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Sample records for murine leukemia virus-induced

  1. Amphotropic murine leukemia viruses induce spongiform encephalomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    Münk, C; Löhler, J; Prassolov, V; Just, U; Stockschläder, M; Stocking, C

    1997-05-27

    Recombinants of amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) have found widespread use in retroviral vector systems due to their ability to efficiently and stably infect cells of several different species, including human. Previous work has shown that replication-competent recombinants containing the amphotropic env gene, encoding the major SU envelope glycoprotein that determines host tropism, induce lymphomas in vivo. We show here that these viruses also induce a spongiform encephalomyelopathy in mice inoculated perinatally. This fatal central nervous system disease is characterized by noninflammatory spongiform lesions of nerve and glial cells and their processes, and is associated with moderate astro- and microgliosis. The first clinical symptoms are ataxia, tremor, and spasticity, progressing to complete tetraparesis and incontinence, and finally death of the animal. Sequences within the amphotropic env gene are necessary for disease induction. Coinfection of A-MuLV recombinants with nonneuropathogenic ecotropic or polytropic MuLV drastically increases the incidence, degree, and distribution of the neurodegenerative disorder. The consequence of these results in view of the use of A-MuLV recombinants in the clinic is discussed.

  2. Histopathology of spontaneous regression in virus-induced murine leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, I.; Russo, J.; Baldwin, J.; Rich, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The histopathology of the spontaneous regression of murine leukemia induced by a particular strain of Friend leukemia virus was studied in Swiss ICR/Ha mice. Animals inoculated with the regressing strain of Friend virus exhibited an initial pathologic response identical to that induced by conventional strains of Friend virus. Unlike the fatal leukemia produced by conventional Friend virus, the pathology of the disease induced by the regressing strain of Friend virus appeared to be self-limiting. The histopathology of the two diseases is compared in this report. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:970443

  3. Amphotropic murine leukemia viruses induce spongiform encephalomyelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Münk, Carsten; Löhler, Jürgen; Prassolov, Vladimir; Just, Ursula; Stockschläder, Marcus; Stocking, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Recombinants of amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) have found widespread use in retroviral vector systems due to their ability to efficiently and stably infect cells of several different species, including human. Previous work has shown that replication-competent recombinants containing the amphotropic env gene, encoding the major SU envelope glycoprotein that determines host tropism, induce lymphomas in vivo. We show here that these viruses also induce a spongiform encephalomyelopathy in mice inoculated perinatally. This fatal central nervous system disease is characterized by noninflammatory spongiform lesions of nerve and glial cells and their processes, and is associated with moderate astro- and microgliosis. The first clinical symptoms are ataxia, tremor, and spasticity, progressing to complete tetraparesis and incontinence, and finally death of the animal. Sequences within the amphotropic env gene are necessary for disease induction. Coinfection of A-MuLV recombinants with nonneuropathogenic ecotropic or polytropic MuLV drastically increases the incidence, degree, and distribution of the neurodegenerative disorder. The consequence of these results in view of the use of A-MuLV recombinants in the clinic is discussed. PMID:9159161

  4. Influence of the murine MHC (H-2) on Friend leukemia virus-induced immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Friend murine leukemia virus complex (FV)-induced immunosuppression was studied by assaying splenic anti-SRBC PFC responses and plasma antibody titers in mice at various times after FV inoculation. Genes located within the H-2 complex were found to influence resistance to FV-induced immunosuppression. Near normal responses were observed in mice having the H-2a/b or H-2b/b genotype, whereas mice having the H-2a/a genotype were suppressed. This H-2 effect was observed not only in mice having heterozygous C57BL/10 X A background genes, including Rfv-3r/s, but also was apparent in mice having homozygous A-strain background genes, including Rfv-3s/s. Therefore, the Rfv-3 gene did not appear to convey resistance to FV-induced immunosuppression. The suppression in susceptible H-2a/a mice was characterized by a partial suppression of the IgM response and a profound suppression of both the primary and secondary IgG responses. Neither splenomegaly nor viremia alone appeared to be sufficient for the induction or maintenance of the immunosuppression. The mechanism of suppression was unclear, but both B lymphocyte and T lymphocyte functions appeared to be altered. PMID:3456010

  5. Effects of Standardized Eriobotrya japonica Extract in LP-BM5 Murine Leukemia Viruses-Induced Murine Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Nam, Da-Eun; Jun, Woojin; Lee, Jeongmin

    2016-01-01

    Folk medicine has long employed leaves from Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (Rosaceae) (LEJ) as relieving many diseases including chronic bronchitis and high fever. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of leaves from LEJ water extracts (LEJE) in LP-BM5 murine leukemia viruses (MuLV)-induced immune-deficient animal model. Dietary supplementation of LEJE (100, 300, 500 mg/kg) began on the day of LP-BM5 MuLV infection and continued for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of LEJE inhibited LP-BM5 MuLV-induced splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Moreover, LEJE attenuated reductions of T- and B-cell proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance in LP-BM5. We found that dietary supplements of LEJE suppressed the hypergammaglobulinemia by ameliorating LP-BM5 MuLV infection-induced B-cell dysfunction and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We suggest that Eriobotrya japonica may have beneficial immunomodulatory effects, improving the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines and anti-inflammatory effects.

  6. Immunotherapy of murine leukemia. Efficacy of passive serum therapy of Friend leukemia virus-induced disease in immunocompromised mice

    SciTech Connect

    Genovesi, E.V.; Livnat, D.; Collins, J.J.

    1983-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the passive therapy of Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced disease with chimpanzee anti-F-MuLV serum is accompanied by the development of host antiviral humoral and cellular immunity, the latter measurable in adoptive transfer protocols and by the ability of serum-protected mice to resist virus rechallenge. The present study was designed to further examine the contribution of various compartments of the host immune system to serum therapy itself, as well as to the acquired antiviral immunity that develops in serum-protected mice, through the use of naturally immunocompromised animals (e.g., nude athymic mice and natural killer (NK)-deficient beige mutant mice) or mice treated with immunoabrogating agents such as sublethal irradiation, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan (Cy)), cortisone, and /sup 89/Sr. The studies in nude mice indicate that while mature T-cells are not needed for effective serum therapy, they do appear to be necessary for the long-term resistance of serum-protected mice to virus rechallenge and for the generation of the cell population(s) responsible for adoptive transfer of antiviral immunity. Furthermore, this acquired resistance is not due to virus neutralization by serum antibodies since antibody-negative, Cy-treated, serum-protected mice still reject the secondary virus infection. Lastly, while the immunocompromise systems examined did effect various host antiviral immune responses, none of them, including the NK-deficient beige mutation, significantly diminished the efficacy of the passive serum therapy of F-MuLV-induced disease.

  7. Tumor progression in murine leukemia virus-induced T-cell lymphomas: monitoring clonal selections with viral and cellular probes.

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, H T; Selten, G C; Zijlstra, M; de Goede, R E; Melief, C J; Berns, A J

    1986-01-01

    Clonal selections occurring during the progression of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-induced T-cell lymphomas in mice were examined in primary and transplanted tumors by monitoring various molecular markers: proviral integration patterns, MuLV insertions near c-myc and pim-1, and rearrangements of the immunoglobulin heavy chain and beta-chain T-cell receptor genes. The results were as follows. Moloney MuLV frequently induced oligoclonal tumors with proviral insertions near c-myc or pim-1 in the independent clones. Moloney MuLV acted as a highly efficient insertional mutagen, able to activate different (putative) oncogenes in one cell lineage. Clonal selections during tumor progression were frequently marked by the acquisition of new proviral integrations. Independent tumor cell clones exhibited a homing preference upon transplantation in syngeneic hosts and were differently affected by the route of transplantation. Images PMID:3091854

  8. Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Effects of Purple Sweet Potato Extract in LP-BM5 Murine Leukemia Virus-Induced Murine Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Nam, Da-Eun; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Baek, Sun Jung; Jun, Woojin; Lee, Jeongmin

    2015-08-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of a dietary supplement of purple sweet potato extract (PSPE) in LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-induced immune-deficient mice were investigated. Mice were divided into six groups: normal control, infected control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection), positive control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of red ginseng 300 mg/kg), purple sweet potato water extract (PSPWE) (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of PSPE 300 mg/kg), PSP10EE (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of 10% ethanol PSPE 300 mg/kg), and PSP80EE (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of 80% ethanol PSPE 300 mg/kg). Dietary supplementation began on the day of LP-BM5 MuLV infection and continued for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of PSPE inhibited LP-BM5 MuLV-induced splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy and attenuated the suppression of T- and B-cell proliferation and T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine imbalance in LP-BM5 MuLV-infected mice. Dietary supplement of PSPE increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The data suggest that PSPE may ameliorate immune dysfunction due to LP-BM5 MuLV infection by modulating antioxidant defense systems. PMID:26076116

  9. Comparative analysis of radiation- and virus-induced leukemias in BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, E.W.; Binari, R.; Fleissner, E.

    1985-01-15

    Endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviral copies were analyzed in thymomas induced in normal BALB/c (Fv-1b) and in Fv-1n congenic mice by X-irradiation. Both strains of mice developed leukemia with similar kinetics, indicating that N-tropism of endogenous MuLV was not a rate-limiting factor in development of disease. Southern blot analysis, using a probe specific for ecotropic virus and for ecotropic-specific sequences retained in pathogenic, env-recombinant viruses, showed that the majority of radiation leukemias lacked newly acquired, clonally integrated, proviruses. This was in contrast to virus-induced leukemias, which routinely exhibited several new proviral integration sites. When an internal proviral DNA restriction fragment was monitored, some radiation leukemias showed evidence of nonclonal infection, accounting for more frequent isolation of infectious virus from such leukemias. Differences in expression of T-cell surface antigens were found in X-ray-induced and virus-induced leukemias. All radiation leukemias were TL positive, whereas virus-induced leukemias were primarily negative for TL. Some differences were also found in Lyt-1 and Lyt-2 expression. The data as a whole suggest that, in the majority of cases, radiation leukemogenesis is not initiated by a viral route--that is, the sort of viral mechanism for which exogenous infection by known pathogenic MuLV is the paradigm.

  10. Effects of provirus integration in the Tpl-1/Ets-1 locus in Moloney murine leukemia virus-induced rat T-cell lymphomas: levels of expression, polyadenylation, transcriptional initiation, and differential splicing of the Ets-1 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Bellacosa, A; Datta, K; Bear, S E; Patriotis, C; Lazo, P A; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Tsichlis, P N

    1994-01-01

    The Tpl-1 locus was defined as a genomic DNA region which is targeted by provirus insertion during progression of Moloney murine leukemia virus-induced rat T-cell lymphomas. Using a panel of 156 (Mus musculus x Mus spretus) x Mus musculus interspecific backcross mice, we mapped Tpl-1 to mouse chromosome 9 at a distance of 1.2 +/- 0.9 centimorgans from the Ets-1 proto-oncogene (S.E. Bear, A. Bellacosa, P.A. Lazo, N.A. Jenkins, N.G. Copeland, C. Hanson, G. Levan, and P.N. Tsichlis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:7495-7499, 1989). In this report, we present evidence that all the known Tpl-1 provirus insertions occurred immediately 5' of the first exon of Ets-1 (exon A) and that the earlier detected distance between Tpl-1 and Ets-1 was due to the high frequency of meiotic recombination in the region between the site of provirus integration and exon III. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of polyadenylated RNA from normal adult rat tissues and Moloney murine leukemia virus-induced T-cell lymphomas and hybridization to a Tpl-1/Ets-1 probe derived from the 5' end of the gene revealed two lymphoid cell-specific RNA transcripts, of 5.5 and 2.2 kb. Sequence analysis of a near-full-length (4,991-bp) cDNA clone of the 5.5-kb RNA revealed a 441-amino-acid open reading frame encoding a protein identical to the human and mouse Ets-1 proteins with the exception of five and nine species-specific conservative amino acid differences, respectively. The steady-state level of the Tpl-1/Ets-1 RNA and of the Ets-1 protein was modestly elevated in tumors carrying a provirus in the Tpl-1 locus. The relative ratio of the two Ets-1 transcripts, which were shown to arise by differential polyadenylation, was not affected by provirus insertion. Moreover, the major site of transcriptional initiation, which was localized by primer extension 250 bp upstream of the 5' end of the Ets-1 cDNA clone, was shown to be identical in normal cells and tumors carrying a provirus in the Tpl-1 locus. Finally, the

  11. Detection of a unique antigen on radiation leukemia virus-induced leukemia B6RV2

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, E.; Uenaka, A.; Stockert, E.; Obata, Y.

    1984-11-01

    Radiation leukemia virus-induced leukemia of a male C57BL/6 mouse, B6RV2, is immunogenic to female BALB/c X C57BL/6 F1 mice. In these mice, B6RV2 tumors regressed after initial growth, and after tumor regression the mice were resistant to repeated inocula of up to 10(8) B6RV2 cells. Serum from these mice reacted with B6RV2 in mixed hemadsorption or protein A assays, and absorption analysis indicated that the antigen was restricted to B6RV2; it could not be detected in normal thymocytes or spleen concanavalin A blasts from different inbred strains, nor in 16 C57BL/6 or BALB/c leukemias. Spleen cells from mice in which the tumor had regressed were cytotoxic to B6RV2 after in vitro stimulation with B6RV2, as shown by /sup 51/chromium release assay. This cytotoxicity was eliminated by pretreatment of the cells with anti-Thy-1.2, anti-Lyt-2.2, anti-Lyt-3.2, and complement, indicating that the effector cells were T-cells. The specificity of T-cell killing of B6RV2 was examined by competitive inhibition assays with unlabeled cells; only B6RV2 inhibited killing, while eight other C57BL/6 leukemias did not inhibit. Thus, the antigen on B6RV2 defined serologically and by cytotoxic T-cells is a unique antigen. However, it was not revealed by antibody-blocking test whether the unique determinant defined serologically was related to that recognized by T-cells; B6RV2 antiserum did not block lytic activity in the absence of added complement, irrespective of whether the target cells were untreated or anti-H-2b-treated B6RV2. H-2Kb antisera, but not H-2Db antisera, blocked lysis. This indicated that the H-2Kb molecule was exclusively involved in recognition of B6RV2 by cytotoxic T-cell.

  12. Titration of murine leukemia viruses with rat cell line RFL.

    PubMed

    Koga, M

    1977-08-01

    Normal rat embryo cell (RFL) from syncytia after infection with murine leukemia virus. The assay for counting the number of syncytium foci produced in RFL cells is a sensitive method for a direct infectivity assay of murine leukemia virus.

  13. Methylcellulose media for plaque assay of murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Horikawa, Y; Sato, K; Saito, H

    1982-09-01

    When ecotropic murine leukemia virus was assayed by a methylcellulose-XC cell procedure, plaque titers showed less test-to-test variation, more uniform dose-response curves, and larger plaque sizes, as compared with results of the conventional liquid overlay-XC cell test system. This assay therefore seems to be reliable and useful for the titration of ecotropic murine leukemia virus.

  14. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induces tumour necrosis factor-alpha in murine astrocyte cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, A; Rubio, N

    1993-01-01

    Cytokines have been postulated to exert an important modulatory and recruiting role in demyelination induced by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in SJL/J mice. Using a cytolytic bioassay and ELISA, we have detected and quantified a cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in supernatants from astrocyte cultures infected in vitro with TMEV. TNF was detected only after TMEV-specific infection of astrocyte cultures (approximately 200-400 U/ml). In vitro TNF synthesis appeared in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was produced by both SJL/J (a strain susceptible to TMEV-induced demyelination) and BALB/c (a resistant strain) astrocytes. The precise nature of TNF activity was further assessed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and antibody neutralization. These results indicate an active role for astrocytes as accessory immune cells in our experimental model for multiple sclerosis. PMID:8478023

  15. Autophagy Genes Enhance Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Reactivation from Latency by Preventing Virus-Induced Systemic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Buck, Michael D; Desai, Chandni; Zhang, Xin; Loginicheva, Ekaterina; Martinez, Jennifer; Freeman, Michael L; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Guan, Jun-Lin; He, You-Wen; Blackman, Marcia A; Handley, Scott A; Levine, Beth; Green, Douglas R; Reese, Tiffany A; Artyomov, Maxim N; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-01-13

    Host genes that regulate systemic inflammation upon chronic viral infection are incompletely understood. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection is characterized by latency in macrophages, and reactivation is inhibited by interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Using a lysozyme-M-cre (LysMcre) expression system, we show that deletion of autophagy-related (Atg) genes Fip200, beclin 1, Atg14, Atg16l1, Atg7, Atg3, and Atg5, in the myeloid compartment, inhibited MHV68 reactivation in macrophages. Atg5 deficiency did not alter reactivation from B cells, and effects on reactivation from macrophages were not explained by alterations in productive viral replication or the establishment of latency. Rather, chronic MHV68 infection triggered increased systemic inflammation, increased T cell production of IFN-γ, and an IFN-γ-induced transcriptional signature in macrophages from Atg gene-deficient mice. The Atg5-related reactivation defect was partially reversed by neutralization of IFN-γ. Thus Atg genes in myeloid cells dampen virus-induced systemic inflammation, creating an environment that fosters efficient MHV68 reactivation from latency. PMID:26764599

  16. Dimethyl fumarate suppresses Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease by modifying the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kunitoshi; Tomiki, Hiroki; Inaba, Yuji; Ichikawa, Motoki; Kim, Byung S; Koh, Chang-Sung

    2015-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a modifier of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-2 (Nrf2)-kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway. DMF treatment in the effector phase significantly suppressed the development of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) both clinically and histologically. DMF treatment leads to an enhanced Nrf2 antioxidant response in TMEV-IDD mice. DMF treatment in the effector phase significantly suppressed the level of IL-17A mRNA. DMF is known to inhibit differentiation of T helper 17 (Th17) cells via suppressing NF-κB. Taken together, our data suggest that DMF treatment in the effector phase may suppress TMEV-IDD not only via enhancing the antioxidant response but also via suppressing IL-17A. PMID:25721871

  17. Expression of human HLA-B27 transgene alters susceptibility to murine Theiler's virus-induced demyelination.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Nickerson, C; Patick, A K; David, C S

    1991-04-15

    Infection of certain strains of mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus results in persistence of virus and an immune-mediated primary demyelination in the central nervous system that resembles multiple sclerosis. Because susceptibility/resistance to demyelination in B10 congeneic mice maps strongly to class I MHC genes (D region) we tested whether expression of a human class I MHC gene (HLA-B27) would alter susceptibility to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelination. Transgenic HLA-B27 mice were found to co-express human and endogenous mouse class I MHC genes by flow microfluorimetry analysis of PBL. In the absence of the human transgene, H-2stf, or v mice but not H-2b mice had chronic demyelination and persistence of virus at 45 days after infection. No difference in degree of demyelination, meningeal inflammation, or virus persistence was seen between transgenic HLA-B27 and nontransgenic littermate mice of H-2f or H-2v haplotype. In contrast, H-2s (HLA-B27+) mice showed a dramatic decrease in extent of demyelination and number of virus-Ag+ cells in the spinal cord compared with H-2s (HLA-B27-) littermate mice. In addition, none of the eight H-2s mice homozygous for HLA-B27 gene had spinal cord lesions even though infectious virus was isolated chronically from their central nervous system. Expression of HLA-B27 transgene did not interfere with the resistance to demyelination normally observed in B10 (H-2b) mice. These experiments demonstrate that expression of a human class I MHC gene can modulate a virus-induced demyelinating disease process in the mouse.

  18. The Role of B Cells for in Vivo T Cell Responses to a Friend Virus-Induced Leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Kirk R.; Klarnet, Jay P.; Gieni, Randall S.; Hayglass, Kent T.; Greenberg, Philip D.

    1990-08-01

    B cells can function as antigen-presenting cells and accessory cells for T cell responses. This study evaluated the role of B cells in the induction of protective T cell immunity to a Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced leukemia (FBL). B cell-deficient mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor-specific CD4^+ helper and CD8^+ cytotoxic T cell responses after priming with FBL or a recombinant vaccinia virus containing F-MuLV antigens. Moreover, these mice had diminished T cell responses to the vaccinia viral antigens. Tumor-primed T cells transferred into B cell-deficient mice effectively eradicated disseminated FBL. Thus, B cells appear necessary for efficient priming but not expression of tumor and viral T cell immunity.

  19. Infection of Murine Macrophages by Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Blocks Murine Norovirus Infectivity and Virus-induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar S; Basco, Maria D S; Mullis, Lisa; Foley, Steven L; Hart, Mark E; Sung, Kidon; Azevedo, Marli P

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteritis caused by bacterial and viral pathogens constitutes a major public health threat in the United States accounting for 35% of hospitalizations. In particular, Salmonella enterica and noroviruses cause the majority of gastroenteritis infections, with emergence of sporadic outbreaks and incidence of increased infections. Although mechanisms underlying infections by these pathogens have been individually studied, little is known about the mechanisms regulating co-infection by these pathogens. In this study, we utilized RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells to investigate the mechanisms governing co-infection with S. enterica serovar Heidelberg and murine norovirus (MNV). We demonstrate that infection of RAW 264.7 cells with S. enterica reduces the replication of MNV, in part by blocking virus entry early in the virus life cycle, and inducing antiviral cytokines later in the infection cycle. In particular, bacterial infection prior to, or during MNV infection affected virus entry, whereas MNV entry remained unaltered when the virus infection preceded bacterial invasion. This block in virus entry resulted in reduced virus replication, with the highest impact on replication observed during conditions of co-infection. In contrast, bacterial replication showed a threefold increase in MNV-infected cells, despite the presence of antibiotic in the medium. Most importantly, we present evidence that the infection of MNV-infected macrophages by S. enterica blocked MNV-induced apoptosis, despite allowing efficient virus replication. This apoptosis blockade was evidenced by reduction in DNA fragmentation and absence of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), caspase 3 and caspase 9 cleavage events. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of pathogenesis whereby initial co-infection with these pathogens could result in prolonged infection by either of these pathogens or both together.

  20. Infection of Murine Macrophages by Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Blocks Murine Norovirus Infectivity and Virus-induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar S.; Basco, Maria D. S.; Mullis, Lisa; Foley, Steven L.; Hart, Mark E.; Sung, Kidon; Azevedo, Marli P.

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteritis caused by bacterial and viral pathogens constitutes a major public health threat in the United States accounting for 35% of hospitalizations. In particular, Salmonella enterica and noroviruses cause the majority of gastroenteritis infections, with emergence of sporadic outbreaks and incidence of increased infections. Although mechanisms underlying infections by these pathogens have been individually studied, little is known about the mechanisms regulating co-infection by these pathogens. In this study, we utilized RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells to investigate the mechanisms governing co-infection with S. enterica serovar Heidelberg and murine norovirus (MNV). We demonstrate that infection of RAW 264.7 cells with S. enterica reduces the replication of MNV, in part by blocking virus entry early in the virus life cycle, and inducing antiviral cytokines later in the infection cycle. In particular, bacterial infection prior to, or during MNV infection affected virus entry, whereas MNV entry remained unaltered when the virus infection preceded bacterial invasion. This block in virus entry resulted in reduced virus replication, with the highest impact on replication observed during conditions of co-infection. In contrast, bacterial replication showed a threefold increase in MNV-infected cells, despite the presence of antibiotic in the medium. Most importantly, we present evidence that the infection of MNV-infected macrophages by S. enterica blocked MNV-induced apoptosis, despite allowing efficient virus replication. This apoptosis blockade was evidenced by reduction in DNA fragmentation and absence of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), caspase 3 and caspase 9 cleavage events. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of pathogenesis whereby initial co-infection with these pathogens could result in prolonged infection by either of these pathogens or both together. PMID:26658916

  1. Infection of Murine Macrophages by Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Blocks Murine Norovirus Infectivity and Virus-induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar S; Basco, Maria D S; Mullis, Lisa; Foley, Steven L; Hart, Mark E; Sung, Kidon; Azevedo, Marli P

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteritis caused by bacterial and viral pathogens constitutes a major public health threat in the United States accounting for 35% of hospitalizations. In particular, Salmonella enterica and noroviruses cause the majority of gastroenteritis infections, with emergence of sporadic outbreaks and incidence of increased infections. Although mechanisms underlying infections by these pathogens have been individually studied, little is known about the mechanisms regulating co-infection by these pathogens. In this study, we utilized RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells to investigate the mechanisms governing co-infection with S. enterica serovar Heidelberg and murine norovirus (MNV). We demonstrate that infection of RAW 264.7 cells with S. enterica reduces the replication of MNV, in part by blocking virus entry early in the virus life cycle, and inducing antiviral cytokines later in the infection cycle. In particular, bacterial infection prior to, or during MNV infection affected virus entry, whereas MNV entry remained unaltered when the virus infection preceded bacterial invasion. This block in virus entry resulted in reduced virus replication, with the highest impact on replication observed during conditions of co-infection. In contrast, bacterial replication showed a threefold increase in MNV-infected cells, despite the presence of antibiotic in the medium. Most importantly, we present evidence that the infection of MNV-infected macrophages by S. enterica blocked MNV-induced apoptosis, despite allowing efficient virus replication. This apoptosis blockade was evidenced by reduction in DNA fragmentation and absence of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), caspase 3 and caspase 9 cleavage events. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of pathogenesis whereby initial co-infection with these pathogens could result in prolonged infection by either of these pathogens or both together. PMID:26658916

  2. Activation of the c-H-ras proto-oncogene by retrovirus insertion and chromosomal rearrangement in a Moloney leukemia virus-induced T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ihle, J N; Smith-White, B; Sisson, B; Parker, D; Blair, D G; Schultz, A; Kozak, C; Lunsford, R D; Askew, D; Weinstein, Y

    1989-01-01

    A rearrangement of the c-H-ras locus was detected in a T-cell line (DA-2) established from a Moloney leukemia virus-induced tumor. This rearrangement was associated with the high-level expression of H-ras RNA and the H-ras gene product, p21. DNA from DA-2 cells transformed fibroblasts in DNA transfection experiments, and the transformed fibroblasts contained the rearranged H-ras locus. The rearrangement involved one allele and was present in tissue from the primary tumor from which the cell line was isolated. Cloning and sequencing of the rearranged allele and comparison with the normal allele demonstrated that the rearrangement was complex and probably resulted from the integration of a retrovirus in the H-ras locus between a 5' noncoding exon and the first coding exon and a subsequent homologous recombination between this provirus and another newly acquired provirus also located on chromosome 7. These events resulted in the translocation of the coding exons of the H-ras locus away from the 5' noncoding exon region to a new genomic site on chromosome 7. Sequencing of the coding regions of the gene failed to detect mutations in the 12th, 13th, 59th, or 61st codons. The possible reasons for the complexity of the rearrangement and the significance of the activation of the H-ras locus to T-cell transformation are discussed. Images PMID:2542606

  3. An HSEF for murine myeloid leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.; Cronkite, E.P.; Bullis, J.E.; Wuu, C.S.; Marino, S.A.; Zaider, M.

    1996-10-01

    In the past decade, a large amount of effort has gone into the development of hit size effectiveness functions (HSEFs), with the ultimate aim of replacing the present absorbed dose-RBE-Q system. However, the absorbed dose determined at the tissue level is incapable of providing information on single hits on (doses to) the single cell. As a result, it is necessary to resort to microdosimetry, which is capable of providing not only the number of hits on cells, but the distribution of hit sizes as well. From this information, an HSEF can be derived. However, to date there have been no sets of data available on animals exposed to radiations of several qualities, and for which microdosimetric data were available. The objective of the present set of experiments was to remedy this situation. Large numbers of mice were exposed to radiations of several different qualities, and were observed throughout their entire lifespan for the appearance of myeloid leukemia. The HSEF developed for this neoplasm is presented and discussed.

  4. Mechanisms for virus-induced liver disease: tumor necrosis factor-mediated pathology independent of natural killer and T cells during murine cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Orange, J S; Salazar-Mather, T P; Opal, S M; Biron, C A

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of endogenous NK cells and cytokines to virus-induced liver pathology was evaluated during murine cytomegalovirus infections of mice. In immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice, the virus induced a self-limited liver disease characterized by hepatitis, with focal inflammation, and large grossly visible subcapsular necrotic foci. The inflammatory foci were most numerous and contained the greatest number of cells 3 days after infection; they colocalized with areas of viral antigen expression. The largest number of necrotic foci was found 2 days after infection. Overall hepatic damage, assessed as increased expression of liver enzymes in serum, accompanied the development of inflammatory and necrotic foci. Experiments with neutralizing antibodies demonstrated that although virus-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) can have antiviral effects, it also mediated significant liver pathology. TNF was required for development of hepatic necrotic foci and increased levels of liver enzymes in serum but not for increased numbers of inflammatory foci. The necrotic foci and liver enzyme indications of pathology occurred independently of NK and T cells, because mice rendered NK-cell deficient by treatment with antibodies, T- and B-cell-deficient Rag-/- mice, and NK- and T-cell-deficient E26 mice all manifested both parameters of disease. Development of necrotic foci and maximally increased levels of liver enzymes in serum also were TNF dependent in NK-cell-deficient mice. Moreover, in the immunodeficient E26 mice, virus-induced liver disease was progressive, with eventual death of the host, and neutralization of TNF significantly increased longevity. These results establish conditions separating hepatitis from significant liver damage and demonstrate a cytokine-mediated component to viral pathogenesis. PMID:9371583

  5. Genetic determinants of feline leukemia virus-induced lymphoid tumors: patterns of proviral insertion and gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Tsatsanis, C; Fulton, R; Nishigaki, K; Tsujimoto, H; Levy, L; Terry, A; Spandidos, D; Onions, D; Neil, J C

    1994-12-01

    The genetic basis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-induced lymphoma was investigated in a series of 63 lymphoid tumors and tumor cell lines of presumptive T-cell origin. These were examined for virus-induced rearrangements of the c-myc, flvi-2 (bmi-1), fit-1, and pim-1 loci, for T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements, and for the presence of env recombinant FeLV (FeLV-B). The myc locus was most frequently affected in naturally occurring lymphomas (32%; n = 38) either by transduction (21%) or by proviral insertion (11%). Proviral insertions were also common at flvi-2 (24%). The two other loci were occupied in a smaller number of the naturally occurring tumors (fit-1, 8%; pim-1, 5%). Examination of the entire set of tumors showed that significant numbers were affected at two (19%) or three (5%) of the loci. Occupation of the fit-1 locus was observed most frequently in tumors induced by FeLV-myc strains, while flvi-2 insertions occurred with similar frequency in the presence or absence of obvious c-myc activation. These results suggest a hierarchy of mutational events in the genesis of feline T-cell lymphomas by FeLV and implicate insertion at fit-1 as a late progression step. The strongest links observed were with T-cell development, as monitored by rearrangement status of the TCR beta-chain gene, which was positively associated with activation of myc (P < 0.001), and with proviral insertion at flvi-2 (P = 0.02). This analysis also revealed a genetically distinct subset of thymic lymphomas with unrearranged TCR beta-chain genes in which the known target loci were involved very infrequently. The presence of env recombinant FeLV (FeLV-B) showed a negative correlation with proviral insertion at fit-1, possibly due to the rapid onset of these tumors. These results shed further light on the multistep process of FeLV leukemogenesis and the relationships between lymphoid cell maturation and susceptibility to FeLV transformation.

  6. Genetic determinants of feline leukemia virus-induced lymphoid tumors: patterns of proviral insertion and gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Tsatsanis, C; Fulton, R; Nishigaki, K; Tsujimoto, H; Levy, L; Terry, A; Spandidos, D; Onions, D; Neil, J C

    1994-12-01

    The genetic basis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-induced lymphoma was investigated in a series of 63 lymphoid tumors and tumor cell lines of presumptive T-cell origin. These were examined for virus-induced rearrangements of the c-myc, flvi-2 (bmi-1), fit-1, and pim-1 loci, for T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements, and for the presence of env recombinant FeLV (FeLV-B). The myc locus was most frequently affected in naturally occurring lymphomas (32%; n = 38) either by transduction (21%) or by proviral insertion (11%). Proviral insertions were also common at flvi-2 (24%). The two other loci were occupied in a smaller number of the naturally occurring tumors (fit-1, 8%; pim-1, 5%). Examination of the entire set of tumors showed that significant numbers were affected at two (19%) or three (5%) of the loci. Occupation of the fit-1 locus was observed most frequently in tumors induced by FeLV-myc strains, while flvi-2 insertions occurred with similar frequency in the presence or absence of obvious c-myc activation. These results suggest a hierarchy of mutational events in the genesis of feline T-cell lymphomas by FeLV and implicate insertion at fit-1 as a late progression step. The strongest links observed were with T-cell development, as monitored by rearrangement status of the TCR beta-chain gene, which was positively associated with activation of myc (P < 0.001), and with proviral insertion at flvi-2 (P = 0.02). This analysis also revealed a genetically distinct subset of thymic lymphomas with unrearranged TCR beta-chain genes in which the known target loci were involved very infrequently. The presence of env recombinant FeLV (FeLV-B) showed a negative correlation with proviral insertion at fit-1, possibly due to the rapid onset of these tumors. These results shed further light on the multistep process of FeLV leukemogenesis and the relationships between lymphoid cell maturation and susceptibility to FeLV transformation. PMID:7966623

  7. Dependence on exogenous methionine of rat sarcoma and murine leukemia cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Koziorowska, J; Pieńkowska, K; Tautt, J

    1980-01-01

    A comparative study was performed on methionine auxotrophy of rat sarcoma and murine leukemia cells taken directly from the organism and grown in culture in media lacking methionine or in which methionine was substituted by homocysteine. Methionine auxotrophy was observed in both kinds of cells. At low levels of methionine in the media containing homocysteine rat sarcoma cells showed an increase in growth. Addition of homocysteine to the media with low levels of methionine did not influence the survival of murine leukemia cells.

  8. Antileukemic Efficacy of Continuous vs Discontinuous Dexamethasone in Murine Models of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Laura B.; Janke, Laura J.; Payton, Monique A.; Cai, Xiangjun; Paugh, Steven W.; Karol, Seth E.; Kamdem, Landry Kamdem; Cheng, Cheng; Williams, Richard T.; Jeha, Sima; Pui, Ching-Hon; Evans, William E.; Relling, Mary V.

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is one of the most common, serious, toxicities resulting from the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In recent years, pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia clinical trials have used discontinuous rather than continuous dosing of dexamethasone in an effort to reduce the incidence of osteonecrosis. However, it is not known whether discontinuous dosing would compromise antileukemic efficacy of glucocorticoids. Therefore, we tested the efficacy of discontinuous dexamethasone against continuous dexamethasone in murine models bearing human acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenografts (n = 8 patient samples) or murine BCR-ABL+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Plasma dexamethasone concentrations (7.9 to 212 nM) were similar to those achieved in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia using conventional dosages. The median leukemia-free survival ranged from 16 to 59 days; dexamethasone prolonged survival from a median of 4 to 129 days in all seven dexamethasone-sensitive acute lymphoblastic leukemias. In the majority of cases (7 of 8 xenografts and the murine BCR-ABL model) we demonstrated equal efficacy of the two dexamethasone dosing regimens; whereas for one acute lymphoblastic leukemia sample, the discontinuous regimen yielded inferior antileukemic efficacy (log-rank p = 0.002). Our results support the clinical practice of using discontinuous rather than continuous dexamethasone dosing in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:26252865

  9. Hypoxia inhibits Moloney murine leukemia virus expression in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Maura; Bosco, Maria Carla; Federico, Maurizio; Pastorino, Sandra; Varesio, Luigi

    2007-02-01

    Hypoxia, a local decrease in oxygen tension, occurring in many pathological processes, modifies macrophage (Mphi) gene expression and function. Here, we provide the first evidence that hypoxia inhibits transgene expression driven by the Moloney murine leukemia virus-long terminal repeats (MoMLV-LTR) in IFN-gamma-activated Mphi. Hypoxia silenced the expression of several MoMLV-LTR-driven genes, including v-myc, enhanced green fluorescence protein, and env, and was effective in different mouse Mphi cell lines and on distinct MoMLV backbone-based viruses. Down-regulation of MoMLV mRNA occurred at the transcriptional level and was associated with decreased retrovirus production, as determined by titration experiments, suggesting that hypoxia may control MoMLV retroviral spread through the suppression of LTR activity. In contrast, genes driven by the CMV or the SV40 promoter were up-regulated or unchanged by hypoxia, indicating a selective inhibitory activity on the MoMLV promoter. It is interesting that hypoxia was ineffective in suppressing MoMLV-LTR-controlled gene expression in T or fibroblast cell lines, suggesting a Mphi lineage-selective action. Finally, we found that MoMLV-mediated gene expression in Mphi was also inhibited by picolinic acid, a tryptophan catabolite with hypoxia-like activity and Mphi-activating properties, suggesting a pathophysiological role of this molecule in viral resistance and its possible use as an antiviral agent.

  10. Human APOBEC3G incorporation into murine leukemia virus particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, Melanie; Schnierle, Barbara S. . E-mail: schba@pei.de

    2005-06-20

    The human APOBEC3G protein exhibits broad antiretroviral activity against a variety of retroviruses. It is packaged into viral particles and executes its antiviral function in the target cell. The packaging of APOBEC3G into different viral particles requires a mechanism that confers this promiscuity. Here, APOBEC3G incorporation into murine leukemia virus (MLV) was studied using retroviral vectors. APOBEC3G uptake did not require either its cytidine deaminase activity or the presence of a retroviral vector genome. Results from immunoprecipitation and co-localization studies of APOBEC3G with a MLV Gag-CFP (cyan fluorescent protein) fusion protein imply an interaction between both proteins. RNase A treatment did not inhibit the co-precipitation of Gag-CFP and APOBEC3G, suggesting that the interaction is RNA independent. Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag, the MLV Gag precursor protein appears to interact with APOBEC3G, indicating that Gag contains conserved structures which are used to encapsidate APOBEC3G into different retroviral particles.

  11. Activation of RNase L by Murine Coronavirus in Myeloid Cells Is Dependent on Basal Oas Gene Expression and Independent of Virus-Induced Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Birdwell, L. Dillon; Zalinger, Zachary B.; Li, Yize; Wright, Patrick W.; Elliott, Ruth; Rose, Kristine M.; Silverman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)-RNase L pathway is a potent interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral activity. Upon sensing double-stranded RNA, OAS produces 2′,5′-oligoadenylates (2-5A), which activate RNase L. Murine coronavirus (mouse hepatitis virus [MHV]) nonstructural protein 2 (ns2) is a 2′,5′-phosphodiesterase (PDE) that cleaves 2-5A, thereby antagonizing RNase L activation. PDE activity is required for robust replication in myeloid cells, as a mutant of MHV (ns2H126R) encoding an inactive PDE fails to antagonize RNase L activation and replicates poorly in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM), while ns2H126R replicates to high titer in several types of nonmyeloid cells, as well as in IFN receptor-deficient (Ifnar1−/−) BMM. We reported previously that myeloid cells express significantly higher basal levels of OAS transcripts than nonmyeloid cells. Here, we investigated the contributions of Oas gene expression, basal IFN signaling, and virus-induced IFN to RNase L activation. Infection with ns2H126R activated RNase L in Ifih1−/− BMM to a similar extent as in wild-type (WT) BMM, despite the lack of IFN induction in the absence of MDA5 expression. However, ns2H126R failed to induce RNase L activation in BMM treated with IFNAR1-blocking antibody, as well as in Ifnar1−/− BMM, both expressing low basal levels of Oas genes. Thus, activation of RNase L does not require virus-induced IFN but rather correlates with adequate levels of basal Oas gene expression, maintained by basal IFN signaling. Finally, overexpression of RNase L is not sufficient to compensate for inadequate basal OAS levels. IMPORTANCE The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)-RNase L pathway is a potent antiviral activity. Activation of RNase L during murine coronavirus (mouse hepatitis virus [MHV]) infection of myeloid cells correlates with high basal Oas gene expression and is independent of virus-induced interferon secretion. Thus, our data suggest that cells with high basal

  12. Unstable resistance of G mouse fibroblasts to ecotropic murine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikura, H; Naito, Y; Moriwaki, K

    1979-01-01

    G mouse cells were resistant to N- and NB-tropic Friend leukemia viruses and to B-tropic WN 1802B. Though the cells were resistant to focus formation by the Moloney isolate of murine sarcoma virus, they were relatively sensitive to helper component murine leukemia virus. To amphotropic murine leukemia virus and to focus formation by amphotropic murine sarcoma virus, G mouse cells were fully permissive. When the cell lines were established starting from the individual embryos, most cell lines were not resistant to the murine leukemia viruses. Only one resistant line was established. Cloning of this cell line indicated that the resistant cells constantly segregated sensitive cells during the culture; i.e., the G mouse cell cultures were probably always mixtures of sensitive and resistant cells. Among the sensitive cell clones, some were devoid of Fv-1 restriction. Such dually permissive cells, and also feral mouse-derived SC-1 cells, retained glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-1 and apparently normal number 4 chromosomes. The loss of Fv-1 restriction in these mouse cells was not brought about by any gross structural changes in the vicinity of Fv-1 on number 4 chromosomes. Images PMID:221667

  13. Self-renewal of leukemia stem cells in Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia requires proviral insertional activation of Spi1 and hedgehog signaling but not mutation of p53.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shailaja; Hankey, Pamela; Paulson, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    Friend virus induces erythroleukemia through a characteristic two-stage progression. The prevailing model proposes that during the initial, polyclonal stage of disease most of the infected cells terminally differentiate, resulting in acute erythrocytosis. In the late stage of disease, a clonal leukemia develops through the acquisition of new mutations--proviral insertional activation of Spi1/Pu.1 and mutation of p53. Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that Friend virus activates the bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4)-dependent stress erythropoiesis pathway, which leads to the rapid expansion of stress erythroid progenitors, which are the targets for Friend virus in the spleen. We recently showed that stress erythroid progenitors have intrinsic self-renewal ability and therefore could function as leukemia stem cells (LSCs) when infected with Friend virus. Here, we show that the two stages of Friend virus-induced disease are caused by infection of distinct stress progenitor populations in the spleen. The development of leukemia relies on the ability of the virus to hijack the intrinsic self-renewal capability of stress erythroid progenitors leading to the generation of LSCs. Two signals are required for the self-renewal of Friend virus LSCs proviral insertional activation of Spi1/Pu.1 and Hedgehog-dependent signaling. Surprisingly, mutation of p53 is not observed in LSCs. These data establish a new model for Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia and demonstrate the utility of Friend virus as a model system to study LSC self-renewal.

  14. A Multicenter Blinded Analysis Indicates No Association between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and either Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus or Polytropic Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Harvey J.; Mikovits, Judy A.; Switzer, William M.; Ruscetti, Francis W.; Lo, Shyh-Ching; Klimas, Nancy; Komaroff, Anthony L.; Montoya, Jose G.; Bateman, Lucinda; Levine, Susan; Peterson, Daniel; Levin, Bruce; Hanson, Maureen R.; Genfi, Afia; Bhat, Meera; Zheng, HaoQiang; Wang, Richard; Li, Bingjie; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Lee, Li Ling; Sameroff, Stephen; Heneine, Walid; Coffin, John; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The disabling disorder known as chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) has been linked in two independent studies to infection with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV). Although the associations were not confirmed in subsequent studies by other investigators, patients continue to question the consensus of the scientific community in rejecting the validity of the association. Here we report blinded analysis of peripheral blood from a rigorously characterized, geographically diverse population of 147 patients with CFS/ME and 146 healthy subjects by the investigators describing the original association. This analysis reveals no evidence of either XMRV or pMLV infection. PMID:22991430

  15. Redistribution and modulation of Gross murine leukemia virus antigens induced by specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ioachim, H L; Sabbath, M

    1979-01-01

    Gross murine leukemia virus (G-MuLV)-induced rat leukemia cells in tissue culture replicate G-MuLV, express strong virus-associated membrane antigenicity, and are consistently killed by specific antibodies and complement in cytotoxicity tests. To explore the effect of specific antibodies, rat anti-G-MuLV antisera were added to the cultures of leukemia cells for variable periods of time. Redistribution of virus particles as well as of membrane virus antigens in the form of polar patches and caps was observed by electron microscopy, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. Substantial decreases in cytotoxicity indexes accompanied these changes. The antigen modulation induced by anti-G-MuLV antibodies in vitro paralleled similar changes obtained in vivo by transplanttion of leukemia cells in rats with high anti-G-MuLV antibody titers. The importance of antigen modulation in this system resides in its direct relationship with the malignant potential of the leukemia cells.

  16. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using 211At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco, Johnnie J.; Back, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Balkin, Ethan R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Frayo, Shani; Hylarides, Mark; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.

    2013-05-15

    Anti-CD45 Radioimmunotherapy using an Alpha-Emitting Radionuclide 211At Combined with Bone Marrow Transplantation Prolongs Survival in a Disseminated Murine Leukemia Model ABSTRACT Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies (Ab) labeled primarily with beta-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse.

  17. Endogenous murine leukemia virus-encoded proteins in radiation leukemias of BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tress, E.; Pierotti, M.; DeLeo, A.B.; O'Donnell, P.V.; Fleissner, E.

    1982-02-01

    To explore the role of endogenous retroviruses in radiation-induced leukemogenesis in the mouse, we have examined virus-encoded proteins in nine BALB/c leukemias by pulsechase labeling procedures and serological typing with monospecific and monoclonal antibodies. The major gag precursor protein, Pr65/sup gag/, was observed in all cases, but only three leukemias expressed detectable amounts of the glycosylated gag species, gP95/sup gag/, or its precursor, Pr75/sup gag/. No evidence was found for synthesis of gag-host fusion proteins. None of the leukemias released infectious xenotropic or dualtropic virus, but all nine expressed at least one env protein with xenotropic properties. In two instances a monoclonal antibody, 35/56, which is specific for the NuLV G/sub IX/ antigen, displayed a distinctive reactivity with this class of env protein, although this antibody is unreactive with replicating xenotropic viruses. An ecotropic/xenotropic recombinant env protein with the same 35/56 phenotype was observed in a leukemia induced by a strongly leukemogenic virus isolated from a BALB/c radiation leukemia.

  18. Fate of viral RNA of murine leukemia virus after infection.

    PubMed Central

    Takano, T; Hatanaka, M

    1975-01-01

    [3H]Uridine-labeled Rauscher leukemia virus was used to infect mouse embryo fibroblasts. After the infected cells were separated into nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions nucleic acid was extracted by sodium dodecyl sulfate-phenol-chloroform treatment and analyzed by Cs2SO4 and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Between 45 and 70 min after infection a transient and synchronized shift of the acid-insoluble radioactive peak toward the RNA-DNA hybrid region occurred in both the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. The density of the cytoplasmic hybrid shifted to 1.56 g/ml (RNA equals about 50%), while the sedimentation rate decreased from 36 S to 14 S; however, the density of the nuclear hybrid shifted to 1.58-1.48 g/ml (RNA equals 57-17%, respectively), while its sedimentation rate remained about 65 S. The hybrids in both the nuclear and the cytoplasmic fractions still showed hybrid density after heat denaturation. The processes of the early stages of RNA tumor virus infection are discussed with regard to the functions of viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase) and a possible integration of viral genetic information into the host chromosome. PMID:164022

  19. Modeling of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: An Overview of In Vivo Murine and Human Xenograft Models.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, Pallavi; Jaques, Jenny; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, a wide variety of in vivo mouse models have been generated in order to unravel the molecular pathology of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and to develop and improve therapeutic approaches. These models range from (conditional) transgenic models, knock-in models, and murine bone marrow retroviral transduction models followed by transplantation. With the advancement of immunodeficient xenograft models, it has become possible to use human stem/progenitor cells for in vivo studies as well as cells directly derived from CML patients. These models not only mimic CML but also have been instrumental in uncovering various fundamental mechanisms of CML disease progression and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. With the availability of iPSC technology, it has become feasible to derive, maintain, and expand CML subclones that are at least genetically identical to those in patients. The following review provides an overview of all murine as well as human xenograft models for CML established till date. PMID:27642303

  20. Sensitivity to. gamma. rays of avian sarcoma and murine leukemia viruses. [/sup 60/Co, uv

    SciTech Connect

    Toyoshima, K.; Niwa, O.; Yutsudo, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Tahara, S.; Sugahara, T.

    1980-09-01

    The direct inactivation of avian and murine oncoviruses by ..gamma.. rays was examined using /sup 60/Co as a ..gamma..-ray source. The inactivation of murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) followed single-hit kinetics while the subgroup D Schmidt-Ruppin strain of avian sarcoma virus (SR-RSV D) showed multihit inactivation kinetics with an extrapolation number of 5. The two viruses showed similar uv-inactivation kinetics. The genomic RNA of the SR-RSV D strain was degraded by ..gamma.. irradiation faster than its infectivity, but viral clones isolated from the foci formed after ..gamma.. irradiation had a complete genome. These results suggest that SR-RSV D has a strong repair function, possibly connected with reverse transcriptase activity.

  1. Modeling of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: An Overview of In Vivo Murine and Human Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Vellenga, Edo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, a wide variety of in vivo mouse models have been generated in order to unravel the molecular pathology of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and to develop and improve therapeutic approaches. These models range from (conditional) transgenic models, knock-in models, and murine bone marrow retroviral transduction models followed by transplantation. With the advancement of immunodeficient xenograft models, it has become possible to use human stem/progenitor cells for in vivo studies as well as cells directly derived from CML patients. These models not only mimic CML but also have been instrumental in uncovering various fundamental mechanisms of CML disease progression and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. With the availability of iPSC technology, it has become feasible to derive, maintain, and expand CML subclones that are at least genetically identical to those in patients. The following review provides an overview of all murine as well as human xenograft models for CML established till date.

  2. Modeling of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: An Overview of In Vivo Murine and Human Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Vellenga, Edo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, a wide variety of in vivo mouse models have been generated in order to unravel the molecular pathology of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and to develop and improve therapeutic approaches. These models range from (conditional) transgenic models, knock-in models, and murine bone marrow retroviral transduction models followed by transplantation. With the advancement of immunodeficient xenograft models, it has become possible to use human stem/progenitor cells for in vivo studies as well as cells directly derived from CML patients. These models not only mimic CML but also have been instrumental in uncovering various fundamental mechanisms of CML disease progression and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. With the availability of iPSC technology, it has become feasible to derive, maintain, and expand CML subclones that are at least genetically identical to those in patients. The following review provides an overview of all murine as well as human xenograft models for CML established till date. PMID:27642303

  3. Titration patterns of a murine sarcoma-leukemia virus complex: evidence for existence of competent sarcoma virions.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, T E; Fischinger, P J

    1968-01-19

    Stocks of inurine sarcoma virus show titration patterns ranging from one-to two-hit kinetics. The comparison of various titrations of this virus, both with and without added helper virus, to theoretical model systems composed of defined constituents, suggests the existence of a sarcoma virus that does not need coinfectinig murine leukemia virus to be manifested as a focus-forming unit. The behavior of such nondefective particles is compatible with a postulated leukemia-sarcoma virus hybrid.

  4. Histological and In Vivo Microscopic Analysis of the Bone Marrow Microenvironment in a Murine Model of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Weissenberger, Eva S; Krause, Daniela S

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of the leukemic bone marrow microenvironment, also called the leukemic bone marrow niche, is an essential method to determine and to evaluate the progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and other leukemias in murine models. In this chapter we introduce the murine model of CML primarily used in our laboratory by describing blood and bone marrow analysis as well as the method of histological sectioning and immunohistochemistry in combination with various stainings that can help to understand the complex interaction between leukemic cells, their normal hematopoietic counterparts, and the bone marrow microenvironment. We conclude with describing how to image the bone marrow niche using in vivo microscopy. PMID:27581139

  5. Antileukemic effect of zerumbone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier in WEHI-3B cell-induced murine leukemia model

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Rasedee, Abdullah; How, Chee Wun; Zeenathul, Nazariah Allaudin; Chartrand, Max Stanley; Yeap, Swee Keong; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Tan, Sheau Wei; Othman, Hemn Hassan; Ajdari, Zahra; Namvar, Farideh; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Daneshvar, Nasibeh; Begum, Hasina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer nanotherapy is progressing rapidly with the introduction of many innovative drug delivery systems to replace conventional therapy. Although the antitumor activity of zerumbone (ZER) has been reported, there has been no information available on the effect of ZER-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) on murine leukemia cells. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of ZER-NLC on murine leukemia induced with WEHI-3B cells were investigated. The results from 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Hoechst 33342, Annexin V, cell cycle, and caspase activity assays showed that the growth of leukemia cells in vitro was inhibited by ZER-NLC. In addition, outcomes of histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, and Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analyses revealed that the number of leukemia cells in the spleen of BALB/c leukemia mice significantly decreased after 4 weeks of oral treatment with various doses of ZER-NLC. Western blotting and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed the antileukemia effects of ZER-NLC. In conclusion, ZER-NLC was shown to induce a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway in murine leukemia. Loading of ZER in NLC did not compromise the anticancer effect of the compound, suggesting ZER-NLC as a promising and effective delivery system for treatment of cancers. PMID:25767386

  6. Mutational analysis of the envelope gene of Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, K D; Roth, M J

    1993-01-01

    The env gene products of Moloney murine leukemia virus are required for binding and entry of the virus into the target cell. Thirty-three linker insertion mutations were constructed throughout the env gene of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Twenty of the mutations were located in the surface protein (SU), and the remaining thirteen were located in the transmembrane protein (TM). The viability of the viruses containing these env gene mutations was determined by performing transient transfections and screening for the release of reverse transcriptase. Eleven viable mutants were isolated, nine in SU and two in TM. Three of the viable mutants were temperature sensitive. Four of the viable mutants were clustered in the carboxy terminus of SU. The env gene products of transfected cell lines which produced viable virus were analyzed. Our results indicated two regions of SU important for the stability of the SU/TM heteropolymer and one region important for the interaction of the env gene products with the viral core. Images PMID:7684467

  7. Significance of murine retroviral mutagenesis for identification of disease genes in human acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Erkeland, Stefan J; Verhaak, Roel G W; Valk, Peter J M; Delwel, Ruud; Löwenberg, Bob; Touw, Ivo P

    2006-01-15

    Retroviral insertion mutagenesis is considered a powerful tool to identify cancer genes in mice, but its significance for human cancer has remained elusive. Moreover, it has recently been debated whether common virus integrations are always a hallmark of tumor cells and contribute to the oncogenic process. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with a variable response to treatment. Recurrent cytogenetic defects and acquired mutations in regulatory genes are associated with AML subtypes and prognosis. Recently, gene expression profiling (GEP) has been applied to further risk stratify AML. Here, we show that mouse leukemia genes identified by retroviral insertion mutagenesis are more frequently differentially expressed in distinct subclasses of adult and pediatric AML than randomly selected genes or genes located more distantly from a virus integration site. The candidate proto-oncogenes showing discriminative expression in primary AML could be placed in regulatory networks mainly involved in signal transduction and transcriptional control. Our data support the validity of retroviral insertion mutagenesis in mice for human disease and indicate that combining these murine screens for potential proto-oncogenes with GEP in human AML may help to identify critical disease genes and novel pathogenetic networks in leukemia.

  8. Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Leukemia What Is Leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. ... diagnosed with leukemia are over 50 years old. Leukemia Starts in Bone Marrow Click for more information ...

  9. Preclinical activity of the novel B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 inhibitor PTC-209 in acute myeloid leukemia: Implications for leukemia therapy.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yuki; Maeda, Aya; Chachad, Dhruv; Ishizawa, Jo; Qiu, Yi Hua; Kornblau, Steven M; Kimura, Shinya; Andreeff, Michael; Kojima, Kensuke

    2015-12-01

    Curing patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a therapeutic challenge. The polycomb complex protein B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1) is required for the self-renewal and maintenance of leukemia stem cells. We investigated the prognostic significance of BMI-1 in AML and the effects of a novel small molecule selective inhibitor of BMI-1, PTC-209. BMI-1 protein expression was determined in 511 newly diagnosed AML patients together with 207 other proteins using reverse-phase protein array technology. Patients with unfavorable cytogenetics according to Southwest Oncology Group criteria had higher levels of BMI-1 compared to those with favorable (P = 0.0006) or intermediate cytogenetics (P = 0.0061), and patients with higher levels of BMI-1 had worse overall survival (55.3 weeks vs. 42.8 weeks, P = 0.046). Treatment with PTC-209 reduced protein level of BMI-1 and its downstream target mono-ubiquitinated histone H2A and triggered several molecular events consistent with the induction of apoptosis, this is, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 cleavage, BAX activation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. PTC-209 induced apoptosis in patient-derived CD34(+)CD38(low/-) AML cells and, less prominently, in CD34(-) differentiated AML cells. BMI-1 reduction by PTC-209 directly correlated with apoptosis induction in CD34(+) primary AML cells (r = 0.71, P = 0.022). However, basal BMI-1 expression was not a determinant of AML sensitivity. BMI-1 inhibition, which targets a primitive AML cell population, might offer a novel therapeutic strategy for AML. PMID:26450753

  10. Identification of a locus on mouse chromosome 3 involved in differential susceptibility to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease.

    PubMed Central

    Melvold, R W; Jokinen, D M; Miller, S D; Dal Canto, M C; Lipton, H L

    1990-01-01

    Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease results from a chronic infection in the white matter of the central nervous system and provides an excellent model for human multiple sclerosis. Like multiple sclerosis, there are genetic risk factors in disease development, including genes associated with the major histocompatibility complex and with those encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. Comparisons of the susceptible DBA/2 and resistant C57BL/6 strains have indicated an important role for the H-2D locus and for a non-H-2 gene (not involving the beta chain of the T-cell receptor) in differential susceptibility. In the present report, analysis of recombinant-inbred strains (BXD) between the DBA/2 and C57BL/6 strains indicated that this non-H-2 locus is located at the centromeric end of chromosome 3 near (4 +/- 4 centimorgans) the carbonic anhydrase-2 (Car-2) enzyme locus. PMID:2296080

  11. The xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related retrovirus debate continues at first international workshop.

    PubMed

    Stoye, Jonathan P; Silverman, Robert H; Boucher, Charles A; Le Grice, Stuart F J

    2010-12-22

    The 1st International Workshop on Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Retrovirus (XMRV), co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, The Department of Health and Human Services and Abbott Diagnostics, was convened on September 7/8, 2010 on the NIH campus, Bethesda, MD. Attracting an international audience of over 200 participants, the 2-day event combined a series of plenary talks with updates on different aspects of XMRV research, addressing basic gammaretrovirus biology, host response, association of XMRV with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer, assay development and epidemiology. The current status of XMRV research, concerns among the scientific community and suggestions for future actions are summarized in this meeting report.

  12. Altering murine leukemia virus integration through disruption of the integrase and BET protein family interaction.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, Sriram; Swapna, G V T; Malani, Nirav; Aramini, James M; Schneider, William M; Plumb, Matthew R; Ghanem, Mustafa; Larue, Ross C; Sharma, Amit; Studamire, Barbara; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Bushman, Frederic D; Montelione, Gaetano T; Roth, Monica J

    2014-05-01

    We report alterations to the murine leukemia virus (MLV) integrase (IN) protein that successfully result in decreasing its integration frequency at transcription start sites and CpG islands, thereby reducing the potential for insertional activation. The host bromo and extraterminal (BET) proteins Brd2, 3 and 4 interact with the MLV IN protein primarily through the BET protein ET domain. Using solution NMR, protein interaction studies, and next generation sequencing, we show that the C-terminal tail peptide region of MLV IN is important for the interaction with BET proteins and that disruption of this interaction through truncation mutations affects the global targeting profile of MLV vectors. The use of the unstructured tails of gammaretroviral INs to direct association with complexes at active promoters parallels that used by histones and RNA polymerase II. Viruses bearing MLV IN C-terminal truncations can provide new avenues to improve the safety profile of gammaretroviral vectors for human gene therapy. PMID:24623816

  13. Altering murine leukemia virus integration through disruption of the integrase and BET protein family interaction

    PubMed Central

    Aiyer, Sriram; Swapna, G.V.T.; Malani, Nirav; Aramini, James M.; Schneider, William M.; Plumb, Matthew R.; Ghanem, Mustafa; Larue, Ross C.; Sharma, Amit; Studamire, Barbara; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Bushman, Frederic D.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Roth, Monica J.

    2014-01-01

    We report alterations to the murine leukemia virus (MLV) integrase (IN) protein that successfully result in decreasing its integration frequency at transcription start sites and CpG islands, thereby reducing the potential for insertional activation. The host bromo and extraterminal (BET) proteins Brd2, 3 and 4 interact with the MLV IN protein primarily through the BET protein ET domain. Using solution NMR, protein interaction studies, and next generation sequencing, we show that the C-terminal tail peptide region of MLV IN is important for the interaction with BET proteins and that disruption of this interaction through truncation mutations affects the global targeting profile of MLV vectors. The use of the unstructured tails of gammaretroviral INs to direct association with complexes at active promoters parallels that used by histones and RNA polymerase II. Viruses bearing MLV IN C-terminal truncations can provide new avenues to improve the safety profile of gammaretroviral vectors for human gene therapy. PMID:24623816

  14. Removal of xenotropic murine leukemia virus by nanocellulose based filter paper.

    PubMed

    Asper, M; Hanrieder, T; Quellmalz, A; Mihranyan, A

    2015-11-01

    The removal of xenotrpic murine leukemia virus (xMuLV) by size-exclusion filter paper composed of 100% naturally derived cellulose was validated. The filter paper was produced using cellulose nanofibers derived from Cladophora sp. algae. The filter paper was characterized using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, helium pycnometry, and model tracer (100 nm latex beads and 50 nm gold nanoparticles) retention tests. Following the filtration of xMuLV spiked solutions, LRV ≥5.25 log10 TCID50 was observed, as limited by the virus titre in the feed solution and sensitivity of the tissue infectivity test. The results of the validation study suggest that the nanocellulose filter paper is useful for removal of endogenous rodent retroviruses and retrovirus-like particles during the production of recombinant proteins.

