seen that the increasing order of activity was gallic acid > arbutin > ellagic acid > hydroquinone > ascorbic acid. The antiradical activity of leaves of B. crassifolia is probably associated to the presence of phenol.

  12. [Comparative studies on content of arbutin, bergenin and catechin in different part of Bergenia purpurascens and B. crassifolia].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinguang; Huang, Wenhua; Ma, Miao; Guo, Baolin; Wang, Guiying

    2010-08-01

    To develop a HPLC method for the determination of arbutin, bergenin and catechin in Chinese herb Bergenia, and to provide a scientific basis for evaluating the quality and reasonable utilization of the herb. The HPLC analysis was achieved by using a C18 column and methanol-water as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1), and detected by UV at 275 nm. The contents of arbutin, bergenin and catechin in the different parts of axial root, fibrous root and blade from Bergenia purpurascens and B. crassifolia. The contents of arbutin, bergenin and catechin have a few difference in B. purpurascens and B. crassifolia, and varies significantly in the different part of axial root, fibrous root and blade from some species. The contents of bergenin are higher in axial root, fibrous root, and the content of arbutin is higher in blade. This HPLC method can be used to determine simultaneously the content of arbutin, bergenin and catechin, and can establish a foundation for scientific study and evaluating the quality of species in Bergenia.

  13. Natural hybridization and hybrid zones between Quercus crassifolia and Quercus crassipes (Fagaceae) in Mexico: morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Sánchez, Efraín; Oyama, Ken

    2004-09-01

    Hybrid zones provide interesting systems to study genetic and ecological interaction between different species. The correct identification of hybrids is necessary to understand the evolutionary process involved in hybridization. An oak species complex occurring in Mexico formed by two parental species, Quercus crassifolia H. & B. and Q. crassipes H. & B., and their putative hybrid species, Q. dysophylla, was analyzed with molecular markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA [RAPDs]) and morphological tools in seven hybrid zones (10 trees per taxa in each hybrid zone) and two pure sites for each parental species (20 trees per site). We tested whether geographic proximity of hybrid plants to the allopatric site of a parental species increases its morphological and genetic similarity with its parent. Seventeen morphological traits were measured in 8700 leaves from 290 trees. Total DNA of 250 individuals was analyzed with six diagnostic RAPD primers. Quercus crassifolia differed significantly from Q. crassipes in all the examined characters. Molecular markers and morphological characters were highly coincident and support the hypothesis of hybridization in this complex, although both species remain distinct in mixed stands. Clusters and a hybrid index (for molecular and morphological data) showed that individuals from the same parental species were more similar among themselves than to putative hybrids, indicating occasional hybridization with segregation in hybrid types or backcrossing to parents. Evidence does not indicate a unidirectional pattern of gene flow.

  14. Structure and development of 'witches' broom' galls in reproductive organs of Byrsonima sericea (Malpighiaceae) and their effects on host plants.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A L A; Neufeld, P M; Santiago-Fernandes, L D R; Vieira, A C M

    2015-03-01

    Galls are anomalies in plant development of parasitic origin that affect the cellular differentiation or growth and represent a remarkable plant-parasite interaction. Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae) is a super host of several different types of gall in both vegetative and reproductive organs. The existence of galls in reproductive organs and their effects on the host plant are seldom described in the literature. In this paper, we present a novel study of galls in plants of the Neotropical region: the 'witches' broom' galls developed in floral structures of B. sericea. The unaffected inflorescences are characterised by a single indeterminate main axis with spirally arranged flower buds. The flower buds developed five unaffected brownish hairy sepals and five pairs of elliptical yellow elaiophores, five yellow fringed petals, 10 stamens and a pistil with superior tricarpellar and trilocular ovary. The affected inflorescences showed changes in architecture, with branches arising from the main axis and flower buds. The flower buds exhibited several morphological and anatomical changes. The sepals, petals and carpels converted into leaf-like structures after differentiation. Stamens exhibited degeneration of the sporogenous tissue and structures containing hyphae and spores. The gynoecium did not develop, forming a central meristematic region, from which emerges the new inflorescence. In this work, we discuss the several changes in development of reproductive structures caused by witches' broom galls and their effects on reproductive success of the host plants.

  15. Effect of hybridization of the Quercus crassifolia x Quercus crassipes complex on the community structure of endophagous insects.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Sánchez, Efraín; Oyama, Ken

    2006-04-01

    In a previous study, we showed that the geographic proximity of hybrid plants to the allopatric areas of parental species increases their morphological and genetic similarity with them. In the present work, we explored whether the endophagous fauna of hybrid plants show the same pattern. We studied the canopy species richness, diversity and composition of leaf-mining moths (Lepidoptera: Tischeridae, Citheraniidae) and gall-forming wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) associated with two species of red oaks (Quercus crassifolia and Quercus crassipes) and their interspecific hybrid (Quercusxdysophylla Benth pro sp.) in seven hybrid zones in central Mexico, during four seasons in 2 years. The study was conducted on 194 oak trees with known genetic status [identified by leaf morphology and molecular markers (random amplified polymorphic DNAs)], and the results indicate a bidirectional pattern of gene flow. Hybrid plants supported intermediate levels of infestation of gall-forming and leaf-mining insects compared to their putative parental species. The infestation level of leaf-mining insects varied significantly following the pattern: Q. crassifolia>hybrids>Q. crassipes, whereas the gall-forming insects showed an inverse pattern. A negative and significant relationship was found between these two types of insect guilds in each host taxa, when the infestation percentage was evaluated. It was found that 31.5% (n=11) of the endophagous insects were specific to Q. crassipes, 22.9% (n=8) to Q. crassifolia, and 8.6% (n=3) to hybrid individuals. The hybrid bridge hypothesis was supported in the case of 25.7% (n=9) of insects, which suggests that the presence of a hybrid intermediary plant may favor a host herbivore shift from one plant species to another. Greater genetic diversity in a hybrid zone is associated with greater diversity in the endophagous community. The geographic proximity of hybrid plants to the allopatric site of a parental species increases their similarity in

  16. Effect of Bergenia crassifolia L. extracts on weight gain and feeding behavior of rats with high-caloric diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarova, Marina N; Kovaleva, Maria A; Laakso, Into; Dorman, H J Damien; Hiltunen, Raimo; Makarov, Valery G; Galambosi, Bertalan

    2012-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior and weight gain in rats with high-calorie diet-induced obesity that are treated with Bergenia crassifolia black and fermented leaves extracts. The daily dietary intake of all treated animals was reduced to 40% compared with the control group on day 22 of the experiment. A significant improvement in glucose tolerance was noted after 7 days of treatment with the Bergenia extracts. In rats treated with an extract of black leaves for 7 days, a significant reduction in the serum triglyceride level, 45% (p<0.05), compared with the control group was observed. However, the treatment did not affect the cholesterol level. Our results provide evidence for the potential use of B. crassifolia as an appetite and energy intake suppressant.

  17. [Spatial distribution characteristics of the biomass and carbon storage of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forests in Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Peng, Shou-zhang; Zhao, Chuan-yan; Zheng, Xiang-lin; Xu, Zhong-lin; He, Lei

    2011-07-01

    This paper estimated the biomass and carbon storage and their spatial distributions of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forests in Qilian Mountains, based on the field investigation, forest map, and meteorological data, and with the help of GIS technology. In 2008, the biomass of the forests was averagely 209.24 t x hm(-2), with a total biomass of 3.4 x 10(7) t. Due to the difference of water and thermal condition, there existed great differences in the biomass of Qinghai spruce within the Mountains. The biomass increased by 3.12 t x hm(-2) with increasing 1 degrees longitude and decreased by 3.8 t x hm(-2) with increasing 1 degrees latitude, and decreased by 0.05 t x hm(-2) with the elevation increasing 100 m. The carbon density of the forests ranged from 70.4 to 131.1 t x hm(-2), averagely 109.8 t x hm(-2), and the average carbon density was 83.8 t x hm(-2) for the young forest, 109.6 t x hm(-2) for the middle age forest, 122 t x hm(-2) for the near-mature forest, 124.2 t x hm(-2) for the mature forest, and 117.1 t x hm(-2) for the over-mature forest. The total carbon storage of Qinghai spruce forests in the study area was 1.8 x 10(7) t.

  18. Late Pleistocene climate change promoted divergence between Picea asperata and P. crassifolia on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau through recent bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hao; Yue, Wei; Wang, Xi; Zou, Jiabin; Li, Lili; Liu, Jianquan; Sun, Yongshuai

    2016-07-01

    Divergence during the early stage of speciation can be driven by a population bottleneck via reduced gene flow and enhanced lineage sorting. In this study, we aimed to examine whether such bottlenecks occurred during the initial speciation of two closely related spruce species Picea asperata and P. crassifolia occurring on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). We analyzed sequences of three chloroplast, two mitochondrial DNA fragments and a further 13 nuclear loci from 216 individuals of the two species. Both species showed a low level of genetic diversity in contrast to other congeners occurring in the QTP and adjacent regions. The estimated population sizes of P. asperata and P. crassifolia are less than the ancestral population size before splitting. These results together with multiple statistical tests (Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F*) suggest that these two species underwent recent bottlenecks. Based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), we also determined that the period of the population shrinkage was consistent with the interspecific divergence during the late Pleistocene. The reduced population sizes and the divergent selection may together have triggered the initial divergence under high gene flow between these two species. Our results therefore highlight the importance of climatic oscillations during the late Pleistocene in promoting speciation through changing demographic sizes of the ancestral species on the QTP and in adjacent regions.

  19. Shoot-tip cryopreservation by droplet vitrification of Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss.: a woody tropical and medicinal plant species from Brazilian cerrado.

    PubMed

    Silva, L C; Paiva, R; Swennen, R; Andre, E; Panis, B

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of plant species is poorly investigated in Brazil. The aim of this study was to cryopreserve Byrsonima intermedia shoot apical meristems through droplet vitrification. A culture medium for shoot-tips growth was established using the Woody Plant Medium supplemented with 2.22 uM 6-benzylaminopurine. Excised shoot-tips were subjected to pre-culture and/or post-culture treatments on Murashige and Skoog medium with 0.3 M sucrose for 24 h prior dehydration on PVS2 at 0°C for 15, 30 or 45 minutes prior to plunging in liquid nitrogen. The effect of 15 days of shoot pre-growth on a high osmotic medium (0.3 M sucrose or 0.21 M sorbitol + 0.09 M sucrose) prior to meristem excision and cryopreservation was also investigated. Pre-culturing shoot-tips on 0.3 M sucrose for 24 h prior to cryopreservation increased the regrowth level after thawing to 90%. Shoot-tips excised from shoots pre-grown on MS + 0.21 M sorbitol + 0.09 M sucrose for 15 days presented a satisfactory regrowth level (67%).

  20. Rapid profiling of phenolic compounds of green and fermented Bergenia crassifolia L. leaves by UPLC-DAD-QqQ-MS and HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Shikov, Alexander N; Karonen, Maarit; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Kim, Jorma; Makarov, Valery G; Hiltunen, Raimo; Galambosi, Bertalan

    2014-01-01

    Bergenia crassifolia L., Saxifragaceae, is an evergreen perennial plant known in traditional medicine of Russia, Mongolia and China. Polyphenols are responsible for the number of pharmacological effects of Bergenia. UPLC-DAD-QqQ-MS and LC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS were used for the rapid profiling of phenolic compounds, mainly hydrolysable tannins. Green leaves consisted of 55% ellagitannins, 29% gallic acid derivatives and 11% flavonoids, with the remaining gallic acid, arbutin, bergenin and caffeoyl quinic acid. In fermented leaves, 31% of gallic acid was found, followed with 28% ellagitannins, 18% gallic acid derivatives and 18% flavonoids, with the remaining caffeoyl quinic acid, bergenin and arbutin. Tellimagrandin I, pedunculagin, caffeoyl quinic acid, monogalloyl quinic acid, 1-O-galloylglucose and 1,2,6-tri-O-galloylglucose were identified for the very first time.

  1. 17β-Hydroxy-18-acetoxywithanolides from Aeroponically Grown Physalis crassifolia and Their Potent and Selective Cytotoxicity for Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ya-ming; Bunting, Daniel P; Liu, Manping X; Bandaranayake, Hema A; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2016-04-22

    When cultivated under aeroponic growth conditions, Physalis crassifolia produced 11 new withanolides (1-11) and seven known withanolides (12-18) including those obtained from the wild-crafted plant. The structures of the new withanolides were elucidated by the application of spectroscopic techniques, and the known withanolides were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported. Withanolides 1-11 and 16 were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity using five tumor cell lines. Of these, the 17β-hydroxy-18-acetoxywithanolides 1, 2, 6, 7, and 16 showed potent antiproliferative activity, with some having selectivity for prostate adenocarcinoma (LNCaP and PC-3M) compared to the breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), non-small-cell lung cancer (NCI-H460), and CNS glioma (SF-268) cell lines used. The cytotoxicity data obtained for 12-15, 17, and 19 have provided additional structure-activity relationship information for the 17β-hydroxy-18-acetoxywithanolides.

  2. Leishmanicidal evaluation of extracts from native plants of the Yucatan peninsula.

    PubMed

    Peraza-Sánchez, S R; Cen-Pacheco, F; Noh-Chimal, A; May-Pat, F; Simá-Polanco, P; Dumonteil, E; García-Miss, M R; Mut-Martín, M

    2007-06-01

    Methanol extracts were prepared from different parts of 18 plants collected in the Yucatan peninsula and evaluated in an in vitro bioassay for leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. The ten most potent plant extracts (IC(50)<50 microg/ml) were Aphelandra scabra leaves, Byrsonima bucidaefolia bark, Byrsonima crassifolia bark, Clusia flava leaves, Cupania dentata bark, Diphysa carthagenensis leaves, Dorstenia contrajerva whole plant, Milleria quinqueflora roots, Tridax procumbens whole plant, and Vitex gaumeri bark.

  3. FcWRKY70, a WRKY protein of Fortunella crassifolia, functions in drought tolerance and modulates putrescine synthesis by regulating arginine decarboxylase gene.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jingyan; Hu, Jianbing; Wang, Wei; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Qinghua; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-11-01

    WRKY comprises a large family of transcription factors in plants, but most WRKY members are still poorly understood. In this study, we report functional characterization of a Group III WRKY gene (FcWRKY70) from Fortunella crassifolia. FcWRKY70 was greatly induced by drought and abscisic acid, but slightly or negligibly by salt and cold. Overexpression of FcWRKY70 in tobacco (Nicotiana nudicaulis) and lemon (Citrus lemon) conferred enhanced tolerance to dehydration and drought stresses. Transgenic tobacco and lemon exhibited higher expression levels of ADC (arginine decarboxylase), and accumulated larger amount of putrescine in comparison with wild type (WT). Treatment with D-arginine, an inhibitor of ADC, caused transgenic tobacco plants more sensitive to dehydration. Knock-down of FcWRKY70 in kumquat down-regulated ADC abundance and decreased putrescine level, accompanied by compromised dehydration tolerance. The promoter region of FcADC contained two W-box elements, which were shown to be interacted with FcWRKY70. Taken together, our data demonstrated that FcWRKY70 functions in drought tolerance by, at least partly, promoting production of putrescine via regulating ADC expression.

  4. A Picea crassifolia Tree-Ring Width-Based Temperature Reconstruction for the Mt. Dongda Region, Northwest China, and Its Relationship to Large-Scale Climate Forcing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Sun, Changfeng; Li, Qiang; Cai, Qiufang

    2016-01-01

    The historical May-October mean temperature since 1831 was reconstructed based on tree-ring width of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) collected on Mt. Dongda, North of the Hexi Corridor in Northwest China. The regression model explained 46.6% of the variance of the instrumentally observed temperature. The cold periods in the reconstruction were 1831-1889, 1894-1901, 1908-1934 and 1950-1952, and the warm periods were 1890-1893, 1902-1907, 1935-1949 and 1953-2011. During the instrumental period (1951-2011), an obvious warming trend appeared in the last twenty years. The reconstruction displayed similar patterns to a temperature reconstruction from the east-central Tibetan Plateau at the inter-decadal timescale, indicating that the temperature reconstruction in this study was a reliable proxy for Northwest China. It was also found that the reconstruction series had good consistency with the Northern Hemisphere temperature at a decadal timescale. Multi-taper method spectral analysis detected some low- and high-frequency cycles (2.3-2.4-year, 2.8-year, 3.4-3.6-year, 5.0-year, 9.9-year and 27.0-year). Combining these cycles, the relationship of the low-frequency change with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Southern Oscillation (SO) suggested that the reconstructed temperature variations may be related to large-scale atmospheric-oceanic variations. Major volcanic eruptions were partly reflected in the reconstructed temperatures after high-pass filtering; these events promoted anomalous cooling in this region. The results of this study not only provide new information for assessing the long-term temperature changes in the Hexi Corridor of Northwest China, but also further demonstrate the effects of large-scale atmospheric-oceanic circulation on climate change in Northwest China.

  5. A Picea crassifolia Tree-Ring Width-Based Temperature Reconstruction for the Mt. Dongda Region, Northwest China, and Its Relationship to Large-Scale Climate Forcing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Sun, Changfeng; Li, Qiang; Cai, Qiufang

    2016-01-01

    The historical May–October mean temperature since 1831 was reconstructed based on tree-ring width of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) collected on Mt. Dongda, North of the Hexi Corridor in Northwest China. The regression model explained 46.6% of the variance of the instrumentally observed temperature. The cold periods in the reconstruction were 1831–1889, 1894–1901, 1908–1934 and 1950–1952, and the warm periods were 1890–1893, 1902–1907, 1935–1949 and 1953–2011. During the instrumental period (1951–2011), an obvious warming trend appeared in the last twenty years. The reconstruction displayed similar patterns to a temperature reconstruction from the east-central Tibetan Plateau at the inter-decadal timescale, indicating that the temperature reconstruction in this study was a reliable proxy for Northwest China. It was also found that the reconstruction series had good consistency with the Northern Hemisphere temperature at a decadal timescale. Multi-taper method spectral analysis detected some low- and high-frequency cycles (2.3–2.4-year, 2.8-year, 3.4–3.6-year, 5.0-year, 9.9-year and 27.0-year). Combining these cycles, the relationship of the low-frequency change with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Southern Oscillation (SO) suggested that the reconstructed temperature variations may be related to large-scale atmospheric-oceanic variations. Major volcanic eruptions were partly reflected in the reconstructed temperatures after high-pass filtering; these events promoted anomalous cooling in this region. The results of this study not only provide new information for assessing the long-term temperature changes in the Hexi Corridor of Northwest China, but also further demonstrate the effects of large-scale atmospheric-oceanic circulation on climate change in Northwest China. PMID:27509206

  6. Characterization of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in green and fermented leaves of Bergenia crassifolia L. by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ID-CUBE direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chernetsova, Elena S; Shikov, Alexander N; Crawford, Elizabeth A; Grashorn, Sebastian; Laakso, I; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Hiltunen, Raimo; Galambosi, Bertalan; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2014-01-01

    Chemical compositions of volatile and semi-volatile components in green and fermented leaves of Bergenia crassifolia L. were studied. Leaf components were identified using gas chromatography with low resolution mass spectrometry and direct analysis in real time (DART) high resolution mass spectrometry with an ID-CUBE ion source. Phytol, nerolidol, geraniol, linalool, alpha-bisabolol, alpha-bisabololoxide B, alpha-cadinol, delta-cadinene, alpha-terpineol and several other marker compounds of special interest were defined, for which the process of fermentation significantly changed their content in the leaves. Low resolution El GC-MS and ID-CUBE DART-HRMS were found to be complementary methods, as they provide different information, helpful to increase the confidence of identification.

  7. ID-CUBE direct analysis in real time high-resolution mass spectrometry and its capabilities in the identification of phenolic components from the green leaves of Bergenia crassifolia L.

    PubMed

    Chernetsova, Elena S; Crawford, Elizabeth A; Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2012-06-15

    Bergenia crassifolia is a plant widely used in herbal medicine. Its chemical composition has been little studied, and no studies using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) have been performed. Its phenolic components are of particular interest, due to the interest in such compounds in medicine and cosmetics. The ID-CUBE, a simplified Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ion source, suitable for the fast MS analysis of liquids without complex sample preparation, offers a new method of studying extracts of such plant. Coupling the ID-CUBE with a high-resolution mass spectrometer can provide identification of extract components. Mass spectral conditions were optimized for model solutions of the flavonoid naringenin and used for the identification of phenolic compounds in green leaves extracts of Bergenia crassifolia. OpenSpot sample cards with a metal grid surface were used for sample introduction into the ID-CUBE ion source on an Obitrap mass spectrometer. The samples were applied as 5-μL aliquots of the extract onto the metal grid of the card. Sample ionization was stimulated in the ion source within 20 s by applying an electric current to the metal grid to thermally desorb the analytes into the gas flow of metastable helium atoms from the ID-CUBE. Elemental compositions were assigned to abundant ions in the mass spectra of the extracts. The major phenolic components were confirmed by their [M-H](-) ions. Thirty-six other marker ions were found, and elemental compositions were suggested for 30% of them, based on a search for compounds found in herbal extracts. The ID-CUBE-Orbitrap MS coupling allowed the rapid accurate mass determination of the phenolic components (and other compounds) in herbal extracts. Higher confidence in component identification could be provided by using additional structural elucidation methods, including tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and this will be the focus of future studies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of the butanolic fraction of Byrsonima verbascifolia leaves: Mechanisms involving inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha, prostaglandin E(2) production and migration of polymorphonuclear leucocyte in vivo experimentation.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Aline Aparecida; de Siqueira, João Máximo; Castro, Ana Hortência Fonsêca; de Azambuja Ribeiro, Rosy Iara Maciel; de Oliveira, Flávio Martins; de Oliveira Lopes, Débora; Pinto, Flávia Carmo Horta; Silva, Denise Brentan; Soares, Adriana Cristina

    2016-02-01

    The leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia (Malpighiaceae) are traditionally used to treat various diseases including inflammatory conditions. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the polar constituents from the butanolic fraction of B. verbascifolia leaves (BvBF), as well as to investigate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory activity. The polar constituents were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry (LC-DAD–MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to obtain a complete chemical profile of the fraction. Forty-five compounds were detected in the BvBF by LC-DAD–MS/MS, including condensed tannins, phenolic acids, flavonoids (flavones and flavonols) and other compounds. In addition, several condensed tannins were identified by MALDI-MS/MS, which are composed predominantly by procyanidin units (PCY) and up to six flavan-3-ol units. The BvBF exhibited significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The BvBF inhibited paw edema and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte migration to the footpad and pleural cavity induced by carrageenan. Furthermore, a minor dose (12.50 mg/kg) of BvBF effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the footpad. These findings suggest that the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action in the BvBF is linked to the inhibition of the production of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and PGE2 and the PMN cell migration.