  15. p12 Tethers the Murine Leukemia Virus Pre-integration Complex to Mitotic Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Elis, Efrat; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Prizan-Ravid, Adi; Laham-Karam, Nihay; Bacharach, Eran

    2012-01-01

    The p12 protein of the murine leukemia virus (MLV) is a constituent of the pre-integration complex (PIC) but its function in this complex remains unknown. We developed an imaging system to monitor MLV PIC trafficking in live cells. This allowed the visualization of PIC docking to mitotic chromosomes and its release upon exit from mitosis. Docking occurred concomitantly with nuclear envelope breakdown and was impaired for PICs of viruses with lethal p12 mutations. Insertion of a heterologous chromatin binding module into p12 of one of these mutants restored PICs attachment to the chromosomes and partially rescued virus replication. Capsid dissociated from wild type PICs in mitotic cells but remained associated with PICs harboring tethering-negative p12 mutants. Altogether, these results explain, in part, MLV restriction to dividing cells and reveal a role for p12 as a factor that tethers MLV PIC to mitotic chromosomes. PMID:23300449

  16. A flavone derivative from Sesbania sesban leaves and its cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianhar, Hanhan; Syah, Yana Maolana; Mujahidin, Didin; Hakim, Euis Holisotan; Juliawaty, Lia Dewi

    2014-03-01

    Sesbania sesban, locally named as Jayanti, is one of Indonesia plants belonging to Fabaceae family. This species is traditionally used by Indonesian people to cure digestive disorders, fever, or headache. Jayanti can grow well in tropical to subtropical region, such as in Asia and Africa. Based on literature, qualitative analysis of the methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban showed that it contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. In addition, the activity assay of extracts of different tissues of this species showed antitumor, antimalarial, and antidiabetic activityies (leaves and seed extracts), antioxidants (flower extract), and analgesic (wood extract). Though the extracts of S. sesban parts showed interesting activities, chemical study of those extracts have not been widely reported. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate the secondary metabolites from methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban and to determine their cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells. One compound has been obtained and identified as 3-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (1), a new isolated compound from nature. This compound was obtained through separation of methanol extract using various chromatographic techniques, such as vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structure elucidation of isolated compound was based on 1D NMR (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and 2D NMR (HMBC). The cytotoxicity of methanol extract and compound 1 against murine leukemia P-388 cells examined through MTT assay showed IC50 value of 60.04 μg/mL and 5.40 μg/mL, respectively.

  17. A flavone derivative from Sesbania sesban leaves and its cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dianhar, Hanhan Syah, Yana Maolana Mujahidin, Didin Hakim, Euis Holisotan Juliawaty, Lia Dewi

    2014-03-24

    Sesbania sesban, locally named as Jayanti, is one of Indonesia plants belonging to Fabaceae family. This species is traditionally used by Indonesian people to cure digestive disorders, fever, or headache. Jayanti can grow well in tropical to subtropical region, such as in Asia and Africa. Based on literature, qualitative analysis of the methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban showed that it contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. In addition, the activity assay of extracts of different tissues of this species showed antitumor, antimalarial, and antidiabetic activityies (leaves and seed extracts), antioxidants (flower extract), and analgesic (wood extract). Though the extracts of S. sesban parts showed interesting activities, chemical study of those extracts have not been widely reported. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate the secondary metabolites from methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban and to determine their cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells. One compound has been obtained and identified as 3-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (1), a new isolated compound from nature. This compound was obtained through separation of methanol extract using various chromatographic techniques, such as vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structure elucidation of isolated compound was based on 1D NMR ({sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR) and 2D NMR (HMBC). The cytotoxicity of methanol extract and compound 1 against murine leukemia P-388 cells examined through MTT assay showed IC{sub 50} value of 60.04 μg/mL and 5.40 μg/mL, respectively.

  18. NMR study of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease in a complex with amprenavir.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Ayako; Okamura, Hideyasu; Morishita, Ryo; Matsunaga, Satoko; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Ikegami, Takahisa; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Ryo, Akihide; Nagata, Takashi; Katahira, Masato

    2012-08-24

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a virus created through recombination of two murine leukemia proviruses under artificial conditions during the passage of human prostate cancer cells in athymic nude mice. The homodimeric protease (PR) of XMRV plays a critical role in the production of functional viral proteins and is a prerequisite for viral replication. We synthesized XMRV PR using the wheat germ cell-free expression system and carried out structural analysis of XMRV PR in a complex with an inhibitor, amprenavir (APV), by means of NMR. Five different combinatorially (15)N-labeled samples were prepared and backbone resonance assignments were made by applying Otting's method, with which the amino acid types of the [(1)H, (15)N] HSQC resonances were automatically identified using the five samples (Wu et al., 2006) [14]. A titration experiment involving APV revealed that one APV molecule binds to one XMRV PR dimer. For many residues, two distinct resonances were observed, which is thought to be due to the structural heterogeneity between the two protomers in the APV:XMRV PR=1:2 complex. PR residues at the interface with APV have been identified on the basis of chemical shift perturbation and identification of the intermolecular NOEs by means of filtered NOE experiments. Interestingly, chemical shift heterogeneity between the two protomers of XMRV PR has been observed not only at the interface with APV but also in regions apart from the interface. This indicates that the structural heterogeneity induced by the asymmetry of the binding of APV to the XMRV PR dimer is transmitted to distant regions. This is in contrast to the case of the APV:HIV-1 PR complex, in which the structural heterogeneity is only localized at the interface. Long-range transmission of the structural change identified for the XMRV PR complex might be utilized for the discovery of a new type of drug. PMID:22842568

  19. NMR study of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease in a complex with amprenavir.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Ayako; Okamura, Hideyasu; Morishita, Ryo; Matsunaga, Satoko; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Ikegami, Takahisa; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Ryo, Akihide; Nagata, Takashi; Katahira, Masato

    2012-08-24

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a virus created through recombination of two murine leukemia proviruses under artificial conditions during the passage of human prostate cancer cells in athymic nude mice. The homodimeric protease (PR) of XMRV plays a critical role in the production of functional viral proteins and is a prerequisite for viral replication. We synthesized XMRV PR using the wheat germ cell-free expression system and carried out structural analysis of XMRV PR in a complex with an inhibitor, amprenavir (APV), by means of NMR. Five different combinatorially (15)N-labeled samples were prepared and backbone resonance assignments were made by applying Otting's method, with which the amino acid types of the [(1)H, (15)N] HSQC resonances were automatically identified using the five samples (Wu et al., 2006) [14]. A titration experiment involving APV revealed that one APV molecule binds to one XMRV PR dimer. For many residues, two distinct resonances were observed, which is thought to be due to the structural heterogeneity between the two protomers in the APV:XMRV PR=1:2 complex. PR residues at the interface with APV have been identified on the basis of chemical shift perturbation and identification of the intermolecular NOEs by means of filtered NOE experiments. Interestingly, chemical shift heterogeneity between the two protomers of XMRV PR has been observed not only at the interface with APV but also in regions apart from the interface. This indicates that the structural heterogeneity induced by the asymmetry of the binding of APV to the XMRV PR dimer is transmitted to distant regions. This is in contrast to the case of the APV:HIV-1 PR complex, in which the structural heterogeneity is only localized at the interface. Long-range transmission of the structural change identified for the XMRV PR complex might be utilized for the discovery of a new type of drug.

  20. Effects of murine leukemia virus env gene proteins on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Takemoto, L. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    F5b Tumor cells were incubated with concentrated culture supernatants taken from cells resistant (F5m) or sensitive (F5b) to contact-dependent macrophage cytotoxicity. Macrophage cell line B6MP102 and murine peritoneal macrophages killed targets incubated with supernatants taken from sensitive cells but poorly killed cells incubated in supernatants isolated from resistant cells. Membranes from cells resistant to macrophage killing, F5m, were fused into F5b cells. The fused F5b cells were killed significantly less than F5b cells fused with F5b cell membranes or untreated F5b cells. The decreased killing of F5b cells corresponded to increased concentrations of gp70(a) molecules on F5b cells. Affinity purified gp70(a) was added to cytotoxicity assays but failed to inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. P15E molecules were detectable on both F5b and F5m cells. In addition, a synthetic peptide found to exhibit the inhibitory properties of p15E was added to cytotoxicity assays. P15E synthetic peptide also did not inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. Therefore, env gene proteins of murine leukemia virus do not appear responsible for inducing tumor cell resistance to activated macrophage contact-dependent cytotoxicity.

  1. Induction of apoptosis in murine leukemia by diarylheptanoids from Curcuma comosa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Jariyawat, Surawat; Thammapratip, Thanapol; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Nateewattana, Jintapat; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2011-12-01

    Diarylheptanoids, isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma comosa Roxb., have several biological activities including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation. The present study investigated the effect of five diarylheptanoids isolated from C. comosa rhizome on the proliferation of murine P388 leukemic cells. Compound-092, (3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol, bearing a catechol moiety, was the most potent diarylheptanoid (IC(50) of 4 μM) in inhibiting P388 leukemic cell viability by causing DNA breakage and inducing apoptosis. Apoptotic cell death was characterized by the presence of chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA fragmentation, and externalization of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine. This compound increased caspase-3 activity about fivefold above the untreated control, decreased the intracellular reduced glutathione level, and impaired mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In the presence of Cu(II) ion, the compound exhibited a pro-oxidant activity causing DNA strand breakage and enhancing the anti-proliferative activity. The results provide evidence for the pro-oxidant activity of the diarylheptanoid bearing a catechol moiety in the induction of apoptosis in murine P388 leukemia.

  2. Characterization and expression of a murine gene homologous to human EPA/TIMP: a virus-induced gene in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Gewert, D R; Coulombe, B; Castelino, M; Skup, D; Williams, B R

    1987-01-01

    A genomic clone encompassing the entire coding region of a murine gene homologous to human erythroid potentiating activity/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (EPA/TIMP) was isolated and sequenced. Based on alignment with human EPA/TIMP cDNAs we deduce a structure comprising five exons and four introns extending over 4.3 kb of DNA. In mouse and hamster cell lines transcription from this gene and interferon genes is induced by Newcastle Disease virus (NDV). Examination of the 5'-flanking sequences of the gene reveals a set of repeated elements with structural similarity to those previously described as inducer-responsive elements in the human IFN-beta 1 gene. The 4.3-kb DNA fragment encompassing the homologous murine EPA/TIMP gene was transfected into human T98G cells and transfectants tested for NDV inducibility. In contrast to the endogenous human gene, the integrated murine EPA/TIMP gene was NDV-inducible and TIMP activity was detectable in the cell culture fluid. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:3034603

  3. Structural and biochemical characterization of the inhibitor complexes of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Matúz, Krisztina; Tözsér, Jozsef; Namwong, Sirilak; Goldfarb, Nathan E.; Dunn, Ben M.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2012-10-23

    Interactions between the protease (PR) encoded by the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus and a number of potential inhibitors have been investigated by biochemical and structural techniques. It was observed that several inhibitors used clinically against HIV PR exhibit nanomolar or even subnanomolar values of K{sub i}, depending on the exact experimental conditions. Both TL-3, a universal inhibitor of retroviral PRs, and some inhibitors originally shown to inhibit plasmepsins were also quite potent, whereas inhibition by pepstatin A was considerably weaker. Crystal structures of the complexes of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus PR with TL-3, amprenavir and pepstatin A were solved at high resolution and compared with the structures of complexes of these inhibitors with other retropepsins. Whereas TL-3 and amprenavir bound in a predictable manner, spanning the substrate-binding site of the enzyme, two molecules of pepstatin A bound simultaneously in an unprecedented manner, leaving the catalytic water molecule in place.

  4. Virus-specific RNA synthesis in interferon-treated mouse cells productively infected with Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, H; MacIsaac, P

    1978-01-01

    Mouse cells productively infected with Moloney murine leukemia virus were treated with interferon, and intracellular virus-specific RNA was studied by hybridization with complementary DNA. The steady-state concentration of virus-specific RNA in interferon-treated cells was somewhat greater than that in untreated cells, and the rates of virus-specific RNA synthesis were approximately equal in treated and untreated cells. PMID:691118

  5. NMR study of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease in a complex with amprenavir

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Ayako; Okamura, Hideyasu; Morishita, Ryo; Matsunaga, Satoko; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Ikegami, Takahisa; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Ryo, Akihide; Nagata, Takashi; Katahira, Masato

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protease (PR) of XMR virus (XMRV) was successfully synthesized with cell-free system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interface of XMRV PR with an inhibitor, amprenavir (APV), was identified with NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural heterogeneity is induced for two PR protomers in the APV:PR = 1:2 complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural heterogeneity is transmitted even to distant regions from the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-range transmission of structural change may be utilized for drug discovery. -- Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a virus created through recombination of two murine leukemia proviruses under artificial conditions during the passage of human prostate cancer cells in athymic nude mice. The homodimeric protease (PR) of XMRV plays a critical role in the production of functional viral proteins and is a prerequisite for viral replication. We synthesized XMRV PR using the wheat germ cell-free expression system and carried out structural analysis of XMRV PR in a complex with an inhibitor, amprenavir (APV), by means of NMR. Five different combinatorially {sup 15}N-labeled samples were prepared and backbone resonance assignments were made by applying Otting's method, with which the amino acid types of the [{sup 1}H, {sup 15}N] HSQC resonances were automatically identified using the five samples (Wu et al., 2006) . A titration experiment involving APV revealed that one APV molecule binds to one XMRV PR dimer. For many residues, two distinct resonances were observed, which is thought to be due to the structural heterogeneity between the two protomers in the APV:XMRV PR = 1:2 complex. PR residues at the interface with APV have been identified on the basis of chemical shift perturbation and identification of the intermolecular NOEs by means of filtered NOE experiments. Interestingly, chemical shift heterogeneity between the two protomers of XMRV PR has

  6. Ecotropic Murine Leukemia Virus Infection of Glial Progenitors Interferes with Oligodendrocyte Differentiation: Implications for Neurovirulence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Dunphy, Jaclyn M.; Pedraza, Carlos E.; Lynch, Connor R.; Cardona, Sandra M.; Macklin, Wendy B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Certain murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) are capable of inducing fatal progressive spongiform motor neuron disease in mice that is largely mediated by viral Env glycoprotein expression within central nervous system (CNS) glia. While the etiologic mechanisms and the glial subtypes involved remain unresolved, infection of NG2 glia was recently observed to correlate spatially and temporally with altered neuronal physiology and spongiogenesis. Since one role of NG2 cells is to serve as oligodendrocyte (OL) progenitor cells (OPCs), we examined here whether their infection by neurovirulent (FrCasE) or nonneurovirulent (Fr57E) ecotropic MLVs influenced their viability and/or differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that OPCs, but not OLs, are major CNS targets of both FrCasE and Fr57E. We also show that MLV infection of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture did not affect survival, proliferation, or OPC progenitor marker expression but suppressed certain glial differentiation markers. Assessment of glial differentiation in vivo using transplanted transgenic NPCs showed that, while MLVs did not affect cellular engraftment or survival, they did inhibit OL differentiation, irrespective of MLV neurovirulence. In addition, in chimeric brains, where FrCasE-infected NPC transplants caused neurodegeneration, the transplanted NPCs proliferated. These results suggest that MLV infection is not directly cytotoxic to OPCs but rather acts to interfere with OL differentiation. Since both FrCasE and Fr57E viruses restrict OL differentiation but only FrCasE induces overt neurodegeneration, restriction of OL maturation alone cannot account for neuropathogenesis. Instead neurodegeneration may involve a two-hit scenario where interference with OPC differentiation combined with glial Env-induced neuronal hyperexcitability precipitates disease. IMPORTANCE A variety of human and animal retroviruses are capable of causing central nervous system (CNS) neurodegeneration manifested as motor

  7. Nucleotide sequence analysis establishes the role of endogenous murine leukemia virus DNA segments in formation of recombinant mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A S

    1984-01-01

    The sequence of 363 nucleotides near the 3' end of the pol gene and 564 nucleotides from the 5' terminus of the env gene in an endogenous murine leukemia viral (MuLV) DNA segment, cloned from AKR/J mouse DNA and designated as A-12, was obtained. For comparison, the nucleotide sequence in an analogous portion of AKR mink cell focus-forming (MCF) 247 MuLV provirus was also determined. Sequence features unique to MCF247 MuLV DNA in the 3' pol and 5' env regions were identified by comparison with nucleotide sequences in analogous regions of NFS -Th-1 xenotropic and AKR ecotropic MuLV proviruses. These included (i) an insertion of 12 base pairs encoding four amino acids located 60 base pairs from the 3' terminus of the pol gene and immediately preceding the env gene, (ii) the deletion of 12 base pairs (encoding four amino acids) and the insertion of 3 base pairs (encoding one amino acid) in the 5' portion of the env gene, and (iii) single base substitutions resulting in 2 MCF247 -specific amino acids in the 3' pol and 23 in the 5' env regions. Nucleotide sequence comparison involving the 3' pol and 5' env regions of AKR MCF247 , NFS xenotropic, and AKR ecotropic MuLV proviruses with the cloned endogenous MuLV DNA indicated that MCF247 proviral DNA sequences were conserved in the cloned endogenous MuLV proviral segment. In fact, total nucleotide sequence identity existed between the endogenous MuLV DNA and the MCF247 MuLV provirus in the 3' portion of the pol gene. In the 5' env region, only 4 of 564 nucleotides were different, resulting in three amino acid changes between AKR MCF247 MuLV DNA and the endogenous MuLV DNA present in clone A-12. In addition, nucleotide sequence comparison indicated that Moloney-and Friend-MCF MuLVs were also highly related in the 3' pol and 5' env regions to the cloned endogenous MuLV DNA. These results establish the role of endogenous MuLV DNA segments in generation of recombinant MCF viruses. PMID:6328017

  8. The role of CD8+T cells in the acute and chronic phases of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Borrow, P; Tonks, P; Welsh, C J; Nash, A A

    1992-07-01

    The technique of in vivo depletion with T cell subset-specific monoclonal antibodies was used to study the involvement of CD8+T cells in protection/pathogenesis during the acute and chronic demyelinating phases of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced disease. Mice rendered CD8-deficient prior to infection with TMEV were less efficient at clearing virus from the central nervous system compared to intact animals and also suffered demyelinating disease of earlier onset and increased severity. This indicates that CD8+ cells have a protective role in virus clearance at early times post-infection, and may also be involved in downregulating the severity of the chronic demyelinating disease. How CD8+ T cells function to produce these effects is discussed.

  9. Heparin binds to murine leukemia virus and inhibits Env-independent attachment and infection.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon J; Pizzato, Massimo; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Devereux, Stephen

    2002-07-01

    Certain glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including heparin, inhibit infection by murine leukemia virus (MLV). We now show that this is due to inhibition of virus attachment independent of the interaction between viral envelope proteins (Env) and their cellular receptors. Heparin blocked the binding of both Env-deficient and amphotropic MLV (MLV-A) particles to NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, CHO cells which lack the amphotropic retroviral receptor Pit-2, and CHO cells transfected with Pit-2 (CHO-Pit-2). Heparin also inhibited the transduction of NIH 3T3 cells by MLV-A over a similar concentration range. This effect was observed within 15 min of exposure to retrovirus. Preloading target cells with heparin had no effect on transduction and both MLV-A and Env-deficient retrovirus bound efficiently to heparin-coated agarose beads, suggesting that heparin interacts with the virus rather than the target cell. This requires both a strong negative charge and a specific structure since GAGs with different charge and carbohydrate composition inhibited virus infection variably. The specificity of GAG-virus interaction also depends on the producer cells, since virus packaged by murine GP+EnvAM12 cells was 1,000-fold more sensitive to inhibition by chondroitin sulfate A than was virus packaged by human FLYA13 packaging cells. No evidence for an interaction between MLV and cell surface proteoglycans was found, however, since the attachment of MLV-A and envelope-defective virus to proteoglycan-deficient CHOpgsA-745 cells was similar to that seen with both wild-type and CHO-Pit-2 cells. Although the molecular mechanism is unclear, this study presents evidence that Env receptor-independent attachment is an important step in MLV infection.

  10. Sendai Virus Induces Persistent Olfactory Dysfunction in a Murine Model of PVOD via Effects on Apoptosis, Cell Proliferation, and Response to Odorants

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jun; Pinto, Jayant M.; Cui, Xiaolan; Zhang, Henghui; Li, Li; Liu, Yulong; Wu, Chan; Wei, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Viral infection is a common cause of olfactory dysfunction. The complexities of studying post-viral olfactory loss in humans have impaired further progress in understanding the underlying mechanism. Recently, evidence from clinical studies has implicated Parainfluenza virus 3 as a causal agent. An animal model of post viral olfactory disorders (PVOD) would allow better understanding of disease pathogenesis and represent a major advance in the field. Objective To develop a mouse model of PVOD by evaluating the effects of Sendai virus (SeV), the murine counterpart of Parainfluenza virus, on olfactory function and regenerative ability of the olfactory epithelium. Methods C57BL/6 mice (6–8 months old) were inoculated intranasally with SeV or ultraviolet (UV)-inactivated virus (UV-SeV). On days 3, 10, 15, 30 and 60 post-infection, olfactory epithelium was harvested and analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of S-phase nuclei. We also measured apoptosis by TUNEL assay and viral load by real-time PCR. The buried food test (BFT) was used to measure olfactory function of mice at day 60. In parallel, cultured murine olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) infected with SeV or UV-SeV were tested for odorant-mixture response by measuring changes in intracellular calcium concentrations indicated by fura-4 AM assay. Results Mice infected with SeV suffered from olfactory dysfunction, peaking on day 15, with no loss observed with UV-SeV. At 60 days, four out of 12 mice infected with SeV still had not recovered, with continued normal function in controls. Viral copies of SeV persisted in both the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the olfactory bulb (OB) for at least 60 days. At day 10 and after, both unit length labeling index (ULLI) of apoptosis and ULLI of proliferation in the SeV group was markedly less than the UV-SeV group. In primary cultured OSNs infected by SeV, the percentage of cells responding to mixed odors was markedly lower in the SeV group

  11. Mechanism of induction of class I major histocompatibility antigen expression by murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Faller, D V; Wilson, L D; Flyer, D C

    1988-03-01

    Alterations in expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on tumor cells clearly correlate with the tumorgenicity and metastatic potential of those cells. These changes in the biological behavior of the tumor cells are presumably secondary to resulting changes in their susceptibility to immune recognition and destruction. Murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) exert regulatory effects on class I genes of the MHC locus. MuLV infection results in substantial increases in cell surface expression of all three class I MHC antigens. These viral effects on MHC antigen expression profoundly influence immune-mediated interaction with the infected cells, as assessed by cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition and killing. Control of class I MHC and beta-2 microglobulin genes by MuLV takes place via a trans-acting molecular mechanism. MuLV controls expression of widely separated endogenous cellular MHC genes, transfected xenogeneic class I MHC genes, and unintegrated chimeric genes consisting of fragments of class I MHC genes linked to a bacterial reporter gene. These findings indicate that MuLV exerts its effects on MHC expression via a trans mechanism. The MuLV-responsive sequences on the MHC genes appear to lie within 1.2 kilobases upstream of the initiation codon for those genes.

  12. Structural basis of suppression of host translation termination by Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuhua; Zhu, Yiping; Baker, Stacey L.; Bowler, Matthew W.; Chen, Benjamin Jieming; Chen, Chen; Hogg, J. Robert; Goff, Stephen P.; Song, Haiwei

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is expressed in the form of a large Gag–Pol precursor protein by suppression of translational termination in which the maximal efficiency of stop codon read-through depends on the interaction between MoMLV RT and peptidyl release factor 1 (eRF1). Here, we report the crystal structure of MoMLV RT in complex with eRF1. The MoMLV RT interacts with the C-terminal domain of eRF1 via its RNase H domain to sterically occlude the binding of peptidyl release factor 3 (eRF3) to eRF1. Promotion of read-through by MoMLV RNase H prevents nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of mRNAs. Comparison of our structure with that of HIV RT explains why HIV RT cannot interact with eRF1. Our results provide a mechanistic view of how MoMLV manipulates the host translation termination machinery for the synthesis of its own proteins. PMID:27329342

  13. Biochemical, inhibition and inhibitor resistance studies of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Ndongwe, Tanyaradzwa P; Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Michailidis, Eleftherios; Ong, Yee Tsuey; Hachiya, Atsuko; Marchand, Bruno; Ryan, Emily M; Rai, Devendra K; Kirby, Karen A; Whatley, Angela S; Burke, Donald H; Johnson, Marc; Ding, Shilei; Zheng, Yi-Min; Liu, Shan-Lu; Kodama, Ei-Ichi; Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista A; Pathak, Vinay K; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Parniak, Michael A; Singh, Kamalendra; Sarafianos, Stefan G

    2012-01-01

    We report key mechanistic differences between the reverse transcriptases (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), a gammaretrovirus that can infect human cells. Steady and pre-steady state kinetics demonstrated that XMRV RT is significantly less efficient in DNA synthesis and in unblocking chain-terminated primers. Surface plasmon resonance experiments showed that the gammaretroviral enzyme has a remarkably higher dissociation rate (k(off)) from DNA, which also results in lower processivity than HIV-1 RT. Transient kinetics of mismatch incorporation revealed that XMRV RT has higher fidelity than HIV-1 RT. We identified RNA aptamers that potently inhibit XMRV, but not HIV-1 RT. XMRV RT is highly susceptible to some nucleoside RT inhibitors, including Translocation Deficient RT inhibitors, but not to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors. We demonstrated that XMRV RT mutants K103R and Q190M, which are equivalent to HIV-1 mutants that are resistant to tenofovir (K65R) and AZT (Q151M), are also resistant to the respective drugs, suggesting that XMRV can acquire resistance to these compounds through the decreased incorporation mechanism reported in HIV-1. PMID:21908397

  14. Biochemical, inhibition and inhibitor resistance studies of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus reverse transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Ndongwe, Tanyaradzwa P.; Adedeji, Adeyemi O.; Michailidis, Eleftherios; Ong, Yee Tsuey; Hachiya, Atsuko; Marchand, Bruno; Ryan, Emily M.; Rai, Devendra K.; Kirby, Karen A.; Whatley, Angela S.; Burke, Donald H.; Johnson, Marc; Ding, Shilei; Zheng, Yi-Min; Liu, Shan-Lu; Kodama, Ei-Ichi; Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista A.; Pathak, Vinay K.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Parniak, Michael A.; Singh, Kamalendra; Sarafianos, Stefan G.

    2012-01-01

    We report key mechanistic differences between the reverse transcriptases (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), a gammaretrovirus that can infect human cells. Steady and pre-steady state kinetics demonstrated that XMRV RT is significantly less efficient in DNA synthesis and in unblocking chain-terminated primers. Surface plasmon resonance experiments showed that the gammaretroviral enzyme has a remarkably higher dissociation rate (koff) from DNA, which also results in lower processivity than HIV-1 RT. Transient kinetics of mismatch incorporation revealed that XMRV RT has higher fidelity than HIV-1 RT. We identified RNA aptamers that potently inhibit XMRV, but not HIV-1 RT. XMRV RT is highly susceptible to some nucleoside RT inhibitors, including Translocation Deficient RT inhibitors, but not to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors. We demonstrated that XMRV RT mutants K103R and Q190M, which are equivalent to HIV-1 mutants that are resistant to tenofovir (K65R) and AZT (Q151M), are also resistant to the respective drugs, suggesting that XMRV can acquire resistance to these compounds through the decreased incorporation mechanism reported in HIV-1. PMID:21908397

  15. Solution Properties of Murine Leukemia Virus Gag Protein: Differences from HIV-1 Gag

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Siddhartha A.K.; Zuo, Xiaobing; Clark, Patrick K.; Campbell, Stephen J.; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan

    2012-05-09

    Immature retrovirus particles are assembled from the multidomain Gag protein. In these particles, the Gag proteins are arranged radially as elongated rods. We have previously characterized the properties of HIV-1 Gag in solution. In the absence of nucleic acid, HIV-1 Gag displays moderately weak interprotein interactions, existing in monomer-dimer equilibrium. Neutron scattering and hydrodynamic studies suggest that the protein is compact, and biochemical studies indicate that the two ends can approach close in three-dimensional space, implying the need for a significant conformational change during assembly. We now describe the properties of the Gag protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV), a gammaretrovirus. We found that this protein is very different from HIV-1 Gag: it has much weaker protein-protein interaction and is predominantly monomeric in solution. This has allowed us to study the protein by small-angle X-ray scattering and to build a low-resolution molecular envelope for the protein. We found that MLV Gag is extended in solution, with an axial ratio of {approx}7, comparable to its dimensions in immature particles. Mutational analysis suggests that runs of prolines in its matrix and p12 domains and the highly charged stretch at the C terminus of its capsid domain all contribute to this extended conformation. These differences between MLV Gag and HIV-1 Gag and their implications for retroviral assembly are discussed.

  16. Murine leukemia virus in organs of senescence-prone and -resistant mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Carp, R I; Meeker, H C; Chung, R; Kozak, C A; Hosokawa, M; Fujisawa, H

    2002-03-31

    A series of inbred strains of mice have been developed that are either prone (SAMP) or resistant (SAMR) to accelerated senescence. All of these strains originated from an inadvertent cross or crosses between the AKR/J mouse strain and an unknown strain(s). The characteristics of the nine senescence-prone lines differ, with all strains showing generalized aspects of accelerated aging but with each line having a specific aging-related change that is emphasized, e.g. learning and memory deficits, osteoporosis and senile amyloidosis. The senescence-resistant strains have normal patterns of aging and do not show the specific aging-related changes seen in SAMP strains. The fact that AKR mice have high levels of endogenous, ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) prompted an examination of the expression levels of MuLV in SAM strains. Analysis of brain, spleen and thymus samples revealed that seven of nine SAMP strains had high levels of MuLV and contained the Emv11 provirus (previously termed Akv1) that encodes the predominant MuLV found in AKR mice. In contrast, none of the SAMR strains had Emv11 or significant amounts of virus. The current findings represent an initial step in determining the role of MuLV in the accelerated senescence seen in SAMP strains. PMID:11850021

  17. Effect of the Fv-1 locus on the titration of murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed

    Jolicoeur, P; Baltimore, D

    1975-12-01

    Titration of N- and B-tropic murine leukemia viruses on sensitive and resistant cell lines has been studied by direct XC plaque assay and infective center assay. The titration of cloned B-tropic virus by infective center assay on BALB/3T3 (Fv-1b/b) and NIH/3T3 (Fv-1n/n) cells gave one-hit patterns, with 100-fold less infected NIH/3T3 cells than BALB/3T3 cells. The titration of B-tropic virus on DBA/2 cells (Fv-1n/n) was also a one-hit. The titration of a one-hit curve, and there were about 100-fold less infected BALB/3T3 cells than NIH/3T3 cells. Comparable results were obtained by titrating the cloned N-tropic virus on congenic SIM (Fv-1n/n) and SIM.R (Fv-1b/b) cells or the Gross N-tropic virus on BALB/3T3 cells. Therefore, our data indicate that the multiple-hit phenomenon described previously may not be an essential part of the Fv-1 gene restriction.

  18. BET proteins promote efficient murine leukemia virus integration at transcription start sites

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Larue, Ross C.; Plumb, Matthew R.; Malani, Nirav; Male, Frances; Slaughter, Alison; Kessl, Jacques J.; Shkriabai, Nikolozi; Coward, Elizabeth; Aiyer, Sriram S.; Green, Patrick L.; Wu, Li; Roth, Monica J.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2013-01-01

    The selection of chromosomal targets for retroviral integration varies markedly, tracking with the genus of the retrovirus, suggestive of targeting by binding to cellular factors. γ-Retroviral murine leukemia virus (MLV) DNA integration into the host genome is favored at transcription start sites, but the underlying mechanism for this preference is unknown. Here, we have identified bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins (Brd2, -3, -4) as cellular-binding partners of MLV integrase. We show that purified recombinant Brd4(1-720) binds with high affinity to MLV integrase and stimulates correct concerted integration in vitro. JQ-1, a small molecule that selectively inhibits interactions of BET proteins with modified histone sites impaired MLV but not HIV-1 integration in infected cells. Comparison of the distribution of BET protein-binding sites analyzed using ChIP-Seq data and MLV-integration sites revealed significant positive correlations. Antagonism of BET proteins, via JQ-1 treatment or RNA interference, reduced MLV-integration frequencies at transcription start sites. These findings elucidate the importance of BET proteins for MLV integration efficiency and targeting and provide a route to developing safer MLV-based vectors for human gene therapy. PMID:23818621

  19. Bimodal high-affinity association of Brd4 with murine leukemia virus integrase and mononucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Larue, Ross C.; Plumb, Matthew R.; Crowe, Brandon L.; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Sharma, Amit; DiFiore, Julia; Malani, Nirav; Aiyer, Sriram S.; Roth, Monica J.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Foster, Mark P.; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2014-01-01

    The importance of understanding the molecular mechanisms of murine leukemia virus (MLV) integration into host chromatin is highlighted by the development of MLV-based vectors for human gene-therapy. We have recently identified BET proteins (Brd2, 3 and 4) as the main cellular binding partners of MLV integrase (IN) and demonstrated their significance for effective MLV integration at transcription start sites. Here we show that recombinant Brd4, a representative of the three BET proteins, establishes complementary high-affinity interactions with MLV IN and mononucleosomes (MNs). Brd4(1–720) but not its N- or C-terminal fragments effectively stimulate MLV IN strand transfer activities in vitro. Mass spectrometry- and NMR-based approaches have enabled us to map key interacting interfaces between the C-terminal domain of BRD4 and the C-terminal tail of MLV IN. Additionally, the N-terminal fragment of Brd4 binds to both DNA and acetylated histone peptides, allowing it to bind tightly to MNs. Comparative analyses of the distributions of various histone marks along chromatin revealed significant positive correlations between H3- and H4-acetylated histones, BET protein-binding sites and MLV-integration sites. Our findings reveal a bimodal mechanism for BET protein-mediated MLV integration into select chromatin locations. PMID:24520112

  20. Bimodal high-affinity association of Brd4 with murine leukemia virus integrase and mononucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Larue, Ross C; Plumb, Matthew R; Crowe, Brandon L; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Sharma, Amit; DiFiore, Julia; Malani, Nirav; Aiyer, Sriram S; Roth, Monica J; Bushman, Frederic D; Foster, Mark P; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2014-04-01

    The importance of understanding the molecular mechanisms of murine leukemia virus (MLV) integration into host chromatin is highlighted by the development of MLV-based vectors for human gene-therapy. We have recently identified BET proteins (Brd2, 3 and 4) as the main cellular binding partners of MLV integrase (IN) and demonstrated their significance for effective MLV integration at transcription start sites. Here we show that recombinant Brd4, a representative of the three BET proteins, establishes complementary high-affinity interactions with MLV IN and mononucleosomes (MNs). Brd4(1-720) but not its N- or C-terminal fragments effectively stimulate MLV IN strand transfer activities in vitro. Mass spectrometry- and NMR-based approaches have enabled us to map key interacting interfaces between the C-terminal domain of BRD4 and the C-terminal tail of MLV IN. Additionally, the N-terminal fragment of Brd4 binds to both DNA and acetylated histone peptides, allowing it to bind tightly to MNs. Comparative analyses of the distributions of various histone marks along chromatin revealed significant positive correlations between H3- and H4-acetylated histones, BET protein-binding sites and MLV-integration sites. Our findings reveal a bimodal mechanism for BET protein-mediated MLV integration into select chromatin locations. PMID:24520112

  1. Insights into the nuclear export of murine leukemia virus intron-containing RNA

    PubMed Central

    Pessel-Vivares, Lucie; Houzet, Laurent; Lainé, Sébastien; Mougel, Marylène

    2015-01-01

    The retroviral genome consists of an intron-containing transcript that has essential cytoplasmic functions in the infected cell. This viral transcript can escape splicing, circumvent the nuclear checkpoint mechanisms and be transported to the cytoplasm by hijacking the host machinery. Once in the cytoplasm, viral unspliced RNA acts as mRNA to be translated and as genomic RNA to be packaged into nascent viruses. The murine leukemia virus (MLV) is among the first retroviruses discovered and is classified as simple Retroviridae due to its minimal encoding capacity. The oncogenic and transduction abilities of MLV are extensively studied, whereas surprisingly the crucial step of its nuclear export has remained unsolved until 2014. Recent work has revealed the recruitment by MLV of the cellular NXF1/Tap-dependent pathway for export. Unconventionally, MLV uses of Tap to export both spliced and unspliced viral RNAs. Unlike other retroviruses, MLV does not harbor a unique RNA signal for export. Indeed, multiple sequences throughout the MLV genome appear to promote export of the unspliced MLV RNA. We review here the current understanding of the export mechanism and highlight the determinants that influence MLV export. As the molecular mechanism of MLV export is elucidated, we will gain insight into the contribution of the export pathway to the cytoplasmic fate of the viral RNA. PMID:26158194

  2. Murine Leukemia Virus Uses TREX Components for Efficient Nuclear Export of Unspliced Viral Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Toshie; Tonne, Jason M.; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Previously we reported that nuclear export of both unspliced and spliced murine leukemia virus (MLV) transcripts depends on the nuclear export factor (NXF1) pathway. Although the mRNA export complex TREX, which contains Aly/REF, UAP56, and the THO complex, is involved in the NXF1-mediated nuclear export of cellular mRNAs, its contribution to the export of MLV mRNA transcripts remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the involvement of TREX components in the export of MLV transcripts. Depletion of UAP56, but not Aly/REF, reduced the level of both unspliced and spliced viral transcripts in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, depletion of THO components, including THOC5 and THOC7, affected only unspliced viral transcripts in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the RNA immunoprecipitation assay showed that only the unspliced viral transcript interacted with THOC5. These results imply that MLV requires UAP56, THOC5 and THOC7, in addition to NXF1, for nuclear export of viral transcripts. Given that naturally intronless mRNAs, but not bulk mRNAs, require THOC5 for nuclear export, it is plausible that THOC5 plays a key role in the export of unspliced MLV transcripts. PMID:24618812

  3. Structural basis of suppression of host translation termination by Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xuhua; Zhu, Yiping; Baker, Stacey L.; Bowler, Matthew W.; Chen, Benjamin Jieming; Chen, Chen; Hogg, J. Robert; Goff, Stephen P.; Song, Haiwei

    2016-06-01

    Retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is expressed in the form of a large Gag-Pol precursor protein by suppression of translational termination in which the maximal efficiency of stop codon read-through depends on the interaction between MoMLV RT and peptidyl release factor 1 (eRF1). Here, we report the crystal structure of MoMLV RT in complex with eRF1. The MoMLV RT interacts with the C-terminal domain of eRF1 via its RNase H domain to sterically occlude the binding of peptidyl release factor 3 (eRF3) to eRF1. Promotion of read-through by MoMLV RNase H prevents nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of mRNAs. Comparison of our structure with that of HIV RT explains why HIV RT cannot interact with eRF1. Our results provide a mechanistic view of how MoMLV manipulates the host translation termination machinery for the synthesis of its own proteins.

  4. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a γ retrovirus that has been associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and prostate cancer. The search for viral causes of these syndromes was reignited by the finding that RNase L activity was low in hereditary prostate cancer and some CFS patients. The six strains of XMRV that have been sequenced have greater than 99% identity, indicating a new human infection rather than laboratory contamination. DNA, RNA, and proteins from XMRV have been detected in 50% to 67% of CFS patients and in about 3.7% of healthy controls. XMRV infections could be transmitted to permissive cell lines from CFS plasma, suggesting the potential for communicable and blood-borne spread of the virus and potentially CFS. This troubling concept is currently under intense evaluation. The most important steps now are to independently confirm the initial findings; develop reliable assays of biomarkers; and to move on to investigations of XMRV pathophysiology and treatment in CFS, prostate cancer, and potentially other virus-related syndromes, if they exist. PMID:20425007

  5. Mus cervicolor Murine Leukemia Virus Isolate M813 Belongs to a Unique Receptor Interference Group

    PubMed Central

    Prassolov, Vladimir; Hein, Sibyll; Ziegler, Marion; Ivanov, Dmitry; Münk, Carsten; Löhler, Jürgen; Stocking, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Murine leukemia virus (MuLV) M813 was originally isolated from the Southeast Asian rodent Mus cervicolor. As with the ecotropic MuLVs derived from Mus musculus, its host range is limited to rodent cells. Earlier studies have mapped its receptor to chromosome 2, but it has not been established whether M813 shares a common receptor with any other MuLVs. In this study, we have performed interference assays with M813 and viruses from four interference groups of MuLV. The infection efficiency of M813 was not compromised in cells expressing any one of the other MuLVs, demonstrating that M813 must use a distinct receptor for cell entry. The entire M813 env coding region was molecularly cloned. Sequence analysis revealed high similarity with other MuLVs but with a unique receptor-binding domain. Substitution of M813 env sequences in Moloney MuLV resulted in a replication-competent virus with a host range and interference profile similar to those of the biological clone M813. M813 thus defines a novel receptor interference group of type C MuLVs. PMID:11312319

  6. Mus cervicolor murine leukemia virus isolate M813 belongs to a unique receptor interference group.

    PubMed

    Prassolov, V; Hein, S; Ziegler, M; Ivanov, D; Münk, C; Löhler, J; Stocking, C

    2001-05-01

    Murine leukemia virus (MuLV) M813 was originally isolated from the Southeast Asian rodent Mus cervicolor. As with the ecotropic MuLVs derived from Mus musculus, its host range is limited to rodent cells. Earlier studies have mapped its receptor to chromosome 2, but it has not been established whether M813 shares a common receptor with any other MuLVs. In this study, we have performed interference assays with M813 and viruses from four interference groups of MuLV. The infection efficiency of M813 was not compromised in cells expressing any one of the other MuLVs, demonstrating that M813 must use a distinct receptor for cell entry. The entire M813 env coding region was molecularly cloned. Sequence analysis revealed high similarity with other MuLVs but with a unique receptor-binding domain. Substitution of M813 env sequences in Moloney MuLV resulted in a replication-competent virus with a host range and interference profile similar to those of the biological clone M813. M813 thus defines a novel receptor interference group of type C MuLVs.

  7. Mutant of B-tropic murine leukemia virus synthesizing an altered polymerase molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Gerwin, B I; Rein, A; Levin, J G; Bassin, R H; Benjers, B M; Kashmiri, S V; Hopkins, D; O'Neill, B J

    1979-01-01

    A nonconditional mutant of B-tropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV), defective in polymerase, has been isolated by cloning chronically infected cells. The cell clone containing the mutant produced virus particles which were noninfectious. However, superinfection of the cells by replication-competent XC-negative viruses resulted in the rescue of virus capable of forming plaques in a modified XC test, termed the "complementation plaque assay" (A. Rein and R. H. Bassin, J. Virol. 28:656-660, 1978). Analysis of the noninfectious virions produced without superinfection demonstrated that they contained only 2 to 5% of the wild-type level of reverse transcriptase activity. Purification of this activity indicated that it was associated with a smaller molecule than that produced by wild-type virus. Cells producing the mutant virions did not contain the gag-pol precursor, Pr180gag-pol; however the cells contained proteins of 147K and 114K daltons precipitable with anti-pol serum. All of the normal structural proteins as well as 70S genomic RNA could be detected in the mutant particles. An interference test indicated that a functional ecotropic glycoprotein was synthesized by the mutant. These results indicate that the mutant has a unique defect in the pol gene. Images PMID:92571

  8. RNA-primed initiation of Moloney murine leukemia virus plus strands by reverse transcriptase in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Finston, W I; Champoux, J J

    1984-01-01

    A 190-base-pair DNA-RNA hybrid containing the Moloney murine leukemia virus origin of plus-strand DNA synthesis was constructed and used as a source of template-primer for the reverse transcriptase in vitro. Synthesis was shown to initiate precisely at the known plus-strand origin. The observation that some of the origin fragments retained ribonucleotide residues on their 5' ends suggests that the primer for chain initiation is an RNA molecule left behind by RNase H during the degradation of the RNA moiety of the DNA-RNA hybrid. If the RNase H is responsible for creating the correct primer terminus, then it must possess a specific endonucleolytic activity capable of recognizing the sequence in the RNA where plus strands are initiated. The 16-base RNase A-resistant fragment which spans the plus-strand origin can also serve as a source of the specific plus-strand primer RNA. Evidence is presented that some of the plus-strand origin fragments synthesized in the endogenous reaction contain 5' ribonucleotides, suggesting that specific RNA primers for plus-strand initiation may be generated during reverse transcription in vivo as well. Images PMID:6202882

  9. Mechanism of leukemogenesis induced by mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J P; Baltimore, D

    1991-01-01

    The Friend or Moloney mink cell focus-forming (MCF) virus encodes a recombinant-type envelope glycoprotein, gp70, that is closely related to the membrane glycoprotein, gp55, of Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV). We have shown previously that gp55 has the ability to activate cell growth by binding to the cellular receptor for erythropoietin. Here we show that gp70 encoded by either the Friend or Moloney MCF virus also binds to the erythropoietin receptor and that coexpression of the receptor and gp70 in an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell line can activate IL-3-independent growth. Furthermore, when the cDNA for the human IL-2 receptor beta chain, which is related by sequence to the erythropoietin receptor, was introduced into this cell line, it became growth factor independent after infection either with SFFV or with one of the two MCF viruses but not with an ecotropic virus. Based on these observations, we propose a mechanism for the early stage of leukemogenesis induced by the MCF-type murine leukemia viruses. Images PMID:1850020

  10. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus (XMRV) and the Safety of the Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew D; Cohn, Claudia S

    2016-10-01

    In 2006, a new virus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), was discovered in a cohort of U.S. men with prostate cancer. Soon after this initial finding, XMRV was also detected in samples from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The blood community, which is highly sensitive to the threat of emerging infectious diseases since the HIV/AIDS crisis, recommended indefinite deferral of all blood donors with a history of CFS. As XMRV research progressed, conflicting results emerged regarding the importance of this virus in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer and/or CFS. Molecular biologists traced the development of XMRV to a recombination event in a laboratory mouse that likely occurred circa 1993. The virus was propagated via cell lines derived from a tumor present in this mouse and spread through contamination of laboratory samples. Well-controlled experiments showed that detection of XMRV was due to contaminated samples and was not a marker of or a causal factor in prostate cancer or CFS. This paper traces the development of XMRV in the prostate and CFS scientific communities and explores the effect it had on the blood community. PMID:27358491

  11. Genome structure of Abelson murine leukemia virus variants: proviruses in fibroblasts and lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Goff, S P; Witte, O N; Gilboa, E; Rosenberg, N; Baltimore, D

    1981-01-01

    We have prepared full-length DNA clones of the Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) genome. A specific probe homologous to the central portion of the A-MuLV genome was prepared by nick translation of a subcloned restriction fraction from the cloned DNA. The probe was used to examine the genome structure of several A-MuLV variants. The conclusions are: (i) three viruses coding for Abelson-specific proteins of molecular weight 120,000, 100,000, and 90,000 had genomes indistinguishable in size, suggesting that the shorter proteins are the result of early translational termination; (ii) compared with the genome encoding the 120,000-dalton (120K) protein, a genome coding for a 160K protein was 0.8 kilobase larger in the A-MuLV-specific region; and (iii) a genome coding for a 92K protein had a 700-base pair deletion internal to the coding region. This mutant was transformation defective: its 92K protein lacked the protein kinase activity normally associated with the A-MuLV protein, and cells containing the virus were not morphologically transformed. In addition, we determined the number of A-MuLV proviruses in each of several transformed fibroblast and lymphoid cells prepared by infection in vitro. These experiments show that a single copy of the A-MuLV provirus is sufficient to transform both types of cells and that nonproducer cells generally have only one integrated provirus. Images PMID:6264122

  12. Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Mutant Particles Lacking Viral RNA Encapsidate Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Muriaux, Delphine; Mirro, Jane; Nagashima, Kunio; Harvin, Demetria; Rein, Alan

    2002-01-01

    A single retroviral protein, termed Gag, is sufficient for assembly of retrovirus-like particles in mammalian cells. Gag normally selects the genomic RNA of the virus with high specificity; the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of Gag plays a crucial role in this selection process. However, encapsidation of the viral RNA is completely unnecessary for particle assembly. We previously showed that mutant murine leukemia virus (MuLV) particles that lack viral RNA because of a deletion in the cis-acting packaging signal (“Ψ”) in the genomic RNA compensate for the loss of the viral RNA by incorporating cellular mRNA. The RNA in wild-type and Ψ− particles was also found to be necessary for virion core structure. In the present work, we explored the role of RNA in MuLV particles that lack genomic RNA because of mutations in the NC domain of Gag. Using a fluorescent dye assay, we observed that NC mutant particles contain the same amount of RNA that wild-type virions do. Surprisingly enough, these particles contained large amounts of rRNAs. Furthermore, ribosomal proteins were detected by immunoblotting, and ribosomes were observed inside the particles by electron microscopy. The biological significance of the presence of ribosomes in NC mutant particles lacking genomic RNA is discussed. PMID:12388701

  13. The Murine Model for Hantaan Virus-Induced Lethal Disease Shows Two Distinct Paths in Viral Evolutionary Trajectory with and without Ribavirin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Dong-Hoon; Västermark, Åke; Camp, Jeremy V.; McAllister, Ryan; Remold, Susanna K.; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Bruder, Carl

    2013-01-01

    In vitro, ribavirin acts as a lethal mutagen in Hantaan virus (HTNV)-infected Vero E6 cells, resulting in an increased mutation load and viral population extinction. In this study, we asked whether ribavirin treatment in the lethal, suckling mouse model of HTNV infection would act similarly. The HTNV genomic RNA (vRNA) copy number and infectious virus were measured in lungs of untreated and ribavirin-treated mice. In untreated, HTNV-infected mice, the vRNA copy number increased for 10 days postinfection (dpi) and thereafter remained constant through 26 dpi. Surprisingly, in ribavirin-treated, HTNV-infected mice, vRNA levels were similar to those in untreated mice between 10 and 26 dpi. Infectious virus levels, however, were different: in ribavirin-treated mice, the amount of infectious HTNV was significantly decreased relative to that in untreated mice, suggesting that ribavirin reduced the specific infectivity of the virus (amount of infectious virus produced per vRNA copy). Mutational analysis revealed a ribavirin-associated elevation in mutation frequency in HTNV vRNA similar to that previously reported in vitro. Codon-based analyses of rates of nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) substitutions in the S segment revealed a positive selection for codons within the HTNV N protein gene in the ribavirin-treated vRNA population. In contrast, the vRNA population in untreated, HTNV-infected mice showed a lower level of diversity, reflecting purifying selection for the wild-type genome. In summary, these experiments show two different evolutionary paths that Hantavirus may take during infection in a lethal murine model of disease, as well as the importance of the in vivo host environment in the evolution of the virus, which was not apparent in our prior in vitro model system. PMID:23903835

  14. Activation of tumor suppressor protein p53 is required for Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced apoptosis in M1-D macrophages.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyung-No; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Lipton, Howard L

    2009-10-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is a highly cytolytic picornavirus that persists in the mouse central nervous system (CNS) largely in macrophages with infection maintained by macrophage-to-macrophage spread. Infected macrophages in the CNS undergo apoptosis. We recently showed that M1-D macrophages infected with the low-neurovirulence TMEV BeAn virus became apoptotic through the mitochondrial pathway that is Bax mediated. Our present analyses of the molecular events and signaling pathway(s) culminating in the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization that initiates the caspase cascade and apoptosis of BeAn virus-infected M1-D macrophages revealed activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by 2 to 3 h postinfection (p.i.), followed by phosphorylation of tumor suppressor protein p53 Ser 15 at 3 to 6 h p.i., stabilizing p53 levels until 6 h p.i. Activated p53 upregulated the transcription of proapoptotic puma and noxa genes at 2 to 4 h p.i. and their BH3-only protein expression, followed by the loss of detectable prosurvival Mcl-1 and A1 proteins at 4 to 10 h p.i. Degradation of the prosurvival proteins is known to release Bax, which forms homo-oligomers and translocates into and permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane. Inhibition of phospho-p38 by two specific inhibitors, SB203580 and BIRB796, led to a significant decrease in apoptosis at 10 h p.i., with no effect on virus titers (only SB203580 tested). Together, these data indicate that p53 activation is required for the induction of apoptosis in infected M1-D cells.

  15. Control of graft-versus-host disease with maintenance of the graft-versus-leukemia effect in a murine allogeneic transplant model using retrovirally transduced murine suicidal lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kornblau, Steven M.; Aycox, Preston G.; Stephens, L. Clifton; McCue, David; Champlin, Richard E.; Marini, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Limited clinical trials have validated the hypothesis of controlling graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) arising from stem cell transplant utilizing suicidal T-lymphocytes that have been transduced to express the HSV-TK gene. However, clinical utility has been limited by diminished T-cell function arising from the production process. To evaluate strategies for harnessing the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect while improving the safety and function of suicidal lymphocytes, we have developed techniques to produce fully functional, retrovirally transduced, HSV-TK–positive murine T cells (TK+TC). Methods Utilizing a murine major histocompatibility complex–matched transplant model, we evaluated the ability of TK+TC to generate a GVL effect and the ability to control GVHD in experiments where we varied the dose of TK+TC, ganciclovir (GCV) dose, the start of GCV administration (day 4, 7, 10, 13, 15, or 19) posttransplantation, and the GCV administration route (osmotic pump versus intraperitoneal). Results At TK+TC doses in excess of the standard lethal dose (SLD) of unmanipulated T-cells, GCV administration completely (2 × SLD) and partially (4 × SLD) controlled GVHD. Additionally, GVHD remained reversible despite delaying administration of GCV for a week after GVHD developed. Importantly, GVHD was controlled with a 1-log but not 2-log reduction in GCV dose, and this “partial suicide” preserved more circulating TK+TC compared with standard-dose GCV. Survival of leukemia-positive mice receiving TK+TC and GCV was significantly increased compared with control cohorts not receiving GCV or transplanted with unmanipulated T cells, thereby demonstrating a GVL effect. Conclusion Retrovirally transduced suicidal lymphocytes generate a potent GVL effect while simultaneously enabling control of GVHD, which results in improved leukemia and GVHD-free survival. PMID:17577932

  16. Functional organization of the murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: characterization of a bacterially expressed AKR DNA polymerase deficient in RNase H activity.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, J G; Crouch, R J; Post, K; Hu, S C; McKelvin, D; Zweig, M; Court, D L; Gerwin, B I

    1988-01-01

    The functional organization of the murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase was investigated by expressing a molecular clone containing AKR MuLV reverse transcriptase-coding sequences in Escherichia coli. A purified preparation of the expressed enzyme (pRT250 reverse transcriptase) consisted primarily of a 69-kilodalton protein that has normal levels of murine leukemia virus polymerase activity but 10-fold-reduced levels of RNase H compared with the viral enzyme. The deficit in RNase H activity was correlated with the absence of 60 to 65 amino acids normally present at the carboxyl end of murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. The results provide additional experimental evidence for the localization of polymerase and RNase H domains to the N- and C-terminal regions of reverse transcriptase, respectively. Images PMID:2459414

  17. Crystal Structure of the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNase H Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lim,D.; Gregorio, G.; Bingman, C.; Martinez-Hackert, E.; Hendrickson, W.; Goff, S.

    2006-01-01

    A crystallographic study of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV) RNase H domain was performed to provide information about its structure and mechanism of action. These efforts resulted in the crystallization of a mutant Mo-MLV RNase H lacking the putative helix C ({Delta}C). The 1.6-{angstrom} resolution structure resembles the known structures of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Escherichia coli RNase H. The structure revealed the coordination of a magnesium ion within the catalytic core comprised of the highly conserved acidic residues D524, E562, and D583. Surface charge mapping of the Mo-MLV structure revealed a high density of basic charges on one side of the enzyme. Using a model of the Mo-MLV structure superimposed upon a structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase bound to an RNA/DNA hybrid substrate, Mo-MLV RNase H secondary structures and individual amino acids were examined for their potential roles in binding substrate. Identified regions included Mo-MLV RNase H {beta}1-{beta}2, {alpha}A, and {alpha}B and residues from {alpha}B to {alpha}D and its following loop. Most of the identified substrate-binding residues corresponded with residues directly binding nucleotides in an RNase H from Bacillus halodurans as observed in a cocrystal structure with RNA/DNA. Finally, superimposition of RNases H of Mo-MLV, E. coli, and HIV-1 revealed that a loop of the HIV-1 connection domain resides within the same region of the Mo-MLV and E. coli C-helix. The HIV-1 connection domain may serve to recognize and bind the RNA/DNA substrate major groove.

  18. Pseudotyped murine leukemia virus for schistosome transgenesis: approaches, methods and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mann, Victoria H; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Skinner, Danielle E; Brindley, Paul J; Rinaldi, Gabriel

    2014-06-01

    Draft genome sequences for the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium are now available. The schistosome genome contains ~11,000 protein encoding genes for which the functions of few are well understood. Nonetheless, the newly described gene products and novel non-coding RNAs represent potential intervention targets, and molecular tools are being developed to determine their importance. Over the past decade, noteworthy advances has been reported towards development of tools for gene manipulation of schistosomes, including gene expression perturbation by RNAi, and transient and stable transfection including transgenesis mediated by genome integration competent vectors. Retrovirus-mediated transgenesis is an established functional genomic approach for model species. It offers the means to establish gain- or loss-of-function phenotypes, supports vector-based RNA interference, and represents a powerful forward genetics tool for insertional mutagenesis. Murine leukemia virus (MLV) pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein mediates somatic transgenesis in S. mansoni, and vertical transmission of integrated transgenes in S. mansoni has been demonstrated, leading the establishment of transgenic lines. In addition, MLV transgenes encoding antibiotic resistance allow the selection of MLV-transduced parasites with the appropriate antibiotics. Here we describe detailed methods to produce and quantify pseudotyped MLV particles for use in transducing developmental stages of schistosomes. Approaches to analyze MLV-transduced schistosomes, including qPCR and high throughput approaches to verify and map genome integration of transgenes are also presented. We anticipate these tools should find utility in genetic investigations in other laboratories and for other helminth pathogens of important neglected tropical diseases.

  19. Murine leukemia virus RNA dimerization is coupled to transcription and splicing processes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Most of the cell biological aspects of retroviral genome dimerization remain unknown. Murine leukemia virus (MLV) constitutes a useful model to study when and where dimerization occurs within the cell. For instance, MLV produces a subgenomic RNA (called SD') that is co-packaged with the genomic RNA predominantly as FLSD' heterodimers. This SD' RNA is generated by splicing of the genomic RNA and also by direct transcription of a splice-associated retroelement of MLV (SDARE). We took advantage of these two SD' origins to study the effects of transcription and splicing events on RNA dimerization. Using genetic approaches coupled to capture of RNA heterodimer in virions, we determined heterodimerization frequencies in different cellular contexts. Several cell lines were stably established in which SD' RNA was produced by either splicing or transcription from SDARE. Moreover, SDARE was integrated into the host chromosome either concomitantly or sequentially with the genomic provirus. Our results showed that transcribed genomic and SD' RNAs preferentially formed heterodimers when their respective proviruses were integrated together. In contrast, heterodimerization was strongly affected when the two proviruses were integrated independently. Finally, dimerization was enhanced when the transcription sites were expected to be physically close. For the first time, we report that splicing and RNA dimerization appear to be coupled. Indeed, when the RNAs underwent splicing, the FLSD' dimerization reached a frequency similar to co-transcriptional heterodimerization. Altogether, our results indicate that randomness of heterodimerization increases when RNAs are co-expressed during either transcription or splicing. Our results strongly support the notion that dimerization occurs in the nucleus, at or near the transcription and splicing sites, at areas of high viral RNA concentration. PMID:20687923

  20. Characterization of intracellular viral RNA in interferon-treated cells chronically infected with murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, S; Bakhanashvili, M; Bari, S; Berman, I; Aboud, M

    1980-01-01

    We have recently found that Moloney murine leukemia virus assembles within cytoplasmic vacuoles of chronically infected NIH/3T3 cells rather than at their surface (submitted for publication). In the present study we found that if these cells were treated with interferon (IF) for 24 to 48 h the intracellular virus particles accumulated at a two- to threefold-higher level than that observed in untreated cells. Nevertheless, despite this accumulation, no difference between IF-treated and untreated cells was observed in the amount of the total cytoplasmic viral RNA or in its 35S or 21S species. When cellular virions were sedimented from the cytoplasmic fraction, a markedly higher amount of viral RNA was detected in the viral pellet of IF-treated cells than was detected in untreated cells, whereas the amount of viral RNA left in the virus-free cytoplasm of IF-treated cells was much lower than that in the untreated cells. Furthermore, the amount of the cytoplasmic polyriboadenylic acid-containing viral RNA was also remarkably higher in the IF-treated cells. Viral polyribosomes appeared to be fully functional in IF-treated cells, since no effect of IF on viral protein synthesis could be detected. Analysis of the nuclear viral RNA showed no difference between IF-treated and untreated cells after 24 h of IF treatment. Both contained a comparable amount of 35S viral RNA. However, at 48 h a significant accumulation of viral RNA was observed in the nucleus of the IF-treated cells as compared with the untreated cells, although in both cases only 35S species were evident. This accumulation appeared to activate a degradation process which destroyed nuclear viral RNA, since a dramatic shift toward smaller-sized molecules of viral RNA and a remarkable reduction in its amount were observed after 72 h of IF treatment. PMID:6158581

  1. Splicing of Friend Murine Leukemia Virus env-mRNA Enhances Its Ability to Form Polysomes

    PubMed Central

    Machinaga, Akihito; Ishihara, Syuhei; Shirai, Akiko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka

    2016-01-01

    Friend murine leukemia virus (MLV) belongs to the gamma retroviruses of the Retroviridae family. The positive-sense RNA of its genome contains a 5′ long terminal repeat (LTR), 5′ leader sequence, gag, pol, env, and 3′ LTR. Transcription from proviral DNA begins from the R region of the 5′ LTR and ends at the polyadenylation signal located at the R region of the other end of the 3′ LTR. There is a 5′ splice site in the 5′ leader sequence and a 3′ splice site at the 3′ end of the pol region. Both full-length unspliced mRNAs and a singly spliced mRNA (env-mRNA) are produced in MLV-infected cells. The MLV Env protein plays important roles both in viral adsorption to host cells and in neuropathogenic disease in MLV-infected mice and rats. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling Env expression is important for determining the functions of the Env protein. We have previously shown that splicing increases env-mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Generally, mRNA polysome formation correlates with translation efficiency. Therefore, here we investigated the effects of env-mRNA splicing on polysome formation to identify mechanisms for Env up-regulation due to splicing. We performed polysome profile analyses using Env-expression plasmids producing spliced or unspliced env-mRNA and showed that the former formed polysomes more efficiently than the latter. Thus, splicing of env-mRNA facilitated polysome formation, suggesting that this contributes to up-regulation of Env expression. We replaced the env region of the expression plasmids with a luciferase (luc) gene, and found that in this case both unspliced and spliced luc-mRNA formed polysomes to a similar extent. Thus, we conclude that whether mRNA polysome formation is affected by splicing depends on the structure of gene in question. PMID:26909075

  2. Abelson murine leukemia virus transformation-defective mutants with impaired P120-associated protein kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, F H; Van de Ven, W J; Stephenson, J R

    1980-01-01

    Several transformation-defective (td) mutants of Abelson murine leukemia virus (AbLV) are described. Cells nonproductively infected with such mutants exhibited a high degree of growth contact inhibition, failed to form colonies in soft agar, lacked rescuable transforming virus, and were as susceptible as uninfected control cells to transformation by wild-type (wt) AbLV pseudotype virus. In addition, each of several td AbLV nonproductively infected cell clones analyzed was found to be nontumorigenic in vivo. Biochemical analysis of td mutant AbLV-infected clones revealed levels of expression of the major AbLV translational product, P120, and a highly related 80,000-Mr AbLV-encoded protein, P80, at concentrations analogous to those in wt AbLV-transformed cells. Although the AbLV-specific 120,000-Mr polyproteins expressed in td mutant AbLV-infected clones were indistinguishable from those in wt AbLV-transformed lines with respect to molecular weight and [35S]methionine tryptic peptide composition, they each differed from wt AbLV P120 in their patterns of post-translational phosphorylation. A previously described AbLV-associated protein kinase activity is shown to recognize as substrate a major tyrosine-specific acceptor site(s) contained within a single well-resolved tryptic peptide common to both AbLV P120 and P80. In vitro [gamma-32P]ATP-mediated labeling of this phosphorylation site was reduced to below detectable levels in td mutant nonproductively infected cell clones. These findings establish that the AbLV-encoded polyprotein P120 and its associated protein kinase activity are involved in AbLV tumorigenesis. Images PMID:6253663

  3. Induction of acute thrombocytopenia and infection of megakaryocytes by Rauscher murine leukemia virus reflect the genetic susceptibility to leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Acute thrombocytopenia and megakaryocyte infection have been investigated during the preleukemic phase of the disease induced by the Rauscher murine leukemia virus (RMuLV) in mice. Injection of RMuLV, either intravenously or intraperitoneally, rapidly induced thrombocytopenia, possibly as a result of direct interaction between platelets and viral particles. The susceptibility to this acute thrombocytopenia was genetically controlled and was inherited as a dominant trait. Murine strains with H-2d or H-2k haplotype, which are susceptible to the induction of leukemia by RMuLV, developed thrombocytopenia, whereas leukemia-resistant H-2b and H-2q strains of mice failed to develop thrombocytopenia. Using B10 H-2-congenic and intra-H-2-recombinant mice, it was shown that the susceptibility to RMuLV-induced thrombocytopenia was controlled by gene(s) in or closely linked to the D region of the H-2 complex. Megakaryocytes may be one of the first sites for the replication of RMuLV. Indeed, among bone marrow cells, only megakaryocytes expressed viral antigens gp70 and p30 during the initial phase of RMuLV infection. In addition, megakaryocytes from infected mice were able to transfer preleukemic thrombocytopenia as well as leukemia in syngeneic mice. The infection of megakaryocytes by RMuLV appears to be genetically controlled in a manner similar to the induction of thrombocytopenia, since only the megakaryocytes from mice developing thrombocytopenia were infected by RMuLV. These results indicate that the gene(s) governing the induction of thrombocytopenia by RMuLV may be the same gene(s) (or closely linked to the gene) that controls the susceptibility to leukemogenesis, and would be consistent with the expression of the gene product, presumably a receptor-like molecule for RMuLV, on platelet and megakaryocyte membranes. PMID:6833948

  4. N-Tropic variants obtained after co-infection with N- and B-tropic murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, N; Traktman, P; Whalen, K

    1976-04-01

    Sc-1 cells co-infected with small XC plaque-forming N-tropic and large XC plaque-forming B-tropic murine leukemia viruses produced, in addition to parental types, progeny with the phenotype, large XC plaque morphology, and N-tropism. This phenotype remained stable through end point titration and plaque purification on NIH/3T3 cells and growth on BALB/3T3 cells. These N-tropic viruses (XLP-N virus) grow to unusually high titer and make very large XC plaques.

  5. Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Juliusson, Gunnar; Hough, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Leukemias are a group of life threatening malignant disorders of the blood and bone marrow. In the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population, the acute leukemias are most prevalent, with chronic myeloid leukemia being infrequently seen. Factors associated with more aggressive disease biology tend to increase in frequency with increasing age, whilst tolerability of treatment strategies decreases. There are also challenges regarding the effective delivery of therapy specific to the AYA group, consequences on the unique psychosocial needs of this age group, including compliance. This chapter reviews the current status of epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment strategies and outcomes of AYA leukemia, with a focus on acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:27595359

  6. Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  7. Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute leukemia in adults. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's ... Pui CH. Childhood leukemia. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's ...

  8. Molecular basis of a unique tumor antigen of radiation leukemia virus-induced leukemia B6RV2: its relation to MuLV gp70 of xenotropic class

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, E.; Uenaka, A.; DeLeo, A.B.; Stockert, E.; Obata, Y.; Ueda, R.; Inui, Y.

    1986-05-01

    Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies that reacted with the B6 radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)-induced leukemia B6RV2 were produced by fusion of BALB/c NS-1 myeloma cells with spleen cells from (BALB/c X B6)F1 mice immunized with B6RV2. By direct and absorption analyses with 28 B6 and BALB/c leukemias, the monoclonal antibodies NU7-4 and NU7-99 were shown to react only with B6RV2, indicating that they recognized an individually distinct antigen on B6RV2 that was identified previously with conventional (BALB/c X B6)F1 anti-B6RV2 serum. Another monoclonal antibody, NU1-132, showed relatively restricted reactivity with B6 RadLV leukemias. These three monoclonal antibodies all precipitated material of approximately 80,000 daltons, which is the same size as that precipitated by anti-xenotropic MuLV gp70 serum. Sequential immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the molecules precipitated by NU7-4 were not removed by pretreatment of NU7-99 or NU1-132 and that the molecules precipitated by NU7-99 were not removed by NU7-4 or NU1-132. The molecules precipitated by NU1-132 were partially removed by pretreatment with NU7-4, but not with NU7-99. The molecules precipitated by these three monoclonal antibodies were removed by pretreatment with anti-xenotropic gp70. These results suggested heterogeneity of the xenotropic MuLV gp70-related molecules expressed on B6RV2 and a possible relation between serologically defined unique tumor antigens and gp70-related molecules.

  9. Effects of exogenous, nonleukemogenic, ecotropic murine leukemia virus infections on the immune systems of adult C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J S; Giese, N A; Elkins, K L; Yetter, R A; Holmes, K L; Hartley, J W; Morse, H C

    1995-01-01

    Mouse AIDS (MAIDS) develops in mice infected with a mixture of replication-competent ecotropic and mink lung cell focus-inducing murine leukemia viruses and an etiologic replication-defective virus. Helper viruses are not required for induction of MAIDS, but the time course of disease is accelerated in their presence. To understand the possible contributions of ectropic murine leukemia viruses to MAIDS pathogenesis, we biologically cloned a series of viruses from the MAIDS-inducing LP-BM5 virus mixture. These viruses were examined for replication in tissues of infected mice and for effects on the immune system. All virus stocks replicated efficiently in mice. Infected animals showed slight lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly due primarily to B-cell proliferation associated with differentiation to immunoglobulin secretion resulting in twofold increases in serum immunoglobulin M levels; however, B-cell responses to helper T-cell-independent antigens were increased rather than decreased as in MAIDS. Analyses of CD8+ T-cell function showed that cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to alloantigens were comparable in control and infected mice. Finally, we showed that infection resulted in enhanced expression of transcripts for interleukin-10, interleukin-4, and gamma interferon. These cytokines can all contribute to B-cell activation and may promote the expansion of a target cell population for the MAIDS defective virus. PMID:7769677

  10. Murine B-1 B Cell Progenitors Initiate B-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With Features of High Risk Disease1

    PubMed Central

    Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Li, Katy; Fice, Michael; Dorshkind, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    B-1 and B-2 B cells derive from distinct progenitors that emerge in overlapping waves of development. The number of murine B-1 progenitors peaks during fetal development while B-2 B cell production predominates in adult bone marrow. Many genetic mutations that underlie B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) occur in the fetus, at which time B-1 progenitor numbers are high. However, whether B-ALL can initiate in B-1 progenitors is unknown. We now report that BCR-ABL transformed murine B-1 progenitors can be B-ALL cells of origin and demonstrate that they initiate disease more rapidly than oncogene expressing B-2 progenitors. We further demonstrate that B-1 progenitors exhibit relative resistance to apoptosis and undergo significant growth following oncogene expression and propose that these properties underlie the accelerated kinetics with which they initiate leukemia. These results provide a developmental perspective on the origin of B-ALL and indicate B cell lineage as a factor influencing disease progression. PMID:24752443

  11. Androgen-independent proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells infected by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kakoki, Katsura; Kamiyama, Haruka; Izumida, Mai; Yashima, Yuka; Hayashi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • XMRV infection induces androgen-independent growth in LNCaP cells. • XMRV infection reduces expression of androgen receptor. • XMRV promotes appearance of androgen blocker-resistant prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a novel gammaretrovirus that was originally isolated from human prostate cancer. It is now believed that XMRV is not the etiologic agent of prostate cancer. An analysis of murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection in various human cell lines revealed that prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected by XMRV, and this suggested that XMRV infection may confer some sort of growth advantage to prostate cancer cell lines. To examine this hypothesis, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells were infected with XMRV and tested for changes in certain cell growth properties. We found that XMRV-infected LNCaP cells can proliferate in the absence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, androgen receptor expression is significantly reduced in XMRV-infected LNCaP cells. Such alterations were not observed in uninfected and amphotropic MLV-infected LNCaP cells. This finding explains why prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected with XMRV.

  12. Germ-line reinsertions of AKR murine leukemia virus genomes in Akv-1 congenic mice.

    PubMed

    Rowe, W P; Kozak, C A

    1980-08-01

    Congenic mouse strains NIH,Akv-1 and NIH,Akv-2 carry the two high ecotropic virus-inducing loci of the AKR mouse on the NIH Swiss genetic background. Progeny tests of animals in three separate congenic families show that both Avk-1 and Akv-2 are stably transmitted as classical mendelian loci in these mice. However, during the process of inbreeding, additional chromosomal viral loci were detected in several NIH.Akv-1 sublines. These loci appeared only in the progeny of virus-positive females. They segregate with mendelian ratios, are unlinked to markers on chromsome 7 near Akv-1, and are phenotypically expressed as high-virus-inducing loci. The generation of new loci for viurs induction, no doubt resulting from the rare germ-line reintegration of the endogenous ectropic provirus, represents a unique form of gene duplication and rearrangement.

  13. MN1–Fli1 oncofusion transforms murine hematopoietic progenitor cells into acute megakaryoblastic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Wenge, D V; Felipe-Fumero, E; Angenendt, L; Schliemann, C; Schmidt, E; Schmidt, L H; Thiede, C; Ehninger, G; Berdel, W E; Arteaga, M-F; Mikesch, J-H

    2015-01-01

    Long-term outcome of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) patients without Down's syndrome remains poor. Founding mutations and chimeric oncogenes characterize various AMKL subtypes. However, for around one third of all cases the underlying mechanisms of AMKL leukemogenesis are still largely unknown. Recently, an in-frame fusion of meningeoma 1–friend leukemia virus integration 1 (MN1–Fli1) gene was detected in a child with AMKL. We intended to investigate the potential role of this oncofusion in leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia. Strikingly, expression of MN1–Fli1 in murine hematopoietic progenitor cells was sufficient to induce leukemic transformation generating immature myeloid cells with cytomorphology and expression of surface markers typical for AMKL. Systematic structure function analyses revealed FLS and 3′ETS domains of Fli1 as decisive domains for the AMKL phenotype. Our data highlight an important role of MN1–Fli1 in AMKL leukemogenesis and provide a basis for research assessing the value of this oncofusion as a future diagnostic marker and/or therapeutic target in AMKL patients. PMID:26690545

  14. Modulation of Moloney leukemia virus long terminal repeat transcriptional activity by the murine CD4 silencer in retroviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Indraccolo, S; Minuzzo, S; Habeler, W; Zamarchi, R; Fregonese, A; Günzburg, W H; Salmons, B; Uckert, W; Chieco-Bianchi, L; Amadori, A

    2000-10-10

    We investigated whether CD4 gene regulatory sequences might be useful for developing transcriptionally targeted Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV)-based retroviral vectors for gene expression specifically in CD4(+) cells. We could modulate Mo-MLV long terminal repeat (LTR) activity by inserting a 438-bp-long fragment containing the murine CD4 silencer in the LTR of the vector; both beta-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein reporter gene activities were strongly down-regulated in both murine and human CD8(+) cells, but not in CD4(+) lymphoid cell lines and freshly isolated lymphocytes transduced with this vector, compared with the findings using a control vector carrying wild-type LTRs. Titration experiments on NIH-3T3 cells revealed that inclusion of the CD4 silencer in the LTRs did not reduce the titer of the vectors. These findings indicate that a cellular silencer can be successfully included in retroviral vectors, where it maintains its transcription-regulatory function, thus suggesting a novel approach to transcriptional targeting.

  15. Virus-Specific Messenger RNA and Nascent Polypeptides in Polyribosomes of Cells Replicating Murine Sarcoma-Leukemia Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, G.; Tsuchida, N.; Shanmugam, G.; Green, M.

    1973-01-01

    We present evidence that virus-specific RNA is present in polyribosomes of transformed cells replicating the murine sarcoma-leukemia virus complex and that it serves as messenger RNA for the synthesis of viral-coded proteins. Both virus-specific RNA (detected by hybridization with the [3H]DNA product of the viral RNA-directed DNA polymerase) and nascent viral polypeptides (measured by precipitation with antiserum to purified virus) were found in membrane-bound and free polyribosomes. Membrane-bound polyribosomes contained a higher content of both virus-specific RNA and nascent viral polypeptides. From 60 to 70% of viral RNA sequences were released from polyribosomes with EDTA, consistent with a function as messenger RNA. Maximum amounts of both virus-specific RNA and nascent viral polypeptides were found in the polyribosome region sedimenting at about 350 S. PMID:4352969

  16. Structural and Inhibition Studies of the RNase H Function of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus Reverse Transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Karen A.; Marchand, Bruno; Ong, Yee Tsuey; Ndongwe, Tanyaradzwa P.; Hachiya, Atsuko; Michailidis, Eleftherios; Leslie, Maxwell D.; Sietsema, Daniel V.; Fetterly, Tracy L.; Dorst, Christopher A.; Singh, Kamalendra; Wang, Zhengqiang; Parniak, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    RNase H inhibitors (RNHIs) have gained attention as potential HIV-1 therapeutics. Although several RNHIs have been studied in the context of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) RNase H, there is no information on inhibitors that might affect the RNase H activity of other RTs. We performed biochemical, virological, crystallographic, and molecular modeling studies to compare the RNase H function and inhibition profiles of the gammaretroviral xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) RTs to those of HIV-1 RT. The RNase H activity of XMRV RT is significantly lower than that of HIV-1 RT and comparable to that of MoMLV RT. XMRV and MoMLV, but not HIV-1 RT, had optimal RNase H activities in the presence of Mn2+ and not Mg2+. Using hydroxyl-radical footprinting assays, we demonstrated that the distance between the polymerase and RNase H domains in the MoMLV and XMRV RTs is longer than that in the HIV-1 RT by ∼3.4 Å. We identified one naphthyridinone and one hydroxyisoquinolinedione as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 and XMRV RT RNases H with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from ∼0.8 to 0.02 μM. Two acylhydrazones effective against HIV-1 RT RNase H were less potent against the XMRV enzyme. We also solved the crystal structure of an XMRV RNase H fragment at high resolution (1.5 Å) and determined the molecular details of the XMRV RNase H active site, thus providing a framework that would be useful for the design of antivirals that target RNase H. PMID:22252812

  17. Structural and inhibition studies of the RNase H function of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Karen A; Marchand, Bruno; Ong, Yee Tsuey; Ndongwe, Tanyaradzwa P; Hachiya, Atsuko; Michailidis, Eleftherios; Leslie, Maxwell D; Sietsema, Daniel V; Fetterly, Tracy L; Dorst, Christopher A; Singh, Kamalendra; Wang, Zhengqiang; Parniak, Michael A; Sarafianos, Stefan G

    2012-04-01

    RNase H inhibitors (RNHIs) have gained attention as potential HIV-1 therapeutics. Although several RNHIs have been studied in the context of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) RNase H, there is no information on inhibitors that might affect the RNase H activity of other RTs. We performed biochemical, virological, crystallographic, and molecular modeling studies to compare the RNase H function and inhibition profiles of the gammaretroviral xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) RTs to those of HIV-1 RT. The RNase H activity of XMRV RT is significantly lower than that of HIV-1 RT and comparable to that of MoMLV RT. XMRV and MoMLV, but not HIV-1 RT, had optimal RNase H activities in the presence of Mn²⁺ and not Mg²⁺. Using hydroxyl-radical footprinting assays, we demonstrated that the distance between the polymerase and RNase H domains in the MoMLV and XMRV RTs is longer than that in the HIV-1 RT by ∼3.4 Å. We identified one naphthyridinone and one hydroxyisoquinolinedione as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 and XMRV RT RNases H with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from ∼0.8 to 0.02 μM. Two acylhydrazones effective against HIV-1 RT RNase H were less potent against the XMRV enzyme. We also solved the crystal structure of an XMRV RNase H fragment at high resolution (1.5 Å) and determined the molecular details of the XMRV RNase H active site, thus providing a framework that would be useful for the design of antivirals that target RNase H. PMID:22252812

  18. Inhibition by RNA of RNase H Activity Associated with Reverse Transcriptase in Rauscher Murine Leukemia Virus Cores

    PubMed Central

    Sarngadharan, M. G.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Gallo, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    We reported earlier that core preparations of Rauscher murine leukemia virus, when separated on an isopycnic sucrose gradient, did not contain detectable levels of RNase H activity, while retaining high levels of reverse transcriptase activity. We reexamined this phenomenon, and the earlier observation was found to be reproducible. However, when doubly banded preparations of viral cores were solubilized and reverse transcriptase was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography, a coincident peak of a nuclease activity with the specificity of RNase H was observed, which indicated that RNase H was selectively inhibited in the core fractions. By direct activity measurements using the purified reverse transcriptase-RNase H from cores, this endogenous inhibitor has been identified as the viral RNA. Viral 70S RNA strongly inhibited RNase H activity purified either from whole virions or from prefractionated cores. Other RNAs tested that had inhibitory effects were yeast tRNA, polyadenylic acid, and polyguanylic acid. Polyuridylic acid and polyadenylic acid were moderately inhibitory, and polycytidylic acid did not inhibit the RNase H. A rabbit anti-reverse transcriptase immunoglobulin G inhibited both the reverse transcriptase and RNase H activities of the enzyme purified from cores. These data provide a rational explanation for the failure to detect RNase H activity in core preparations of Rauscher murine leukemia virus. Furthermore, these data are consistent with the idea that the RNase H and reverse transcriptase activities purified from cores reside on the same protein molecule. Possible biological implications of the observed inhibition of RNase H by RNA is discussed. PMID:81312

  19. Selection of functional tRNA primers and primer binding site sequences from a retroviral combinatorial library: identification of new functional tRNA primers in murine leukemia virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Anders H.; Duch, Mogens; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2000-01-01

    Retroviral reverse transcription is initiated from a cellular tRNA molecule and all known exogenous isolates of murine leukemia virus utilise a tRNAPro molecule. While several studies suggest flexibility in murine leukemia virus primer utilisation, studies on human immunodeficiency virus and avian retroviruses have revealed evidence of molecular adaptation towards the specific tRNA isoacceptor used as replication primer. In this study, murine leukemia virus tRNA utilisation is investigated by in vivo screening of a retroviral vector combinatorial library with randomised primer binding sites. While most of the selected primer binding sites are complementary to the 3′-end of tRNAPro, we also retrieved PBS sequences matching four other tRNA molecules and demonstrate that Akv murine leukemia virus vectors may efficiently replicate using tRNAArg(CCU), tRNAPhe(GAA) and a hitherto unknown human tRNASer(CGA). PMID:10637332

  20. Scavenger receptor of human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and murine macrophages for nonenzymatically glycosylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Takata, K; Horiuchi, S; Araki, N; Shiga, M; Saitoh, M; Morino, Y

    1989-11-17

    Long-term incubation of proteins with glucose undergo a series of nonenzymatic reactions to form advanced glycosylation end product (AGE) with fluorescence and brown color. The receptor for AGE-proteins was demonstrated in murine macrophages (Vlassara et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82. 5588). Our recent study with rat macrophages revealed that the receptor also recognized proteins modified with aliphatic aldehydes such as formaldehyde or glycolaldehyde, indicating its close identity to a scavenger receptor for aldehyde-modified proteins (Takata, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263. 14819). This notion was tested in the present study with human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1 cells), human monocyte macrophages and murine peritoneal macrophages. Endocytic uptake of AGE-proteins and aldehyde-modified proteins was inhibited in a cross-competitive fashion. The receptor activities of THP-1 cells for AGE-albumin and aldehyde-modified proteins were induced synchronously by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Furthermore, upon reduction by NaBH4 of the Schiff base formed between proteins and glucose or aldehydes, no ligand activity was generated. However, once the ligand activity was generated, NaBH4 was no longer effective for the ligand activity. Thus, a structure in common between AGE-proteins and aldehyde-modified proteins may be crucial for recognition by the human macrophage receptor.

  1. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using (211)At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Johnnie J; Bäck, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee; Balkin, Ethan R; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Frayo, Shani L; Hylarides, Mark D; Green, Damian J; Gopal, Ajay K; Press, Oliver W; Pagel, John M

    2013-05-01

    Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using monoclonal antibodies labeled with β-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse. β emitters are limited by lower energies and nonspecific cytotoxicity from longer path lengths compared with α emitters such as (211)At, which has a higher energy profile and shorter path length. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of anti-CD45 RIT using (211)At in a disseminated murine AML model. Biodistribution studies in leukemic SJL/J mice showed excellent localization of (211)At-anti-murine CD45 mAb (30F11) to marrow and spleen within 24 hours (18% and 79% injected dose per gram of tissue [ID/g], respectively), with lower kidney and lung uptake (8.4% and 14% ID/g, respectively). In syngeneic HSCT studies, (211)At-B10-30F11 RIT improved the median survival of leukemic mice in a dose-dependent fashion (123, 101, 61, and 37 days given 24, 20, 12, and 0 µCi, respectively). This approach had minimal toxicity with nadir white blood cell counts >2.7 K/µL 2 weeks after HSCT and recovery by 4 weeks. These data suggest that (211)At-anti-CD45 RIT in conjunction with HSCT may be a promising therapeutic option for AML. PMID:23471305

  2. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using 211At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Johnnie J.; Bäck, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee; Balkin, Ethan R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Frayo, Shani L.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Press, Oliver W.

    2013-01-01

    Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using monoclonal antibodies labeled with β-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse. β emitters are limited by lower energies and nonspecific cytotoxicity from longer path lengths compared with α emitters such as 211At, which has a higher energy profile and shorter path length. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of anti-CD45 RIT using 211At in a disseminated murine AML model. Biodistribution studies in leukemic SJL/J mice showed excellent localization of 211At-anti-murine CD45 mAb (30F11) to marrow and spleen within 24 hours (18% and 79% injected dose per gram of tissue [ID/g], respectively), with lower kidney and lung uptake (8.4% and 14% ID/g, respectively). In syngeneic HSCT studies, 211At-B10-30F11 RIT improved the median survival of leukemic mice in a dose-dependent fashion (123, 101, 61, and 37 days given 24, 20, 12, and 0 µCi, respectively). This approach had minimal toxicity with nadir white blood cell counts >2.7 K/µL 2 weeks after HSCT and recovery by 4 weeks. These data suggest that 211At-anti-CD45 RIT in conjunction with HSCT may be a promising therapeutic option for AML. PMID:23471305

  3. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using (211)At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Johnnie J; Bäck, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee; Balkin, Ethan R; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Frayo, Shani L; Hylarides, Mark D; Green, Damian J; Gopal, Ajay K; Press, Oliver W; Pagel, John M

    2013-05-01

    Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using monoclonal antibodies labeled with β-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse. β emitters are limited by lower energies and nonspecific cytotoxicity from longer path lengths compared with α emitters such as (211)At, which has a higher energy profile and shorter path length. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of anti-CD45 RIT using (211)At in a disseminated murine AML model. Biodistribution studies in leukemic SJL/J mice showed excellent localization of (211)At-anti-murine CD45 mAb (30F11) to marrow and spleen within 24 hours (18% and 79% injected dose per gram of tissue [ID/g], respectively), with lower kidney and lung uptake (8.4% and 14% ID/g, respectively). In syngeneic HSCT studies, (211)At-B10-30F11 RIT improved the median survival of leukemic mice in a dose-dependent fashion (123, 101, 61, and 37 days given 24, 20, 12, and 0 µCi, respectively). This approach had minimal toxicity with nadir white blood cell counts >2.7 K/µL 2 weeks after HSCT and recovery by 4 weeks. These data suggest that (211)At-anti-CD45 RIT in conjunction with HSCT may be a promising therapeutic option for AML.

  4. Domain structure of the Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase: mutational analysis and separate expression of the DNA polymerase and RNase H activities.

    PubMed Central

    Tanese, N; Goff, S P

    1988-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase of Moloney murine leukemia virus, like that of all retroviruses, exhibits a DNA polymerase activity capable of synthesis on RNA or DNA templates and an RNase H activity with specificity for RNA in the form of an RNA.DNA hybrid. We have generated a library of linker insertion mutants of the Moloney murine leukemia virus enzyme expressed in bacteria and assayed these mutants for both enzymatic activities. Those mutations affecting the DNA polymerase activity were clustered in the 5'-proximal two-thirds of the gene, and those affecting RNase H were in the remaining 3' one-third. Based on these maps, plasmids were made that expressed each one of the domains separately; assays of the proteins encoded by these plasmids showed that each domain exhibited only the expected activity. Images PMID:2450347

  5. Addition of substitution of simian virus 40 enhancer sequences into the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) long terminal repeat yields infectious M-MuLV with altered biological properties.

    PubMed

    Hanecak, R; Pattengale, P K; Fan, H

    1988-07-01

    Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) is a replication-competent retrovirus which induces T-cell lymphoma in mice. The enhancer sequences present within the M-MuLV long terminal repeat (LTR) region of the proviral genome have been shown to influence the disease specificity of the virus strongly. We examined the contribution of the M-MuLV enhancers to the transcriptional activity and pathogenesis of M-MuLV by constructing LTRs containing heterologous enhancer elements. The simian virus 40 enhancer region (72- and 21-base-pair repeats) was inserted into the U3 region (at -150 base pairs) of the M-MuLV LTR (Mo + SV) and also into a deleted form of the LTR which lacks the M-MuLV enhancer sequences (delta Mo + SV). These chimeric LTRs were used to generate infectious M-MuLVs by transfection of corresponding proviral plasmids into mouse fibroblasts. The relative infectivities of Mo + SV and delta Mo + SV recombinant viruses as determined by rat XC cell plaque assay and reverse transcriptase assay were 60 to 70% of wild-type M-MuLV levels. To study the pathogenicity of these two recombinant viruses, we inoculated newborn NIH Swiss mice with either Mo + SV or delta Mo + SV M-MuLV. Both viruses induced disease more slowly than M-MuLV, which induces disease 2 to 4 months postinoculation. Mo + SV M-MuLV-inoculated animals became moribund at 3 to 13 months postinoculation, whereas delta Mo + SV M-MuLV-inoculated animals became moribund at 6 to 24 months postinoculation. The tumors induced by the two viruses were characterized histologically and molecularly. Mo + SV M-MuLV-induced tumors were primarily T-cell-derived lymphoblastic lymphomas containing extensive rearrangements of the T-cell receptor beta gene. In contrast, delta Mo + SV M-MuLV induced pre-B- and B-cell lymphoblastic lymphomas, B-cell-derived follicular-center cell lymphomas, and acute myeloid leukemia. The delta Mo + SV tumor DNAs from B-lineage tumors were typically rearranged at the immunoglobulin gene loci

  6. Mapping of a major osteomagenic determinant of murine leukemia virus RFB-14 to non-long terminal repeat sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Ostergaard, M; Pedersen, L; Schmidt, J; Luz, A; Lovmand, J; Erfle, V; Pedersen, F S; Strauss, P G

    1997-01-01

    Certain isolates of murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) have, apart from a leukemogenic potential, the capability of inducing diseases of nonhematopoietic tissues in susceptible strains of mice. We have reported on the molecular cloning of a bone-tumorigenic virus, RFB-14 MuLV, which was found to induce benign bone tumors, osteomas, with 100% incidence in mice of the CBA/Ca strain (L. Pedersen, W. Behnisch, J. Schmidt, A. Luz, F. S. Pedersen, V. Erfle, and P. G. Strauss, J. Virol. 66:6186-6190, 1992). In order to analyze the bone tumor-inducing phenotype of RFB-14 MuLV, we have studied the pathogenic potential of recombinant viruses between RFB-14 and the nonosteomagenic, highly leukemogenic SL3-3 MuLV. The recombinants were constructed so as to reveal whether a major determinant of osteomagenicity maps to sequences within or outside the long terminal repeats (LTR). Our data show that a major determinant of the osteoma-inducing potential of RFB-14 MuLV maps to the non-LTR region of the genome. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a strong determinant of leukemogenicity is harbored by the non-LTR region of SL3-3 MuLV. PMID:8985395

  7. Retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity in Thai herbs and spices: screening with Moloney murine leukemia viral enzyme.

    PubMed

    Suthienkul, O; Miyazaki, O; Chulasiri, M; Kositanont, U; Oishi, K

    1993-12-01

    Fifty-seven Thai herbs and spices were examined for their retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity. All herbs and spices were extracted with hot-water and methanol. Reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity of the extracts was determined by using Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus reverse transcriptase (M-MuLV-RT) reacted with 3H-dTTP and radioactivity measured with a scintillation counter. Eighty-one per cent (46/57) of hot-water extracts and 54% (31/57) of methanol extracts showed inhibitory activities. At a concentration of 125 micrograms/ml, 13% (6/46) of hot-water extracts, namely Eugenia caryophyllus Bullock et Harrison, Phyllanthus urinaria Linn., Terminalia belerica Roxb., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Psidium guajava Linn. and Lawsonia inermis Linn., had a relative inhibitory ratio (IR) over 50%. They showed ratios of 100%, 91%, 75%, 74%, 61% and 60%, respectively. For methanol extracts, only 10% (3/31) had IR values over 50%. They were T. belerica, E. caryophyllus and N. nucifera which exhibited IR values of 83%, 54% and 54%, respectively. PMID:7524165

  8. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study.

  9. Effects of 3′ Untranslated Region Mutations on Plus-Strand Priming during Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Nicole D.; Telesnitsky, Alice

    1999-01-01

    A conserved purine-rich motif located near the 3′ end of retroviral genomes is involved in the initiation of plus-strand DNA synthesis. We mutated sequences both within and flanking the Moloney murine leukemia virus polypurine tract (PPT) and determined the effects of these alterations on viral DNA synthesis and replication. Our results demonstrated that both changes in highly conserved PPT positions and a mutation that left only the cleavage-proximal half of the PPT intact led to delayed replication and reduced the colony-forming titer of replication defective retroviral vectors. A mutation that altered the cleavage proximal half of the PPT and certain 3′ untranslated region mutations upstream of the PPT were incompatible with or severely impaired viral replication. To distinguish defects in plus-strand priming from other replication defects and to assess the relative use of mutant and wild-type PPTs, we examined plus-strand priming from an ectopic, secondary PPT inserted in U3. The results demonstrated that the analyzed mutations within the PPT primarily affected plus-strand priming whereas mutations upstream of the PPT appeared to affect both plus-strand priming and other stages of viral replication. PMID:9882295

  10. Immunoprophylactic potential of wheat grass extract on benzene-induced leukemia: An in vivo study on murine model

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Neelofar; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Dubey, Nazneen; Bansal, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Wheat grass (Triticum aestivum) is a gift of nature given to mankind. A number of scientific research on wheatgrass establishes its anticancer and antioxidant potential. Current work was focused to determine antileukemic effect of wheat grass. Materials and Methods: The commercial wheatgrass powder was extracted with 95% of methanol. Methanol extract of wheat grass was studied for acute oral toxicity as per revised Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Guidelines number 423. Leukemia was successfully induced in Wister rats by intravenous injection of benzene. The blood was collected and analyzed for hematological parameters. Phagocytotic activity of the extract was determined. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolics, carbohydrates, and amino acids. From acute toxicity studies, it was found that the methanol extract of wheatgrass was safe up to a dose level of 2000 mg/kg of body weight. Outcomes of hematological parameters in various experimental groups of murine model demonstrated antileukemic effect of extract. Methanol extract of wheatgrass aroused the process of phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans and also demonstrated a significant chemotactic activity at all tested concentrations. Conclusion: In the current work, methanol extract of wheat grass demonstrated antileukemic potential that might be due to the presence of flavonoids and polyphenolics in it. Further isolation, structural characterization of active constituents is necessary to extrapolate the mechanism of action. PMID:26288471

  11. Prevention of contamination by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus: susceptibility to alcohol-based disinfectants and environmental stability.

    PubMed

    Palesch, David; Khalid, Mohammad; Stürzel, Christina M; Münch, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) represents a novel γ-retrovirus that is capable of infecting human cells and has been classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) organism. Hence, XMRV represents a potential risk for personnel in laboratories worldwide. Here, we measured the stability of XMRV and its susceptibility to alcohol-based disinfectants. To this end, we exposed an infectious XMRV reporter virus encoding a secretable luciferase to different temperatures, pH values, and disinfectants and infected XMRV-permissive Raji B cells to measure residual viral infectivity. We found that 1 min treatment of XMRV particles at 60°C is sufficient to reduce infectivity by 99.9%. XMRV infectivity was maximal at a neutral pH but was reduced by 86% at pH 4 and 99.9% at pH 10. The common hand and surface disinfectants ethanol and isopropanol as well as the cell fixation reagent paraformaldehyde abrogated XMRV infectivity entirely, as indicated by a reduction of infectivity exceeding 99.99%. Our findings provide evidence of specific means to inactivate XMRV. Their application will help to prevent unintended XMRV contamination of cell cultures in laboratories and minimize the risk for laboratory personnel and health care workers to become infected with this biosafety level 2 organism.

  12. Tyrosine phosphorylation of HSC70 and its interaction with RFC mediates methotrexate resistance in murine L1210 leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tuoen; Singh, Ratan; Rios, Zechary; Bhushan, Alok; Li, Mengxiong; Sheridan, Peter P.; Lai, James C.K.; Agbenowu, Senyo; Cao, Shousong; Daniels, Christopher K.

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified and characterized a 66–68 kDa membrane-associated, tyrosine phosphorylated protein in murine leukemia L1210 cells as HSC70 which is a methotrexate (MTX)-binding protein. In order to further characterize the functional role of HSC70 in regulating MTX resistance in L1210 cells, we first showed that HSC70 colocalizes and interacts with reduced folate carrier (RFC) in L1210 cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy and Duolink in situ proximity ligation assay. The tyrosine phosphorylation status of HSC70 found in the membrane fraction was different from the parental L1210/0 and cisplatin (CDDP)–MTX cross resistant L1210/DDP cells. In MTX-binding assays, HSC70 from L1210/DDP cells showed less affinity for MTX–agarose beads than that of L1210/0 cells. In addition, genistein (a tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitor) significantly enhanced the resistance of L1210/0 cells to MTX. Moreover, site-directed mutation studies indicated the importance of tyrosine phosphorylation of HSC70 in regulating its binding to MTX. These findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of HSC70 regulates the transportation of MTX into the cell via the HSC70–RFC system and contributes to MTX resistance in L1210 cells. PMID:25444929

  13. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. PMID:25223721

  14. Crystal structures of the reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H domain of xenotropic murine leukemia-virus related virus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dongwen; Chung, Suhman; Miller, Maria; Le Grice, Stuart F.J.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2012-06-19

    The ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain of retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) plays a critical role in the life cycle by degrading the RNA strands of DNA/RNA hybrids. In addition, RNase H activity is required to precisely remove the RNA primers from nascent (-) and (+) strand DNA. We report here three crystal structures of the RNase H domain of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) RT, namely (i) the previously identified construct from which helix C was deleted, (ii) the intact domain, and (iii) the intact domain complexed with an active site {alpha}-hydroxytropolone inhibitor. Enzymatic assays showed that the intact RNase H domain retained catalytic activity, whereas the variant lacking helix C was only marginally active, corroborating the importance of this helix for enzymatic activity. Modeling of the enzyme-substrate complex elucidated the essential role of helix C in binding a DNA/RNA hybrid and its likely mode of recognition. The crystal structure of the RNase H domain complexed with {beta}-thujaplicinol clearly showed that coordination by two divalent cations mediates recognition of the inhibitor.

  15. Sodium-Dependent myo-Inositol Transporter 1 Is a Cellular Receptor for Mus cervicolor M813 Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Sibyll; Prassolov, Vladimir; Zhang, Yuanming; Ivanov, Dmitry; Löhler, Jürgen; Ross, Susan R.; Stocking, Carol

    2003-01-01

    Retrovirus infection is initiated by binding of the surface (SU) portion of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to specific receptors on cells. This binding triggers conformational changes in the transmembrane portion of Env, leading to membrane fusion and cell entry, and is thus a major determinant of retrovirus tissue and species tropism. The M813 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a highly fusogenic gammaretrovirus, isolated from Mus cervicolor, whose host range is limited to mouse cells. To delineate the molecular mechanisms of its restricted host range and its high fusogenic potential, we initiated studies to characterize the cell surface protein that mediates M813 infection. Screening of the T31 mouse-hamster radiation hybrid panel for M813 infectivity localized the receptor gene to the distal end of mouse chromosome 16. Expression of one of the likely candidate genes (slc5a3) within this region in human cells conferred susceptibility to both M813 infection and M813-induced fusogenicity. slc5a3 encodes sodium myo-inositol transporter 1 (SMIT1), thus adding another sodium-dependent transporter to the growing list of proteins used by MuLVs for cell entry. Characterization of SMIT1 orthologues in different species identified several amino acid variations within two extracellular loops that may restrict susceptibility to M813 infection. PMID:12719585

  16. Sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporter 1 is a cellular receptor for Mus cervicolor M813 murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Hein, Sibyll; Prassolov, Vladimir; Zhang, Yuanming; Ivanov, Dmitry; Löhler, Jürgen; Ross, Susan R; Stocking, Carol

    2003-05-01

    Retrovirus infection is initiated by binding of the surface (SU) portion of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to specific receptors on cells. This binding triggers conformational changes in the transmembrane portion of Env, leading to membrane fusion and cell entry, and is thus a major determinant of retrovirus tissue and species tropism. The M813 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a highly fusogenic gammaretrovirus, isolated from Mus cervicolor, whose host range is limited to mouse cells. To delineate the molecular mechanisms of its restricted host range and its high fusogenic potential, we initiated studies to characterize the cell surface protein that mediates M813 infection. Screening of the T31 mouse-hamster radiation hybrid panel for M813 infectivity localized the receptor gene to the distal end of mouse chromosome 16. Expression of one of the likely candidate genes (slc5a3) within this region in human cells conferred susceptibility to both M813 infection and M813-induced fusogenicity. slc5a3 encodes sodium myo-inositol transporter 1 (SMIT1), thus adding another sodium-dependent transporter to the growing list of proteins used by MuLVs for cell entry. Characterization of SMIT1 orthologues in different species identified several amino acid variations within two extracellular loops that may restrict susceptibility to M813 infection.

  17. Abortive reverse transcription by mutants of Moloney murine leukemia virus deficient in the reverse transcriptase-associated RNase H function.

    PubMed Central

    Tanese, N; Telesnitsky, A; Goff, S P

    1991-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase enzymes of retroviruses are multifunctional proteins containing both DNA polymerase activity and a nuclease activity, termed RNase H, specific for RNA in RNA-DNA hybrid form. To determine the role of RNase H activity in retroviral replication, we constructed a series of mutant genomes of Moloney murine leukemia virus that encoded reverse transcriptase enzymes that were specifically altered to retain polymerase function but lack RNase H activity. The mutant genomes were all replication defective. Analysis of in vitro reverse transcription reactions carried out by mutant virions showed that minus-strand strong-stop DNA was formed but did not efficiently translocate to the 3' end of the genome; rather, the DNA was stably retained in RNA-DNA hybrid form. Plus-strand strong-stop DNA was not detected. These results suggest that RNase H normally promotes strong-stop translocation, perhaps by exposing single-stranded DNA sequences for base pairing. Four new DNA species were also detected among the reaction products. Analysis of these DNAs suggested that they were minus-strand DNAs formed from VL30 RNAs encoded by the mouse genome. We suggest that reverse transcriptase can initiate DNA synthesis at any one of four alternate tRNA primer-binding sites near the 5' ends of VL30 RNAs. Images PMID:1712862

  18. Proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases promote human T helper 1 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tahvanainen, Johanna; Kyläniemi, Minna K; Kanduri, Kartiek; Gupta, Bhawna; Lähteenmäki, Hanna; Kallonen, Teemu; Rajavuori, Anna; Rasool, Omid; Koskinen, Päivi J; Rao, Kanury V S; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2013-02-01

    The differentiation of human primary T helper 1 (Th1) cells from naïve precursor cells is regulated by a complex, interrelated signaling network. The identification of factors regulating the early steps of Th1 cell polarization can provide important insight in the development of therapeutics for many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The serine/threonine-specific proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases PIM1 and PIM2 have been implicated in the cytokine-dependent proliferation and survival of lymphocytes. We have established that the third member of this family, PIM3, is also expressed in human primary Th cells and identified a new function for the entire PIM kinase family in T lymphocytes. Although PIM kinases are expressed more in Th1 than Th2 cells, we demonstrate here that these kinases positively influence Th1 cell differentiation. Our RNA interference results from human primary Th cells also suggest that PIM kinases promote the production of IFNγ, the hallmark cytokine produced by Th1 cells. Consistent with this, they also seem to be important for the up-regulation of the critical Th1-driving factor, T box expressed in T cells (T-BET), and the IL-12/STAT4 signaling pathway during the early Th1 differentiation process. In summary, we have identified PIM kinases as new regulators of human primary Th1 cell differentiation, thus providing new insights into the mechanisms controlling the selective development of human Th cell subsets. PMID:23209281

  19. A murine model of acute myeloid leukemia with Evi1 overexpression and autocrine stimulation by an intracellular form of GM-CSF in DA-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Maria E; Simonson, Oscar E; Oprea, Iulian I; Moreno, Pedro M D; Silva-Lara, Maria F; Mohamed, Abdalla J; Christensson, Birger; Gahrton, Gösta; Dilber, M Sirac; Smith, C I Edvard; Arteaga, H Jose

    2016-01-01

    The poor treatment response of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) overexpressing high-risk oncogenes such as EVI1, demands specific animal models for new treatment evaluations. Evi1 is a common site of activating integrations in murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced AML and in retroviral and lentiviral gene-modified HCS. Still, a model of overt AML induced by Evi1 has not been generated. Cell lines from MLV-induced AML are growth factor-dependent and non-transplantable. Hence, for the leukemia maintenance in the infected animals, a growth factor source such as chronic immune response has been suggested. We have investigated whether these leukemias are transplantable if provided with growth factors. We show that the Evi1(+)DA-3 cells modified to express an intracellular form of GM-CSF, acquired growth factor independence and transplantability and caused an overt leukemia in syngeneic hosts, without increasing serum GM-CSF levels. We propose this as a general approach for modeling different forms of high-risk human AML using similar cell lines.

  20. Vaccination of adult and newborn mice of a resistant strain (C57BL/6J) against challenge with leukemias induced by Moloney murine leukemia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Adult or newborn C57BL/6J mice were immunized with isogenic Moloney strain MuLV-induced leukemia cells irradiated with 10,000 rads or treated with low concentrations of formalin. Groups of immunized and control mice were challenged with a range of doses of viable leukemia cells, and tumor deaths were recorded for 90 days after challenge. Then, the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths were calculated for immunized and control mice. The logarithm of their ratio quantified the degree of protection provided by immunization. For adult C57BL/6J mice, a single immunization with MuLV-induced leukemia cells was not effective; either cells plus Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or Corynebacterium parvum, or else two immunizations with irradiated leukemia cells were needed to produce statistically significant increases in the values of the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths. Cross-protection was obtained by immunization with other isogenic MuLV-induced leukemias, but not by immunization with isogenic carcinogen-induced tumors or with an isogenic spontaneous leukemia. For newborn mice, a single injection of irradiated leukemia cells provided 1.3 to 1.5 logs of protection, and admixture of B. Calmette-Guerin or C. parvum increased this protection to 2.4 to 2.7 logs. Since irradiated and frozen-thawed MuLV-induced leukemia cells contained viable MuLV, leukemia cells treated with 0.5 or 1.0% formalin were tested as an alternative. A single injection of formalin-treated isogenic leukemia cells admixed with C. parvum provided between 1.7 and 2.8 logs of protection. These results demonstrate that a single vaccination of newborn animals against a highly antigenic virally induced leukemia produces strong protection against a subsequent challenge with viable leukemia cells.

  1. SHP-1-dependent macrophage differentiation exacerbates virus-induced myositis

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Neva B.; Schneider, Karin M.; Massa, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Virus-induced myositis is an emerging global affliction that remains poorly characterized with few treatment options. Moreover, muscle-tropic viruses often spread to the central nervous system causing dramatically increased morbidity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore genetic factors involved in this class of human disease. This report investigates critical innate immune pathways affecting murine virus-induced myositis. Of particular importance, the key immune regulator SHP-1, which normally suppresses macrophage-mediated inflammation, is a major factor in promoting clinical disease in muscle. We show that Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus infection of skeletal myofibers induces inflammation and subsequent dystrophic calcification with loss of ambulation in wild type mice. Surprisingly, although similar extensive myofiber infection and inflammation is observed in SHP-1-deficient (SHP-1−/−) mice, these mice neither accumulate dead calcified myofibers nor lose ambulation. Macrophages were the predominant effector cells infiltrating WT and SHP-1−/− muscle, and an increased infiltration of immature monocytes/macrophages correlated with absence of clinical disease in SHP-1−/− mice, while mature M1-like macrophages corresponded with increased myofiber degeneration in WT mice. Furthermore, blocking SHP-1 activation in WT macrophages blocked virus-induced myofiber degeneration, and pharmacologic ablation of macrophages inhibited muscle calcification in TMEV-infected WT animals. These data suggest that following TMEV infection of muscle, SHP-1 promotes M1 differentiation of infiltrating macrophages, and these inflammatory macrophages are likely involved in damaging muscle fibers. These findings reveal a pathological role for SHP-1 in promoting inflammatory macrophage differentiation and myofiber damage in virus-infected skeletal muscle, thus identifying SHP-1 and M1 macrophages as essential mediators of virus-induced myopathy. PMID:25681345

  2. The homeodomain region controls the phenotype of HOX-induced murine leukemia.

    PubMed

    Breitinger, Constanze; Maethner, Emanuel; Garcia-Cuellar, Maria-Paz; Slany, Robert K

    2012-11-01

    HOX proteins are widely involved in hematopoietic development. These transcription factors combine a conserved DNA-binding homeobox with a divergent N-terminus that mediates interaction with variable cofactors. The resulting combinatorial diversity is thought to be responsible for mammalian HOX specificity. Contrasting this proposed mechanism for normal HOX function, here we demonstrate that, in the context of hematopoietic immortalization and leukemogenesis, individual HOX properties are governed almost exclusively by the homeodomain. Swap experiments between HOXA1 and HOXA9, 2 members of nonrelated paralog groups, revealed that gene expression patterns of HOX transformed cells in vitro are determined by the nature of the homeodomain. Similar results were seen in vivo during HOX-mediated leukemogenesis. An exchange of the homeodomains was sufficient to convert the slow, low-penetrance phenotype of HOXA1-induced leukemia to the aggressive fast-acting disease elicited by HOXA9 and vice versa. Mutation and deletion studies identified several subregions within the DNA binding domain responsible for paralog specificity. Previously defined binding sites for PBX cofactors within the exchangeable, nonhomeobox segment were dispensable for in vitro oncogenic HOX activity but affected in vivo disease development. The transcriptional activator domain shared by HOXA1 and HOXA9 at the very N-terminus proved essential for all transformation.

  3. No association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus with prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The involvement of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer (PC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is disputed as its reported prevalence ranges from 0% to 25% in PC cases and from 0% to more than 80% in CFS cases. To evaluate the risk of XMRV infection during blood transfusion in Japan, we screened three populations--healthy donors (n = 500), patients with PC (n = 67), and patients with CFS (n = 100)--for antibodies against XMRV proteins in freshly collected blood samples. We also examined blood samples of viral antibody-positive patients with PC and all (both antibody-positive and antibody-negative) patients with CFS for XMRV DNA. Results Antibody screening by immunoblot analysis showed that a fraction of the cases (1.6-3.0%) possessed anti-Gag antibodies regardless of their gender or disease condition. Most of these antibodies were highly specific to XMRV Gag capsid protein, but none of the individuals in the three tested populations retained strong antibody responses to multiple XMRV proteins. In the viral antibody-positive PC patients, we occasionally detected XMRV genes in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells but failed to isolate an infectious or full-length XMRV. Further, all CFS patients tested negative for XMRV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Our data show no solid evidence of XMRV infection in any of the three populations tested, implying that there is no association between the onset of PC or CFS and XMRV infection in Japan. However, the lack of adequate human specimens as a positive control in Ab screening and the limited sample size do not allow us to draw a firm conclusion. PMID:21414229

  4. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Dey, Anwesha; York, Danielle; Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Summers, Michael F

    2005-03-15

    All retroviruses package two copies of their genomes during virus assembly, both of which are required for strand transfer-mediated recombination during reverse transcription. Genome packaging is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domains of assembling Gag polyproteins and an RNA packaging signal, located near the 5' end of the genome, called Psi. We recently discovered that the NC protein of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) can bind with high affinity to conserved UCUG elements within the MLV packaging signal [D'Souza, V., and Summers, M. F. (2004) Nature 431, 586-590]. Selective binding to dimeric RNA is regulated by a conformational RNA switch, in which the UCUG elements are sequestered by base pairing in the monomeric RNA and do not bind NC, but become exposed for NC binding upon dimerization. Dimerization-dependent structural changes occur in other regions of the Psi-site, exposing guanosine-containing segments that might also bind NC. Here we demonstrate that short RNAs containing three such sequences, ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG, can bind NC with significant affinity (K(d) = 94-315 nM). Titration experiments with oligoribonucleotides of varying lengths and compositions, combined with NMR-based structural studies, reveal that binding is strictly dependent on the presence of an unpaired guanosine, and that relative binding affinities can vary by more than 1 order of magnitude depending on the nature of the three upstream nucleotides. Binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, indicating that electrostatic interactions contribute significantly to binding. Our findings extend a previously published model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA.

  5. Charged Assembly Helix Motif in Murine Leukemia Virus Capsid: an Important Region for Virus Assembly and Particle Size Determination

    PubMed Central

    Cheslock, Sara Rasmussen; Poon, Dexter T. K.; Fu, William; Rhodes, Terence D.; Henderson, Louis E.; Nagashima, Kunio; McGrath, Connor F.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2003-01-01

    We have identified a region near the C terminus of capsid (CA) of murine leukemia virus (MLV) that contains many charged residues. This motif is conserved in various lengths in most MLV-like viruses. One exception is that spleen necrosis virus (SNV) does not contain a well-defined domain of charged residues. When 33 amino acids of the MLV motif were deleted to mimic SNV CA, the resulting mutant produced drastically reduced amounts of virions and the virions were noninfectious. Furthermore, these viruses had abnormal sizes, often contained punctate structures resembling those in the cell cytoplasm, and packaged both ribosomal and viral RNA. When 11 or 15 amino acids were deleted to modify the MLV CA to resemble those from other gammaretroviruses, the deletion mutants produced virions at levels comparable to those of the wild-type virus and were able to complete one round of virus replication without detectable defects. We generated 10 more mutants that displayed either the wild-type or mutant phenotype. The distribution of the wild-type or mutant phenotype did not directly correlate with the number of amino acids deleted, suggesting that the function of the motif is determined not simply by its length but also by its structure. Structural modeling of the wild-type and mutant proteins suggested that this region forms α-helices; thus, we termed this motif the “charged assembly helix.” This is the first description of the charged assembly helix motif in MLV CA and demonstration of its role in virus budding and assembly. PMID:12768025

  6. In vitro production and titration assays of B-tropic retroviruses isolated from C57BL mouse tumors induced by radiation leukemia virus (RadLV-Rs): effect of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Guillemain, B; Astier, T; Mamoun, R; Duplan, J F

    1980-01-01

    The effect of dexamethasone (DXM) on the replication and titration assays of B-ecotropic radiation leukemia virus (RadLV-Rs) isolates was examined. The drug was shown to enhance in vitro virus release by otherwise low producer permissive cells. DXM also stimulated infectivity and focus formation in murine S+L--permissive cells and shortened the time-appearance of virus-induced foci. In contrast to foci observed in nontreated cultures, which are generally abortive and composed of only a few morphologically transformed cells, those obtained with DXM were comparable to those induced by ecotropic retroviruses with a potent helper activity for murine sarcoma virus. In addition, DXM increased virus-induced XC cell fusion. These fundamental data allowed a more abundant in vitro production of the B-ecotropic RadLV-Rs virus isolates as well as precise infectivity titration assays.

  7. Oxygen radical detoxification enzymes in doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant P388 murine leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramu, A.; Cohen, L.; Glaubiger, D.

    1984-05-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms for the cytotoxic effects of anthracycline compounds suggests that the effect is mediated through the formation of intracellular superoxide radicals. It is therefore possible that doxorubicin resistance is associated with increased intracellular enzyme capacity to convert these superoxide radicals to inactive metabolites. We have measured the relative activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in P388 mouse leukemia cells and in a doxorubicin-resistant subline. Since oxygen-reactive metabolites also play a role in mediating the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation, the radiosensitivity of both cell lines was also studied. No significant differences in superoxide dismutase activity between these cell lines was observed, indicating that they have a similar capacity to convert superoxide anion radicals to hydrogen peroxide. P388 cells that are resistant to doxorubicin have 1.5 times the glutathione content and 1.5 times the activity of glutathione peroxidase measured in drug-sensitive P388 cells. However, incubation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, which covalently binds glutathione, had no effect on the sensitivity of either cell line to doxorubicin. Measured catalase activity in drug-resistant P388 cells was one-third of the activity measured in doxorubicin-sensitive P388 cells. The activity of this enzyme was much higher than that of glutathione peroxidase in terms of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ deactivation in both cell lines. It is therefore unlikely that doxorubicin-resistant P388 cells have an increased ability to detoxify reactive oxygen metabolites when compared to drug-sensitive cells. Doxorubicin-resistant P388 cells were significantly more sensitive to X-irradiation than were drug-sensitive P388 cells. These observations suggest that the difference in catalase activity in these cell lines may be associated with the observed differences in radiosensitivity.

  8. Inhibition of RNase H activity and viral replication by single mutations in the 3' region of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed Central

    Repaske, R; Hartley, J W; Kavlick, M F; O'Neill, R R; Austin, J B

    1989-01-01

    Selected conserved amino acids in the putative RNase H domain of reverse transcriptase (RT) were modified in a molecularly cloned infectious provirus and in a Moloney murine leukemia virus RT expression vector by site-directed mutagenesis. Substitution of either of two conserved aspartic acid residues in proviral DNA prevented production of infectious particles in transfected NIH 3T3 cells, and the same modifications depressed RT-associated RNase H activity by more than 25-fold with little or no effect on polymerase activity. PMID:2464706

  9. Thymoquinone Inhibits Murine Leukemia WEHI-3 Cells In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ali Salim, Landa Zeenelabdin; Othman, Rozana; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Al-Jashamy, Karim; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Omer, Fatima Abd Elmutaal Ahmed; Mohan, Syam

    2014-01-01

    Background Thymoquinone is an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa (Black Seed). This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-leukemic effects of thymoquinone on WEHI-3 cells. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxic effect of thymoquinone was assessed using an MTT assay, while the inhibitory effect of thymoquinone on murine WEHI-3 cell growth was due to the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by chromatin condensation dye, Hoechst 33342 and acridine orange/propidium iodide fluorescent staining. In addition, Annexin V staining for early apoptosis was performed using flowcytometric analysis. Apoptosis was found to be associated with the cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Expression of Bax, Bcl2 and HSP 70 proteins were observed by western blotting. The effects of thymoquinone on BALB/c mice injected with WEHI-3 cells were indicated by the decrease in the body, spleen and liver weights of the animal, as compared to the control. Conclusion Thymoquinone promoted natural killer cell activities. This compound showed high toxicity against WEHI-3 cell line which was confirmed by an increase of the early apoptosis, followed by up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl2, and down-regulation of the apoptotic protein, Bax. On the other hand, high reduction of the spleen and liver weight, and significant histopathology study of spleen and liver confirmed that thymoquinone inhibited WEHI-3 growth in the BALB/c mice. Results from this study highlight the potential of thymoquinone to be developed as an anti-leukemic agent. PMID:25531768

  10. Accumulation and breakdown of RNA-deficient intracellular virus particles in interferon-treated NIH 3T3 cells chronically producing Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Aboud, M; Hassan, Y

    1983-01-01

    Interferon treatment of NIH 3T3 cells chronically infected with Moloney murine leukemia virus inhibited about 95% of virus release. This inhibition was accompanied by a three- to twofold accumulation of intracellular virions. However, this accumulation could be demonstrated only be exogenous reverse transcriptase reaction assay or radioactive labeling of the assembled viral proteins. It could not be shown by the endogenous reverse transcriptase reaction assay, which depended on endogenous viral RNA, or by labeling the encapsidated viral RNA. It was therefore evident that most of the intracellular virions accumulated in interferon-treated cells were RNA deficient. Hybridization analysis revealed that these virions were deficient of genomic viral RNA, whereas size analysis by gel electrophoresis suggested that the deficiency of 4S RNA normally packaged in Moloney murine leukemia virus was even stronger. Our data also suggested that this RNA deficiency was not due to degradation of the encapsidated RNA, but more likely to a defect in virus assembly. RNA-lacking intracellular virions were unstable; they were found to collapse before being released. PMID:6187933

  11. Defects in Moloney murine leukemia virus replication caused by a reverse transcriptase mutation modeled on the structure of Escherichia coli RNase H.

    PubMed Central

    Telesnitsky, A; Blain, S W; Goff, S P

    1992-01-01

    We have studied a mutant Moloney murine leukemia virus with a deletion in reverse transcriptase (RT) which is predicted to make its RNase H domain resemble structurally that of human immunodeficiency virus RT. This deletion was based on improved RNase H homology alignments made possible by the recently solved three-dimensional structure for Escherichia coli RNase H. This mutant Moloney murine leukemia virus RT was fully active in the oligo(dT)-poly(rA) DNA polymerase assay and retained nearly all of wild-type RT's RNase H activity in an in situ RNase H gel assay. However, proviruses reconstructed to include this deletion were noninfectious. Minus-strand strong-stop DNA was made by the deletion mutant, but the amount of minus-strand translocation was intermediate to the very low level measured with RNase H-null virions and the high level seen with wild-type RT. The average length of translocated minus-strand DNA was shorter for the deletion mutant than for wild type, suggesting that mutations in the RNase H domain of RT also affect DNA polymerase activity. Images PMID:1370551

  12. Induced expression from the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat during differentiation of human myeloid cells is mediated through its transcriptional enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Reisman, D; Rotter, V

    1989-01-01

    Transcription from the Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) long terminal repeat (LTR) is inhibited in murine stem cells and induced during maturation of these cells. We have investigated whether alterations in the activity of this viral regulatory element also occur during differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells. The Mo-MuLV LTR and the simian virus 40 (SV40) early promoter were introduced into HL-60 promyelocytes on Epstein-Barr virus-derived chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression vectors. When these cells were induced to terminally differentiate, transcription from the Mo-MuLV LTR was induced approximately 10-fold. Expression from the SV40 promoter remained constant during differentiation of these cells. Replacing the SV40 transcriptional enhancer with the Mo-MuLV LTR transcriptional enhancer rendered the SV40 promoter inducible during differentiation. We conclude that sequences within the transcriptional enhancer of the Mo-MuLV LTR contain cis-acting elements responsible for induction of gene expression during differentiation of human myeloid cells. Images PMID:2477690

  13. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine prevents induction of murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in C57BL/10 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia viruses, a possible animal model for antiretroviral drug screening.

    PubMed Central

    Ohnota, H; Okada, Y; Ushijima, H; Kitamura, T; Komuro, K; Mizuochi, T

    1990-01-01

    Adult C57BL/10 mice (H-2b Fv-1b) inoculated with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus develop a disease which has many features in common with human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in particular abnormal lymphoproliferation and severe immunodeficiency. In the present study, we examined the possibility that this murine AIDS (MAIDS) model would be useful for evaluating antiretrovirus drugs in vivo through the use of a well-defined antiretrovirus drug, the reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (H. Mitsuya, K.J. Weinhold, P.A. Furman, M.H. St. Claire, S. Nusinoff-Lehrman, R.C. Gallo, D. Bolognesi, D.W. Barry, and S. Broder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:7096-7100, 1985) 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT). We evaluated the effect of AZT treatment on de novo virus infection as well as on the induction of immunodeficiency by various parameters, including RT activity in serum, splenomegaly, proliferative responses against alloantigens and mitogens, soluble-antigen-presenting cell activity, and immunoglobulin G levels in serum. Our results demonstrated that AZT treatment of C57BL/10 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus efficiently prevented the induction of immunodeficiency if started at the time of virus inoculation. Starting AZT treatment 1 week later provided only a partial protective effect. Starting AZT treatment 2 weeks later was associated with suppression of RT activity in serum but no prevention of immunosuppression. This MAIDS model may allow rapid and cost-effective screening for antiretrovirus drugs targeted against retroviral functions shared between human AIDS and MAIDS, such as those encoded by gag, pol, or env. PMID:1693056

  14. Modulation of Stop Codon Read-Through Efficiency and Its Effect on the Replication of Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Csibra, Eszter; Brierley, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Translational readthrough—suppression of termination at a stop codon—is exploited in the replication cycles of several viruses and represents a potential target for antiviral intervention. In the gammaretroviruses, typified by Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV), gag and pol are in the same reading frame, separated by a UAG stop codon, and termination codon readthrough is required for expression of the viral Gag-Pol fusion protein. Here, we investigated the effect on MuLV replication of modulating readthrough efficiency. We began by manipulating the readthrough signal in the context of an infectious viral clone to generate a series of MuLV variants in which readthrough was stimulated or reduced. In carefully controlled infectivity assays, it was found that reducing the MuLV readthrough efficiency only 4-fold led to a marked defect and that a 10-fold reduction essentially abolished replication. However, up to an ∼8.5-fold stimulation of readthrough (up to 60% readthrough) was well tolerated by the virus. These high levels of readthrough were achieved using a two-plasmid system, with Gag and Gag-Pol expressed from separate infectious clones. We also modulated readthrough by silencing expression of eukaryotic release factors 1 and 3 (eRF1 and eRF3) or by introducing aminoglycosides into the cells. The data obtained indicate that gammaretroviruses tolerate a substantial excess of viral Gag-Pol synthesis but are very sensitive to a reduction in levels of this polyprotein. Thus, as is also the case for ribosomal frameshifting, antiviral therapies targeting readthrough with inhibitory agents are likely to be the most beneficial. IMPORTANCE Many pathogenic RNA viruses and retroviruses use ribosomal frameshifting or stop codon readthrough to regulate expression of their replicase enzymes. These translational “recoding” processes are potential targets for antiviral intervention, but we have only a limited understanding of the consequences to virus

  15. PD166326, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has greater antileukemic activity than imatinib mesylate in a murine model of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nicholas C; Veach, Darren R; Tong, William P; Bornmann, William G; Clarkson, Bayard; Ilaria, Robert L

    2005-05-15

    Imatinib mesylate is highly effective in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but BCR/ABL (breakpoint cluster region/abelson murine leukemia)-positive progenitors persist in most patients with CML treated with imatinib mesylate, indicating the need for novel therapeutic approaches. In this study, we have used the murine CML-like myeloproliferative disorder as a platform to characterize the pharmacokinetic, signal transduction, and antileukemic properties of PD166326, one of the most potent members of the pyridopyrimidine class of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In mice with the CML-like disease, PD166326 rapidly inhibited Bcr/Abl kinase activity after a single oral dose and demonstrated marked antileukemic activity in vivo. Seventy percent of PD166326-treated mice achieved a white blood cell (WBC) count less than 20.0 x 10(9)/L (20,000/microL) at necropsy, compared with only 8% of imatinib mesylate-treated animals. Further, two thirds of PD166326-treated animals had complete resolution of splenomegaly, compared with none of the imatinib mesylate-treated animals. Consistent with its more potent antileukemic effect in vivo, PD166326 was also superior to imatinib mesylate in inhibiting the constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous leukemia-cell proteins, including the src family member Lyn. PD166326 also prolonged the survival of mice with imatinib mesylate-resistant CML induced by the Bcr/Abl mutants P210/H396P and P210/M351T. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the potential of more potent Bcr/Abl inhibitors to provide more effective antileukemic activity. Clinical development of PD166326 or a related analog may lead to more effective drugs for the treatment of de novo and imatinib mesylate-resistant CML.