  9. Ulmus crassifolia Nutt. Cedar Elm

    Treesearch

    John J. Stransky; Sylvia M. Bierschenk

    1990-01-01

    Cedar elm (Ulmus cassifolia) grows rapidly to medium or large size in the Southern United States and northeastern Mexico, where it may sometimes be called basket elm, red elm, southern rock elm, or olmo (Spanish) It usually is found on moist, limestone soils along water courses with other bottomland trees, but it also paws on dry limestone hills. The...

  10. [Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch in vitro].

    PubMed

    Dusková, J; Dusek, J; Jahodár, L

    2001-03-01

    Sterile germinating plants were used to derive a tissue culture. The greatest stimulating effect on the growth of the culture was exerted by NAA cultures in all concentrations tested, by IAA in concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 mg.l-1, by IBA in a concentration of 0.1 mg.l-1, and by the combination of IBA + K. The difference between the values of growth on these media was statistically insignificant. TLC analysis of callus extracts demonstrated the presence of bergenin, arbutin, hydroquinone, and methylarbutine. HPLC analysis confirmed the findings (arbutin 0.25%, hydroquinone 0.05%, methylarbutin 0.28%). The results of biotransformation tests show that the highest increase in arbutin took place after addition of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and withdrawal of the sample after 24 hours (3.82%). No transformation of arbutin or 4-methoxyphenol to produce methylarbutin took place in the culture under the given conditions. The highest increase in the summary content of phenolic substances occurred with the use of the elicitor Pseudomonas aeruginosa--88% (conc. 0.0001 g/100 ml, 12-hour action).

  11. [Phytogeography of dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas Ulate, G

    2001-03-01

    The dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, northwest Costa Rica is mapped. Plant community distribution is intimately related to the type of relief, soils and humidity. In the upper parts of the meseta, characterised by soils which are stony, sandy, and acidic, herbacious vegetation such as savanna and edaphic steppe is dominant. By contrast, woodland is found on the deep and organically rich soils of the valley floors. Within the herbaceous formations dwarf varieties of Byrsonima crassifolia (nance), Curatella americana (raspa guacal) and Quercus oleoides (encino) are found because of the acid and infertile soils.

  12. Two-step cleanup procedure for the identification of carotenoid esters by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniele Bobrowski; Mariutti, Lilian Regina Barros; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti

    2016-07-29

    Carotenoids are naturally found in both free form and esterified with fatty acids in most fruits; however, up to now the great majority of studies only evaluated their composition after saponification. This fact is easily explained by the difficult to analyze carotenoid esters. Preliminary studies showed that cleanup procedures in the extract are necessary for further analysis by LC-MS/MS since triacylglycerols (TAGs) impair the MS detection. Considering these facts, we developed a new cleanup procedure to remove TAGs and other lipids from carotenoid fruit extracts. This procedure is based on physical removal of solid lipids at low temperature followed by open column chromatography on MgO and diatomaceous earth. Before cleanup, four carotenoid diesters and two free xanthophylls were identified in murici (Byrsonyma crassifolia), corresponding to about 65% of the total chromatogram area. After carrying out the two-step cleanup procedure, 35 carotenoids were identified, being 14 monoesters, six free carotenoids and 15 carotenoid diesters. We can conclude that this two-step procedure was successfully applied to murici, an Amazonian fruit, which contains high amounts of lipids.

  13. Yeasts from native Brazilian Cerrado plants: Occurrence, diversity and use in the biocontrol of citrus green mould.

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Eugenio Miranda; do Vale, Helson Mario Martins; Moreira, Geisianny Augusta Monteiro

    2015-11-01

    Yeasts are some of the most important postharvest biocontrol agents. Postharvest oranges frequently deteriorate due to green mould (Penicillium digitatum), which causes significant losses. The aims of this study were to determine the composition and diversity of yeasts on plants of the Brazilian Cerrado and to explore their potential for inhibiting citrus green mould. Leaves and fruit of Byrsonima crassifolia and Eugenia dysenterica were collected from Cerrado conservation areas, and thirty-five yeasts were isolated and identified by sequencing the D1-D2 domain of the rDNA large subunit (26S). The isolates represented the Aureobasidium, Meyerozyma, Candida, and Pichia genera. Three isolates identified as Aureobasidium pullulans exhibited potential for the control of P. digitatum in both in vitro and in vivo tests; these isolates reduced the incidence of disease and increased the storage time of fruit. Aureobasidium. pullulans has immense potential for the biological control of filamentous fungi.

  14. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity.

  15. Ethnobotany and natural products: the search for new molecules, new treatments of old diseases or a better understanding of indigenous cultures?

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Results of various projects on Mexican Indian ethnobotany and some of the subsequent pharmacological and phytochemical studies are summarised focusing both on chemical-pharmacological as well as anthropological (ethnopharmacological) aspects of our research. We have identified taste and smell properties of medicinal (vs. non-medicinal) plants as important indigenous selection criteria. There exist well-defined criteria specific for each culture, which lead to the selection of a plant as a medicine. This field research has also formed a basis for studies on bioactive natural products from selected species. The bark of Guazuma ulmifolia showed antisecretory activity (cholera toxin-induced chloride secretion in rabbit distal colon in an USSING chamber). Active constituents are procyanidins with a polymerisation degree of eight or higher. Byrsonima crassifolia yielded proanthocyanidins with (+) epicatechin units and Baccharis conferta showed a dose-dependent antispasmodic effect with the effect being particularly strong in flavonoid-rich fractions. Our ethnopharmacological research led to the identification of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) like parthenolide as potent and relatively specific inhibitors of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, an important mediator of the inflammatory process. The inhibitory effect of SLs is very strongly enhanced by the presence of such groups as the isoprenoid ring system, a lactone ring containing a conjugated exomethylene group (alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone) and an alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclopentenone or a conjugated ester moieties. Our work also elucidated the NF-kappaB inhibiting activity of the photosensitiser phaeophorbide A from Solanum diflorum (Solanaceae) in PMA induced HeLa cells. Hyptis verticillata yielded a series of lignans as well as sideritoflavone, rosmarinic acid and (R)-5-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one and is rich in essential oil (rich in alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and thymol). Other species investigated include Begonia

  16. An in vitro digestion method adapted for carotenoids and carotenoid esters: moving forward towards standardization.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniele Bobrowski; Mariutti, Lilian Regina Barros; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti

    2016-12-07

    In vitro digestion methods are a useful approach to predict the bioaccessibility of food components and overcome some limitations or disadvantages associated with in vivo methodologies. Recently, the INFOGEST network published a static method of in vitro digestion with a proposal for assay standardization. The INFOGEST method is not specific for any food component; therefore, we aimed to adapt this method to assess the in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in a model fruit (Byrsonima crassifolia). Two additional steps were coupled to the in vitro digestion procedure, centrifugation at 20 000g for the separation of the aqueous phase containing mixed micelles and exhaustive carotenoid extraction with an organic solvent. The effect of electrolytes, enzymes and bile acids on carotenoid micellarization and stability was also tested. The results were compared with those found with a simpler method that has already been used for carotenoid bioaccessibility analysis. These values were in the expected range for free carotenoids (5-29%), monoesters (9-26%) and diesters (4-28%). In general, the in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids assessed by the adapted INFOGEST method was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those assessed by the simplest protocol, with or without the addition of simulated fluids. Although no trend was observed, differences in bioaccessibility values depended on the carotenoid form (free, monoester or diester), isomerization (Z/E) and the in vitro digestion protocol. To the best of our knowledge, it was the first time that a systematic identification of carotenoid esters by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS after in vitro digestion using the INFOGEST protocol was carried out.

  17. [Microbiological quality of street sold fruits in San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Monge, R; Arias, M L; Antillón, F; Utzinger, D

    1995-06-01

    The sanitary quality of street sold fruits was analyzed during the period from march 1990 thru march 1993 in San Jose, Costa Rica. It looked for the presence of Salmonella spp. Shigella spp., Escherichia coli as well as fecal coliforms in natural refreshments, fruit salads and the fruits most frecuently expended on streets, either in slices as the pineapple (Ananas comosus), papaya (Carica papaya), non-ripe mangoe (Mangifera indica) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) and those that can be eaten without peeling, like nances (Byrsonima crassifolia) and jocotes (Spondias purpurea). 25 samples of each fruit, 50 natural refreshments and 50 fruit salads were processed according to rinse solution method, and the bacteriological determination was based in the methodology described by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. In the same way, it was used the Most Probable Number for 5 tubes described in the Standar Methods of Water and Wastewater in orden to analyze 15 samples of ready to use water by the fruit hawker. The nutritional value was studied according to the food composition tables for Costa Rica, Latin America and USA. The results show that more than 30% of fruit samples, 70% of natural refreshments and 96% of fruit salad presented fecal coliforms. Same time, all of them present important contamination indexes with E. coli. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were not isolated. The water analysis revelead that 53% contained fecal coliforms, probably due to the lack of hygiene in the utensils used to collect water. The nutritional evaluation shows that fruit portions (except watermelon) satisfy more than 100% of the diary recommendation of vitamin C (60 mg) and 4-7% of the recommended ingestion of dietetic fiber (30g).

  18. Effect of increasing levels of seven tree species extracts added to a high concentrate diet on in vitro rumen gas output.

    PubMed

    Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Kholif, Ahmed E; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Hernandez, Saul R; Domínguez-Vara, Ignacio A; Mellado, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of increasing levels of extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia, Celtis pallida, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Fraxinus excelsior, Ficus trigonata, Phoradendrom brevifolium and Prunus domestica on in vitro gas production (GP) and ruminal fermentation of a high concentrate diet. Plant extracts were prepared at 1 g dry matter (DM)/8 mL of solvent mixture (methanol : ethanol : water, 1:1:8) and added at levels of 0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mL/g DM of a high concentrate diet. In vitro GP was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. Increasing addition of extracts linearly increased (P < 0.001), the GP24 , GP48 and GP72 (mL/g DM), and linearly decreased (P < 0.001), the discrete GP lag time. Moreover, increasing extract doses linearly increased (P < 0.001) the asymptotic GP and decreased (P < 0.001) the rate of GP. GP6 was not impacted by treatments and GP12 increased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing addition of extracts. Rumen pH declined linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing doses of extracts added. As no interactions (P > 0.05) occurred between the extracts and doses, it could be conclude that all extracts positively modified rumen fermentation at doses of 1.2 to 1.8 mL extract/g diet DM. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. White Light Sagnac Interferometer for Snapshot Multispectral Imaging (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    an Acacia crassifolia, were measured with the MSI and the U2S. These samples enabled the characteristic reflectance features of chlorophyll, which... Acacia crassifolia per Fig. 13. Ultimately, the system can be designed to incorporate the appropriate bands to perform an NDVI measurement analogous...0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Wavelength (nm) R el at iv e R ef le ct an ce Relative Reflectance vs. Wavelength ( Acacia crassifolia) Healthy

  20. Is the "Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco" a biodiversity hotspot for orchid bees?

    PubMed

    Nemésio, A; Santos Junior, J E

    2014-08-01

    The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina) of the three largest forest remnants in the "Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco", northeastern Brazil, namely Estação Ecológica de Murici (ESEC Murici), RPPN Frei Caneca, and a forest preserve belonging to Usina Serra Grande, in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco, were surveyed using seventeen different scents as baits to attract orchid-bee males. Eight sites were established in the three preserves, where samplings were carried out using two protocols: insect netting and bait trapping. We collected 3,479 orchid-bee males belonging to 29 species during 160 hours in early October, 2012. Seven species were collected in the "Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco" for the first time. Richness proved to be one of the highest of the entire Atlantic Forest domain, and diversity in some sites, especially at ESEC Murici, revealed to be one of the highest in the Neotropics. Eulaema felipei Nemésio, 2010, a species previously recorded only at ESEC Murici, was found in no other preserve in the region and its conservation status is discussed.