  16. The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Shiliang; Sorensen, Annette Balle; Kunder, Sandra; Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Morris, David W.; Schmidt, Joerg; Pedersen, Finn Skou . E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

    2006-09-01

    ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas.

  17. Safrole suppresses murine myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vivo, and stimulates macrophage phagocytosis and natural killer cell cytotoxicity in leukemic mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Shun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chun-Shu; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chung, Hsiung-Kwang; Yu, Chien-Chih; Wu, Chih-Chung; Ho, Heng-Chien; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2013-11-01

    Many anticancer drugs are obtained from phytochemicals and natural products. However, some phytochemicals have mutagenic effects. Safrole, a component of Piper betle inflorescence, has been reported to be a carcinogen. We have previously reported that safrole induced apoptosis in human oral cancer cells in vitro and inhibited the human oral tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Until now, there is no information addressing if safrole promotes immune responses in vivo. To evaluate whether safrole modulated immune function, BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with murine myelomonocytic WEHI-3 leukemia cells to establish leukemia and then were treated with or without safrole at 4 and 16 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed after 2 weeks post-treatment with safrole for examining the immune cell populations, phagocytosis of macrophages and the natural killer (NK) cells' cytotoxicity. Results indicated that safrole increased the body weight, and decreased the weights of spleen and liver in leukemic mice. Furthermore, safrole promoted the activities of macrophages phagocytosis and NK cells' cytotoxicity in leukemic mice when compared with untreated leukemic mice. After determining the cell marker population, we found that safrole promoted the levels of CD3 (T cells), CD19 (B cells) and Mac-3 (macrophages), but it did not affect CD11b (monocytes) in leukemic mice. In conclusion, safrole altered the immune modulation and inhibited the leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vivo.

  18. Augmented efficacy with the combination of blockade of the Notch-1 pathway, bortezomib and romidepsin in a murine MT-1 adult T-cell leukemia model.

    PubMed

    Yu, P; Petrus, M N; Ju, W; Zhang, M; Conlon, K C; Nakagawa, M; Maeda, M; Bamford, R N; Waldmann, T A

    2015-03-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1. There is no accepted curative therapy for ATL. We have reported that certain ATL patients have increased Notch-1 signaling along with constitutive activation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway. Physical and functional interaction between these two pathways provides the rationale to combine the γ-secretase inhibitor compound E with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Moreover, romidepsin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has demonstrated major antitumor action in leukemia/lymphoma. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the single agents and the combination of these agents in a murine model of human ATL, the MT-1 model. Single and double agents inhibited tumor growth as monitored by tumor size (P<0.05), and prolonged survival of leukemia-bearing mice (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The combination of three agents significantly enhanced the antitumor efficacy as assessed by tumor size, tumor markers in the serum (human soluble interleukin-2 receptor-α and β2-microglobulin) and survival of the MT-1 tumor-bearing mice, compared with all other treatment groups (P<0.05). Improved therapeutic efficacy obtained by combining compound E, bortezomib and romidepsin supports a clinical trial of this combination in the treatment of ATL.

  19. Anti-CD45 Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y but Not 177Lu Is Effective Treatment in a Syngeneic Murine Leukemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Johnnie J.; Balkin, Ethan R.; Gooley, Ted A.; Kenoyer, Aimee; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Shadman, Mazyar; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for treatment of hematologic malignancies has primarily employed monoclonal antibodies (Ab) labeled with 131I or 90Y which have limitations, and alternative radionuclides are needed to facilitate wider adoption of RIT. We therefore compared the relative therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of anti-CD45 RIT employing 90Y and 177Lu in a syngeneic, disseminated murine myeloid leukemia (B6SJLF1/J) model. Biodistribution studies showed that both 90Y- and 177Lu-anti-murine CD45 Ab conjugates (DOTA-30F11) targeted hematologic tissues, as at 24 hours 48.8±21.2 and 156±14.6% injected dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) of 90Y-DOTA-30F11 and 54.2±9.5 and 199±11.7% ID/g of 177Lu-DOTA-30F11 accumulated in bone marrow (BM) and spleen, respectively. However, 90Y-DOTA-30F11 RIT demonstrated a dose-dependent survival benefit: 60% of mice treated with 300 µCi 90Y-DOTA-30F11 lived over 180 days after therapy, and mice treated with 100 µCi 90Y-DOTA-30F11 had a median survival 66 days. 90Y-anti-CD45 RIT was associated with transient, mild myelotoxicity without hepatic or renal toxicity. Conversely, 177Lu- anti-CD45 RIT yielded no long-term survivors. Thus, 90Y was more effective than 177Lu for anti-CD45 RIT of AML in this murine leukemia model. PMID:25460570

  20. Effects of diallyl trisulfide on induction of apoptotic death in murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vitro and alterations of the immune responses in normal and leukemic mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hung, Fang-Ming; Shang, Hung-Sheng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Lu, Kung-Wen; Lin, Jing-Pin; Ko, Yang-Ching; Yu, Chien-Chih; Wang, Hai-Lung; Liao, Jung-Chi; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-11-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a chemopreventive dietary constituent and extracted from garlic, has been shown to against cultured many types of human cancer cell liens but the fate of apoptosis in murine leukemia cells in vitro and immune responses in leukemic mice remain elusive. Herein, we clarified the actions of DATS on growth inhibition of murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vitro and used WEHI-3 cells to generate leukemic mice in vivo, following to investigate the effects of DATS in animal model. In in vitro study, DATS induced apoptosis of WEHI-3 cells through the G0/G1 phase arrest and induction of caspase-3 activation. In in vivo study DATS decreased the weight of spleen of leukemia mice but did not affect the spleen weight of normal mice. DATS promoted the immune responses such as promotions of the macrophage phagocytosis and NK cell activities in WEHI-3 leukemic and normal mice. However, DATS only promotes NK cell activities in normal mice. DATS increases the surface markers of CD11b and Mac-3 in leukemia mice but only promoted CD3 in normal mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that DATS induces cell death through induction of apoptosis in mice leukemia WHEI-3 cells. DATS also promotes immune responses in leukemia and normal mice in vivo.

  1. Vaccinia virus kelch protein A55 is a 64 kDa intracellular factor that affects virus-induced cytopathic effect and the outcome of infection in a murine intradermal model.

    PubMed

    Beard, Philippa M; Froggatt, Graham C; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2006-06-01

    The vaccinia virus (VACV) protein A55 is a BTB/kelch protein with a broad-complex, tramtrack and bric-a-brac (BTB) domain in the N-terminal region and five kelch repeats in the C-terminal half. The BTB/kelch subgroup of the kelch superfamily of proteins has been associated with a wide variety of functions including regulation of the cytoskeleton. VACV contains three genes predicted to encode BTB/kelch proteins: A55R, F3L and C2L. The A55R gene product has been identified as an intracellular protein of 64 kDa that is expressed late in infection. A VACV strain lacking 93.6% of the A55R open reading frame (vdeltaA55) was constructed and found to have an unaltered growth rate in vivo but a different plaque morphology and cytopathic effect, as well as reduced development of VACV-induced Ca2+-independent cell/extracellular matrix adhesion. In a murine intradermal model of VACV infection, a virus lacking the A55R gene induced larger lesions than wild-type and revertant control viruses.

  2. Functional Interactions of the HHCC Domain of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Integrase Revealed by Nonoverlapping Complementation and Zinc-Dependent Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Leon, Oscar; Greenfield, Norma J.; Roth, Monica J.

    1999-01-01

    The retroviral integrase (IN) is required for the integration of viral DNA into the host genome. The N terminus of IN contains an HHCC zinc finger-like motif, which is conserved among all retroviruses. To study the function of the HHCC domain of Moloney murine leukemia virus IN, the first N-terminal 105 residues were expressed independently. This HHCC domain protein is found to complement a completely nonoverlapping construct lacking the HHCC domain for strand transfer, 3′ processing and coordinated disintegration reactions, revealing trans interactions among IN domains. The HHCC domain protein binds zinc at a 1:1 ratio and changes its conformation upon binding to zinc. The presence of zinc within the HHCC domain stimulates selective integration processes. Zinc promotes the dimerization of the HHCC domain and protects it from N-ethylmaleimide modification. These studies dissect and define the requirement for the HHCC domain, the exact function of which remains unknown. PMID:9971758

  3. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1: potential stratification factor and therapeutic target for epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qianying; Gui, Ting; Qian, Qiuhong; Li, Lei; Shen, Keng

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer, a vexing challenge for clinical management, still lacks biomarkers for early diagnosis, precise stratification, and prognostic evaluation of patients. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1), a member of the polycomb group of proteins, engages in diverse cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and stem cell renewal. In addition, BMI1, as a cancer stem-cell marker, participates in tumorigenesis through various pathways. Rewardingly, recent studies have also revealed a relationship between BMI1 expression and the clinical grade/stage, therapy response, and survival outcome in a majority of human malignancies, including epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, BMI1 might serve as a potential stratification factor and treatment target for epithelial ovarian cancer, pending evidence from further investigations. PMID:27578986

  4. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1: potential stratification factor and therapeutic target for epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qianying; Gui, Ting; Qian, Qiuhong; Li, Lei; Shen, Keng

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer, a vexing challenge for clinical management, still lacks biomarkers for early diagnosis, precise stratification, and prognostic evaluation of patients. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1), a member of the polycomb group of proteins, engages in diverse cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and stem cell renewal. In addition, BMI1, as a cancer stem-cell marker, participates in tumorigenesis through various pathways. Rewardingly, recent studies have also revealed a relationship between BMI1 expression and the clinical grade/stage, therapy response, and survival outcome in a majority of human malignancies, including epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, BMI1 might serve as a potential stratification factor and treatment target for epithelial ovarian cancer, pending evidence from further investigations. PMID:27578986

  5. Inherited resistance to N- and B-tropic murine leukemia viruses in vitro: titration patterns in strains SIM and SIM.R congenic at the Fv-1 locus.

    PubMed

    Schuh, V; Blackstein, M E; Axelrad, A A

    1976-05-01

    We have investigated the titration patterns of murine leukemia viruses on mouse embryo cultures derived from a pair of congenic strains differing at the Fv-1 locus. XC plaque and infectious center assays carried out with N- and B-tropic viruses on both SIM (Fv-1nn) and SIM.R(Fv-1bb) host cells yielded results that were best approximated by Poisson one-hit curves. Titration curves of N-tropic virus by direct XC plaque assay were linear and parallel on the different hosts, with titers 1.8 to 2.7 log10 lower on SIM.R and on (SIM X SIM.R)F1 than on SIM cells; similar linear and parallel curves were found for B-tropic virus, with titers 1.4 to 2.0 log10 lower on SIM and (SIM XSIM-R)F1 than on SIM-R cells. In the infectious center assays, the proportion of infected cells was linearly related to multiplicity of infection on both permissive (N- on SIM and B- on SIM.R) restrictive (B- on SIM and N- on SIM.R) genotypes at multiplicities of infection below 0.5; the line relating the variables was about 1 log10 lower in the restrictive than in the permissive situations. At multiplicities of infection where the proportion of infected cells reached a plateau, differences between the results on permissive and restrictive genotypes were considerably reduced. This appeared to be due to the action of non-Fv-1 factors in permissive host. We conclude that the major action of the restrictive allele at the Fv-1 locus in this system is to reduce the probability of successful murine leukemia virus infection without a change in hitness.

  6. Phylogeny-Directed Search for Murine Leukemia Virus-Like Retroviruses in Vertebrate Genomes and in Patients Suffering from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, Jonas; Sheikholvaezin, Ali; Elfaitouri, Amal; Blomberg, Fredrik; Sjösten, Anna; Mattson Ulfstedt, Johan; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Källander, Clas; Öhrmalm, Christina; Sperber, Göran

    2011-01-01

    Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) like retroviruses (MLLVs) are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross-species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV) and Human Mouse retrovirus-like RetroViruses (HMRVs)) reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard-to-detect “stealth” infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered. PMID:22315600

  7. Abrogation of resistance to severe mousepox in C57BL/6 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Buller, R M; Yetter, R A; Fredrickson, T N; Morse, H C

    1987-01-01

    Strain C57BL/6 (B6) mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) develop a disease which combines abnormal lymphoproliferation with profound immunosuppression and has many features in common with human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome induced by HTLV-III/LAV retroviruses. To determine whether this LP-BM5 MuLV infection would affect the innate resistance of B6 mice to a naturally occurring, highly virulent murine pathogen, mice were exposed to ectromelia virus at various times after treatment with LP-BM5 viruses. At week 4 after infection with LP-BM5, mice challenged with ectromelia virus were unable to generate a humoral immune response to this virus, and between weeks 8 and 10 after infection, challenged mice lost the ability to generate an ectromelia virus-specific cytotoxic-T-cell response. Loss of the cellular immune responses to ectromelia virus was associated with an increased susceptibility to the lethal effects of the virus. PMID:3027368

  8. In vivo Localization of 90Y- and 177Lu-Radioimmunoconjugates Using Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging in a Disseminated Murine Leukemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Balkin, Ethan R.; Kenoyer, Aimee; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Hernandez, Alexandra; Shadman, Mazyar; Fisher, Darrell R.; Green, Damian J.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Press, Oliver W.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Pagel, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Cerenkov radiation generated by positron-emitting radionuclides can be exploited for a molecular imaging technique known as Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging (CLI). Data have been limited, however, on the use of medium-to-high energy β-emitting radionuclides of interest for cancer imaging and treatment. We assessed the use of CLI as an adjunct to determine localization of radioimmunoconjugates to hematolymphoid tissues. Radiolabeled 177Lu- or 90Y-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; DOTA-30F11) was administered by tail vein injection to athymic mice bearing disseminated murine myeloid leukemia with CLI images acquired at times afterward. Gamma counting of individual organs showed preferential uptake in CD45+ tissues with significant retention of radiolabeled Ab in sites of leukemia (spleen and bone marrow). This result was confirmed in CLI images with 1.35 × 105 ± 2.2 × 104 p/sec/cm2/sr and 3.45 × 103 ± 7.0 × 102 p/sec/cm2/sr for 90Y-DOTA-30F11 and 177Lu-DOTA-30F11, respectively, compared to undetectable signal for both radionuclides using the non-binding control Ab. Results showed that CLI allows for in vivo visualization of localized β-emissions. Pixel intensity variability resulted from differences in absorbed doses of the associated energies of the β-emitting radionuclide. Overall, our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of CLI techniques in tandem with currently available clinical diagnostic tools. PMID:25261237

  9. Novel Quinazolinone MJ-29 Triggers Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Intrinsic Apoptosis in Murine Leukemia WEHI-3 Cells and Inhibits Leukemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Hour, Mann-Jen; Lin, Kuei-Li; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Huang, Wen-Wen; Tsuzuki, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to explore the biological responses of the newly compound, MJ-29 in murine myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vitro and in vivo fates. We focused on the in vitro effects of MJ-29 on ER stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic death in WEHI-3 cells, and to hypothesize that MJ-29 might fully impair the orthotopic leukemic mice. Our results indicated that a concentration-dependent decrease of cell viability was shown in MJ-29-treated cells. DNA content was examined utilizing flow cytometry, whereas apoptotic populations were determined using annexin V/PI, DAPI staining and TUNEL assay. Increasing vital factors of mitochondrial dysfunction by MJ-29 were further investigated. Thus, MJ-29-provaked apoptosis of WEHI-3 cells is mediated through the intrinsic pathway. Importantly, intracellular Ca2+ release and ER stress-associated signaling also contributed to MJ-29-triggered cell apoptosis. We found that MJ-29 stimulated the protein levels of calpain 1, CHOP and p-eIF2α pathways in WEHI-3 cells. In in vivo experiments, intraperitoneal administration of MJ-29 significantly improved the total survival rate, enhanced body weight and attenuated enlarged spleen and liver tissues in leukemic mice. The infiltration of immature myeloblastic cells into splenic red pulp was reduced in MJ-29-treated leukemic mice. Moreover, MJ-29 increased the differentiations of T and B cells but decreased that of macrophages and monocytes. Additionally, MJ-29-stimulated immune responses might be involved in anti-leukemic activity in vivo. Based on these observations, MJ-29 suppresses WEHI-3 cells in vitro and in vivo, and it is proposed that this potent and selective agent could be a new chemotherapeutic candidate for anti-leukemia in the future. PMID:22662126

  10. The Secondary Structure of the R Region of a Murine Leukemia Virus Is Important for Stimulation of Long Terminal Repeat-Driven Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cupelli, Lisa; Okenquist, Sharon A.; Trubetskoy, Alla; Lenz, Jack

    1998-01-01

    In addition to their role in reverse transcription, the R-region sequences of some retroviruses affect viral transcription. The first 28 nucleotides of the R region within the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the murine type C retrovirus SL3 were predicted to form a stem-loop structure. We tested whether this structure affected the transcriptional activity of the viral LTR. Mutations that altered either side of the stem and thus disrupted base pairing were generated. These decreased the level of expression of a reporter gene under the control of viral LTR sequences about 5-fold in transient expression assays and 10-fold in cells stably transformed with the LTR-reporter plasmids. We also generated a compensatory mutant in which both the ascending and descending sides of the stem were mutated such that the nucleotide sequence was different but the predicted secondary structure was maintained. Most of the activity of the wild-type SL3 element was restored in this mutant. Thus, the stem-loop structure was important for the maximum activity of the SL3 LTR. Primer extension analysis indicated that the stem-loop structure affected the levels of cytoplasmic RNA. Nuclear run-on assays indicated that deletion of the R region had a small effect on transcriptional initiation and no effect on RNA polymerase processivity. Thus, the main effect of the R-region element was on one or more steps that occurred after the template was transcribed by RNA polymerase. This finding implied that the main function of the R-region element involved RNA processing. R-region sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 or mouse mammary tumor virus could not replace the SL3 element. R-region sequences from an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus partially substituted for the SL3 sequences. R-region sequences from Moloney murine leukemia virus or feline leukemia virus did function in place of the SL3 element. Thus, the R region element appears to be a general feature of the mammalian type C genus of

  11. The secondary structure of the R region of a murine leukemia virus is important for stimulation of long terminal repeat-driven gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cupelli, L; Okenquist, S A; Trubetskoy, A; Lenz, J

    1998-10-01

    In addition to their role in reverse transcription, the R-region sequences of some retroviruses affect viral transcription. The first 28 nucleotides of the R region within the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the murine type C retrovirus SL3 were predicted to form a stem-loop structure. We tested whether this structure affected the transcriptional activity of the viral LTR. Mutations that altered either side of the stem and thus disrupted base pairing were generated. These decreased the level of expression of a reporter gene under the control of viral LTR sequences about 5-fold in transient expression assays and 10-fold in cells stably transformed with the LTR-reporter plasmids. We also generated a compensatory mutant in which both the ascending and descending sides of the stem were mutated such that the nucleotide sequence was different but the predicted secondary structure was maintained. Most of the activity of the wild-type SL3 element was restored in this mutant. Thus, the stem-loop structure was important for the maximum activity of the SL3 LTR. Primer extension analysis indicated that the stem-loop structure affected the levels of cytoplasmic RNA. Nuclear run-on assays indicated that deletion of the R region had a small effect on transcriptional initiation and no effect on RNA polymerase processivity. Thus, the main effect of the R-region element was on one or more steps that occurred after the template was transcribed by RNA polymerase. This finding implied that the main function of the R-region element involved RNA processing. R-region sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 or mouse mammary tumor virus could not replace the SL3 element. R-region sequences from an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus partially substituted for the SL3 sequences. R-region sequences from Moloney murine leukemia virus or feline leukemia virus did function in place of the SL3 element. Thus, the R region element appears to be a general feature of the mammalian type C genus of

  12. Serologic and PCR testing of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome in the United States shows no association with xenotropic or polytropic murine leukemia virus-related viruses.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, Brent C; Garcia, Rebecca A; Jia, Hongwei; Tang, Shaohua; Zheng, Haoqiang; Switzer, William M

    2011-02-22

    In 2009, a newly discovered human retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related virus (XMRV), was reported by Lombardi et al. in 67% of persons from the US with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) by PCR detection of gag sequences. Although six subsequent studies have been negative for XMRV, CFS was defined more broadly using only the CDC or Oxford criteria and samples from the US were limited in geographic diversity, both potentially reducing the chances of identifying XMRV positive CFS cases. A seventh study recently found polytropic MuLV sequences, but not XMRV, in a high proportion of persons with CFS. Here we tested blood specimens from 45 CFS cases and 42 persons without CFS from over 20 states in the United States for both XMRV and MuLV. The CFS patients all had a minimum of 6 months of post-exertional malaise and a high degree of disability, the same key symptoms described in the Lombardi et al. study. Using highly sensitive and generic DNA and RNA PCR tests, and a new Western blot assay employing purified whole XMRV as antigen, we found no evidence of XMRV or MuLV in all 45 CFS cases and in the 42 persons without CFS. Our findings, together with previous negative reports, do not suggest an association of XMRV or MuLV in the majority of CFS cases.

  13. Distinct roles of enhancer nuclear factor 1 (NF1) sites in plasmacytoma and osteopetrosis induction by Akv1-99 murine leukemia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Sorensen, Annette Balle; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kunder, Sandra; Schmidt, Joerg; Pedersen, Finn Skou . E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

    2005-04-10

    Murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) can be lymphomagenic and bone pathogenic. In this work, the possible roles of two distinct proviral enhancer nuclear factor 1 (NF1) binding sites in osteopetrosis and tumor induction by B-lymphomagenic Akv1-99 MLV were investigated. Akv1-99 and mutants either with NF1 site 1, NF1 site 2 or both sites disrupted induced tumors (plasma cell proliferations by histopathology) with remarkably similar incidence and mean latency in inbred NMRI mice. Clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement detection, by Southern analysis, confirmed approximately half of the tumors induced by each virus to be plasmacytomas while the remaining lacked detectable clonally rearranged Ig genes and were considered polyclonal; a demonstration that enhancer NF1 sites are dispensable for plasmacytoma induction by Akv1-99. In contrast, X-ray analysis revealed significant differences in osteopetrosis induction by the four viruses strongly indicating that NF1 site 2 is critical for viral bone pathogenicity, whereas NF1 site 1 is neutral or moderately inhibitory. In conclusion, enhancer NF1 sites are major determinants of osteopetrosis induction by Akv1-99 without significant influence on viral oncogenicity.

  14. Enhancer mutations of Akv murine leukemia virus inhibit the induction of mature B-cell lymphomas and shift disease specificity towards the more differentiated plasma cell stage

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Kunder, Sandra; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Sorensen, Jonna; Schmidt, Joerg; Pedersen, Finn Skou . E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

    2007-05-25

    This study investigates the role of the proviral transcriptional enhancer for B-lymphoma induction by exogenous Akv murine leukemia virus. Infection of newborn inbred NMRI mice with Akv induced 35% plasma cell proliferations (PCPs) (consistent with plasmacytoma), 33% diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 25% follicular B-cell lymphomas and few splenic marginal zone and small B-cell lymphomas. Deleting one copy of the 99-bp proviral enhancer sequence still allowed induction of multiple B-cell tumor types, although PCPs dominated (77%). Additional mutation of binding sites for the glucocorticoid receptor, Ets, Runx, or basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in the proviral U3 region, however, shifted disease induction to almost exclusively PCPs, but had no major influence on tumor latency periods. Southern analysis of immunoglobulin rearrangements and ecotropic provirus integration patterns showed that many of the tumors/cell proliferations induced by each virus were polyclonal. Our results indicate that enhancer mutations weaken the ability of Akv to induce mature B-cell lymphomas prior to the plasma cell stage, whereas development of plasma cell proliferations is less dependent of viral enhancer strength.

  15. Intracellular production of virus particles and viral components in NIH/3T3 cells chronically infected with Moloney murine leukemia virus: effect of interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Aboud, M; Kimchi, R; Bakhanashvili, M; Salzberg, S

    1981-01-01

    The effect of interferon on the biochemical properties and the maturation process of intracellular viral particles isolated from the cytoplasmic fraction of NIH/3T3 cells chronically infected with Moloney murine leukemia virus was investigated. By labeling these virions with either [35S]methionine or [3H]glucosamine, we demonstrated that they contain the same viral proteins and glycoproteins found in extracellular virions. Interferon treatment was found to reduce the rate of intracellular virus assembly. This effect was not a consequence of an interferon inhibition of viral RNA synthesis or its translation or a consequence of an interference with the posttranslational cleavage processing of viral precursor proteins, since all of these steps were not affected by interferon. However, the reduced rate of virus assembly could be attributed to the inhibition of viral protein glycosylation observed in interferon-treated cells. Nevertheless, despite this reduced rate, virus particles accumulated in interferon-treated cells. This accumulation was probably due to the strong inhibition of their final release from such cells. PMID:6172601

  16. The conserved His8 of the Moloney murine leukemia virus Env SU subunit directs the activity of the SU-TM disulphide bond isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Li Kejun; Zhang, Shujing; Kronqvist, Malin; Ekstroem, Maria; Wallin, Michael; Garoff, Henrik . E-mail: henrik.garoff@cbt.ki.se

    2007-04-25

    Murine leukemia virus (MLV) fusion is controlled by isomerization of the disulphide bond between the receptor-binding surface (SU) and fusion-active transmembrane subunits of the Env-complex. The bond is in SU linked to a CXXC motif. This carries a free thiol that upon receptor binding can be activated (ionized) to attack the disulphide and rearrange it into a disulphide isomer within the motif. To find out whether His8 in the conserved SPHQ sequence of Env directs thiol activation, we analyzed its ionization in MLV vectors with wtEnv and Env with His8 deleted or substituted for Tyr or Arg, which partially or completely arrests fusion. The ionization was monitored by following the pH effect on isomerization in vitro by Ca{sup 2+} depletion or in vivo by receptor binding. We found that wtEnv isomerized optimally at slightly basic pH whereas the partially active mutant required higher and the inactive mutants still higher pH. This suggests that His8 directs the ionization of the CXXC thiol.

  17. Highly Efficient Transfer of Chromosomes to a Broad Range of Target Cells Using Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing Murine Leukemia Virus-Derived Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Hara, Takahiko

    2016-01-01

    Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) is an essential step for introducing chromosomes from donor cells to recipient cells. MMCT allows not only for genetic/epigenetic analysis of specific chromosomes, but also for utilization of human and mouse artificial chromosomes (HACs/MACs) as gene delivery vectors. Although the scientific demand for genome scale analyses is increasing, the poor transfer efficiency of the current method has hampered the application of chromosome engineering technology. Here, we developed a highly efficient chromosome transfer method, called retro-MMCT, which is based on Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing envelope proteins derived from ecotropic or amphotropic murine leukemia viruses. Using this method, we transferred MACs to NIH3T3 cells with 26.5 times greater efficiency than that obtained using the conventional MMCT method. Retro-MMCT was applicable to a variety of recipient cells, including embryonic stem cells. Moreover, retro-MMCT enabled efficient transfer of MAC to recipient cells derived from humans, monkeys, mice, rats, and rabbits. These results demonstrate the utility of retro-MMCT for the efficient transfer of chromosomes to various types of target cell. PMID:27271046

  18. Highly Efficient Transfer of Chromosomes to a Broad Range of Target Cells Using Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing Murine Leukemia Virus-Derived Envelope Proteins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Teruhiko; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Hara, Takahiko

    2016-01-01

    Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) is an essential step for introducing chromosomes from donor cells to recipient cells. MMCT allows not only for genetic/epigenetic analysis of specific chromosomes, but also for utilization of human and mouse artificial chromosomes (HACs/MACs) as gene delivery vectors. Although the scientific demand for genome scale analyses is increasing, the poor transfer efficiency of the current method has hampered the application of chromosome engineering technology. Here, we developed a highly efficient chromosome transfer method, called retro-MMCT, which is based on Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing envelope proteins derived from ecotropic or amphotropic murine leukemia viruses. Using this method, we transferred MACs to NIH3T3 cells with 26.5 times greater efficiency than that obtained using the conventional MMCT method. Retro-MMCT was applicable to a variety of recipient cells, including embryonic stem cells. Moreover, retro-MMCT enabled efficient transfer of MAC to recipient cells derived from humans, monkeys, mice, rats, and rabbits. These results demonstrate the utility of retro-MMCT for the efficient transfer of chromosomes to various types of target cell. PMID:27271046

  19. Determination of the site of first strand transfer during Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcription and identification of strand transfer-associated reverse transcriptase errors.

    PubMed Central

    Kulpa, D; Topping, R; Telesnitsky, A

    1997-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase must perform two specialized template switches during retroviral DNA synthesis. Here, we used Moloney murine leukemia virus-based vectors to examine the site of one of these switches during intracellular reverse transcription. Consistent with original models for reverse transcription, but in contrast to previous experimental data, we observed that this first strand transfer nearly always occurred precisely at the 5' end of genomic RNA. This finding allowed us to use first strand transfer to study the classes of errors that reverse transcriptase can and/or does make when it switches templates at a defined position during viral DNA synthesis. We found that errors occurred at the site of first strand transfer approximately 1000-fold more frequently than reported average reverse transcriptase error rates for template-internal positions. We then analyzed replication products of specialized vectors that were designed to test possible origins for the switch-associated errors. Our results suggest that at least some errors arose via non-templated nucleotide addition followed by mismatch extension at the point of strand transfer. We discuss the significance of our findings as they relate to the possible contribution that template switch-associated errors may make to retroviral mutation rates. PMID:9049314

  20. The Retroviruses Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Adopt Radically Different Strategies To Regulate Promoter-Proximal Polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Furger, Andre; Monks, Joan; Proudfoot, Nick J.

    2001-01-01

    Maximal gene expression in retroviruses requires that polyadenylation in the 5′ long terminal repeat (LTR) is suppressed. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) the promoter-proximal poly(A) site is blocked by interaction of U1 snRNP with the closely positioned major splice donor site (MSD) 200 nucleotides downstream. Here we investigated whether the same mechanism applies to down-regulate 5′ LTR polyadenylation in Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV). Although the same molecular architecture is present in both viruses, the MoMLV poly(A) signal in the 5′ LTR is active whether or not the MSD is mutated. This surprising difference between the two retroviruses is not due to their actual poly(A) signals or MSD sequences, since exchange of either element between the two viral sequences does not alter their ability to regulate 5′ LTR poly(A) site use. Instead we demonstrate that sequence between the cap and AAUAAA is required for MSD-dependent poly(A) regulation in HIV-1, indicating a key role for this part of the LTR in poly(A) site suppression. We also show that the MoMLV poly(A) signal is an intrinsically weak RNA-processing signal. This suggests that in the absence of a poly(A) site suppression mechanism, MoMLV is forced to use a weak poly(A) signal. PMID:11689654

  1. Efficacy of JAK/STAT pathway inhibition in murine xenograft models of early T-cell precursor (ETP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Maude, Shannon L.; Dolai, Sibasish; Delgado-Martin, Cristina; Vincent, Tiffaney; Robbins, Alissa; Selvanathan, Arthavan; Ryan, Theresa; Hall, Junior; Wood, Andrew C.; Tasian, Sarah K.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Loh, Mignon L.; Mullighan, Charles G.; Wood, Brent L.; Hermiston, Michelle L.; Grupp, Stephan A.; Lock, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Early T-cell precursor (ETP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a recently described subtype of T-ALL characterized by a unique immunophenotype and genomic profile, as well as a high rate of induction failure. Frequent mutations in cytokine receptor and Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways led us to hypothesize that ETP-ALL is dependent on JAK/STAT signaling. Here we demonstrate aberrant activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in ETP-ALL blasts relative to non-ETP T-ALL. Moreover, ETP-ALL showed hyperactivation of STAT5 in response to interleukin-7, an effect that was abrogated by the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. In vivo, ruxolitinib displayed activity in 6 of 6 patient-derived murine xenograft models of ETP-ALL, with profound single-agent efficacy in 5 models. Ruxolitinib treatment decreased peripheral blast counts relative to pretreatment levels and compared with control (P < .01) in 5 of 6 ETP-ALL xenografts, with marked reduction in mean splenic blast counts (P < .01) in 6 of 6 samples. Surprisingly, both JAK/STAT pathway activation and ruxolitinib efficacy were independent of the presence of JAK/STAT pathway mutations, raising the possibility that the therapeutic potential of ruxolitinib in ETP-ALL extends beyond those cases with JAK mutations. These findings establish the preclinical in vivo efficacy of ruxolitinib in ETP-ALL, a biologically distinct subtype for which novel therapies are needed. PMID:25645356

  2. The requirements for viral entry differ from those for virally induced syncytium formation in NIH 3T3/DTras cells exposed to Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C A; Marsh, J W; Eiden, M V

    1992-01-01

    Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) has the unique ability to infect different cells via either a low-pH-dependent or a pH-independent entry pathway. Only the pH-independent mechanism of Mo-MuLV entry has been associated with Mo-MuLV-induced syncytium formation. We have now identified a transformed cell line (NIH 3T3/DTras) which efficiently forms syncytia when exposed to Mo-MuLV, yet is low pH dependent for Mo-MuLV entry. Treatment of NIH 3T3/DTras cells with chloroquine, an agent which raises endosomal pH, blocks Mo-MuLV entry, but not Mo-MuLV-induced syncytium formation. This demonstrates that fusion which accompanies viral entry and fusion which is responsible for syncytium formation occur as independent processes in these cells. In addition, we determined that neither inherent differences in the Mo-MuLV receptor nor reduced affinity for Mo-MuLV gp70 can account for resistance of NIH 3T3 cells to Mo-MuLV-induced syncytium formation. Images PMID:1433518

  3. trans-dominant interference with virus infection at two different stages by a mutant envelope protein of Friend murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Matano, T; Odawara, T; Ohshima, M; Yoshikura, H; Iwamoto, A

    1993-01-01

    A dominant negative mutant Friend murine leukemia virus (FMLV) env gene was cloned from an immunoselected Friend erythroleukemia cell. The mutant env had a point mutation which resulted in a Cys-to-Arg substitution at the 361st amino acid in the FMLV envelope protein (Env). The mutant Env was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and accumulated because of its slow degradation. The NIH 3T3 cells expressing the mutant env were resistant to ecotropic Moloney MLV (MoMLV) penetration, suggesting that the mutant Env traps the ecotropic MLV receptors in the ER. When the mutant env gene was transfected into and expressed in the cells persistently infected with MoMLV, the wild-type Env was trapped in the ER, and the MoMLV production was suppressed. Thus, the mutant Env accumulating in the ER trans-dominantly and efficiently interfered with the ecotropic MLV infection at both the early and the late stages. Images PMID:8445721

  4. Expression of chimeric tRNA-driven antisense transcripts renders NIH 3T3 cells highly resistant to Moloney murine leukemia virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Sullenger, B A; Lee, T C; Smith, C A; Ungers, G E; Gilboa, E

    1990-01-01

    NIH 3T3 cells infected with Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) express high levels of virus-specific RNA. To inhibit replication of the virus, we stably introduced chimeric tRNA genes encoding antisense templates into NIH 3T3 cells via a retroviral vector. Efficient expression of hybrid tRNA-MoMLV antisense transcripts and inhibition of MoMLV replication were dependent on the use of a particular type of retroviral vector, the double-copy vector, in which the chimeric tRNA gene was inserted in the 3' long terminal repeat. MoMLV replication was inhibited up to 97% in cells expressing antisense RNA corresponding to the gag gene and less than twofold in cells expressing antisense RNA corresponding to the pol gene. RNA and protein analyses suggest that inhibition was exerted at the level of translation. These results suggest that RNA polymerase III-based antisense inhibition systems can be used to inhibit highly expressed viral genes and render cells resistant to viral replication via intracellular immunization strategies. Images PMID:2247070

  5. Serologic and PCR testing of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome in the United States shows no association with xenotropic or polytropic murine leukemia virus-related viruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a newly discovered human retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related virus (XMRV), was reported by Lombardi et al. in 67% of persons from the US with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) by PCR detection of gag sequences. Although six subsequent studies have been negative for XMRV, CFS was defined more broadly using only the CDC or Oxford criteria and samples from the US were limited in geographic diversity, both potentially reducing the chances of identifying XMRV positive CFS cases. A seventh study recently found polytropic MuLV sequences, but not XMRV, in a high proportion of persons with CFS. Here we tested blood specimens from 45 CFS cases and 42 persons without CFS from over 20 states in the United States for both XMRV and MuLV. The CFS patients all had a minimum of 6 months of post-exertional malaise and a high degree of disability, the same key symptoms described in the Lombardi et al. study. Using highly sensitive and generic DNA and RNA PCR tests, and a new Western blot assay employing purified whole XMRV as antigen, we found no evidence of XMRV or MuLV in all 45 CFS cases and in the 42 persons without CFS. Our findings, together with previous negative reports, do not suggest an association of XMRV or MuLV in the majority of CFS cases. PMID:21342521

  6. ANALYSIS OF TWO MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES REACTIVE WITH ENVELOPE PROTEINS OF MURINE RETROVIRUSES: ONE PAN SPECIFIC ANTIBODY AND ONE SPECIFIC FOR MOLONEY LEUKEMIA VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Leonard H.; Boi, Stefano; Malik, Frank; Wehrly, Kathy; Peterson, Karin E.; Chesebro, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Many monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive with various proteins of murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) have been developed. In this report two additional MAbs with differing and unusual specificities are described. MAb 573 is reactive with the envelope protein of all MuLVs tested including viruses in the ecotropic, xenotropic, polytropic and amphotropic classes. Notably, MAb 573 is one of only two reported MAbs that react with the envelope protein of amphotropic MuLVs. This MAb appears to recognize a conformational epitope within the envelope protein, as it reacts strongly with live virus and live infected cells, but does not react with formalin-fixed or alcohol-fixed infected cells or denatured viral envelope protein in immunoblots. In contrast, Mab 538 reacts only with an epitope unique to the envelope protein of the Moloney (Mo-) strain of MuLV, a prototypic ecotropic MuLV that is the basis for many retroviral tools used in molecular biology. MAb 538 can react with live cells and viruses, or detergent denatured or fixed envelope protein. The derivation of these antibodies as well as their characterization with regard to their isotype, range of reactivity with different MuLVs and utility in different immunological procedures are described in this study. PMID:24556162

  7. Stage-specific expression of intracisternal A-particle sequences in murine myelomonocytic leukemia cell lines and normal myelomonocytic differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Y; O'Mara, M A; Spilsbury, K; Thwaite, R; Rowe, P B; Symonds, G

    1991-01-01

    The levels of intracisternal A-particle (IAP) mRNA were analyzed in a variety of myelomonocytic leukemia cell lines, peritoneally derived macrophages, and normal hemopoietic progenitors induced to differentiate. In both normal and leukemic cells, the highest level of IAP message was found in cells at an intermediate stage of myelomonocytic differentiation, namely, the promyelomonocyte. These results indicate that IAP sequence transcription is regulated differentially during myelomonocytic cell development and that in general, the expression pattern is preserved in leukemic cell lines in vitro. In addition, Northern (RNA) analysis detected only type I IAP transcripts as the major IAP message and the expressed IAP subtypes varied in certain cell lines. This is the first comprehensive study of IAP expression in the myelomonocytic lineage and provides a useful system to study the biology of IAPs. Images PMID:1848323

  8. Electron spin resonance studies on intact cells and isolated lipid droplets from fatty acid-modified L1210 murine leukemia.

    PubMed

    Simon, I; Burns, C P; Spector, A A

    1982-07-01

    It has been suggested that the formation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets may produce an artifact and be responsible for the differences in membrane physical properties detected in lipid-modified cells using fluorescence polarization or spin label probes. To investigate this, the electron spin resonance spectra of lipid droplets isolated from the cytoplasm of L1210 leukemia cells were compared with spectra obtained from the intact cell. Mice bearing the L1210 leukemia were fed diets containing either 16% sunflower oil or 16% coconut oil in order to modify the fatty acid composition of the tumor. A microsome-rich fraction prepared from L1210 cells grown in animals fed the sunflower oil-rich diet contained more polyenoic fatty acids (52 versus 29%), while microsomes from L1210 cells grown in animals fed the coconut oil-rich diets contained more monoenoic fatty acids (37 versus 12%). The order parameter calculated for lipid droplets labeled with the 5-nitroxystearic acid spin probe was only about one-half that of intact cells, whereas it was similar to that obtained for pure triolein droplets suspended in buffer. Order parameters of the inner hyperfine splittings calculated from the spectra of cells grown in the sunflower oil-fed animals [0.543 +/- 0.001 (S.E.)] were lower than those from the cells grown in animals fed the coconut oil diets (0.555 +/- 0.002) (p less than 0.005). In contrast, the order parameters of the lipid droplets isolated from the cells grown in animals fed sunflower oil (0.303 +/- 0.029) or coconut oil (0.295 +/- 0.021) were not significantly different, indicating that motion of a spin label probe in the highly fluid cytoplasmic lipid droplets is not affected by these types of modifications in cellular fatty acid composition. Therefore, the electron spin resonance changes that are observed in the intact cells cannot be due to localization of the probe in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. These results support the conclusion that the electron spin

  9. Induction of donor-type chimerism in murine recipients of bone marrow allografts by different radiation regimens currently used in treatment of leukemia patients

    SciTech Connect

    Salomon, O.; Lapidot, T.; Terenzi, A.; Lubin, I.; Rabi, I.; Reisner, Y. )

    1990-11-01

    Three radiation protocols currently used in treatment of leukemia patients before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were investigated in a murine model (C57BL/6----C3H/HeJ) for BM allograft rejection. These include (a) a single dose of total body irradiation (8.5 Gy TBI delivered at a dose rate of 0.2 Gy/min), (b) fractionated TBI 12 Gy administered in six fractions, 2 Gy twice a day in 3 days, delivered at a dose rate of 0.1 Gy/min, and (c) hyperfractionated TBI (14.4 Gy administered in 12 fractions, 1.2 Gy three times a day in 3 days, delivered at a dose rate of 0.1 Gy/min). Donor-type chimerism 6 to 8 weeks after BMT and hematologic reconstitution on day 12 after BMT found in these groups were compared with results obtained in mice conditioned with 8 Gy TBI delivered at a dose rate of 0.67 Gy/min, routinely used in this murine model. The results in both parameters showed a marked advantage for the single dose 8.5 Gy TBI over all the other treatments. This advantage was found to be equivalent to three- to fourfold increment in the BM inoculum when compared with hyperfractionated radiation, which afforded the least favorable conditions for development of donor-type chimerism. The fractionated radiation protocol was equivalent in its efficacy to results obtained in mice irradiated by single-dose 8 Gy TBI, both of which afforded a smaller but not significant advantage over the hyperfractionated protocol. This model was also used to test the effect of radiation dose rate on the development of donor-type chimerism. A significant enhancement was found after an increase in dose rate from 0.1 to 0.7 Gy/min. Further enhancement could be achieved when the dose rate was increased to 1.3 Gy/min, but survival at this high dose rate was reduced.

  10. Analysis of DNA damage and repair in murine leukemia L1210 cells using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, D P; Illenye, S; Van Houten, B

    1992-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) represents an alternative to the current methods for investigating DNA damage and repair in specific genomic segments. In theory, any DNA lesion which blocks Taq polymerase can be measured by this assay. We used quantitative PCR (QPCR) to determine the lesion frequencies produced by cisplatin and ultraviolet light (UV) in a 2.3 kilobase (kb) segment of mitochondrial DNA and a 2.6 kb segment of the DHFR gene in mouse leukemia L1210 cells. The frequency of UV-induced lesions increased linearly with dose, and was 0.58 lesions/10 kb/10 J/m2 in the mitochondrial DNA, and 0.37 lesions/10 kb/10 J/m2 in the DHFR gene. With cisplatin, the lesion frequency also increased linearly with dose, and was 0.17 lesions/10 kb/10 microM in the DHFR gene, and 0.07 lesions/10 kb/10 microM in mitochondrial DNA. This result is contrary to that of Murata et al., 1990 (1), in which mitochondrial DNA received greater cisplatin damage than did nuclear DNA. Using PCR to measure the repair of UV-induced lesions in the DHFR gene segment, we observed that less than 10% of the lesions were removed by 4 h, but over 70% of the lesions were removed by 8 h. Repair of 43% of UV-induced lesions in mitochondrial DNA was also observed during a 24 h period. Images PMID:1630919

  11. IL-35 mitigates murine acute graft-versus-host disease with retention of graft-versus-leukemia effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Wu, Y; Wang, Y; Cai, Y; Hu, B; Bao, G; Fang, H; Zhao, L; Ma, S; Cheng, Q; Song, Y; Liu, Y; Zhu, Z; Chang, H; Yu, X; Sun, A; Zhang, Y; Vignali, D A A; Wu, D; Liu, H

    2015-04-01

    IL-35 is a newly discovered inhibitory cytokine secreted by regulatory T cells (Tregs) and may have therapeutic potential in several inflammatory disorders. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and caused by donor T cells and inflammatory cytokines. The role of IL-35 in aGVHD is still unknown. Here we demonstrate that IL-35 overexpression suppresses CD4(+) effector T-cell activation, leading to a reduction in alloreactive T-cell responses and aGVHD severity. It also leads to the expansion of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in the aGVHD target organs. Furthermore, IL-35 overexpression results in a selective decrease in the frequency of Th1 cells and an increase of IL-10-producing CD4(+) T cells in aGVHD target tissues. Serum levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-22 and IL-23 decrease and IL-10 increases in response to IL-35. Most importantly, IL-35 preserves graft-versus-leukemia effect. Finally, aGVHD grade 2-4 patients have decreased serum IL-35 levels comparing with time-matched patients with aGVHD grade 0-1. Our findings indicate that IL-35 has an important role in reducing aGVHD through promoting the expansion of Tregs and repressing Th1 responses, and should be investigated as the therapeutic strategy for aGVHD.

  12. Immunopathology of B-cell lymphomas induced in C57BL/6 mice by dualtropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV).

    PubMed Central

    Pattengale, P. K.; Taylor, C. R.; Twomey, P.; Hill, S.; Jonasson, J.; Beardsley, T.; Haas, M.

    1982-01-01

    Combined clinicopathologic and immunomorphologic evidence is presented that would indicate that a murine leukemia virus (MuLV) with the dualtropic host range is capable of producing a clinically malignant lesion composed of immunoblasts and associated plasma cells in C57BL/6 mice. This process, morphologically diagnosed as an immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells using standard histopathologic criteria, was found to be distinctly polyclonal with regard to immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype when analyzed for both surface and cytoplasmic Ig. Further studies demonstrated that this clinicopathologically malignant, dualtropic MuLV-induced, polyclonal immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells in C57BL/6 mice was normal diploid and unable to be successfully transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. Although all serum heavy and light chain components were found to be progressively elevated as the tumor load increased, the polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulins was most pronounced for mu heavy and kappa light chains (ie, mu greater than gamma 2A greater than alpha greater than gamma 2B greater than gamma 1; kappa greater than lamba). The dissociation of clinicopathologic and biologic criteria for malignancy in the presently described dualtropic (RadLV) MuLV-induced B-cell lesion is sharply contrasted with the thymotropic (RadLV), MuLV-induced T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in C57BL/6 mice. This process is also a clinicopathologically malignant lesion but, when one uses biologic criteria, is found to be distinctly monoclonal, aneuploid, and easily transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. The close clinicopathologic and biologic similarities of the dualtropic MuLV-induced animal model to corresponding human B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases are stressed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:6282131

  13. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus and RNase L R462Q Variants in Iranian Patients With Sporadic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Farhad; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Farhad; Jalilvand, Somayeh; Ghavami, Nastaran; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Abiri, Ramin; Kondori, Nasim; Nategh, Rakhshande; Mokhtari Azad, Talat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have confirmed the association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and prostate cancer, this association is still controversial, as most studies did not detect XMRV in prostate tissue samples. Furthermore, some genetic and epidemiological studies have highlighted a role for RNase L polymorphisms, particularly R462Q, in the progression of prostate cancer. Objectives: The focus of this study was on the association of XMRV and RNase L R462Q variants with the risk of prostate cancer in Iranian patients. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, 40 and 80 individuals with sporadic prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia, respectively, were included. The presence of XMRV was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of integrase and nested-PCR for the gag genes. The RNase L R462Q polymorphism analysis was carried out by PCR and sequencing. Results: In a total of 40 sporadic prostate cancer and 80 benign prostatic hyperplasia cases, no XMRV was detected by real-time PCR and nested-PCR. RNase L R462Q polymorphism analysis reveals that although there was an increase in the risk of prostate cancer correlated with the Q/Q allele of RNase L at position 462, the frequencies of the RNase L R462Q alleles were not statistically significant between the prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia groups (OR = 2.75 (95% CI = 0.67 - 11.3), P = 0.29). Conclusions: These results did not support the presence of XMRV in the samples with prostate cancer and showed that RNase L R462Q variants had relatively little or no impact on the risk of prostate cancer in Iranian population. PMID:26744630

  14. Tissue Distribution and Timing of Appearance of Polytropic Envelope Recombinants during Infection with SL3-3 Murine Leukemia Virus or Its Weakly Pathogenic SL3ΔMyb5 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Rulli, Karen; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia A.; Trubetskoy, Alla; Lenz, Jack; Levy, Laura S.

    2001-01-01

    A time course analysis was performed to identify the sites of formation and timing of appearance of polytropic recombinant viruses following infection of NIH/Swiss mice with the murine retrovirus SL3-3 murine leukemia virus (SL3) or with a weakly pathogenic mutant termed SL3ΔMyb5. The results indicated that (i) polytropic recombinant viruses occur initially in the thymus of SL3-infected animals, (ii) the timing of appearance of polytropic recombinants in bone marrow is not consistent with their participation in the previously reported formation of transplantable tumor-forming cells at 3 to 4 week postinoculation, and (iii) the efficient generation of recombinant virus is correlated with efficient tumor induction. PMID:11119621

  15. Tissue distribution and timing of appearance of polytropic envelope recombinants during infection with SL3-3 murine leukemia virus or its weakly pathogenic SL3DeltaMyb5 mutant.

    PubMed

    Rulli, K; Lobelle-Rich, P A; Trubetskoy, A; Lenz, J; Levy, L S

    2001-01-01

    A time course analysis was performed to identify the sites of formation and timing of appearance of polytropic recombinant viruses following infection of NIH/Swiss mice with the murine retrovirus SL3-3 murine leukemia virus (SL3) or with a weakly pathogenic mutant termed SL3DeltaMyb5. The results indicated that (i) polytropic recombinant viruses occur initially in the thymus of SL3-infected animals, (ii) the timing of appearance of polytropic recombinants in bone marrow is not consistent with their participation in the previously reported formation of transplantable tumor-forming cells at 3 to 4 week postinoculation, and (iii) the efficient generation of recombinant virus is correlated with efficient tumor induction.

  16. Experimental models of virus-induced demyelination of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dal Canto, M C; Rabinowitz, S G

    1982-02-01

    One of the arguments in favor of a viral pathogenesis for multiple sclerosis is the existence of several experimental and natural animal models of virus-induced primary demyelination. This review deals comprehensively with such models. Well-known examples of demyelinating viral infections in their natural host are JHM, Theiler, visna, and canine distemper encephalomyelitides. Recent reports of experimental murine infections with pathogens such as vesicular stomatitis, Chandipura, herpes simplex, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and Semliki Forest viruses are also discussed. The thrust of the review is to include viral models suspected of producing primary demyelination on an immunopathological basis.

  17. Negative regulatory element associated with potentially functional promoter and enhancer elements in the long terminal repeats of endogenous murine leukemia virus-related proviral sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ang, L Y; Yang, W K; Myer, F E; Yang, D M

    1989-01-01

    Three series of recombinant DNA clones were constructed, with the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene as a quantitative indicator, to examine the activities of promoter and enhancer sequence elements in the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) of murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related proviral sequences isolated from the mouse genome. Transient CAT expression was determined in mouse NIH 3T3, human HT1080, and mink CCL64 cultured cells transfected with the LTR-CAT constructs. The 700-base-pair (bp) LTRs of three polytropic MuLV-related proviral clones and the 750-bp LTRs of four modified polytropic proviral clones, in complete structures either with or without the adjacent downstream sequences, all showed very little or negligible activities for CAT expression, while ecotropic MuLV LTRs were highly active. The MuLV-related LTRs were divided into three portions and examined separately. The 3' portion of the MuLV-related LTRs that contains the CCAAC and TATAA boxes was found to be a functional promoter, being about one-half to one-third as active as the corresponding portion of ecotropic MuLV LTRs. A MboI-Bg/II fragment, representing the distinct 190- to 200-bp inserted segment in the middle, was found to be a potential enhancer, especially when examined in combination with the simian virus 40 promoter in CCL64 cells. A PstI-MboI fragment of the 5' portion, which contains the protein-binding motifs of the enhancer segment as well as the upstream LTR sequences, showed moderate enhancer activities in CCL6 cells but was virtually inactive in NIH 3T3 cells and HT1080 cells; addition of this fragment to the ecotropic LTR-CAT constructs depressed CAT expression. Further analyses using chimeric LTR constructs located the presence of a strong negative regulatory element within the region containing the 5' portion of the enhancer and the immediate upstream sequences in the MuLV-related LTRs. Images PMID:2542587

  18. Hydrodynamic diameters of murine mammary, Rous sarcoma, and feline leukemia RNA tumor viruses: studies by laser beat frequency light-scattering spectroscopy and electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Salmeen, I; Rimai, L; Luftig, R B; Libes, L; Retzel, E; Rich, M; McCormick, J J

    1976-01-01

    We have studied purified preparations of murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV; Prague strain), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) by laser beat frequency light-scattering spectroscopy, ultra-centrifugation, and electron microscopy. The laser beat frequency light-scattering spectroscopy measurements yield the light-scattering intensity, weighted diffusion coefficients. The corresponding average hydrodynamic diameters, as calculated from the diffusion coefficients by the Stokes-Einstein equation for MuMTV, RSV, and FeLV, respectively, are: 144 +/- 6 nm, 147 +/- 7 nm, and 168 +/- 6 nm. Portions of the purified RSV and MuMTV preparations, from which light-scattering samples were obtained, and portions of the actual FeLV light-scattering samples were examined by negatively stained, catalase crystal-calibrated electron microscopy. The light-scattering intensity weighted averages of the electron micrograph size distributions were calculated by weighing each size by its theoretical relative scattering intensity, as obtained from published tables computed according to the Mie scattering theory. These averages and the experimentally observed hydrodynamic diameters agreed to within +/- 5%, which is the combined experimental error in the electron microscopic and light-scattering techniques. We conclude that the size distributions of singlet particles observed in the electron micrographs are statistically true representations of the sedimentation-purified solution size distributions. The sedimentation coefficients (S20, w) for MuMTV, RSV, and FeLV, respectively, are: 595 +/- 29S, 689 +/- 35S, and 880 +/- 44S. Virus partial specific volumes were taken as the reciprocals of the buoyant densities, determined in sucrose density gradients. The Svedberg equation was used to calculate particle weights from the measured diffusion and sedimentation coefficients. The particle weights for MuMTV, RSV, and FeLV, respectively, are: (3.17 +/- 0.32) x 10(8), (4.17 +/- 0

  19. Identification of a high affinity nucleocapsid protein binding element within the Moloney murine leukemia virus Psi-RNA packaging signal: implications for genome recognition.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, V; Melamed, J; Habib, D; Pullen, K; Wallace, K; Summers, M F

    2001-11-23

    Murine leukemia virus (MLV) is currently the most widely used gene delivery system in gene therapy trials. The simple retrovirus packages two copies of its RNA genome by a mechanism that involves interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of a virally-encoded Gag polyprotein and a segment of the RNA genome located just upstream of the Gag initiation codon, known as the Psi-site. Previous studies indicated that the MLV Psi-site contains three stem loops (SLB-SLD), and that stem loops SLC and SLD play prominent roles in packaging. We have developed a method for the preparation and purification of large quantities of recombinant Moloney MLV NC protein, and have studied its interactions with a series of oligoribonucleotides that contain one or more of the Psi-RNA stem loops. At RNA concentrations above approximately 0.3 mM, isolated stem loop SLB forms a duplex and stem loops SL-C and SL-D form kissing complexes, as expected from previous studies. However, neither the monomeric nor the dimeric forms of these isolated stem loops binds NC with significant affinity. Longer constructs containing two stem loops (SL-BC and SL-CD) also exhibit low affinities for NC. However, NC binds with high affinity and stoichiometrically to both the monomeric and dimeric forms of an RNA construct that contains all three stem loops (SL-BCD; K(d)=132(+/-55) nM). Titration of SL-BCD with NC also shifts monomer-dimer equilibrium toward the dimer. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that the conserved GACG tetraloops of stem loops C and D do not influence the monomer-dimer equilibrium of SL-BCD, that the tetraloop of stem loop B does not participate directly in NC binding, and that the tetraloops of stem loops C and D probably also do not bind to NC. These surprising results differ considerably from those observed for HIV-1, where NC binds to individual stem loops with high affinity via interactions with exposed residues of the tetraloops. The present results indicate that MLV NC binds

  20. Depression of Rauscher leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein gp71 binding by lymphoid cells during leukemogenesis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, A K; Reed, C D; Riggs, C W; Twardzik, D R; Weislow, O S; Hellman, A

    1979-01-01

    The availability of membrane receptors for the 71,000-dalton envelope glycoprotein (gp71) of Rauscher murine leukemia virus on splenic and thymic cells from BALB/c mice during Rauscher murine leukemia virus-induced leukemogenesis was determined utilizing a radiolabeled gp71 binding assay. Shortly after infection, the relative cellular [125I]gp71 binding level decreased, first with splenic cells (at day 7 to 10 after infection) and later with thymic cells (at day 10 to 20 after infection). The dependency of the reduction of binding on the replication of the inoculated virus was demonstrated by regression analyses using cellular gp71 binding level as the dependent variable and infectious virus titer, as well as viral gp71 and p30 levels, of spleens and thymuses from infected mice as independent variables. With each independent variable, the reduction of gp71 binding for both cell types was highly dependent (P less than 0.01) on the level of virus detected in their respective organ. In the early stages of leukemogenesis, the [125I]gp71 binding level declined to approximately 20 to 30% of control values. During this period the rate of reduction of binding was very rapid and, in general was similar for both splenic and thymic cells. Further progression of the disease resulted in little or no further reduction in binding. The application of this technique to monitor host ecotropic virus synthesis and to study cell surface virus receptor control mechanisms in vivo is discussed. PMID:468372

  1. ANTIGENIC PROPERTIES OF MURINE SARCOMA VIRUS-TRANSFORMED BALB/3T3 NONPRODUCER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, John R.; Aaronson, Stuart A.

    1972-01-01

    The isolation of clonal lines of murine sarcoma virus-transformed, non-producer BALB/3T3 cells has provided a model system for determining whether RNA tumor virus-transformed cells possess virus-specific transplantation antigens. MSV nonproducer cells (K-234) were clonally derived from an inbred mouse cell line, BALB/3T3. A parallel virus-producing cell line was obtained by infection of the MSV nonproducer cells with Rauscher leukemia virus. K-234 was much more tumorigenic than K-234(R). Preimmunization of syngeneic mice with either K-234(R) or with UV-inactivated Rauscher leukemia virus induced transplantation resistance to subsequent challenge with K-234(R), but not with K-234. In contrast, mice preimmunized with nonproducer cells were not made resistant to subsequent challenge with the homologous cells. Antisera prepared from mice immunized with K-234(R) were specifically cytotoxic and positive by fluorescent antibody staining for K-234(R) target cells, but not to either BALB/3T3 or K-234. The results show that MSV nonproducer cells lack detectable transplantation antigens and suggest that the transplantation resistance to the producing cells is attributable to maturing virus at the cell surface. PMID:4550769

  2. Leukemia -- Eosinophilic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leukemia - Eosinophilic: Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Leukemia - Eosinophilic: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... Platelets that help the blood to clot About leukemia Types of leukemia are named after the specific ...