  1. [Fine root biomass of four main vegetation types in Daluo Mountain of Ningxia, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Su, Ji-Shuai; Cheng, Ji-Min; Gao, Yang; Qiu, Zhi-Hu; Cao, Huai-qing

    2013-03-01

    By the method of soil core sampling, this paper studied the fine root biomass, soil water content, and soil bulk density in 0-40 cm soil layer of four main vegetation types (Picea crassifolia forest, Pinus tabulaeformis forest, deciduous shrubs, and desert grassland) in Daluo Mountain of Ningxia, and the fine root biomass in the 0-40 cm soil layer of P. crassifolia forests with the ages of 50-, 70-, and 100 a. The fine root biomass of the four vegetation types was mainly distributed in 0-20 cm soil layer, with the rank of P. tabulaeformis forest > P. crassifolia forest > deciduous shrubs > desert grassland, and the fine root biomass of P. tabulaeformis forest was significantly higher than that of the other three vegetation types. The fine root biomass of the P. crassifolia forests with different ages was 70 a > 100 a > 50 a, and there were no significant differences in the live fine root biomass ratio and dead fine root biomass ratio among the three P. crassifolia forests. The soil water content in the 0-40 cm soil layer of the four vegetation types was P. crassifolia forest > P. tabulaeformis forest > deciduous shrubs > desert grassland, while the soil bulk density followed an opposite pattern, and was significantly negatively correlated with the fine root biomass.

  2. Elm yellows: a widespread and overlooked killer of elm trees across the United States

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Flower; Nancy Hayes-Plazolles; Christina Rosa; James M. Slavicek

    2017-01-01

    The elm yellows phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi) is a geographically widespread pathogen that poses a significant threat to most native wild elms in North America (Ulmus americana, U. rubra, U. alata, U. crassifolia, and U. serotina) (Mäurer et al. 1993), as well as to the success of American elm...

  3. First discovery of Quercus-feeding Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) in South America, with description of new species and designation of the S. nigriverticella complex in the S. saginella group.

    PubMed

    Remeikis, Andrius; Stonis, Jonas R

    2015-12-11

    We describe three new species: Stigmella crassifoliae Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (a leaf-miner on Quercus crassifolia and Q. crispipilis from the highlands of Guatemala), S. robleae Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. humboldti Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (leaf-miners on Quercus humboldtii from the Colombian Andes). No Quercus-feeding Nepticulidae species were previously known from South America. All new species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, cocoons, adults, and genitalia. In the S. saginella species group, for the species possessing in male genitalia M-shaped gnathos with caudal processes closely juxtaposed and phallus without cornuti, a new species complex (the S. nigriverticella complex) is defined. We also provide a pictorial key to the species of the new complex.

  4. Post-harvest nutraceutical behaviour during ripening and senescence of 8 highly perishable fruit species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Neves, Leandro Camargo; Tosin, Jéssica Milanez; Benedette, Ronaldo Moreno; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The post-harvest nutraceutical characteristics of highly perishable native fruits species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region were studied during 12 day at 15 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 3% RH. Uxi and caja fruit showed climacteric behaviour while caju, açai de terra firme, camu-camu, inajá, murici and araçá-boi were non-climacteric. Soluble solids and sugars increased for climacteric fruit while total acidity remained constant for all fruits. In general, all fruit species had high levels of total phenolics (121-9889 mg GAE 100 g(-1) dry weight pulp), vitamin C (31-1532 mg AA 100 mL(-1) juice) and antioxidant activity (AOX) (75-288 1 μmol Trolox Eq 100 g(-1) dry weight, ORAC value), however, camu-camu, acai and murici were among the highest. All fruits showed an increase in phenolic content (15-82%), a simultaneous decrease in ascorbic acid in both peel (88-98%) and pulp (89-97%), while AOX increased or decreased depending on the fruit species, very likely due to the specific phenolic profile being synthesized. We propose a hypothetical model where ripening/senescence induced a redox homeostasis imbalance which in turn triggered the responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Application of chemiluminescent methods for analysis of the antioxidant activity of herbal extracts].

    PubMed

    Ryzhikov, M A; Ryzhikova, V O

    2006-01-01

    With help methods chemiluminecent make analysis of the antioxidant activity a series herbal extracts. The herbal e[tractions with distinct antioxidant activity were selected: Origanum vulgare ((L.), Filipendula ulmaria Maxim (L.), Thimus serpyllum (l.), Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.), Ledum palustre (L.), Viburnum opulus, Salix pentandra (L.), Vaccinium myrtillus (L.), Flnus incana (L.0, Bergenia crassifolia (l.). Antioxidant properties of this medicine plants may be used for prophylaxis and medical treatment of freeradical pathologic conditions.

  6. A new species of Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) Burton, 1934 (Porifera: Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida) from deeper waters off the Atlantic coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Thaynã; Santos, George Garcia; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-11-18

    The members of Lissodendoryx Topsent, 1892a are recognized by a spicule combination of ectosomal tylotes or strongyles, isodictyal reticulate architecture, arcuate isochelae and sigmas (Hofman & Van Soest 1995; Van Soest 2002). Five subgenera of Lissodendoryx, are recognized (Van Soest 2002): Lissodendoryx (Acanthodoryx) Lévi, 1961, L. (Anomodoryx) Burton, 1934, L. (Ectyodoryx) Lundbeck, 1909, L. (Lissodendoryx) Topsent, 1892a, and L. (Waldoschmittia) de Laubenfels, 1936. Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) is defined by the presence of a single megasclere type (Van Soest 2002). Currently has six recognized species (Van Soest et al. 2014) including two from Brazil (Muricy et al. 2011): L. (A.) recife (Boury-Esnault, 1973) and L. (A.) tylota (Boury-Esnault, 1973). In this paper, a new species of L. (Anomodoryx) is described from the mesophotic zone off Bacia Potiguar (Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil). The specimen was preserved in ethanol 80% and deposited in the Porifera Collection of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPEPOR).

  7. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-08-19

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  8. Annona species (Annonaceae): a rich source of potential antitumor agents?

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Xiao, Jianbo; Loizzo, Monica R

    2017-06-01

    Plants have provided the basis of traditional medicine systems throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to yield molecules for new remedies. We analyzed studies published from 2009 to 2016 on the Annona species (Annonaceae), including A. coriacea, A. crassifolia, A. hypoglauca, A. muricata, A. squamosa, A. sylvatica, and A. vepretorum, as sources of potential antitumor agents. Here, we report and discuss the mechanisms of action and structure-activity relationships of the most active Annona constituents. Annonaceous acetogenins are one of the most promising classes of natural products, owing to their potential antitumor activity. However, their neurotoxicity should not be underestimated. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Environmental Assessment: Disposal and Reuse of NAS Dallas Family Housing in Duncanville, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Carya illinoensis ), cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), willows (Salix spp.), Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and American elm {Ulmus americand). A...protection as a result of the proposed action. The proposed action would be a positive impact to the City’s parklands. No impact on cultural resources...Utilities 3-9 3.3.9 Transportation 3-10 Vll 3.3.10 Education 3.3.11 Government 3.3.12 Police and Fire Protection 3.3.13 Recreation 3.4 Cultural

  10. [Vertical distribution patterns of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen and related affecting factors along northern slope of Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Nian-lai

    2009-03-01

    With the shady and sunny northern slopes of Qilian Mountains along an altitude gradient from 2600 m to 3600 m as test objectives, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of surface soil (0-20 cm) organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and their relations to the altitude, landform, and vegetation. The results indicated that SOC and TN contents were significantly higher on shady than on sunny slope, and all increased with increasing altitude. The SOC and TN contents under different vegetation types were in the order of alpine bush > Picea crassifolia forest > alpine meadow > Sabina przewalskii forest, and alpine bush > alpine meadow > P. crassifolia forest > S. przewalskii forest, respectively. SOC had significant positive correlations with altitude, annual precipitation, soil moisture, and soil TN, and significant negative correlations with soil pH and annual temperature. Soil C/N ratio along the gradient was within the range of 6.7-23.3, being favorable to the nutrient release during organic matter decomposition. Among the factors affecting SOC, the annual temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture content constituted the first principal component, and soil C/N ratio constituted the second principal component. These two principal components accounted for 71% of the variance of SOC content, suggesting that climate factors controlled the vertical distribution patterns of SOC and TN along the altitude gradient.

  11. Plants as Bio-monitor Agents: Foliar Deposition of Be-7, Pb-210, K-40 and Cs-137

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, Antonio Carlos de; Brito, Lavinia C.; Tanizaki, Kenny F.; Lima, Rafaela; Paschoa, Anselmo S.; Franco, Marcia

    2008-08-07

    Leaves of Eremanthus crotonoides, Allagoptera arenaria, Byrsonima sericea, Tibouchina sp, Tocoyena bullata and Clusia hilariana were collected under the same climatic in an area of restinga in the Northeast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activity concentrations of selected radionuclides in the leaves samples were determined. The results obtained have shown a high concentration of {sup 7}Be and {sup 40}K in E. crotonoides, {sup 210}Pb in T. bullata and {sup 137}Cs in Tibouchina sp. The high activity concentration of {sup 7}Be in E. crotonoides can be explained by the presence of trichomes in the leaves. E. crotonoides and T. bullata reveal high foliar deposition of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, respectively, thus these species can be used as bio-monitors to evaluate the concentration and dispersion of radionuclides in environmental studies.

  12. [Effect of natural nootropic and adaptogen preparations on the cortex bioelectrical activity in rats].

    PubMed

    Suslov, N I; Churin, A A; Skurikhin, E G; Provalova, N V; Stal'bovskiĭ, A O; Litvinenko, V I; Dygaĭ, A M

    2002-01-01

    The influence of new nootrope and adaptogen preparations representing dry extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis (Georgi), Bergenia crassifolia (Fritsch), and velvet antlers of Siberian deer (Cervus elaphus sibiricus) on the bioelectric activity (cortex Fourier spectral EEG power) under conflict situation and conditioned reflex development was studied in rats. In both tests, the drugs produced similar changes in the EEG activity: (i) increase in the partial contribution of delta-activity and general spectral power, (ii) depression in the alpha and beta 1-rhythm power, (iii) depression of theta-activity in some cases. The EEG activity changes depended on the initial state and were closely connected with the behavior of the test animals. The drug administration led to normalization of the alpha and beta 1 activity correlated with the improved behavioral characteristics. At the same time, the delta activity was virtually not affected and lost the correlation with behavior.

  13. Multiple species of ectomycorrhizal fungi are frequently detected on individual oak root tips in a tropical cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa H; Pérez-Pérez, Miguel A; Smith, Matthew E; Bledsoe, Caroline S

    2008-10-01

    The ecological importance of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in tropical ecosystems is increasingly recognized, but few studies have used molecular methods to examine EM fungal communities in tropical forests. The diversity and composition of the EM community on Quercus crassifolia in a tropical montane cloud forest in southern Mexico were characterized using DNA sequencing of single root tips. Individual root tips commonly harbored multiple fungal species that resulted in mixed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. By cloning and performing gel extractions on mixed PCR samples, we identified two or more EM fungi on 26% of the root tips. When non-EM fungi were considered, this figure increased to 31% of root tips. A total of 44 EM taxa and nine non-EM taxa were detected on roots from 21 soil cores (104 root tips). Taxa in the families Russulaceae, Cortinariaceae, Inocybaceae, and Thelephoraceae were frequent. This is the first study to characterize the belowground EM community in a tropical montane cloud forest.

  14. Minerals, phytic acid and tannin contents of 18 fruits from the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Marin, Alinne M F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the nutritious potential of 18 fruits, all native of the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Mineral contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission; phytic acid and tannin contents by a colorimetric and titrimetric method, respectively; and the potential mineral bioavailability by the molar ratio of phytic acid/mineral. Baru nut showed the highest zinc, copper, iron, phosphorus and magnesium content, and, together with macaúba, showed also the highest calcium content and caloric value. Macaúba, pitomba, ingá and murici fruits were classified as a source of iron. The jatoba and baru nut had the highest concentration of phytic acid and tannins. The [phytic acid]/[iron] and [phytic acid]/[zinc] molar ratios were higher than the critical values (14 and 10, respectively) only in the baru nuts, which suggests that iron and zinc bioavailability is low in this nut. The [phytic acid]/[calcium] molar ratios were lower than the critical value (1.56) in all analyzed fruits, which suggests that calcium is bioavailable in the fruits.

  15. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K+/Na+ ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na+, Cl−, K+ and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However—except for P. crassifolia—proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its ‘osmoprotectant’ functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  16. Naming Potentially Endangered Parasites: Foliicolous Mycobiota of Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Highly Threatened Brazilian Tree Species.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Meiriele; Pinho, Danilo B; Pereira, Olinto L; Fernandes, Fernando M; Barreto, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    A survey of foliicolous fungi associated with Dimorphandra wilsonii and Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae) was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Dimorphandra wilsonii is a tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado that is listed as critically endangered. Fungi strictly depending on this plant species may be on the verge of co-extinction. Here, results of the pioneering description of this mycobiota are provided to contribute to the neglected field of microfungi conservation. The mycobiota of D. mollis, which is a common species with a broad geographical distribution that co-occurs with D. wilsonii, was examined simultaneously to exclude fungal species occurring on both species from further consideration for conservation because microfungi associated with D. wilsonii should not be regarded as under threat of co-extinction. Fourteen ascomycete fungal species were collected, identified, described and illustrated namely: Byssogene wilsoniae sp. nov., Geastrumia polystigmatis, Janetia dimorphandra-mollis sp. nov., Janetia wilsoniae sp. nov., Johansonia chapadiensis, Microcalliopsis dipterygis, Phillipsiella atra, Piricauda paraguayensis, Pseudocercospora dimorphandrae sp. nov., Pseudocercosporella dimorphandrae sp. nov., Ramichloridiopsis wilsoniae sp. and gen. nov., Stomiopeltis suttoniae, Trichomatomyces byrsonimae and Vesiculohyphomyces cerradensis. Three fungi were exclusively found on D. wilsonii and were regarded as potentially threatened of extinction: B. wilsoniae, J. wilsoniae and R. wilsoniae.

  17. Antiviral and antimicrobial activities of Colombian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Lopez, A; Hudson, J B; Towers, G H

    2001-10-01

    Strong antiviral and antimicrobial activities were detected in methanolic extracts of 24 plants used medicinally in the treatment of skin infections in four different regions of Colombia. Thirteen extracts displayed activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) whereas none was active against poliovirus. The antiviral activity was indicated by a total inhibition of viral cytopathic effects (CPE) at a non-cytotoxic concentration of the extract. The most potent extract was obtained from Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) HBK. which showed anti-HSV activity at a concentration as low as 2.5 microg/ml. Antimicrobial screening was conducted using the disc diffusion assay against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium phlei, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and the human pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. Anti-Candida activity was observed for Piper lanceaefolium HBK. and Juglans neotropica Diels. Twenty-two extracts displayed activity against Gram-positive bacteria whereas none was active against the Gram-negative species. We concluded that these Colombian medicinal plants represent an untapped source of potentially useful antivirals and are worthy of further study.

  18. A new species of Centris ( Centris) (Fabricius) from northeastern Brazil, with taxonomic notes on C. ( C.) pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Mahlmann, Thiago; de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new species of the bee genus Centris, Centris (Centris) byrsonimae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n., whose name has appeared as a nomen nudum in the literature since 1985. Further, a new species group of Centris s.str. is proposed, the pulchra group, based on morphological characters, which comprises the species Centris pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana, 2003 and Centris byrsonimaesp. n..Based on information from specimen labels studied and data from the literature, a list of plant species visited by the pulchra group is presented. The male genitalia and hidden metasomal sterna 7 and 8 of Centris pulchra are described for the first time. Typographic errors pertaining to the paratype labels reported in the original description of Centris pulchra are corrected. One female paratype of Centris pulchra is designated herein as a paratype of Centris byrsonimaesp. n. An updated list of species of Centris s.str. from northeastern Brazil is provided including references about geographic distributions as well as an identification key to the pulchra species group.

  19. Naming Potentially Endangered Parasites: Foliicolous Mycobiota of Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Highly Threatened Brazilian Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Meiriele; Pinho, Danilo B.; Pereira, Olinto L.; Fernandes, Fernando M.; Barreto, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    A survey of foliicolous fungi associated with Dimorphandra wilsonii and Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae) was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Dimorphandra wilsonii is a tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado that is listed as critically endangered. Fungi strictly depending on this plant species may be on the verge of co-extinction. Here, results of the pioneering description of this mycobiota are provided to contribute to the neglected field of microfungi conservation. The mycobiota of D. mollis, which is a common species with a broad geographical distribution that co-occurs with D. wilsonii, was examined simultaneously to exclude fungal species occurring on both species from further consideration for conservation because microfungi associated with D. wilsonii should not be regarded as under threat of co-extinction. Fourteen ascomycete fungal species were collected, identified, described and illustrated namely: Byssogene wilsoniae sp. nov., Geastrumia polystigmatis, Janetia dimorphandra-mollis sp. nov., Janetia wilsoniae sp. nov., Johansonia chapadiensis, Microcalliopsis dipterygis, Phillipsiella atra, Piricauda paraguayensis, Pseudocercospora dimorphandrae sp. nov., Pseudocercosporella dimorphandrae sp. nov., Ramichloridiopsis wilsoniae sp. and gen. nov., Stomiopeltis suttoniae, Trichomatomyces byrsonimae and Vesiculohyphomyces cerradensis. Three fungi were exclusively found on D. wilsonii and were regarded as potentially threatened of extinction: B. wilsoniae, J. wilsoniae and R. wilsoniae. PMID:26910334

  20. An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in Herbaceous and Shrub Strata of Atlantic Forest Remnants in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Firmino, João V L; Mendonça, Milton D S; Lima, Iracilda M M; Grazia, Jocelia

    2017-06-01

    Most pentatomids are phytophagous, many of which are economically important crop pests. The family may also be a potentially important group to monitor the health of neotropical forests. However, there is a lack of biological inventories of Pentatomidae, especially in forest remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. This is the first systematic survey of pentatomids reported in three Atlantic forest fragments in northeastern Brazil. In total, 997 individuals belonging to 38 species were recorded, some of which are considered economically important pests. Singletons and doubletons represented 45.9% of all species collected. The most abundant genera were Mormidea Amyot & Serville, 1843; Stictochilus Bergroth, 1918; Xynocoris Garbelotto & Campos 2014; and Edessa F., 1803. Species richness differed among fragments, with a richness gradient correlated with decreased urbanization and increased fragment size. The species abundance distribution fitted the logseries function but not the lognormal, in accordance with what is found for other assemblages in southern Brazil. Species composition also changed, in association with changes in temperature (revealed by the canonical correspondence analysis [CCA]), among fragments. Murici is one of the last remaining dense forests with high plant diversity in the region, having higher pentatomid species richness and a distinctive fauna. This first diversity study for Pentatomidae in fragments of tropical Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil reveals richness comparable with those from subtropical southern Brazil, with some species in common as well. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Inhibition of Influenza A Virus Infection by Fucoidan Targeting Viral Neuraminidase and Cellular EGFR Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Jiandong; Zhang, Xiaoshuang; Hao, Cui; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Jiao, Guangling; Shan, Xindi; Tai, Wenjing; Yu, Guangli

    2017-01-01

    Development of novel anti-influenza A virus (IAV) drugs with high efficiency and low toxicity is critical for preparedness against influenza outbreaks. Herein, we investigated the anti-IAV activities and mechanisms of fucoidan in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that a fucoidan KW derived from brown algae Kjellmaniella crassifolia effectively blocked IAV infection in vitro with low toxicity. KW possessed broad anti-IAV spectrum and low tendency of induction of viral resistance, superior to the anti-IAV drug amantadine. KW was capable of inactivating virus particles before infection and blocked some stages after adsorption. KW could bind to viral neuraminidase (NA) and inhibit the activity of NA to block the release of IAV. KW also interfered with the activation of EGFR, PKCα, NF-κB, and Akt, and inhibited both IAV endocytosis and EGFR internalization in IAV-infected cells, suggesting that KW may also inhibit cellular EGFR pathway. Moreover, intranasal administration of KW markedly improved survival and decreased viral titers in IAV-infected mice. Therefore, fucoidan KW has the potential to be developed into a novel nasal drop or spray for prevention and treatment of influenza in the future. PMID:28094330

  3. Vegetation analysis of Wadi Al-Jufair, a hyper-arid region in Najd, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alatar, Abdulrahman; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.; Thomas, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Wadi Al-Jufair, a tributary of Wadi Nisah, is one of the important wadis of Najd region (Saudi Arabia) sheltering a rich diversity of higher plants. The study area is extended into approximately 15 km2 encompassing the commonest geomorphological features encountered in desert wadis. The wadi supports several rare plants, including Maerua crassifolia Forssk., a regionally endangered tree, and Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf., a rare shrub with restricted distribution. The present study aims to analyze the vegetation of wadi Al-Jufair and propose its designation as an important plant reserve. The vegetation type is fundamentally of chamaephytic nature with some phanerophytes, and distinguished into associations where the dominant perennial species give the permanent character of plant cover in each habitat. Four vegetation groups were identified with the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs and named after the characteristic species as follows: Lycium shawii; A. oerfota; Acacia raddiana–Rhazya stricta and Artemisia monosperma. These plant associations demonstrate significant variation in soil texture, moisture, organic matter, pH, EC, and minerals of Wadi Al-Jufair. PMID:23961197