  3. High Expression of Human Homologue of Murine Double Minute 4 and the Short Splicing Variant, HDM4-S, in Bone Marrow in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Han, Xin; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Zhang, Yu Helen; You, M James; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E

    2016-08-01

    The human homologue of murine double minute 2 (HDM2) and HDM4 negatively regulate p53. HDM4 has not been assessed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We examined the expression of HDM4 and the short splicing variant, HDM4-S, in bone marrow samples obtained from 85 and 23 patients with AML and MDS, respectively, and 18 negative tumor staging bone marrow samples (used as the control). Immunohistochemical staining showed that HDM4 was overexpressed in 78 AML cases (92%) and 12 MDS cases (52%) compared with 1 stressed bone marrow sample (6%). Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of 8 AML and 11 low-grade (LG)-MDS cases confirmed that HDM4 and HDM4-S mRNA expression were also elevated in all AML cases. HDM4 and HDM4-S mRNA expression was elevated in 3 (27%) and 10 (91%) LG-MDS cases, respectively. HDM4 and HDM4-S mRNA levels were higher in those with AML than in those with LG-MDS. In leukemia cell lines, HEL and U937 predominantly expressed HDM4-S. In contrast, NALM6 expressed HDM4 and HDM4-S. Downregulation of HDM4 expression by treatment with small interfering RNA in NALM6 and HEL cells induced p21 expression but not increased apoptotic activity. Our results indicate that HDM4 is a potential therapeutic target in patients with AML or MDS. PMID:27155969

  4. In vitro and in vivo studies of the antineoplastic activity of copper (II) compounds against human leukemia THP-1 and murine melanoma B16-F10 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Borges, Layla J H; Bull, Érika S; Fernandes, Christiane; Horn, Adolfo; Azeredo, Nathalia F; Resende, Jackson A L C; Freitas, William R; Carvalho, Eulógio C Q; Lemos, Luciana S; Jerdy, Hassan; Kanashiro, Milton M

    2016-11-10

    We investigated the antineoplastic activities of a previously reported copper (II) coordination compound, [Cu(BMPA)Cl2]CH3OH (1), and a new compound, [Cu(HBPA)Cl2]H2O (2), where BMPA is bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine and HBPA is (2-hydroxybenzyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, using various cellular models of human leukemia (THP-1, U937, HL60, Molt-4, JURKAT) and human colon cancer (COLO 205), as well as a murine highly metastatic melanoma (B16-F10) cell line. Compound (2) was characterized using several physical and chemical techniques, including X-ray diffraction studies. The IC50 values of the copper coordination complexes in the human leukemia cell lines ranged from 87.63 ± 1.02 to ≥400 μM at high cell concentrations and from 19.17 ± 1.06 to 97.67 ± 1.23 μM at low cell concentrations. Both compounds induced cell death, which was determined by cell cycle analyses and phosphatidylserine exposure studies. THP-1 cells released cytochrome c to the cytoplasm 12 h after treatment with 400 μM of compound (2). To evaluate the apoptosis pathway induced by compound (2), we measured the activities of initiator caspases 8 and 9 and executioner caspases 3 and 6. The results were suggestive of the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. To investigate the activities of the compounds in vivo, we selected two sensitive cell lines from leukemia (THP-1) and solid tumor (B16-F10) lineages. BALB/c nude bearing THP-1 tumors treated with 12 mg·kg(-1) of compound (2) showed a 92.4% inhibition of tumor growth compared with the control group.

  5. Effective treatment of a murine model of adult T-cell leukemia using 211At-7G7/B6 and its combination with unmodified anti-Tac (daclizumab) directed toward CD25.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Meili; Garmestani, Kayhan; Talanov, Vladimir S; Plascjak, Paul S; Beck, Barbara; Goldman, Carolyn; Brechbiel, Martin W; Waldmann, Thomas A

    2006-08-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) consists of an overabundance of T cells, which express CD25. Therapeutic efficacy of astatine-211 ((211)At)-labeled murine monoclonal antibody 7G7/B6 alone and in combination with daclizumab was evaluated in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice given injections of MET-1 human T-cell leukemia cells. Daclizumab and 7G7/B6 are directed toward different epitopes of CD25. Either a single dose of 12 microCi (0.444 MBq) (211)At-7G7/B6 per mouse given intravenously or receptor-saturating doses of daclizumab given at 100 microg weekly for 4 weeks intravenously inhibited tumor growth as monitored by serum levels of human beta-2 microglobulin (beta(2)mu) and by prolonged survival of leukemia-bearing mice compared with the control groups (P < .001). The combination of 2 agents enhanced the antitumor effect when compared with groups treated with 12 microCi (0.444 MBq) of (211)At-7G7/B6 (P < .05) or daclizumab alone (P < .05). The median survival duration of the PBS group was 62.6 days and 61.5 days in the radiolabeled nonspecific antibody (211)At-11F11-treated group. In contrast, 91% of mice in the combination group survived through day 94. These results that demonstrate a significantly improved therapeutic efficacy by combining (211)At-7G7/B6 with daclizumab support a clinical trial of this regimen in patients with ATL. PMID:16569769

  6. Identification and cloning of a novel isoform of mouse secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, mSLPI-beta, overexpressed in murine leukemias and a highly liver metastatic tumor, IMC-HA1 cells.

    PubMed

    Morita, M; Arakawa, H; Nishimura, S

    1999-01-01

    Several genes showing transcriptional alteration in a highly liver metastatic murine carcinoma cell line, IMC-HA1, were identified by mRNA differential display system. Among them, a gene identical to mSLPI was isolated as mSLPI-alpha and -beta. They were produced through an alternative splicing. Their full-length cDNA sequences were determined, and their expression in various murine tumors and normal tissues was analysed. The deduced translation product of mSLPI-alpha showed 59% identity to hSLPI. Although mSLPI-beta had the same 103-amino-acid sequence from the carboxyl terminus, the amino terminus showed hydrophilicity opposite mSLPI-alpha or hSLPI. The mSLPI-alpha was expressed ubiquitously in various tumor cell lines. Interestingly, however, mSLPI-beta expression was only observed in P388 and L1210 leukemias and IMC-HA1 cells, and in lower amounts in three normal tissues (thymus, lung and spleen), suggesting that mSLPI, and in particular the unusual splicing product, mSLPI-beta, plays a specific role in these cells, including malignant processes of tumor cells.

  7. Virus-induced congenital malformations in cattle.

    PubMed

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Peperkamp, Klaas; Windsor, Peter A

    2015-09-24

    Diagnosing the cause of bovine congenital malformations (BCMs) is challenging for bovine veterinary practitioners and laboratory diagnosticians as many known as well as a large number of not-yet reported syndromes exist. Foetal infection with certain viruses, including bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV), Schmallenberg virus (SBV), blue tongue virus (BTV), Akabane virus (AKAV), or Aino virus (AV), is associated with a range of congenital malformations. It is tempting for veterinary practitioners to diagnose such infections based only on the morphology of the defective offspring. However, diagnosing a virus as a cause of BCMs usually requires laboratory examination and even in such cases, interpretation of findings may be challenging due to lack of experience regarding genetic defects causing similar lesions, even in cases where virus or congenital antibodies are present. Intrauterine infection of the foetus during the susceptible periods of development, i.e. around gestation days 60-180, by BVDV, SBV, BTV, AKAV and AV may cause malformations in the central nervous system, especially in the brain. Brain lesions typically consist of hydranencephaly, porencephaly, hydrocephalus and cerebellar hypoplasia, which in case of SBV, AKAV and AV infections may be associated by malformation of the axial and appendicular skeleton, e.g. arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Doming of the calvarium is present in some, but not all, cases. None of these lesions are pathognomonic so diagnosing a viral cause based on gross lesions is uncertain. Several genetic defects share morphology with virus induced congenital malformations, so expert advice should be sought when BCMs are encountered.

  8. Radiation Leukemia Virus Common Integration at the Kis2 Locus: Simultaneous Overexpression of a Novel Noncoding RNA and of the Proximal Phf6 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Landais, Séverine; Quantin, Renaud; Rassart, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Retroviral tagging has been used extensively and successfully to identify genes implicated in cancer pathways. In order to find oncogenes implicated in T-cell leukemia, we used the highly leukemogenic radiation leukemia retrovirus VL3 (RadLV/VL3). We applied the inverted PCR technique to isolate and analyze sequences flanking proviral integrations in RadLV/VL3-induced T lymphomas. We found retroviral integrations in c-myc and Pim1 as already reported but we also identified for the first time Notch1 as a RadLV common integration site. More interestingly, we found a new RadLV common integration site that is situated on mouse chromosome X (XA4 region, bp 45091000). This site has also been reported as an SL3-3 and Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site, which strengthens its implication in murine leukemia virus-induced T lymphomas. This locus, named Kis2 (Kaplan Integration Site 2), was found rearranged in 11% of the tumors analyzed. In this article, we report not only the alteration of the Kis2 gene located nearby in response to RadLV integration but also the induction of the expression of Phf6, situated about 250 kbp from the integration site. The Kis2 gene encodes five different alternatively spliced noncoding RNAs and the Phf6 gene codes for a 365-amino-acid protein which contains two plant homology domain fingers, recently implicated in the Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome in humans. With the recent release of the mouse genome sequence, high-throughput retroviral tagging emerges as a powerful tool in the quest for oncogenes. It also allows the analysis of large DNA regions surrounding the integration locus. PMID:16103195

  9. Radiation leukemia virus common integration at the Kis2 locus: simultaneous overexpression of a novel noncoding RNA and of the proximal Phf6 gene.

    PubMed

    Landais, Séverine; Quantin, Renaud; Rassart, Eric

    2005-09-01

    Retroviral tagging has been used extensively and successfully to identify genes implicated in cancer pathways. In order to find oncogenes implicated in T-cell leukemia, we used the highly leukemogenic radiation leukemia retrovirus VL3 (RadLV/VL3). We applied the inverted PCR technique to isolate and analyze sequences flanking proviral integrations in RadLV/VL3-induced T lymphomas. We found retroviral integrations in c-myc and Pim1 as already reported but we also identified for the first time Notch1 as a RadLV common integration site. More interestingly, we found a new RadLV common integration site that is situated on mouse chromosome X (XA4 region, bp 45091000). This site has also been reported as an SL3-3 and Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site, which strengthens its implication in murine leukemia virus-induced T lymphomas. This locus, named Kis2 (Kaplan Integration Site 2), was found rearranged in 11% of the tumors analyzed. In this article, we report not only the alteration of the Kis2 gene located nearby in response to RadLV integration but also the induction of the expression of Phf6, situated about 250 kbp from the integration site. The Kis2 gene encodes five different alternatively spliced noncoding RNAs and the Phf6 gene codes for a 365-amino-acid protein which contains two plant homology domain fingers, recently implicated in the Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome in humans. With the recent release of the mouse genome sequence, high-throughput retroviral tagging emerges as a powerful tool in the quest for oncogenes. It also allows the analysis of large DNA regions surrounding the integration locus.

  10. Trifluoperazine inhibits Sendai virus-induced hemolysis.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, R I

    1986-04-14

    Sendai virus-induced hemolysis, a manifestation of virus-red cell fusion, is inhibited by exposure of the virus to 50 microM and higher concentrations of trifluoperazine. Trifluoperazine does not disrupt the virus, since trifluoperazine-treated virus with no hemolytic activity sediments slightly faster than untreated virus on sucrose density gradients and contains viral proteins in proportions characteristic of untreated virus. Trifluoperazine affects the fusion protein to a greater extent than the hemagglutinin, since trifluoperazine-treated virus with no hemolytic activity is as active or nearly as active in agglutinating red cells. The partition coefficient of trifluoperazine between the virus membrane and buffer is lower at 4 degrees C than, but the same at 37 degrees C, as that between the red cell membrane and buffer. Nevertheless, virus-independent red cell lysis and inactivation of virus-mediated hemolysis occur when the red cell and viral membranes, respectively, contain similar concentrations of trifluoperazine. Furthermore, 13-28% more trifluoperazine is necessary to achieve either effect at 4 degrees C or at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. Changes in the surface activity of trifluoperazine do not explain these results, insofar as the critical micellar concentration of (0.75 mM) and maximal reduction in surface tension by (40 dyn/cm) trifluoperazine are the same at 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C. The fluorescence of viral tryptophan decreases by approx. 25% when viral hemolysis is inactivated by trifluoperazine, by trypsin treatment or by heating at 100 degrees C for 5 min.

  11. Virus-induced congenital malformations in cattle.

    PubMed

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Peperkamp, Klaas; Windsor, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing the cause of bovine congenital malformations (BCMs) is challenging for bovine veterinary practitioners and laboratory diagnosticians as many known as well as a large number of not-yet reported syndromes exist. Foetal infection with certain viruses, including bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV), Schmallenberg virus (SBV), blue tongue virus (BTV), Akabane virus (AKAV), or Aino virus (AV), is associated with a range of congenital malformations. It is tempting for veterinary practitioners to diagnose such infections based only on the morphology of the defective offspring. However, diagnosing a virus as a cause of BCMs usually requires laboratory examination and even in such cases, interpretation of findings may be challenging due to lack of experience regarding genetic defects causing similar lesions, even in cases where virus or congenital antibodies are present. Intrauterine infection of the foetus during the susceptible periods of development, i.e. around gestation days 60-180, by BVDV, SBV, BTV, AKAV and AV may cause malformations in the central nervous system, especially in the brain. Brain lesions typically consist of hydranencephaly, porencephaly, hydrocephalus and cerebellar hypoplasia, which in case of SBV, AKAV and AV infections may be associated by malformation of the axial and appendicular skeleton, e.g. arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Doming of the calvarium is present in some, but not all, cases. None of these lesions are pathognomonic so diagnosing a viral cause based on gross lesions is uncertain. Several genetic defects share morphology with virus induced congenital malformations, so expert advice should be sought when BCMs are encountered. PMID:26399846

  12. Effects of 28Si Ions, 56Fe Ions, and Protons on the Induction of Murine Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Michael M.; Ray, F. Andrew; Genik, Paula C.; Yu, Yongjia; McCarthy, Maureen; Fallgren, Christina M.; Ullrich, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of cancer risks posed to space-flight crews by exposure to high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) ions are subject to considerable uncertainty because epidemiological data do not exist for human populations exposed to similar radiation qualities. We assessed the carcinogenic effects of 300 MeV/n 28Si or 600 MeV/n 56Fe ions in a mouse model for radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia and hepatocellular carcinoma. C3H/HeNCrl mice were irradiated with 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 1 Gy of 300 MeV/n 28Si ions, 600 MeV/n 56Fe ions or 1 or 2 Gy of protons simulating the 1972 solar particle event (1972SPE) at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Additional mice were irradiated with 137Cs gamma rays at doses of 1, 2, or 3 Gy. All groups were followed until they were moribund or reached 800 days of age. We found that 28Si or 56Fe ions do not appear to be substantially more effective than gamma rays for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia. However, 28Si or 56Fe ion irradiated mice had a much higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma than gamma ray irradiated or proton irradiated mice. These data demonstrate a clear difference in the effects of these HZE ions on the induction of leukemia compared to solid tumors, suggesting potentially different mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Also seen in this study was an increase in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma in the 28Si and 56Fe ion irradiated mice compared with those exposed to gamma rays or 1972SPE protons, a finding with important implications for setting radiation exposure limits for space-flight crew members. PMID:25126721

  13. Anti-leukemic activity of Newcastle disease virus strains AF2240 and V4-UPM in murine myelomonocytic leukemia in vivo.

    PubMed

    Alabsi, Aied M; Ali, Rola; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Yusoff, Khatijah; Ali, Abdul Manaf

    2012-05-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae that has caused severe economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. Several strains of NDV were reported to induce cytolysis to cancerous cell lines. It has prompted much interest as anticancer agent because it can replicate up to 10,000 times better in human cancer cells than in most normal cells. In this study, two NDV strains, viserotropic-velogenic strain AF2240 and lentogenic strain V4-UPM, showed cytolytic activity and apoptosis induction against Mouse myelomoncytic leukemia (WEHI 3B). The cytolytic effects of NDV strains were determined using microtetrazolium (MTT) assay. The cytolytic dose - fifty percent (CD(50)) were 2 and 8HAU for AF2240 and V4-UPM strains, respectively. Cells treated with NDV strains showed apoptotic features compared to the untreated cells under fluorescence microscope. NDV induced activation of caspase-3 and DNA laddering in agarose gel electrophoresis which confirmed the apoptosis. The anti-leukemic activity of both strains was evaluated on myelomoncytic leukemia BALB/c mice. The results indicated that both NDV strains significantly decreased liver and spleen weights. It also decreased blasts cell percentage in blood, bone marrow and spleen smears of treated mice (p<0.05). Histopathological studies for spleen and liver confirmed the hematological results of blood and bone marrow. From the results obtained, the exposure to both NDV stains AF2240 and V4-UPM showed similar results for Ara-c. In conclusion NDV strains AF2240 and V4-UPM can affect WEHI 3B leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Regulation of B cell linker protein transcription by PU.1 and Spi-B in murine B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li S; Sokalski, Kristen M; Hotke, Kathryn; Christie, Darah A; Zarnett, Oren; Piskorz, Jan; Thillainadesan, Gobi; Torchia, Joseph; DeKoter, Rodney P

    2012-10-01

    B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is frequently associated with mutations or chromosomal translocations of genes encoding transcription factors. Conditional deletion of genes encoding the E26-transformation-specific transcription factors, PU.1 and Spi-B, in B cells (ΔPB mice) leads to B-ALL in mice at 100% incidence rate and with a median survival of 21 wk. We hypothesized that PU.1 and Spi-B may redundantly activate transcription of genes encoding tumor suppressors in the B cell lineage. Characterization of aging ΔPB mice showed that leukemia cells expressing IL-7R were found in enlarged thymuses. IL-7R-expressing B-ALL cells grew in culture in response to IL-7 and could be maintained as cell lines. Cultured ΔPB cells expressed reduced levels of B cell linker protein (BLNK), a known tumor suppressor gene, compared with controls. The Blnk promoter contained a predicted PU.1 and/or Spi-B binding site that was required for promoter activity and occupied by PU.1 and/or Spi-B as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Restoration of BLNK expression in cultured ΔPB cells opposed IL-7-dependent proliferation and induced early apoptosis. We conclude that the tumor suppressor BLNK is a target of transcriptional activation by PU.1 and Spi-B in the B cell lineage.

  15. Use of a focal immunofluorescence assay on live cells for quantitation of retroviruses: distinction of host range classes in virus mixtures and biological cloning of dual-tropic murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed

    Sitbon, M; Nishio, J; Wehrly, K; Lodmell, D; Chesebro, B

    1985-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive focal immunofluorescence assay (FIA) using monoclonal antibodies or heterologous antisera was employed for detection and biological cloning of viruses capable of inducing viral antigens on cell surfaces. The FIA was performed directly on a variety of live cells in tissue culture dishes and was used successfully with C-type murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) of different tropism including ecotropic, xenotropic, amphotropic, and dual-tropic recombinant mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses. With the FIA, we were able to titrate and distinguish ecotropic Friend-MuLV and Friend-MCF viruses present in mixtures. Dual-tropic MCF viruses could be specifically detected directly in mouse cells by using MCF-specific monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies replaced the requirement for production of typical MCF cytopathic effect in mink cells for MCF virus detection, and also allowed efficient titration in mouse cells of MCF virions pseudotyped with ecotropic envelope proteins. Furthermore, by picking foci of fluorescent cells and using their cell-free viral progeny, MCF viruses were cloned from complex pseudotypic mixtures. This allowed the cloning of viruses present at low frequency in heterogeneous mixtures obtained from leukemic tissues.

  16. Deoxycytidine kinase-mediated toxicity of deoxyadenosine analogs toward malignant human lymphoblasts in vitro and toward murine L1210 leukemia in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, D A; Wasson, D B; Kaye, J; Ullman, B; Martin, D W; Robins, R K; Montgomery, J A

    1980-01-01

    An inherited deficiency of adenosine deaminase (adenosine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.4) produces selective lymphopenia and immunodeficiency disease in humans. Previous experiments have suggested that lymphospecific toxicity in this condition might result from the selective accumulation of toxic deoxyadenosine nucleotides by lymphocytes with high deoxycytidine kinase, levels and low deoxynucleotide dephosphorylating activity. The present experiments were designed to determine if deoxyadenosine analogs which are not substrates for adenosine deaminase might similarly be toxic toward lymphocytes and lymphoid tumors. Two such compounds, 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine and 2-fluorodeoxyadenosine, at concentrations of 3 nM and 0.15 microM, respectively, inhibited by 50% the growth of human CCRF-CEM malignant lymphoblasts in vitro. Each was phosphorylated in intact cells by deoxycytidine kinase accumulated as the nucleoside triphosphate, and inhibited DNA synthesis more than RNA synthesis. Both deoxynucleosides had significant chemotherapeutic activity against lymphoid leukemia L1210 in mice. PMID:6256765

  17. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

  18. The feline leukemia virus long terminal repeat contains a potent genetic determinant of T-cell lymphomagenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Pantginis, J; Beaty, R M; Levy, L S; Lenz, J

    1997-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an important pathogen of domestic cats. The most common type of malignancy associated with FeLV is T-cell lymphoma. SL3-3 (SL3) is a potent T-cell lymphomagenic murine leukemia virus. Transcriptional enhancer sequences within the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of SL3 and other murine retroviruses are crucial genetic determinants of the pathogenicities of these viruses. The LTR enhancer sequences of FeLV contain identical binding sites for some of the transcription factors that are known to affect the lymphomagenicity of SL3. To test whether the FeLV LTR contains a genetic determinant of lymphomagenicity, a recombinant virus that contained the U3 region of a naturally occurring FeLV isolate, LC-FeLV, linked to the remainder of the genome of SL3 was generated. When inoculated into mice, the recombinant virus induced T-cell lymphomas nearly as quickly as SL3. Moreover, the U3 sequences of LC-FeLV were found to have about half as much transcriptional activity in T lymphocytes as the corresponding sequences of SL3. This level of activity was severalfold higher than that of the LTR of weakly leukemogenic Akv virus. Thus, the FeLV LTR contains a potent genetic determinant of T-cell lymphomagenicity. Presumably, it is adapted to be recognized by transcription factors present in T cells of cats, and this yields a relatively high level of transcription that allows the enhancer to drive the requisite steps in the process of lymphomagenesis. PMID:9371646

  19. Synergistic Activity of Deguelin and Fludarabine in Cells from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients and in the New Zealand Black Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rebolleda, Nerea; Losada-Fernandez, Ignacio; Perez-Chacon, Gema; Castejon, Raquel; Rosado, Silvia; Morado, Marta; Vallejo-Cremades, Maria Teresa; Martinez, Andrea; Vargas-Nuñez, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable disease, and despite the improvement achieved by therapeutic regimes developed over the last years still a subset of patients face a rather poor prognosis and will eventually relapse and become refractory to therapy. The natural rotenoid deguelin has been shown to induce apoptosis in several cancer cells and cell lines, including primary human CLL cells, and to act as a chemopreventive agent in animal models of induced carcinogenesis. In this work, we show that deguelin induces apoptosis in vitro in primary human CLL cells and in CLL-like cells from the New Zealand Black (NZB) mouse strain. In both of them, deguelin dowregulates AKT, NFκB and several downstream antiapoptotic proteins (XIAP, cIAP, BCL2, BCL-XL and survivin), activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Moreover, deguelin inhibits stromal cell-mediated c-Myc upregulation and resistance to fludarabine, increasing fludarabine induced DNA damage. We further show that deguelin has activity in vivo against NZB CLL-like cells in an experimental model of CLL in young NZB mice transplanted with spleen cells from aged NZB mice with lymphoproliferation. Moreover, the combination of deguelin and fludarabine in this model prolonged the survival of transplanted mice at doses of both compounds that were ineffective when administered individually. These results suggest deguelin could have potential for the treatment of human CLL. PMID:27101369

  20. Pure enantiomers of benzoylamino-tranylcypromine: LSD1 inhibition, gene modulation in human leukemia cells and effects on clonogenic potential of murine promyelocytic blasts.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sergio; Rodriguez, Veronica; Mercurio, Ciro; Vianello, Paola; Saponara, Bruna; Cirilli, Roberto; Ciossani, Giuseppe; Labella, Donatella; Marrocco, Biagina; Monaldi, Daria; Ruoppolo, Giovanni; Tilset, Mats; Botrugno, Oronza A; Dessanti, Paola; Minucci, Saverio; Mattevi, Andrea; Varasi, Mario; Mai, Antonello

    2015-04-13

    The pure enantiomers of the N-(2-, 3-, and 4-(2-aminocyclopropyl)phenyl)benzamides hydrochlorides 11a-j were prepared and tested against LSD1 and MAO enzymes. The evaluation of the regioisomers 11a-j highlighted a net increase of the anti-LSD1 potency by shifting the benzamide moiety from ortho to meta and mainly to para position of tranylcypromine phenyl ring, independently from their trans or cis stereochemistry. In particular, the para-substituted 11a,b (trans) and 11g,h (cis) compounds displayed LSD1 and MAO-A inhibition at low nanomolar levels, while were less potent against MAO-B. The meta analogs 11c,d (trans) and 11i,j (cis) were in general less potent, but more efficient against MAO-A than against LSD1. In cellular assays, all the para and meta enantiomers were able to inhibit LSD1 by inducing Gfi-1b and ITGAM gene expression, with 11b,c and 11g-i giving the highest effects. Moreover, 11b and 11g,h strongly inhibited the clonogenic potential of murine promyelocytic blasts. PMID:25768700

  1. Identification of N-(4-((1R,3S,5S)-3-Amino-5-methylcyclohexyl)pyridin-3-yl)-6-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-5-fluoropicolinamide (PIM447), a Potent and Selective Proviral Insertion Site of Moloney Murine Leukemia (PIM) 1, 2, and 3 Kinase Inhibitor in Clinical Trials for Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Burger, Matthew T; Nishiguchi, Gisele; Han, Wooseok; Lan, Jiong; Simmons, Robert; Atallah, Gordana; Ding, Yu; Tamez, Victoriano; Zhang, Yanchen; Mathur, Michelle; Muller, Kristine; Bellamacina, Cornelia; Lindvall, Mika K; Zang, Richard; Huh, Kay; Feucht, Paul; Zavorotinskaya, Tatiana; Dai, Yumin; Basham, Steve; Chan, Julie; Ginn, Elaine; Aycinena, Alex; Holash, Jocelyn; Castillo, Joseph; Langowski, John L; Wang, Yingyun; Chen, Min Y; Lambert, Amy; Fritsch, Christine; Kauffmann, Audry; Pfister, Estelle; Vanasse, K Gary; Garcia, Pablo D

    2015-11-12

    Pan proviral insertion site of Moloney murine leukemia (PIM) 1, 2, and 3 kinase inhibitors have recently begun to be tested in humans to assess whether pan PIM kinase inhibition may provide benefit to cancer patients. Herein, the synthesis, in vitro activity, in vivo activity in an acute myeloid leukemia xenograft model, and preclinical profile of the potent and selective pan PIM kinase inhibitor compound 8 (PIM447) are described. Starting from the reported aminopiperidyl pan PIM kinase inhibitor compound 3, a strategy to improve the microsomal stability was pursued resulting in the identification of potent aminocyclohexyl pan PIM inhibitors with high metabolic stability. From this aminocyclohexyl series, compound 8 entered the clinic in 2012 in multiple myeloma patients and is currently in several phase 1 trials of cancer patients with hematological malignancies. PMID:26505898

  2. Childhood Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia, having certain genetic disorders and having had radiation or chemotherapy. Treatment often cures childhood leukemia. Treatment options include chemotherapy, other drug therapy and radiation. In some cases bone marrow and blood stem ...

  3. Influenza virus induces apoptosis via BAD-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh T; Cortens, John P; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Coombs, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which occurs through the dysregulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the subsequent activation of downstream apoptogenic factors. Here we report a novel proviral role for the proapoptotic protein BAD in influenza virus replication. We show that influenza virus-induced cytopathology and cell death are considerably inhibited in BAD knockdown cells and that both virus replication and viral protein production are dramatically reduced, which suggests that virus-induced apoptosis is BAD dependent. Our data showed that influenza viruses induced phosphorylation of BAD at residues S112 and S136 in a temporal manner. Viral infection also induced BAD cleavage, late in the viral life cycle, to a truncated form that is reportedly a more potent inducer of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that knockdown of BAD resulted in reduced cytochrome c release and suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during influenza virus replication, as seen by an inhibition of caspases-3, caspase-7, and procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) cleavage. Our data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication.

  4. Inflammatory cytokine-mediated evasion of virus-induced tumors from NK cell control

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rabinarayan; Polic, Bojan; Welsh, Raymond M.; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Infections with DNA tumor viruses, including members of the polyomavirus family, often result in tumor formation in immune-deficient hosts. The complex control involved in antiviral and antitumor immune responses during these infections can be studied in murine polyomavirus (PyV)-infected mice as a model. We found that NK cells efficiently kill cells derived from PyV-induced salivary gland tumors in vitro in an NKG2D (effector cell) -RAE-1 (target cell) - dependent manner, but in T cell-deficient mice NK cells only delay but do not prevent the development of PyV-induced tumors. Here we show that the PyV-induced tumors have infiltrating functional NK cells. The freshly removed tumors, however, lack surface RAE-1 expression, and the tumor tissues produce soluble factors that down-regulate RAE-1. These factors include the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, and TNF. Each of these cytokines down-regulate RAE-1 expression and susceptibility to NK cell mediated cytotoxicity. CD11b+F4/80+ macrophages infiltrating the PyV-induced tumors produce high amounts of IL-1β and TNF. Thus, our data suggest a new mechanism whereby inflammatory cytokines generated in the tumor environment lead to evasion of NK cell-mediated control of virus-induced tumors. PMID:23772039

  5. Gamma interferon is a major mediator of antiviral defense in experimental measles virus-induced encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Finke, D; Brinckmann, U G; ter Meulen, V; Liebert, U G

    1995-01-01

    Measles virus infection of the central nervous system in the murine model of experimental measles virus-induced encephalitis is successfully controlled by virus-specific T-helper lymphocytes. T cells from BALB/c mice that are resistant to measles virus encephalitis proliferate well against measles virus in vitro, and bulk cultures recognize viral nucleocapsid and hemagglutinin as well as fusion proteins. The measles virus-specific T cells secrete large amounts of interleukin 2 (IL-2), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) but no IL-4, IL-6, or IL-10, and hence the cytokine pattern is consistent with that of subtype 1 T-helper lymphocytes. In contrast, cells obtained from measles virus-infected susceptible C3H mice recognize measles virus proteins only weakly and secrete little IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Treatment of infected mice with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies has no effect on survival or virus clearance from the brain. Upon neutralization of IFN-gamma in vivo, the phenotype of measles virus-specific T-helper cells isolatable from BALB/c mice is reversed from subtype 1 to subtype 2-like. Anti-IFN-gamma antibody-treated BALB/c mice are susceptible to measles virus encephalitis, and viral clearance from the central nervous system is impaired. These results indicate that IFN-gamma plays a significant role in the control of measles virus infection of the central nervous system. PMID:7636992

  6. Expression of B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and its effect on the biological behavior of A-431 cells

    PubMed Central

    BAI, XUELI; OUYANG, LING; LI, BO; ZHOU, YANG; WEN, XIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1) in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). Furthermore, the present study investigated the effects of BMI-1 expression on the biological behavior of A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. BMI-1 expression in human VSCC and VIN tissues was detected using immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, BMI-1 expression was silenced in A-431 cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA), and BMI-1 expression was detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The effects of BMI-1 silencing on cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasive ability were determined using an MTT assay, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double-labeling experiment and Transwell assay, respectively. The expression rate of BMI-1 in normal vulvar, VIN and VSCC tissues was 0.0, 25.0 and 68.0% respectively, demonstrating an increasing trend in the severity of the disease. BMI-1 overexpression was found not to correlate with age, pathological stage, lymph node metastasis or degree of differentiation (P>0.05). BMI-1 siRNA transfection effectively inhibited BMI-1 messenger RNA and protein expression in A-431 cells. The mean rate of apoptosis promotion and proliferation inhibition in the most effectively silenced group were 20.19 and 46.82%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of the cells in the blank and control siRNA groups (P<0.05). The number of invading cells was decreased in the most effectively silenced group compared with that of the blank and control siRNA groups. Abnormal expression of BMI-1 was also detected in VIN and VSCC tissues, and targeting of BMI-1 with siRNA was able to successfully silence BMI-1 expression in A-431 cells. Silencing of BMI-1 promoted apoptosis and inhibited the invasive abilities of A-431 cells in vitro. PMID

  7. The reduced virulence of the thymotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus derivative MoMuLV-TB is mapped to 11 mutations within the U3 region of the long terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, P H; Szurek, P F

    1989-01-01

    Chimeric constructs were generated by exchanging genomic fragments between the potent T-cell lymphoma inducer Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) and its derivative MoMuLV-TB, which induces T-cell lymphoma after a relatively longer latent period. Analysis of the T-cell lymphoma-inducing potential of the hybrid viruses that were obtained localized the primary determinant critical to efficient T-cell lymphoma induction to the MoMuLV ClaI-XbaI fragment which comprises 48 nucleotides (nt) of p15E, p2E, the 3'-noncoding sequence, and 298 nt of U3. The 438-base-pair ClaI-XbaI fragments of MoMuLV and MoMuLV-TB differed in only 11 nt. Nine mutations were found within the enhancer. These mutations occurred within the two CORE, the two GRE-LVa, and two of the four NF1 nuclear factor-binding motifs. MoMuLV-TB replicated better than MoMuLV in thymus-bone marrow (TB) cells, a cultured cell line of lymphoid origin. In addition, MoMuLV-TB and NwtTB-2, a recombinant virus with the ClaI-SmaI fragment of MoMuLV-TB in a MoMuLV background, replicated in thymocytes as efficiently as did MoMuLV or TBNwt-2, the reciprocal recombinant virus, with the ClaI-SmaI fragment of MoMuLV in a MoMuLV-TB background. Like NwtTB-4, a recombinant virus with the ClaI-XbaI fragment of MoMuLV-TB in a MoMuLV background, NwtTB-2 induced lymphoma after a long latent period. The finding given above suggests that thymotropism is not the only factor that determines the T-cell lymphoma-inducing potential of MoMuLV. It appears likely that mutations in one or more of the MoMuLV-TB nuclear factor-binding motifs may have altered the interaction of the enhancer with specific nuclear factors; this, in turn, may affect the T-cell lymphoma-inducing potential of MoMuLV-TB. PMID:2783465

  8. Epidemiology of virus-induced asthma exacerbations: with special reference to the role of human rhinovirus

    PubMed Central

    Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Ishii, Haruyuki; Ito, Anri; Sasaki, Yoshiko; Niwa, Shoichi; Kiyota, Naoko; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Goto, Hajime; Takizawa, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Viral respiratory infections may be associated with the virus-induced asthma in adults as well as children. Particularly, human rhinovirus is strongly suggested a major candidate for the associations of the virus-induced asthma. Thus, in this review, we reviewed and focused on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of virus-induced asthma with special reference on human rhinovirus. Furthermore, we added our preliminary data regarding the clinical and virological findings in the present review. PMID:24904541

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing using begomovirus satellite molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xueping; Huang, Changjun

    2012-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has emerged as a powerful method for studying gene function. VIGS is induced by infecting a plant with a plant virus that has had its genome modified to include a sequence from the host gene to be silenced. DNAβ and DNA1 are satellite and single-stranded DNA molecules associated with begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae). We converted DNAβ and DNA1 into gene-silencing vectors. The VIGS vectors can induce silencing efficiently in many solanaceous plants. Here, we describe procedures for the use of these two gene-silencing vectors for VIGS in different hosts. PMID:22678572

  10. Primary polyoma virus-induced murine thymic epithelial tumors. A tumor model of thymus physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Hoot, G. P.; Kettman, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Thymic tumors were induced in C3'/Bittner mice by neonatal inoculation with polyoma virus. The objective of this study was to identify the phenotypes of the cells within the tumors and to attempt to determine the origin of the neoplastic cell population(s). At the ultrastructural level, the neoplastic cells resembled normal thymic epithelium with tonofilaments and desmosomes. Immunoperoxidase staining demonstrated the presence of cytokeratin, Iak, -beta 2-microglobulin, -asialo-GM1, the thymic cortical epithelial marker ER-TR4, and the medullary epithelial marker ER-TR5. Islands of normal cortical thymocytes supported by residual normal cortical epithelium and acid phosphatase-positive cortical macrophages were interspersed in the tumors. Residual islands of normal medullary architecture with nonspecific esterase-positive IDCs were rarely identified in tumors. Most lymphocytes in the tumors were normal immature cortical thymocytes with the phenotype Tdt+, PNA+, Thy 1.2bright, Ly-1dull, H-2Kkdull, ThB+, J11d+, and Lyt-2+L3T4+. Lymphocytes in the tumors were steroid-sensitive like normal thymocytes. The proportions of Lyt-2+L3T4- and Lyt-2-L3T4+ cells were generally larger in the tumors than in normal thymus and reflected the higher frequency of lymphocytes in the tumors capable of proliferating in vitro in response to Con A plus IL-2. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that the neoplasia originates from thymic epithelium that is interspersed with normal, developing thymic lymphocytes. Images Figure 4 p[688]-a Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 p687-a Figure 7 PMID:2552813

  11. Murine viral hepatitis involves NK cell depletion associated with virus-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    LEHOUX, M; JACQUES, A; LUSIGNAN, S; LAMONTAGNE, L

    2004-01-01

    Mouse hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV3), a coronavirus, is an excellent animal model for the study of immunological disorders related to acute and chronic hepatitis. In this study, we have verified if the fulminant hepatitis induced by MHV3 could be related to an impairment of innate immunity. Groups of three C57BL/6 mice were infected with the pathogenic L2-MHV3 or attenuated YAC-MHV3 viruses, and the natural killer (NK) cell populations from liver, spleen and bone marrow were analysed. The percentage of intrahepatic NK1·1+T cell receptor (TCR)− cells did not increase while NK1·1+TCRinter cells decreased in both L2-MHV3- and YAC-MHV3-infected mice. Concurrently, splenic and myeloid NK1·1+ cells decreased in L2-MHV3-infected mice. However, the cytotoxic activity of NK cells increased in liver and decreased in bone marrow from pathogenic L2-MHV3-infected mice while no modification was detected in YAC-MHV3-infected mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that both normal and larger splenic or myeloid NK cells decreased more in pathogenic L2-MHV3-infected mice than in attenuated YAC-MHV3-infected mice. In vitro viral infections of interleukin (IL)-15-stimulated lymphoid cells from liver and bone marrow revealed that L2-MHV3 induced higher decreases in cell viability of NK1·1+ cells than the YAC-MHV3 variant. The NK cell decreases were due to the viral permissivity leading to cytopathic effects characterized by cell rounding, syncytia formation and apoptosis. Larger NK+ syncytia were observed in L2-MHV3-infected cells than in YAC-MHV3-infected cells. These results suggest that NK cell production is impaired by viral infection favouring fulminant hepatitis. PMID:15196242

  12. Galectin-3 is upregulated in activated glia during Junin virus-induced murine encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Jaquenod De Giusti, Carolina; Alberdi, Lucrecia; Frik, Jesica; Ferrer, María F; Scharrig, Emilia; Schattner, Mirta; Gomez, Ricardo M

    2011-09-01

    Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF) is a systemic febrile syndrome characterized by several haematological and neurological alterations caused by Junín virus (JUNV), a member of the Arenaviridae family. Newborn mice are highly susceptible to JUNV and the course of infection has been associated with the viral strain used. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an animal lectin that has been proposed to play an important role in some central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In this study, we analysed Gal-3 expression at the transcriptional and translational expression levels during JUNV-induced CNS disease. We found that Candid 1 strain induced, with relatively low mortality, a subacute/chronic CNS disease with significant glia activation and upregulation of Gal-3 in microglia cells as well as in reactive astrocytes that correlated with viral levels. Our results suggest an important role for Gal-3 in viral-induced CNS disease.

  13. An Ultrasensitive Mechanism Regulates Influenza Virus-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Jason E.; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Zhao, Dongming; Kawakami, Eiryo; Sakabe, Saori; Maemura, Tadashi; Gorai, Takeo; Katsura, Hiroaki; Muramoto, Yukiko; Watanabe, Shinji; Watanabe, Tokiko; Fuji, Ken; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Kitano, Hiroaki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses present major challenges to public health, evident by the 2009 influenza pandemic. Highly pathogenic influenza virus infections generally coincide with early, high levels of inflammatory cytokines that some studies have suggested may be regulated in a strain-dependent manner. However, a comprehensive characterization of the complex dynamics of the inflammatory response induced by virulent influenza strains is lacking. Here, we applied gene co-expression and nonlinear regression analysis to time-course, microarray data developed from influenza-infected mouse lung to create mathematical models of the host inflammatory response. We found that the dynamics of inflammation-associated gene expression are regulated by an ultrasensitive-like mechanism in which low levels of virus induce minimal gene expression but expression is strongly induced once a threshold virus titer is exceeded. Cytokine assays confirmed that the production of several key inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1, exhibit ultrasensitive behavior. A systematic exploration of the pathways regulating the inflammatory-associated gene response suggests that the molecular origins of this ultrasensitive response mechanism lie within the branch of the Toll-like receptor pathway that regulates STAT1 phosphorylation. This study provides the first evidence of an ultrasensitive mechanism regulating influenza virus-induced inflammation in whole lungs and provides insight into how different virus strains can induce distinct temporal inflammation response profiles. The approach developed here should facilitate the construction of gene regulatory models of other infectious diseases. PMID:26046528

  14. Virus -induced plankton dynamic and sea spray oragnics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, Maria Cristina; O'Dowd, Colin; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The processes that link phytoplankton biomass and productivity to the organic matter enrichment in sea spray aerosol are far from being understood and modelling predictions remain highly uncertain at the moment. While some studies have asserted that the enrichment of OM in sea spray aerosol is independent on marine productivity, others, on the contrary, have shown significant correlation with phytoplankton biomass and productivity (Chl-a retrieved by satellites). Here we show that viral infection of prokaryotes and phytoplankton, by inducing the release of large quantities of surfaceactive organic matter (cell debris, exudates and other colloidal gel-forming material), in part due to cell lysis and plankton defence reactions, and in part from rapid virus multiplication, triggers the organic matter (OM) enrichment in the sea-spray particles during blooms. We show that virus-induced bloom dynamics may explain the contrasting results present in literature on the link between primary productivity and OM sea spray enrichment.

  15. Virus-induced secondary bacterial infection: a concise review

    PubMed Central

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Alhammadi, Ahmed H

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are a very common source of morbidity and mortality among children. Health care providers often face a dilemma when encountering a febrile infant or child with respiratory tract infection. The reason expressed by many clinicians is the trouble to confirm whether the fever is caused by a virus or a bacterium. The aim of this review is to update the current evidence on the virus-induced bacterial infection. We present several clinical as well in vitro studies that support the correlation between virus and secondary bacterial infections. In addition, we discuss the pathophysiology and prevention modes of the virus–bacterium coexistence. A search of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases was carried out for published articles covering bacterial infections associated with respiratory viruses. This review should provide clinicians with a comprehensive idea of the range of bacterial and viral coinfections or secondary infections that could present with viral respiratory illness. PMID:26345407

  16. What Is Childhood Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... key statistics for childhood leukemia? What is childhood leukemia? Cancer starts when cells start to grow out ... start making antibodies to fight them. Types of leukemia in children Leukemia is often described as being ...

  17. Familial leukemias.

    PubMed

    Wiernik, Peter H

    2015-02-01

    Familial leukemia has been described for more than 50 years but only recently have modern genetic techniques allowed for the investigation of the genome. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic sites that appear to relate to susceptibility to leukemia in certain families and occasionally to susceptibility to a specific leukemia in general. Many questions remain, including susceptibility to what? An oncogenic virus? An environmental chemical? Mutation of another gene induced by a heritable mutation-promoting gene?.Clinically important facts have been learned. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is by far the most common familial leukemia. Patients with CLL have approximately a 10% chance of a first-degree relative developing CLL, and even a greater chance of one developing monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis which may be an asymptomatic forme fruste of the neoplasm. Furthermore, there may be an increased incidence of breast cancer in familial CLL pedigrees which raises the question of a common etiology for neoplasms in general, or at least a previously unrecognized relationship among them.

  18. Occurrence of virus-induced COPD exacerbations during four seasons.

    PubMed

    Djamin, Remco S; Uzun, Sevim; Snelders, Eveline; Kluytmans, Jan J W; Hoogsteden, Henk C; Aerts, Joachim G J V; Van Der Eerden, Menno M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the occurrence of viral infections in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during four seasons. Viral infections were detected by the use of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on pharyngeal swabs. During a 12-month period pharyngeal swabs were obtained in 136 exacerbations of 63 patients. In 35 exacerbations (25.7%) a viral infection was detected. Most viral infections occurred in the winter (n = 14, 40.0%), followed by summer (n = 9, 25.7%), autumn (n = 6, 17.1%), and spring (n = 6, 17.1%). Rhinovirus was the most frequently isolated virus (n = 19, 51.4%), followed by respiratory syncytial virus (n = 6, 16.2%), human metapneumovirus (n = 5, 13.5%), influenza A (n = 4, 10.8%), parainfluenza 4 (n = 2, 5.4%), and parainfluenza 3 (n = 1, 2.7%). This study showed that virus-induced COPD exacerbations occur in all four seasons with a peak in the winter months. However, the distribution of rhinovirus infections showed a different pattern, with most infections occurring in July.

  19. Virus-Induced Silencing of a Plant Cellulose Synthase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Rachel A.; Gibeaut, David M.; Bacic, Antony; Findlay, Kim; Roberts, Keith; Hamilton, Andrew; Baulcombe, David C.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2000-01-01

    Specific cDNA fragments corresponding to putative cellulose synthase genes (CesA) were inserted into potato virus X vectors for functional analysis in Nicotiana benthamiana by using virus-induced gene silencing. Plants infected with one group of cDNAs had much shorter internode lengths, small leaves, and a “dwarf” phenotype. Consistent with a loss of cell wall cellulose, abnormally large and in many cases spherical cells ballooned from the undersurfaces of leaves, particularly in regions adjacent to vascular tissues. Linkage analyses of wall polysaccharides prepared from infected leaves revealed a 25% decrease in cellulose content. Transcript levels for at least one member of the CesA cellulose synthase gene family were lower in infected plants. The decrease in cellulose content in cell walls was offset by an increase in homogalacturonan, in which the degree of esterification of carboxyl groups decreased from ∼50 to ∼33%. The results suggest that feedback loops interconnect the cellular machinery controlling cellulose and pectin biosynthesis. On the basis of the phenotypic features of the infected plants, changes in wall composition, and the reduced abundance of CesA mRNA, we concluded that the cDNA fragments silenced one or more cellulose synthase genes. PMID:10810144

  20. Foxtail Mosaic Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Monocot Plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Xie, Ke; Jia, Qi; Zhao, Jinping; Chen, Tianyuan; Li, Huangai; Wei, Xiang; Diao, Xianmin; Hong, Yiguo; Liu, Yule

    2016-07-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful technique to study gene function in plants. However, very few VIGS vectors are available for monocot plants. Here we report that Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) can be engineered as an effective VIGS system to induce efficient silencing of endogenous genes in monocot plants including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica). This is evidenced by FoMV-based silencing of phytoene desaturase (PDS) and magnesium chelatase in barley, of PDS and Cloroplastos alterados1 in foxtail millet and wheat, and of an additional gene IspH in foxtail millet. Silencing of these genes resulted in photobleached or chlorosis phenotypes in barley, wheat, and foxtail millet. Furthermore, our FoMV-based gene silencing is the first VIGS system reported for foxtail millet, an important C4 model plant. It may provide an efficient toolbox for high-throughput functional genomics in economically important monocot crops. PMID:27225900

  1. Tom70 Mediates Sendai Virus-Induced Apoptosis on Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bo; Cui, Ye; Huang, Yuefeng; Liu, Heng; Li, Lin; Li, Mi; Ruan, Kang-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Virus infection triggers immediate innate immune responses. Apoptosis represents another effective means to restrict virus invasion, besides robust expression of host cytokines and chemokines. IRF3 was recently demonstrated to be indispensable for Sendai virus (SeV)-induced apoptosis, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here we report that a dynamic protein complex, Tom70/Hsp90/IRF3/Bax, mediates SeV-induced apoptosis. The cytosolic proapoptotic protein Bax interacts specifically with IRF3 upon virus infection. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein Tom70 recruits IRF3 to mitochondria via Hsp90. Consequently, the relocation of Bax onto mitochondria induces the leakage of cytochrome c into the cytosol and initiates the corresponding apoptosis. Interestingly, IKK-i is essential for this apoptosis, whereas TBK1 is dispensable. Collectively, our study characterizes a novel protein complex that is important for SeV-induced apoptosis. IMPORTANCE Apoptosis is an effective means of sacrificing virus-infected cells and restraining the spread of virus. In this study, we demonstrate that IRF3 associates with Bax upon virus infection. Tom70 recruits this protein complex to the mitochondrial outer membrane through Hsp90, which thus induces the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, initiating virus-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, IKK-i plays an essential role in this activation. This study uncovers a novel mechanism of SeV-induced apoptosis. PMID:25609812

  2. Virus-induced gene silencing in eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiping; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Yan, Huaxue; Shen, Xiaoying; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2012-06-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is an economically important vegetable requiring investigation into its various genomic functions. The current limitation in the investigation of genomic function in eggplant is the lack of effective tools available for conducting functional assays. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has played a critical role in the functional genetic analyses. In this paper, TRV-mediated VIGS was successfully elicited in eggplant. We first cloned the CDS sequence of PDS (PHYTOENE DESATURASE) in eggplant and then silenced the PDS gene. Photo-bleaching was shown on the newly-developed leaves four weeks after agroinoculation, indicating that VIGS can be used to silence genes in eggplant. To further illustrate the reliability of VIGS in eggplant, we selected Chl H, Su and CLA1 as reporters to elicit VIGS using the high-pressure spray method. Suppression of Chl H and Su led to yellow leaves, while the depletion of CLA1 resulted in albino. In conclusion, four genes, PDS, Chl H, Su (Sulfur), CLA1, were down-regulated significantly by VIGS, indicating that the VIGS system can be successfully applied in eggplant and is a reliable tool for the study of gene function.

  3. Virus-induced gene silencing in eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiping; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Yan, Huaxue; Shen, Xiaoying; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2012-06-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is an economically important vegetable requiring investigation into its various genomic functions. The current limitation in the investigation of genomic function in eggplant is the lack of effective tools available for conducting functional assays. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has played a critical role in the functional genetic analyses. In this paper, TRV-mediated VIGS was successfully elicited in eggplant. We first cloned the CDS sequence of PDS (PHYTOENE DESATURASE) in eggplant and then silenced the PDS gene. Photo-bleaching was shown on the newly-developed leaves four weeks after agroinoculation, indicating that VIGS can be used to silence genes in eggplant. To further illustrate the reliability of VIGS in eggplant, we selected Chl H, Su and CLA1 as reporters to elicit VIGS using the high-pressure spray method. Suppression of Chl H and Su led to yellow leaves, while the depletion of CLA1 resulted in albino. In conclusion, four genes, PDS, Chl H, Su (Sulfur), CLA1, were down-regulated significantly by VIGS, indicating that the VIGS system can be successfully applied in eggplant and is a reliable tool for the study of gene function. PMID:22268843

  4. Vaccinia Virus Induces Programmed Necrosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Whilding, Lynsey M; Archibald, Kyra M; Kulbe, Hagen; Balkwill, Frances R; Öberg, Daniel; McNeish, Iain A

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which oncolytic vaccinia virus induces tumor cell death are poorly understood. We have evaluated cell death pathways following infection of ovarian cancer cells with both wild-type and thymidine kinase-deleted (dTK) Lister strain vaccinia. We show that death does not rely upon classical apoptosis despite the appearances of some limited apoptotic features, including phosphatidylserine externalization and appearance of sub-G1 DNA populations. Vaccinia infection induces marked lipidation of LC3 proteins, but there is no general activation of the autophagic process and cell death does not rely upon autophagy induction. We show that vaccinia induces necrotic morphology on transmission electron microscopy, accompanied by marked by reductions in intracellular adenosine triphosphate, altered mitochondrial metabolism, and release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. This necrotic cell death appears regulated, as infection induces formation of a receptor interacting protein (RIP1)/caspase-8 complex. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of both RIP1 and substrates downstream of RIP1, including MLKL, significantly attenuate cell death. Blockade of TNF-α, however, does not alter virus efficacy, suggesting that necrosis does not result from autocrine cytokine release. Overall, these results show that, in ovarian cancer cells, vaccinia virus causes necrotic cell death that is mediated through a programmed series of events. PMID:23985697

  5. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Solanum rostratum.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lan-Huan; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Solanum rostratum is a "super weed" that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum. The genes for phytoene desaturase (PDS) and Chlorophyll H subunit (ChlH) of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase were cloned from S. rostratum and used as reporters of gene silencing. It was shown that high-efficiency VIGS can be achieved in the leaves, flowers, and fruit of S. rostratum. Moreover, based on our comparison of three different types of infection methods, true leaf infection was found to be more efficient than cotyledon and sprout infiltration in long-term VIGS in multiple plant organs. In conclusion, the VIGS technology and tomato genomic sequences can be used in the future to study gene function in S. rostratum.

  6. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Solanum rostratum

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lan-Huan; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Solanum rostratum is a “super weed” that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum. The genes for phytoene desaturase (PDS) and Chlorophyll H subunit (ChlH) of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase were cloned from S. rostratum and used as reporters of gene silencing. It was shown that high-efficiency VIGS can be achieved in the leaves, flowers, and fruit of S. rostratum. Moreover, based on our comparison of three different types of infection methods, true leaf infection was found to be more efficient than cotyledon and sprout infiltration in long-term VIGS in multiple plant organs. In conclusion, the VIGS technology and tomato genomic sequences can be used in the future to study gene function in S. rostratum. PMID:27258320

  7. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Solanum rostratum.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lan-Huan; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Solanum rostratum is a "super weed" that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum. The genes for phytoene desaturase (PDS) and Chlorophyll H subunit (ChlH) of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase were cloned from S. rostratum and used as reporters of gene silencing. It was shown that high-efficiency VIGS can be achieved in the leaves, flowers, and fruit of S. rostratum. Moreover, based on our comparison of three different types of infection methods, true leaf infection was found to be more efficient than cotyledon and sprout infiltration in long-term VIGS in multiple plant organs. In conclusion, the VIGS technology and tomato genomic sequences can be used in the future to study gene function in S. rostratum. PMID:27258320

  8. Murine Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Dzul-Rosado, Karla R; Zavala Velázquez, Jorge Ernesto; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi: is an intracellular bacteria who causes murine typhus. His importance is reflected in the high frequency founding specific antibodies against Rickettsia typhi in several worldwide seroepidemiological studies, the seroprevalence ranging between 3-36%. Natural reservoirs of R. typhi are rats (some species belonging the Rattus Genus) and fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) are his vector. This infection is associated with overcrowding, pollution and poor hygiene. Typically presents fever, headache, rash on trunk and extremities, in some cases may occur organ-specific complications, affecting liver, kidney, lung or brain. Initially the disease is very similar to other diseases, is very common to confuse the murine typhus with Dengue fever, therefore, ignorance of the disease is a factor related to complications or non-specific treatments for the resolution of this infection. This paper presents the most relevant information to consider about the rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi. PMID:24893060

  9. Dominant inhibitory Ras delays Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Joe, A K; Ferrari, G; Jiang, H H; Liang, X H; Levine, B

    1996-01-01

    Mature neurons are more resistant than dividing cells or differentiating neurons to Sindbis virus-induced apoptotic death. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitogenic signal transduction pathways may influence susceptibility to Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis. Since Ras, a 21-kDa GTP-binding protein, plays an important role in cellular proliferation and neuronal differentiation, we investigated the effect of an inducible dominant inhibitory Ras on Sindbis virus-induced death of a rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12 cells. Dexamethasone induction of dominant inhibitory Ras (Ha Ras(Asn17)) expression in transfected PC12 cell lines (MMTV-M17-21 and GSrasDN6 cells) resulted in a marked delay in Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis, compared with infected, uninduced cells. The delay in death after Sindbis virus infection in induced versus uninduced PC12 cells was not associated with differences in viral titers or viral infectivity. No delay in Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis was observed in Ha Ras(Asn17)-transfected PC12 cells if dexamethasone induction was initiated less than 12 h before Sindbis virus infection or in wild-type PC12 cells infected with a chimeric Sindbis virus construct that expresses Ha Ras(Asn17). The delay in Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis in induced Ha Ras(Asn17)-transfected PC12 cells was associated with a decrease in cellular DNA synthesis as measured by 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Thus, in PC12 cells, inducible dominant inhibitory Ras inhibits cellular proliferation and delays Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that a Ras-dependent signaling pathway is a determinant of neuronal susceptibility to Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis. PMID:8892895

  10. Understanding Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... a second cancer, including melanoma, sarcoma, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, basal cell cancer, squamous cell skin cancer or myeloma. {{ See your primary care doctor to keep up with other healthcare needs. Understanding Leukemia I page 21 {{ Talk with family and friends about how ...

  11. Abrogation of resistance to Theiler's virus-induced demyelination in H-2b mice deficient in beta 2-microglobulin.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Dunkel, A J; Thiemann, R L; Leibowitz, J; Zijlstra, M; Jaenisch, R

    1993-07-01

    Intracerebral infection of susceptible strains of mice with Theiler's virus, a picornavirus, results in central nervous system demyelination, which is similar to multiple sclerosis. Immunogenetic experiments indicate that the MHC (H-2) and, in particular, the D region that controls class I-restricted immune responses, is an important determinant to development of demyelination. We tested whether disruption of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) would abrogate resistance to demyelinating disease normally observed in H-2b mice. All (C57BI/6 x 129)F3 mice transgenic for homozygous beta 2-m gene disruption (-/-) developed chronic demyelination after Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection, whereas none of the infected littermates with normal expression of class I MHC (beta 2-m, +/+) developed demyelination. Demyelinated lesions showed class II MHC expression, macrophages, and TNF but no class I MHC expression or CD8+ T cells. No correlation was observed between development of demyelination and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to virus Ag. Despite the presence of demyelinating lesions, none of the infected beta 2-m (-/-) mice developed neurologic deficits. Infectious virus and virus Ag persisted in the central nervous systems of infected beta 2-m (-/-) mice but not in beta 2-m (+/+) mice. These experiments support the hypothesis that a class I immune response mediated by CD8+ T cells is important in resistance to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelination. Development of chronic neurologic deficits as observed in immunocompetent susceptible strains of mice may be dependent on the presence of class I MHC and CD8+ T cells.

  12. Mechanisms of dengue virus-induced bone marrow suppression.

    PubMed

    La Russa, V F; Innis, B L

    1995-03-01

    Infection with many flaviviruses is associated with transient suppression of haematopoiesis. Of the flaviviruses of man, none are more accessible to clinical and laboratory study than dengue. Consequently, the clinical syndrome of dengue-associated bone marrow suppression has been well documented. A review of experimental dengue infections of volunteers and histopathological studies of bone marrow from patients with severe dengue virus infection suggests that marrow suppression evolves rapidly through several phases: (1) onset of marrow suppression within 3-4 days of infection; (2) onset of host inflammatory responses in the marrow and of fever shortly thereafter; (3) occurrence of a neutrophil nadir on the fourth to fifth day after onset of fever; (4) almost simultaneously, immune activation sufficient to neutralize viraemia and accelerate elimination of infected cells; (5) remission of symptoms; and (6) resolution of cytopenias. Clinical observations and experimental data bear on possible mechanisms of dengue virus-mediated marrow suppression. Work from the authors' laboratory in which long-term bone marrow cultures were used to investigate interactions between dengue virus and bone marrow cells (stromal elements and haematopoietic progenitors) is also reviewed. Long-term marrow culture (LTMC) was a useful experimental system. In vitro, early blast cells as well as the more differentiated haematopoietic elements were abortively infected, killed and eliminated by phagocytosis by specialized marrow macrophages called dendritic cells. Moreover, the ARC from stroma rather than haematopoietic precursors were productively infected. When ARC were infected, stroma failed to support haematopoiesis. Cytokine production by virus-infected stromal cells was altered. A hypothesis is proposed to account for dengue virus-induced marrow suppression. Down-regulation of haematopoiesis is probably a protective mechanism of the microenvironment that limits injury to the marrow stem

  13. Mechanism of Theiler's virus-induced demyelination in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, A; Fujinami, R S; Lampert, P W

    1986-05-01

    In its natural murine host, infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) produces a chronic, progressive demyelinating disease. To help elucidate the role of host immune mechanisms involved in demyelination, we studied TMEV infection in Nude mice. These animals demonstrated rising titers of infectious virus within the central nervous system and failed to produce anti-TMEV antibody. Neurologic signs including the development of severe hind limb paralysis were evident approximately 2 weeks postinfection with most animals succumbing within the first month. Immunoperoxidase studies demonstrated viral antigen in the cytoplasm of neurons and glial cells for the entire period of observation. Plaques of demyelination associated with scanty inflammatory infiltrates were present in the spinal cord by 14 days postinfection. Electron microscopic studies of the involved white matter revealed numerous degenerating glial cells, many of which contained paracrystalline arrays of picornavirus within their cytoplasm. Some of the infected glial cells were identified as oligodendrocytes by demonstrating their myelin-plasma membrane connections. The studies indicate that in Nude mice TMEV causes a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes producing demyelination independent of the T lymphocyte immune system.

  14. Influenza virus induces bacterial and nonbacterial otitis media.

    PubMed

    Short, Kirsty R; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A; Thornton, Ruth; Pedersen, John; Strugnell, Richard A; Wise, Andrew K; Reading, Patrick C; Wijburg, Odilia L

    2011-12-15

    Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common childhood diseases. OM can arise when a viral infection enables bacteria to disseminate from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Here, we provide the first infant murine model for disease. Mice coinfected with Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza virus had high bacterial load in the middle ear, middle ear inflammation, and hearing loss. In contrast, mice colonized with S. pneumoniae alone had significantly less bacteria in the ear, minimal hearing loss, and no inflammation. Of interest, infection with influenza virus alone also caused some middle ear inflammation and hearing loss. Overall, this study provides a clinically relevant and easily accessible animal model to study the pathogenesis and prevention of OM. Moreover, we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that influenza virus alone causes middle ear inflammation in infant mice. This inflammation may then play an important role in the development of bacterial OM.

  15. A Val-25-to-Ile substitution in the envelope precursor polyprotein, gPr80env, is responsible for the temperature sensitivity, inefficient processing of gPr80env, and neurovirulence of ts1, a mutant of Moloney murine leukemia virus TB.

    PubMed Central

    Szurek, P F; Yuen, P H; Ball, J K; Wong, P K

    1990-01-01

    ts1 is a neurovirulent spontaneous temperature-sensitive mutant of Moloney murine leukemia virus TB which causes hindlimb paralysis in mice. Previously, it had been shown that the temperature-sensitive defect resided in the env gene. At the restrictive temperature, the envelope precursor polyprotein, gPr80env, is inefficiently processed intracellularly into two cleavage products, gp70 and Prp15E. This inefficient processing of gPr80env is correlated with neurovirulence. In this study, it was shown that a single amino acid substitution, Val-25----Ile in gPr80env, is responsible for the temperature sensitivity, inefficient processing of gPr80env at the restrictive temperature, and neurovirulence of ts1. At the restrictive temperature, a steady-state level of nonprocessed, endoglycosidase H-sensitive gPr80env remained in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells infected by ts1, but no endoglycosidase H-resistant gPr80env and only trace amounts of gp70 were detected in the infected cells. Since the host cell-encoded processing protease resides in the cis cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, inefficient processing of gPr80env at the restrictive temperature is most likely due to inefficient transport of gPr80env from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cis cisternae of the Golgi apparatus rather than due to misfolded gPr80env being a poor substrate for the processing protease at the restrictive temperature. Images PMID:2296075

  16. THE COURSE OF VIRUS-INDUCED RABBIT PAPILLOMAS AS DETERMINED BY VIRUS, CELLS, AND HOST

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, John G.