  4. The Influences of Canopy Species and Topographic Variables on Understory Species Diversity and Composition in Coniferous Forests

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Hong; Feng, Qi; Su, Yong-hong

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the distribution of understory vegetation is important for biological conservation and forest management. We compared understory species composition by multi-response permutation procedure and indicator species analysis between plots dominated by Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) and Qilian juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) in coniferous forests of the Qilian Mountains, northwestern China. Understory species composition differed markedly between the forest types. Many heliophilous species were significantly associated with juniper forest, while only one species was indicative of spruce forest. Using constrained ordination and the variation partitioning model, we quantitatively assessed the relative effects of two sets of explanatory variables on understory species composition. The results showed that topographic variables had higher explanatory power than did site conditions for understory plant distributions. However, a large amount of the variation in understory species composition remained unexplained. Forward selection revealed that understory species distributions were primarily affected by elevation and aspect. Juniper forest had higher species richness and α-diversity and lower β-diversity in the herb layer of the understory plant community than spruce forest, suggesting that the former may be more important in maintaining understory biodiversity and community stability in alpine coniferous forest ecosystems. PMID:25097871

  5. The influences of canopy species and topographic variables on understory species diversity and composition in coniferous forests.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hong; Feng, Qi; Su, Yong-hong

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the distribution of understory vegetation is important for biological conservation and forest management. We compared understory species composition by multi-response permutation procedure and indicator species analysis between plots dominated by Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) and Qilian juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) in coniferous forests of the Qilian Mountains, northwestern China. Understory species composition differed markedly between the forest types. Many heliophilous species were significantly associated with juniper forest, while only one species was indicative of spruce forest. Using constrained ordination and the variation partitioning model, we quantitatively assessed the relative effects of two sets of explanatory variables on understory species composition. The results showed that topographic variables had higher explanatory power than did site conditions for understory plant distributions. However, a large amount of the variation in understory species composition remained unexplained. Forward selection revealed that understory species distributions were primarily affected by elevation and aspect. Juniper forest had higher species richness and α-diversity and lower β-diversity in the herb layer of the understory plant community than spruce forest, suggesting that the former may be more important in maintaining understory biodiversity and community stability in alpine coniferous forest ecosystems.

  6. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of beta-rhizobia isolated from sub-tropical legumes of a Brazilian Araucaria Forest.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Daniel R; Cruz, Leonardo M; Carrer, Helaine; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2013-12-01

    While the occurrence of Betaproteobacteria occupying the nodules of tropical legumes has been shown, little is known about subtropical areas. Araucaria Forest is a subtropical endangered ecosystem, and a better understanding of the legume-rhizobial symbionts may allow their use in land reclamation. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria isolated from nine leguminous species was sequenced and their nodulation tested in Mimosa scabrella and Phaseolus vulgaris. 196 isolates were identified as eight genotypes: Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium sp1-2, Rhizobium, and Burkholderia sp1-3. The majority of the isolates from native plants (87 %) were taxonomically related to β-rhizobia, namely Burkholderia, however the legumes Galactia crassifolia and Collea speciosa were nodulated by both α and β-rhizobia, and Acacia dealbata, an exotic plant, only by α-rhizobia. The nifH genes of some isolates were sequenced and N-fixing potential shown by the acetylene reduction test. Most of the isolates nodulated the test plants, some were effective in M. scabrella, but all presented low efficiency in the exotic promiscuous legume P. vulgaris. Pantoea and Pseudomonas did not nodulate and probably are endophytic bacteria. The presented data shows diversity of α, β and γ-Proteobacteria in nodules of subtropical legumes, and suggests host specificity with β-rhizobia. Potential isolates were found for M. scabrella, indicating that a high N-fixing strain may be further inoculated in plants for use in reforestation.

  7. Different Transcriptional Response to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri between Kumquat and Sweet Orange with Contrasting Canker Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Gong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Yue-Xin; Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO) annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA) of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future. PMID:22848606

  8. Development, characterization, and cross-amplification of microsatellite markers in the understudied African genus Anthonotha (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Demenou, Boris B.; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Anthonotha macrophylla (Fabaceae) is a common tree species throughout the Guineo-Congolian forest that is sometimes confounded with other congeneric species; it is expected to be an interesting phylogeographical model to infer the history of the African dense forests. We developed 18 microsatellite markers from this species and tested their transferability in 15 congeneric species. Methods and Results: A genomic library was obtained using the Illumina platform, and 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed. The polymorphic microsatellites displayed two to 24 alleles (average: 11.9 alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity range: 0.18–0.91, mean: 0.64) in three populations of A. macrophylla from Benin, Liberia, and Cameroon. Cross-amplification in one to nine individuals of 15 congeneric Anthonotha species (A. acuminata, A. brieyi, A. cladantha, A. crassifolia, A. ferruginea, A. fragrans, A. gilletii, A. lamprophylla, A. mouandzae, A. noldeae, A. pellegrinii, A. pynaertii, A. stipulacea, A. wijmacampensis, and A. xanderi) showed successful amplification in six to 17 loci, making most of these markers useful at the generic level. Conclusions: This set of markers will be useful to study species delimitation and the genetic structure of Anthonotha species, and thus to better understand the history of tropical African rainforests. PMID:28090412

  9. Perspectives on allelopathy in mexican traditional agroecosystems: A case study in tlaxcala.

    PubMed

    Anaya, A L; Ramos, L; Cruz, R; Hernández, J G; Nava, V

    1987-11-01

    Agroecosystems in Tlaxcala, Mexico, are surrounded by trees and water channels and have a great variety of cultivated and noncultivated plants. The main results of a study carried out on a traditional agroecosystem in Santa Inés, Tlaxcala are presented. Some ecological aspects of polycultures, plant covers (dry leaves ofAlnus firmifolia, Berula erecta, andJuncus sp.), and the allelopathic potential of crops and noncultivated plants (fresh and dry material) were analyzed. The main plants (trees, shrubs, and herbs) present in the agroecosystem were identified. The total number of weeds in plots where plant covers were added was reduced. The number of nodules ofRhizobium phaseoli and the production of bean and squash increased with plant covers. Corn, beans, and squash showed a clear allelopathic effect, as well asChenopodium murale, Tradescantia crassifolia, Melilotus indicus, andAmaranthus hybridus, among other weeds. The contribution of allelopathy in studies of traditional agroecosystems is of great importance for the management of species in space and time. Allelopathy can be the basis of biological control of pests and weeds and of the discovery of new useful substances.

  10. Estimating forest crown area removed by selection cutting: a linked regression-GIS approach based on stump diameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.C.; Kupfer, J.A.; Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a model that could be used to provide a spatial representation of uneven-aged silvicultural treatments on forest crown area. We began by developing species-specific linear regression equations relating tree DBH to crown area for eight bottomland tree species at White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas, USA. The relationships were highly significant for all species, with coefficients of determination (r(2)) ranging from 0.37 for Ulmus crassifolia to nearly 0.80 for Quercus nuttalliii and Taxodium distichum. We next located and measured the diameters of more than 4000 stumps from a single tree-group selection timber harvest. Stump locations were recorded with respect to an established gl id point system and entered into a Geographic Information System (ARC/INFO). The area occupied by the crown of each logged individual was then estimated by using the stump dimensions (adjusted to DBHs) and the regression equations relating tree DBH to crown area. Our model projected that the selection cuts removed roughly 300 m(2) of basal area from the logged sites resulting in the loss of approximate to 55 000 m(2) of crown area. The model developed in this research represents a tool that can be used in conjunction with remote sensing applications to assist in forest inventory and management, as well as to estimate the impacts of selective timber harvest on wildlife.

  11. Leaf morphophysiology of a Neotropical mistletoe is shaped by seasonal patterns of host leaf phenology.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Marina Corrêa; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Domingos, Fabricius Maia Chaves Bicalho; Franco, Augusto Cesar

    2016-04-01

    Several mistletoe species are able to grow and reproduce on both deciduous and evergreen hosts, suggesting a degree of plasticity in their ability to cope with differences in intrinsic host functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of host phenology on mistletoe water relations and leaf gas exchange. Mistletoe Passovia ovata parasitizing evergreen (Miconia albicans) hosts and P. ovata parasitizing deciduous (Byrsonima verbascifolia) hosts were sampled in a Neotropical savanna. Photosynthetic parameters, diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance, pre-dawn and midday leaf water potential, and stomatal anatomical traits were measured during the peak of the dry and wet seasons, respectively. P. ovata showed distinct water-use strategies that were dependent on host phenology. For P. ovata parasitizing the deciduous host, water use efficiency (WUE; ratio of photosynthetic rate to transpirational water loss) was 2-fold lower in the dry season than in the wet season; in contrast, WUE was maintained at the same level during the wet and dry seasons in P. ovata parasitizing the evergreen host. Generally, mistletoe and host diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance were linked, although there were clear differences in leaf water potential, with mistletoe showing anisohydric behaviour and the host showing isohydric behaviour. Compared to mistletoes attached to evergreen hosts, those parasitizing deciduous hosts had a 1.4-fold lower stomatal density and 1.2-fold wider stomata on both leaf surfaces, suggesting that the latter suffered less intense drought stress. This is the first study to show morphophysiological differences in the same mistletoe species parasitizing hosts of different phenological groups. Our results provide evidence that phenotypical plasticity (anatomical and physiological) might be essential to favour the use of a greater range of hosts.

  12. Antioxidant activity and peroxidase inhibition of Amazonian plants extracts traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.

    PubMed

    de Vargas, Fabiano S; Almeida, Patricia D O; de Boleti, Ana Paula A; Pereira, Maria M; de Souza, Tatiane P; de Vasconcellos, Marne C; Nunez, Cecilia Veronica; Pohlit, Adrian M; Lima, Emerson S

    2016-02-27

    The Amazon is the largest rainforest in the world and is home to a rich biodiversity of medicinal plants. Several of these plants are used by the local population for the treatment of diseases, many of those with probable anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and anti-peroxidases potential of the ethanol extracts of five plants from the Brazilian Amazon (Byrsonima japurensis, Calycophyllum spruceanum, Maytenus guyanensis, Passiflora nitida and Ptychopetalum olacoides). DPPH, ABTS, superoxide anion radical, singlet oxygen and the β-carotene bleaching methods were employed for characterization of free radical scavenging activity. Also, total polyphenols were determined. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using murine fibroblast NIH3T3 cell. Inhibition of HRP and MPO were evaluated using amplex red® as susbtract. The stem bark extracts of C. spruceanum and M. guyanensis provided the highest free radical scavenging activities. C. spruceanum exhibited IC50 = 7.5 ± 0.9, 5.0 ± 0.1, 18.2 ± 3.0 and 92.4 ± 24.8 μg/mL for DPPH(•), ABTS(+•), O2 (-•) and (1)O2 assays, respectively. P. olacoides and C. spruceanum extracts also inhibited free radicals formation in the cell-based assay. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the extracts of C. spruceanum, B. japurensis inhibited horseradish peroxidase by 62 and 50 %, respectively. C. spruceanum, M. guyanensis, B. japurensis also inhibited myeloperoxidase in 72, 67 and 56 %, respectively. This work supports the folk use these species that inhibited peroxidases and exhibited significant free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities what can be related to treatment of inflammation.