    1938-01-01

    An experimental analysis of the factors responsible for the observed differences in the course of virus-induced papillomas of the rabbit has shown that some are referable to the virus, others to the cells, and yet others to host influences. The interplay of these factors affords enlightening illustration of the nature of the cell-virus relationship in virus-induced tumors. Retrogression of the rabbit papillomas appears to be consequent on a generalized resistance of host origin, elicited by and directed against the proliferating, virus-infected cells. PMID:19870740

  17. Leukemia revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E P

    1980-01-01

    Selected features of the historical development of our knowledge of leukemia are discussed. The use of different methodologies for study of the nature of leukemic cell proliferation are analyzed. The differences between older cell kinetic data using tritiated thymidine and autoradiography and the newer cell culture methods are more apparent than real. It is suggested that tritiated thymidine and extracorporeal irradiation of the blood may be useful for therapeutic agents that have not been given an adequate trial. Radiation leukemogenesis presents an opportunity for study of the nature of leukemogenesis that has not been exploited adequately.

  18. What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia? Next Topic Normal bone marrow and blood What is chronic myeloid leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... their treatment is the same as for adults. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  19. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about acute myeloid leukemia? What is acute myeloid leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in a part of ... the body from doing their jobs. Types of leukemia Not all leukemias are the same. There are ...

  20. Gene expression profiling reveals insight into how distinct viruses induce symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant viruses induce a wide array of disease symptoms and cytopathic effects including alterations of chloroplasts, ribosomes, and cellular architecture. While some of these changes are virus specific, many are common even among diverse viruses, and in most cases, the molecular determinants respons...

  1. TRV Based Virus Induced Gene Silencing in Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.), A Monocotyledonous Ornamental Plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has not yet successfully been used as a tool for gene functional analysis in non-grass monocotyledonous geophytes. We therefore tested VIGS in gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflora L) using a Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV) vector containing a fragment of the gladiolus gene...

  2. Anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL but not Mcl-1 contributes to protection against virus-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ohmer, Michaela; Weber, Arnim; Sutter, Gerd; Ehrhardt, Katrin; Zimmermann, Albert; Häcker, Georg

    2016-08-18

    Infection of mammalian cells with viruses often induces apoptosis. How the recognition of viruses leads to apoptosis of the infected cell and which host cell factors regulate this cell death is incompletely understood. In this study, we focussed on two major anti-apoptotic proteins of the host cell, whose abundance and activity are important for cell survival, the Bcl-2-like proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL. During infection of epithelial cells and fibroblasts with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), Mcl-1 protein levels dropped but the MVA Bcl-2-like protein F1L could replace Mcl-1 functionally; a similar activity was found in vaccinia virus (VACV)-infected cells. During infection with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), Mcl-1-levels were not reduced but a viral Mcl-1-like activity was also generated. Infection of mouse macrophages with any of these viruses, on the other hand, induced apoptosis. Virus-induced macrophage apoptosis was unaltered in the absence of Mcl-1. However, apoptosis was substantially increased in infected Bcl-XL-deficient macrophages or macrophages treated with the Bcl-2/Bcl-XL-inhibitor ABT-737. Genetic loss of Bcl-XL or treatment of macrophages with ABT-737 reduced the generation of infectious VACV. These data show that Mcl-1 is dispensable for the regulation of apoptosis during infection with different large DNA viruses, either because the viruses replace its function (in fibroblasts and epithelial cells) or because the pro-apoptotic activity generated by the infection appears not to be blocked by it (in macrophages). Bcl-XL, on the other hand, can be important to maintain survival of virus-infected cells, and its activity can determine outcome of the infection.

  3. Anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL but not Mcl-1 contributes to protection against virus-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ohmer, Michaela; Weber, Arnim; Sutter, Gerd; Ehrhardt, Katrin; Zimmermann, Albert; Häcker, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Infection of mammalian cells with viruses often induces apoptosis. How the recognition of viruses leads to apoptosis of the infected cell and which host cell factors regulate this cell death is incompletely understood. In this study, we focussed on two major anti-apoptotic proteins of the host cell, whose abundance and activity are important for cell survival, the Bcl-2-like proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL. During infection of epithelial cells and fibroblasts with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), Mcl-1 protein levels dropped but the MVA Bcl-2-like protein F1L could replace Mcl-1 functionally; a similar activity was found in vaccinia virus (VACV)-infected cells. During infection with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), Mcl-1-levels were not reduced but a viral Mcl-1-like activity was also generated. Infection of mouse macrophages with any of these viruses, on the other hand, induced apoptosis. Virus-induced macrophage apoptosis was unaltered in the absence of Mcl-1. However, apoptosis was substantially increased in infected Bcl-XL-deficient macrophages or macrophages treated with the Bcl-2/Bcl-XL-inhibitor ABT-737. Genetic loss of Bcl-XL or treatment of macrophages with ABT-737 reduced the generation of infectious VACV. These data show that Mcl-1 is dispensable for the regulation of apoptosis during infection with different large DNA viruses, either because the viruses replace its function (in fibroblasts and epithelial cells) or because the pro-apoptotic activity generated by the infection appears not to be blocked by it (in macrophages). Bcl-XL, on the other hand, can be important to maintain survival of virus-infected cells, and its activity can determine outcome of the infection. PMID:27537523

  4. Mouse Norovirus Replication Is Associated with Virus-Induced Vesicle Clusters Originating from Membranes Derived from the Secretory Pathway▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Jennifer L.; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Green, Kim Y.; Wobus, Christiane; Virgin, Herbert W.; Mackenzie, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    Human noroviruses (family Caliciviridae) are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite the prevalence of these viruses within the community, the study of human norovirus has largely been hindered due to the inability to cultivate the viruses ex vivo and the lack of a small-animal model. In 2003, the discovery of a novel murine norovirus (MNV-1) and the identification of the tropism of MNV-1 for cells of a mononuclear origin led to the establishment of the first norovirus tissue culture system. Like other positive-sense RNA viruses, MNV-1 replication is associated with host membranes, which undergo significant rearrangement during infection. We characterize here the subcellular localization of the MNV-1 open reading frame 1 proteins and viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Over the course of infection, dsRNA and the MNV-1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS7) were observed to proliferate from punctate foci located in the perinuclear region. All of the MNV-1 open reading frame 1 proteins were observed to colocalize with dsRNA during the course of infection. The MNV-1 replication complex was immunolocalized to virus-induced vesicle clusters formed in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Both dsRNA and MNV-1 NS7 were observed to localize to the limiting membrane of the individual clusters by cryo-immunoelectron microscopy. We show that the MNV-1 replication complex initially associates with membranes derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, trans-Golgi apparatus, and endosomes. In addition, we show that MNV-1 replication is insensitive to the fungal metabolite brefeldin A and consistently does not appear to recruit coatomer protein complex I (COPI) or COPII component proteins during replication. These data provide preliminary insights into key aspects of replication of MNV-1, which will potentially further our understanding of the pathogenesis of noroviruses and aid in the identification of potential targets for drug development. PMID:19587041

  5. Acceleration of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus-Induced Murine Mammary Tumorigenesis by a p53172H Transgene

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Gouri; Rosner, Andrea; Han, Yi; Zelazny, Edward T.; Li, Baolin; Cardiff, Robert D.; Perkins, Archibald S.

    2002-01-01

    We previously showed that a mammary-specific dominant-negative p53 transgene (WAP-p53172H) could accelerate ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis in mice, but was not tumorigenic on its own. To identify other genes that cooperate with WAP-p53172H in tumorigenesis, we performed mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) proviral mutagenesis. We derived F1, N2, and N4/N5 mice from p53172H transgenic FVB mice backcrossed onto MMTV+ C3H/He mice. Results show the latency of MMTV tumorigenesis is correlated with FVB contribution. F1 tumors had the shortest latency (217 days), had a higher rate of metastasis, and were less differentiated than the N2 and N4/N5 tumors. The latency was 269 days in N2 mice, and lengthened to 346 days in N4/N5 mice. p53172H significantly accelerated MMTV tumorigenesis only in N2 mice, indicating cooperativity between p53172H and MMTV in this cohort. To identify genes that may be causally involved in MMTV-induced mammary tumorigenesis, we identified 60 sites of proviral insertion in the N2 tumors. Among the insertions in p53172H transgenic tumors were 10 genes not previously found as sites of MMTV insertion including genes involved in signaling (Pdgfra, Pde1b, Cnk1), cell adhesion (Cd44), angiogenesis (Galgt1), and transcriptional regulation (Olig1, Olig2, and Uncx4.1). These may represent cellular functions that are likely not deregulated by mutation in p53. PMID:12466138

  6. Nuclear receptor REV-ERBα mediates circadian sensitivity to mortality in murine vesicular stomatitis virus-induced encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gagnidze, Khatuna; Hajdarovic, Kaitlyn H; Moskalenko, Marina; Karatsoreos, Ilia N; McEwen, Bruce S; Bulloch, Karen

    2016-05-17

    Certain components and functions of the immune system, most notably cytokine production and immune cell migration, are under circadian regulation. Such regulation suggests that circadian rhythms may have an effect on disease onset, progression, and resolution. In the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-induced encephalitis model, the replication, caudal penetration, and survivability of intranasally applied VSV depends on both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. In the current study, we investigated the effect of circadian time of infection on the progression and outcome of VSV-induced encephalitis and demonstrated a significant decrease in the survival rate in mice infected at the start of the rest cycle, zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0). The lower survival rate in these mice was associated with higher levels of circulating chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), a greater number of peripherally derived immune cells accumulating in the olfactory bulb (OB), and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, indicating an immune-mediated pathology. We also found that the acrophase of molecular circadian clock component REV-ERBα mRNA expression in the OB coincides with the start of the active cycle, ZT12, when VSV infection results in a more favorable outcome. This result led us to hypothesize that REV-ERBα may mediate the circadian effect on survival following VSV infection. Blocking REV-ERBα activity before VSV administration resulted in a significant increase in the expression of CCL2 and decreased survival in mice infected at the start of the active cycle. These data demonstrate that REV-ERBα-mediated inhibition of CCL2 expression during viral-induced encephalitis may have a protective effect. PMID:27143721

  7. Neonatal testicular cell transplantation restores murine spermatogenesis damaged in the course of herpes simplex virus-induced orchitis.

    PubMed

    Malolina, Ekaterina A; Kulibin, Andrey Yu; Kushch, Alla A

    2016-04-01

    Genital tract infection and inflammation may affect male fertility, causing germ and Sertoli cell loss. We determined if testicular cell transplantation is effective at repairing testicular injury induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) orchitis. ROSA26 mice were used as donors and the recipients were C57BL/6 mice after HSV testicular inoculation; some of the recipients were treated with the antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV). ACV reduced the amount of HSV antigen in testes on Day 3 after transplantation and enhanced the efficacy of transplantation at Day 30. In recipient testes, donor Sertoli cells formed new seminiferous tubules; significantly more new tubules were observed in the testes of ACV-treated mice compared with mice not treated with ACV (17.8% vs 3.6%). Over half (50.4%) of new tubules in ACV-treated testes contained germ cells and round spermatids were detected in 14.2% of new tubules compared with 15.9% and 5.3% in testes not treated with ACV, respectively. At Day 150 the seminiferous epithelium was completely recovered in some donor tubules and elongated spermatids were observed inside it. Thus, our findings reveal the effectiveness of the combination of antiviral therapy with neonatal testis-cell transplantation for the restoration of spermatogenesis damaged by viral infection.

  8. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  9. Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood ...

  10. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  11. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  12. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Leukemia This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... not listed here. Drugs Approved for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Arranon (Nelarabine) Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi ...

  13. Targeted positron emission tomography imaging of CXCR4 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Herhaus, Peter; Habringer, Stefan; Philipp-Abbrederis, Kathrin; Vag, Tibor; Gerngross, Carlos; Schottelius, Margret; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Steiger, Katja; Altmann, Torben; Weißer, Tanja; Steidle, Sabine; Schick, Markus; Jacobs, Laura; Slawska, Jolanta; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Verbeek, Mareike; Subklewe, Marion; Peschel, Christian; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus; Götze, Katharina; Keller, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia originates from leukemia-initiating cells that reside in the protective bone marrow niche. CXCR4/CXCL12 interaction is crucially involved in recruitment and retention of leukemia-initiating cells within this niche. Various drugs targeting this pathway have entered clinical trials. To evaluate CXCR4 imaging in acute myeloid leukemia, we first tested CXCR4 expression in patient-derived primary blasts. Flow cytometry revealed that high blast counts in patients with acute myeloid leukemia correlate with high CXCR4 expression. The wide range of CXCR4 surface expression in patients was reflected in cell lines of acute myeloid leukemia. Next, we evaluated the CXCR4-specific peptide Pentixafor by positron emission tomography imaging in mice harboring CXCR4 positive and CXCR4 negative leukemia xenografts, and in 10 patients with active disease. [68Ga]Pentixafor-positron emission tomography showed specific measurable disease in murine CXCR4 positive xenografts, but not when CXCR4 was knocked out with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. Five of 10 patients showed tracer uptake correlating well with leukemia infiltration assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. The mean maximal standard uptake value was significantly higher in visually CXCR4 positive patients compared to CXCR4 negative patients. In summary, in vivo molecular CXCR4 imaging by means of positron emission tomography is feasible in acute myeloid leukemia. These data provide a framework for future diagnostic and theranostic approaches targeting the CXCR4/CXCL12-defined leukemia-initiating cell niche. PMID:27175029

  14. Optimization of virus-induced gene silencing in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, J-E; Li, D-W; Gong, Z-H; Zhang, Y-L

    2013-07-24

    Virus-induced gene silencing is currently a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants. Here, we optimized the protocol for virus-induced gene silencing, and investigated factors that affect the efficiency of tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing in pepper plants. Consequently, an optimal protocol was obtained by the syringe-infiltration method in the leaves of pepper plants. The protocol involves 2-leaf stage plants, preparing the Agrobacterium inoculum at a final OD600 of 1.0 and then growing the inoculated plants at 22°C. Using this protocol, we achieved high efficiency in silencing CaPDS in different cultivars of pepper plants. We further used the CaPOD gene to illustrate the general reliability of this optimized protocol. Viral symptoms were observed on the leaves of inoculated plants of the Early Calwonder cultivar 25 days post-inoculation, indicating that this protocol can also be used to silence other genes in pepper plants. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the expression levels of CaPDS and CaPOD were dramatically reduced in inoculated leaves compared to control plants. These results demonstrate that the optimized protocol can be applied to functional genomic studies in pepper to investigate genes involved in a wide range of biological processes.

  15. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhiwu; Gu, Liming; Chen, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy. PMID:27525278

  16. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gefei; Li, Rui; Jiang, Zhiwu; Gu, Liming; Chen, Yanxia; Dai, Jianping; Li, Kangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy. PMID:27525278

  17. Absence of missense mutations in activated c-myc genes in avian leukosis virus-induced B-cell lymphomas

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Hayward, W.S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors determined the nucleotide sequences of two independent DNA clones which contained the activated c-myc genes from avian leukosis virus-induced B-cell lymphomas. Neither of these c-myce genes contained missense mutations. This strongly supports the notion that the c-myc photo-oncogene in avian leukosis virus-induced B-cell lymphomas can be oncogenically activated by altered expression of the gene without a change in the primary structure of the gene product.

  18. Targeted indocyanine-green-loaded calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles for in vivo photodynamic therapy of leukemia.

    PubMed

    Barth, Brian M; I Altinoğlu, Erhan; Shanmugavelandy, Sriram S; Kaiser, James M; Crespo-Gonzalez, Daniza; DiVittore, Nicole A; McGovern, Christopher; Goff, Trevor M; Keasey, Nicole R; Adair, James H; Loughran, Thomas P; Claxton, David F; Kester, Mark

    2011-07-26

    Leukemia is one of the most common and aggressive adult cancers, as well as the most prevalent childhood cancer. Leukemia is a cancer of the hematological system and can be divided into a diversity of unique malignancies based on the onset of the disease as well as the specific cell lineages involved. Cancer stem cells, including recently identified leukemia stem cells (LSCs), are hypothesized to be responsible for cancer development, relapse, and resistance to treatment, and new therapeutics targeting these cellular populations are urgently needed. Nontoxic and nonaggregating calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (CPSNPs) encapsulating the near-infrared fluoroprobe indocyanine green (ICG) were recently developed for diagnostic imaging and drug delivery as well as for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of solid tumors. Prior studies revealed that specific targeting of CPSNPs allowed for enhanced accumulation within breast cancer tumors, via CD71 targeting, or pancreatic cancer tumors, via gastrin receptor targeting. In the present study, ICG-loaded CPSNPs were evaluated as photosensitizers for PDT of leukemia. Using a novel bioconjugation approach to specifically target CD117 or CD96, surface features enhanced on leukemia stem cells, in vitro ICG-CPSNP PDT of a murine leukemia cell line and human leukemia samples were dramatically improved. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of PDT was dramatically enhanced in a murine leukemia model by utilizing CD117-targeted ICG-CPSNPs, resulting in 29% disease-free survival. Altogether, this study demonstrates that leukemia-targeted ICG-loaded CPSNPs offer the promise to effectively treat relapsing and multidrug-resistant leukemia and to improve the life of leukemia patients.

  19. What You Need to Know about Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Leukemia This booklet is about leukemia. Leukemia is cancer of the blood and bone marrow ( ... This book covers: Basics about blood cells and leukemia Types of doctors who treat leukemia Treatments for ...

  20. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood, and lymphoid tissue What is chronic lymphocytic leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts in the ...

  1. Cytotoxic T cells induce proliferation of chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by secreting interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Schürch, Christian; Riether, Carsten; Amrein, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative neoplasia arising from the oncogenic break point cluster region/Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 translocation in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), resulting in a leukemia stem cell (LSC). Curing CML depends on the eradication of LSCs. Unfortunately, LSCs are resistant to current treatment strategies. The host’s immune system is thought to contribute to disease control, and several immunotherapy strategies are under investigation. However, the interaction of the immune system with LSCs is poorly defined. In the present study, we use a murine CML model to show that LSCs express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and co-stimulatory molecules and are recognized and killed by leukemia-specific CD8+ effector CTLs in vitro. In contrast, therapeutic infusions of effector CTLs into CML mice in vivo failed to eradicate LSCs but, paradoxically, increased LSC numbers. LSC proliferation and differentiation was induced by CTL-secreted IFN-γ. Effector CTLs were only able to eliminate LSCs in a situation with minimal leukemia load where CTL-secreted IFN-γ levels were low. In addition, IFN-γ increased proliferation and colony formation of CD34+ stem/progenitor cells from CML patients in vitro. Our study reveals a novel mechanism by which the immune system contributes to leukemia progression and may be important to improve T cell–based immunotherapy against leukemia. PMID:23401488

  2. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  3. EGFR activation suppresses respiratory virus-induced IRF1-dependent CXCL10 production.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, April; Ueki, Iris; Min-Oo, Gundula; Ballon-Landa, Eric; Knoff, David; Galen, Benjamin; Lanier, Lewis L; Nadel, Jay A; Koff, Jonathan L

    2014-07-15

    Airway epithelial cells are the primary cell type involved in respiratory viral infection. Upon infection, airway epithelium plays a critical role in host defense against viral infection by contributing to innate and adaptive immune responses. Influenza A virus, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) represent a broad range of human viral pathogens that cause viral pneumonia and induce exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These respiratory viruses induce airway epithelial production of IL-8, which involves epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. EGFR activation involves an integrated signaling pathway that includes NADPH oxidase activation of metalloproteinase, and EGFR proligand release that activates EGFR. Because respiratory viruses have been shown to activate EGFR via this signaling pathway in airway epithelium, we investigated the effect of virus-induced EGFR activation on airway epithelial antiviral responses. CXCL10, a chemokine produced by airway epithelial cells in response to respiratory viral infection, contributes to the recruitment of lymphocytes to target and kill virus-infected cells. While respiratory viruses activate EGFR, the interaction between CXCL10 and EGFR signaling pathways is unclear, and the potential for EGFR signaling to suppress CXCL10 has not been explored. Here, we report that respiratory virus-induced EGFR activation suppresses CXCL10 production. We found that influenza virus-, rhinovirus-, and RSV-induced EGFR activation suppressed IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 1-dependent CXCL10 production. In addition, inhibition of EGFR during viral infection augmented IRF1 and CXCL10. These findings describe a novel mechanism that viruses use to suppress endogenous antiviral defenses, and provide potential targets for future therapies.

  4. Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  5. MR VIGS: microRNA-based virus-induced gene silencing in plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Zhang, Qi; Kong, Junhua; Hu, Feng; Li, Bin; Wu, Chaoqun; Qin, Cheng; Zhang, Pengcheng; Shi, Nongnong; Hong, Yiguo

    2015-01-01

    In plants, microRNA (miRNA)-based virus-induced gene silencing, dubbed MR VIGS, is a powerful technique to delineate the biological functions of genes. By targeting to a specific sequence, miRNAs can knock down expression of genes with fewer off-target effects. Here, using a modified Cabbage leaf curling virus (CaLCuV) and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) as vectors, we describe two virus-based miRNA expression systems to perform MR VIGS for plant functional genomics assays. PMID:25740363

  6. RIG-I Signaling Is Essential for Influenza B Virus-Induced Rapid Interferon Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Österlund, Pamela; Westenius, Veera; Latvala, Sinikka; Diamond, Michael S.; Gale, Michael; Julkunen, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza B virus causes annual epidemics and, along with influenza A virus, accounts for substantial disease and economic burden throughout the world. Influenza B virus infects only humans and some marine mammals and is not responsible for pandemics, possibly due to a very low frequency of reassortment and a lower evolutionary rate than that of influenza A virus. Influenza B virus has been less studied than influenza A virus, and thus, a comparison of influenza A and B virus infection mechanisms may provide new insight into virus-host interactions. Here we analyzed the early events in influenza B virus infection and interferon (IFN) gene expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. We show that influenza B virus induces IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation and IFN-λ1 gene expression with faster kinetics than does influenza A virus, without a requirement for viral protein synthesis or replication. Influenza B virus-induced activation of IRF3 required the fusion of viral and endosomal membranes, and nuclear accumulation of IRF3 and viral NP occurred concurrently. In comparison, immediate early IRF3 activation was not observed in influenza A virus-infected macrophages. Experiments with RIG-I-, MDA5-, and RIG-I/MDA5-deficient mouse fibroblasts showed that RIG-I is the critical pattern recognition receptor needed for the influenza B virus-induced activation of IRF3. Our results show that innate immune mechanisms are activated immediately after influenza B virus entry through the endocytic pathway, whereas influenza A virus avoids early IRF3 activation and IFN gene induction. IMPORTANCE Recently, a great deal of interest has been paid to identifying the ligands for RIG-I under conditions of natural infection, as many previous studies have been based on transfection of cells with different types of viral or synthetic RNA structures. We shed light on this question by analyzing the earliest step in innate immune recognition of

  7. Nilotinib and Imatinib Mesylate After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-09

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  8. The Family Leukemia Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Eleanor

    1976-01-01

    An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

  9. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future. PMID:26979473

  10. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future.

  11. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-18

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  12. Targeted Therapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-28

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Myelodysplasia-Related Changes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  13. Effects of iron depletion on CALM-AF10 leukemias.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jessica L; Weiss, Joshua M; Lavau, Catherine P; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2014-12-01

    Iron, an essential nutrient for cellular growth and proliferation, enters cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid (CALM) protein plays an essential role in the cellular import of iron by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. CALM-AF10 leukemias harbor a single copy of the normal CALM gene and therefore may be more sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effect of iron restriction compared with normal hematopoietic cells. We found that CALM heterozygous (CALM(HET)) murine fibroblasts exhibit signs of iron deficiency, with increased surface transferrin receptor levels and reduced growth rates. CALM(HET) hematopoietic cells are more sensitive in vitro to iron chelators than their wild type counterparts. Iron chelation also displayed toxicity toward cultured CALM(HET)CALM-AF10 leukemia cells, and this effect was additive to that of chemotherapy. In mice transplanted with CALM(HET)CALM-AF10 leukemia, we found that dietary iron restriction reduced tumor burden in the spleen. However, dietary iron restriction, used alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy, did not increase survival of mice with CALM(HET)CALM-AF10 leukemia. In summary, although CALM heterozygosity results in iron deficiency and increased sensitivity to iron chelation in vitro, our data in mice do not suggest that iron depletion strategies would be beneficial for the therapy of CALM-AF10 leukemia patients.

  14. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) Backgrounder

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have not found evidence that XMRV causes any diseases in humans or in animals. The presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus, in diseased tissue does not mean that the agent causes the disease.

  15. Role of CXCR4-mediated bone marrow colonization in CNS infiltration by T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jost, Tanja Rezzonico; Borga, Chiara; Radaelli, Enrico; Romagnani, Andrea; Perruzza, Lisa; Omodho, Lorna; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Biondi, Andrea; Indraccolo, Stefano; Thelen, Marcus; Te Kronnie, Geertruy; Grassi, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Infiltration of the central nervous system is a severe trait of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 significantly ameliorates T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in murine models of the disease; however, signaling by CXC chemokine receptor 4 is important in limiting the divagation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells out of the perivascular space into the central nervous system parenchyma. Therefore, Inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 potentially may untangle T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from retention outside the brain. Here, we show that leukemic lymphoblasts massively infiltrate cranial bone marrow, with diffusion to the meninges without invasion of the brain parenchyma, in mice that underwent xenotransplantation with human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells or that developed leukemia from transformed hematopoietic progenitors. We tested the hypothesis that T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia neuropathology results from meningeal infiltration through CXC chemokine receptor 4-mediated bone marrow colonization. Inhibition of leukemia engraftment in the bone marrow by pharmacologic CXC chemokine receptor 4 antagonism significantly ameliorated neuropathologic aspects of the disease. Genetic deletion of CXCR4 in murine hematopoietic progenitors abrogated leukemogenesis induced by constitutively active Notch1, whereas lack of CCR6 and CCR7, which have been shown to be involved in T cell and leukemia extravasation into the central nervous system, respectively, did not influence T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia development. We hypothesize that lymphoblastic meningeal infiltration as a result of bone marrow colonization is responsible for the degenerative alterations of the neuroparenchyma as well as the alteration of cerebrospinal fluid drainage in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenografts. Therefore, CXC chemokine receptor 4 may constitute a pharmacologic target for T cell acute lymphoblastic

  16. Insights into leukemia initiating cell frequency and self-renewal from a novel canine model of leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Imren, Suzan; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Humphries, R. Keith; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective Leukemia initiating cells (LICs) have been the subject of considerable investigation because of their ability to self-renew and maintain leukemia. Thus, selective targeting and killing of LIC would provide highly efficient and novel therapeutic strategies. Here we explored whether we could use a canine leukemia cell line (G374) derived from a dog that received HOXB4 transduced repopulating cells to study leukemia in the murine xenograft model and the dog. Materials and Methods G374 cells were infused in dogs intravenously (IV) and in NOD/SCID and NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull mice either IV or directly into the bone cavity (IF). Animals were bled to track engraftment and proliferation of G374 cells, and were sacrificed when they appeared ill. Results We found that canine LICs are capable of sustained in vitro self-renewal while maintaining their ability to induce AML that resembles human disease in both dogs and mice. Furthermore, we developed a novel strategy for the quantification of LIC frequency in large animals and showed that this frequency was highly comparable to that determined by limited dilution in mouse xenotransplants. We also demonstrated, using single cell analysis, that LICs are heterogenous in their self-renewal capacity and regenerate a leukemic cell population consistent with a hierarchical leukemia model. Conclusions The availability of this novel framework should accelerate the characterization of LICs and the translation of animal studies into clinical trials. PMID:20933571

  17. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... key statistics about acute lymphocytic leukemia? What is acute lymphocytic leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... leukemias). The rest of this document focuses on acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in adults. For information on ALL in ...

  19. Friend spleen focus-forming virus induces factor independence in an erythropoietin-dependent erythroleukemia cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Ruscetti, S K; Janesch, N J; Chakraborti, A; Sawyer, S T; Hankins, W D

    1990-01-01

    Erythroid cells from mice infected with the polycythemia-inducing strain of Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFVP), unlike normal erythroid cells, can proliferate and differentiate in apparent absence of the erythroid hormone erythropoietin (Epo). The unique envelope glycoprotein encoded by SFFV has been shown to be responsible for this biological effect. The recent isolation of an Epo-dependent erythroleukemia cell line, HCD-57, derived from a mouse infected at birth with Friend murine leukemia virus, afforded us the opportunity to study the direct effect of SFFVP on a homogeneous population of factor-dependent cells. The introduction of SFFVP in complex with various helper viruses into these Epo-dependent cells efficiently and reproducibly gave rise to lines which expressed high levels of SFFV and were factor independent. SFFV appears to be unique in its ability to abrogate the factor dependence of Epo-dependent HCD-57 cells, since infection of these cells with retroviruses carrying a variety of different oncogenes had no effect. The induction of Epo independence by SFFV does not appear to involve a classical autocrine mechanism, since there is no evidence that the factor-independent cells synthesize or secrete Epo or depend on it for their growth. However, the SFFV-infected, factor-independent cells had significantly fewer receptors available for binding Epo than their factor-dependent counterparts had, raising the possibility that the induction of factor independence by the virus may be due to the interaction of an SFFV-encoded protein with the Epo receptor. Images PMID:2154592

  20. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... some patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). One theory that scientists propose about why this switch occurs ... a result called “graft-versus-tumor effect”). The theory being tested with a reduced-intensity transplant is ...

  2. Acute myeloid leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... a low number of platelets. A white blood cell count ( WBC ) can be high, low, or normal. Bone ... and overall health How high your white blood cell count was Certain genetic changes in the leukemia cells ...

  3. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    MedlinePlus

    ... be found for ALL. The following factors may play a role in the development of all types of leukemia: Certain chromosome problems Exposure to radiation, including x-rays before birth Past treatment with chemotherapy drugs ...

  4. Transcriptome analyses and virus induced gene silencing identify genes in the Rpp4-mediated Asian soybean rust resistance pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rpp4 (Resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi 4) confers resistance to P. pachyrhizi, the causal agent of Asian soybean rust (ASR). By combining expression profiling and virus induced gene silencing (VIGS), we are developing a genetic framework for Rpp4-mediated resistance. We measured gene expression i...

  5. Virus-induced gene silencing of RPC5-like subunit of RNA polymerase III caused pleiotropic effects in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase III is highly conserved, contains 17 subunits and transcribes housekeeping genes such as ribosomal 50S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. Functional roles of the RPC5 are poorly characterized in the literature. In this work, we report that virus-induced gene silenci...

  6. Virus-induced gene silencing in diverse maize lines using the Brome Mosaic virus-based silencing vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a widely used tool for gene function studies in many plant species, though its use in monocots has been limited. Using a Brome mosaic virus (BMV) vector designed to silence the maize phytoene desaturase gene, a genetically diverse set of maize inbred lines was ...

  7. Virus-induced gene silencing and transient gene expression in soybean using Bean pod mottle virus infectious clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful and rapid approach for determining the functions of plant genes. The basis of VIGS is that a viral genome is engineered so that it can carry fragments of plant genes, typically in the 200-300 base pair size range. The recombinant viruses are used to ...

  8. Strategies for altering plant traits using virus-induced gene silencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lacomme, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The rapid progress in genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis in model and crop plants has made possible the identification of a vast number of genes potentially associated with economically important complex traits. The ultimate goal is to assign functions to these genes by using forward and reverse genetic screens. Plant viruses have been developed for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to generate rapid gene knockdown phenotypes in numerous plant species. To fulfill its potential for high-throughput phenomics, it is of prime importance to ensure that parameters conditioning the VIGS response, i.e., plant-virus interactions and associated loss-of-function screens, are "fit for purpose" and optimized to unequivocally conclude the role of a gene of interest in relation to a given trait. This chapter will review and discuss the different strategies used for the development of VIGS-based phenomics in model and crop species. PMID:25740354

  9. Influenza A virus-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte dysfunction in the pathogenesis of experimental pneumococcal otitis media.

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, J S; Giebink, G S; Quie, P G

    1982-01-01

    The role of influenza A virus-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte and eustachian tube dysfunction in the pathogenesis of acute purulent otitis media was studied in chinchillas. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, middle ear pressure, and the incidence of pneumococcal otitis media were observed after intranasal inoculation with influenza A virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or both. Results showed that depressed negative middle ear pressure and polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity occurred after influenza inoculation, but not after inoculation with pneumococcus alone. The greatest incidence of pneumococcal otitis media occurred when the pneumococcus was inoculated just before the time of influenza-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte dysfunction and negative middle ear pressure. Animals that had unilateral tympanostomy tubes placed before inoculation of influenza with pneumococcus showed no difference in the occurrence of pneumococcal otitis media in ventilated and nonventilated ears, suggesting that polymorphonuclear leukocyte dysfunction contributes more to the pathogenesis of pneumococcal otitis media than does negative middle ear pressure in this animal model. PMID:7076299

  10. Cross-priming of CD8+ T cells stimulated by virus-induced type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Le Bon, Agnes; Etchart, Nathalie; Rossmann, Cornelia; Ashton, Miranda; Hou, Sam; Gewert, Dirk; Borrow, Persephone; Tough, David F

    2003-10-01

    CD8+ T cell responses can be generated against antigens that are not expressed directly within antigen-presenting cells (APCs), through a process known as cross-priming. To initiate cross-priming, APCs must both capture extracellular antigen and receive specific activation signals. We have investigated the nature of APC activation signals associated with virus infection that stimulate cross-priming. We show that infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus induces cross-priming by a mechanism dependent on type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta). Activation of cross-priming by IFN-alpha/beta was independent of CD4+ T cell help or interaction of CD40 and CD40 ligand, and involved direct stimulation of dendritic cells. These data identify expression of IFN-alpha/beta as a mechanism for the induction of cross-priming during virus infections. PMID:14502286

  11. Strategies for altering plant traits using virus-induced gene silencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lacomme, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The rapid progress in genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis in model and crop plants has made possible the identification of a vast number of genes potentially associated with economically important complex traits. The ultimate goal is to assign functions to these genes by using forward and reverse genetic screens. Plant viruses have been developed for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to generate rapid gene knockdown phenotypes in numerous plant species. To fulfill its potential for high-throughput phenomics, it is of prime importance to ensure that parameters conditioning the VIGS response, i.e., plant-virus interactions and associated loss-of-function screens, are "fit for purpose" and optimized to unequivocally conclude the role of a gene of interest in relation to a given trait. This chapter will review and discuss the different strategies used for the development of VIGS-based phenomics in model and crop species.

  12. Persistent virus-induced gene silencing in asymptomatic accessions of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Flores, Miguel A; Reyes, Maria I; Robertson, Dominique Niki; Kjemtrup, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Coupled with the advantages afforded by the model plant Arabidopsis, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) offers a rapid means to assess gene function. The geminivirus vector based on Cabbage leaf curl virus described here has the benefits of small insert size and persistent silencing of the target gene through the life cycle of the plant. Here, we show that genetic variation in the vast collection of Arabidopsis accessions can be leveraged to ameliorate viral symptomology that accompanies the VIGS procedure. The plasticity of phenotypes under different day lengths or temperature conditions can be exploited to achieve maximum silencing efficacy in either vegetative or inflorescence tissue, according to the question being asked. Protocols and vectors for Agro-infiltration of primary leaves, subapical pricking in older plants, and microprojectile bombardment are described. PMID:25757779

  13. Characterization of the cytotoxin produced by macrophages in response to dengue virus-induced cytotoxic factor.

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, L.; Chaturvedi, U. C.; Mathur, A.

    1983-01-01

    We have observed earlier that dengue type 2 virus-induced cytotoxic factor (CF) induces macrophages to produce a cytotoxin (CF2) which kills mainly the macrophages, some of the T lymphocytes and has no effect on B-lymphocytes of normal mouse spleen. The findings of the present study show that CF2 is heat-labile, trypsin-sensitive and unstable at acid and alkaline pH. It is a low molecular weight product as it is dialysable, non-sedimentable on ultracentrifugation at 103,500 g for 3 h and passes through 0.22 micron Millipore filter. It is adsorbed onto the target normal mouse spleen cells. The properties of CF and CF2 have been compared. PMID:6849814

  14. Mechanisms of pathogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus as a model for human T-cell leukemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Aida, Yoko; Murakami, Hironobu; Takahashi, Masahiko; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke

    2013-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) make up a unique retrovirus family. Both viruses induce chronic lymphoproliferative diseases with BLV affecting the B-cell lineage and HTLV-1 affecting the T-cell lineage. The pathologies of BLV- and HTLV-induced infections are notably similar, with an absence of chronic viraemia and a long latency period. These viruses encode at least two regulatory proteins, namely, Tax and Rex, in the pX region located between the env gene and the 3′ long terminal repeat. The Tax protein is a key contributor to the oncogenic potential of the virus, and is also the key protein involved in viral replication. However, BLV infection is not sufficient for leukemogenesis, and additional events such as gene mutations must take place. In this review, we first summarize the similarities between the two viruses in terms of genomic organization, virology, and pathology. We then describe the current knowledge of the BLV model, which may also be relevant for the understanding of leukemogenesis caused by HTLV-1. In addition, we address our improved understanding of Tax functions through the newly identified BLV Tax mutants, which have a substitution between amino acids 240 and 265. PMID:24265629

  15. Novel Strategy To Protect against Influenza Virus-Induced Pneumococcal Disease without Interfering with Commensal Colonization.

    PubMed

    Greene, Christopher J; Marks, Laura R; Hu, John C; Reddinger, Ryan; Mandell, Lorrie; Roche-Hakansson, Hazeline; King-Lyons, Natalie D; Connell, Terry D; Hakansson, Anders P

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly inhabits the nasopharynx as a member of the commensal biofilm. Infection with respiratory viruses, such as influenza A virus, induces commensal S. pneumoniae to disseminate beyond the nasopharynx and to elicit severe infections of the middle ears, lungs, and blood that are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current preventive strategies, including the polysaccharide conjugate vaccines, aim to eliminate asymptomatic carriage with vaccine-type pneumococci. However, this has resulted in serotype replacement with, so far, less fit pneumococcal strains, which has changed the nasopharyngeal flora, opening the niche for entry of other virulent pathogens (e.g., Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and potentially Haemophilus influenzae). The long-term effects of these changes are unknown. Here, we present an attractive, alternative preventive approach where we subvert virus-induced pneumococcal disease without interfering with commensal colonization, thus specifically targeting disease-causing organisms. In that regard, pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), a major surface protein of pneumococci, is a promising vaccine target. Intradermal (i.d.) immunization of mice with recombinant PspA in combination with LT-IIb(T13I), a novel i.d. adjuvant of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin family, elicited strong systemic PspA-specific IgG responses without inducing mucosal anti-PspA IgA responses. This response protected mice from otitis media, pneumonia, and septicemia and averted the cytokine storm associated with septic infection but had no effect on asymptomatic colonization. Our results firmly demonstrated that this immunization strategy against virally induced pneumococcal disease can be conferred without disturbing the desirable preexisting commensal colonization of the nasopharynx. PMID:27001538

  16. Antibody response is required for protection from Theiler's virus-induced encephalitis in C57BL/6 mice in the absence of CD8{sup +} T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, B.-S.; Palma, Joann P.; Lyman, Michael A.; Dal Canto, Mauro; Kim, Byung S. . E-mail: bskim@northwestern.edu

    2005-09-15

    Intracerebral infection of susceptible mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces immune-mediated demyelinating disease and this system serves as a relevant infectious model for human multiple sclerosis. It was previously shown that {beta}{sub 2}M-deficient C57BL/6 mice lacking functional CD8{sup +} T cells display increased viral persistence and enhanced susceptibility to TMEV-induced demyelination, and yet the majority of mice are free of clinical signs. To understand the mechanisms involved in this general resistance of C57BL/6 mice in the absence of CTL responses, mice ({mu}MT) deficient in the B-cell compartment lacking membrane IgM molecules were treated with anti-CD8 antibody and then infected with TMEV. Although little difference in the proliferative responses of peripheral T cells to UV-inactivated TMEV and the resistance to demyelinating disease was observed between virus-infected {mu}MT and control B6 mice, the levels of CD4{sup +} T cells were higher in the CNS of {mu}MT mice. However, after treatment with anti-CD8 antibody, 100% of the mice displayed clinical gray matter disease and prolonged viral persistence in {mu}MT mice, while only 10% of B6 mice showed clinical symptoms and very low viral persistence. Transfusion of sera from TMEV-infected B6 mice into anti-CD8 antibody-treated {mu}MT mice partially restored resistance to virus-induced encephalitis. These results indicate that the early anti-viral antibody response is also important in the protection from TMEV-induced encephalitis particularly in the absence of CD8{sup +} T cells.

  17. Thrombosis and acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Solís, Erick

    2012-04-01

    Thrombosis is a common complication in patients with acute leukemia. While the presence of central venous lines, concomitant steroids, the use of Escherichia coli asparaginase and hereditary thrombophilic abnormalities are known risk factors for thrombosis in children, information on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and clinical outcome of thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still scarce. Expert consensus and guidelines regarding leukemia-specific risk factors, thrombosis prevention, and treatment strategies, as well as optimal type of central venous catheter in acute leukemia patients are required. It is likely that each subtype of acute leukemia represents a different setting for the development of thrombosis and the risk of bleeding. This is perhaps due to a combination of different disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis, including the type of chemotherapy protocol chosen, the underlying patients health, associated risk factors, as well as the biology of the disease itself. The risk of thrombosis may also vary according to ethnicity and prevalence of hereditary risk factors for thrombosis; thus, it is advisable for Latin American, Asian, and African countries to report on their specific patient population. PMID:22507812

  18. Tipifarnib and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Blast Phase

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-14

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Blastic Phase; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Disease; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  19. BMS-214662 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-22

    Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  20. Flavopiridol and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia or Refractory Anemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-04-01

    Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  1. Dissecting the role of aberrant DNA methylation in human leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Amabile, Giovanni; Di Ruscio, Annalisa; Müller, Fabian; Welner, Robert S; Yang, Henry; Ebralidze, Alexander K; Zhang, Hong; Levantini, Elena; Qi, Lihua; Martinelli, Giovanni; Brummelkamp, Thijn; Le Beau, Michelle M; Figueroa, Maria E; Bock, Christoph; Tenen, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the genetic translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) encoding for the BCR-ABL fusion oncogene. However, many molecular mechanisms of the disease progression still remain poorly understood. A growing body of evidence suggests that epigenetic abnormalities are involved in tyrosine kinase resistance in CML, leading to leukemic clone escape and disease propagation. Here we show that, by applying cellular reprogramming to primary CML cells, aberrant DNA methylation contributes to the disease evolution. Importantly, using a BCR-ABL inducible murine model, we demonstrate that a single oncogenic lesion triggers DNA methylation changes which in turn act as a precipitating event in leukemia progression. PMID:25997600

  2. Obatoclax, Fludarabine, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  3. MicroRNAs in virus-induced tumorigenesis and IFN system.

    PubMed

    Fiorucci, Gianna; Chiantore, Maria Vincenza; Mangino, Giorgio; Romeo, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Numerous microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs encoded in the human genome, have been shown to be involved in cancer pathogenesis and progression. There is evidence that some of these miRNAs possess proapoptotic or proliferation promoting roles in the cell by negatively regulating target mRNAs. Oncogenic viruses are able to produce persistent infection, favoring tumor development by deregulating cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. It has been recently suggested that cellular miRNAs may participate in host-virus interactions, influencing viral replication. Many mammalian viruses counteract this cellular antiviral defense by using viral proteins but also by encoding viral miRNAs involved in virus-induced tumorigenesis. Interferons (IFNs) modulate a number of non-coding RNA genes, especially miRNAs, that may be used by mammalian organisms as a mechanism of IFN system to combat viral infection and related diseases. In particular, IFNs might induce specific cellular miRNAs that target viral transcripts thereby using this strategy as part of their effectiveness against invading viruses. Therefore IFNs, interferon stimulated genes and miRNAs could act synergistically as innate response to virus infection to induce a potent non-permissive cellular environment for virus replication and virus-induced cancer. The relevance of this reviewed research topic is clearly related to the observation that although virus infections are responsible of specific tumors, other unidentified genetic alterations are likely involved in the induction of malignant transformation. The identification of such genetic alterations, i.e. miRNA expression in transformed cells, would be of considerable importance for the analysis of the pathogenesis and for the treatment of cancer induced by specific viruses as well as for the advancement of the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying virus-host interaction. In this respect, we will review also the important, still little

  4. Tanespimycin and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  5. Normal ABL1 is a tumor suppressor and therapeutic target in human and mouse leukemias expressing oncogenic ABL1 kinases.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Yashodhara; Koptyra, Mateusz; Hoser, Grazyna; Kantekure, Kanchan; Roy, Darshan; Gornicka, Barbara; Nieborowska-Skorska, Margaret; Bolton-Gillespie, Elisabeth; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Müschen, Markus; Valent, Peter; Wasik, Mariusz A; Richardson, Christine; Hantschel, Oliver; van der Kuip, Heiko; Stoklosa, Tomasz; Skorski, Tomasz

    2016-04-28

    Leukemias expressing constitutively activated mutants of ABL1 tyrosine kinase (BCR-ABL1, TEL-ABL1, NUP214-ABL1) usually contain at least 1 normal ABL1 allele. Because oncogenic and normal ABL1 kinases may exert opposite effects on cell behavior, we examined the role of normal ABL1 in leukemias induced by oncogenic ABL1 kinases. BCR-ABL1-Abl1(-/-) cells generated highly aggressive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)-blast phase-like disease in mice compared with less malignant CML-chronic phase-like disease from BCR-ABL1-Abl1(+/+) cells. Additionally, loss of ABL1 stimulated proliferation and expansion of BCR-ABL1 murine leukemia stem cells, arrested myeloid differentiation, inhibited genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis, and facilitated accumulation of chromosomal aberrations. Conversely, allosteric stimulation of ABL1 kinase activity enhanced the antileukemia effect of ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib and ponatinib) in human and murine leukemias expressing BCR-ABL1, TEL-ABL1, and NUP214-ABL1. Therefore, we postulate that normal ABL1 kinase behaves like a tumor suppressor and therapeutic target in leukemias expressing oncogenic forms of the kinase. PMID:26864341

  6. Patterns of proviral insertion and deletion in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, H L; Gagnon, G C

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-eight lymphomas induced by eight different avian leukosis viruses have been analyzed on Southern blots for virus-induced mutations in the chicken c-myc gene. Sixty-six of the lymphomas exhibited a proviral insertion in c-myc, whereas one exhibited a new transduction of c-myc. Sixty-four of the proviral insertions were in the same transcriptional orientation as c-myc. Two were in the opposite transcriptional orientation. All of the insertions were upstream of the protein-coding sequences of c-myc, with most residing in the first exon or the first intron of c-myc. All of the lymphoma-inducing proviruses had deletions that included either sequences near the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) or an LTR. The most frequent lymphoma-inducing provirus appeared to have retained both of its LTRs, but had lost sequences near its 5' LTR. The second and third most frequent lymphoma-inducing proviruses consisted of solo LTRs or of proviruses that had lost the 5' LTR as well as some internal sequences. Twenty-four insertions were mapped in c-myc. Each of these mapped to within 150 base pairs of one of the five DNase I-hypersensitive sites that occur in a 3-kilobase region immediately 5' to the protein-coding sequences of c-myc. One lymphoma contained a new c-myc transducing virus. This virus, MYC-3475, caused rapid-onset myelocytomatosis. Images PMID:3001351

  7. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Yu; Kernodle, Bliss M.; Hill, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. PMID:27208311

  8. Protective effects of quercetin during influenza virus-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Raju, T A; Lakshmi, A N; Anand, T; Rao, L V; Sharma, G

    2000-12-01

    Oxidative stress was found to have a role in many viral diseases including AIDS, hepatitis and influenza. In the present study the pathology of influenza viral infection in the lungs, which may lead to oxidative stress, was investigated and an attempt was made to study the efficacy of anti-oxidants as therapeutic agents. Adult male mice of Swiss albino type were infected with influenza virus (A/Hong Kong/8/68) and studied for the antioxidant status in the lungs by evaluating the lung enzymatic anti-oxidant system including superoxide dismutase and catalase. Superoxide radical generation, which might increase by the activated alveolar macrophages, was estimated by nitroblue-tetrazolium reduction assay. We have also estimated lipid peroxidation levels in lung through thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances assay. We also examined the ability of flavonoid quercetin in protecting from influenza virus-induced oxidative stress. The influenza-infected group showed decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase; however, anti-oxidant supplemented groups showed these activities to be the same as in the control group. The lipid peroxide levels were increased in virus-infected mice. Administration of quercetin lowered the lipid peroxide levels significantly. Formazan positive cells were increased by 80% in the virus-infected group and supplementation with quercetin reduced their number to 44%.

  9. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yu; Zhang, Chunquan; Kernodle, Bliss M; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2016-06-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. PMID:27208311

  10. Development of Virus-Induced Gene Expression and Silencing Vector Derived from Grapevine Algerian Latent Virus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Ho; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Semin; Cho, Won Kyong; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus in the Tombusviridae and infects not only woody perennial grapevine plant but also herbaceous Nicotiana benthamiana plant. In this study, we developed GALV-based gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors in N. benthamiana. The GALV coat protein deletion vector, pGMG, was applied to express the reporter gene, green fluorescence protein (GFP), but the expression of GFP was not detected due to the necrotic cell death on the infiltrated leaves. The p19 silencing suppressor of GALV was engineered to inactivate its expression and GFP was successfully expressed with unrelated silencing suppressor, HC-Pro, from soybean mosaic virus. The pGMG vector was used to knock down magnesium chelatase (ChlH) gene in N. benthamaina and the silencing phenotype was clearly observed on systemic leaves. Altogether, the GALV-derived vector is expected to be an attractive tool for useful gene expression and VIGS vectors in grapevine as well as N. benthamiana. PMID:27493613

  11. Common Viral Integration Sites Identified in Avian Leukosis Virus-Induced B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Justice, James F.; Morgan, Robin W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian leukosis virus (ALV) induces B-cell lymphoma and other neoplasms in chickens by integrating within or near cancer genes and perturbing their expression. Four genes—MYC, MYB, Mir-155, and TERT—have previously been identified as common integration sites in these virus-induced lymphomas and are thought to play a causal role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we employ high-throughput sequencing to identify additional genes driving tumorigenesis in ALV-induced B-cell lymphomas. In addition to the four genes implicated previously, we identify other genes as common integration sites, including TNFRSF1A, MEF2C, CTDSPL, TAB2, RUNX1, MLL5, CXorf57, and BACH2. We also analyze the genome-wide ALV integration landscape in vivo and find increased frequency of ALV integration near transcriptional start sites and within transcripts. Previous work has shown ALV prefers a weak consensus sequence for integration in cultured human cells. We confirm this consensus sequence for ALV integration in vivo in the chicken genome. PMID:26670384

  12. Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust immunity by virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars.

  13. A CRISPR-Based Screen Identifies Genes Essential for West-Nile-Virus-Induced Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongming; Dang, Ying; Wu, Yonggan; Jia, Gengxiang; Anaya, Edgar; Zhang, Junli; Abraham, Sojan; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shi, Guojun; Qi, Ling; Manjunath, N; Wu, Haoquan

    2015-07-28

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes an acute neurological infection attended by massive neuronal cell death. However, the mechanism(s) behind the virus-induced cell death is poorly understood. Using a library containing 77,406 sgRNAs targeting 20,121 genes, we performed a genome-wide screen followed by a second screen with a sub-library. Among the genes identified, seven genes, EMC2, EMC3, SEL1L, DERL2, UBE2G2, UBE2J1, and HRD1, stood out as having the strongest phenotype, whose knockout conferred strong protection against WNV-induced cell death with two different WNV strains and in three cell lines. Interestingly, knockout of these genes did not block WNV replication. Thus, these appear to be essential genes that link WNV replication to downstream cell death pathway(s). In addition, the fact that all of these genes belong to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggests that this might be the primary driver of WNV-induced cell death.

  14. Development of Virus-Induced Gene Expression and Silencing Vector Derived from Grapevine Algerian Latent Virus.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ho; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Semin; Cho, Won Kyong; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-08-01

    Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus in the Tombusviridae and infects not only woody perennial grapevine plant but also herbaceous Nicotiana benthamiana plant. In this study, we developed GALV-based gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors in N. benthamiana. The GALV coat protein deletion vector, pGMG, was applied to express the reporter gene, green fluorescence protein (GFP), but the expression of GFP was not detected due to the necrotic cell death on the infiltrated leaves. The p19 silencing suppressor of GALV was engineered to inactivate its expression and GFP was successfully expressed with unrelated silencing suppressor, HC-Pro, from soybean mosaic virus. The pGMG vector was used to knock down magnesium chelatase (ChlH) gene in N. benthamaina and the silencing phenotype was clearly observed on systemic leaves. Altogether, the GALV-derived vector is expected to be an attractive tool for useful gene expression and VIGS vectors in grapevine as well as N. benthamiana. PMID:27493613

  15. Applications and advantages of virus-induced gene silencing for gene function studies in plants.

    PubMed

    Burch-Smith, Tessa M; Anderson, Jeffrey C; Martin, Gregory B; Dinesh-Kumar, S P

    2004-09-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a recently developed gene transcript suppression technique for characterizing the function of plant genes. The approach involves cloning a short sequence of a targeted plant gene into a viral delivery vector. The vector is used to infect a young plant, and in a few weeks natural defense mechanisms of the plant directed at suppressing virus replication also result in specific degradation of mRNAs from the endogenous plant gene that is targeted for silencing. VIGS is rapid (3-4 weeks from infection to silencing), does not require development of stable transformants, allows characterization of phenotypes that might be lethal in stable lines, and offers the potential to silence either individual or multiple members of a gene family. Here we briefly review the discoveries that led to the development of VIGS and what is known about the experimental requirements for effective silencing. We describe the methodology of VIGS and how it can be optimized and used for both forward and reverse genetics studies. Advantages and disadvantages of VIGS compared with other loss-of-function approaches available for plants are discussed, along with how the limitations of VIGS might be overcome. Examples are reviewed where VIGS has been used to provide important new insights into the roles of specific genes in plant development and plant defense responses. Finally, we examine the future prospects for VIGS as a powerful tool for assessing and characterizing the function of plant genes. PMID:15315635

  16. Delineation of autoantibody repertoire through differential proteogenomics in hepatitis C virus-induced cryoglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Ogishi, Masato; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi; Moriya, Kyoji; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies cross-reactive to pathogens and autoantigens are considered pivotal in both infection control and accompanying autoimmunity. However, the pathogenic roles of autoantibodies largely remain elusive without a priori knowledge of disease-specific autoantigens. Here, through a novel quantitative proteogenomics approach, we demonstrated a successful identification of immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (VH) sequences highly enriched in pathological immune complex from clinical specimens obtained from a patient with hepatitis C virus-induced cryoglobulinemia (HCV-CG). Reconstructed single-domain antibodies were reactive to both HCV antigens and potentially liver-derived human proteins. Moreover, over the course of antiviral therapy, a substantial “de-evolution” of a distinct sub-repertoire was discovered, to which proteomically identified cryoprecipitation-prone autoantibodies belonged. This sub-repertoire was characterized by IGHJ6*03-derived, long, hydrophobic complementarity determining region (CDR-H3). This study provides a proof-of-concept of de novo mining of autoantibodies and corresponding autoantigen candidates in a disease-specific context in human, thus facilitating future reverse-translational research for the discovery of novel biomarkers and the development of antigen-specific immunotherapy against various autoantibody-related disorders. PMID:27403724

  17. Foxtail Mosaic Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Monocot Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Xie, Ke; Jia, Qi; Zhao, Jinping; Chen, Tianyuan; Li, Huangai; Wei, Xiang; Diao, Xianmin; Hong, Yiguo

    2016-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful technique to study gene function in plants. However, very few VIGS vectors are available for monocot plants. Here we report that Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) can be engineered as an effective VIGS system to induce efficient silencing of endogenous genes in monocot plants including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica). This is evidenced by FoMV-based silencing of phytoene desaturase (PDS) and magnesium chelatase in barley, of PDS and Cloroplastos alterados1 in foxtail millet and wheat, and of an additional gene IspH in foxtail millet. Silencing of these genes resulted in photobleached or chlorosis phenotypes in barley, wheat, and foxtail millet. Furthermore, our FoMV-based gene silencing is the first VIGS system reported for foxtail millet, an important C4 model plant. It may provide an efficient toolbox for high-throughput functional genomics in economically important monocot crops. PMID:27225900

  18. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Cultivated Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Using Tobacco Rattle Virus.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Roma; Shafiq, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid; Briddon, Rob W; Scheffler, Brian E; Scheffler, Jodi; Amin, Imran

    2016-01-01

    The study described here has optimized the conditions for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in three cultivated cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum, G. arboreum, and G. herbaceum) using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vector. The system was used to silence the homolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplastos alterados 1 (AtCLA1) gene, involved in chloroplast development, in G. herbaceum, G. arboreum, and six commercial G. hirsutum cultivars. All plants inoculated with the TRV vector to silence CLA1 developed a typical albino phenotype indicative of silencing this gene. Although silencing in G. herbaceum and G. arboreum was complete, silencing efficiency differed for each G. hirsutum cultivar. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR showed a reduction in mRNA levels of the CLA1 homolog in all three species, with the highest efficiency (lowest CLA1 mRNA levels) in G. arboreum followed by G. herbaceum and G. hirsutum. The results indicate that TRV is a useful vector for VIGS in Gossypium species. However, selection of host cultivar is important. With the genome sequences of several cotton species recently becoming publicly available, this system has the potential to provide a very powerful tool for the rapid, large-scale reverse-genetic analysis of genes in Gossypium spp.

  19. The Florey lecture, 1986. Vaccine prevention of virus-induced human cancers.

    PubMed

    Epstein, M A

    1987-03-23

    Carcinogenic viruses have been discovered in numerous animal species over the last 80 years but their role in human cancer has only recently become an important issue. With EB virus involved with endemic Burkitt's lymphoma and undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, hepatitis B virus with primary liver cancer, papilloma viruses with carcinoma of the cervix, and T-cell leukaemia virus with adult T leukaemia, 20-25% of all human cancer appears to have a virus component in its causation. By analogy with certain virus-induced animal cancers, vaccine prevention of infection should greatly reduce subsequent tumour development; vaccines against hepatitis B virus are already on trial for this purpose in populations at risk. Experiments are described in which an EB virus subunit vaccine consisting of the virus-determined membrane antigen glycoprotein molecule of molecular mass 340 kDa (MA gp340) has been prepared by two purification methods. Material from one of these has successfully protected cotton-top tamarins against a 100% lymphomagenic dose of challenge virus and investigations are under way to identify an immunogen, based on MA gp340, suitable for use in man. Genetically engineered bacterial, yeast, and mammalian cells expressing the gp340 gene are already available; this gene has also been inserted into vaccinia and varicella virus vectors. Powerful new adjuvants are also considered, together with future strategies for human vaccine studies. PMID:2884667

  20. Regulation of virus-induced inflammatory response by Dunaliella salina alga extract in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Chen, Yi-Chen; Liu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Deng-Jye; Chen, Shih-Yin; Chang, Tien-Jye; Chang, Yuan-Yen

    2014-09-01

    Previous reports have suggested that many constituents within various algal samples are able to attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory effects. To date no report has been published on the regulation of virus-induced inflammatory response of Dunaliella salina carotenoid extract. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effect of D. salina carotenoid extract on pseudorabies virus (PRV)-infected RAW 264.7 macrophages was investigated. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of D. salina carotenoid extract on PRV-infected RAW 264.7 cells by measuring cell viability, cytotoxicity, production of inflammatory mediators such as NO, iNOS, COX-2, pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-virus replication by plaque assay. We found down-regulation of the expression of the iNOS, COX-2 and pro-inflammatory genes IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Although there was no effect on viral replication, there were tendencies toward lower virus titer and tendencies toward higher cell survival. Most importantly, we found that inhibition of TLR9, PI3K and Akt phosphorylation plays a crucial role in the extract-mediated NF-κB regulation by modulating IKK-IκB signaling in PRV-infected RAW264.7 cells. These results indicate that D. salina carotenoid extracts inhibited inflammation by inhibition of NF-κB activation by TLR9 dependent via PI3K/Akt inactivation.

  1. Hemorrhagic fever virus-induced changes in hemostasis and vascular biology.

    PubMed

    Chen, J P; Cosgriff, T M

    2000-07-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) denotes a virus-induced acute febrile, hemorrhagic disease reported from wide areas of the world. Hemorrhagic fever (HF) viruses are encapsulated, single-stranded RNA viruses that are associated with insect or rodent vectors whose interaction with humans defines the mode of disease transmission. There are 14 HF viruses, which belong to four viral families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae and Flaviviridae. This review presents, in order, the following aspects of VHF: (1) epidemiology, (2) anomalies of platelets and coagulation factors, (3) vasculopathy, (4) animal models of VHFs, (5) pathogenic mechanisms, and (6) treatment and future studies. HF viruses produce the manifestations of VHFs either by direct effects on cellular functions or by activation of immune and inflammatory pathways. In Lassa fever, Rift Valley fever and Crimean-Congo HF, the main feature of fatal illness appears to be impaired/delayed cellular immunity, which leads to unchecked viremia. However, in HF with renal syndrome and dengue HF, the immune response plays an active role in disease pathogenesis. The interplay of hemostasis, immune response, and inflammation is very complex. Molecular biologic techniques and the use of animal models have helped to unravel some of these interactions.

  2. Functional analyses of cellulose synthase genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum) by virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Chantreau, Maxime; Chabbert, Brigitte; Billiard, Sylvain; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey

    2015-12-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) bast fibres are located in the stem cortex where they play an important role in mechanical support. They contain high amounts of cellulose and so are used for linen textiles and in the composite industry. In this study, we screened the annotated flax genome and identified 14 distinct cellulose synthase (CESA) genes using orthologous sequences previously identified. Transcriptomics of 'primary cell wall' and 'secondary cell wall' flax CESA genes showed that some were preferentially expressed in different organs and stem tissues providing clues as to their biological role(s) in planta. The development for the first time in flax of a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to functionally evaluate the biological role of different CESA genes in stem tissues. Quantification of transcript accumulation showed that in many cases, silencing not only affected targeted CESA clades, but also had an impact on other CESA genes. Whatever the targeted clade, inactivation by VIGS affected plant growth. In contrast, only clade 1- and clade 6-targeted plants showed modifications in outer-stem tissue organization and secondary cell wall formation. In these plants, bast fibre number and structure were severely impacted, suggesting that the targeted genes may play an important role in the establishment of the fibre cell wall. Our results provide new fundamental information about cellulose biosynthesis in flax that should facilitate future plant improvement/engineering.

  3. A complement-microglial axis drives synapse loss during virus-induced memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Vasek, Michael J; Garber, Charise; Dorsey, Denise; Durrant, Douglas M; Bollman, Bryan; Soung, Allison; Yu, Jinsheng; Perez-Torres, Carlos; Frouin, Arnaud; Wilton, Daniel K; Funk, Kristen; DeMasters, Bette K; Jiang, Xiaoping; Bowen, James R; Mennerick, Steven; Robinson, John K; Garbow, Joel R; Tyler, Kenneth L; Suthar, Mehul S; Schmidt, Robert E; Stevens, Beth; Klein, Robyn S

    2016-06-23

    Over 50% of patients who survive neuroinvasive infection with West Nile virus (WNV) exhibit chronic cognitive sequelae. Although thousands of cases of WNV-mediated memory dysfunction accrue annually, the mechanisms responsible for these impairments are unknown. The classical complement cascade, a key component of innate immune pathogen defence, mediates synaptic pruning by microglia during early postnatal development. Here we show that viral infection of adult hippocampal neurons induces complement-mediated elimination of presynaptic terminals in a murine WNV neuroinvasive disease model. Inoculation of WNV-NS5-E218A, a WNV with a mutant NS5(E218A) protein leads to survival rates and cognitive dysfunction that mirror human WNV neuroinvasive disease. WNV-NS5-E218A-recovered mice (recovery defined as survival after acute infection) display impaired spatial learning and persistence of phagocytic microglia without loss of hippocampal neurons or volume. Hippocampi from WNV-NS5-E218A-recovered mice with poor spatial learning show increased expression of genes that drive synaptic remodelling by microglia via complement. C1QA was upregulated and localized to microglia, infected neurons and presynaptic terminals during WNV neuroinvasive disease. Murine and human WNV neuroinvasive disease post-mortem samples exhibit loss of hippocampal CA3 presynaptic terminals, and murine studies revealed microglial engulfment of presynaptic terminals during acute infection and after recovery. Mice with fewer microglia (Il34(-/-) mice with a deficiency in IL-34 production) or deficiency in complement C3 or C3a receptor were protected from WNV-induced synaptic terminal loss. Our study provides a new murine model of WNV-induced spatial memory impairment, and identifies a potential mechanism underlying neurocognitive impairment in patients recovering from WNV neuroinvasive disease. PMID:27337340

  4. A complement-microglial axis drives synapse loss during virus-induced memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Vasek, Michael J; Garber, Charise; Dorsey, Denise; Durrant, Douglas M; Bollman, Bryan; Soung, Allison; Yu, Jinsheng; Perez-Torres, Carlos; Frouin, Arnaud; Wilton, Daniel K; Funk, Kristen; DeMasters, Bette K; Jiang, Xiaoping; Bowen, James R; Mennerick, Steven; Robinson, John K; Garbow, Joel R; Tyler, Kenneth L; Suthar, Mehul S; Schmidt, Robert E; Stevens, Beth; Klein, Robyn S

    2016-06-22

    Over 50% of patients who survive neuroinvasive infection with West Nile virus (WNV) exhibit chronic cognitive sequelae. Although thousands of cases of WNV-mediated memory dysfunction accrue annually, the mechanisms responsible for these impairments are unknown. The classical complement cascade, a key component of innate immune pathogen defence, mediates synaptic pruning by microglia during early postnatal development. Here we show that viral infection of adult hippocampal neurons induces complement-mediated elimination of presynaptic terminals in a murine WNV neuroinvasive disease model. Inoculation of WNV-NS5-E218A, a WNV with a mutant NS5(E218A) protein leads to survival rates and cognitive dysfunction that mirror human WNV neuroinvasive disease. WNV-NS5-E218A-recovered mice (recovery defined as survival after acute infection) display impaired spatial learning and persistence of phagocytic microglia without loss of hippocampal neurons or volume. Hippocampi from WNV-NS5-E218A-recovered mice with poor spatial learning show increased expression of genes that drive synaptic remodelling by microglia via complement. C1QA was upregulated and localized to microglia, infected neurons and presynaptic terminals during WNV neuroinvasive disease. Murine and human WNV neuroinvasive disease post-mortem samples exhibit loss of hippocampal CA3 presynaptic terminals, and murine studies revealed microglial engulfment of presynaptic terminals during acute infection and after recovery. Mice with fewer microglia (Il34(-/-) mice with a deficiency in IL-34 production) or deficiency in complement C3 or C3a receptor were protected from WNV-induced synaptic terminal loss. Our study provides a new murine model of WNV-induced spatial memory impairment, and identifies a potential mechanism underlying neurocognitive impairment in patients recovering from WNV neuroinvasive disease.

  5. Cancer Statistics: Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 60,140 % of All New Cancer Cases 3.6% Estimated Deaths in 2016 24,400 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 333,975 people living with leukemia in the ...

  6. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sometimes, chemotherapy is used first to reduce the white blood cell count if it is very high at diagnosis. The ... This is because there is a very high count of immature white blood cells (leukemia cells). The only known cure for CML ...

  7. Repression of the murine interferon alpha 11 gene: identification of negatively acting sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Civas, A; Dion, M; Vodjdani, G; Doly, J

    1991-01-01

    The uninducible murine interferon alpha 11 gene (Mu IFN-alpha 11) shows strong homology with the highly inducible Mu IFN-alpha 4 gene in the promoter region. Negative regulatory sequences located between positions -470 and -145 were characterized in the Mu IFN-alpha 11 promoter. The removal of these sequences leads to virus-inducibility of Mu IFN-alpha 11 while their insertion in Mu IFN-alpha 4 corresponding region significantly reduced the inducibility of Mu IFN-alpha 4 promoter. On the other hand, the virus-responsive element (VRE) of the Mu IFN-alpha 11 differs by a single nucleotide substitution at position -78 from the VRE alpha 4. Constructions carrying either VRE alpha 11 or VRE alpha 4 upstream a heterologous promoter displayed different virus inducibilities. The -78 A/G substitution affects the inducibility by decreasing the affinity of VRE-binding trans-regulators. Our results suggest that the combined effect of the negative regulatory sequences and of the mutation in the VRE alpha 11, completely silences the Mu IFN-alpha 11 gene. PMID:1886773

  8. Leukemia and Benzene

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Excessive exposure to benzene has been known for more than a century to damage the bone marrow resulting in decreases in the numbers of circulating blood cells, and ultimately, aplastic anemia. Of more recent vintage has been the appreciation that an alternative outcome of benzene exposure has been the development of one or more types of leukemia. While many investigators agree that the array of toxic metabolites, generated in the liver or in the bone marrow, can lead to traumatic bone marrow injury, the more subtle mechanisms leading to leukemia have yet to be critically dissected. This problem appears to have more general interest because of the recognition that so-called “second cancer” that results from prior treatment with alkylating agents to yield tumor remissions, often results in a type of leukemia reminiscent of benzene-induced leukemia. Furthermore, there is a growing literature attempting to characterize the fine structure of the marrow and the identification of so called “niches” that house a variety of stem cells and other types of cells. Some of these “niches” may harbor cells capable of initiating leukemias. The control of stem cell differentiation and proliferation via both inter- and intra-cellular signaling will ultimately determine the fate of these transformed stem cells. The ability of these cells to avoid checkpoints that would prevent them from contributing to the leukemogenic response is an additional area for study. Much of the study of benzene-induced bone marrow damage has concentrated on determining which of the benzene metabolites lead to leukemogenesis. The emphasis now should be directed to understanding how benzene metabolites alter bone marrow cell biology. PMID:23066403

  9. Ester derivatives of gallic acid with potential toxicity toward L1210 leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Claudriana; Rosso, Rober; Santos-Silva, Maria C; de Souza, Camila A; Licínio, Marley A; Leal, Paulo; Bazzo, Maria L; Yunes, Rosendo A; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B

    2008-04-01

    Gallic acid and gallates with the same number of hydroxyl groups and varying the length of the side carbon chain, with respective lipophilicity being defined through the ClogP values, were examined for their ability to induce apoptosis (through the DNA ladder fragmentation pattern), mitochondrial and cytoplasmic GSH depletion and NF-kappaB activation in murine lymphoblastic L1210 leukemia cells. A relationship between cytotoxic effect and a limited degree of lipophilicity was observed.

  10. Radiation-induced leukemia: Comparative studies in mouse and man

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, M.

    1991-01-01

    We now have a clear understanding of the mechanism by which radiation-induced (T-cell) leukemia occurs. In irradiated mice (radiation-induced thymic leukemia) and in man (acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia, T-ALL) the mechanism of leukemogenesis is surprisingly similar. Expressed in the most elementary terms, T-cell leukemia occurs when T-cell differentiation is inhibited by a mutation, and pre-T cells attempt but fail to differentiate in the thymus. Instead of leaving the thymus for the periphery as functional T-cells they continue to proliferate in the thymus. The proliferating pre- (pro-) T-cells constitute the (early) acute T-cell leukemia (A-TCL). This model for the mechanism of T-cell leukemogenesis accounts for all the properties of both murine and human A-TCL. Important support for the model has recently come from work by Ilan Kirsch and others, who have shown that mutations/deletions in the genes SCL (TAL), SIL, and LCK constitute primary events in the development of T-ALL, by inhibiting differentiation of thymic pre- (pro-) T-cells. This mechanism of T-cell leukemogenesis brings several specific questions into focus: How do early A-TCL cells progress to become potently tumorigenic and poorly treatable Is it feasible to genetically suppress early and/or progressed A-TCL cells What is the mechanism by which the differentiation-inhibited (leukemic) pre-T cells proliferate During the first grant year we have worked on aspects of all three questions.

  11. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis: a model of demyelination and persistence of virus.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Oleszak, E; Leibowitz, J

    1987-01-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) causes immune-mediated demyelination in susceptible mice which is similar to human demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis. In addition, the picornavirus persists within the central nervous system throughout the course of the chronic demyelinating disease. This article reviews the neuropathology, virology, immunology, and molecular biology of the model system. We analyze the possible mechanisms by which this virus induces demyelination and persists in the nervous system. Finally, we provide a hypothesis that the specificity of primary white matter destruction in the TMEV model depends on immune-sensitized cells which interact with viral antigen plus major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on the surfaces of oligodendrocytes or myelin sheaths.

  12. Leukemia -- Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic: Overview Print to PDF Leukemia - Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic: Overview Approved by the ... Platelets that help the blood to clot About leukemia Types of leukemia are named after the specific ...

  13. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  14. MS-275 and Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Cloning and characterization of a murine SIL gene

    SciTech Connect

    Collazo-Garcia, N.; Scherer, P.; Aplan, P.D.

    1995-12-10

    The human SIL gene is disrupted by a site-specific interstitial deletion in 25% of children with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Since transcriptionally active genes are prone to recombination events, the recurrent nature of this lesion suggests that the SIL gene product is transcriptionally active in the cell type that undergoes this interstitial deletion and that the SIL gene product may play a role in normal lymphoid development. To facilitate studies of SIL gene function, we have cloned and characterized a murine SIL gene. The predicted murine SIL protein is 75% identical to the human gene, with good homology throughout the open reading frame. An in vitro translated SIL cDNA generated a protein slightly larger than the predicted 139-kDa protein. Although a prior report detected SIL mRNA expression exclusively in hematopoietic tissues, a sensitive RT-PCR assay demonstrated SIL expression to be ubiquitous, detectable in all tissues examined. Since the RT-PCR assay suggested that SIL mRNA expression was higher in rapidly proliferating tissues, we assayed SIL mRNA expression using a murine erythroleukemia model of terminal differentiation and found it to be dramatically decreased in conjunction with terminal differentiation. These studies demonstrate that the human SIL gene product is quite well conserved in rodents and suggest that the SIL gene product may play a role in cell proliferation. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Kristina D A; Huisman, Jef; Wilhelm, Steven W; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-02-01

    Viral lysis of phytoplankton constrains marine primary production, food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Yet, little is known about the biogeographical distribution of viral lysis rates across the global ocean. To address this, we investigated phytoplankton group-specific viral lysis rates along a latitudinal gradient within the North Atlantic Ocean. The data show large-scale distribution patterns of different virus groups across the North Atlantic that are associated with the biogeographical distributions of their potential microbial hosts. Average virus-mediated lysis rates of the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were lower than those of the picoeukaryotic and nanoeukaryotic phytoplankton (that is, 0.14 per day compared with 0.19 and 0.23 per day, respectively). Total phytoplankton mortality (virus plus grazer-mediated) was comparable to the gross growth rate, demonstrating high turnover rates of phytoplankton populations. Virus-induced mortality was an important loss process at low and mid latitudes, whereas phytoplankton mortality was dominated by microzooplankton grazing at higher latitudes (>56°N). This shift from a viral-lysis-dominated to a grazing-dominated phytoplankton community was associated with a decrease in temperature and salinity, and the decrease in viral lysis rates was also associated with increased vertical mixing at higher latitudes. Ocean-climate models predict that surface warming will lead to an expansion of the stratified and oligotrophic regions of the world's oceans. Our findings suggest that these future shifts in the regional climate of the ocean surface layer are likely to increase the contribution of viral lysis to phytoplankton mortality in the higher-latitude waters of the North Atlantic, which may potentially reduce transfer of matter and energy up the food chain and thus affect the capacity of the northern North Atlantic to act as a long-term sink for CO2. PMID:26262815

  17. Methods for effective real-time RT-PCR analysis of virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Thompson, Thea S; German, Thomas L; Willis, David K

    2006-12-01

    We applied real-time RT-PCR to the analysis of Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato. Using a combination of direct measurement and mathematical assessment, we evaluated three plant genes, ubiquitin (ubi3), elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1), and actin, for use as internal reference transcripts and found that EF-1 and ubi3 were least variable under our experimental conditions. Primer sets designed to amplify the 5' or 3' regions of endogenous PDS transcripts in tomato yielded similar reductions in transcript levels indicating a uniform VIGS-mediated degradation of target RNA. By measuring the ratio of the abundance of the PDS insert transcript to the TRV coat protein RNA, we established that the PDS insert within TRV was stable in both hosts. VIGS in N. benthamiana resulted in complete photo-bleaching of all foliar tissue compared to chimeric bleaching in tomato. PDS transcript levels were decreased eleven- and seven-fold in photobleached leaves of N. benthamiana and tomato, respectively, while sampling tomato leaflets on the basis of age rather than visible bleaching resulted in only a 17% reduction in PDS coupled with a large leaf-to-leaf variation. There was a significant inverse relationship (r2=76%, P=0.01) between the relative abundance of CP RNA and the amount of PDS transcript in rTRV::tPDS-infected tomato suggesting that virus spread and accumulation are required precursors for successful VIGS in this host. PMID:16959330

  18. An efficient virus-induced gene silencing vector for maize functional genomics research.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Yang, Xinxin; Wang, Nian; Liu, Xuedong; Nelson, Richard S; Li, Weimin; Fan, Zaifeng; Zhou, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Maize is a major crop whose rich genetic diversity provides an advanced resource for genetic research. However, a tool for rapid transient gene function analysis in maize that may be utilized in most maize cultivars has been lacking, resulting in reliance on time-consuming stable transformation and mutation studies to obtain answers. We developed an efficient virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector for maize based on a naturally maize-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain, ZMBJ-CMV. An infectious clone of ZMBJ-CMV was constructed, and a vascular puncture inoculation method utilizing Agrobacterium was optimized to improve its utility for CMV infection of maize. ZMBJ-CMV was then modified to function as a VIGS vector. The ZMBJ-CMV vector induced mild to moderate symptoms in many maize lines, making it useful for gene function studies in critically important maize cultivars, such as the sequenced reference inbred line B73. Using this CMV VIGS system, expression of two endogenous genes, ZmPDS and ZmIspH, was found to be decreased by 75% and 78%, respectively, compared with non-silenced tissue. Inserts with lengths of 100-300 bp produced the most complete transcriptional and visual silencing phenotypes. Moreover, genes related to autophagy, ZmATG3 and ZmATG8a, were also silenced, and it was found that they function in leaf starch degradation. These results indicate that our ZMBJ-CMV VIGS vector provides a tool for rapid and efficient gene function studies in maize. PMID:26921244

  19. Systematic knockdown of morphine pathway enzymes in opium poppy using virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Wijekoon, Champa P; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) remains the sole commercial source for several pharmaceutical alkaloids including the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine, and the semi-synthetic drugs oxycodone, buprenorphine and naltrexone. Although most of the biosynthetic genes have been identified, the post-transcriptional regulation of the morphinan alkaloid pathway has not been determined. We have used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a functional genomics tool to investigate the regulation of morphine biosynthesis via a systematic reduction in enzyme levels responsible for the final six steps in the pathway. Specific gene silencing was confirmed at the transcript level by real-time quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction), and at the protein level by immunoblot analysis using antibodies raised against salutaridine synthase (SalSyn), salutaridine reductase (SalR), salutaridine 7-O-acetyltransferase (SalAT), thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM), codeinone reductase (COR), and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). In some cases, silencing a specific biosynthetic gene resulted in a predictable accumulation of the substrate for the corresponding enzyme. Reduced SalSyn, SalR, T6ODM and CODM protein levels correlated with lower morphine levels and a substantial increase in the accumulation of reticuline, salutaridine, thebaine and codeine, respectively. In contrast, the silencing of genes encoding SalAT and COR resulted in the accumulation of salutaridine and reticuline, respectively, which are not the corresponding enzymatic substrates. The silencing of alkaloid biosynthetic genes using VIGS confirms the physiological function of enzymes previously characterized in vitro, provides insight into the biochemical regulation of morphine biosynthesis, and demonstrates the immense potential for metabolic engineering in opium poppy.

  20. Heterologous virus-induced gene silencing as a promising approach in plant functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Tafreshi, Seied Ali; Shariati, Mansour; Mofid, Mohammad Reza; Khayam Nekui, Mojtaba; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

    2012-03-01

    VIGS (virus induced gene silencing) is considered as a powerful genomics tool for characterizing the function of genes in a few closely related plant species. The investigations have been carried out mainly in order to test if a pre-existing VIGS vector can serve as an efficient tool for gene silencing in a diverse array of plant species. Another route of investigation has been the constructing of new viral vectors to act in their hosts. Our approach was the creation of a heterologous system in which silencing of endogenous genes was achieved by sequences isolated from evolutionary remote species. In this study, we showed that a TRV-based vector cloned with sequences from a gymnosperm, Taxus baccata L. silenced the endogenous phytoene desaturase in an angiosperm, N. benthamiana. Our results showed that inserts of between 390 and 724 bp isolated from a conserved fragment of the Taxus PDS led to silencing of its homolog in tobacco. The real time analysis indicated that the expression of PDS was reduced 2.1- to 4.0-fold in pTRV-TbPDS infected plants compared with buffer treated plants. Once the best insert is identified and the conditions are optimized for heterologous silencing by pTRV-TbPDS in tobacco, then we can test if TRV can serve as an efficient silencing vector in Taxus. This strategy could also be used to silence a diverse array of genes from a wide range of species which have no VIGS protocol. The results also showed that plants silenced heterologously by the VIGS system a minimally affected with respect to plant growth which may be ideal for studying the genes that their complete loss of function may lead to decrease of plant growth or plant death. PMID:21655951

  1. Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Kristina D A; Huisman, Jef; Wilhelm, Steven W; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2016-02-01

    Viral lysis of phytoplankton constrains marine primary production, food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Yet, little is known about the biogeographical distribution of viral lysis rates across the global ocean. To address this, we investigated phytoplankton group-specific viral lysis rates along a latitudinal gradient within the North Atlantic Ocean. The data show large-scale distribution patterns of different virus groups across the North Atlantic that are associated with the biogeographical distributions of their potential microbial hosts. Average virus-mediated lysis rates of the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were lower than those of the picoeukaryotic and nanoeukaryotic phytoplankton (that is, 0.14 per day compared with 0.19 and 0.23 per day, respectively). Total phytoplankton mortality (virus plus grazer-mediated) was comparable to the gross growth rate, demonstrating high turnover rates of phytoplankton populations. Virus-induced mortality was an important loss process at low and mid latitudes, whereas phytoplankton mortality was dominated by microzooplankton grazing at higher latitudes (>56°N). This shift from a viral-lysis-dominated to a grazing-dominated phytoplankton community was associated with a decrease in temperature and salinity, and the decrease in viral lysis rates was also associated with increased vertical mixing at higher latitudes. Ocean-climate models predict that surface warming will lead to an expansion of the stratified and oligotrophic regions of the world's oceans. Our findings suggest that these future shifts in the regional climate of the ocean surface layer are likely to increase the contribution of viral lysis to phytoplankton mortality in the higher-latitude waters of the North Atlantic, which may potentially reduce transfer of matter and energy up the food chain and thus affect the capacity of the northern North Atlantic to act as a long-term sink for CO2.

  2. Contrasting community versus population-based estimates of grazing and virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Staniewski, Michael A; Short, Cindy M; Short, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    In this study, grazing and virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton was investigated in a freshwater pond at the University of Toronto Mississauga, Canada, during September 2009. The modified dilution assay, which partitions phytoplankton mortality into virus and grazing-induced fractions, was used along with newly designed, taxon-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays that target psbA gene fragments to estimate growth and mortality rates for both the entire phytoplankton community and four distinct phytoplankton populations. Community mortality was estimated via fluorometric determination of chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations, whereas the relative mortality of individual phytoplankton populations was estimated via qPCR. The sources and amounts of mortality for individual phytoplankton populations differed from those of the whole community, as well as from each other. Grazing was found to be the only significant source of mortality for the community (0.32 day(-1)), and the Prymnesiales (1.65 day(-1)) and Chroococcales (2.79 day(-1)) populations studied. On the other hand, the Chlamydomonadales population examined experienced both significant grazing (1.01 day(-1)) and viral lysis (0.96 day(-1)), while the Chlorellales population only experienced significant mortality as a result of viral lysis (1.38 day(-1)). Our results demonstrate that the combination of qPCR and the modified dilution method can be used to estimate both viral lysis and grazing pressure on several individual phytoplankton populations within a community simultaneously. Further, previously noted limitations of the modified dilution method associated with the dilution of specific phytoplankton populations at low abundances can be overcome with the qPCR-based approach. Most importantly, this study demonstrates that when used alone, whole community-based methods of assessing mortality can overlook valuable information about carbon flow in aquatic microbial food webs. PMID

  3. The influence of virus-induced changes in plants on aphid vectors: insights from luteovirus pathosystems.

    PubMed

    Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2011-08-01

    Plant virus infection can alter the suitability of host plants for their aphid vectors. Most reports indicate that virus-infected plants are superior hosts for vectors compared to virus-free plants with respect to vector growth rates, fecundity and longevity. Some aphid vectors respond preferentially to virus-infected plants compared to virus-free ones, while others avoid infected plants that are inferior hosts. Thus, it appears vectors can exploit changes in host plant quality associated with viral infection. Enhanced vector performance and preference for virus-infected plants might also be advantageous for viruses by promoting their spread and possibly enhancing their fitness. Our research has focused on two of the most important luteoviruses that infect wheat (Barley yellow dwarf virus), or potato (Potato leafroll virus), and their respective aphid vectors, the bird-cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The work has demonstrated that virus infection of host plants enhances the life history of vectors. Additionally, it has shown that virus infection alters the concentration and relative composition of volatile organic compounds in host plants, that apterae of each vector species settle preferentially on virus-infected plants, and that such responses are mediated by volatile organic compounds. The findings also indicate that plants respond heterogeneously to viral infection and as a result different plant parts change in attractiveness to vectors during infection and vector responses to virus-infected plants are dynamic. Such dynamic responses could enhance or reduce the probability of virus acquisition by individual aphids searching among plants. Finally, our work indicates that compared to non-viruliferous aphids, viruliferous ones are less or not responsive to virus-induced host plant volatiles. Changes in vector responsiveness to plants after vectors acquire virus could impact virus epidemiology by influencing virus

  4. Tiotropium Attenuates Virus-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation in Cigarette Smoke–Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Hannes; Duechs, Matthias J.; Tilp, Cornelia; Jung, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections trigger exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and tiotropium, a M3 receptor antagonist, reduces exacerbations in patients by unknown mechanisms. In this report, we investigated whether tiotropium has anti-inflammatory effects in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) and infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and compared these effects with those of steroid fluticasone and PDE4-inhibitor roflumilast. Mice were exposed to CS; infected with H1N1 or RSV; and treated with tiotropium, fluticasone, or roflumilast. The amount of cells and cytokine levels in the airways, lung function, and viral load was determined. NCI-H292 cells were infected with H1N1 or RSV and treated with the drugs. In CS/H1N1-exposed mice, tiotropium reduced neutrophil and macrophage numbers and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the airways and improved lung function. In contrast, fluticasone increased the loss of body weight; failed to reduce neutrophil or macrophage numbers; increased IL-6, KC, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the lungs; and worsened lung function. Treatment with roflumilast reduced macrophage numbers, IL-6, and KC in the lungs but had no effect on neutrophil numbers or lung function. In CS/RSV-exposed mice, treatment with tiotropium, but not fluticasone or roflumilast, reduced neutrophil numbers and IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the lungs. Viral load of H1N1 and RSV was significantly elevated in CS/virus-exposed mice and NCI-H292 cells after fluticasone treatment, whereas tiotropium and roflumilast had no effect. In conclusion, tiotropium has anti-inflammatory effects on CS/virus-induced inflammation in mice that are superior to the effects of roflumilast and fluticasone. This finding might help to explain the observed reduction of exacerbation rates in COPD patients. PMID:27016458

  5. Dissection of Tomato Lycopene Biosynthesis through Virus-Induced Gene Silencing1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fantini, Elio; Falcone, Giulia; Frusciante, Sarah; Giliberto, Leonardo; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Lycopene biosynthesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits has been proposed to proceed through a poly-cis pathway catalyzed by phytoene synthase (PSY), two desaturases (phytoene desaturase [PDS] and ζ-carotene desaturase [ZDS]), and two cis-trans isomerases (ζ-carotene isomerase [ZISO] and prolycopene isomerase [CrtISO]). The mechanism of action of these enzymes has been studied in Escherichia coli, but a systematic study of their in vivo function is lacking. We studied the function of nine candidate genes (PSY1, PSY2, PSY3, PDS, ZDS, ZISO, CrtISO, CrtISO-Like1, and CrtISO-Like2) using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) coupled to high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification and quantitation of 45 different carotenoid isomers, including linear xanthophylls. The data confirm the confinement of the VIGS signal to the silenced fruits and the similarity of the phenotypes of PSY1- and CrtISO-silenced fruits with those of the yellow flesh and tangerine mutants. Light was able to restore lycopene biosynthesis in ZISO-silenced fruits. Isomeric composition of fruits silenced at different metabolic steps suggested the existence of three functional units, comprising PSY1, PDS/ZISO, and ZDS/CrtISO, and responsible for the synthesis of 15-cis-phytoene, 9,9’-di-cis-ζ-carotene, and all-trans-lycopene, respectively. Silencing of a desaturase (PDS or ZDS) resulted in the induction of the isomerase in the same functional unit (ZISO or CrtISO, respectively). All-trans-ζ-carotene was detectable in nonsilenced fruits, greatly increased in ZDS-silenced ones, and disappeared in CrtISO-Like1-/CrtISO-Like2-silenced ones, suggesting the existence of a metabolic side branch, comprising this compound and initiated by the latter enzymes. PMID:24014574

  6. Organization, structure and expression of murine interferon alpha genes.

    PubMed

    Zwarthoff, E C; Mooren, A T; Trapman, J

    1985-02-11

    Using a human interferon-alpha probe we have isolated recombinant phages containing murine interferon-alpha (Mu IFN-alpha) genes from a genomic library. One of these phages contained two complete Mu IFN-alpha genes and part of a third gene. The insert of a second phage held two IFN genes. This indicates that the Mu IFN-alpha genes are clustered in the genome as is the case for the analogous human genes. The nucleotide sequences of these 5 genes were determined. They show that the genes are all different, albeit highly homologous. The deduced amino acid sequences show that four of the five genes contain a putative glycosylation site. Three genes were transiently expressed in COS cells and they gave rise to protein products showing antiviral properties. The expression of the five Mu IFN-alpha genes and the Mu IFN-beta gene was studied in virus-induced mouse L cells. The individual mRNAs were visualized in a nuclease S1 experiment, using a specific probe for each gene. In RNA preparations from induced cells mRNAs for each of the five alpha genes and the beta gene were present. However, substantial differences in the amounts of the individual mRNAs were observed.

  7. Phase I Dose-Escalation Trial of Clofarabine Followed by Escalating Doses of Fractionated Cyclophosphamide in Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemias

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-09-21

    Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Myeloproliferative Disorders; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia; Acute Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelofibrosis; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

  8. [Infant acute leukemia].

    PubMed

    Brethon, Benoît; Cavé, Hélène; Fahd, Mony; Baruchel, André

    2016-03-01

    If acute leukemia is the most frequent cancer in childhood (33%), it remains a very rare diagnosis in infants less than one year old, e.g. less than 5% of cases. At this age, the frequency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (almost all of B-lineage) is quite similar to the one of myeloblastic forms (AML). Infant leukemia frequently presents with high hyperleucocytosis, major tumoral burden and numerous extra-hematological features, especially in central nervous system and skin. Whatever the lineage, the leukemic cell is often very immature cytologically and immunologically. Rearrangements of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene, located on band 11q23, are the hallmark of these immature leukemias and confer a particular resistance to conventional approaches, corticosteroids and chemotherapy. The immaturity of infants less than 1-year-old is associated to a decrease of the tolerable dose-intensity of some drugs (anthracyclines, alkylating agents) or asks questions about some procedures like radiotherapy or high dose conditioning regimen, responsible of inacceptable acute and late toxicities. The high level of severe infectious diseases and other high-grade side effects limits also the capacity to cure these infants. The survival of infants less than 1-year-old with AML is only 50% but similar to older children. On the other hand, survival of those with ALL is the same, then quite limited comparing the 80% survival in children over one year. Allogeneic stem cell transplantations are indicated in high-risk subgroups of infant ALL (age below 6 months, high hyperleucocytosis >300.10(9)/L, MLL-rearrangement, initial poor prednisone response). However, morbidity and mortality remain very important and these approaches cannot be extended to all cases. During the neonatal period, the dismal prognosis linked to the high number of primary failures or very early relapses and uncertainties about the late toxicities question physicians about ethics. It is an emergency to

  9. Temsirolimus and Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-11

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  10. Genetically Modified T-cell Immunotherapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-10

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Donor; Early Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Late Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  11. CXCL12-producing vascular endothelial niches control acute T cell leukemia maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Lauren A.; Tikhonova, Anastasia N.; Hu, Hai; Trimarchi, Thomas; King, Bryan; Gong, Yixiao; Sanchez-Martin, Marta; Tsirigos, Aris; Littman, Dan R.; Ferrando, Adolfo; Morrison, Sean J.; Fooksman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of the microenvironment in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), or any acute leukemia, is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that T-ALL cells are in direct, stable contact with CXCL12-producing bone marrow stroma. Cxcl12 deletion from vascular endothelial, but not perivascular, cells impeded tumor growth, suggesting a vascular niche for T-ALL. Moreover, genetic targeting of CXCR4 in murine T-ALL after disease onset led to rapid, sustained disease remission, and CXCR4 antagonism suppressed human T-ALL in primary xenografts. Loss of CXCR4 targeted key T-ALL regulators, including the MYC pathway, and decreased leukemia initiating cell activity in vivo. Our data identify a T-ALL niche, and suggest targeting CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling as a powerful therapeutic approach for T-ALL. PMID:26058075

  12. Sox4 is a key oncogenic target in C/EBPα mutant acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell; Amabile, Giovanni; Yang, Henry; Staber, Philipp B; Di Ruscio, Annalisa; Diruscio, Annalisa; Welner, Robert S; Ebralidze, Alexander; Zhang, Junyan; Levantini, Elena; Lefebvre, Véronique; Valk, Peter J M; Delwel, Ruud; Hoogenkamp, Maarten; Nerlov, Claus; Cammenga, Jörg; Saez, Borja; Scadden, David T; Bonifer, Constanze; Ye, Min; Tenen, Daniel G

    2013-11-11

    Mutation or epigenetic silencing of the transcription factor C/EBPα is observed in ∼10% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In both cases, a common global gene expression profile is observed, but downstream targets relevant for leukemogenesis are not known. Here, we identify Sox4 as a direct target of C/EBPα whereby its expression is inversely correlated with C/EBPα activity. Downregulation of Sox4 abrogated increased self-renewal of leukemic cells and restored their differentiation. Gene expression profiles of leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) from both Sox4 overexpression and murine C/EBPα mutant AML models clustered together but differed from other types of AML. Our data demonstrate that Sox4 overexpression resulting from C/EBPα inactivation contributes to the development of leukemia with a distinct LIC phenotype.

  13. The H3K4-methyl epigenome regulates leukemia stem cell oncogenic potential

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Stephen H. K.; Goode, David L.; Iwasaki, Masayuki; Wei, Michael C.; Kuo, Hsu-Ping; Zhu, Li; Schneidawind, Dominik; Duque-Afonso, Jesus; Weng, Ziming; Cleary, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The genetic programs that maintain leukemia stem cell (LSC) self-renewal and oncogenic potential have been well defined, however the comprehensive epigenetic landscape that sustains LSC cellular identity and functionality is less well established. We report that LSCs in MLL-associated leukemia reside in an epigenetic state of relative genome-wide high-level H3K4me3 and low level H3K79me2. LSC differentiation is associated with reversal of these broad epigenetic profiles, with concomitant down-regulation of crucial MLL target genes and the LSC maintenance transcriptional program that is driven by loss of H3K4me3 but not H3K79me2. The H3K4-specific demethylase KDM5B negatively regulates leukemogenesis in murine and human MLL-rearranged AML cells, demonstrating a crucial role for the H3K4 global methylome in determining leukemia stem cell fate. PMID:26190263

  14. MLL1 and DOT1L cooperate with meningioma-1 to induce acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Simone S.; Haladyna, Jessica N.; Bezzant, Matthew; Stevens, Brett; Pollyea, Daniel A.; Sinha, Amit U.; Armstrong, Scott A.; Wei, Qi; Pollock, Roy M.; Daigle, Scott R.; Jordan, Craig T.; Ernst, Patricia; Bernt, Kathrin M.

    2016-01-01

    Meningioma-1 (MN1) overexpression is frequently observed in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is predictive of poor prognosis. In murine models, forced expression of MN1 in hematopoietic progenitors induces an aggressive myeloid leukemia that is strictly dependent on a defined gene expression program in the cell of origin, which includes the homeobox genes Hoxa9 and Meis1 as key components. Here, we have shown that this program is controlled by two histone methyltransferases, MLL1 and DOT1L, as deletion of either Mll1 or Dot1l in MN1-expressing cells abrogated the cell of origin–derived gene expression program, including the expression of Hoxa cluster genes. In murine models, genetic inactivation of either Mll1 or Dot1l impaired MN1-mediated leukemogenesis. We determined that HOXA9 and MEIS1 are coexpressed with MN1 in a subset of clinical MN1hi leukemia, and human MN1hi/HOXA9hi leukemias were sensitive to pharmacologic inhibition of DOT1L. Together, these data point to DOT1L as a potential therapeutic target in MN1hi AML. In addition, our findings suggest that epigenetic modulation of the interplay between an oncogenic lesion and its cooperating developmental program has therapeutic potential in AML. PMID:26927674

  15. Down syndrome preleukemia and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Kelly W; Taub, Jeffrey W; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Roberts, Irene; Vyas, Paresh

    2015-02-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute leukemias acute have unique biological, cytogenetic, and intrinsic factors that affect their treatment and outcome. Myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS) is associated with high event-free survival (EFS) rates and frequently preceded by a preleukemia condition, the transient abnormal hematopoiesis (TAM) present at birth. For acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), their EFS and overall survival are poorer than non-DS ALL, it is important to enroll them on therapeutic trials, including relapse trials; investigate new agents that could potentially improve their leukemia-free survival; and strive to maximize the supportive care these patients need.

  16. Acute Leukemias in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Mohan K. R.

    1979-01-01

    With combination chemotherapy approximately 50% of children with lymphoblastic leukemia survive for five or more years and it is now realistic to hope for a cure. Development of sophisticated cytochemical and immunological techniques have enabled us to recognize the factors that predispose to treatment failures. The survival in acute non-lymphocytic leukemia continues to be poor despite the introduction of several innovative treatment regimens. Current research is focused on the manipulation of the host-tumor immune response to eradicate the disease by treatment modalities such as immunotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Since the treatment regimens are becoming more complex, the initial diagnosis and treatment is best carried out at centres specialized in the management of childhood malignancies. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:21297755

  17. Decitabine, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. IMMUNOTHERAPY IN ACUTE LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in immunotherapy of cancer may represent a successful example in translational research, in which progress in knowledge and technology in immunology has lead to new strategies of immunotherapy, and even past failure in many clinical trials have led to a better understanding of basic cancer immunobiology. This article reviews the latest concepts in antitumor immunology and its application in the treatment of cancer, with particular focus on acute leukemia. PMID:19100371

  19. Selection for Evi1 activation in myelomonocytic leukemia induced by hyperactive signaling through wild-type NRas.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Rudolph, C; Morgan, M; Büsche, G; Salguero, G; Stripecke, R; Schlegelberger, B; Baum, C; Modlich, U

    2013-06-20

    Activation of NRas signaling is frequently found in human myeloid leukemia and can be induced by activating mutations as well as by mutations in receptors or signaling molecules upstream of NRas. To study NRas-induced leukemogenesis, we retrovirally overexpressed wild-type NRas in a murine bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model in C57BL/6J mice. Overexpression of wild-type NRas caused myelomonocytic leukemias ∼3 months after BMT in the majority of mice. A subset of mice (30%) developed malignant histiocytosis similar to mice that received mutationally activated NRas(G12D)-expressing bone marrow. Aberrant Ras signaling was demonstrated in cells expressing mutationally active or wild-type NRas, as increased activation of Erk and Akt was observed in both models. However, more NRas(G12D) were found to be in the activated, GTP-bound state in comparison with wild-type NRas. Consistent with observations reported for primary human myelomonocytic leukemia cells, Stat5 activation was also detected in murine leukemic cells. Furthermore, clonal evolution was detected in NRas wild-type-induced leukemias, including expansion of clones containing activating vector insertions in known oncogenes, such as Evi1 and Prdm16. In vitro cooperation of NRas and Evi1 improved long-term expansion of primary murine bone marrow cells. Evi1-positive cells upregulated Bcl-2 and may, therefore, provide anti-apoptotic signals that collaborate with the NRas-induced proliferative effects. As activation of Evi1 has been shown to coincide with NRAS mutations in human acute myeloid leukemia, our murine model recapitulates crucial events in human leukemogenesis. PMID:22847614

  20. Phase 1 Study of Terameprocol (EM-1421) in Patients With Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-20

    Leukemias; Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL); Adult T Cell Leukemia (ATL); Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML-BP); Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL); Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML)

  1. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Edwin C.; Durie, Brian G. M.; Garewal, Harinder S.

    1987-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia frequently associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Data on 11 patients with APL treated at our institution were analyzed and compared with those of 147 published cases. Most had a bleeding diathesis at presentation and evidence of DIC eventually developed in all. Seven patients (64%) showed the t(15;17)(q22;q21) karyotype or a similar translocation. Using a chemotherapy induction regimen containing an anthracycline, complete remission, requiring a total of 14 courses of treatment, was achieved in six patients (55%). The median duration of response and median survival for complete responders were 10 and 15 months, respectively. Three patients (27%) died of bleeding complications during induction therapy. The tritiated-thymidine labeling index of leukemia cells predicted which patients would achieve a complete remission. Review of six studies of 147 patients with APL from the past 12 years supports the use of a chemotherapy induction regimen containing anthracycline or amsacrine and heparin for the treatment of DIC. PMID:3472414

  2. SB-715992 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-10

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  3. Measles virus-induced changes in leukocyte function antigen 1 expression and leukocyte aggregation: possible role in measles virus pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Attibele, N; Wyde, P R; Trial, J; Smole, S C; Smith, C W; Rossen, R D

    1993-02-01

    Measles virus (MV) infection of U937 cell or peripheral blood leukocyte cultures was shown to induce changes in the expression of leukocyte function antigen 1 (LFA-1) and cause marked aggregation of these cells. Addition of selected monoclonal antibodies specific for LFA-1 epitopes that did not neutralize MV in standard neutralization assays were found to block both virus-induced leukocyte aggregation and virus dissemination. These data suggest that MV modulation of LFA-1 expression on leukocytes may be an important step in MV pathogenesis.

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress RSV infection and alleviate virus-induced airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qiuqin; Su, Zhonglan; Song, Shiyu; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Bin; Yi, Long; Tian, Man; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. However, the majority of RSV-infected patients only show mild symptoms. Different severities of infection and responses among the RSV-infected population indicate that epigenetic regulation as well as personal genetic background may affect RSV infectivity. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is an important epigenetic regulator in lung diseases. The present study aimed to explore the possible connection between HDAC expression and RSV-induced lung inflammation. To address this question, RSV-infected airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were prepared and a mouse model of RSV infection was established, and then treated with various concentrations of HDAC inhibitors (HDACis), namely trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Viral replication and markers of virus-induced airway inflammation or oxidative stress were assessed. The activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways was evaluated by western blot analysis. Our results showed that RSV infection in airway epithelial cells (AECs) significantly decreased histone acetylation levels by altering HDAC2 expression. The treatment of RSV-infected AECs with HDACis significantly restricted RSV replication by upregulating the interferon-α (IFN-α) related signaling pathways. The treatment of RSV-infected AECs with HDACis also significantly inhibited RSV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release [interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8] and oxidative stress-related molecule production [malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitrogen monoxide (NO)]. The activation of NF-κB, COX-2, MAPK and Stat3, which orchestrate pro-inflammatory gene expression and oxidative stress injury, was also significantly inhibited. Our in vivo study using a mouse model of RSV infection

  5. Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress RSV infection and alleviate virus-induced airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiuqin; Su, Zhonglan; Song, Shiyu; Χu, Hui; Zhang, Bin; Yi, Long; Tian, Man; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. However, the majority of RSV-infected patients only show mild symptoms. Different severities of infection and responses among the RSV-infected population indicate that epigenetic regulation as well as personal genetic background may affect RSV infectivity. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is an important epigenetic regulator in lung diseases. The present study aimed to explore the possible connection between HDAC expression and RSV-induced lung inflammation. To address this question, RSV-infected airway epithelial cells (BEAS‑2B) were prepared and a mouse model of RSV infection was established, and then treated with various concentrations of HDAC inhibitors (HDACis), namely trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Viral replication and markers of virus-induced airway inflammation or oxidative stress were assessed. The activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways was evaluated by western blot analysis. Our results showed that RSV infection in airway epithelial cells (AECs) significantly decreased histone acetylation levels by altering HDAC2 expression. The treatment of RSV-infected AECs with HDACis significantly restricted RSV replication by upregulating the interferon-α (IFN-α) related signaling pathways. The treatment of RSV-infected AECs with HDACis also significantly inhibited RSV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release [interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8] and oxidative stress-related molecule production [malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitrogen monoxide (NO)]. The activation of NF-κB, COX-2, MAPK and Stat3, which orchestrate pro‑inflammatory gene expression and oxidative stress injury, was also significantly inhibited. Our in vivo study using a mouse model of

  6. Developmental Outcome of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniglio, Susan J.; Blackman, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on developmental and psychosocial outcomes of childhood leukemia is reviewed, focusing on preschool-age children. Studies are categorized in terms of outcome measures: intelligence/achievement, neuropsychological, memory/attention, and psychosocial tests. Evidence suggests that preschool children with leukemia are at high risk for…

  7. Radiation-induced leukemias in ankylosing spondylitis

    SciTech Connect

    Toolis, F.; Potter, B.; Allan, N.C.; Langlands, A.O.

    1981-10-01

    Three cases of leukemia occurred in patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated by radiotherapy. In each case, the leukemic process exhibited bizarre features suggesting that radiation is likely to induce atypical forms of leukemia possessing unusual attributes not shared by spontaneously developing leukemia. The likely distinctive aspects of radiation-induced leukemia are discussed.

  8. Rebeccamycin Analog in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-22

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  9. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-20

    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  10. Susceptibility to Theiler's virus-induced demyelination. Mapping of the gene within the H-2D region.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Leibowitz, J; David, C S

    1986-03-01

    Demyelination induced by Theiler's virus was examined in mouse strains with congeneic recombinant haplotypes. Light and electron microscopy of spinal cord sections from mice with s, q, v, p, and f H-2D alleles showed perivascular inflammation and primary demyelination. The presence of susceptible haplotypes in the K or I region did not correlate with pathologic abnormalities. The Qa, Tla, PgK, and UpG genes did not appear to be critical in determining susceptibility to disease. However, mutation in the H-2D genes altered the susceptibility to virus-induced demyelination. B10.D2dm1 mice, which have deletions in the 3' end of Dd and the 5' end of Ld, showed prominent demyelination and clinical deficits. In contrast, BALB/c-dm2, which have a deletion of the entire L gene, showed no pathologic changes. Central nervous system virus titers correlated with susceptibility to demyelination; both resistant and susceptible strains had a strong humoral immune response to the virus. The findings in the congeneic recombinant mice and in mice mutant in the H-2D region strongly suggest that at least one of the genes critical for determining virus-induced demyelination maps to the 3' end of the H-2D gene.

  11. Virus-induced tumor inflammation facilitates effective DC cancer immunotherapy in a Treg-dependent manner in mice

    PubMed Central

    Woller, Norman; Knocke, Sarah; Mundt, Bettina; Gürlevik, Engin; Strüver, Nina; Kloos, Arnold; Boozari, Bita; Schache, Peter; Manns, Michael P.; Malek, Nisar P.; Sparwasser, Tim; Zender, Lars; Wirth, Thomas C.; Kubicka, Stefan; Kühnel, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination using DCs pulsed with tumor lysates or specific tumor-associated peptides has so far yielded limited clinical success for cancer treatment, due mainly to the low immunogenicity of tumor-associated antigens. In this study, we have identified intratumoral virus-induced inflammation as a precondition for effective antitumor DC vaccination in mice. Administration of a tumor-targeted DC vaccine during ongoing virus-induced tumor inflammation, a regimen referred to as oncolysis-assisted DC vaccination (ODC), elicited potent antitumoral CD8+ T cell responses. This potent effect was not replicated by TLR activation outside the context of viral infection. ODC-elicited immune responses mediated marked tumor regression and successful eradication of preestablished lung colonies, an essential prerequisite for potentially treating metastatic cancers. Unexpectedly, depletion of Tregs during ODC did not enhance therapeutic efficacy; rather, it abrogated antitumor cytotoxicity. This phenomenon could be attributed to a compensatory induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in Treg-depleted and thus vigorously inflamed tumors, which prevented ODC-mediated immune responses. Consequently, Tregs are not only general suppressors of immune responses, but are essential for the therapeutic success of multimodal and temporally fine-adjusted vaccination strategies. Our results highlight tumor-targeting, replication-competent viruses as attractive tools for eliciting effective antitumor responses upon DC vaccination. PMID:21646722

  12. A conserved virus-induced cytoplasmic TRAMP-like complex recruits the exosome to target viral RNA for degradation.

    PubMed

    Molleston, Jerome M; Sabin, Leah R; Moy, Ryan H; Menghani, Sanjay V; Rausch, Keiko; Gordesky-Gold, Beth; Hopkins, Kaycie C; Zhou, Rui; Jensen, Torben Heick; Wilusz, Jeremy E; Cherry, Sara

    2016-07-15

    RNA degradation is tightly regulated to selectively target aberrant RNAs, including viral RNA, but this regulation is incompletely understood. Through RNAi screening in Drosophila cells, we identified the 3'-to-5' RNA exosome and two components of the exosome cofactor TRAMP (Trf4/5-Air1/2-Mtr4 polyadenylation) complex, dMtr4 and dZcchc7, as antiviral against a panel of RNA viruses. We extended our studies to human orthologs and found that the exosome as well as TRAMP components hMTR4 and hZCCHC7 are antiviral. While hMTR4 and hZCCHC7 are normally nuclear, infection by cytoplasmic RNA viruses induces their export, forming a cytoplasmic complex that specifically recognizes and induces degradation of viral mRNAs. Furthermore, the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of bunyaviral mRNA is sufficient to confer virus-induced exosomal degradation. Altogether, our results reveal that signals from viral infection repurpose TRAMP components to a cytoplasmic surveillance role where they selectively engage viral RNAs for degradation to restrict a broad range of viruses. PMID:27474443

  13. [Sweet syndrome revealing leukemia].

    PubMed

    Elleuch, E; Hammami, B; Smaoui, F; Maaloul, I; Turki, H; Elloumi, M; Ben Jemaa, M

    2011-09-01

    Sweet syndrome is a neutrophilic dermatosis that can lead to various inflammatory and neoplastic pathologies. We report a case of Sweet syndrome revealing acute leukemia at a 13-year-old girl, who had no history of illness. The diagnosis was made in spite of atypical skin lesions and was confirmed by the skin biopsy and the bone marrow examination. In spite of corticosteroid therapy and chemotherapy, the patient died. Sweet syndrome's diagnosis requires an exhaustive etiologic survey. If there is no evidence of underlying disease, patients must be regularly monitored.

  14. Tipifarnib in Treating Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Undifferentiated Myeloproliferative Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Accelerated Phase of Disease; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase of Disease; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Recurrent Disease

  15. The significance of T cells, B cells, antibodies and macrophages against encephalomyocarditis (EMC)-D virus-induced diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Kounoue, Etsushi; Izumi, Ken-ichi; Ogawa, Shuichiro; Kondo, Shiori; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Akashi, Tomoyuki; Niho, Yoshiyuki; Harada, Mine; Tamiya, Sadafumi; Kurisaki, Hironori; Nagafuchi, Seiho

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the significance of protective mechanisms against encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus-induced diabetes in mice, we studied the relative importance of T cells, B cells, antibodies and macrophages in the prevention of virus-induced diabetes. Neither T cell-deficient athymic nude mice nor B cell-deficient microMT/microMT mice showed an enhanced clinical course of EMC-D virus-induced diabetes, indicating that neither T cells nor B cells played a major role in the protection against EMC-D-virus-induced diabetes. Transfer of a large amount of antiserum to EMC-D-virus-infected mice protected the development of diabetes only when transferred within 36 h of infection, the timing of which was earlier than that for the production of natural neutralizing antibodied. Since pretreatment of mice with the macrophage-activating immunopotentiator Corynebacterium parvum (CP) completely prevented the development of diabetes, we studied the clinical outcome of EMC-D-virus-infected mice pretreated with CP. Mice treated with CP showed reduced proliferation of EMC-D virus in the affected organs, including the pancreas, while the levels of development of neutralizing antibody and serum interferon were not enhanced compared with the controls. Finally, we studied the macrophages derived from mice pretreated with CP and found that they inhibited the growth of EMC-D virus in vitro more than those derived from non-treated and thioglycolate-treated mice. Taken together, it can be suggested that neither T cells nor B cells, which have to do with adaptive immunity, play a significant role in the pathogenesis of EMC-D-virus-induced diabetes, while innate immunity, which is dependent on activated macrophages, contributes to in vivo resistance against EMC-D-virus-induced diabetes. PMID:18500429

  16. Entinostat and Clofarabine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed, Relapsed, or Refractory Poor-Risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Bilineage/Biphenotypic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-16

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  17. Analysis of murine coronavirus surface glycoprotein functions by using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, E; Stauber, R; Pfleiderer, M; Siddell, S G

    1991-01-01

    The murine coronavirus surface glycoprotein gene was expressed as a fusion protein in bacteria, and the expressed protein was used to generate S protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Three of the MAbs, 11F, 30B, and 10G, were able to neutralize virus infectivity, and two of them, 11F and 10G, were able to block virus-induced, cell-to-cell fusion. The binding sites of the 11F, 30B, and 10G MAbs were determined by Western immunoblotting and epitope mapping. The 11F and 30B MAbs bound to sites located, respectively, between amino acids 33 to 40 and 395 to 406 in the amino-terminal (S1) subunit of the S protein, and the 10G MAb bound to a site located between amino acids 1123 and 1137 in the carboxy-terminal (S2) subunit. These data define more precisely the interactions between the S1 and S2 subunits of the murine coronavirus S protein and provide further insights into its structure and function. Images PMID:1985201

  18. Differential IL-1 synthesis by astrocytes from Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-susceptible and -resistant strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Rubio, N; Capa, L

    1993-07-01

    Increasing evidence shows that interleukin-1 (IL-1) contributes to inflammatory processes, such as experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and virus-induced demyelination, inside the central nervous system (CNS). Using primary cultures of mouse astrocytes, we show that these glial cells can be induced to produce IL-1 alpha when infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). This was true for astrocytes from SJL/J mice, a strain susceptible to TMEV-induced demyelination. Conversely, BALB/c astrocytes, derived from animals genetically resistant to demyelination, did not produce IL-1 alpha in detectable amounts. Therefore, a differential IL-1 gene expression, which is strain specific, is demonstrated after TMEV infection in astrocytes. The release of IL-1 alpha by SJL astrocytes was studied from kinetic, infectivity, and immunochemical points of view. Since IL-1 plays a critical role in the immune response, its production by astrocytes in some strains of mice may contribute to virus-induced susceptibility and to inflammation associated with this experimental model of multiple sclerosis.

  19. Lenalidomide in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-25

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Human isolates of dengue type 1 virus induce apoptosis in mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Desprès, P; Flamand, M; Ceccaldi, P E; Deubel, V

    1996-01-01

    Human isolates of dengue (DEN) type 1 viruses FGA/89 and BR/90 differ in their membrane fusion properties in mosquito cell lines (P. Desprès et al., Virology 196:209-216, 1993). FGA/89 and BR/90 were assayed for their neurovirulence in newborn mice, and neurons were the major target cells for both DEN-1 virus strains within the central nervous system. To study the susceptibility of neurons to DEN virus infection, DEN virus replication was analyzed in the murine neuroblastoma cell line Neuro 2a. Infection of Neuro 2a cells with FGA/89 or BR/90 induced apoptotic DNA degradation after 25 h of infection. Studies of DEN protein synthesis revealed that accumulation of viral proteins leads to apoptotic cell death. The apoptotic process progressed more rapidly following BR/90 infection than it did after FGA/89 infection. The higher cytotoxicity of BR/90 for Neuro 2a cells was linked to an incomplete maturation of the envelope proteins, resulting in abortive virus assembly. Accumulation of viral proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum may induce stress and thereby activate the apoptotic pathway in mouse neuroblastoma cells. PMID:8648748

  1. CCI-779 in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Blastic Phase

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-22

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  2. Decitabine and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-06

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  3. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  4. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-23

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  5. Vaccine Therapy Plus Immune Adjuvant in Treating Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  6. How Is Childhood Leukemia Classified?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in immature forms of cells that make platelets. World Health Organization (WHO) classification of AML The FAB ... phases, but a common system (proposed by the World Health Organization) is described below. If the leukemia ...

  7. Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ghia, Paolo; Hallek, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia has undergone profound changes that have been driven by an improved understanding of the biology of the disease and the approval of several new drugs. Moreover, many novel drugs are currently under evaluation for rapid approval or have been approved by regulatory agencies, further broadening the available therapeutic armamentarium for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The use of novel biological and genetic parameters combined with a careful clinical evaluation allows us to dissect some of the heterogeneity of the disease and to distinguish patients with a very mild onset and course, who often will not need any treatment, from those with an intermediate prognosis and a third group with a very aggressive course (high-risk leukemia). On this background, it becomes increasingly challenging to select the right treatment strategy. In this paper, we describe our own approach to the management of different patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:24881042

  8. What Is Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... In this way CMML is more like a myeloproliferative disease ( myelo -- bone marrow, proliferative -- excessive growth). Chronic myeloid leukemia is an example of a myeloproliferative disease where there is an overproduction of white ...

  9. Progress in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kadia, Tapan M; Ravandi, Farhad; O'Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2015-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Steady gains in clinical research and a renaissance of genomics in leukemia have led to improved outcomes. The recognition of tremendous heterogeneity in AML has allowed individualized treatments of specific disease entities within the context of patient age, cytogenetics, and mutational analysis. The following is a comprehensive review of the current state of AML therapy and a roadmap of our approach to these distinct disease entities. PMID:25441110

  10. Treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, S. Jr.; Coleman, M.

    1982-11-01

    Prolymphocytic leukemia is characterized by marked splenomegaly, distinctive cellular morphologic characteristics, and a poor clinical course. Five patients with typical PL were treated systematically with vincristine/prednisone, chlorambucil/prednisone, splenic irradiation, splenectomy, and other chemotherapy regimens. No patient responded to vincristine/prednisone. Two patients responded to chlorambucil/prednisone, and four patients had brief responses to splenic irradiation. Two patients underwent splenectomy, one of whom had a prolonged clinical remissions. No other chemotherapy combinations were of value. The median survival was 33 months. Recommendations are made to use chlorambucil/prednisone or splenic irradiation as initial treatment. Splenectomy should be considered in patients refractory to these modalities. The course of PL may be more protracted than originally reported.

  11. Treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, D. Jr.; Coleman, M.

    1982-11-01

    Prolymphocytic leukemia is characterized by marked splenomegaly, distinctive cellular morphologic characteristics, and a poor clinical course. Five patients with typical PL were treated systematically with vincristine/prednisone, chlorambucil/prednisone, splenic irradiation, splenectomy, and other chemotherapy regimens. No patient responded to vincristine/prednisone. Two patients responded to chlorambucil/prednisone, and four patients had brief responses to splenic irradiation. Two patients underwent splenectomy, one of whom had a prolonged clinical remission. There were no complete remissions. No other chemotherapy combinations were of value. The median survival was 33 months. Recommendations are made to use chlorambucil/prednisone or splenic irradiation as initial treatment. Splenectomy should be considered in patients refractory to these modalities. The course of PL may be more protracted than originally reported.

  12. Risk-Based Classification System of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-24

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  13. Molecular diagnosis of lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Goud, Kalal Iravathy; Dayakar, Seetha; Prasad, S V S S; Rao, Koteshwar N; Shaik, Amina; Vanjakshi, S

    2013-01-01

    The mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene at chromosome band 11q23 is commonly involved in reciprocal translocations that is detected in acute leukemia. The MLL gene, commonly known as mixed lineage leukemia or myeloid lymphoid leukemia, has been independently identified and cloned from the 11q23 breakpoint of acute leukemia. We describe a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia whose cells had shown reciprocal translocation between short arm (p21) of chromosome 2 and long arm (q23) of chromosome number 11 [t(2;11) (p21;q23)] by cytogenetic analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) was also performed for reconfirmation with a probe for MLL which showed split signals, hybridizing to both the derivative 2 and 11 chromosomes. Our study confirmed FISH as the most suitable assay for detecting MLL rearrangements because of its sensitivity and speed. It recommended that FISH should be used as complementary to conventional cytogenetic analysis. In conclusion, evaluation of the t(2;11)(p21;q23) was done by molecular clarification and flow cytometry. PMID:24125990

  14. Immune response to acute virus infection in the Syrian hamster. II. Studies on the identity of virus-induced cytotoxic effector cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nelles, M.J.; Duncan, W.R.; Streilein, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The identity of the effector cell(s) mediating vaccinia virus-induced cytotoxic activity in Syrian hamsters undergoing acute virus infection has been investigated. Two different approaches have been utilized in this regard. Although T cells do not mediate vaccinia virus-induced cytotoxic activity directly, functional T cells were required for the in vivo development of a significant portion of vaccinia virus-induced cytotoxic activity. In addition, incorporation of aggregated gamma-globulins as well as anti-immunoglobulin reagents into the in vitro 51 Cr release assay inhibited a significant proportion of the cytotoxic activity mediated by spleen cells obtained from acutely infected hamsters possessing an intact thymus. Both approaches have yielded information consistent with the idea that a sizable portion of vaccinia virus-induced cytotoxic activity in the Syrian hamster is effected by K cells mediating antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). The significance of this observation is discussed with regard to hamster viral immunity in general.

  15. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Considerations Regarding the Use of Virus-Induced Carcinogenesis and Oncolytic Viral Models.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephanie D; Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Bergdall, Valerie K

    2016-01-01

    The use of virus-induced carcinogenesis and oncologic experimental animal models is essential in understanding the mechanisms of cancer development to advance prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is responsible for both the complex philosophical and practical considerations associated with animal models of cancer. Animal models of cancer carry their own unique issues that require special consideration from the IACUC. Many of the considerations to be discussed apply to cancer models in general; specific issues related to viral carcinogenesis or oncolytic viruses will be specifically discussed as they arise. Responsible animal use integrates good science, humane care, and regulatory compliance. To meet those standards, the IACUC, in conjunction with the research investigator and attending veterinarian, must address a wide range of issues, including animal model selection, cancer model selection, humane end point considerations, experimental considerations, postapproval monitoring, reporting requirements, and animal management and personnel safety considerations.

  16. Inhibition of megakaryocyte development in the bone marrow underlies dengue virus-induced thrombocytopenia in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Aishwarya; Chen, Qingfeng; Tang, Kin Fai; Ooi, Eng Eong; Hibberd, Martin L; Chen, Jianzhu

    2013-11-01

    A characteristic clinical feature of dengue virus infection is thrombocytopenia, though its underlying mechanism is not definitively determined. By adoptive transfer of human CD34(+) fetal liver cells into immunodeficient mice, we have constructed humanized mice with significant levels of human platelets, monocytes/macrophages, and hepatocytes. Infection of these mice with both lab-adapted and clinical strains of dengue virus induces characteristic human hematological changes, including transient leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. We show that the specific depletion of human platelets is not mediated by antibodies in the periphery or reduced production of human thrombopoietin in the liver but reduction of human megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte progenitors in the bone marrow of the infected mice. These findings identify inhibition of platelet production in the bone marrow as a key mechanism underlying dengue-induced thrombocytopenia and suggest the utility of the improved humanized mouse model in studying dengue virus infection and pathogenesis in a human cell context.