  13. Hydraulic responses to extreme drought conditions in three co-dominant tree species in shallow soil over bedrock.

    PubMed

    Kukowski, Kelly R; Schwinning, Susanne; Schwartz, Benjamin F

    2013-04-01

    An important component of the hydrological niche involves the partitioning of water sources, but in landscapes characterized by shallow soils over fractured bedrock, root growth is highly constrained. We conducted a study to determine how physical constraints in the root zone affected the water use of three tree species that commonly coexist on the Edwards Plateau of central Texas; cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), live oak (Quercus fusiformis), and Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). The year of the study was unusually dry; minimum predawn water potentials measured in August were -8 MPa in juniper, less than -8 MPa in elm, and -5 MPa in oak. All year long, species used nearly identical water sources, based on stable isotope analysis of stem water. Sap flow velocities began to decline simultaneously in May, but the rate of decline was fastest for oak and slowest for juniper. Thus, species partitioned water by time when they could not partition water by source. Juniper lost 15-30 % of its stem hydraulic conductivity, while percent loss for oak was 70-75 %, and 90 % for elm. There was no tree mortality in the year of the study, but 2 years later, after an even more severe drought in 2011, we recorded 34, 14, 6, and 1 % mortality among oak, elm, juniper, and Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana), respectively. Among the study species, mortality rates ranked in the same order as the rate of sap flow decline in 2009. Among the angiosperms, mortality rates correlated with wood density, lending further support to the hypothesis that species with more cavitation-resistant xylem are more susceptible to catastrophic hydraulic failure under acute drought.

  14. C-Glycosyltransferases catalyzing the formation of di-C-glucosyl flavonoids in citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takamitsu; Fujimoto, Shunsuke; Suito, Fumiaki; Shimosaka, Makoto; Taguchi, Goro

    2017-04-02

    Citrus plants accumulate many kinds of flavonoids, including di-C-glucosyl flavonoids, which have attracted considerable attention owing to their health benefits. However, biosynthesis of di-C-glucosyl flavonoids has not been elucidated at the molecular level. Here, we identified the C-glycosyltransferases (CGTs) FcCGT (UGT708G1) and CuCGT (UGT708G2) as the primary enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of di-C-glucosyl flavonoids in the citrus plants kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), respectively. The amino acid sequences of these CGTs were 98% identical, indicating that CGT genes are highly conserved in the citrus family. The recombinant enzymes FcCGT and CuCGT utilized 2-hydroxyflavanones, dihydrochalcone, and their mono-C-glucosides as sugar acceptors and produced corresponding di-C-glucosides. The Km and kcat values of FcCGT toward phloretin were <0.5 μM and 12.0 s(-1) , and those toward nothofagin (3'-C-glucosylphloretin) were 14.4 μM and 5.3 s(-1) , respectively; these values are comparable to those of other glycosyltransferases reported to date. Transcripts of both CGT genes were found to concentrate in various plant organs, and particularly in leaves. Our results suggest that di-C-glucosyl flavonoid biosynthesis proceeds via a single enzyme using either 2-hydroxyflavanones or phloretin as a substrate in citrus plants. In addition, Escherichia coli cells expressing CGT genes were found to be capable of producing di-C-glucosyl flavonoids, which is promising for commercial production of these valuable compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproductive Isolation of Ips nitidus and I. shangrila in Mountain Forests of Western China: Responses to Chiral and Achiral Candidate Pheromone Components.

    PubMed

    Schlyter, Fredrik; Jakuš, Rastislav; Han, Fu-Zhong; Ma, Jian-Hai; Kalinová, Blanka; Mezei, Pavel; Sun, Jiang-Hua; Ujhelyiová, Liana; Zhang, Qing-He

    2015-07-01

    Eastern Palearctic conifers are subject to frequent bark beetle outbreaks. However, neither the species responsible nor the semiochemicals guiding these attacks are well understood. Two high-mountain Ips species on Qinghai spruce, Picea crassifolia, I. shangrila and I. nitidus, are typical in this regard. Six synthetic candidate pheromone components that we earlier identified from hindguts of unmated males of these two Ips species were tested for field activity in Qinghai province, P. R. China. For I. nitidus, racemic ipsdienol ((±)-Id) could replace the naturally-produced blend of enantiomers containing 74% (-)-(S)-Id (74:26 S:R), in attractive ternary or binary blends. In contrast, sympatric I. shangrila were attracted mainly to blends including Id of opposite chirality, 97%-(+)-(R)-Id. Of the verbenols, (-)-trans-verbenol was inactive for I. nitidus or inhibitory for I. shangrila, but (-)-cis-verbenol (cV) was a key component of the pheromone in both species. Two fully factorial experiments demonstrated that (±)-Id, cV, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB) are components of the aggregation pheromone of I. nitidus, whereas only (+)-Id and cV are essential components of the aggregation pheromone of I. shangrila. While MB is not necessary for attraction of I. shangrila, it is an active antagonist and likely functions in species isolation. A review of the pheromone production and responses in Palearctic Ips and Pseudoips showed that cV is more common than methylbutenols, and both elicit qualitatively variable responses. Ipsdienol is the most common component with variable chirality, and is a necessary, but often not sufficient, factor for determining pheromone specificity.

  16. Analysis of mountain hazards in the Qilian Mountain based on tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Shao, Xuemei; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Mountain hazards, including landslides, rockfall and debris flows, are the most serious natural hazards in China, and affect almost 70% of all mountainous areas of China. An improved understanding of geomorphic processes and knowledge on past events are important tasks for the assessment of mountain hazards. Tree rings have on varied occasions proved to be a reliable tool for the acquisition of data on past events. Here we present a preliminary reconstruction of past mountain hazards in the Qilian Mountains, northeast Tibet Plateau, China. A total of 658 Qilian juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) samples (selected from 327 trees) standing on or adjacent to a landslide body in the Qilian Mountains, as well as 672 Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) samples (from 175 trees) growing on three adjacent debris-flow sites were collected to reconstruct past landslide and debris-flow histories. Based on the dating and interpretation of growth disturbances (GD) in the tree-ring series of sampled trees, we reconstruct past mountain hazards at the four sites. Results show that the first detectable landslide occurred as early as AD 1261, and then seven major reoccurrence years can be found in AD 1703, AD 1816, AD 1848, AD 1863, AD 1913, AD 1970, and AD 1982. At the three debris-flow sites, different events were identified at each of the sites, i.e. four events (AD 1872, AD 1878, AD 1880, AD 1884) at site 1, two events (AD 1811 and AD 1953) at site 2, and three events (AD 1866, AD 1885 and AD 1961) at site 3. Our research indicates that Chinese conifers indeed have a large potential to yield dates of past mountain hazard events with tree rings, and dendrogeomorhology should therefore be used in similar environments for a better understanding of past and potential future fluvial and mass-movements processes.

  17. Effects of Salt Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Plantago Species

    PubMed Central

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Pacurar, Andrea; López-Gresa, María P.; Donat-Torres, María P.; Llinares, Josep V.; Boscaiu, Monica; Vicente, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the responses to salt stress of taxonomically related taxa should help to elucidate relevant mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants. We have applied this strategy to three Plantago species adapted to different natural habitats, P. crassifolia and P. coronopus–both halophytes–and P. major, considered as salt-sensitive since it is never found in natural saline habitats. Growth inhibition measurements in controlled salt treatments indicated, however, that P. major is quite resistant to salt stress, although less than its halophytic congeners. The contents of monovalent ions and specific osmolytes were determined in plant leaves after four-week salt treatments. Salt-treated plants of the three taxa accumulated Na+ and Cl- in response to increasing external NaCl concentrations, to a lesser extent in P. major than in the halophytes; the latter species also showed higher ion contents in the non-stressed plants. In the halophytes, K+ concentration decreased at moderate salinity levels, to increase again under high salt conditions, whereas in P. major K+ contents were reduced only above 400 mM NaCl. Sorbitol contents augmented in all plants, roughly in parallel with increasing salinity, but the relative increments and the absolute values reached did not differ much in the three taxa. On the contrary, a strong (relative) accumulation of proline in response to high salt concentrations (600–800 mM NaCl) was observed in the halophytes, but not in P. major. These results indicate that the responses to salt stress triggered specifically in the halophytes, and therefore the most relevant for tolerance in the genus Plantago are: a higher efficiency in the transport of toxic ions to the leaves, the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica, even under low salinity conditions, and the activation, in response to very high salt concentrations, of proline accumulation and K+ transport to the leaves of the plants. PMID:27490924

  18. Traditional Small-Size Citrus from Taiwan: Essential Oils, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min-Hung; Yang, Kai-Min; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Wu, Mei-Li

    2017-01-01

    Background: The calamondin (Citrus microcarpa Bunge) and the kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) are two small-size citrus fruits that have traditionally been consumed in Taiwan; however, there has been a lack of scientific research regarding the active compounds and functionalities of these fruits. Methods: Analysis of volatile composition of essential oil and phytosterol was carried out using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Flavonoid and limonoid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, antioxidant capacity from their essential oils and extracts were assessed in vitro. Results: The compositions of the essential oils of both fruits were identified, with the results showing that the calamondin and kumquat contain identified 43 and 44 volatile compounds, respectively. In addition, oxygenated compounds of volatiles accounted for 4.25% and 2.04%, respectively, consistent with the fact that oxygenated compounds are generally found in high content in citrus fruits. In terms of flavonoids, the calamondin exhibited higher content than the kumquat, with disomin-based flavonoids being predominant; on the other hand, phytosterol content of kumquat was higher than that of calamondin, with amyrin being the dominant phytosterol. Both of them contain high amounts of limonoids. The ethanol extracts and essential oils of small-sized citrus fruits have been shown to have antioxidant effects, with those effects being closely related to the flavonoid content of the fruit in question. Conclusions: The present study also reviewed antioxidant activity in terms of specific bioactive compounds in order to find the underlying biological activity of both fruits. The calamondin and kumquat have antioxidant effects, which are in turn very important for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  19. Effects of Salt Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Plantago Species.