  17. Activity of the type II JAK2 inhibitor CHZ868 in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuo-Chieh; Li, Loretta S.; Kopp, Nadja; Montero, Joan; Chapuy, Bjoern; Yoda, Akinori; Christie, Amanda L.; Liu, Huiyun; Christodoulou, Alexandra; van Bodegom, Diederik; van der Zwet, Jordy; Layer, Jacob V.; Tivey, Trevor; Lane, Andrew A.; Ryan, Jeremy A.; Ng, Samuel Y.; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Stone, Richard M.; Steensma, David; Wadleigh, Martha; Harris, Marian; Mandon, Emeline; Ebel, Nicolas; Andraos, Rita; Romanet, Vincent; Dölemeyer, Arno; Sterker, Dario; Zender, Michael; Rodig, Scott J.; Murakami, Masato; Hofmann, Francesco; Kuo, Frank; Eck, Michael J.; Silverman, Lewis B.; Sallan, Stephen E.; Letai, Anthony; Baffert, Fabienne; Vangrevelinghe, Eric; Radimerski, Thomas; Gaul, Christoph; Weinstock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A variety of cancers depend on JAK2 signaling, including the high-risk subset of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (B-ALLs) with CRLF2 rearrangements. Type I JAK2 inhibitors induce paradoxical JAK2 hyperphosphorylation in these leukemias and have limited activity. To improve the efficacy of JAK2 inhibition in B-ALL, we developed the type II inhibitor CHZ868, which stabilizes JAK2 in an inactive conformation. CHZ868 potently suppressed the growth of CRLF2-rearranged human B-ALL cells, abrogated JAK2 signaling, and improved survival in mice with human or murine B-ALL. CHZ868 and dexamethasone synergistically induced apoptosis in JAK2-dependent B-ALLs and further improved in vivo survival compared to CHZ868 alone. These data support the testing of type II JAK2 inhibition in patients with JAK2-dependent leukemias and other disorders. PMID:26175414

  18. Contribution of virus-induced lysis and protozoan grazing to benthic bacterial mortality estimated simultaneously in microcosms.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ulrike R; Wieltschnig, Claudia; Kirschner, Alexander K T; Velimirov, Branko

    2006-08-01

    In contrast to the water column, the fate of bacterial production in freshwater sediments is still a matter of debate. Thus, the importance of virus-induced lysis and protozoan grazing of bacteria was investigated for the first time simultaneously in a silty sediment layer of a mesotrophic oxbow lake. Microcosms were installed in the laboratory in order to study the dynamics of these processes over 15 days. All microbial and physicochemical parameters showed acceptable resemblance to field data observed during a concomitant in situ study, and similar conclusions can be drawn with respect to the quantitative impact of viruses and protozoa on the bacterial compartment. Viral decay rates ranged from undetectable to 0.078 h(-1) (average, 0.033 h(-1)), and the control of bacterial production from below the detection limit to 36% (average, 12%). The contribution of virus-induced lysis of bacteria to the dissolved organic matter pool as well as to benthic bacterial nutrition was low. Ingestion rates of protozoan grazers ranged from undetectable to 24.7 bacteria per heterotrophic nanoflagellate (HNF) per hour (average, 4.8 bacteria HNF(-1) h(-1)) and from undetectable to 73.3 bacteria per ciliate per hour (average, 11.2 bacteria ciliate(-1) h(-1)). Heterotrophic nanoflagellate and ciliates together cropped up to 5% (average, 1%) of bacterial production. The viral impact on bacteria prevailed over protozoan grazing by a factor of 2.5-19.9 (average, 9.5). In sum, these factors together removed up to 36% (average, 12%) of bacterial production. The high number of correlations between viral and protozoan parameters is discussed in view of a possible relationship between virus removal and the presence of protozoan grazers. PMID:16872403

  19. Novel Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Induces Impaired Interferon Responses in Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arilahti, Veera; Mäkelä, Sanna M.; Tynell, Janne; Julkunen, Ilkka; Österlund, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    In March 2013 a new avian influenza A(H7N9) virus emerged in China and infected humans with a case fatality rate of over 30%. Like the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, H7N9 virus is causing severe respiratory distress syndrome in most patients. Based on genetic analysis this avian influenza A virus shows to some extent adaptation to mammalian host. In the present study, we analyzed the activation of innate immune responses by this novel H7N9 influenza A virus and compared these responses to those induced by the avian H5N1 and seasonal H3N2 viruses in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We observed that in H7N9 virus-infected cells, interferon (IFN) responses were weak although the virus replicated as well as the H5N1 and H3N2 viruses in moDCs. H7N9 virus-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines remained at a significantly lower level as compared to H5N1 virus-induced “cytokine storm” seen in human moDCs. However, the H7N9 virus was extremely sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFN-α and IFN-β in pretreated cells. Our data indicates that different highly pathogenic avian viruses may show considerable differences in their ability to induce host antiviral responses in human primary cell models such as moDCs. The unexpected appearance of the novel H7N9 virus clearly emphasizes the importance of the global influenza surveillance system. It is, however, equally important to systematically characterize in normal human cells the replication capacity of the new viruses and their ability to induce and respond to natural antiviral substances such as IFNs. PMID:24804732

  20. Incoming Influenza A Virus Evades Early Host Recognition, while Influenza B Virus Induces Interferon Expression Directly upon Entry

    PubMed Central

    Strengell, Mari; Sarin, L. Peter; Poranen, Minna M.; Fagerlund, Riku; Melén, Krister; Julkunen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    The activation of the interferon (IFN) system, which is triggered largely by the recognition of viral nucleic acids, is one of the most important host defense reactions against viral infections. Although influenza A and B viruses, which both have segmented negative-strand RNA genomes, share major structural similarities, they have evolutionarily diverged, with total genetic incompatibility. Here we compare antiviral-inducing mechanisms during infections with type A and B influenza viruses in human dendritic cells. We observed that IFN responses are induced significantly faster in cells infected with influenza B virus than in cells infected with type A influenza virus and that the early induction of antiviral gene expression is mediated by the activation of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). We further demonstrate that influenza A virus infection activates IFN responses only after viral RNA (vRNA) synthesis, whereas influenza B virus induces IFN responses even if its infectivity is destroyed by UV treatment. Thus, initial viral transcription, replication, and viral protein synthesis are dispensable for influenza B virus-induced antiviral responses. Moreover, vRNA molecules from both type A and B viruses are equally potent activators of IFN induction, but incoming influenza B virus structures are recognized directly in the cytosol, while influenza A virus is able to evade early recognition. Collectively, our data provide new evidence of a novel antiviral evasion strategy for influenza A virus without a contribution of the viral NS1 protein, and this opens up new insights into different influenza virus pathogenicities. PMID:22855501

  1. Induction and maintenance of DNA methylation in plant promoter sequences by apple latent spherical virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Kon, Tatsuya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) is an efficient virus-induced gene silencing vector in functional genomics analyses of a broad range of plant species. Here, an Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation (agroinoculation) system was developed for the ALSV vector, and virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing (VITGS) is described in plants infected with the ALSV vector. The cDNAs of ALSV RNA1 and RNA2 were inserted between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the NOS-T sequences in a binary vector pCAMBIA1300 to produce pCALSR1 and pCALSR2-XSB or pCALSR2-XSB/MN. When these vector constructs were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a construct expressing a viral silencing suppressor, the infection efficiency of the vectors was 100%. A recombinant ALSV vector carrying part of the 35S promoter sequence induced transcriptional gene silencing of the green fluorescent protein gene in a line of N. benthamiana plants, resulting in the disappearance of green fluorescence of infected plants. Bisulfite sequencing showed that cytosine residues at CG and CHG sites of the 35S promoter sequence were highly methylated in the silenced generation zero plants infected with the ALSV carrying the promoter sequence as well as in progeny. The ALSV-mediated VITGS state was inherited by progeny for multiple generations. In addition, induction of VITGS of an endogenous gene (chalcone synthase-A) was demonstrated in petunia plants infected with an ALSV vector carrying the native promoter sequence. These results suggest that ALSV-based vectors can be applied to study DNA methylation in plant genomes, and provide a useful tool for plant breeding via epigenetic modification. PMID:25426109

  2. Incoming influenza A virus evades early host recognition, while influenza B virus induces interferon expression directly upon entry.

    PubMed

    Österlund, Pamela; Strengell, Mari; Sarin, L Peter; Poranen, Minna M; Fagerlund, Riku; Melén, Krister; Julkunen, Ilkka

    2012-10-01

    The activation of the interferon (IFN) system, which is triggered largely by the recognition of viral nucleic acids, is one of the most important host defense reactions against viral infections. Although influenza A and B viruses, which both have segmented negative-strand RNA genomes, share major structural similarities, they have evolutionarily diverged, with total genetic incompatibility. Here we compare antiviral-inducing mechanisms during infections with type A and B influenza viruses in human dendritic cells. We observed that IFN responses are induced significantly faster in cells infected with influenza B virus than in cells infected with type A influenza virus and that the early induction of antiviral gene expression is mediated by the activation of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). We further demonstrate that influenza A virus infection activates IFN responses only after viral RNA (vRNA) synthesis, whereas influenza B virus induces IFN responses even if its infectivity is destroyed by UV treatment. Thus, initial viral transcription, replication, and viral protein synthesis are dispensable for influenza B virus-induced antiviral responses. Moreover, vRNA molecules from both type A and B viruses are equally potent activators of IFN induction, but incoming influenza B virus structures are recognized directly in the cytosol, while influenza A virus is able to evade early recognition. Collectively, our data provide new evidence of a novel antiviral evasion strategy for influenza A virus without a contribution of the viral NS1 protein, and this opens up new insights into different influenza virus pathogenicities.

  3. Induction and maintenance of DNA methylation in plant promoter sequences by apple latent spherical virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Tatsuya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) is an efficient virus-induced gene silencing vector in functional genomics analyses of a broad range of plant species. Here, an Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation (agroinoculation) system was developed for the ALSV vector, and virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing (VITGS) is described in plants infected with the ALSV vector. The cDNAs of ALSV RNA1 and RNA2 were inserted between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the NOS-T sequences in a binary vector pCAMBIA1300 to produce pCALSR1 and pCALSR2-XSB or pCALSR2-XSB/MN. When these vector constructs were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a construct expressing a viral silencing suppressor, the infection efficiency of the vectors was 100%. A recombinant ALSV vector carrying part of the 35S promoter sequence induced transcriptional gene silencing of the green fluorescent protein gene in a line of N. benthamiana plants, resulting in the disappearance of green fluorescence of infected plants. Bisulfite sequencing showed that cytosine residues at CG and CHG sites of the 35S promoter sequence were highly methylated in the silenced generation zero plants infected with the ALSV carrying the promoter sequence as well as in progeny. The ALSV-mediated VITGS state was inherited by progeny for multiple generations. In addition, induction of VITGS of an endogenous gene (chalcone synthase-A) was demonstrated in petunia plants infected with an ALSV vector carrying the native promoter sequence. These results suggest that ALSV-based vectors can be applied to study DNA methylation in plant genomes, and provide a useful tool for plant breeding via epigenetic modification. PMID:25426109

  4. A TCR-mimic antibody to WT1 bypasses tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in human BCR-ABL+ leukemias.

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, Leonid; Pankov, Dmitry; Brea, Elliott Joseph; Dao, Tao; Scott, Andrew; Yan, Su; O'Reilly, Richard J; Liu, Cheng; Scheinberg, David A

    2014-05-22

    Acute and chronic leukemias, including CD34(+) CML cells, demonstrate increased expression of the Wilms tumor gene 1 product (WT1), making WT1 an attractive therapeutic target. However, WT1 is a currently undruggable, intracellular protein. ESKM is a human IgG1 T-cell receptor mimic monoclonal antibody directed to a 9-amino acid sequence of WT1 in the context of cell surface HLA-A*02. ESKM was therapeutically effective, alone and in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), against Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute leukemia in murine models, including a leukemia with the most common, pan-TKI, gatekeeper resistance mutation, T315I. ESKM was superior to the first-generation TKI, imatinib. Combination therapy with ESKM and TKIs was superior to either drug alone, capable of curing mice. ESKM showed no toxicity to human HLA-A*02:01(+) stem cells under the conditions of this murine model. These features of ESKM make it a promising nontoxic therapeutic agent for sensitive and resistant Ph(+) leukemias. PMID:24723681

  5. Tipifarnib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-19

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  6. Altered transcription of genes coding for class I histocompatibility antigens in murine tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Three murine tumors induced by Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MLV) which exhibited loss of some or all H-2 class I antigens at the cell surface were analyzed at the DNA and RNA level with molecular probes specific of H-2 heavy chains and beta 2-microglobulin sequences. No observable difference could be detected at the DNA level between the tumors and the parent animals. However, a decrease in H-2 mRNA was observed, especially in phenotypically H-2 negative tumor, BM5R, where H-2 transcripts were at least 30-fold less abundant. These results show that an H-2-negative character may result from a general alteration in the transcription of H-2 genes, which could reflect some kind of regulatory process. PMID:6311935

  7. The interferon inducer ampligen [poly(I)-poly(C12U)] markedly protects mice against coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Padalko, Elizaveta; Nuyens, Dieter; De Palma, Armando; Verbeken, Erik; Aerts, Joeri L; De Clercq, Erik; Carmeliet, Peter; Neyts, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Viral replication, as well as an immunopathological component, is assumed to be involved in coxsackie B virus-induced myocarditis. We evaluated the efficacy of the interferon inducer Ampligen on coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis in C3H/HeNHsd mice. The efficacy of Ampligen was compared with that of the interferon inducer poly(inosinic acid)-poly(cytidylic acid) [poly(IC)], alpha interferon 2b (INTRON A), and pegylated alpha interferon 2b (PEG-INTRON-alpha-2b). Ampligen at 20 mg/kg of body weight/day was able to reduce the severity of virus-induced myocarditis, as assessed by morphometric analysis, by 98% (P = 3.0 x 10(-8)). When poly(IC) was administered at 15 mg/kg/day, it reduced the severity of virus-induced myocarditis by 93% (P = 5.6 x 10(-5)). Alpha interferon 2b (1 x 10(5) U/day) and pegylated alpha interferon 2b (5 x 10(5) U/day) were less effective and reduced the severity of virus-induced myocarditis by 66% (P = 0.0009) and 78% (P = 0.0002), respectively. The observed efficacies of Ampligen and poly(IC) were corroborated by the observation that the drugs also markedly reduced the virus titers in the heart, as detected by (i) quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and (ii) titration for infectious virus content. Whereas the electrocardiograms for untreated mice with myocarditis were severely disturbed, the electrocardiographic parameters were normalized in Ampligen- and poly(IC)-treated mice. Even when start of treatment with Ampligen was delayed until day 2 postinfection, a time at which lesions had already appeared in untreated control animals, a marked protective effect on the development of viral myocarditis (as assessed at day 6 postinfection) was still noted.

  8. High Throughput Drug Sensitivity Assay and Genomics- Guided Treatment of Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-19

    Acute Leukemia of Ambiguous Lineage; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  9. Phase I/II Study of Nilotinib/Ruxolitinb Therapy for TKI Resistant Ph-Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-04

    Chronic Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Accelerated Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Philadelphia Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Resistant to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy

  10. Long terminal repeat of murine retroviral DNAs: sequence analysis, host-proviral junctions, and preintegration site.

    PubMed Central

    Van Beveren, C; Rands, E; Chattopadhyay, S K; Lowy, D R; Verma, I M

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of three murine retroviral DNAs has been determined. The data indicate that the U5 region (sequences originating from the 5' end of the genome) of various LTRs is more conserved than the U3 region (sequences from the 3' end of the genome). The location and sequence of the control elements such as the 5' cap, "TATA-like" sequences, "CCAAT-box," and presumptive polyadenylic acid addition signal AATAAA in the various LTRs are nearly identical. Some murine retroviral DNAs contain a duplication of sequences within the LTR ranging in size from 58 to 100 base pairs. A variant of molecularly cloned Moloney murine sarcoma virus DNA in which one of the two LTRs integrated into the viral DNA was also analyzed. A 4-base-pair duplication was generated at the site of integration of LTR in the viral DNA. The host-viral junction of two molecularly cloned AKR-murine leukemia virus DNAs (clones 623 and 614) was determined. In the case of AKR-623 DNA, a 3- or 4-base-pair direct repeat of cellular sequences flanking the viral DNA was observed. However, AKR-614 DNA contained a 5-base-pair repeat of cellular sequences. The nucleotide sequence of the preintegration site of AKR-623 DNA revealed that the cellular sequences duplicated during integration are present only once. Finally, a striking homology between the sequences flanking the preintegration site and viral LTRs was observed. Images PMID:6281466

  11. General Information About Hairy Cell Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Hairy Cell Leukemia Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  12. General Information about Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  13. General Information about Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  14. General Information about Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  15. General Information about Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  16. Targeted Therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monoclonal antibodies to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia Targeted therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia In recent years, new ... These drugs are often referred to as targeted therapy. Some of these drugs can be useful in ...

  17. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  18. Stages of Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  20. Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment Option Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Hairy Cell Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Hairy ...

  1. How Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Classified?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How is acute lymphocytic leukemia treated? How is acute lymphocytic leukemia classified? Most types of cancers are assigned numbered ... ALL are now named as follows: B-cell ALL Early pre-B ALL (also called pro-B ...

  2. Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... early? Next Topic How is childhood leukemia diagnosed? Signs and symptoms of childhood leukemia Many of the ... blood cells do. Fever is often the main sign of infection. But some children might have a ...

  3. Childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts.

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, J J; Parker, G S; Rosen, S; Prenney, B; Healey, R; Caldwell, G G

    1986-01-01

    Possible associations between environmental hazards and the occurrence of childhood leukemia were investigated in Woburn, MA, for the period 1969-79. Residents of Woburn were concerned over what they perceived to be a large number of childhood leukemia cases; at the same time there was extensive publicity about uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in Woburn, which resulted in its being placed on the Superfund list. Many believed that the elevated rate of childhood leukemia was related to these sites or to two city water wells that had been closed in 1979 when they were found to be contaminated by organic chemicals. An occurrence was defined as childhood leukemia when it was diagnosed in a Woburn resident less than 20 years old between 1969 and 1979 and confirmed by review of hospital and pathology records. This investigation confirmed an increase in incidence which was distributed uniformly over the 11-year period. Six of the persons with leukemia were located close to each other in one census tract, 7.5 times the expected number. Parents of the children and of two matched control groups were interviewed about medical history, mother's pregnancy history, school history, and environmental exposures. There were no significant differences between the leukemia victims and persons in the control groups. No leukemia sufferer had contact with a hazardous waste site. While the contaminants of Wells G and H, which had been closed, are not known leukemogens, it is not possible to rule out exposure to this water as a factor, particularly in the eastern Woburn residents. PMID:3083476

  4. SPARC promotes leukemic cell growth and predicts acute myeloid leukemia outcome

    PubMed Central

    Alachkar, Houda; Santhanam, Ramasamy; Maharry, Kati; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Huang, Xiaomeng; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Mendler, Jason H.; Benito, Juliana M.; Hickey, Christopher; Neviani, Paolo; Dorrance, Adrienne M.; Anghelina, Mirela; Khalife, Jihane; Tarighat, Somayeh S.; Volinia, Stefano; Whitman, Susan P.; Paschka, Peter; Hoellerbauer, Pia; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Han, Lina; Bolon, Brad N.; Blum, William; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Perrotti, Danilo; Andreeff, Michael; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Konopleva, Marina; Garzon, Ramiro; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Marcucci, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant expression of the secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin) (SPARC) gene, which encodes a matricellular protein that participates in normal tissue remodeling, is associated with a variety of diseases including cancer, but the contribution of SPARC to malignant growth remains controversial. We previously reported that SPARC was among the most upregulated genes in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) patients with gene-expression profiles predictive of unfavorable outcome, such as mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2-R172) and overexpression of the oncogenes brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic (BAALC) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG). In contrast, SPARC was downregulated in CN-AML patients harboring mutations in nucleophosmin (NPM1) that are associated with favorable prognosis. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that SPARC expression is clinically relevant in AML. Here, we found that SPARC overexpression is associated with adverse outcome in CN-AML patients and promotes aggressive leukemia growth in murine models of AML. In leukemia cells, SPARC expression was mediated by the SP1/NF-κB transactivation complex. Furthermore, secreted SPARC activated the integrin-linked kinase/AKT (ILK/AKT) pathway, likely via integrin interaction, and subsequent β-catenin signaling, which is involved in leukemia cell self-renewal. Pharmacologic inhibition of the SP1/NF-κB complex resulted in SPARC downregulation and leukemia growth inhibition. Together, our data indicate that evaluation of SPARC expression has prognosticative value and SPARC is a potential therapeutic target for AML. PMID:24590286

  5. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  6. Characterization of Leukemia-Inducing Genes Using a Proto-Oncogene/Homeobox Gene Retroviral Human cDNA Library in a Mouse In Vivo Model.

    PubMed

    Jang, Su Hwa; Lee, Sohyun; Chung, Hee Yong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method to screen a large number of potential driver mutations of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a retroviral cDNA library and murine bone marrow transduction-transplantation system. As a proof-of-concept, murine bone marrow (BM) cells were transduced with a retroviral cDNA library encoding well-characterized oncogenes and homeobox genes, and the virus-transduced cells were transplanted into lethally irradiated mice. The proto-oncogenes responsible for leukemia initiation were identified by PCR amplification of cDNA inserts from genomic DNA isolated from leukemic cells. In an initial screen of ten leukemic mice, the MYC proto-oncogene was detected in all the leukemic mice. Of ten leukemic mice, 3 (30%) had MYC as the only transgene, and seven mice (70%) had additional proto-oncogene inserts. We repeated the same experiment after removing MYC-related genes from the library to characterize additional leukemia-inducing gene combinations. Our second screen using the MYC-deleted proto-oncogene library confirmed MEIS1and the HOX family as cooperating oncogenes in leukemia pathogenesis. The model system we introduced in this study will be valuable in functionally screening novel combinations of genes for leukemogenic potential in vivo, and the system will help in the discovery of new targets for leukemia therapy.

  7. PS-341 in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Blast Phase, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-22

    Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  8. Characterization of mpl cytoplasmic domain sequences required for myeloproliferative leukemia virus pathogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Bénit, L; Courtois, G; Charon, M; Varlet, P; Dusanter-Fourt, I; Gisselbrecht, S

    1994-01-01

    v-mpl is a truncated form of a receptor-like chain which belongs to the cytokine receptor superfamily. This sequence has been transduced in the myeloproliferative leukemia virus as an env-mpl fusion gene responsible for an acute myeloproliferative disorder in mice. We constructed a series of viral mutants in the mpl sequence. Analysis of their oncogenic potential in vivo indicated that a critical 69-amino-acid-long cytoplasmic domain of v-Mpl is required for myoproliferative leukemia virus pathogenicity. We also developed an in vitro assay and showed that expression of the env-mpl gene confers growth factor independence to murine as well as to human hematopoietic growth factor-dependent cell lines. These findings strongly suggest that v-Mpl delivers a constitutive proliferative signal through a limited region of its cytoplasmic domain. Images PMID:8035524

  9. Leukemia cell infiltration causes defective erythropoiesis partially through MIP-1α/CCL3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Gao, A; Zhao, H; Lu, P; Cheng, H; Dong, F; Gong, Y; Ma, S; Zheng, Y; Zhang, H; Zhang, Y; Xu, J; Zhu, X; Yuan, W; Zhang, X; Hao, S; Cheng, T

    2016-09-01

    Leukemia often results in severe anemia, which may significantly contribute to patient mortality and morbidity. However, the mechanisms underlying defective erythropoiesis in leukemia have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient erythropoiesis in an immunocompetent acute myeloid leukemia (AML) murine model was due to reduced proliferation of megakaryocyte erythroid progenitors and increased apoptosis of erythroblasts. Colony-forming cell assays indicated that the leukemic bone marrow (BM) plasma inhibited erythroid colony formation, whereas they had no inhibitory effect on other types of colonies. Cytokine array analysis demonstrated that the chemokine CCL3 was elevated in the plasma of AML mice and patients. CCL3 inhibited erythroid differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells, common myeloid progenitors and especially megakaryocytic-erythroid progenitors. Administration of the CCR1 antagonist partially recovered the yield of erythroid colonies in the presence of CCL3 or leukemic BM plasma. Mechanistically, we observed an increase of p38 phosphorylation and subsequent downregulation of GATA1 after CCL3 treatment. Furthermore, knockdown of CCL3 attenuated leukemic progression and alleviated anemia. Therefore, our results demonstrate that elevated CCL3 in the leukemic environment suppresses erythropoiesis via CCR1-p38 activation, suggesting a novel mechanism for the erythroid defects observed in leukemia.

  10. Targeting the spliceosome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia with the macrolides FD-895 and pladienolide-B.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Manoj K; Kumar, Deepak; Villa, Reymundo; La Clair, James J; Benner, Chris; Sasik, Roman; Jones, Harrison; Ghia, Emanuela M; Rassenti, Laura Z; Kipps, Thomas J; Burkart, Michael D; Castro, Januario E

    2015-07-01

    RNA splicing plays a fundamental role in human biology. Its relevance in cancer is rapidly emerging as demonstrated by spliceosome mutations that determine the prognosis of patients with hematologic malignancies. We report studies using FD-895 and pladienolide-B in primary leukemia cells derived from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and leukemia-lymphoma cell lines. We found that FD-895 and pladienolide-B induce an early pattern of mRNA intron retention - spliceosome modulation. This process was associated with apoptosis preferentially in cancer cells as compared to normal lymphocytes. The pro-apoptotic activity of these compounds was observed regardless of poor prognostic factors such as Del(17p), TP53 or SF3B1 mutations and was able to overcome the protective effect of culture conditions that resemble the tumor microenvironment. In addition, the activity of these compounds was observed not only in vitro but also in vivo using the A20 lymphoma murine model. Overall, these findings give evidence for the first time that spliceosome modulation is a valid target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and provide an additional rationale for the development of spliceosome modulators for cancer therapy.

  11. The European LeukemiaNet: achievements and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Grimwade, David; Simonsson, Bengt; Apperley, Jane; Baccarani, Michele; Barbui, Tiziano; Barosi, Giovanni; Bassan, Renato; Béné, Marie C.; Berger, Ute; Büchner, Thomas; Burnett, Alan; Cross, Nicolas C.P.; de Witte, Theo J.M.; Döhner, Hartmut; Dombret, Hervé; Einsele, Hermann; Engelich, Georg; Foà, Robin; Fonatsch, Christa; Gökbuget, Nicola; Gluckman, Elaine; Gratwohl, Alois; Guilhot, Francois; Haferlach, Claudia; Haferlach, Thorsten; Hallek, Michael; Hasford, Jörg; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hoelzer, Dieter; Kiladjian, Jean-Jaques; Labar, Boris; Ljungman, Per; Mansmann, Ulrich; Niederwieser, Dietger; Ossenkoppele, Gert; Ribera, José M.; Rieder, Harald; Serve, Hubert; Schrotz-King, Petra; Sanz, Miguel A.; Saußele, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    The only way to cure leukemia is by cooperative research. To optimize research, the European LeukemiaNet integrates 105 national leukemia trial groups and networks, 105 interdisciplinary partner groups and about 1,000 leukemia specialists from 175 institutions. They care for tens of thousands of leukemia patients in 33 countries across Europe. Their ultimate goal is to cure leukemia. Since its inception in 2002, the European LeukemiaNet has steadily expanded and has unified leukemia research across Europe. The European LeukemiaNet grew from two major roots: 1) the German Competence Network on Acute and Chronic Leukemias; and 2) the collaboration of European Investigators on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. The European LeukemiaNet has improved leukemia research and management across Europe. Its concept has led to funding by the European Commission as a network of excellence. Other sources (European Science Foundation; European LeukemiaNet-Foundation) will take over when the support of the European Commission ends. PMID:21048032

  12. Nilotinib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-29

    B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  13. Treosulfan, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-29

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  14. PLASMA CELL LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    de Larrea, Carlos Fernandez; Kyle, Robert A.; Durie, Brian GM; Ludwig, Heinz; Usmani, Saad; Vesole, David H.; Hajek, Roman; Miguel, Jésus San; Sezer, Orhan; Sonneveld, Pieter; Kumar, Shaji K.; Mahindra, Anuj; Comenzo, Ray; Palumbo, Antonio; Mazumber, Amitabha; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Richardson, Paul G.; Badros, Ashraf Z.; Caers, Jo; Cavo, Michele; LeLeu, Xavier; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Chim, CS; Schots, Rik; Noeul, Amara; Fantl, Dorotea; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Landgren, Ola; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Moreau, Philippe; Fonseca, Rafael; Merlini, Giampaolo; Lahuerta, JJ; Bladé, Joan; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Shah, Jatin J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic-pathologic entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (≥ 20%) and absolute number (≥ 2 × 10 9/L) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds for diagnosis be reexamined and consensus recommendations are made for diagnosis, as well as, response and progression criteria. Induction therapy needs to begin promptly and have high clinical activity leading to rapid disease control in an effort to minimize the risk of early death. Intensive chemotherapy regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding of the pathogenesis of PCL. PMID:23288300

  15. Insertional activation of myb by F-MuLV in SCID mice induces myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Mehran; Li, Youjun; Li, Yanmei; Li, Qi; Spaner, David E; Ben-David, Yaacov

    2013-07-01

    Identification of retrovirus integration sites is a powerful method to identify cancer-related genes. This approach led to the discovery of the Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) integration site-1 (fli-1). Viral insertion at the fli-1 locus induces erythroleukemia in susceptible strains of mice. Our recent data demonstrated that, F-MuLV-infected SCID mice, in contrast to wt CB17 controls, developed a non‑erythroleukemic leukemia without viral integration at the fli-1 locus. Using ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LM-PCR) approach we identified a total of 15 viral integration sites in F-MuLV-infected SCID mice. One of the identified insertion sites was located about 62 kb upstream of the myeloblastosis (myb) gene. While integration within or surrounding the myb gene has been reported before for murine leukemia viruses, the location of the viral integration site identified in F-MuLV‑infected SCID mice is novel and has never been reported. Using PCR analysis we showed that viral integration at the myb locus occurs with a frequency of 35% and therefore is considered as a common integration site. Integration of F-MuLV in this locus resulted in upregulation of the MYB protein. Flow cytometry analysis and methylcellulose culture of leukemic cells isolated from tumors with viral integration close to the myb indicated tumors of myeloid origin. Our findings indicate that, in contrast to wt CB17 mice, F-MuLV-infected SCID mice display viral integration within myeloid specific gene loci that result in the development of myelogenous leukemia.

  16. Lack of competition results in efficient packaging of heterologous murine retroviral RNAs and reticuloendotheliosis virus encapsidation-minus RNAs by the reticuloendotheliosis virus helper cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Embretson, J E; Temin, H M

    1987-01-01

    We constructed recombinant reticuloendotheliosis virus (Rev)-derived and murine leukemia virus-derived vectors to characterize the specificity of packaging retroviral RNAs in Rev proteins. Using this approach, we further localized the Rev encapsidation sequence (E) to a 144-nucleotide region and determined that there are sequences in both the 5' and 3' halves of this region which are necessary in cis for viral replication. We found that the Rev E, like the murine leukemia virus E (psi), is position independent (R. Mann and D. Baltimore, J. Virol. 54:401-407, 1986). Also, a 156-nucleotide region of the Rev intron enhanced replication in a cis-acting fashion in the presence, but not in the absence, of helper virus. Finally, we showed that packaging of E- and heterologous retroviral genomes occurred efficiently in the Rev helper cell in the absence of competing E-containing (E+) viral RNAs. Images PMID:3039161

  17. Decitabine With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-14

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Biomarkers in Bone Marrow Samples From Pediatric Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-17

    Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  19. Bullous leukemia cutis mimicking facial cellulitis*

    PubMed Central

    Caldato, Luciana de Sales; Britto, Juliana de Sousa; Niero-Melo, Ligia; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2016-01-01

    Bullous leukemia cutis is an uncommon clinical manifestation of cutaneous infiltration by leukemic cells, from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We present the case of a 67-year-old, female, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient. She was taking chlorambucil and developed facial edema with erythema and warmth, misjudged as facial cellulitis. Two days later, she developed bullous lesions in the arms, legs, neck and face. The histopathology of facial and bullous lesions confirmed leukemia cutis. All lesions disappeared following the administration of rituximab combined with cycles of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. Although soft tissue infections are common complications in patients undergoing chemotherapy, leukemia cutis can also resemble cellulitis. PMID:27192532

  20. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia That Has Responded to Treatment With Imatinib Mesylate, Dasatinib, or Nilotinib

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-18

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  1. Applying molecular epidemiology in pediatric leukemia.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    Molecular epidemiology is the study of genetic and environmental risk for disease, with much effort centered on cancer. Childhood leukemia occurs in nearly a third of all patients newly diagnosed with pediatric cancer. only a small percentage of these new cases of childhood leukemia are associated with high penetrant hereditary cancer syndromes. Childhood leukemia, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been associated with a dysregulated immune system due to delayed infectious exposure at a young age. Identical twins with childhood leukemia suggest that acute lymphoblastic leukemia begins in utero and that the concordant presentation is due to a shared preleukemia subclone via placental transfer. Investigation of single nucleotide polymorphisms within candidate genes find that leukemia risk may be attributed to population-based polymorphisms affecting folate metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, immunity, and B-cell development. More recently, genome-wide association studies for leukemia risk has led investigators to genes associated with B-cell development. When describing leukemia predisposition due to hereditary cancer syndromes, the following 6 categories become apparent on the basis of biology and clinical presentation: (1) genetic instability/DNA repair syndromes, (2) cell cycle/differentiation syndromes, (3) bone marrow failure syndromes, (4) telomere maintenance syndromes, (5) immunodeficiency syndromes, and (6) transcription factor syndromes and pure familial leukemia. understanding the molecular epidemiology of childhood leukemia can affect the treatment and tumor surveillance strategies for these high risk patients and their family members.

  2. Applying molecular epidemiology in pediatric leukemia.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    Molecular epidemiology is the study of genetic and environmental risk for disease, with much effort centered on cancer. Childhood leukemia occurs in nearly a third of all patients newly diagnosed with pediatric cancer. only a small percentage of these new cases of childhood leukemia are associated with high penetrant hereditary cancer syndromes. Childhood leukemia, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been associated with a dysregulated immune system due to delayed infectious exposure at a young age. Identical twins with childhood leukemia suggest that acute lymphoblastic leukemia begins in utero and that the concordant presentation is due to a shared preleukemia subclone via placental transfer. Investigation of single nucleotide polymorphisms within candidate genes find that leukemia risk may be attributed to population-based polymorphisms affecting folate metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, immunity, and B-cell development. More recently, genome-wide association studies for leukemia risk has led investigators to genes associated with B-cell development. When describing leukemia predisposition due to hereditary cancer syndromes, the following 6 categories become apparent on the basis of biology and clinical presentation: (1) genetic instability/DNA repair syndromes, (2) cell cycle/differentiation syndromes, (3) bone marrow failure syndromes, (4) telomere maintenance syndromes, (5) immunodeficiency syndromes, and (6) transcription factor syndromes and pure familial leukemia. understanding the molecular epidemiology of childhood leukemia can affect the treatment and tumor surveillance strategies for these high risk patients and their family members. PMID:25973690

  3. Association of leukemia with radium groundwater contamination.

    PubMed

    Lyman, G H; Lyman, C G; Johnson, W

    1985-08-01

    Radiation exposure, including the ingestion of radium, has been causally associated with leukemia in man. Groundwater samples from 27 counties on or near Florida phosphate lands were found to exceed 5 pCi/L total radium in 12.4% of measurements. The incidence of leukemia was greater in those counties with high levels of radium contamination (greater than 10% of the samples contaminated) than in those with low levels of contamination. Rank correlation coefficients of .56 and .45 were observed between the radium contamination level and the incidence of total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively. The standardized incidence density ratio for those in high-contamination counties was 1.5 for total leukemia and 2.0 for acute myeloid leukemia. Further investigation is necessary, however, before a causal relationship between groundwater radium content and human leukemia can be established.

  4. Targeting of leukemia-initiating cells in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with peculiar molecular, phenotypic and clinical features and unique therapeutic response to specific treatments. The disease is characterized by a single, pathognomonic molecular event, consisting of the translocation t(15;17) which gives rise to the PML/retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) hybrid protein. The development of this leukemia is mainly related to the fusion oncoprotein PML/RARα, acting as an altered RAR mediating abnormal signalling and repression of myeloid differentiation, with consequent accumulation of undifferentiated promyelocytes. The prognosis of APL has dramatically been improved with the introduction in therapy of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). The main effect of these two drugs is linked to the targeting of either RAR moiety of the PML/RARα molecule and induction of cell differentiation (ATRA) or of the PML moiety of the fusion protein and induction of leukemic cell apoptosis, including leukemic progenitors (mostly induced by ATO). These two drugs exhibited excellent synergism and determine a very high rate of durable remissions in low/intermediate-risk APLs, when administered in the absence of any chemotherapeutic drug. The strong synergism and the marked clinical efficacy of these two agents when administered together seem to be related to their capacity to induce PML/RARα degradation and complete eradication of leukemia stem cells. PMID:27358876

  5. Tipifarnib in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-22

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Cellular Diagnosis, Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  6. Bortezomib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-13

    Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  7. GTI-2040 in Treating Patients With Relapsed, Refractory, or High-Risk Acute Leukemia, High-Grade Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Refractory or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-03

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Very late recurrences of leukemia: why does leukemia awake after many years of dormancy?

    PubMed

    Norkin, Maxim; Uberti, Joseph P; Schiffer, Charles A

    2011-02-01

    We report a heterogeneous group of very late recurrences of leukemia occurring more than 10 years after initial treatment including 2 cases of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) which recurred after more than 20 years of remission, 2 cases of donor cell leukemia which developed more than 10 years after allograft for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and high risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 2 cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) relapsing 13 and 17 years after allograft. Case descriptions are followed by a discussion regarding possible mechanisms leading to leukemia recurrence and a review of the literature.

  9. Donor Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant With or Without Ex-vivo Expanded Cord Blood Progenitor Cells in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-09

    Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Pancytopenia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Prevention of Encephalomyocarditis Virus-Induced Diabetes in Mice by Inhibition of the Tyrosine Kinase Signalling Pathway and Subsequent Suppression of Nitric Oxide Production in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hirasawa, K.; Jun, H. S.; Han, H. S.; Zhang, M. L.; Hollenberg, M. D.; Yoon, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Macrophages comprise the major population of cells infiltrating pancreatic islets during the early stages of infection in DBA/2 mice by the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D virus). Inactivation of macrophages prior to viral infection almost completely prevents EMC-D virus-induced diabetes. This investigation was initiated to determine whether a tyrosine kinase signalling pathway might be involved in the activation of macrophages by EMC-D virus infection and whether tyrosine kinase inhibitors might, therefore, abrogate EMC-D virus-induced diabetes in vivo. When isolated macrophages were infected with EMC-D virus, inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA was expressed and nitric oxide was subsequently produced. Treatment of macrophages with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin AG126, but not tyrphostin AG556, prior to EMC-D virus infection blocked the production of nitric oxide. The infection of macrophages with EMC-D virus also resulted in the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p42MAPK/ERK2/p44MAPK/ERK1, p38MAPK, and p46/p54JNK. In accord with the greater potency of AG126 than of AG556 in blocking EMC-D virus-mediated macrophage activation, the incidence of diabetes in EMC-D virus-infected mice treated with AG126 (25%) was much lower than that in AG556-treated (75%) or vehicle-treated (88%) control mice. We conclude that EMC-D virus-induced activation of macrophages resulting in macrophage-mediated β-cell destruction can be prevented by the inhibition of a tyrosine kinase signalling pathway involved in macrophage activation. PMID:10482607

  11. A method of high frequency virus-induced gene silencing in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bukang).

    PubMed

    Chung, Eunsook; Seong, Eunsoo; Kim, Yeoung-Cheol; Chung, Eun Joo; Oh, Sang-Keun; Lee, Sanghyeob; Park, Jeong Mee; Joung, Young Hee; Choi, Doil

    2004-04-30

    Using a tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system, expression of phytogene desaturase (PDS) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small-subuit (rbcS) genes was suppressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bukang). The silenced phenotypes of pale yellow (rbcS), and photobleached leaves (PDS), were invariably obvious 2 weeks after inoculation with the TRV-based vector. In a parallel experiment, the same set of genes was silenced in N. benthamiana and yielded identical phenotypes to pepper 1 week after inoculation. Northern blot analyses showed that the endogenous levels of CarbcS and CaPDS transcripts were dramatically reduced in the silenced leaf tissues. These observations confirm that the silenced phenotype is closely correlated with the pattern of tissue expression. To our knowledge, this is the first high frequency VIGS method in pepper plants. It should provide a tool for large-scale gene silencing studies in pepper functional genomics.

  12. Decreased Diversity of the Oral Microbiota of Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Induced Chronic Liver Disease: A Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Cheng, Yiwen; Jiang, Xiawei; Jiang, Haiyin; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-11-26

    Increasing evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus-induced chronic liver disease (HBV-CLD). However, the structure and composition of the oral microbiota of patients with HBV-CLD remains unclear. High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that decreased oral bacterial diversity was found in patients with HBV-CLD. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was increased significantly, which indicated that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota participated in the process of HBV-CLD development. However, the changing patterns of the oral microbiota in patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (LC) were almost similar to patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). HBV infection resulted in an increase in potential H2S- and CH3SH-producing phylotypes such as Fusobacterium, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Parvimonas and Treponema, which might contribute to the increased oral malodor. These key oral-derived phylotypes might invade into the gut as opportunistic pathogens and contribute to altering the composition of the gut microbiota. This study provided important clues that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota might be involved in the development of HBV-CLD. Greater understanding of the relationships between the dysbiosis of oral microbiota and the development of HBV-CLD might facilitate the development of non-invasive differential diagnostic procedures and targeted treatments of HBV-CLD patients harbouring specific oral phylotypes.

  13. Involvement of the PI3K and ERK signaling pathways in largemouth bass virus-induced apoptosis and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohong; Wang, Wei; Huang, Youhua; Xu, Liwen; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-12-01

    Increased reports demonstrated that largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides in natural and artificial environments were always suffered from an emerging iridovirus disease, largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). However, the underlying mechanism of LMBV pathogenesis remained largely unknown. Here, we investigated the cell signaling events involved in virus induced cell death and viral replication in vitro. We found that LMBV infection in epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells induced typical apoptosis, evidenced by the appearance of apoptotic bodies, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) destruction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Two initiators of apoptosis, caspase-8 and caspase-9, and the executioner of apoptosis, caspase-3, were all significantly activated with the infection time, suggested that not only mitochondrion-mediated, but also death receptor-mediated apoptosis were involved in LMBV infection. Reporter gene assay showed that the promoter activity of transcription factors including p53, NF-κB, AP-1 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were decreased during LMBV infection. After treatment with different signaling pathway inhibitors, virus production were significantly suppressed by the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signaling pathway. Furthermore, LMBV infection induced apoptosis was enhanced by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, but decreased by addition of ERK inhibitor UO126. Therefore, we speculated that apoptosis was sophisticatedly regulated by a series of cell signaling events for efficient virus propagation. Taken together, our results provided new insights into the molecular mechanism of ranavirus infection. PMID:25260912

  14. Virus-induced gene silencing unravels multiple transcription factors involved in floral growth and development in Phalaenopsis orchids

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ming-Hsien; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Lai, Pei-Han; Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Yeh, Hsin-Hung; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Wan-Lin; Chung, Mei-Chu; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Orchidaceae, one of the largest angiosperm families, has significant commercial value. Isolation of genes involved in orchid floral development and morphogenesis, scent production, and colouration will advance knowledge of orchid flower formation and facilitate breeding new varieties to increase the commercial value. With high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), this study identified five transcription factors involved in various aspects of flower morphogenesis in the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris. These genes are PeMADS1, PeMADS7, PeHB, PebHLH, and PeZIP. Silencing PeMADS1 and PebHLH resulted in reduced flower size together with a pelaloid column containing petal-like epidermal cells and alterations of epidermal cell arrangement in lip lateral lobes, respectively. Silencing PeMADS7, PeHB, and PeZIP alone resulted in abortion of the first three fully developed flower buds of an inflorescence, which indicates the roles of the genes in late flower development. Furthermore, double silencing PeMADS1 and PeMADS6, C- and B-class MADS-box genes, respectively, produced a combinatorial phenotype with two genes cloned in separate vectors. Both PeMADS1 and PeMADS6 are required to ensure the normal development of the lip and column as well as the cuticle formation on the floral epidermal cell surface. Thus, VIGS allows for unravelling the interaction between two classes of MADS transcription factors for dictating orchid floral morphogenesis. PMID:23956416

  15. Involvement of the PI3K and ERK signaling pathways in largemouth bass virus-induced apoptosis and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohong; Wang, Wei; Huang, Youhua; Xu, Liwen; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-12-01

    Increased reports demonstrated that largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides in natural and artificial environments were always suffered from an emerging iridovirus disease, largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). However, the underlying mechanism of LMBV pathogenesis remained largely unknown. Here, we investigated the cell signaling events involved in virus induced cell death and viral replication in vitro. We found that LMBV infection in epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells induced typical apoptosis, evidenced by the appearance of apoptotic bodies, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) destruction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Two initiators of apoptosis, caspase-8 and caspase-9, and the executioner of apoptosis, caspase-3, were all significantly activated with the infection time, suggested that not only mitochondrion-mediated, but also death receptor-mediated apoptosis were involved in LMBV infection. Reporter gene assay showed that the promoter activity of transcription factors including p53, NF-κB, AP-1 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were decreased during LMBV infection. After treatment with different signaling pathway inhibitors, virus production were significantly suppressed by the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signaling pathway. Furthermore, LMBV infection induced apoptosis was enhanced by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, but decreased by addition of ERK inhibitor UO126. Therefore, we speculated that apoptosis was sophisticatedly regulated by a series of cell signaling events for efficient virus propagation. Taken together, our results provided new insights into the molecular mechanism of ranavirus infection.

  16. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mediates influenza H7N9 virus-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Penghui; Gu, Hongjing; Zhao, Zhongpeng; Wang, Wei; Cao, Bin; Lai, Chengcai; Yang, Xiaolan; Zhang, LiangYan; Duan, Yueqiang; Zhang, Shaogeng; Chen, Weiwen; Zhen, Wenbo; Cai, Maosheng; Penninger, Josef M; Jiang, Chengyu; Wang, Xiliang

    2014-11-13

    Since March 2013, the emergence of an avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus has raised concern in China. Although most infections resulted in respiratory illness, some severe cases resulted in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is a severe form of acute lung injury (ALI) that further contributes to morbidity. To date, no effective drugs that improve the clinical outcome of influenza A (H7N9) virus-infected patients have been identified. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 are involved in several pathologies such as cardiovascular functions, renal disease, and acute lung injury. In the current study, we report that ACE2 could mediate the severe acute lung injury induced by influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in an experimental mouse model. Moreover, ACE2 deficiency worsened the disease pathogenesis markedly, mainly by targeting the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1). The current findings demonstrate that ACE2 plays a critical role in influenza A (H7N9) virus-induced acute lung injury, and suggest that might be a useful potential therapeutic target for future influenza A (H7N9) outbreaks.

  17. Brain Endothelial- and Epithelial-Specific Interferon Receptor Chain 1 Drives Virus-Induced Sickness Behavior and Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Blank, Thomas; Detje, Claudia N; Spieß, Alena; Hagemeyer, Nora; Brendecke, Stefanie M; Wolfart, Jakob; Staszewski, Ori; Zöller, Tanja; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Schneider, Justus; Paricio-Montesinos, Ricardo; Eisel, Ulrich L M; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Jansen, Stephan; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Lu, Bao; Imai, Yumiko; Müller, Marcus; Goelz, Susan E; Baker, Darren P; Schwaninger, Markus; Kann, Oliver; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Kalinke, Ulrich; Prinz, Marco

    2016-04-19

    Sickness behavior and cognitive dysfunction occur frequently by unknown mechanisms in virus-infected individuals with malignancies treated with type I interferons (IFNs) and in patients with autoimmune disorders. We found that during sickness behavior, single-stranded RNA viruses, double-stranded RNA ligands, and IFNs shared pathways involving engagement of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I), and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), and subsequently induced IFN responses specifically in brain endothelia and epithelia of mice. Behavioral alterations were specifically dependent on brain endothelial and epithelial IFN receptor chain 1 (IFNAR). Using gene profiling, we identified that the endothelia-derived chemokine ligand CXCL10 mediated behavioral changes through impairment of synaptic plasticity. These results identified brain endothelial and epithelial cells as natural gatekeepers for virus-induced sickness behavior, demonstrated tissue specific IFNAR engagement, and established the CXCL10-CXCR3 axis as target for the treatment of behavioral changes during virus infection and type I IFN therapy. PMID:27096319

  18. Brain Endothelial- and Epithelial-Specific Interferon Receptor Chain 1 Drives Virus-Induced Sickness Behavior and Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Blank, Thomas; Detje, Claudia N; Spieß, Alena; Hagemeyer, Nora; Brendecke, Stefanie M; Wolfart, Jakob; Staszewski, Ori; Zöller, Tanja; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Schneider, Justus; Paricio-Montesinos, Ricardo; Eisel, Ulrich L M; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Jansen, Stephan; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Lu, Bao; Imai, Yumiko; Müller, Marcus; Goelz, Susan E; Baker, Darren P; Schwaninger, Markus; Kann, Oliver; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Kalinke, Ulrich; Prinz, Marco

    2016-04-19

    Sickness behavior and cognitive dysfunction occur frequently by unknown mechanisms in virus-infected individuals with malignancies treated with type I interferons (IFNs) and in patients with autoimmune disorders. We found that during sickness behavior, single-stranded RNA viruses, double-stranded RNA ligands, and IFNs shared pathways involving engagement of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I), and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), and subsequently induced IFN responses specifically in brain endothelia and epithelia of mice. Behavioral alterations were specifically dependent on brain endothelial and epithelial IFN receptor chain 1 (IFNAR). Using gene profiling, we identified that the endothelia-derived chemokine ligand CXCL10 mediated behavioral changes through impairment of synaptic plasticity. These results identified brain endothelial and epithelial cells as natural gatekeepers for virus-induced sickness behavior, demonstrated tissue specific IFNAR engagement, and established the CXCL10-CXCR3 axis as target for the treatment of behavioral changes during virus infection and type I IFN therapy.

  19. Systemic virus-induced gene silencing allows functional characterization of maize genes during biotrophic interaction with Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Karina; Kastner, Christine; Kumlehn, Jochen; Kahmann, Regine; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Infection of maize (Zea mays) plants with the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis leads to the formation of large tumors on the stem, leaves and inflorescences. In this biotrophic interaction, plant defense responses are actively suppressed by the pathogen, and previous transcriptome analyses of infected maize plants showed massive and stage-specific changes in host gene expression during disease progression. To identify maize genes that are functionally involved in the interaction with U. maydis, we adapted a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system based on the brome mosaic virus (BMV) for maize. Conditions were established that allowed successful U. maydis infection of BMV-preinfected maize plants. This set-up enabled quantification of VIGS and its impact on U. maydis infection using a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-based readout. In proof-of-principle experiments, an U. maydis-induced terpene synthase was shown to negatively regulate disease development while a protein involved in cell death inhibition was required for full virulence of U. maydis. The results suggest that this system is a versatile tool for the rapid identification of maize genes that determine compatibility with U. maydis.

  20. Green tea phenolic epicatechins inhibit hepatitis C virus replication via cycloxygenase-2 and attenuate virus-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Tseng, Chin-Kai; Lin, Chun-Kuang; Chen, Wei-Chun; Hsu, Yao-Chin; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease worldwide. Green tea, in addition to being consumed as a healthy beverage, contains phenolic catechins that have been used as medicinal substances. In the present study, we illustrated that the epicatechin isomers (+)-epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin concentration-dependently inhibited HCV replication at nontoxic concentrations by using in vitro cell-based HCV replicon and JFH-1 infectious systems. In addition to significantly suppressing virus-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, our results revealed that the anti-HCV activity of the epicatechin isomers occurred through the down-regulation of COX-2. Furthermore, both the epicatechin isomers additively inhibited HCV replication in combination with either interferon-α or viral enzyme inhibitors [2'-C-methylcytidine (NM-107) or telaprevir]. They also had prominent anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and inducible nitrite oxide synthase as well as the COX-2 in viral protein-expressing hepatoma Huh-7 cells. Collectively, (+)-epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin may serve as therapeutic supplements for treating HCV-related diseases.

  1. Investigating plasmodesmata genetics with virus-induced gene silencing and an agrobacterium-mediated GFP movement assay.

    PubMed

    Brunkard, Jacob O; Burch-Smith, Tessa M; Runkel, Anne M; Zambryski, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells, permitting intercellular transport and communication. PD function and formation are essential to plant growth and development, but we still know very little about the genetic pathways regulating PD transport. Here, we present a method for assaying changes in the rate of PD transport following genetic manipulation. Gene expression in leaves is modified by virus-induced gene silencing. Seven to ten days after infection with Tobacco rattle virus carrying a silencing trigger, the gene(s) of interest is silenced in newly arising leaves. In these new leaves, individual cells are then transformed with Agrobacterium to express GFP, and the rate of GFP diffusion via PD is measured. By measuring GFP diffusion both within the epidermis and between the epidermis and mesophyll, the assay can be used to study the effects of silencing a gene(s) on PD transport in general, or transport through secondary PD specifically. Plant biologists working in several fields will find this assay useful, since PD transport impacts plant physiology, development, and defense.

  2. Immunoregulatory properties of childhood leukemias

    SciTech Connect

    Banker, D.S.; Pahwa, R.N.; Miller, D.R.; Hilgartner, M.W.; Good, R.A.; Pahwa, S.G.

    1982-07-01

    Investigation of in vitro humoral immune responses and immunoregulatory properties of leukemic cell was carried out in 17 children with acute leukemia prior to therapy. Leukemias were of the non-T, non-B-cell type in 13 patients and of T-cell origin in four. Bone marrow and peripheral blood cells consisted of 24-96% lymphoblasts and were generally deficient in surface Ig-positive cells. Induction of Ig secreting cells in response to pokeweed mitogen was markedly decreased in marrow and peripheral mononuclear cell cultures of leukemic patients. Co-culture of leukemic cells with normal lymphocytes led to marked deviations from the expected Ig secreting-cell response of the cell mixtures. The predominant effect was enhancement, as was the case with eight non-T, non-B-cell and one T-cell leukemia samples. Suppression of the Ig secreting-cell response was observed in only three instances, two with non-T, non-B-cell and one with T-cell leukemia samples. These findings implicate non-T, non-B as well as more differentiated leukemic cells in having the potential for modifying Ig production by B cells.

  3. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-09

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1; Adult L1 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult L2 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  4. Alemtuzumab and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Untreated Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-20

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L1 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L1 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  5. The leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) gene is located within a cluster of cytokine receptor loci on mouse chromosome 15 and human chromosome 5p12-p13

    SciTech Connect

    Gearing, D.P. ); Druck, T.; Huebner, K. ); Overhauser, J. ); Gilbert, D.J.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A. )

    1993-10-01

    The leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) gene was localized to human chromosome 5p12-p13 by somatic cell hybrid analysis. Interspecific backcross analysis revealed that the murine locus was on chromosome 15 in a region of homology with human chromosome 5p. In both human and mouse genomes, the LIFR locus was linked to the genes encoding the receptors for interleukin-7, prolactin, and growth hormone. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Surface antigens on cat leukemic cells induced by feline leukemia virus: area density and antibody-binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Boone, C W; Gordin, F; Kawakami, T G

    1973-04-01

    The binding of autologous bovine antibody to feline leukemia virus-induced cell surface antigens (FeCSA) on cat leukemia cells was studied by performing certain titration procedures with a mixture of immune and normal sera labeled with different iodine radioisotopes (paired-label technique). By using plots of titration data which conformed to linear equations derived from the mass action law, we determined the following constants. (i) The density of FeCSA was 2.03 x 10(6) sites per cell, or 5,230 sites per mum(2). (ii) The equilibrium constant of the FeCSA-antibody reaction was 2.67 x 10(7), from which the antibody binding affinity or standard free energy of the FeCSA-antibody bond was determined to be - 10.48 kcal (-43,869.28 J) per mol. The use of the techniques described to measure the concentration of antibody in antiserum, in micrograms per milliliter, is discussed.

  7. Combined MEK and JAK inhibition abrogates murine myeloproliferative neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Guangyao; Wunderlich, Mark; Yang, David; Ranheim, Erik A.; Young, Ken H.; Wang, Jinyong; Chang, Yuan-I; Du, Juan; Liu, Yangang; Tey, Sin Ruow; Zhang, Xinmin; Juckett, Mark; Mattison, Ryan; Damnernsawad, Alisa; Zhang, Jingfang; Mulloy, James C.; Zhang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Overactive RAS signaling is prevalent in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and the myeloproliferative variant of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (MP-CMML) in humans, and both are refractory to conventional chemotherapy. Conditional activation of a constitutively active oncogenic Nras (NrasG12D/G12D) in murine hematopoietic cells promotes an acute myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) that recapitulates many features of JMML and MP-CMML. We found that NrasG12D/G12D-expressing HSCs, which serve as JMML/MP-CMML–initiating cells, show strong hyperactivation of ERK1/2, promoting hyperproliferation and depletion of HSCs and expansion of downstream progenitors. Inhibition of the MEK pathway alone prolonged the presence of NrasG12D/G12D-expressing HSCs but failed to restore their proper function. Consequently, approximately 60% of NrasG12D/G12D mice treated with MEK inhibitor alone died within 20 weeks, and the remaining animals continued to display JMML/MP-CMML–like phenotypes. In contrast, combined inhibition of MEK and JAK/STAT signaling, which is commonly hyperactivated in human and mouse CMML, potently inhibited human and mouse CMML cell growth in vitro, rescued mutant NrasG12D/G12D-expressing HSC function in vivo, and promoted long-term survival without evident disease manifestation in NrasG12D/G12D animals. These results provide a strong rationale for further exploration of combined targeting of MEK/ERK and JAK/STAT in treating patients with JMML and MP-CMML. PMID:24812670

  8. Azacitidine, Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride, and Etoposide in Treating Older Patients With Poor-Prognosis Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-18

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  9. Vosaroxin and Infusional Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-10

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Myeloid Sarcoma; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  10. Combination Chemotherapy and Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Children With Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    L1 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Non-T, Non-B Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  11. Studying Biomarkers in Samples From Younger Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-17

    Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4)

  12. Nivolumab and Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-25

    B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  13. 3-AP and Fludarabine in Treating Patients With Myeloproliferative Disorders, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Accelerated Phase or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-16

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Polycythemia Vera; Primary Myelofibrosis; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  14. Murine gamma interferon fails to inhibit Toxoplasma gondii growth in murine fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzman, J D; Gonias, S L; Pfefferkorn, E R

    1990-01-01

    Although treatment of human macrophages or fibroblasts with human gamma interferon results in the inhibition of intracellular Toxoplasma gondii, murine gamma interferon stimulated only murine macrophages, not murine fibroblasts, to inhibit T. gondii. This species difference may be important in understanding the control of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. PMID:2106497

  15. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Differentially Affects the Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Response and Mitochondrial Apoptosis Mediated by RIG-I/MAVS

    PubMed Central

    Pythoud, Christelle; Rothenberger, Sylvia; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arenaviruses are important emerging human pathogens maintained by noncytolytic persistent infection in their rodent reservoir hosts. Despite high levels of viral replication, persistently infected carrier hosts show only mildly elevated levels of type I interferon (IFN-I). Accordingly, the arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) has been identified as a potent IFN-I antagonist capable of blocking activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via the retinoic acid inducible gene (RIG)-I/mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway. Another important mechanism of host innate antiviral defense is represented by virus-induced mitochondrial apoptosis via RIG-I/MAVS and IRF3. In the present study, we investigated the ability of the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) to interfere with RIG-I/MAVS-dependent apoptosis. We found that LCMV does not induce apoptosis at any time during infection. While LCMV efficiently blocked induction of IFN-I via RIG-I/MAVS in response to superinfection with cytopathic RNA viruses, virus-induced mitochondrial apoptosis remained fully active in LCMV-infected cells. Notably, in LCMV-infected cells, RIG-I was dispensable for virus-induced apoptosis via MAVS. Our study reveals that LCMV infection efficiently suppresses induction of IFN-I but does not interfere with the cell's ability to undergo virus-induced mitochondrial apoptosis as a strategy of innate antiviral defense. The RIG-I independence of mitochondrial apoptosis in LCMV-infected cells provides the first evidence that arenaviruses can reshape apoptotic signaling according to their needs. IMPORTANCE Arenaviruses are important emerging human pathogens that are maintained in their rodent hosts by persistent infection. Persistent virus is able to subvert the cellular interferon response, a powerful branch of the innate antiviral defense. Here, we investigated the ability of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) to

  16. Investigation of the bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA in human leukemias and lung cancers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jehoon; Kim, Yonggoo; Kang, Chang Suk; Cho, Dae Hyun; Shin, Dong Hwan; Yum, Young Na; Oh, Jae Ho; Kim, Sheen Hee; Hwang, Myung Sil; Lim, Chul Joo; Yang, Ki Hwa; Han, Kyungja

    2005-08-01

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. This study investigated the presence of the BLV in leukemia (179 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 292 acute myeloid leukemia and 46 chronic myelogenous leukemia cases) and 162 lung cancer patients (139 adenocarcinoma, 23 squamous cell carcinoma) to determine if the BLV is a causative organism of leukemia and lung cancer in Koreans. A BLV infection was confirmed in human cells by PCR using a BLV-8 primer combination. All 517 cases of human leukemia and 162 lung cancer were negative for a PCR of the BLV proviral DNA. In conclusion, although meat has been imported from BLV endemic areas, the BLV infection does not appear to be the cause of human leukemia or lung cancer in Koreans. These results can be used as a control for further studies on the BLV in Koreans. PMID:16100451

  17. Frequent Infection of Human Cancer Xenografts with Murine Endogenous Retroviruses in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Naseer, Asif; Terry, Anne; Gilroy, Kathryn; Kilbey, Anna; Watts, Ciorsdaidh; Mackay, Nancy; Bell, Margaret; Mason, Susan; Blyth, Karen; Cameron, Ewan; Neil, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Infection of human cancer xenografts in mice with murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) is a long-standing observation, but the likelihood of infection in vivo and its biological consequences are poorly understood. We therefore conducted a prospective study in commonly used xenograft recipient strains. From BALB/c nude mice engrafted with MCF7 human mammary carcinoma cells, we isolated a virus that was virtually identical to Bxv1, a locus encoding replication-competent xenotropic MLV (XMLV). XMLV was detected in 9/17 (53%) independently isolated explants. XMLV was not found in primary leukemias or in THP1 leukemia cells grown in Bxv1-negative NSG (NOD/SCID/γCnull) mice, although MCF7 explants harbored replication-defective MLV proviruses. To assess the significance of infection for xenograft behavior in vivo, we examined changes in growth and global transcription in MCF7 and the highly susceptible Raji Burkitt lymphoma cell line chronically infected with XMLV. Raji cells showed a stronger transcriptional response that included up-regulation of chemokines and effectors of innate antiviral immunity. In conclusion, the risk of de novo XMLV infection of xenografts is high in Bxv1 positive mice, while infection can have positive or negative effects on xenograft growth potential with significant consequences for interpretation of many xenograft studies. PMID:25912714

  18. What's New in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for chronic lymphocytic leukemia What`s new in chronic lymphocytic leukemia research and treatment? Many ... person's outlook and whether they will need treatment. New drugs for chronic lymphocytic leukemia Dozens of new ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description PDGFRB -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a type of cancer of blood-forming ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... acute myeloid leukemia core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML) is one form of a cancer ...