    PubMed

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Pacurar, Andrea; López-Gresa, María P; Donat-Torres, María P; Llinares, Josep V; Boscaiu, Monica; Vicente, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the responses to salt stress of taxonomically related taxa should help to elucidate relevant mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants. We have applied this strategy to three Plantago species adapted to different natural habitats, P. crassifolia and P. coronopus-both halophytes-and P. major, considered as salt-sensitive since it is never found in natural saline habitats. Growth inhibition measurements in controlled salt treatments indicated, however, that P. major is quite resistant to salt stress, although less than its halophytic congeners. The contents of monovalent ions and specific osmolytes were determined in plant leaves after four-week salt treatments. Salt-treated plants of the three taxa accumulated Na+ and Cl- in response to increasing external NaCl concentrations, to a lesser extent in P. major than in the halophytes; the latter species also showed higher ion contents in the non-stressed plants. In the halophytes, K+ concentration decreased at moderate salinity levels, to increase again under high salt conditions, whereas in P. major K+ contents were reduced only above 400 mM NaCl. Sorbitol contents augmented in all plants, roughly in parallel with increasing salinity, but the relative increments and the absolute values reached did not differ much in the three taxa. On the contrary, a strong (relative) accumulation of proline in response to high salt concentrations (600-800 mM NaCl) was observed in the halophytes, but not in P. major. These results indicate that the responses to salt stress triggered specifically in the halophytes, and therefore the most relevant for tolerance in the genus Plantago are: a higher efficiency in the transport of toxic ions to the leaves, the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica, even under low salinity conditions, and the activation, in response to very high salt concentrations, of proline accumulation and K+ transport to the leaves of the plants.

  20. De novo assembly and transcriptome characterization of spruce dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium sichuanense uncovers gene expression profiling associated with plant development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonglin; Li, Xuewu; Zhou, Weifen; Li, Tao; Tian, Chengming

    2016-10-01

    The parasitic flowering plant dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp., Viscaceae) is one of the most destructive forest pests, posing a major threat to numerous conifer species worldwide. Arceuthobium sichuanense (spruce dwarf mistletoe, SDM) infects Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) and causes severe damage to spruce forests in Northwest China. SDM is a Chinese native parasitic plant and acquires carbohydrates and mineral nutrition from its hosts. However, underlying molecular basis of the physiological development is largely unknown. Investigations of these physiological traits have been hampered by the lack of genomic resources for this species. In this study, to investigate the transcriptomic processes underlying physiological traits and development in SDM, we used RNA from four major tissues (i.e., shoots, flowers, fruits, and seeds) for de novo assembly and to annotate the transcriptome of this species. We uncovered the annotated transcriptome and performed whole genome expression profiling to uncover transcriptional dynamics during physiological development, and we identified key gene categories involved in the process of sexual development. The assembled SDM transcriptome reported in this work contains 331,347 assembled transcripts; 226,687 unigenes were functionally annotated by Gene Ontology analysis. RNA-Seq analysis using this reference transcriptome identified 22,641 differentially expressed genes from shoots, flowers, fruits, and seeds. These genes are enriched in processes including organic substance metabolism, cellular metabolism, biosynthesis, and cellular component. In addition, genes related to transport, transcription, hormone biosynthesis and signaling, carbohydrate metabolism, and photosynthesis were differentially expressed between tissues. This work reveals tissue-specific gene expression patterns and pathways of SDM and implied to a difference between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues in plants. The data can potentially be used for

  1. Pooled versus separate tree-ring δD measurements, and implications for reconstruction of the Arctic Oscillation in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohong; An, Wenling; Treydte, Kerstin; Wang, Wenzhi; Xu, Guobao; Zeng, Xiaomin; Wu, Guoju; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Xuanwen

    2015-04-01

    Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) in tree rings are an attractive but still rarely explored terrestrial archive of past climatic information. Because the preparation of the cellulose nitrate for δD measurements requires more wood and a longer preparation time than preparation techniques for other isotopes in cellulose (δ18O or δ13C), it is challenging to obtain high-resolution records, especially for slow-growing trees at high elevations and in boreal regions. Here, we tested whether annually pooled samples of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) trees from northwestern China provided results similar to those derived as the mean of individual measurements of the same trees and whether the resulting chronologies recorded useful climate information. Inter-tree variability of δD was higher than that of measured ring width for the same trees. We found higher and significant coherence between pooled and mean isotope chronologies than that among the individual series. It showed a logarithmic relationship between ring mass and δD; however, accounting for the influence of ring mass on δD values only slightly improved the strength of climatic signals in the pooled records. Tree-ring δD was significantly positively correlated with the mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures during the previous winter and with maximum temperature during the current August, and significantly negatively correlated with precipitation in the previous November to January and the current July. The winter climate signal seems to dominate tree-ring δD through the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, i.e. the Arctic Oscillation. These results will facilitate reconstruction of winter atmospheric circulation patterns over northwestern China based on a regional tree-ring δD networks.

  2. Sponges of the Guyana Shelf.

    PubMed

    VAN Soest, Rob W M

    2017-01-12

    . nov., Leucosolenia salpinx sp. nov., Petrosia (Strongylophora) devoogdae sp. nov., Placospongia ruetzleri sp. nov., Pyloderma tropicale sp. nov., Raspailia (Parasyringella) thamnopilosa sp. nov., Raspailia (Raspailia) johnhooperi sp. nov., Sphaerotylus bouryesnaultae sp. nov., Spirastrella erylicola sp. nov., Stelletta vervoorti sp. nov., Suberites crispolobatus sp. nov., Tedania (Stylotedania) folium subgen. nov. sp. nov., Timea tylasterina sp. nov., and Tylosigma ostreicola sp. nov. Two new combinations are proposed: Amphimedon nanaspiculata (Hartman, 1955) comb. nov. and Oceanapia ascidia (Schmidt, 1870) comb. nov. In addition, for two preoccupied combinations, new names, Coelosphaera (Coelosphaera) barbadensis nom. nov. and Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) rowi nom. nov., are erected. The spatial distribution of the collected specimens over the Guyana Shelf was traced and the results were compared with existing information on bottom conditions. There was a convincing correlation between the location of fossil reefs and other hard substrates such as shell ridges with peaks in the occurrence of species diversity and specimen numbers. Stations made on sand and mud bottoms away from these zones of hard substrates were generally poor in species, but some were found to be rich in individuals of specialized soft bottom dwellers such as Tetilla pentatriaena, Tribrachium schmidtii, Fangophilina submersa, and Oceanapia species. The species composition of the Guyana Shelf was compared with that of neighbouring regions of the Caribbean and from North and East Brazil (Díaz in Miloslavich et al. 2010; Muricy et al. 2011). About 35% of the species encountered are widespread in the Central West Atlantic, occurring both to the north and to the south. Indications that the Guyana Shelf sponge fauna is clearly transitional are southernmost occurrences for Caribbean species (about 30%), and northernmost occurrences of Brazilian species (13%), with a high proportion (25%) of new species, which

  3. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area

  4. Developing a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction and Demolition Rubble for Use in Quarry Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on Lebanon and on the management of its solid waste. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. This research aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. Excavation and construction debris were ground to several sizes and mixed with compost and soil at different ratios. Replicates of these mixes and a set of control (regular soil) were used. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots). The plant species used are Mathiolla crassifolia and Zea mays (Corn). Results have shown successful growth of both corn and Mathiolla seedlings in the mixes with higher amounts of construction rubble and compost i.e. Rubble: Soil: Compost Ratio of 2:1:1 and 1:0:1. However treatments with no compost and with less quantities of rubble demonstrated the inability of the soil used to sustain plant growth alone (1:1:1 and 1:1:0). Last but not least, the control consisting of soil only ended up being the weakest mix with yellow corn leaves and small Mathiolla seedlings fifty days after planting and fertilizing. Additionally, soil analysis, rubble and compost analysis were conducted. The samples were tested for heavy metals, nutrient availability and values of pH and EC. No contamination has been reported and an abundance of macronutrients and micronutrients was documented for the soil and compost. High alkalinity is due to the presence of concrete and the high percentage of Calcium Carbonate in Lebanese soils. Accordingly, the most adequate mixes for planting are treatments A (2:1:1) and B (1:0:1) and they should be pursued for a pilot scale study to test their potential use in quarry rehabilitation and

  5. Genome-wide computational analysis of the secretome of brown algae (Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Makoto; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Kawai, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    Brown algae have evolved complex multicellularity in the heterokont lineage. They are phylogenetically distant to land plants, fungi and animals. Especially, the members of Laminariales (so-called kelps) have developed highly differentiated tissues. Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays pivotal roles in a number of essential processes in multicellular organisms, such as cell adhesion, cell and tissue differentiations, cell-to-cell communication, and responses to environmental stimuli. In these processes, a set of extracellular secreted proteins called the secretome operates remodeling of the physicochemical nature of ECM and signal transduction by interacting with cell surface proteins and signaling molecules. Characterization of the secretome is a critical step to clarify the contributions of ECM to the multicellularity of brown algae. However, the identity of the brown algal secretome has been poorly understood. In order to reveal the repertory of the brown algal secretome and its involvement in the evolution of Laminariales, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of the brown algal secretome utilizing the published complete genome data of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica as well as newly obtained RNA-seq data of seven laminarialean species (Agarum clathratum, Alaria crassifolia, Aureophycus aleuticus, Costaria costata, Pseudochorda nagaii, Saccharina angustata and Undaria pinnatifida) largely covering the laminarialean families. We established the in silico pipeline to systematically and accurately detect the secretome by combining multiple prediction algorithms for the N-terminal signal peptide and transmembrane domain within the protein sequence. From 16,189 proteins of E. siliculosus and 18,733 proteins of S. japonica, 552 and 964 proteins respectively were predicted to be classified as the secretome. Conserved domain analysis showed that the domain repertory were very similar to each other, and that of the brown algal secretome was partially common

  6. Subspecific variation in the widespread burl-forming Arctostaphylos glandulosa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Vasey, Michael C.; Parker, V. Thomas

    2007-01-01

     subsp cushingiana, several others are also recognized. One is A. glandulosa Eastw. subsp. crassifolia (Jepson) Wells, a well established coastal San Diego endemic recognized by darker and thicker leaves and smaller and flatter fruits. Another is a newly described taxon A. glandulosa Eastw. subsp. erecta Keeley, Vasey & Parker, subsp. nov., an endemic to northern Baja California recognized by the erect nascent inflorescenses. Two others have glabrate leaves and highly reduced deltoid often marcescent bracts; A. glandulosasubsp. adamsii (Munz) Wells, which has intensely glaucous leaves and is distributed from interior Riverside Co. south, and A. glandulosa Eastw. subsp. gabrielensis (Wells) Keeley, Vasey and Parker comb. nov., which has bright lustrous green leaves and greater fusion of nutlets, and is distributed from the interior San Gabriel Mountains of Los Angeles Co. north to the Sierra Madre Mountains of Santa Barbara Co. All non-glandular plants with long setose or villous hairs are A. glandulosa Eastw. subsp. mollis (Adams) Wells. This taxon includes plants with foliaceous as well as reduced bracts and is distributed throughout the Transverse Ranges from Santa Barbara to San Bernardino counties, with some outlying populations further south. This taxon shows a marked tendency for reduced stomatal densities on the upper leaf surface in the westernmost populations. Although all of the A. glandulosataxa described here are known from allopatric populations, intergradations of these closely related taxa occur and thus some populations reflect a mixture of traits and can not be assigned a unique name of practical value.

  7. Mixing Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste and Solid Waste Compost for the Derivation of a Planting Medium for Use in the Rehabilitation of Quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, Eleni

    2015-04-01

    Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which are locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been interrupted by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. Excavation and construction debris were ground to several sizes and mixed with compost and soil at different ratios. Replicates of these mixes and a set of control (regular soil) were used. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Mathiolla crassifolia, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays (Corn), which is commonly